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Sample records for multipartite quantum entanglement

  1. Multipartite entanglement in quantum algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Bruss, D.; Macchiavello, C.

    2011-05-15

    We investigate the entanglement features of the quantum states employed in quantum algorithms. In particular, we analyze the multipartite entanglement properties in the Deutsch-Jozsa, Grover, and Simon algorithms. Our results show that for these algorithms most instances involve multipartite entanglement.

  2. Polygamy of entanglement in multipartite quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong San

    2009-08-01

    We show that bipartite entanglement distribution (or entanglement of assistance) in multipartite quantum systems is by nature polygamous. We first provide an analytical upper bound for the concurrence of assistance in bipartite quantum systems and derive a polygamy inequality of multipartite entanglement in arbitrary-dimensional quantum systems.

  3. Genuinely Multipartite Entangled Quantum States with Fully Local Hidden Variable Models and Hidden Multipartite Nonlocality.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Joseph; Francfort, Jérémie; Fillettaz, Mathieu; Hirsch, Flavien; Brunner, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    The relation between entanglement and nonlocality is discussed in the case of multipartite quantum systems. We show that, for any number of parties, there exist genuinely multipartite entangled states that admit a fully local hidden variable model, i.e., where all parties are separated. Hence, although these states exhibit the strongest form of multipartite entanglement, they cannot lead to Bell inequality violation considering general nonsequential local measurements. Then, we show that the nonlocality of these states can nevertheless be activated using sequences of local measurements, thus revealing genuine multipartite hidden nonlocality. PMID:27081960

  4. Multipartite Entanglement: Transformations, Quantum Secret Sharing, Quantum Error Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helwig, Wolfram

    Most applications in quantum information processing make either explicit or implicit use of entanglement. It is thus important to have a good understanding of entanglement and the role it plays in these protocols. However, especially when it comes to multipartite entanglement, there still remain a lot of mysteries. This thesis is devoted to getting a better understanding of multipartite entanglement, and its role in various quantum information protocols. First, we investigate transformations between multipartite entangled states that only use local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We mostly focus on three qubit states in the GHZ class, and derive upper and lower bounds for the successful transformation probability between two states. We then focus on absolutely maximally entangled (AME) states, which are highly entangled multipartite states that have the property that they are maximally entangled for any bipartition. With them as a resource, we develop new parallel teleportation protocols, which can then be used to implement quantum secret sharing (QSS) schemes. We further prove the existence of AME states for any number of parties, if the dimension of the involved quantum systems is chosen appropriately. An equivalence between threshold QSS schemes and AME states shared between an even number of parties is established, and further protocols are designed, such as constructing ramp QSS schemes and open-destination teleportation protocols with AME states as a resource. As a framework to work with AME states, graph states are explored. They allow for efficient bipartite entanglement verification, which makes them a promising candidate for the description of AME states. We show that for all currently known AME states, absolutely maximally entangled graph states can be found, and we were even able to use graph states to find a new AME state for seven three-dimensional systems (qutrits). In addition, the implementation of QSS schemes from AME states can be

  5. Entanglement of multipartite quantum states and the generalized quantum search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingrich, Robert Michael

    2002-09-01

    In chapter 2 various parameterizations for the orbits under local unitary transformations of three-qubit pure states are analyzed. It is shown that the entanglement monotones of any multipartite pure state uniquely determine the orbit of that state. It follows that there must be an entanglement monotone for three-qubit pure states which depends on the Kempe invariant defined in [1]. A form for such an entanglement monotone is proposed. A theorem is proved that significantly reduces the number of entanglement monotones that must be looked at to find the maximal probability of transforming one multipartite state to another. In chapter 3 Grover's unstructured quantum search algorithm is generalized to use an arbitrary starting superposition and an arbitrary unitary matrix. A formula for the probability of the generalized Grover's algorithm succeeding after n iterations is derived. This formula is used to determine the optimal strategy for using the unstructured quantum search algorithm. The speedup obtained illustrates that a hybrid use of quantum computing and classical computing techniques can yield a performance that is better than either alone. The analysis is extended to the case of a society of k quantum searches acting in parallel. In chapter 4 the positive map Gamma : rho → (Trrho) - rho is introduced as a separability criterion. Any separable state is mapped by the tensor product of Gamma and the identity in to a non-negative operator, which provides a necessary condition for separability. If Gamma acts on a two-dimensional subsystem, then it is equivalent to partial transposition and therefore also sufficient for 2 x 2 and 2 x 3 systems. Finally, a connection between this map for two qubits and complex conjugation in the "magic" basis [2] is displayed.

  6. Detection of entanglement in asymmetric quantum networks and multipartite quantum steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Skrzypczyk, P.; Aguilar, G. H.; Nery, R. V.; Ribeiro, P. H. Souto; Walborn, S. P.

    2015-08-01

    The future of quantum communication relies on quantum networks composed by observers sharing multipartite quantum states. The certification of multipartite entanglement will be crucial to the usefulness of these networks. In many real situations it is natural to assume that some observers are more trusted than others in the sense that they have more knowledge of their measurement apparatuses. Here we propose a general method to certify all kinds of multipartite entanglement in this asymmetric scenario and experimentally demonstrate it in an optical experiment. Our results, which can be seen as a definition of genuine multipartite quantum steering, give a method to detect entanglement in a scenario in between the standard entanglement and fully device-independent scenarios, and provide a basis for semi-device-independent cryptographic applications in quantum networks.

  7. Detection of entanglement in asymmetric quantum networks and multipartite quantum steering

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti, D.; Skrzypczyk, P.; Aguilar, G. H.; Nery, R. V.; Ribeiro, P.H. Souto; Walborn, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The future of quantum communication relies on quantum networks composed by observers sharing multipartite quantum states. The certification of multipartite entanglement will be crucial to the usefulness of these networks. In many real situations it is natural to assume that some observers are more trusted than others in the sense that they have more knowledge of their measurement apparatuses. Here we propose a general method to certify all kinds of multipartite entanglement in this asymmetric scenario and experimentally demonstrate it in an optical experiment. Our results, which can be seen as a definition of genuine multipartite quantum steering, give a method to detect entanglement in a scenario in between the standard entanglement and fully device-independent scenarios, and provide a basis for semi-device-independent cryptographic applications in quantum networks. PMID:26235944

  8. Detection of entanglement in asymmetric quantum networks and multipartite quantum steering.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, D; Skrzypczyk, P; Aguilar, G H; Nery, R V; Ribeiro, P H Souto; Walborn, S P

    2015-01-01

    The future of quantum communication relies on quantum networks composed by observers sharing multipartite quantum states. The certification of multipartite entanglement will be crucial to the usefulness of these networks. In many real situations it is natural to assume that some observers are more trusted than others in the sense that they have more knowledge of their measurement apparatuses. Here we propose a general method to certify all kinds of multipartite entanglement in this asymmetric scenario and experimentally demonstrate it in an optical experiment. Our results, which can be seen as a definition of genuine multipartite quantum steering, give a method to detect entanglement in a scenario in between the standard entanglement and fully device-independent scenarios, and provide a basis for semi-device-independent cryptographic applications in quantum networks. PMID:26235944

  9. Multipartite entanglement measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalay, Szilárd

    2015-10-01

    The main concern of this paper is how to define proper measures of multipartite entanglement for mixed quantum states. Since the structure of partial separability and multipartite entanglement is getting complicated if the number of subsystems exceeds two, one cannot expect the existence of an ultimate scalar entanglement measure, which grasps even a small part of the rich hierarchical structure of multipartite entanglement, and some higher-order structure characterizing that is needed. In this paper we make some steps in this direction. First, we reveal the lattice-theoretic structure of the partial separability classification, introduced earlier [Sz. Szalay and Z. Kökényesi, Phys. Rev. A 86, 032341 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.032341]. It turns out that, mathematically, the structure of the entanglement classes is the up-set lattice of the structure of the different kinds of partial separability, which is the down-set lattice of the lattice of the partitions of the subsystems. It also turns out that, physically, this structure is related to the local operations and classical communication convertibility: If a state from a class can be mapped into another one, then that class can be found higher in the hierarchy. Second, we introduce the notion of multipartite monotonicity, expressing that a given set of entanglement monotones, while measuring the different kinds of entanglement, shows also the same hierarchical structure as the entanglement classes. Then we construct such hierarchies of entanglement measures and propose a physically well-motivated one, being the direct multipartite generalization of the entanglement of formation based on the entanglement entropy, motivated by the notion of statistical distinguishability. The multipartite monotonicity shown by this set of measures motivates us to consider the measures to be the different manifestations of some "unified" notion of entanglement.

  10. Multipartite entanglement for entanglement teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jinhyoung; Min, Hyegeun; Oh, Sung Dahm

    2002-11-01

    A scheme for entanglement teleportation is proposed to incorporate multipartite entanglement of four qubits as a quantum channel. Based on the invariance of entanglement teleportation under an arbitrary two-qubit unitary transformation, we derive relations for the separabilities of joint measurements at a sending station and of unitary operations at a receiving station. From the relations of the separabilities it is found that an inseparable quantum channel always leads to total teleportation of entanglement with an inseparable joint measurement and/or a nonlocal unitary operation.

  11. General form of genuine multipartite entanglement quantum channels for teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pingxing; Zhu Shiyao; Guo, Guangcan

    2006-09-15

    Recently Yeo and Chua [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 060502 (2006)] presented an explicit protocol for faithfully teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state via a genuine four-qubit entanglement channel. Here we generalize completely their results to teleporting an arbitrary N-qubit state via genuine N-qubit entanglement channels. And we present the general form of the genuine multipartite entanglement channels, namely, the sufficient and necessary condition the genuine N-qubit entanglement channels must satisfy to teleport an arbitrary N-qubit state.

  12. Inducing multipartite entanglement revival in dissipative environment by means of prior quantum uncollapsing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Juan; Xu, Shuai; Ye, Liu

    2015-11-01

    A scheme for inducing multipartite entanglement revival in the dissipative environment is proposed, which is implemented by performing a prior quantum uncollapsing (weak measurements or measurement reversals) procedure on partial qubits of the system simultaneously. This procedure preferentially equips our initial states, and make them hold more powerful ability to actively battle against degradation of entanglement, even postpone entanglement sudden death (ESD). Notably, the effect is more pronounced for the multipartite system with less initial entanglement. In addition, we found that our scheme also works for the N-qubit GHZ-class state.

  13. Multipartite entanglement in heterogeneous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyeneche, Dardo; Bielawski, Jakub; Życzkowski, Karol

    2016-07-01

    Heterogeneous bipartite quantum pure states, composed of two subsystems with a different number of levels, cannot have both reductions maximally mixed. In this work, we demonstrate the existence of a wide range of highly entangled states of heterogeneous multipartite systems consisting of N >2 parties such that every reduction to one and two parties is maximally mixed. Two constructions of generating genuinely multipartite maximally entangled states of heterogeneous systems for an arbitrary number of subsystems are presented. Such states are related to quantum error correction codes over mixed alphabets and mixed orthogonal arrays. Additionally, we show the advantages of considering heterogeneous systems in practical implementations of multipartite steering.

  14. Bipartite quantum channels using multipartite cluster-type entangled coherent states

    SciTech Connect

    Munhoz, P. P.; Semiao, F. L.; Roversi, J. A.; Vidiella-Barranco, A.

    2010-04-15

    We propose a particular encoding for bipartite entangled states derived from multipartite cluster-type entangled coherent states (CTECSs). We investigate the effects of amplitude damping on the entanglement content of this bipartite state, as well as its usefulness as a quantum channel for teleportation. We find interesting relationships among the amplitude of the coherent states constituting the CTECSs, the number of subsystems forming the logical qubits (redundancy), and the extent to which amplitude damping affects the entanglement of the channel. For instance, in the sense of sudden death of entanglement, given a fixed value of the initial coherent state amplitude, the entanglement life span is shortened if redundancy is increased.

  15. Multipartite entanglement of superpositions

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalcanti, D.; Terra Cunha, M. O.; Acin, A.

    2007-10-15

    The entanglement of superpositions [Linden et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 100502 (2006)]is generalized to the multipartite scenario: an upper bound to the multipartite entanglement of a superposition is given in terms of the entanglement of the superposed states and the superposition coefficients. This bound is proven to be tight for a class of states composed of an arbitrary number of qubits. We also extend the result to a large family of quantifiers, which includes the negativity, the robustness of entanglement, and the best separable approximation measure.

  16. Multipartite entanglement of superpositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Terra Cunha, M. O.; Acín, A.

    2007-10-01

    The entanglement of superpositions [Linden , Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 100502 (2006)]is generalized to the multipartite scenario: an upper bound to the multipartite entanglement of a superposition is given in terms of the entanglement of the superposed states and the superposition coefficients. This bound is proven to be tight for a class of states composed of an arbitrary number of qubits. We also extend the result to a large family of quantifiers, which includes the negativity, the robustness of entanglement, and the best separable approximation measure.

  17. Purified discord and multipartite entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Eric G.; Webster, Eric J.; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Kempf, Achim

    2013-10-15

    We study bipartite quantum discord as a manifestation of a multipartite entanglement structure in the tripartite purified system. In particular, we find that bipartite quantum discord requires the presence of both bipartite and tripartite entanglement in the purification. This allows one to understand the asymmetry of quantum discord, D(A,B)≠D(B,A) in terms of entanglement monogamy. As instructive special cases, we study discord for qubits and Gaussian states in detail. As a result of this we shed new light on a counterintuitive property of Gaussian states: the presence of classical correlations necessarily requires the presence of quantum correlations. Finally, our results also shed new light on a protocol for remote activation of entanglement by a third party. -- Highlights: •Bipartite quantum discord as a manifestation of multipartite entanglement. •Relevance of quantum discord as a utilizable resource for quantum info. tasks. •Quantum discord manifests itself in entanglement in the purified state. •Relation between asymmetry of discord and entanglement monogamy. •Protocol for remote activation of entanglement by a third party.

  18. Measuring quantum effects in photosynthetic light-harvesting complexes with multipartite entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Cathal

    This thesis is a compilation of studies on delocalization measures, entanglement, and the role of quantum coherence in electronic energy transfer (EET) in light-harvesting complexes. The first two chapters after the introduction provide foundational knowledge of quantum information and light-harvesting, respectively. Chapter 2 introduces concepts from quantum information such as purity, bipartite entanglement and criteria for its measurement. The peripheral light-harvesting complex LH2, isolated from the anoxygenic purple bacterium Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, is employed as model system of interest. This light-harvesting complex, along with a description of the process of light-harvesting, the presence of quantum coherence, and the different models used to simulate EET, are described in chapter 3. In combination these two chapters lay the foundation for chapter 4, a critical assessment of the current measures of delocalization employed in EET studies, their relationship, and overall effectiveness. The conclusion is that entanglement based measures are most effective at measuring quantum effects, and that they can be related to more conventional delocalization measures such as the inverse participation ratio (IPR) by taking into account the entropy of the system under study. All the measures within this chapter are known as bipartite measures, and only measure the strength of correlation between two sites. The fifth chapter presents the core of this thesis. Following a brief introduction to the concept of multipartite entanglement, the development of multipartite delocalization measures that give high-resolution information on quantum coherence in light-harvesting complexes is detailed. In contrast to other measures, these analytical measures can detect many body correlations in large systems undergoing decoherence. We determine that, much like the bipartite entanglement based measures of chapter 4, these measures are also a function of system entropy, and have a

  19. Geometric measure of entanglement and applications to bipartite and multipartite quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T.-C.; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2003-10-01

    The degree to which a pure quantum state is entangled can be characterized by the distance or angle to the nearest unentangled state. This geometric measure of entanglement, already present in a number of settings [A. Shimony, Ann. NY. Acad. Sci. 755, 675 (1995); H. Barnum and N. Linden, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 34, 6787 (2001)], is explored for bipartite and multipartite pure and mixed states. The measure is determined analytically for arbitrary two-qubit mixed states and for generalized Werner and isotropic states, and is also applied to certain multipartite mixed states. In particular, a detailed analysis is given for arbitrary mixtures of three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger, W, and inverted-W states. Along the way, we point out connections of the geometric measure of entanglement with entanglement witnesses and with the Hartree approximation method.

  20. Multipartite Fully Entangled Fraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianwei

    2016-06-01

    Fully entangled fraction is a definition for bipartite states, which is tightly related to bipartite maximally entangled states, and has clear experimental and theoretical significance. In this work, we generalize it to multipartite case, we call the generalized version multipartite fully entangled fraction (MFEF). MFEF measures the closeness of a state to GHZ states. The analytical expressions of MFEF are very difficult to obtain except for very special states, however, we show that, the MFEF of any state is determined by a system of finite-order polynomial equations. Therefore, the MFEF can be efficiently numerically computed.

  1. Measuring multipartite entanglement through dynamic susceptibilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauke, Philipp; Heyl, Markus; Tagliacozzo, Luca; Zoller, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Entanglement is considered an essential resource in quantum technologies, and central to the understanding of quantum many-body physics. Developing protocols to detect and quantify the entanglement of many-particle quantum states is thus a key challenge for present experiments. Here, we show that the quantum Fisher information, a witness for genuinely multipartite entanglement, becomes measurable for thermal ensembles by means of the dynamic susceptibility--that is, with resources readily available in present cold atomic-gas and condensed-matter experiments. This establishes a connection between multipartite entanglement and many-body correlations contained in response functions, with immediate implications close to quantum phase transitions, where the quantum Fisher information becomes universal, allowing us to identify strongly entangled phase transitions with a divergent multipartite entanglement. We illustrate our framework using paradigmatic quantum Ising models, and point out potential signatures in optical-lattice experiments and strongly correlated materials.

  2. Multipartite entanglement gambling: The power of asymptotic state transformations assisted by a sublinear amount of quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapliyal, Ashish V.; Smolin, John A.

    2003-12-01

    Reversible state transformations under entanglement nonincreasing operations give rise to entanglement measures. It is well known that asymptotic local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are required to get a simple operational measure of bipartite pure state entanglement. For bipartite mixed states and multipartite pure states it is likely that a more powerful class of operations will be needed. To this end more powerful versions of state transformations (or reducibilities), namely, LOCCq (asymptotic LOCC with a sublinear amount of quantum communication) and CLOCC (asymptotic LOCC with catalysis) have been considered in the literature. In this paper we show that LOCCq state transformations are only as powerful as asymptotic LOCC state transformations for multipartite pure states. The basic tool we use is multipartite entanglement gambling: Any pure multipartite entangled state can be transformed to an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pair shared by some pair of parties and any irreducible m-party pure state (m⩾2) can be used to create any other state (pure or mixed) using LOCC. We consider applications of multipartite entanglement gambling to multipartite distillability and to characterizations of multipartite minimal entanglement generating sets. We briefly consider generalizations of this result to mixed states by defining the class of cat-distillable states, i.e., states from which cat states (|0⊗m>+|1⊗m>) may be distilled.

  3. Gaussian maximally multipartite-entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio; Lupo, Cosmo; Mancini, Stefano

    2009-12-15

    We study maximally multipartite-entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite-entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n<=7.

  4. Purification of genuine multipartite entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Marcus; Plesch, Martin

    2011-06-15

    In tasks where multipartite entanglement plays a central role, state purification is, due to inevitable noise, a crucial part of the procedure. We consider a scenario exploiting the multipartite entanglement in a straightforward multipartite purification algorithm and compare it to bipartite purification procedures combined with state teleportation. While complete purification requires an infinite amount of input states in both cases, we show that for an imperfect output fidelity the multipartite procedure exhibits a major advantage in terms of input states used.

  5. Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2009-10-15

    Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

  6. Essentially entangled component of multipartite mixed quantum states, its properties, and an efficient algorithm for its extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akulin, V. M.; Kabatiansky, G. A.; Mandilara, A.

    2015-10-01

    Using geometric means, we first consider a density matrix decomposition of a multipartite quantum system of a finite dimension into two density matrices: a separable one, also known as the best separable approximation, and an essentially entangled one, which contains no product state components. We show that this convex decomposition can be achieved in practice with the help of a linear programming algorithm that scales in the general case polynomially with the system dimension. We illustrate the algorithm implementation with an example of a composite system of dimension 12 that undergoes a loss of coherence due to classical noise and we trace the time evolution of its essentially entangled component. We suggest a "geometric" description of entanglement dynamics and demonstrate how it explains the well-known phenomena of sudden death and revival of multipartite entanglements. For a statistical weight loss of the essentially entangled component with time, its average entanglement content is not affected by the coherence loss.

  7. Multipartite Entanglement And Firewalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Shengqiao; Stoltenberg, Henry; Albrecht, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Black holes offer an exciting area to explore the nature of quantum gravity. The classic work on Hawking radiation indicates that black holes should decay via quantum effects, but our ideas about how this might work at a technical level are incomplete. Recently Almheiri-Marolf-Polchinski-Sully AMPS have noted an apparent paradox in reconciling fundamental properties of quantum mechanics with standard beliefs about black holes. One way to resolve the paradox is to postulate the existence of a ``firewall'' inside the black hole horizon which prevents objects from falling smoothly toward the singularity. A fundamental limitation on the behavior of quantum entanglement known as ``monogamy'' plays a key role in the AMPS argument. Our goal is to study and apply many-body entanglement theory to consider the entanglement among different parts of Hawking radiation and black holes. We identified an example which could change the AMPS accounting of quantum entanglement and perhaps eliminating the need for a firewall. Looking at different many body entanglement measures and their monogamy properties can tell us subtle ways in which different subsystems can share their entanglement. Specific measures we consider include negativity, concurrence, and mutual information. Taking insights from these different measures, we constructed toy models for black hole decay which have different entanglement behaviors than those assumed by AMPS. We hope to use our effective toy model to demonstrate interesting new ways of thinking about black holes.

  8. Multipartite entanglement and quantum phase transitions in the one-, two-, and three-dimensional transverse-field Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Montakhab, Afshin; Asadian, Ali

    2010-12-15

    In this paper we consider the quantum phase transition in the Ising model in the presence of a transverse field in one, two, and three dimensions from a multipartite entanglement point of view. Using exact numerical solutions, we are able to study such systems up to 25 qubits. The Meyer-Wallach measure of global entanglement is used to study the critical behavior of this model. The transition we consider is between a symmetric Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-like state to a paramagnetic product state. We find that global entanglement serves as a good indicator of quantum phase transition with interesting scaling behavior. We use finite-size scaling to extract the critical point as well as some critical exponents for the one- and two-dimensional models. Our results indicate that such multipartite measure of global entanglement shows universal features regardless of dimension d. Our results also provide evidence that multipartite entanglement is better suited for the study of quantum phase transitions than the much-studied bipartite measures.

  9. Relation between the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-entanglement cost of preparing a multipartite pure state and its quantum discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Seungho; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2015-08-01

    We investigate how much amount of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement is required in order to prepare a given multipartite state by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We present a LOCC procedure that asymptotically converts GHZ states into an arbitrary multipartite pure state, whose conversion rate is given by the multipartite discord of the state. This reveals that the GHZ-entanglement cost of preparing a pure state is not higher than the multipartite discord of the state. It also provides an operational interpretation of multipartite discord for pure states, namely, the consumption rate of GHZ entanglement in the devised procedure.

  10. Efficient measurement-device-independent detection of multipartite entanglement structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Witnessing entanglement is crucial in quantum information processing. With properly preparing ancillary states, it has been shown previously that genuine entanglement can be witnessed without trusting measurement devices. In this work we generalize the scenario and show that generic multipartite entanglement structures, including entanglement of subsystems and entanglement depth, can be witnessed via measurement-device-independent means. As the original measurement-device-independent entanglement witness scheme exploits only one out of four Bell measurement outcomes for each party, a direct generalization to multipartite quantum states will inevitably cause inefficiency in entanglement detection after taking account of statistical fluctuations. To resolve this problem, we also present a way to utilize all the measurement outcomes. The scheme is efficient for multipartite entanglement detection and can be realized with state-of-the-art technologies.

  11. Spatial multipartite entanglement and localization of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Daems, D.; Cerf, N. J.

    2010-09-15

    We present a simple model together with its physical implementation which allows one to generate multipartite entanglement between several spatial modes of the electromagnetic field. It is based on parametric down-conversion with N pairs of symmetrically tilted plane waves serving as a pump. The characteristics of this spatial entanglement are investigated in the cases of zero as well as nonzero phase mismatch. Furthermore, the phenomenon of entanglement localization in just two spatial modes is studied in detail and shown to result in an enhancement of the entanglement by a factor {radical}(N).

  12. Coexistence of unlimited bipartite and genuine multipartite entanglement: Promiscuous quantum correlations arising from discrete to continuous-variable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Ericsson, Marie; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-08-15

    Quantum mechanics imposes 'monogamy' constraints on the sharing of entanglement. We show that, despite these limitations, entanglement can be fully 'promiscuous', i.e., simultaneously present in unlimited two-body and many-body forms in states living in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. Monogamy just bounds the divergence rate of the various entanglement contributions. This is demonstrated in simple families of N-mode (N{>=}4) Gaussian states of light fields or atomic ensembles, which therefore enable infinitely more freedom in the distribution of information, as opposed to systems of individual qubits. Such a finding is of importance for the quantification, understanding, and potential exploitation of shared quantum correlations in continuous variable systems. We discuss how promiscuity gradually arises when considering simple families of discrete variable states, with increasing Hilbert space dimension towards the continuous variable limit. Such models are somehow analogous to Gaussian states with asymptotically diverging, but finite, squeezing. In this respect, we find that non-Gaussian states (which in general are more entangled than Gaussian states) exhibit also the interesting feature that their entanglement is more shareable: in the non-Gaussian multipartite arena, unlimited promiscuity can be already achieved among three entangled parties, while this is impossible for Gaussian, even infinitely squeezed states.

  13. Coexistence of unlimited bipartite and genuine multipartite entanglement: Promiscuous quantum correlations arising from discrete to continuous-variable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Ericsson, Marie; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-08-01

    Quantum mechanics imposes “monogamy” constraints on the sharing of entanglement. We show that, despite these limitations, entanglement can be fully “promiscuous,” i.e., simultaneously present in unlimited two-body and many-body forms in states living in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. Monogamy just bounds the divergence rate of the various entanglement contributions. This is demonstrated in simple families of N -mode (N⩾4) Gaussian states of light fields or atomic ensembles, which therefore enable infinitely more freedom in the distribution of information, as opposed to systems of individual qubits. Such a finding is of importance for the quantification, understanding, and potential exploitation of shared quantum correlations in continuous variable systems. We discuss how promiscuity gradually arises when considering simple families of discrete variable states, with increasing Hilbert space dimension towards the continuous variable limit. Such models are somehow analogous to Gaussian states with asymptotically diverging, but finite, squeezing. In this respect, we find that non-Gaussian states (which in general are more entangled than Gaussian states) exhibit also the interesting feature that their entanglement is more shareable: in the non-Gaussian multipartite arena, unlimited promiscuity can be already achieved among three entangled parties, while this is impossible for Gaussian, even infinitely squeezed states.

  14. Comment on 'Quantum teleportation of an arbitrary two-qubit state and its relation to multipartite entanglement'

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Fuguo

    2005-09-15

    The multipartite state in the Rigolin's protocol [Phys. Rev. A 71, 032303 (2005)] for teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state is just a product state of N Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs in essence, not a genuine multipartite entangled state, and this protocol in principle is equivalent to the Yang-Guo protocol [Chin. Phys. Lett. 17, 162 (2000)].

  15. Multipartite entangled states in particle mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Di Mauro, M.; Illuminati, F.

    2008-05-01

    In the physics of flavor mixing, the flavor states are given by superpositions of mass eigenstates. By using the occupation number to define a multiqubit space, the flavor states can be interpreted as multipartite mode-entangled states. By exploiting a suitable global measure of entanglement, based on the entropies related to all possible bipartitions of the system, we analyze the correlation properties of such states in the instances of three- and four-flavor mixing. Depending on the mixing parameters, and, in particular, on the values taken by the free phases, responsible for the CP-violation, entanglement concentrates in certain bipartitions. We quantify in detail the amount and the distribution of entanglement in the physically relevant cases of flavor mixing in quark and neutrino systems. By using the wave packet description for localized particles, we use the global measure of entanglement, suitably adapted for the instance of multipartite mixed states, to analyze the decoherence, induced by the free evolution dynamics, on the quantum correlations of stationary neutrino beams. We define a decoherence length as the distance associated with the vanishing of the coherent interference effects among massive neutrino states. We investigate the role of the CP-violating phase in the decoherence process.

  16. Quantum coherence in multipartite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yao; Xiao, Xing; Ge, Li; Sun, C. P.

    2015-08-01

    Within the unified framework of exploiting the relative entropy as a distance measure of quantum correlations, we make explicit the hierarchical structure of quantum coherence, quantum discord, and quantum entanglement in multipartite systems. On this basis, we define a basis-independent measure of quantum coherence and prove that it is exactly equivalent to quantum discord. Furthermore, since the original relative entropy of coherence is a basis-dependent quantity, we investigate the local and nonlocal unitary creation of quantum coherence, focusing on the two-qubit unitary gates. Intriguingly, our results demonstrate that nonlocal unitary gates do not necessarily outperform the local unitary gates. Finally, the additivity relationship of quantum coherence in tripartite systems is discussed in detail, where the strong subadditivity of von Neumann entropy plays an essential role.

  17. Conditions for entanglement in multipartite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hillery, Mark; Zheng Hongjun; Dung, Ho Trung

    2010-06-15

    We introduce two entanglement conditions that take the form of inequalities involving expectation values of operators. These conditions are sufficient conditions for entanglement; that is, if they are satisfied the state is entangled, but if they are not, one can say nothing about the entanglement of the state. These conditions are quite flexible, because the operators in them are not specified, and they are particularly useful in detecting multipartite entanglement. We explore the range of utility of these conditions by considering a number of examples of entangled states, and seeing under what conditions entanglement in them can be detected by the inequalities presented here.

  18. Entanglement monogamy and entanglement evolution in multipartite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Yankui; Ye Mingyong; Wang, Z. D.

    2009-10-15

    We analyze the entanglement distribution and the two-qubit residual entanglement in multipartite systems. For a composite system consisting of two cavities interacting with independent reservoirs, it is revealed that the entanglement evolution is restricted by an entanglement monogamy relation derived here. Moreover, it is found that the initial cavity-cavity entanglement evolves completely to the genuine four-partite cavities-reservoirs entanglement in the time interval between the sudden death of cavity-cavity entanglement and the birth of reservoir-reservoir entanglement. In addition, we also address the relationship between the genuine block-block entanglement form and qubit-block form in the interval.

  19. Multipartite quantum correlations and local recoverability

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Mark M.

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing genuine multipartite quantum correlations in quantum physical systems has historically been a challenging problem in quantum information theory. More recently, however, the total correlation or multipartite information measure has been helpful in accomplishing this goal, especially with the multipartite symmetric quantum (MSQ) discord (Piani et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 090502. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.090502)) and the conditional entanglement of multipartite information (CEMI) (Yang et al. 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 140501. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.140501)). Here, we apply a recent and significant improvement of strong subadditivity of quantum entropy (Fawzi & Renner 2014 (http://arxiv.org/abs/1410.0664)) in order to develop these quantities further. In particular, we prove that the MSQ discord is nearly equal to zero if and only if the multipartite state for which it is evaluated is approximately locally recoverable after performing measurements on each of its systems. Furthermore, we prove that the CEMI is a faithful entanglement measure, i.e. it vanishes if and only if the multipartite state for which it is evaluated is a fully separable state. Along the way, we provide an operational interpretation of the MSQ discord in terms of the partial state distribution protocol, which in turn, as a special case, gives an interpretation for the original discord quantity. Finally, we prove an inequality that could potentially improve upon the Fawzi–Renner inequality in the multipartite context, but it remains an open question to determine whether this is so.

  20. Entanglement entropy of multipartite pure states

    SciTech Connect

    Bravyi, Sergei

    2003-01-01

    Consider a system consisting of n d-dimensional quantum particles and an arbitrary pure state vertical bar {psi}> of the whole system. Suppose we simultaneously perform complete von Neumann measurements on each particle. The Shannon entropy of the outcomes' joint probability distribution is a functional of the state vertical bar {psi}> and of n measurements chosen for each particle. Denote S[{psi}] the minimum of this entropy over all choices of the measurements. We show that S[{psi}] coincides with the entropy of entanglement for bipartite states. We compute S[{psi}] for some special multipartite states: the hexacode state vertical bar H> (n=6, d=2) and the determinant states vertical bar Det{sub n}> (d=n). The computation yields S[H]=4 log 2 and S[Det{sub n}]=log(n{exclamation_point}). Counterparts of the determinant state defined for d

  1. Frozen multipartite entanglement in photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wei; Xu, Jing-Bo

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the multipartite entanglement dynamics of a many-body system consisting of N identical two-level atoms locally embedded in their own band-gap photonic crystals. It is shown that the tripartite entanglement of this photonic-crystal system can be frozen in a stationary state. We also find that a double-sudden-change phenomenon of four-partite entanglement occurs in this photonic-crystal system during the decoherence process under certain suitable conditions.

  2. Device-independent witnesses of genuine multipartite entanglement.

    PubMed

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Pironio, Stefano

    2011-06-24

    We consider the problem of determining whether genuine multipartite entanglement was produced in an experiment, without relying on a characterization of the systems observed or of the measurements performed. We present an n-partite inequality that is satisfied by all correlations produced by measurements on biseparable quantum states, but which can be violated by n-partite entangled states, such as Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states. In contrast to traditional entanglement witnesses, the violation of this inequality implies that the state is not biseparable independently of the Hilbert space dimension and of the measured operators. Violation of this inequality does not imply, however, genuine multipartite nonlocality. We show more generically how the problem of identifying genuine tripartite entanglement in a device-independent way can be addressed through semidefinite programming. PMID:21770616

  3. Quantum nonlocality of multipartite orthogonal product states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guang-Bao; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Qin, Su-Juan; Yang, Ying-Hui; Gao, Fei

    2016-03-01

    Local distinguishability of orthogonal quantum states is an area of active research in quantum information theory. However, most of the relevant results are about local distinguishability in bipartite Hilbert space and very little is known about the multipartite case. In this paper we present a generic method to construct a completable n -partite (n ≥3 ) product basis with only 2 n members, which exhibits nonlocality without entanglement with n parties, each holding a system of any finite dimension. We give an effective proof of the nonlocality of the completable multipartite product basis. In addition, we construct another incomplete multipartite product basis with a smaller number of members that cannot be distinguished by local operations and classical communication in a d1⊗d2⊗⋯⊗dn quantum system, where n ≥3 and di≥2 for i =1 ,2 ,...,n . The results can lead to a better understanding of the phenomenon of nonlocality without entanglement in any multipartite quantum system.

  4. How to make optimal use of maximal multipartite entanglement in clock synchronization

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Changliang; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2014-12-04

    We introduce a multi-party quantum clock synchronization protocol that makes optimal use of the maximal multipartite entanglement of GHZ-type states. The measurement statistics of the protocol are analyzed and the efficiency is evaluated.

  5. Genuinely multipartite entangled states and orthogonal arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyeneche, Dardo; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-08-01

    A pure quantum state of N subsystems with d levels each is called k-multipartite maximally entangled state, which we call a k-uniform state, if all its reductions to k qudits are maximally mixed. These states form a natural generalization of N-qudit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states which belong to the class 1-uniform states. We establish a link between the combinatorial notion of orthogonal arrays and k-uniform states and prove the existence of several classes of such states for N-qudit systems. In particular, known Hadamard matrices allow us to explicitly construct 2-uniform states for an arbitrary number of N >5 qubits. We show that finding a different class of 2-uniform states would imply the Hadamard conjecture, so the full classification of 2-uniform states seems to be currently out of reach. Furthermore, we establish links between the existence of k-uniform states and classical and quantum error correction codes and provide a graph representation for such states.

  6. Measure of genuine multipartite entanglement with computable lower bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Zhihao; Chen Zhihua; Chen Jingling; Spengler, Christoph; Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus

    2011-06-15

    We introduce an intuitive measure of genuine multipartite entanglement, which is based on the well-known concurrence. We show how lower bounds on this measure can be derived and also meet important characteristics of an entanglement measure. These lower bounds are experimentally implementable in a feasible way enabling quantification of multipartite entanglement in a broad variety of cases.

  7. Multipartite asymmetric quantum cloning

    SciTech Connect

    Iblisdir, S.; Gisin, N.; Acin, A.; Cerf, N.J.; Filip, R.; Fiurasek, J.

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the optimal distribution of quantum information over multipartite systems in asymmetric settings. We introduce cloning transformations that take N identical replicas of a pure state in any dimension as input and yield a collection of clones with nonidentical fidelities. As an example, if the clones are partitioned into a set of M{sub A} clones with fidelity F{sup A} and another set of M{sub B} clones with fidelity F{sup B}, the trade-off between these fidelities is analyzed, and particular cases of optimal N{yields}M{sub A}+M{sub B} cloning machines are exhibited. We also present an optimal 1{yields}1+1+1 cloning machine, which is an example of a tripartite fully asymmetric cloner. Finally, it is shown how these cloning machines can be optically realized.

  8. Manipulating mesoscopic multipartite entanglement with atom-light interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Stasinska, J.; Rodo, C.; Paganelli, S.; Birkl, G.; Sanpera, A.

    2009-12-15

    Entanglement between two macroscopic atomic ensembles induced by measurement on an ancillary light system has proven to be a powerful method for engineering quantum memories and quantum state transfer. Here we investigate the feasibility of such methods for generation, manipulation, and detection of genuine multipartite entanglement (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and clusterlike states) between mesoscopic atomic ensembles without the need of individual addressing of the samples. Our results extend in a nontrivial way the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement between two macroscopic gas samples reported experimentally in [B. Julsgaard, A. Kozhekin, and E. Polzik, Nature (London) 413, 400 (2001)]. We find that under realistic conditions, a second orthogonal light pulse interacting with the atomic samples, can modify and even reverse the entangling action of the first one leaving the samples in a separable state.

  9. Simplified Scheme for Teleportation of a Multipartite Quantum State Using a Single Entangled Pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Li-Hua; Gao, Yun-Feng

    2009-02-01

    A simple scheme for teleporting an unknown M-qubit cat-like state is proposed. The steps of this scheme can be summarized simply: disentangle-teleport-reconstruct entanglement. If proper unitary operations and measurements from senders are given, the teleportation of an unknown M-qubit cat-like state can be converted into single qubit teleportation. In the meantime, the receiver should also carry out right unitary operations with the introduction of appropriate ancillary qubits to confirm the successful teleportation of the demanded entangled state. The present scheme can be generalized to teleport an unknown M-quNit state, i.e., an M-quNit state can be teleported by a single quNit entangled pair.

  10. Strong monogamy of bipartite and genuine multipartite entanglement: the Gaussian case.

    PubMed

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-12

    We demonstrate the existence of general constraints on distributed quantum correlations, which impose a trade-off on bipartite and multipartite entanglement at once. For all N-mode Gaussian states under permutation invariance, we establish exactly a monogamy inequality, stronger than the traditional one, that by recursion defines a proper measure of genuine N-partite entanglement. Strong monogamy holds as well for subsystems of arbitrary size, and the emerging multipartite entanglement measure is found to be scale invariant. We unveil its operational connection with the optimal fidelity of continuous variable teleportation networks. PMID:17995148

  11. Experimentally implementable criteria revealing substructures of genuine multipartite entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Marcus; Schimpf, Hans; Gabriel, Andreas; Spengler, Christoph; Bruss, Dagmar; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.

    2011-02-15

    We present a general framework that reveals substructures of genuine multipartite entanglement. Via simple inequalities it is possible to discriminate different sets of multipartite qubit states. These inequalities are beneficial regarding experimental examinations as only local measurements are required. Furthermore, the number of observables scales favorably with system size. In exemplary cases we demonstrate the noise resistance and discuss implementations.

  12. Quantification and scaling of multipartite entanglement in continuous variable systems.

    PubMed

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-11-26

    We present a theoretical method to determine the multipartite entanglement between different partitions of multimode, fully or partially symmetric Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For such states, we determine the exact expression of the logarithmic negativity and show that it coincides with that of equivalent two-mode Gaussian states. Exploiting this reduction, we demonstrate the scaling of the multipartite entanglement with the number of modes and its reliable experimental estimate by direct measurements of the global and local purities. PMID:15601075

  13. Experimentally feasible set of criteria detecting genuine multipartite entanglement in n-qubit Dicke states and in higher-dimensional systems

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, Marcus; Erker, Paul; Schimpf, Hans; Gabriel, Andreas; Hiesmayr, Beatrix

    2011-04-15

    We construct a set of criteria detecting genuine multipartite entanglement in arbitrary dimensional multipartite systems. These criteria are optimally suited for detecting multipartite entanglement in n-qubit Dicke states with m excitations, as shown in exemplary cases. Furthermore, they can be employed to detect multipartite entanglement in different states related to quantum cloning, decoherence-free communication, and quantum secret sharing. In a detailed analysis, we show that the criteria are also more robust to noise than any other criterion known so far, especially with increasing system size. Furthermore, it is shown that the number of required local observables scales only polynomially with size, thus making the criteria experimentally feasible.

  14. Do multipartite correlations speed up adiabatic quantum computation or quantum annealing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batle, J.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Farouk, Ahmed; Abutalib, M.; Abdalla, S.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum correlations are thought to be the reason why certain quantum algorithms overcome their classical counterparts. Since the nature of this resource is still not fully understood, we shall investigate how multipartite entanglement and non-locality among qubits vary as the quantum computation runs. We shall encounter that quantum measures on the whole system cannot account for their corresponding speedup.

  15. Do multipartite correlations speed up adiabatic quantum computation or quantum annealing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batle, J.; Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Farouk, Ahmed; Abutalib, M.; Abdalla, S.

    2016-04-01

    Quantum correlations are thought to be the reason why certain quantum algorithms overcome their classical counterparts. Since the nature of this resource is still not fully understood, we shall investigate how multipartite entanglement and non-locality among qubits vary as the quantum computation runs. We shall encounter that quantum measures on the whole system cannot account for their corresponding speedup.

  16. Entanglement bound for multipartite pure states based on local measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Lizhen; Chen Xiaoyu; Ye Tianyu

    2011-10-15

    An entanglement bound based on local measurements is introduced for multipartite pure states. It is the upper bound of the geometric measure and the relative entropy of entanglement. It is the lower bound of the minimal-measurement entropy. For pure bipartite states, the bound is equal to the entanglement entropy. The bound is applied to pure tripartite qubit states and the exact tripartite relative entropy of entanglement is obtained for a wide class of states.

  17. Robust multipartite multilevel quantum protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Nihira, Hideomi; Stroud, C.R. Jr.

    2005-08-15

    We present a quantum protocol utilizing a tripartite three-level state. The state used in this scheme contains entanglement even after one system is traced out and as a result can be used for both a secret-sharing protocol among the three parties and a quantum-key-distribution protocol between any two parties. We show how to utilize this residual entanglement for quantum-key-distribution purposes, and explore a possible realization of the scheme using entanglement of orbital-angular-momentum states of photons.

  18. Detecting genuine multipartite entanglement in steering scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebaratnam, C.

    2016-05-01

    Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering is a form of quantum nonlocality which is intermediate between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. EPR steering is a resource for quantum key distribution that is device independent on only one side in that it certifies bipartite entanglement when one party's device is not characterized while the other party's device is fully characterized. In this work, we introduce two types of genuine tripartite EPR steering, and derive two steering inequalities to detect them. In a semi-device-independent scenario where only the dimensions of two parties are assumed, the correlations which violate one of these inequalities also certify genuine tripartite entanglement. It is known that Alice can demonstrate bipartite EPR steering to Bob if and only if her measurement settings are incompatible. We demonstrate that quantum correlations can also detect tripartite EPR steering from Alice to Bob and Charlie, even if Charlie's measurement settings are compatible.

  19. Device-independent tomography of multipartite quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pál, Károly F.; Vértesi, Tamás; Navascués, Miguel

    2014-10-01

    In the usual tomography of multipartite entangled quantum states one assumes that the measurement devices used in the laboratory are under perfect control of the experimenter. In this paper, using the so-called swap concept introduced recently, we show how one can remove this assumption in realistic experimental conditions and nevertheless be able to characterize the produced multipartite state based only on observed statistics. Such a black-box tomography of quantum states is termed self-testing. As a function of the magnitude of the Bell violation, we are able to self-test emblematic multipartite quantum states such as the three-qubit W state, the three- and four-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, and the four-qubit linear cluster state.

  20. Theory of Multipartite Entanglement for X-states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi Rafsanjani, Seyed Mohammad

    More than a century after the seminal work of Schmidt and with all the enthusiasm that have surrounded entanglement ever since the controversial EPR paper, it remains an open challenge to determine whether a given state possesses entanglement or not. The problem is even more dicult if one considers the entanglement among more than two parties, i.e. multipartite entanglement. In the following we first introduce the concept of multipartite entanglement and discuss what it means to quantify the entanglement of a given state. We then introduce a class of multiqubit states, called X- states, and find an algebraic formula for the multipartite entanglement of such states. We show that using this formula one can find a lower bound for the entanglement of any multiqubit state. We then explore the connection between the entanglement and purity in multiqubit states. In the fourth chapter, we introduce a geometrical measure of entanglement and quantify it for the set of GHZ-diagonal states. These are states that can be written as a convex sum of completely bit-flipped states. Using these results we can develop an upper and a lower bound for the entanglement of any density matrix. In the final chapter we survey some of the insights that can be developed using the results of the preceding chapters. We first explore the decay of entanglement in a decoherence scenario where each qubit is experiences decay through an amplitude damping channel, and finally we make a proposal to preserve and control multipartite entanglement through the phenomenon of collapse and revival.

  1. Devising local protocols for multipartite quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2016-04-01

    We provide a method of designing protocols for implementing multipartite quantum measurements when the parties are restricted to local operations and classical communication (LOCC). For each finite integer number of rounds r , the method succeeds in every case for which an r -round protocol exists for the measurement under consideration, and failure of the method has the immediate implication that the measurement under consideration cannot be implemented by LOCC no matter how many rounds of communication are allowed, including when the number of rounds is allowed to be infinite. It turns out that this method shows—often with relative ease—the impossibility by LOCC for a number of examples, including cases where this was not previously known, as well as the example that demonstrated what has famously become known as nonlocality without entanglement.

  2. Classification of multipartite entangled states by multidimensional determinants

    SciTech Connect

    Miyake, Akimasa

    2003-01-01

    We find that multidimensional determinants 'hyperdeterminants', related to entanglement measures (the so-called concurrence, or 3-tangle for two or three qubits, respectively), are derived from a duality between entangled states and separable states. By means of the hyperdeterminant and its singularities, the single copy of multipartite pure entangled states is classified into an onion structure of every closed subset, similar to that by the local rank in the bipartite case. This reveals how inequivalent multipartite entangled classes are partially ordered under local actions. In particular, the generic entangled class of the maximal dimension, distinguished as the nonzero hyperdeterminant, does not include the maximally entangled states in Bell's inequalities in general (e.g., in the n{>=}4 qubits), contrary to the widely known bipartite or three-qubit cases. It suggests that not only are they never locally interconvertible with the majority of multipartite entangled states, but they would have no grounds for the canonical n-partite entangled states. Our classification is also useful for the mixed states.

  3. Distillation of multipartite entanglement by local filtering operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Sheng; Xing, Hai-Bo; Yang, Ming; Yang, Qing; Song, Wei; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2014-06-01

    In this work, we study how to distill two typical multipartite entangled noisy states, the amplitude-damped W state and the amplitude-damped Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Unlike the currently existing multipartite entanglement purification schemes, our scheme is a single-copy-based scheme, i.e., only one noisy state is needed in each distillation round, and the complicated multilateral controlled-not (cnot) operations are replaced by measurements of local positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs). The results show that local POVM measurements on one copy of the noisy state can project the initial state onto a new state with higher entanglement and nonlocality. In this scheme, although the final state can violate the multipartite Bell inequality, the corresponding initial noisy state does not violate it, which means that this distillation scheme can reveal the hidden genuine multipartite nonlocality of these initial states. For the case of the amplitude-damped W state, if the POVM parameters are appropriately chosen, the fidelity of the output state can approach 1.0 for all the initial states with fidelity bigger than zero. So this single-copy-based multipartite entanglement distillation scheme has a wide range of distillable fidelities, and it is much simpler than the two-copy- or multiple-copy-based schemes. Furthermore, if the POVM measurement is carried out only on some member qubits rather than all of them, the distillation scheme can succeed too, which will greatly decrease the implementation complexity of the scheme. So this multipartite entanglement distillation scheme may be implementable in some physical system.

  4. Full Multipartite Entanglement of Frequency-Comb Gaussian States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, S.; Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.; Cai, Y.; Roslund, J.; Treps, N.; Fabre, C.

    2015-02-01

    An analysis is conducted of the multipartite entanglement for Gaussian states generated by the parametric down-conversion of a femtosecond frequency comb. Using a recently introduced method for constructing optimal entanglement criteria, a family of tests is formulated for mode decompositions that extends beyond the traditional bipartition analyses. A numerical optimization over this family is performed to achieve maximal significance of entanglement verification. For experimentally prepared 4-, 6-, and 10-mode states, full entanglement is certified for all of the 14, 202, and 115 974 possible nontrivial partitions, respectively.

  5. Maxwell's demons in multipartite quantum correlated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braga, Helena C.; Rulli, Clodoaldo C.; de Oliveira, Thiago R.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the extraction of thermodynamic work by a Maxwell's demon in a multipartite quantum correlated system. We begin by adopting the standard model of a Maxwell's demon as a Turing machine, either in a classical or quantum setup depending on its ability to implement classical or quantum conditional dynamics. Then, for an n -partite system (A1,A2,⋯,An) , we introduce a protocol of work extraction that bounds the advantage of the quantum demon over its classical counterpart through the amount of multipartite quantum correlation present in the system, as measured by a thermal version of the global quantum discord. This result is illustrated for an arbitrary n -partite pure state of qubits with Schmidt decomposition, where it is shown that the thermal global quantum discord exactly quantifies the quantum advantage. Moreover, we also consider the work extraction via mixed multipartite states, where examples of tight upper bounds can be obtained.

  6. Global quantum discord in multipartite systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rulli, C. C.; Sarandy, M. S.

    2011-10-15

    We propose a global measure for quantum correlations in multipartite systems, which is obtained by suitably recasting the quantum discord in terms of relative entropy and local von Neumann measurements. The measure is symmetric with respect to subsystem exchange and is shown to be nonnegative for an arbitrary state. As an illustration, we consider tripartite correlations in the Werner-GHZ (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) state and multipartite correlations at quantum criticality. In particular, in contrast with the pairwise quantum discord, we show that the global quantum discord is able to characterize the infinite-order quantum phase transition in the Ashkin-Teller spin chain.

  7. Study of a monogamous entanglement measure for three-qubit quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qiting; Cui, Jianlian; Wang, Shuhao; Long, Gui-Lu

    2016-06-01

    The entanglement quantification and classification of multipartite quantum states is an important research area in quantum information. In this paper, in terms of the reduced density matrices corresponding to all possible partitions of the entire system, a bounded entanglement measure is constructed for arbitrary-dimensional multipartite quantum states. In particular, for three-qubit quantum systems, we prove that our entanglement measure satisfies the relation of monogamy. Furthermore, we present a necessary condition for characterizing maximally entangled states using our entanglement measure.

  8. Classification of 4-qubit Entangled Graph States According to Bipartite Entanglement, Multipartite Entanglement and Non-local Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assadi, Leila; Jafarpour, Mojtaba

    2016-07-01

    We use concurrence to study bipartite entanglement, Meyer-Wallach measure and its generalizations to study multi-partite entanglement and MABK and SASA inequalities to study the non-local properties of the 4-qubit entangled graph states, quantitatively. Then, we present 3 classifications, each one in accordance with one of the aforementioned properties. We also observe that the classification according to multipartite entanglement does exactly coincide with that according to nonlocal properties, but does not match with that according to bipartite entanglement. This observation signifies the fact that non-locality and multipartite entanglement enjoy the same basic underlying principles, while bipartite entanglement may not reveal the non-locality issue in its entirety.

  9. Experimental Determination of Multipartite Entanglement with Incomplete Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, G. H.; Walborn, S. P.; Ribeiro, P. H. Souto; Céleri, L. C.

    2015-07-01

    Multipartite entanglement is very poorly understood despite all the theoretical and experimental advances of the last decades. Preparation, manipulation, and identification of this resource is crucial for both practical and fundamental reasons. However, the difficulty in the practical manipulation and the complexity of the data generated by measurements on these systems increase rapidly with the number of parties. Therefore, we would like to experimentally address the problem of how much information about multipartite entanglement we can access with incomplete measurements. In particular, it was shown that some types of pure multipartite entangled states can be witnessed without measuring the correlations [M. Walter et al., Science 340, 1205 (2013)] between parties, which is strongly demanding experimentally. We explore this method using an optical setup that permits the preparation and the complete tomographic reconstruction of many inequivalent classes of three- and four-partite entangled states, and compare complete versus incomplete information. We show that the method is useful in practice, even for nonpure states or nonideal measurement conditions.

  10. Genuine multipartite entanglement of symmetric Gaussian states: Strong monogamy, unitary localization, scaling behavior, and molecular sharing structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-10-01

    We investigate the structural aspects of genuine multipartite entanglement in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. Generalizing the results of Adesso and Illuminati [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 150501 (2007)], we analyze whether the entanglement shared by blocks of modes distributes according to a strong monogamy law. This property, once established, allows us to quantify the genuine N -partite entanglement not encoded into 2,…,K,…,(N-1) -partite quantum correlations. Strong monogamy is numerically verified, and the explicit expression of the measure of residual genuine multipartite entanglement is analytically derived, by a recursive formula, for a subclass of Gaussian states. These are fully symmetric (permutation-invariant) states that are multipartitioned into blocks, each consisting of an arbitrarily assigned number of modes. We compute the genuine multipartite entanglement shared by the blocks of modes and investigate its scaling properties with the number and size of the blocks, the total number of modes, the global mixedness of the state, and the squeezed resources needed for state engineering. To achieve the exact computation of the block entanglement, we introduce and prove a general result of symplectic analysis: Correlations among K blocks in N -mode multisymmetric and multipartite Gaussian states, which are locally invariant under permutation of modes within each block, can be transformed by a local (with respect to the partition) unitary operation into correlations shared by K single modes, one per block, in effective nonsymmetric states where N-K modes are completely uncorrelated. Due to this theorem, the above results, such as the derivation of the explicit expression for the residual multipartite entanglement, its nonnegativity, and its scaling properties, extend to the subclass of non-symmetric Gaussian states that are obtained by the unitary localization of the multipartite entanglement of symmetric states. These findings provide strong

  11. Geometric measure of pairwise quantum discord for superpositions of multipartite generalized coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, M.; Ahl Laamara, R.

    2012-07-01

    We give the explicit expressions of the pairwise quantum correlations present in superpositions of multipartite coherent states. A special attention is devoted to the evaluation of the geometric quantum discord. The dynamics of quantum correlations under a dephasing channel is analyzed. A comparison of geometric measure of quantum discord with that of concurrence shows that quantum discord in multipartite coherent states is more resilient to dissipative environments than is quantum entanglement. To illustrate our results, we consider some special superpositions of Weyl-Heisenberg, SU(2) and SU(1,1) coherent states which interpolate between Werner and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states.

  12. Entanglement and measurement-induced nonlocality of mixed maximally entangled states in multipartite dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-Die; Wang, Li-Tao; Yang, Mou; Xu, Jing-Zhou; Wang, Z. D.; Bai, Yan-Kui

    2016-06-01

    The maximally entangled state can be in a mixed state as well as the well-known pure state. Taking the negativity as a measure of entanglement, we study the entanglement dynamics of bipartite, mixed maximally entangled states (MMESs) in multipartite cavity-reservoir systems. It is found that the MMES can exhibit the phenomenon of entanglement sudden death, which is quite different from the asymptotic decay of the pure-Bell-state case. We also find that maximal entanglement cannot guarantee maximal nonlocality, and the MMES does not correspond to the state with maximal measurement-induced nonlocality (MIN). In fact, the value and dynamic behavior of the MIN for the MMESs are dependent on the mixed-state probability. In addition, we investigate the distributions of negativity and the MIN in a multipartite system, where the two types of correlations have different monogamous properties.

  13. Unified criteria for multipartite quantum nonlocality

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalcanti, E. G.; He, Q. Y.; Reid, M. D.; Wiseman, H. M.

    2011-09-15

    Wiseman and co-workers [H. M. Wiseman, S. J. Jones, and A. C. Doherty, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 140402, (2007)] proposed a distinction among the nonlocality classes of Bell's nonlocality, Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox or steering, and entanglement based on whether or not an overseer trusts each party in a bipartite scenario where they are asked to demonstrate entanglement. Here we extend that concept to the multipartite case and derive inequalities that progressively test for those classes of nonlocality, with different thresholds for each level. This framework includes the three classes of nonlocality above in special cases and introduces a family of others.

  14. Quantum information and entanglement transfer for qutrits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, A.; Saavedra, C.; Retamal, J. C.

    2007-10-01

    We propose a scheme for the transfer of quantum information among distant qutrits. We apply this scheme to the distribution of entanglement of qutrits states among distant nodes and to the generation of multipartite antisymmetric states. We also discuss applications to quantum secret sharing.

  15. Conditions for monogamy of quantum correlations in multipartite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Asutosh

    2016-09-01

    Monogamy of quantum correlations is a vibrant area of research because of its potential applications in several areas in quantum information ranging from quantum cryptography to co-operative phenomena in many-body physics. In this paper, we investigate conditions under which monogamy is preserved for functions of quantum correlation measures. We prove that a monogamous measure remains monogamous on raising its power, and a non-monogamous measure remains non-monogamous on lowering its power. We also prove that monogamy of a convex quantum correlation measure for arbitrary multipartite pure quantum state leads to its monogamy for mixed states in the same Hilbert space. Monogamy of squared negativity for mixed states and that of entanglement of formation follow as corollaries of our results.

  16. Deterministic transformations of multipartite entangled states with tensor rank 2

    SciTech Connect

    Turgut, S.; Guel, Y.; Pak, N. K.

    2010-01-15

    Transformations involving only local operations assisted with classical communication are investigated for multipartite entangled pure states having tensor rank 2. All necessary and sufficient conditions for the possibility of deterministically converting truly multipartite, rank-2 states into each other are given. Furthermore, a chain of local operations that successfully achieves the transformation has been identified for all allowed transformations. The identified chains have two nice features: (1) each party needs to carry out at most one local operation and (2) all of these local operations are also deterministic transformations by themselves. Finally, it is found that there are disjoint classes of states, all of which can be identified by a single real parameter, which remain invariant under deterministic transformations.

  17. Multipartite entanglement in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) pigment-protein complex.

    PubMed

    Thilagam, A

    2012-05-01

    We investigate multipartite states in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) pigment-protein complex of the green sulfur bacteria using a Lorentzian spectral density of the phonon reservoir fitted with typical parameter estimates of the species, Prosthecochloris aestuarii. The evolution of the entanglement measure of the excitonic W qubit states is evaluated in the picosecond time range, showing increased revivals in the non-Markovian regime. Similar trends are observed in the evolution dynamics of the Meyer-Wallach measure of the N-exciton multipartite state, with results showing that multipartite entanglement can last from 0.5 to 1 ps, between the bacteriochlorophylls of the FMO complex. The teleportation and quantum information splitting fidelities associated with the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W-like resource states formed by the excitonic qubit channels of the FMO complex show that revivals in fidelities increase with the degree of non-Markovian strength of the decoherent environment. Quantum information processing tasks involving teleportation followed by the decodification process involving W-like states of the FMO complex may play a critical role during coherent oscillations at physiological temperatures. PMID:22583269

  18. Multisetting Bell-type inequalities for detecting genuine multipartite entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Pal, Karoly F.; Vertesi, Tamas

    2011-06-15

    In a recent paper, Bancal et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 250404 (2011)] put forward the concept of device-independent witnesses of genuine multipartite entanglement. These witnesses are capable of verifying genuine multipartite entanglement produced in a laboratory without resorting to any knowledge of the dimension of the state space or of the specific form of the measurement operators. As a by-product they found a multiparty three-setting Bell inequality which makes it possible to detect genuine n-partite entanglement in a noisy n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state for visibilities as low as 2/3 in a device-independent way. In this paper, we generalize this inequality to an arbitrary number of settings, demonstrating a threshold visibility of 2/{pi}{approx}0.6366 for number of settings going to infinity. We also present a pseudotelepathy Bell inequality achieving the same threshold value. We argue that our device-independent witnesses are optimal in the sense that for n odd the above value cannot be beaten with n-party-correlation Bell inequalities.

  19. Quasi-lattices of qubits for generating inequivalent multipartite entanglements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ian, Hou

    2016-06-01

    The mesoscopic scale of superconducting qubits makes their inter-spacings comparable to the scale of wavelength of a circuit cavity field to which they commonly couple. This comparability results in inhomogeneous coupling strengths for each qubit and hence asynchronous Rabi excitation cycles among the qubits that form a quasi-lattice. We find that such inhomogeneous coupling benefits the formation of multi-photon resonances between the single-mode cavity field and the quasi-lattice. The multi-photon resonances lead, in turn, to the simultaneous generation of inequivalent |\\text{GHZ}> and |W> types of multipartite entanglement states, which are not transformable to each other through local operations with classical communications. Applying the model on the 3-qubit quasi-lattice and using the entanglement measures of both concurrence and 3-tangle, we verify that the inhomogeneous coupling specifically promotes the generation of the totally inseparable |\\text{GHZ}> state.

  20. How the Hawking effect affects multipartite entanglement of Dirac particles in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shuai; Song, Xue-ke; Shi, Jia-dong; Ye, Liu

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the effect of Hawking radiation on the multipartite entanglement of Dirac particles in the background of a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated. It is shown that all the 1-tangles decrease as the Hawking temperature grows, and the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality is always saturated in this system. It is also shown that the entanglement's status of subsystems, which have the same quantum state, depend on its detector's position, and this proposition can be generalized to a multipartite system. Then, we find that the Hawking effect does not change the entanglement structure of the quantum state in Schwarzschild space-time. In addition, we discuss the distributions of quantum information and find that not only is the entanglement redistributed, but also the mutual information is distributed to the physical inaccessible region. At last, we calculate the mutual information of a N-qubit multipartite system, 1ex" |Ψ⟩123…N=(β1ex" |0⟩⊗N+√1-β2 1ex" |1⟩⊗N)123…N, and draw a conclusion that when the black hole approximates to evaporate completely the mutual information of this system will be close to (N-1)/N of the original if a particle freely falls in toward a Schwarzschild black hole and locates near the event horizon, and the other particles remain in the asymptotically flat region.

  1. Channel capacities versus entanglement measures in multiparty quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2010-01-15

    For quantum states of two subsystems, highly entangled states have a higher capacity of transmitting classical as well as quantum information, and vice versa. We show that this is no more the case in general: Quantum capacities of multiaccess channels, motivated by communication in quantum networks, do not have any relation with genuine multiparty entanglement measures. Importantly, the statement is demonstrated for arbitrary multipartite entanglement measures. Along with revealing the structural richness of multiaccess channels, this gives us a tool to classify multiparty quantum states from the perspective of its usefulness in quantum networks, which cannot be visualized by any genuine multiparty entanglement measure.

  2. Quantum correlations in connected multipartite Bell experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavakoli, Armin

    2016-04-01

    Bell experiments measure correlations between outcomes of a number of observers measuring on a shared physical state emitted from a single source. Quantum correlations arising in such Bell experiments have been intensively studied over the last decades. Much less is known about the nature of quantum correlations arising in network structures beyond Bell experiments. Such networks can involve many independent sources emitting states to observers in accordance with the network configuration. Here, we will study classical and quantum correlations in a family of networks which can be regarded as compositions of several independent multipartite Bell experiments connected together through a central node. For such networks we present tight Bell-type inequalities which are satisfied by all classical correlations. We study properties of the violations of our inequalities by probability distributions arising in quantum theory.

  3. Controlling Collapse and Revival of Multipartite Entanglement Under Decoherence via Classical Driving Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Song; Liu, Fen; Chen, Ai-Xi

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the effects of classical driving fields on the dynamics of purity, spin squeezing, and genuine multipartite entanglement (based on the Peres-Horodecki criterion ) of three two-level atoms within three separated cavities prepared in coherent states in the presence of decoherence. The three qubits are initially entangled and driven by classical fields. We obtain an analytical solution of the present system using the superoperator method. We find that the genuine multipartite entanglement measured by an entanglement monotone based on the Peres-Horodecki criterion can stay zero for a finite time and revive partially later. This phenomenon is similar to the sudden death of entanglement of two qubits and can be controlled efficiently by the classical driving fields. The amount of purity, spin squeezing, and genuine multipartite entanglement decrease with the increase of mean photon number of cavity fields. Particularly, the purity and genuine multipartite entanglement could be simultaneously improved by the classical driving fields. In addition, there is steady state genuine multipartite entanglement which can also be adjusted by the classical driving fields.

  4. Distribution of Quantum Coherence in Multipartite Systems.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, Chandrashekar; Parthasarathy, Manikandan; Jambulingam, Segar; Byrnes, Tim

    2016-04-15

    The distribution of coherence in multipartite systems is examined. We use a new coherence measure with entropic nature and metric properties, based on the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence. The metric property allows for the coherence to be decomposed into various contributions, which arise from local and intrinsic coherences. We find that there are trade-off relations between the various contributions of coherence, as a function of parameters of the quantum state. In bipartite systems the coherence resides on individual sites or is distributed among the sites, which contribute in a complementary way. In more complex systems, the characteristics of the coherence can display more subtle changes with respect to the parameters of the quantum state. In the case of the XXZ Heisenberg model, the coherence changes from a monogamous to a polygamous nature. This allows us to define the shareability of coherence, leading to monogamy relations for coherence. PMID:27127948

  5. Distribution of Quantum Coherence in Multipartite Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Chandrashekar; Parthasarathy, Manikandan; Jambulingam, Segar; Byrnes, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of coherence in multipartite systems is examined. We use a new coherence measure with entropic nature and metric properties, based on the quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence. The metric property allows for the coherence to be decomposed into various contributions, which arise from local and intrinsic coherences. We find that there are trade-off relations between the various contributions of coherence, as a function of parameters of the quantum state. In bipartite systems the coherence resides on individual sites or is distributed among the sites, which contribute in a complementary way. In more complex systems, the characteristics of the coherence can display more subtle changes with respect to the parameters of the quantum state. In the case of the X X Z Heisenberg model, the coherence changes from a monogamous to a polygamous nature. This allows us to define the shareability of coherence, leading to monogamy relations for coherence.

  6. Superadditivity of distillable entanglement from quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Roychowdhury, Vwani

    2005-12-15

    We show that the phenomenon of superadditivity of distillable entanglement observed in multipartite quantum systems results from the consideration of states created during the execution of the standard end-to-end quantum teleportation protocol [and a few additional local operations and classical communication (LOCC) steps] on a linear chain of singlets. Some of these intermediate states are tensor products of bound entangled (BE) states, and hence, by construction possess distillable entanglement, which can be unlocked by simply completing the rest of the LOCC operations required by the underlying teleportation protocol. We use this systematic approach to construct both new and known examples of superactivation of bound entanglement, and examples of activation of BE states using other BE states. A surprising outcome is the construction of noiseless quantum relay channels with no distillable entanglement between any two parties, except for that between the two end nodes.

  7. Multipartite entanglement arising from dense Euclidean lattices in dimensions 4-24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planat, Michel

    2012-02-01

    The group of automorphisms of Euclidean (embedded in {R}^n ) dense lattices such as the root lattices D4 and E8, the Barnes-Wall lattice BW16, the unimodular lattice D12+ and the Leech lattice Λ24 may be generated by entangled quantum gates of the corresponding dimension. These (real) gates/lattices are useful for quantum error correction: for instance, the two- and four-qubit real Clifford groups are the automorphism groups of the lattices D4 and BW16, respectively, and the three-qubit real Clifford group is maximal in the Weyl group W(E8). Technically, the automorphism group Aut(Λ) of the lattice Λ is the set of orthogonal matrices B such that, following the conjugation action by the generating matrix of the lattice, the output matrix is unimodular (of determinant ±1, with integer entries). When the degree n is equal to the number of basis elements of Λ, Aut(Λ) also acts on basis vectors and is generated with matrices B such that the sum of squared entries in a row is 1, i.e. B may be seen as a quantum gate. For the dense lattices listed above, maximal multipartite entanglement arises. In particular, one finds a balanced tripartite entanglement in E8 (the two- and three-tangles have the same magnitude 1/4) and a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type entanglement in BW16. In this paper, we also investigate the entangled gates from D12+ and Λ24, by seeing them as systems coupling a qutrit to two- and three-qubits, respectively. In addition to quantum computing, the work may be related to particle physics in the spirit of Planat et al (2011 Rep. Math. Phys. 66 39-51).

  8. The generalized partial transposition criterion for separability of multipartite quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Wu, Ling-An

    2002-12-01

    We present a generalized partial transposition separability criterion for the density matrix of a multipartite quantum system. This criterion comprises as special cases the famous Peres-Horodecki criterion and the recent realignment criterion in [O. Rudolph, quant-ph/0202121] and [K. Chen, L.A. Wu, quant-ph/0205017]. It involves only straightforward matrix manipulations and is easy to apply. A quantitative measure of entanglement based on this criterion is also obtained.

  9. Wigner-Yanase skew information as tests for quantum entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zeqian

    2005-05-15

    A Bell-type inequality is proposed in terms of Wigner-Yanase skew information, which is quadratic and involves only one local spin observable at each site. This inequality presents a hierarchic classification of all states of multipartite quantum systems from separable to fully entangled states, which is more powerful than the one presented by quadratic Bell inequalities from two-entangled to fully entangled states. In particular, it is proved that the inequality provides an exact test to distinguish entangled from nonentangled pure states of two qubits. Our inequality sheds considerable light on relationships between quantum entanglement and information theory.

  10. Algebraic and the graphic depictions of stabilized multipartite unlockable bound entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, L.-Y.; Wu, K.-S.

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, we investigate multipartite unlockable stabilized bound entanglement. First, the mathematical structure of these stabilized bound entangled states is studied. Second, since stabilizer states are the local equivalent to the graph states, we study such stabilized mixed states in the graph-state formalism. As a result, the unlockable stabilized bound entangled states can be graphically depicted and decomposed in the product form. Some examples are discussed.

  11. Hierarchical monogamy relations for the squared entanglement of formation in multipartite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yan-Kui; Xu, Yuan-Fei; Wang, Z. D.

    2014-12-01

    We show exactly that the squared entanglement of formation (SEF) obeys a set of hierarchical monogamy relations for an arbitrary N -qubit mixed state. Based on this set of monogamy relations, we are able to construct the set of hierarchical multipartite entanglement indicators for N -qubit states, which still work well even when the concurrence-based indicators lose efficacy. As a by-product, an intriguing analytical relation between the entanglement of formation (EOF) and squared concurrence (SC) for an arbitrary mixed state of 2 ⊗d systems is derived, making the concurrence calculable via the corresponding EOF. Furthermore, we analyze the multipartite entanglement dynamics in composite cavity-reservoir systems with the present set of hierarchical indicators. Moreover, for multilevel systems, it is illustrated that the SEF can be monogamous even if the SC is polygamous.

  12. Quantum Fisher information as efficient entanglement witness in many-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauke, Philipp

    2016-05-01

    Large-scale entanglement in quantum many-body systems is typically difficult to quantify experimentally. Here, we discuss scenarios where many-body entanglement becomes accessible via the quantum Fisher information (QFI), a known witness for genuinely multipartite entanglement as a resource for quantum-enhanced metrology. First, we introduce a direct relation of the QFI in thermal states with linear response functions, which makes the QFI measurable with standard methods in optical-lattice and solid-state experiments. Using this relationship, we show that close to continuous quantum phase transitions the QFI, and thus multipartite entanglement, is strongly divergent. Second, we demonstrate that the QFI can witness many-body localized phases, showing a characteristic growth of entanglement at long times after a quantum quench. These results demonstrate that the quantum Fisher information represents a useful and efficiently measurable witness for entanglement in quantum many-body settings.

  13. Multipartite-to-bipartite entanglement transformations and polynomial identity testing

    SciTech Connect

    Chitambar, Eric; Duan Runyao; Shi Yaoyun

    2010-05-15

    We consider the problem of deciding if some multiparty entangled pure state can be converted, with a nonzero success probability, into a given bipartite pure state shared between two specified parties through local quantum operations and classical communication. We show that this question is equivalent to the well-known computational problem of deciding if a multivariate polynomial is identically zero. Efficient randomized algorithms developed to study the latter can thus be applied to our question. As a result, a given transformation is possible if and only if it is generically attainable by a simple randomized protocol.

  14. Multipartite secure state distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Duer, W.; Briegel, H.-J.; Calsamiglia, J.

    2005-04-01

    We introduce the distribution of a secret multipartite entangled state in a real-world scenario as a quantum primitive. We show that in the presence of noisy quantum channels (and noisy control operations), any state chosen from the set of two-colorable graph states (Calderbank-Shor-Steane codewords) can be created with high fidelity while it remains unknown to all parties. This is accomplished by either blind multipartite entanglement purification, which we introduce in this paper, or by multipartite entanglement purification of enlarged states, which offers advantages over an alternative scheme based on standard channel purification and teleportation. The parties are thus provided with a secret resource of their choice for distributed secure applications.

  15. Experimental linear-optics simulation of multipartite non-locality in the ground state of a quantum Ising ring

    PubMed Central

    Orieux, Adeline; Boutari, Joelle; Barbieri, Marco; Paternostro, Mauro; Mataloni, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Critical phenomena involve structural changes in the correlations of its constituents. Such changes can be reproduced and characterized in quantum simulators able to tackle medium-to-large-size systems. We demonstrate these concepts by engineering the ground state of a three-spin Ising ring by using a pair of entangled photons. The effect of a simulated magnetic field, leading to a critical modification of the correlations within the ring, is analysed by studying two- and three-spin entanglement. In particular, we connect the violation of a multipartite Bell inequality with the amount of tripartite entanglement in our ring. PMID:25418153

  16. Computable measure of total quantum correlations of multipartite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behdani, Javad; Akhtarshenas, Seyed Javad; Sarbishaei, Mohsen

    2016-04-01

    Quantum discord as a measure of the quantum correlations cannot be easily computed for most of density operators. In this paper, we present a measure of the total quantum correlations that is operationally simple and can be computed effectively for an arbitrary mixed state of a multipartite system. The measure is based on the coherence vector of the party whose quantumness is investigated as well as the correlation matrix of this part with the remainder of the system. Being able to detect the quantumness of multipartite systems, such as detecting the quantum critical points in spin chains, alongside with the computability characteristic of the measure, makes it a useful indicator to be exploited in the cases which are out of the scope of the other known measures.

  17. Operational multipartite entanglement classes for symmetric photonic qubit states

    SciTech Connect

    Kiesel, N.; Wieczorek, W.; Weinfurter, H.; Krins, S.; Bastin, T.; Solano, E.

    2010-03-15

    We present experimental schemes that allow us to study the entanglement classes of all symmetric states in multiqubit photonic systems. We compare the efficiency of the proposed schemes and highlight the relation between the entanglement properties of symmetric Dicke states and a recently proposed entanglement scheme for atoms. In analogy to the latter, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between well-defined sets of experimental parameters and multiqubit entanglement classes inside the symmetric subspace of the photonic system.

  18. A quantifier of genuine multipartite quantum correlations and its dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Qiu, Liang

    2015-03-01

    By using measurement-induced disturbance (S Luo 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 022301), we propose a quantifier for genuine multipartite quantum correlations. The connection between this quantum correlations measure and the quantum advantage in multiport dense coding for pure three-qubit states is established. It is also used to investigate the dynamics of quantum correlations in a four-partite system. The phenomena of generation of quantum correlations and holding of quantum correlations in some time windows are found. As a byproduct, the monogamy score based on measurement-induced disturbance is related to the generalized geometric measure for pure three-qubit states.

  19. Analytical solutions and genuine multipartite entanglement of the three-qubit Dicke model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Yu; Chen, Xiang-You; He, Shu; Chen, Qing-Hu

    2016-07-01

    We present analytical solutions to three qubits and a single-mode cavity coupling system beyond the rotating-wave approximation (RWA). The zeroth-order approximation, equivalent to the adiabatic approximation, works well for arbitrary coupling strength for small qubit frequency. The first-order approximation, called the generalized rotating-wave approximation (GRWA), produces an effective solvable Hamiltonian with the same form as the ordinary RWA one and exhibits substantial improvements of energy levels over the RWA even on resonance. Based on these analytical eigensolutions, we study both the bipartite entanglement and genuine multipartite entanglement (GME). The dynamics of these two kinds of entanglements using the GRWA are consistent with the numerical exact ones. Interestingly, the well-known sudden death of entanglement occurs in the bipartite entanglement dynamics but not in the GME dynamics.

  20. Dynamics of entanglement transfer through multipartite dissipative systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, C. E.; Retamal, J. C.; Romero, G.

    2010-06-15

    We study the dynamics of entanglement transfer in a system composed of two initially correlated three-level atoms, each located in a cavity interacting with its own reservoir. Instead of tracing out reservoir modes to describe the dynamics using the master equation approach, we consider explicitly the dynamics of the reservoirs. In this situation, we show that the entanglement is completely transferred from atoms to reservoirs. Although the cavities mediate this entanglement transfer, we show that under certain conditions, no entanglement is found in cavities throughout the dynamics. Considering the entanglement dynamics of interacting and noninteracting bipartite subsystems, we found time windows where the entanglement can only flow through interacting subsystems, depending on the system parameters.

  1. Multipartite entanglement indicators based on monogamy relations of n-qubit symmetric states

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Xie, Shu-Cui; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Constructed from Bai-Xu-Wang-class monogamy relations, multipartite entanglement indicators can detect the entanglement not stored in pairs of the focus particle and the other subset of particles. We investigate the k-partite entanglement indicators related to the αth power of entanglement of formation (αEoF) for k ≤ n, αϵ and n-qubit symmetric states. We then show that (1) The indicator based on αEoF is a monotonically increasing function of k. (2) When n is large enough, the indicator based on αEoF is a monotonically decreasing function of α, and then the n-partite indicator based on works best. However, the indicator based on 2 EoF works better when n is small enough. PMID:26842264

  2. Multipartite entanglement indicators based on monogamy relations of n-qubit symmetric states.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Xie, Shu-Cui; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Constructed from Bai-Xu-Wang-class monogamy relations, multipartite entanglement indicators can detect the entanglement not stored in pairs of the focus particle and the other subset of particles. We investigate the k-partite entanglement indicators related to the αth power of entanglement of formation (αEoF) for k ≤ n, αϵ and n-qubit symmetric states. We then show that (1) The indicator based on αEoF is a monotonically increasing function of k. (2) When n is large enough, the indicator based on αEoF is a monotonically decreasing function of α, and then the n-partite indicator based on works best. However, the indicator based on 2 EoF works better when n is small enough. PMID:26842264

  3. Multipartite entanglement indicators based on monogamy relations of n-qubit symmetric states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Xie, Shu-Cui; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2016-02-01

    Constructed from Bai-Xu-Wang-class monogamy relations, multipartite entanglement indicators can detect the entanglement not stored in pairs of the focus particle and the other subset of particles. We investigate the k-partite entanglement indicators related to the αth power of entanglement of formation (αEoF) for k ≤ n, αɛ and n-qubit symmetric states. We then show that (1) The indicator based on αEoF is a monotonically increasing function of k. (2) When n is large enough, the indicator based on αEoF is a monotonically decreasing function of α, and then the n-partite indicator based on works best. However, the indicator based on 2 EoF works better when n is small enough.

  4. Multipartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems: Quantification, sharing structure, and decoherence

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-03-15

    We present a complete analysis of the multipartite entanglement of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems. We derive standard forms which characterize the covariance matrix of pure and mixed three-mode Gaussian states up to local unitary operations, showing that the local entropies of pure Gaussian states are bound to fulfill a relationship which is stricter than the general Araki-Lieb inequality. Quantum correlations can be quantified by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity, the continuous-variable tangle, or contangle. We review and elucidate in detail the proof that in multimode Gaussian states the contangle satisfies a monogamy inequality constraint [G. Adesso and F. Illuminati, New J. Phys8, 15 (2006)]. The residual contangle, emerging from the monogamy inequality, is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communications and defines a measure of genuine tripartite entanglements. We determine the analytical expression of the residual contangle for arbitrary pure three-mode Gaussian states and study in detail the distribution of quantum correlations in such states. This analysis yields that pure, symmetric states allow for a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. We thus name these states GHZ/W states of continuous-variable systems because they are simultaneous continuous-variable counterparts of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits. We finally consider the effect of decoherence on three-mode Gaussian states, studying the decay of the residual contangle. The GHZ/W states are shown to be maximally robust against losses and thermal noise.

  5. Multipartite entanglement in three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems: Quantification, sharing structure, and decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2006-03-01

    We present a complete analysis of the multipartite entanglement of three-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems. We derive standard forms which characterize the covariance matrix of pure and mixed three-mode Gaussian states up to local unitary operations, showing that the local entropies of pure Gaussian states are bound to fulfill a relationship which is stricter than the general Araki-Lieb inequality. Quantum correlations can be quantified by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity, the continuous-variable tangle, or contangle. We review and elucidate in detail the proof that in multimode Gaussian states the contangle satisfies a monogamy inequality constraint [G. Adesso and F. Illuminati, New J. Phys8, 15 (2006)]. The residual contangle, emerging from the monogamy inequality, is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communications and defines a measure of genuine tripartite entanglements. We determine the analytical expression of the residual contangle for arbitrary pure three-mode Gaussian states and study in detail the distribution of quantum correlations in such states. This analysis yields that pure, symmetric states allow for a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. We thus name these states GHZ/W states of continuous-variable systems because they are simultaneous continuous-variable counterparts of both the GHZ and the W states of three qubits. We finally consider the effect of decoherence on three-mode Gaussian states, studying the decay of the residual contangle. The GHZ/W states are shown to be maximally robust against losses and thermal noise.

  6. Enhancement of genuine multipartite entanglement and purity of three qubits under decoherence via bang-bang pulses with finite period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Song; Chen, Ai-Xi

    2016-08-01

    We propose a scheme to control the dynamics of genuine multipartite entanglement and purity of qubits within spatially separated thermal baths using the bang-bang pulses with finite period. The qubits are initially entangled and have no direct interactions. The genuine multipartite entanglement of the system is measured by an entanglement monotone based on a generalization of the Peres-Horodecki criterion to multipartite systems. We first derive a master equation to describe the non-Markovian dynamics of an arbitrary number of qubits within their baths with decoherence and dynamical decoupling. Then, we calculate the entanglement monotone and purity of three qubits in super-Ohmic, sub-Ohmic, and Ohmic baths numerically. The effects of the period of pulses on the non-Markovian dynamics of qubits are discussed. We show the genuine multipartite entanglement and purity can be simultaneously improved by applying the bang-bang pulses with finite period. In particular, the bang-bang pulses with finite period are more efficient when the qubits are put into the sub-Ohmic or Ohmic baths than the case of the super-Ohmic bath.

  7. Enhancement of genuine multipartite entanglement and purity of three qubits under decoherence via bang-bang pulses with finite period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Song; Chen, Ai-Xi

    2016-05-01

    We propose a scheme to control the dynamics of genuine multipartite entanglement and purity of qubits within spatially separated thermal baths using the bang-bang pulses with finite period. The qubits are initially entangled and have no direct interactions. The genuine multipartite entanglement of the system is measured by an entanglement monotone based on a generalization of the Peres-Horodecki criterion to multipartite systems. We first derive a master equation to describe the non-Markovian dynamics of an arbitrary number of qubits within their baths with decoherence and dynamical decoupling. Then, we calculate the entanglement monotone and purity of three qubits in super-Ohmic, sub-Ohmic, and Ohmic baths numerically. The effects of the period of pulses on the non-Markovian dynamics of qubits are discussed. We show the genuine multipartite entanglement and purity can be simultaneously improved by applying the bang-bang pulses with finite period. In particular, the bang-bang pulses with finite period are more efficient when the qubits are put into the sub-Ohmic or Ohmic baths than the case of the super-Ohmic bath.

  8. Continuous-variable measurement-device-independent multipartite quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yadong; Zhou, Jian; Gong, Xinbao; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; He, Guangqiang

    2016-02-01

    A continuous-variable measurement-device-independent multiparty quantum communication protocol is investigated in this paper. Utilizing the distributed continuous-variable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, this protocol can implement both quantum cryptographic conference and quantum secret sharing. We analyze the security of the protocol against both the entangling cloner attack and the coherent attack. The entangling cloner attack is a practical individual attack, and the coherent attack is the optimal attack Eve can implement. Simulation results show that the coherent attack can greatly reduce the secret key rate. Different kinds of entangled attacks are compared and we finally discuss the optimal coherent attacks.

  9. Teleportation of Three-Level Multi-partite Entangled State by a Partial Three-Level Bipartite Entangled State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Hong-Yi; Zhang, Ming; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2008-04-01

    We present a scheme for probabilistically teleporting an unknown three-level bipartite entangled state by using a partial entangled three-level bipartite state as quantum channel. This scheme can be directly generalized to probabilistically teleport an unknown three-level k-particle entangled state by a partial three-level bipartite entangled state. All kinds of unitary transformations are given in detail. We calculate the successful total probability and the total classical communication cost required for this scheme.

  10. Bound entanglement maximally violating Bell inequalities: Quantum entanglement is not fully equivalent to cryptographic security

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel

    2006-07-15

    It is shown that Smolin four-qubit bound entangled states [J. A. Smolin, Phys. Rev. A 63, 032306 (2001)] can maximally violate the simple two-setting Bell inequality similar to the standard Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality. The simplicity of the setting and the robustness of the entanglement make it promising for current experimental technology. On the other hand, the entanglement does not allow for secure key distillation, so neither entanglement nor maximal violation of Bell inequalities implies directly the presence of a quantum secure key. As a result, one concludes that two tasks--reducing of communication complexity and cryptography--are not (even qualitatively) equivalent in a quantum multipartite scenario.

  11. Understanding Entanglement as a Resource for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2009-03-01

    Ever since Erwin Schrodinger shocked the physics world by killing (and not killing) his cat, entanglement has played a critical role in attempts to understand quantum mechanics. More recently, entanglement has been shown to be a valuable resource, of central importance for quantum computation and the processing of quantum information. In this talk, I will describe a new diagrammatic approach to understanding why entanglement is so valuable, the key idea being that entanglement between two systems ``creates'' multiple images of the state of a third. By way of example, I will show how to ``visualize'' teleportation of unknown quantum states, and how to use entanglement to determine the (unknown) state of a spatially distributed, multipartite quantum system. Illustrative examples of this entanglement-assisted local state discrimination are sets of orthogonal product states exhibiting what is known as ``non-locality without entanglement'', including unextendible product bases. These ideas have also proven useful in using entanglement to implement a unitary interaction between spatially separated (and therefore non-interacting!) systems.

  12. Information-theoretical analysis of topological entanglement entropy and multipartite correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kohtaro; Furrer, Fabian; Murao, Mio

    2016-02-01

    A special feature of the ground state in a topologically ordered phase is the existence of large-scale correlations depending only on the topology of the regions. These correlations can be detected by the topological entanglement entropy or by a measure called irreducible correlation. We show that these two measures coincide for states obeying an area law and having zero correlation length. Moreover, we provide an operational meaning for these measures by proving its equivalence to the optimal rate of a particular class of secret sharing protocols. This establishes an information-theoretical approach to multipartite correlations in topologically ordered systems.

  13. Scheme for preparation of multi-partite entanglement of atomic ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Peng; Bian, Zhi-Hao

    2016-08-01

    We show a scheme of preparing multipartite W type of maximally entangled states among many atomic ensembles with the generation time increasing with the party number only polynomially. The scheme is based on laser manipulation of atomic ensembles and single-photon detection, and fits well the status of the current experimental technology. We also show one of the applications of this kind of W state, demonstrating Bell theorem without inequalities. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174052 and 11474049) and the China Advanced Science and Technology Innovation Fund.

  14. Polygamy of distributed entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscemi, Francesco; Gour, Gilad; Kim, Jeong San

    2009-07-01

    While quantum entanglement is known to be monogamous (i.e., shared entanglement is restricted in multipartite settings), here we show that distributed entanglement (or the potential for entanglement) is by nature polygamous. By establishing the concept of one-way unlocalizable entanglement (UE) and investigating its properties, we provide a polygamy inequality of distributed entanglement in tripartite quantum systems of arbitrary dimension. We also provide a polygamy inequality in multiqubit systems and several trade-offs between UE and other correlation measures.

  15. Polygamy of distributed entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Buscemi, Francesco; Gour, Gilad; Kim, Jeong San

    2009-07-15

    While quantum entanglement is known to be monogamous (i.e., shared entanglement is restricted in multipartite settings), here we show that distributed entanglement (or the potential for entanglement) is by nature polygamous. By establishing the concept of one-way unlocalizable entanglement (UE) and investigating its properties, we provide a polygamy inequality of distributed entanglement in tripartite quantum systems of arbitrary dimension. We also provide a polygamy inequality in multiqubit systems and several trade-offs between UE and other correlation measures.

  16. Discrimination strategies for inequivalent classes of multipartite entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Niekamp, Soenke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried

    2010-08-15

    How can one discriminate different inequivalent classes of multiparticle entanglement experimentally? We present an approach for the discrimination of an experimentally prepared state from the equivalence class of another state. We consider two possible measures for the discrimination strength of an observable. The first measure is based on the difference of expectation values, the second on the relative entropy of the probability distributions of the measurement outcomes. The interpretation of these measures and their usefulness for experiments with limited resources are discussed. In the case of graph states, the stabilizer formalism is employed to compute these quantities and to find sets of observables that result in the most decisive discrimination.

  17. Detect genuine multipartite entanglement in the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Dongling; Gu Shijian; Chen Jingling

    2010-02-15

    Recently Seevinck and Uffink argued that genuine multipartite entanglement (GME) had not been established in the experiments designed to confirm GME. In this paper, we use the Bell-type inequalities introduced by Seevinck and Svetlichny [M. Seevinck, G. Svetlichny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 060401] to investigate the GME problem in the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model. We show explicitly that the ground states of this model violate the inequality when the external transverse magnetic field is weak, which indicate that the ground states in this model with weak magnetic field are fully entangled. Since this model can be simulated with nuclear magnetic resonance, our results provide a fresh approach to experimental test of GME.

  18. Entanglement and adiabatic quantum computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrensmeier, D.

    2006-06-01

    Adiabatic quantum computation provides an alternative approach to quantum computation using a time-dependent Hamiltonian. The time evolution of entanglement during the adiabatic quantum search algorithm is studied, and its relevance as a resource is discussed.

  19. Connection between measurement disturbance relation and multipartite quantum correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun-Li; Du, Kun; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2015-01-01

    It is found that the measurement disturbance relation (MDR) determines the strength of quantum correlation and hence is one of the essential facets of the nature of quantum nonlocality. In reverse, the exact form of MDR may be ascertained through measuring the correlation function. To this aim, an optical experimental scheme is proposed. Moreover, by virtue of the correlation function, we find that the quantum entanglement, the quantum nonlocality, and the uncertainty principle can be explicitly correlated.

  20. Correlation evolution and monogamy of two geometric quantum discords in multipartite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yan-Kui; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Wang, Li-Tao; Wang, Z. D.

    2014-10-01

    We explore two different geometric quantum discords defined respectively via the trace norm (GQD-1) and Hilbert-Schmidt norm (GQD-2) in multipartite systems. A rigorous hierarchy relation is revealed for the two GQDs in a class of symmetric two-qubit X-shape states. For multiqubit pure states, it is found that both GQDs are related to the entanglement concurrence, with the hierarchy relation being saturated. Furthermore, we look into a four-partite dynamical system consisting of two cavities interacting with independent reservoirs. It is found that the GQD-2 can exhibit various sudden change behaviours, while the GQD-1 only evolves asymptotically, with the two GQDs exhibiting different monogamous properties.

  1. Images in quantum entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, G. J.

    2009-08-01

    A system for classifying and quantifying entanglement in spin 1/2 pure states is presented based on simple images. From the image point of view, an entangled state can be described as a linear superposition of separable object wavefunction ΨO plus a portion of its own inverse image. Bell states can be defined in this way: \\Psi = 1/\\sqrt 2 (\\Psi _O \\pm \\Psi _I ). Using the method of images, the three-spin 1/2 system is discussed in some detail. This system can exhibit exclusive three-particle ν123 entanglement, two-particle entanglements ν12, ν13, ν23 and/or mixtures of all four. All four image states are orthogonal both to each other and to the object wavefunction. In general, five entanglement parameters ν12, ν13, ν23, ν123 and phi123 are required to define the general entangled state. In addition, it is shown that there is considerable scope for encoding numbers, at least from the classical point of view but using quantum-mechanical principles. Methods are developed for their extraction. It is shown that concurrence can be used to extract even-partite, but not odd-partite information. Additional relationships are also presented which can be helpful in the decoding process. However, in general, numerical methods are mandatory. A simple roulette method for decoding is presented and discussed. But it is shown that if the encoder chooses to use transcendental numbers for the angles defining the target function (α1, β1), etc, the method rapidly turns into the Devil's roulette, requiring finer and finer angular steps.

  2. Lithography using quantum entangled particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.

  3. Lithography using quantum entangled particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.

  4. Quantum frequency doubling based on tripartite entanglement with cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Guo; Zhi-Feng, Wei; Su-Ying, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    We analyze the entanglement characteristics of three harmonic modes, which are the output fields from three cavities with an input tripartite entangled state at fundamental frequency. The entanglement properties of the input beams can be maintained after their frequencies have been up-converted by the process of second harmonic generation. We have calculated the parametric dependences of the correlation spectrum on the initial squeezing factor, the pump power, the transmission coefficient, and the normalized analysis frequency of cavity. The numerical results provide references to choose proper experimental parameters for designing the experiment. The frequency conversion of the multipartite entangled state can also be applied to a quantum communication network. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 91430109), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20111401110004), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2014011005-3).

  5. Nonlinear cascades and concurrences for multipartite-entangled and non-Gaussian states of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pooser, Raphael

    This thesis presents theoretical and experimental progress towards generating essential quantum optical building blocks for the implementation of quantum computing (QC) and quantum information (QI). Quantum optical systems such as Optical Parametric Oscillators (OPOs) provide a natural implementation of QC and QI by producing entanglement using nonlinear optical media. This dissertation covers the theoretical study of novel nonlinear optical systems such as concurrence- and cascade-based OPOs, in the spirit of developing them for use in QC and QI. The experimental research presents the first realizations of the novel nonlinear materials necessary to build these exotic OPOs. A further application of entanglement in quantum optics, Heisenberg-limited interferometry, is also discussed.

  6. Entanglement as a resource for local state discrimination in multipartite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Halder, Saronath; Nathanson, Michael

    2016-08-01

    We explore the question of using an entangled state as a universal resource for implementing quantum measurements by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We show that for most systems consisting of three or more subsystems, there is no entangled state from the same space that can enable all measurements by LOCC. This is in direct contrast to the bipartite case, where a maximally entangled state is a universal resource. Our results are obtained showing an equivalence between the problem of local state transformation and that of entanglement-assisted local unambiguous state discrimination.

  7. General polygamy inequality of multiparty quantum entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong San

    2012-06-01

    Using entanglement of assistance, we establish a general polygamy inequality of multiparty entanglement in arbitrary-dimensional quantum systems. For multiparty closed quantum systems, we relate our result with the monogamy of entanglement, and clarify that the entropy of entanglement bounds both monogamy and polygamy of multiparty quantum entanglement.

  8. Information complementarity in multipartite quantum states and security in cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Anindita; Kumar, Asutosh; Rakshit, Debraj; Prabhu, R.; SenDe, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal

    2016-03-01

    We derive complementarity relations for arbitrary quantum states of multiparty systems of any number of parties and dimensions between the purity of a part of the system and several correlation quantities, including entanglement and other quantum correlations as well as classical and total correlations, of that part with the remainder of the system. We subsequently use such a complementarity relation between purity and quantum mutual information in the tripartite scenario to provide a bound on the secret key rate for individual attacks on a quantum key distribution protocol.

  9. Higher-order quantum entanglement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeilinger, Anton; Horne, Michael A.; Greenberger, Daniel M.

    1992-01-01

    In quantum mechanics, the general state describing two or more particles is a linear superposition of product states. Such a superposition is called entangled if it cannot be factored into just one product. When only two particles are entangled, the stage is set for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) discussions and Bell's proof that the EPR viewpoint contradicts quantum mechanics. If more than two particles are involved, new possibilities and phenomena arise. For example, the Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger (GHZ) disproof of EPR applies. Furthermore, as we point out, with three or more particles even entanglement itself can be an entangled property.

  10. Entanglement purification for quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jian-Wei; Simon, Christoph; Brukner, Časlav; Zeilinger, Anton

    2001-04-01

    The distribution of entangled states between distant locations will be essential for the future large-scale realization of quantum communication schemes such as quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. Because of unavoidable noise in the quantum communication channel, the entanglement between two particles is more and more degraded the further they propagate. Entanglement purification is thus essential to distil highly entangled states from less entangled ones. Existing general purification protocols are based on the quantum controlled-NOT (CNOT) or similar quantum logic operations, which are very difficult to implement experimentally. Present realizations of CNOT gates are much too imperfect to be useful for long-distance quantum communication. Here we present a scheme for the entanglement purification of general mixed entangled states, which achieves 50 per cent of the success probability of schemes based on the CNOT operation, but requires only simple linear optical elements. Because the perfection of such elements is very high, the local operations necessary for purification can be performed with the required precision. Our procedure is within the reach of current technology, and should significantly simplify the implementation of long-distance quantum communication.

  11. Entanglement purification for quantum communication.

    PubMed

    Pan, J W; Simon, C; Brukner, C; Zeilinger, A

    2001-04-26

    The distribution of entangled states between distant locations will be essential for the future large-scale realization of quantum communication schemes such as quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. Because of unavoidable noise in the quantum communication channel, the entanglement between two particles is more and more degraded the further they propagate. Entanglement purification is thus essential to distil highly entangled states from less entangled ones. Existing general purification protocols are based on the quantum controlled-NOT (CNOT) or similar quantum logic operations, which are very difficult to implement experimentally. Present realizations of CNOT gates are much too imperfect to be useful for long-distance quantum communication. Here we present a scheme for the entanglement purification of general mixed entangled states, which achieves 50 per cent of the success probability of schemes based on the CNOT operation, but requires only simple linear optical elements. Because the perfection of such elements is very high, the local operations necessary for purification can be performed with the required precision. Our procedure is within the reach of current technology, and should significantly simplify the implementation of long-distance quantum communication. PMID:11323664

  12. Entangled states in quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruža, Jānis

    2010-01-01

    In some circles of quantum physicists, a view is maintained that the nonseparability of quantum systems-i.e., the entanglement-is a characteristic feature of quantum mechanics. According to this view, the entanglement plays a crucial role in the solution of quantum measurement problem, the origin of the “classicality” from the quantum physics, the explanation of the EPR paradox by a nonlocal character of the quantum world. Besides, the entanglement is regarded as a cornerstone of such modern disciplines as quantum computation, quantum cryptography, quantum information, etc. At the same time, entangled states are well known and widely used in various physics areas. In particular, this notion is widely used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, solid state physics, in scattering and decay theories as well as in other disciplines, where one has to deal with many-body quantum systems. One of the methods, how to construct the basis states of a composite many-body quantum system, is the so-called genealogical decomposition method. Genealogical decomposition allows one to construct recurrently by particle number the basis states of a composite quantum system from the basis states of its forming subsystems. These coupled states have a structure typical for entangled states. If a composite system is stable, the internal structure of its forming basis states does not manifest itself in measurements. However, if a composite system is unstable and decays onto its forming subsystems, then the measurables are the quantum numbers, associated with these subsystems. In such a case, the entangled state has a dynamical origin, determined by the Hamiltonian of the corresponding decay process. Possible correlations between the quantum numbers of resulting subsystems are determined by the symmetries-conservation laws of corresponding dynamical variables, and not by the quantum entanglement feature.

  13. Inter-Universal Quantum Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Pérez, S. J.; González-Díaz, P. F.

    2015-01-01

    The boundary conditions to be imposed on the quantum state of the whole multiverse could be such that the universes would be created in entangled pairs. Then, interuniversal entanglement would provide us with a vacuum energy for each single universe that might be fitted with observational data, making testable not only the multiverse proposal but also the boundary conditions of the multiverse. Furthermore, the second law of the entanglement thermodynamics would enhance the expansion of the single universes.

  14. Entanglement for All Quantum States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical…

  15. Experimental demonstration of genuine multipartite quantum nonlocality without shared reference frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhao; Zhang, Chao; Huang, Yun-Feng; Liu, Bi-Heng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2016-03-01

    Multipartite quantum nonlocality is an important diagnostic tool and resource for both researches in fundamental quantum mechanics and applications in quantum information protocols. Shared reference frames among all parties are usually required for experimentally observing quantum nonlocality, which is not possible in many circumstances. Previous results have shown violations of bipartite Bell inequalities with approaching unit probability, without shared reference frames. Here we experimentally demonstrate genuine multipartite quantum nonlocality without shared reference frames, using the Svetlichny inequality. A significant violation probability of 0.58 is observed with a high-fidelity three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Furthermore, when there is one shared axis among all the parties, which is the usual case in fiber-optic or earth-satellite links, the experimental results demonstrate the genuine three-partite nonlocality with certainty. Our experiment will be helpful for applications in multipartite quantum communication protocols.

  16. Quantifying entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapliyal, Ashish Vachaspati

    Entanglement is an essential element of quantum mechanics. The aim of this work is to explore various properties of entanglement from the viewpoints of both physics and information science, thus providing a unique picture of entanglement from an interdisciplinary point of view. The focus of this work is on quantifying entanglement as a resource. We start with bipartite states, proposing a new measure of bipartite entanglement called entanglement of assistance, showing that bound entangled states of rank two cannot exist, exploring the number of members required in the ensemble achieving the entanglement of formation and the possibility of bound entangled states that are negative under partial transposition (NPT bound entangled states). For multipartite states we introduce the notions of reducibilities and equivalences under entanglement non-increasing operations and we study the relations between various reducibilities and equivalences such as exact and asymptotic LOCC, asymptotic LOCCq, cLOCC, LOc, etc. We use this new language to attempt to quantify entanglement for multiple parties. We introduce the idea of entanglement span and minimal entanglement generating set and entanglement coefficients associated with it which are the entanglement measures, thus proposing a multicomponent measure of entanglement for three or more parties. We show that the class of Schmidt decomposable states have only GHZM or Cat-like entanglement. Further we introduce the class of multiseparable states for quantification of their entanglement and prove that they are equivalent to the Schmidt decomposable states, and thus have only Cat-like entanglement. We further explore the conditions under which LOCO equivalences are possible for multipartite isentropic states. We define Cat-distillability, EPRB-distillability and distillability for multipartite mixed states and show that distillability implies EPRB-distillability. Further we show that all non-factorizable pure states are Cat

  17. Nonadditivity of quantum and classical capacities for entanglement breaking multiple-access channels and the butterfly network

    SciTech Connect

    Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Pawel

    2010-06-15

    We analyze quantum network primitives which are entanglement breaking. We show superadditivity of quantum and classical capacity regions for quantum multiple-access channels and the quantum butterfly network. Since the effects are especially visible at high noise they suggest that quantum information effects may be particularly helpful in the case of the networks with occasional high noise rates. The present effects provide a qualitative borderline between superadditivities of bipartite and multipartite systems.

  18. Entanglement properties of quantum polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Forero, D. G.; Cipagauta, G.; Vinck-Posada, H.; Fonseca Romero, K. M.; Rodríguez, B. A.; Ballarini, D.

    2016-05-01

    Exciton polaritons are coupled states of matter and light, originated by the strong interaction between an optical mode and semiconductor excitons. This interaction can be obtained also at a single-particle level, in which case it has been shown that a quantum treatment is mandatory. In this work we study the light-matter entanglement of polaritons from a fully quantum formalism including pumping and dissipation. We find that the entanglement is completely destroyed if the exciton and photon are tuned at the resonance condition, even under very low pumping rates. Instead, the best condition for maximizing entanglement and purity of the steady state is when the exciton and photon are out of resonance and when incoherent pumping exactly compensates the dissipation rate. In the presence of multiple quantum dots coupled to the light mode, matter-light entanglement survives only at larger detuning for a higher number of quantum dots considered.

  19. Quantum Entanglement on a Hypersphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, James F.; Tozzi, Arturo

    2016-08-01

    A quantum entanglement's composite system does not display separable states and a single constituent cannot be fully described without considering the other states. We introduce quantum entanglement on a hypersphere - which is a 4D space undetectable by observers living in a 3D world -, derived from signals originating on the surface of an ordinary 3D sphere. From the far-flung branch of algebraic topology, the Borsuk-Ulam theorem states that, when a pair of opposite (antipodal) points on a hypersphere are projected onto the surface of 3D sphere, the projections have matching description. In touch with this theorem, we show that a separable state can be achieved for each of the entangled particles, just by embedding them in a higher dimensional space. We view quantum entanglement as the simultaneous activation of signals in a 3D space mapped into a hypersphere. By showing that the particles are entangled at the 3D level and un-entangled at the 4D hypersphere level, we achieved a composite system in which each local constituent is equipped with a pure state. We anticipate this new view of quantum entanglement leading to what are known as qubit information systems.

  20. Quantum Entanglement on a Hypersphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, James F.; Tozzi, Arturo

    2016-04-01

    A quantum entanglement's composite system does not display separable states and a single constituent cannot be fully described without considering the other states. We introduce quantum entanglement on a hypersphere - which is a 4D space undetectable by observers living in a 3D world -, derived from signals originating on the surface of an ordinary 3D sphere. From the far-flung branch of algebraic topology, the Borsuk-Ulam theorem states that, when a pair of opposite (antipodal) points on a hypersphere are projected onto the surface of 3D sphere, the projections have matching description. In touch with this theorem, we show that a separable state can be achieved for each of the entangled particles, just by embedding them in a higher dimensional space. We view quantum entanglement as the simultaneous activation of signals in a 3D space mapped into a hypersphere. By showing that the particles are entangled at the 3D level and un-entangled at the 4D hypersphere level, we achieved a composite system in which each local constituent is equipped with a pure state. We anticipate this new view of quantum entanglement leading to what are known as qubit information systems.

  1. Entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional coding

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, Mark M.; Brun, Todd A.

    2010-04-15

    We show how to protect a stream of quantum information from decoherence induced by a noisy quantum communication channel. We exploit preshared entanglement and a convolutional coding structure to develop a theory of entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional coding. Our construction produces a Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional code from two arbitrary classical binary convolutional codes. The rate and error-correcting properties of the classical convolutional codes directly determine the corresponding properties of the resulting entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional code. We explain how to encode our CSS entanglement-assisted quantum convolutional codes starting from a stream of information qubits, ancilla qubits, and shared entangled bits.

  2. Entanglement distillation in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppliger, Markus; Heinsoo, Johannes; Salathe, Yves; Potocnik, Anton; Mondal, Mintu; Wallraff, Andreas; Paraoanu, Gheorghe Sorin

    Entanglement is an essential resource for quantum information processing, such as quantum error correction, quantum teleportation and quantum communication. Such algorithms perform optimally with maximally entangled states. In practice entangled quantum states are very fragile due to a wide range of decoherence mechanisms. When two parties share degraded entangled states they are still able to generate an entangled state with higher fidelity using local operations and classical communication. This process is commonly referred to as entanglement distillation. Here we demonstrate distillation of highly entangled Bell states from two copies of less entangled states on a four transmon qubit device realized in the circuit-QED architecture. We characterize the output state for different degrees of entanglement at the input with quantum state tomography. A clear improvement of the entanglement measures is observed at the output.

  3. Characterizing entanglement in quantum information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spedalieri, Federico Maximiliano

    Entanglement is a key resource in the emerging field of Quantum Information. The strong correlations between systems described by an entangled state allow us to perform certain tasks more efficiently than it would be possible by using only classical resources. This is why the characterization of entanglement is one of the most important problems in Quantum Information. In this thesis, we analyze several aspects of entanglement. First, we introduce a new family of criteria to determine if a bipartite mixed state is entangled or not. This family consists of a sequence of tests that can be implemented efficiently, and has the property that all entangled states can be detected by some test in the sequence. Each test in the family can be stated as a semidefinite program, which is a class of convex optimization problems. The duality structure of these programs allows us to explicitly construct an entanglement witness that proves entanglement of a state, whenever the state fails one of the tests in the sequence. The entanglement witnesses constructed in this manner have well-defined algebraic properties that can be used to give a characterization of the interior of the set of all possible entanglement witnesses, as well as the set of strictly positive bihermitian forms and the set of strictly positive maps. We also study deterministic transformations of three-qubit pure state when only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are allowed. We derive strong constraints that the operations and states involved must satisfy, and we apply these results to characterize the set of real states that can be obtained from the GHZ state by LOCC.

  4. Entanglement for all quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, A. C.; Goyeneche, D.; Leitao, L.

    2010-03-01

    It is shown that a state that is factorizable in the Hilbert space corresponding to some choice of degrees of freedom becomes entangled for a different choice of degrees of freedom. Therefore, entanglement is not a special case but is ubiquitous in quantum systems. Simple examples are calculated and a general proof is provided. The physical relevance of the change of tensor product structure is mentioned.

  5. Classical dynamics of quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Casati, Giulio; Guarneri, Italo; Reslen, Jose

    2012-03-01

    We analyze numerically the dynamical generation of quantum entanglement in a system of two interacting particles, started in a coherent separable state, for decreasing values of ℏ. As ℏ→0 the entanglement entropy, computed at any finite time, converges to a finite nonzero value. The limit law that rules the time dependence of entropy is well reproduced by purely classical computations. Its general features can be explained by simple classical arguments, which expose the different ways entanglement is generated in systems that are classically chaotic or regular. PMID:22587162

  6. One-step generation of multipartite entanglement among nitrogen-vacancy center ensembles

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wan-lu; Yin, Zhang-qi; Yang, Wan-li; Zhu, Xiao-bo; Zhou, Fei; Feng, Mang

    2015-01-01

    We describe a one-step, deterministic and scalable scheme for creating macroscopic arbitrary entangled coherent states (ECSs) of separate nitrogen-vacancy center ensembles (NVEs) that couple to a superconducting flux qubit. We discuss how to generate the entangled states between the flux qubit and two NVEs by the resonant driving. Then the ECSs of the NVEs can be obtained by projecting the flux qubit, and the entanglement detection can be realized by transferring the quantum state from the NVEs to the flux qubit. Our numerical simulation shows that even under current experimental parameters the concurrence of the ECSs can approach unity. We emphasize that this method is straightforwardly extendable to the case of many NVEs. PMID:25583623

  7. Robustness of entanglement as a resource

    SciTech Connect

    Chaves, Rafael; Davidovich, Luiz

    2010-11-15

    The robustness of multipartite entanglement of systems undergoing decoherence is of central importance to the area of quantum information. Its characterization depends, however, on the measure used to quantify entanglement and on how one partitions the system. Here we show that the unambiguous assessment of the robustness of multipartite entanglement is obtained by considering the loss of functionality in terms of two communication tasks, namely the splitting of information between many parties and the teleportation of states.

  8. Quantum entanglement in the multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Pérez, S.; González-Díaz, P. F.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the quantum state of a multiverse made up of classically disconnected regions of the space-time, whose dynamical evolution is dominated by a homogeneous and isotropic fluid, is given by a squeezed state. These are typical quantum states that have no classical counterpart and therefore allow analyzing the violation of classical inequalities as well as the EPR argument in the context of the quantum multiverse. The thermodynamical properties of entanglement are calculated for a composite quantum state of two universes whose states are quantum-mechanically correlated. The energy of entanglement between the positive and negative modes of a scalar field, which correspond to the expanding and contracting branches of a phantom universe, are also computed.

  9. Measuring Quantum Coherence with Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, Alexander; Singh, Uttam; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar; Bera, Manabendra Nath; Adesso, Gerardo

    2015-07-01

    Quantum coherence is an essential ingredient in quantum information processing and plays a central role in emergent fields such as nanoscale thermodynamics and quantum biology. However, our understanding and quantitative characterization of coherence as an operational resource are still very limited. Here we show that any degree of coherence with respect to some reference basis can be converted to entanglement via incoherent operations. This finding allows us to define a novel general class of measures of coherence for a quantum system of arbitrary dimension, in terms of the maximum bipartite entanglement that can be generated via incoherent operations applied to the system and an incoherent ancilla. The resulting measures are proven to be valid coherence monotones satisfying all the requirements dictated by the resource theory of quantum coherence. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by proving that the fidelity-based geometric measure of coherence is a full convex coherence monotone, and deriving a closed formula for it on arbitrary single-qubit states. Our work provides a clear quantitative and operational connection between coherence and entanglement, two landmark manifestations of quantum theory and both key enablers for quantum technologies.

  10. Partially entangled states bridge in quantum teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xiao-Fei; Yu, Xu-Tao; Shi, Li-Hui; Zhang, Zai-Chen

    2014-10-01

    The traditional method for information transfer in a quantum communication system using partially entangled state resource is quantum distillation or direct teleportation. In order to reduce the waiting time cost in hop-by-hop transmission and execute independently in each node, we propose a quantum bridging method with partially entangled states to teleport quantum states from source node to destination node. We also prove that the designed specific quantum bridging circuit is feasible for partially entangled states teleportation across multiple intermediate nodes. Compared to two traditional ways, our partially entanglement quantum bridging method uses simpler logic gates, has better security, and can be used in less quantum resource situation.

  11. Quantum entanglement in circuit QED

    SciTech Connect

    Milburn, G. J.; Meaney, Charles

    2008-11-07

    We show that the ground state of a very strongly coupled two level system based on a superconducting island and a microwave cavity field can undergo a morphological change as the coupling strength is increased. This looks like a quantum phase transition and is characterized by the appearance of entanglement between the cavity field and the two level system.

  12. Separability criteria and method of measurement for entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd, Siti Munirah; Idrus, Bahari; Mukhtar, Muriati

    2014-06-19

    Quantum computers have the potentials to solve certain problems faster than classical computers. In quantum computer, entanglement is one of the elements beside superposition. Recently, with the advent of quantum information theory, entanglement has become an important resource for Quantum Information and Computation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the separability criteria and method of measurement for entanglement. This paper is aimed at viewing the method that has been proposed in previous works in bipartite and multipartite entanglement. The outcome of this paper is to classify the different method that used to measure entanglement for bipartite and multipartite cases including the advantage and disadvantage of each method.

  13. Global multipartite nonlocality and Bell-type inequalities in infinite-size quantum spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhao-Yu; Guo, Bin; Huang, Hai-Lin

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we characterize the global multipartite nonlocality in one-dimensional infinite-size spin-1/2 chains. For this purpose, we calculate the multipartite nonlocality of n -site subchains, and take the large-n limit. As n increases from 2 to 100, we find that the average revenue and the marginal revenue of nonlocality converge gradually, thus they can be used to characterize the global multipartite nonlocality in infinite-size chains. Furthermore, in the vicinity of the quantum phase transition (QPT) points of the transverse-field Ising model and the XXZ model, in the large-n limit, multipartite nonlocality becomes extremely sensitive to external perturbation, that is, arbitrarily small perturbation away from the QPT points would lead to a drastic change in the global nonlocality. This signal of QPTs is easily distinguishable, and can be used to detect QPTs. We also draw a vivid physical picture of multipartite correlations and QPTs by analogy with magnetic domains in ferromagnets.

  14. Entanglement and Quantum Optics with Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgers, A. P.; Schaibley, J. R.; Steel, D. G.

    2015-06-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) exhibit many characteristics of simpler two-level (or few level) systems, under optical excitation. This makes atomic coherent optical spectroscopy theory and techniques well suited for understanding the behavior of quantum dots. Furthermore, the combination of the solid state nature of quantum dots and their close approximation to atomic systems makes them an attractive platform for quantum information based technologies. In this chapter, we will discuss recent studies using direct detection of light emitted from a quantum dot to investigate coherence properties and confirm entanglement between the emitted photon and an electron spin qubit confined to the QD.

  15. Optical Quantum Entanglement in Astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, J.; Peimbert, A.; Echevarría, J.

    2009-10-01

    The theories of quantum entanglement between two distant particles, which clearly confirm the non-local nature of Quantum Mechanics, are applied to naturally produced particles in astrophysical objects. We study the production and reception of the cases of optical quantum entanglement most feasible to be observed: the two-photon spontaneous transition of the hydrogen 2 ^{2}S_{1/2} metastable level, which is known to be one of the components of the continuous spectra of ionized regions. We obtain the two-photon emission rate for four astrophysical objects: the Orion Nebula, two nearby planetary nebulae IC 2149 and NGC 7293, and the solar corona. The production of entangled pairs per second is 5.80×10^48, 9.39×10^45, 9.77×10^44, and 1.46×10^16 respectively. The distribution of the propagation directions of both emitted photons does not vanish at any angle; therefore it is possible to observe the entangled pair at an angles θ ≈ 0°. Because the number of two-photon coincidences goes as the fourth power of the ratio between the detector size and the distance from the astrophysical object, coincidences are scarce; for its detection we require receivers much larger than those currently available.

  16. Entanglement in quantum catastrophes

    SciTech Connect

    Emary, Clive; Lambert, Neill; Brandes, Tobias

    2005-06-15

    We classify entanglement singularities for various two-mode bosonic systems in terms of catastrophe theory. Employing an abstract phase-space representation, we obtain exact results in limiting cases for the entropy in cusp, butterfly, and two-dimensional catastrophes. We furthermore use numerical results to extract the scaling of the entropy with the nonlinearity parameter, and discuss the role of mixing entropies in more complex systems.

  17. Quantum-entangled photon interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Roger K.

    2004-08-01

    A two-color quantum-entangled photon source is used to produce fourth-order interference. Because the period of the interference is produced by the frequency difference of the entangled photons, problems associated with counting fringes can be avoided. This also permits measurements at a virtual wavelength, which can prevent problems associated with transmission or absorption when such a longer wavelength may be needed. The interference wavelength can be varied with a geometry change in the beam path without any change in the source wavelength. The entangled photons are produced using an argon ion laser at 351 nanometers and a type I BBO crystal. The interference is detected in coincidence using four photomultiplier tubes.

  18. Quantum Entanglement and Quantum Discord in Gaussian Open Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isar, Aurelian

    2011-10-03

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable quantum entanglement and quantum discord for a system consisting of two noninteracting modes embedded in a thermal environment. Entanglement and discord are used to quantify the quantum correlations of the system. For all values of the temperature of the thermal reservoir, an initial separable Gaussian state remains separable for all times. In the case of an entangled initial Gaussian state, entanglement suppression (entanglement sudden death) takes place for non-zero temperatures of the environment. Only for a zero temperature of the thermal bath the initial entangled state remains entangled for finite times. We analyze the time evolution of the Gaussian quantum discord, which is a measure of all quantum correlations in the bipartite state, including entanglement, and show that quantum discord decays asymptotically in time under the effect of the thermal bath.

  19. Cloning quantum entanglement in arbitrary dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Karpov, E.; Navez, P.; Cerf, N.J.

    2005-10-15

    We have found a quantum cloning machine that optimally duplicates the entanglement of a pair of d-dimensional quantum systems prepared in an arbitrary isotropic state. It maximizes the entanglement of formation contained in the two copies of any maximally entangled input state, while preserving the separability of unentangled input states. Moreover, it cannot increase the entanglement of formation of isotropic states. For large d, the entanglement of formation of each clone tends to one-half the entanglement of the input state, which corresponds to a classical behavior. Finally, we investigate a local entanglement cloner, which yields entangled clones with one-fourth the input entanglement in the large-d limit.

  20. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    PubMed Central

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946

  1. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946

  2. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-05-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.

  3. Quantum state and quantum entanglement protection using quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuchao; Li, Ying; Wang, Xiangbin; Kwek, Leong Chuan; Yu, Zongwen; Zou, Wenjie

    2015-03-01

    The time evolution of some quantum states can be slowed down or even stopped under frequent measurements. This is the usual quantum Zeno effect. Here we report an operator quantum Zeno effect, in which the evolution of some physical observables is slowed down through measurements even though thequantum state changes randomly with time. Based on the operator quantum Zeno effect, we show how we can protect quantum information from decoherence with two-qubit measurements, realizable with noisy two-qubit interactions. Besides, we report the quantum entanglement protection using weak measurement and measurement reversal scheme. Exposed in the nonzero temperature environment, a quantum system can both lose and gain excitations by interacting with the environment. In this work, we show how to optimally protect quantum states and quantum entanglement in such a situation based on measurement reversal from weak measurement. In particular, we present explicit formulas of protection. We find that this scheme can circumvent the entanglement sudden death in certain conditions.

  4. Entangled States, Holography and Quantum Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chapline, G F

    2003-08-13

    Starting with an elementary discussion of quantum holography, we show that entangled quantum states of qubits provide a ''local'' representation of the global geometry and topology of quantum Riemann surfaces. This representation may play an important role in both mathematics and physics. Indeed, the simplest way to represent the fundamental objects in a ''theory of everything'' may be as muti-qubit entangled states.

  5. Quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, Artur; Howard, Regina B.; Sanders, Barry C.; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2009-12-15

    Entanglement swapping between photon pairs is a fundamental building block in schemes using quantum relays or quantum repeaters to overcome the range limits of long-distance quantum key distribution. We develop a closed-form solution for the actual quantum states prepared by realistic entanglement swapping, which takes into account experimental deficiencies due to inefficient detectors, detector dark counts, and multiphoton-pair contributions of parametric down-conversion sources. We investigate how the entanglement present in the final state of the remaining modes is affected by the real-world imperfections. To test the predictions of our theory, comparison with previously published experimental entanglement swapping is provided.

  6. Lithography system using quantum entangled photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Colin (Inventor); Dowling, Jonathan (Inventor); della Rossa, Giovanni (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A system of etching using quantum entangled particles to get shorter interference fringes. An interferometer is used to obtain an interference fringe. N entangled photons are input to the interferometer. This reduces the distance between interference fringes by n, where again n is the number of entangled photons.

  7. Entanglement and quantum teleportation via decohered tripartite entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Metwally, N.

    2014-12-15

    The entanglement behavior of two classes of multi-qubit system, GHZ and GHZ like states passing through a generalized amplitude damping channel is discussed. Despite this channel causes degradation of the entangled properties and consequently their abilities to perform quantum teleportation, one can always improve the lower values of the entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported state by controlling on Bell measurements, analyzer angle and channel’s strength. Using GHZ-like state within a generalized amplitude damping channel is much better than using the normal GHZ-state, where the decay rate of entanglement and the fidelity of the teleported states are smaller than those depicted for GHZ state.

  8. Bound entanglement in quantum phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Baghbanzadeh, S.; Alipour, S.; Rezakhani, A. T.

    2010-04-15

    We investigate quantum phase transitions in which a change in the type of entanglement from bound entanglement to either free entanglement or separability may occur. In particular, we present a theoretical method to construct a class of quantum spin-chain Hamiltonians that exhibit this type of quantum criticality. Given parameter-dependent two-site reduced density matrices (with prescribed entanglement properties), we lay out a reverse construction for a compatible pure state for the whole system, as well as a class of Hamiltonians for which this pure state is a ground state. This construction is illustrated through several examples.

  9. Multipartite nonlocality distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo

    2010-11-15

    The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

  10. Real-Time Imaging of Quantum Entanglement

    PubMed Central

    Fickler, Robert; Krenn, Mario; Lapkiewicz, Radek; Ramelow, Sven; Zeilinger, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement is widely regarded as one of the most prominent features of quantum mechanics and quantum information science. Although, photonic entanglement is routinely studied in many experiments nowadays, its signature has been out of the grasp for real-time imaging. Here we show that modern technology, namely triggered intensified charge coupled device (ICCD) cameras are fast and sensitive enough to image in real-time the effect of the measurement of one photon on its entangled partner. To quantitatively verify the non-classicality of the measurements we determine the detected photon number and error margin from the registered intensity image within a certain region. Additionally, the use of the ICCD camera allows us to demonstrate the high flexibility of the setup in creating any desired spatial-mode entanglement, which suggests as well that visual imaging in quantum optics not only provides a better intuitive understanding of entanglement but will improve applications of quantum science. PMID:23715056

  11. Evolution of Quantum Entanglement in Open Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Isar, A.

    2010-08-04

    In the framework of the theory of open systems based on completely positive quantum dynamical semigroups, we give a description of the continuous-variable entanglement for a system consisting of two uncoupled harmonic oscillators interacting with a thermal environment. Using Peres-Simon necessary sufficient criterion for separability of two-mode Gaussian states, we show that for some values of diffusion coefficient, dissipation constant and temperature of the environment, the state keeps for all times its initial type: separable or entangled. In other cases, entanglement generation, entanglement sudden death or a periodic collapse revival of entanglement take place.

  12. Generation of entangled squeezed states: their entanglement and quantum polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, A.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, based on the well-known one-mode and two-mode squeezed states, we introduce the two-mode and four-mode entangled squeezed states. Next, in order to generate the introduced entangled states, we present two theoretical schemes based on the resonant atom-field interaction. In the proposed schemes, a Λ -type three-level atom interacts with the two-mode and four-mode quantized field in the presence of two strong classical fields in which two-photon atomic transitions are allowed. In the continuation, we study entanglement dynamics of the generated entangled states (using the von Neumann entropy) as well as the quantum polarization (using the Stokes operators). It is demonstrated that entanglement and polarization can be achieved for the produced states by adjusting the evolved parameters.

  13. All entangled quantum states are nonlocal.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Francesco

    2012-05-18

    Departing from the usual paradigm of local operations and classical communication adopted in entanglement theory, we study here the interconversion of quantum states by means of local operations and shared randomness. A set of necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such a transformation between two given quantum states is given in terms of the payoff they yield in a suitable class of nonlocal games. It is shown that, as a consequence of our result, such a class of nonlocal games is able to witness quantum entanglement, however weak, and reveal nonlocality in any entangled quantum state. An example illustrating this fact is provided. PMID:23003127

  14. Understanding quantum entanglement by thermo field dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Masuo

    2013-09-01

    We propose a new method to understand quantum entanglement using the thermo field dynamics (TFD) described by a double Hilbert space. The entanglement states show a quantum-mechanically complicated behavior. Our new method using TFD makes it easy to understand the entanglement states, because the states in the tilde space in TFD play a role of tracer of the initial states. For our new treatment, we define an extended density matrix on the double Hilbert space. From this study, we make a general formulation of this extended density matrix and examine some simple cases using this formulation. Consequently, we have found that we can distinguish intrinsic quantum entanglement from the thermal fluctuations included in the definition of the ordinary quantum entanglement at finite temperatures. Through the above examination, our method using TFD can be applied not only to equilibrium states but also to non-equilibrium states. This is shown using some simple finite systems in the present paper.

  15. Entanglement across a transition to quantum chaos

    SciTech Connect

    Mejia-Monasterio, Carlos; Benenti, Guliano; Casati, Giulio; Carlo, Gabriel G.

    2005-06-15

    We study the relation between entanglement and quantum chaos in one- and two-dimensional spin-1/2 lattice models, which exhibit mixing of the noninteracting eigenfunctions and transition from integrability to quantum chaos. Contrary to what occurs in a quantum phase transition, the onset of quantum chaos is not a property of the ground state but takes place for any typical many-spin quantum state. We study bipartite and pairwise entanglement measures--namely, the reduced von Neumann entropy and the concurrence--and discuss quantum entanglement sharing. Our results suggest that the behavior of the entanglement is related to the mixing of the eigenfunctions rather than to the transition to chaos.

  16. Entanglement-assisted codeword stabilized quantum codes

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jeonghwan; Heo, Jun; Brun, Todd A.

    2011-12-15

    Entangled qubits can increase the capacity of quantum error-correcting codes based on stabilizer codes. In addition, by using entanglement quantum stabilizer codes can be construct from classical linear codes that do not satisfy the dual-containing constraint. We show that it is possible to construct both additive and nonadditive quantum codes using the codeword stabilized quantum code framework. Nonadditive codes may offer improved performance over the more common stabilizer codes. Like other entanglement-assisted codes, the encoding procedure acts only on the qubits on Alice's side, and only these qubits are assumed to pass through the channel. However, errors in the codeword stabilized quantum code framework give rise to effective Z errors on Bob's side. We use this scheme to construct entanglement-assisted nonadditive quantum codes, in particular, ((5,16,2;1)) and ((7,4,5;4)) codes.

  17. Geometric entanglement and quantum phase transitions in two-dimensional quantum lattice models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Qian-Qian; Wang, Hong-Lei; Li, Sheng-Hao; Cho, Sam Young; Batchelor, Murray T.; Zhou, Huan-Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Geometric entanglement (GE), as a measure of multipartite entanglement, has been investigated as a universal tool to detect phase transitions in quantum many-body lattice models. In this paper we outline a systematic method to compute GE for two-dimensional (2D) quantum many-body lattice models based on the translational invariant structure of infinite projected entangled pair state (iPEPS) representations. By employing this method, the q -state quantum Potts model on the square lattice with q ∈{2 ,3 ,4 ,5 } is investigated as a prototypical example. Further, we have explored three 2D Heisenberg models: the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 X X X and anisotropic X Y X models in an external magnetic field, and the antiferromagnetic spin-1 X X Z model. We find that continuous GE does not guarantee a continuous phase transition across a phase transition point. We observe and thus classify three different types of continuous GE across a phase transition point: (i) GE is continuous with maximum value at the transition point and the phase transition is continuous, (ii) GE is continuous with maximum value at the transition point but the phase transition is discontinuous, and (iii) GE is continuous with nonmaximum value at the transition point and the phase transition is continuous. For the models under consideration, we find that the second and the third types are related to a point of dual symmetry and a fully polarized phase, respectively.

  18. Quantum entanglement in condensed matter systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laflorencie, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    This review focuses on the field of quantum entanglement applied to condensed matter physics systems with strong correlations, a domain which has rapidly grown over the last decade. By tracing out part of the degrees of freedom of correlated quantum systems, useful and non-trivial information can be obtained through the study of the reduced density matrix, whose eigenvalue spectrum (the entanglement spectrum) and the associated Rényi entropies are now well recognized to contain key features. In particular, the celebrated area law for the entanglement entropy of ground-states will be discussed from the perspective of its subleading corrections which encode universal details of various quantum states of matter, e.g. symmetry breaking states or topological order. Going beyond entropies, the study of the low-lying part of the entanglement spectrum also allows to diagnose topological properties or give a direct access to the excitation spectrum of the edges, and may also raise significant questions about the underlying entanglement Hamiltonian. All these powerful tools can be further applied to shed some light on disordered quantum systems where impurity/disorder can conspire with quantum fluctuations to induce non-trivial effects. Disordered quantum spin systems, the Kondo effect, or the many-body localization problem, which have all been successfully (re)visited through the prism of quantum entanglement, will be discussed in detail. Finally, the issue of experimental access to entanglement measurement will be addressed, together with its most recent developments.

  19. Gravity as a quantum entanglement force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae-Weon; Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2015-03-01

    We conjecture that total the quantum entanglement of matter and vacuum in the universe tends to increase with time, like entropy, and that an effective force is associated with this tendency. We also suggest that gravity and dark energy are types of quantum entanglement forces, similar to Verlinde's entropic force, and give holographic dark energy with an equation of state comparable to current observational data. This connection between quantum entanglement and gravity could give some new insights into the origins of gravity, dark energy, and the arrow of time.

  20. Quantum entanglement and entropy in particle creation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, S.-Y.; Chou, C.-H.; Hu, B. L.

    2010-04-15

    We investigate the basic theoretical issues in the quantum entanglement of particle pairs created from the vacuum in a time-dependent background field or spacetime. Similar to entropy generation from these processes which depends on the choice of physical variables and how certain information is coarse grained, entanglement dynamics hinges on the choice of measurable quantities and how the two parties are selected as well as the background dynamics of the field or spacetime. We discuss the conditions of separability of quantum states in particle creation processes and point out the differences in how the von Neumann entropy is used as a measure of entropy generation versus for entanglement dynamics. We show by an explicit construction that adoption of a different set of physical variables yields a different entanglement entropy. As an application of these theoretical considerations we show how the particle number and the quantum phase enter the entanglement dynamics in cosmological particle production.

  1. Entanglement Measure and Quantum Violation of Bell-Type Inequality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Dong; He, Ying-Qiu; Yan, Feng-Li; Gao, Ting

    2016-05-01

    By calculating entanglement measures and quantum violation of Bell-type inequality, we reveal the relationship between entanglement measure and the amount of quantum violation for a family of four-qubit entangled states. It has been demonstrated that the Bell-type inequality is completely violated by these four-qubit entangled states. The plot of entanglement measure as a function of the expectation value of Bell operator shows that entanglement measure first decreases and then increases smoothly with increasing quantum violation.

  2. Inductive classification of multipartite entanglement under stochastic local operations and classical communication

    SciTech Connect

    Lamata, L.; Leon, J.; Solano, E.

    2006-11-15

    We propose an inductive procedure to classify N-partite entanglement under stochastic local operations and classical communication provided such a classification is known for N-1 qubits. The method is based upon the analysis of the coefficient matrix of the state in an arbitrary product basis. We illustrate this approach in detail with the well-known bipartite and tripartite systems, obtaining as a by-product a systematic criterion to establish the entanglement class of a given pure state without resourcing to any entanglement measure. The general case is proved by induction, allowing us to find an upper bound for the number of N-partite entanglement classes in terms of the number of entanglement classes for N-1 qubits.

  3. Relating tripartite quantum discord with multisite entanglement and their performance in the one-dimensional anisotropic XXZ model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Liang; Tang, Gang; Yang, Xian-qing; Wang, An-min

    2014-02-01

    In order to define quantum correlations, there are two important paradigms in quantum information theory, viz. the information-theoretic and the entanglement-separability ones. In this paper, we give an analytical relation between two measures of quantum correlations. One of them is related to the monogamy of squared bipartite quantum discord, which is a information-theoretic multipartite quantum correlation measure, while the other is the generalized geometric measure which lies in the entanglement-separability paradigm. We find a certain cone-like region on the two-dimensional spaces spanned by the two measures. Moreover, we have investigated the quantum phase transition with the two measures in the anisotropic spin XXZ model by exploiting the quantum renormalization group method.

  4. Quantum entanglement of baby universes

    SciTech Connect

    Essman, Eric P.; Aganagic, Mina; Okuda, Takuya; Ooguri, Hirosi

    2006-12-07

    We study quantum entanglements of baby universes which appear in non-perturbative corrections to the OSV formula for the entropy of extremal black holes in type IIA string theory compactified on the local Calabi-Yau manifold defined as a rank 2 vector bundle over an arbitrary genus G Riemann surface. This generalizes the result for G=1 in hep-th/0504221. Non-perturbative terms can be organized into a sum over contributions from baby universes, and the total wave-function is their coherent superposition in the third quantized Hilbert space. We find that half of the universes preserve one set of supercharges while the other half preserve a different set, making the total universe stable but non-BPS. The parent universe generates baby universes by brane/anti-brane pair creation, and baby universes are correlated by conservation of non-normalizable D-brane charges under the process. There are no other source of entanglement of baby universes, and all possible states are superposed with the equal weight.

  5. Effect of Cavity QED on Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rfifi, Saad; Siyouri, Fatimazahra

    2016-06-01

    We use a quantum electrodynamics model, to study the evolution of maximally entangled bipartite states (Bell states), as well as a maximally entangled tripartite states as a multipartite system. Furthermore, we study the entanglement behaviour of these output states in cavity QED as function of interaction time and the coupling strength. The present study discusses the separability and the entanglement limit of such states after interaction with a cavity QED.

  6. Quantum number theoretic transforms on multipartite finite systems.

    PubMed

    Vourdas, A; Zhang, S

    2009-06-01

    A quantum system composed of p-1 subsystems, each of which is described with a p-dimensional Hilbert space (where p is a prime number), is considered. A quantum number theoretic transform on this system, which has properties similar to those of a Fourier transform, is studied. A representation of the Heisenberg-Weyl group in this context is also discussed. PMID:19488175

  7. Building up spacetime with quantum entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Raamsdonk, Mark

    2010-10-01

    In this essay, we argue that the emergence of classically connected spacetimes is intimately related to the quantum entanglement of degrees of freedom in a non-perturbative description of quantum gravity. Disentangling the degrees of freedom associated with two regions of spacetime results in these regions pulling apart and pinching off from each other in a way that can be quantified by standard measures of entanglement.

  8. Entanglement and the shareability of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Andrew C.

    2014-10-01

    This brief review discusses the problem of determining whether a given quantum state is separable or entangled. I describe an established approach to this problem that is based on the monogamy of entanglement, which is the observation that a pair of quantum systems that are strongly entangled must be uncorrelated with the rest of the world. Unentangled states on the other hand involve correlations that can be shared with many other parties. Checking whether a given quantum state is shareable involves constructing certain symmetric quantum state extensions and I discuss how to do this using a class of optimizations known as semidefinite programs. An attractive feature of this approach is that it generates explicit entanglement witnesses that can be measured to demonstrate the entanglement experimentally. In recent years analysis of this approach has greatly increased our understanding of the complexity of determining whether a given quantum state is entangled and this review aims to give a unified discussion of these developments. Specifically, I describe how to use finite quantum de Finetti theorems to prove that highly shareable states are nearly separable and use these results to understand the computational complexity of the problem. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’.

  9. Measurement-induced quantum entanglement recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiaoye; Xu Jinshi; Li Chuanfeng; Guo Guangcan

    2010-08-15

    By using photon pairs created in parametric down-conversion, we report on an experiment, which demonstrates that measurement can recover the quantum entanglement of a two-qubit system in a pure dephasing environment. The concurrence of the final state with and without measurement is compared and is analyzed. Furthermore, we verify that recovered states can still violate the Bell inequality, that is, to say, such recovered states exhibit nonlocality. In the context of quantum entanglement, sudden death and rebirth provide clear evidence, which verifies that entanglement dynamics of the system is sensitive not only to its environment, but also to its initial state.

  10. Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging.

    PubMed

    Streltsov, A; Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Winter, A; Lewenstein, M

    2016-06-17

    Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state. PMID:27367369

  11. Entanglement and Coherence in Quantum State Merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, A.; Chitambar, E.; Rana, S.; Bera, M. N.; Winter, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the resource consumption in distributed scenarios is one of the main goals of quantum information theory. A prominent example for such a scenario is the task of quantum state merging, where two parties aim to merge their tripartite quantum state parts. In standard quantum state merging, entanglement is considered to be an expensive resource, while local quantum operations can be performed at no additional cost. However, recent developments show that some local operations could be more expensive than others: it is reasonable to distinguish between local incoherent operations and local operations which can create coherence. This idea leads us to the task of incoherent quantum state merging, where one of the parties has free access to local incoherent operations only. In this case the resources of the process are quantified by pairs of entanglement and coherence. Here, we develop tools for studying this process and apply them to several relevant scenarios. While quantum state merging can lead to a gain of entanglement, our results imply that no merging procedure can gain entanglement and coherence at the same time. We also provide a general lower bound on the entanglement-coherence sum and show that the bound is tight for all pure states. Our results also lead to an incoherent version of Schumacher compression: in this case the compression rate is equal to the von Neumann entropy of the diagonal elements of the corresponding quantum state.

  12. Verifying continuous-variable entanglement in finite spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.

    2009-05-15

    Starting from arbitrary Hilbert spaces, we reduce the problem to verify entanglement of any bipartite quantum state to finite-dimensional subspaces. Entanglement can be fully characterized as a finite-dimensional property, even though in general the truncation of the Hilbert space may cause fake nonclassicality. A generalization for multipartite quantum states is also given.

  13. Multiparty quantum protocols for assisted entanglement distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutil, Nicolas

    Quantum information theory is a multidisciplinary field whose objective is to understand what happens when information is stored in the state of a quantum system. Quantum mechanics provides us with a new resource, called quantum entanglement, which can be exploited to achieve novel tasks such as teleportation and superdense coding. Current technologies allow the transmission of entangled photon pairs across distances up to roughly 100 kilometers. For longer distances, noise arising from various sources degrade the transmission of entanglement to the point that it becomes impossible to use the entanglement as a resource for future tasks. One strategy for dealing with this difficulty is to employ quantum repeaters, stations intermediate between the sender and receiver that can participate in the process of entanglement distillation, thereby improving on what the sender and receiver could do on their own. Motivated by the problem of designing quantum repeaters, we study entanglement distillation between two parties, Alice and Bob, starting from a mixed state and with the help of repeater stations. We extend the notion of entanglement of assistance to arbitrary tripartite states and exhibit a protocol, based on a random coding strategy, for extracting pure entanglement. We use these results to find achievable rates for the more general scenario, where many spatially separated repeaters help two recipients distill entanglement. We also study multiparty quantum communication protocols in a more general context. We give a new protocol for the task of multiparty state merging. The previous multiparty state merging protocol required the use of time-sharing, an impossible strategy when a single copy of the input state is available to the parties. Our protocol does not require time-sharing for distributed compression of two senders. In the one-shot regime, we can achieve multiparty state merging with entanglement costs not restricted to corner points of the entanglement cost

  14. Entanglement-Based Quantum Cryptography and Quantum Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilinger, Anton

    2007-03-01

    Quantum entanglement, to Erwin Schroedinger the essential feature of quantum mechanics, has become a central resource in various quantum communication protocols including quantum cryptography and quantum teleportation. From a fundamental point of view what is exploited in these experiments is the very fact which led Schroedinger to his statement namely that in entangled states joint properties of the entangled systems may be well defined while the individual subsystems may carry no information at all. In entanglement-based quantum cryptography it leads to the most elegant possible solution of the classic key distribution problem. It implies that the key comes into existence at spatially distant location at the same time and does not need to be transported. A number recent developments include for example highly efficient, robust and stable sources of entangled photons with a broad bandwidth of desired features. Also, entanglement-based quantum cryptography is successfully joining other methods in the work towards demonstrating quantum key distribution networks. Along that line recently decoy-state quantum cryptography over a distance of 144 km between two Canary Islands was demonstrated successfully. Such experiments also open up the possibility of quantum communication on a really large scale using LEO satellites. Another important possible future branch of quantum communication involves quantum repeaters in order to cover larger distances with entangled states. Recently the connection of two fully independent lasers in an entanglement swapping experiment did demonstrate that the timing control of such systems on a femtosecond time scale is possible. A related development includes recent demonstrations of all-optical one-way quantum computation schemes with the extremely short cycle time of only 100 nanoseconds.

  15. Multipartite distribution property of one way discord beyond measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Yu-Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Fan, Heng

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the distribution property of one way discord in the multipartite system by introducing the concept of polygamy deficit for one way discord. The difference between one way discord and quantum discord is analogue to the one between entanglement of assistance and entanglement of formation. For tripartite pure states, two kinds of polygamy deficits are presented with the equivalent expressions and physical interpretations regardless of measurement. For four-partite pure states, we provide a condition which makes one way discord polygamy satisfied. In addition, we generalize these results to the case for N-partite pure states. Those results can be applicable to multipartite quantum systems and are complementary to our understanding of the shareability of quantum correlations.

  16. Protecting quantum entanglement and correlation by local filtering operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chunyu; Ma, Wenchao; Ye, Liu

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the protection of different quantum entanglement and correlation is explored by local filtering operations. The results show that the filtering operations can indeed be useful for combating amplitude-damping decoherence and recovering the quantum entanglement and correlation. In this scheme, although the final states satisfy the quantum entanglement and correlation, the corresponding initial noisy states does not satisfy them, which means that the filtering operations can reveal the hidden genuine quantum entanglement and correlation of these initial noisy states.

  17. Protecting quantum entanglement and correlation by local filtering operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chunyu; Ma, Wenchao; Ye, Liu

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the protection of different quantum entanglement and correlation is explored by local filtering operations. The results show that the filtering operations can indeed be useful for combating amplitude-damping decoherence and recovering the quantum entanglement and correlation. In this scheme, although the final states satisfy the quantum entanglement and correlation, the corresponding initial noisy states does not satisfy them, which means that the filtering operations can reveal the hidden genuine quantum entanglement and correlation of these initial noisy states.

  18. Entanglement enhances security in quantum communication

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz-Dobrzanski, Rafal; Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2009-07-15

    Secret sharing is a protocol in which a 'boss' wants to send a classical message secretly to two 'subordinates', such that none of the subordinates is able to know the message alone, while they can find it if they cooperate. Quantum mechanics is known to allow for such a possibility. We analyze tolerable quantum bit error rates in such secret sharing protocols in the physically relevant case when the eavesdropping is local with respect to the two channels of information transfer from the boss to the two subordinates. We find that using entangled encoding states is advantageous to legitimate users of the protocol. We therefore find that entanglement is useful for secure quantum communication. We also find that bound entangled states with positive partial transpose are not useful as a local eavesdropping resource. Moreover, we provide a criterion for security in secret sharing--a parallel of the Csiszar-Koerner criterion in single-receiver classical cryptography.

  19. Asymptotic role of entanglement in quantum metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusiak, R.; Kołodyński, J.; Streltsov, A.; Bera, M. N.; Acín, A.; Lewenstein, M.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum systems allow one to sense physical parameters beyond the reach of classical statistics—with resolutions greater than 1 /N , where N is the number of constituent particles independently probing a parameter. In the canonical phase-sensing scenario the Heisenberg limit 1 /N2 may be reached, which requires, as we show, both the relative size of the largest entangled block and the geometric measure of entanglement to be nonvanishing as N →∞ . Yet, we also demonstrate that in the asymptotic N limit any precision scaling arbitrarily close to the Heisenberg limit (1 /N2 -ɛ with any ɛ >0 ) may be attained, even though the system gradually becomes noisier and separable, so that both the above entanglement quantifiers asymptotically vanish. Our work shows that sufficiently large quantum systems achieve nearly optimal resolutions despite their relative amount of entanglement being arbitrarily small. In deriving our results, we establish the continuity relation of the quantum Fisher information evaluated for a phaselike parameter, which lets us link it directly to the geometry of quantum states, and hence naturally to the geometric measure of entanglement.

  20. Computing Entanglement Entropy in Quantum Monte Carlo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melko, Roger

    2012-02-01

    The scaling of entanglement entropy in quantum many-body wavefunctions is expected to be a fruitful resource for studying quantum phases and phase transitions in condensed matter. However, until the recent development of estimators for Renyi entropy in quantum Monte Carlo (QMC), we have been in the dark about the behaviour of entanglement in all but the simplest two-dimensional models. In this talk, I will outline the measurement techniques that allow access to the Renyi entropies in several different QMC methodologies. I will then discuss recent simulation results demonstrating the richness of entanglement scaling in 2D, including: the prevalence of the ``area law''; topological entanglement entropy in a gapped spin liquid; anomalous subleading logarithmic terms due to Goldstone modes; universal scaling at critical points; and examples of emergent conformal-like scaling in several gapless wavefunctions. Finally, I will explore the idea that ``long range entanglement'' may complement the notion of ``long range order'' for quantum phases and phase transitions which lack a conventional order parameter description.

  1. Entangled exciton states in quantum dot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Manfred

    2002-03-01

    Currently there is strong interest in quantum information processing(See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information, eds. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Springer, Berlin, 2000).) in a solid state environment. Many approaches mimic atomic physics concepts in which semiconductor quantum dots are implemented as artificial atoms. An essential building block of a quantum processor is a gate which entangles the states of two quantum bits. Recently a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots has been suggested as optically driven quantum gate(P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Cond. Matter News 7, 16 (1999).)(M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).): The quantum bits are individual carriers either on dot zero or dot one. The different dot indices play the same role as a "spin", therefore we call them "isospin". Quantum mechanical tunneling between the dots rotates the isospin and leads to superposition of these states. The quantum gate is built when two different particles, an electron and a hole, are created optically. The two particles form entangled isospin states. Here we present spectrocsopic studies of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules that support the feasibility of this proposal. The evolution of the excitonic recombination spectrum with varying separation between the dots allows us to demonstrate coherent tunneling of carriers across the separating barrier and the formation of entangled exciton states: Due to the coupling between the dots the exciton states show a splitting that increases with decreasing barrier width. For barrier widths below 5 nm it exceeds the thermal energy at room temperature. For a given barrier width, we find only small variations of the tunneling induced splitting demonstrating a good homogeneity within a molecule ensemble. The entanglement may be controlled by application of electromagnetic field. For

  2. Entanglement in Quantum-Classical Hybrid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail

    2011-01-01

    It is noted that the phenomenon of entanglement is not a prerogative of quantum systems, but also occurs in other, non-classical systems such as quantum-classical hybrids, and covers the concept of entanglement as a special type of global constraint imposed upon a broad class of dynamical systems. Application of hybrid systems for physics of life, as well as for quantum-inspired computing, has been outlined. In representing the Schroedinger equation in the Madelung form, there is feedback from the Liouville equation to the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in the form of the quantum potential. Preserving the same topology, the innovators replaced the quantum potential with other types of feedback, and investigated the property of these hybrid systems. A function of probability density has been introduced. Non-locality associated with a global geometrical constraint that leads to an entanglement effect was demonstrated. Despite such a quantum like characteristic, the hybrid can be of classical scale and all the measurements can be performed classically. This new emergence of entanglement sheds light on the concept of non-locality in physics.

  3. Quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiongfeng; Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2007-07-01

    A parametric down-conversion (PDC) source can be used as either a triggered single-photon source or an entangled-photon source in quantum key distribution (QKD). The triggering PDC QKD has already been studied in the literature. On the other hand, a model and a post-processing protocol for the entanglement PDC QKD are still missing. We fill in this important gap by proposing such a model and a post-processing protocol for the entanglement PDC QKD. Although the PDC model is proposed to study the entanglement-based QKD, we emphasize that our generic model may also be useful for other non-QKD experiments involving a PDC source. Since an entangled PDC source is a basis-independent source, we apply Koashi and Preskill’s security analysis to the entanglement PDC QKD. We also investigate the entanglement PDC QKD with two-way classical communications. We find that the recurrence scheme increases the key rate and the Gottesman-Lo protocol helps tolerate higher channel losses. By simulating a recent 144-km open-air PDC experiment, we compare three implementations: entanglement PDC QKD, triggering PDC QKD, and coherent-state QKD. The simulation result suggests that the entanglement PDC QKD can tolerate higher channel losses than the coherent-state QKD. The coherent-state QKD with decoy states is able to achieve highest key rate in the low- and medium-loss regions. By applying the Gottesman-Lo two-way post-processing protocol, the entanglement PDC QKD can tolerate up to 70dB combined channel losses ( 35dB for each channel) provided that the PDC source is placed in between Alice and Bob. After considering statistical fluctuations, the PDC setup can tolerate up to 53dB channel losses.

  4. Postulates for measures of genuine multipartite correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Charles H.; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard; Horodecki, Pawel

    2011-01-15

    A lot of research has been done on multipartite correlations, but the problem of satisfactorily defining genuine multipartite correlations--those not trivially reducible to lower partite correlations--remains unsolved. In this paper we propose three reasonable postulates which each measure or indicator of genuine multipartite correlations (or genuine multipartite entanglement) should satisfy. We also introduce the concept of degree of correlations, which gives partial characterization of multipartite correlations. Then, we show that covariance does not satisfy two postulates and hence it cannot be used as an indicator of genuine multipartite correlations. Finally, we propose a candidate for a measure of genuine multipartite correlations based on the work that can be drawn from a local heat bath by means of a multipartite state.

  5. Quantum Entanglement Molecular Absorption Spectrum Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Kojima, Jun

    2006-01-01

    Quantum Entanglement Molecular Absorption Spectrum Simulator (QE-MASS) is a computer program for simulating two photon molecular-absorption spectroscopy using quantum-entangled photons. More specifically, QE-MASS simulates the molecular absorption of two quantum-entangled photons generated by the spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) of a fixed-frequency photon from a laser. The two-photon absorption process is modeled via a combination of rovibrational and electronic single-photon transitions, using a wave-function formalism. A two-photon absorption cross section as a function of the entanglement delay time between the two photons is computed, then subjected to a fast Fourier transform to produce an energy spectrum. The program then detects peaks in the Fourier spectrum and displays the energy levels of very short-lived intermediate quantum states (or virtual states) of the molecule. Such virtual states were only previously accessible using ultra-fast (femtosecond) laser systems. However, with the use of a single-frequency continuous wave laser to produce SPDC photons, and QEMASS program, these short-lived molecular states can now be studied using much simpler laser systems. QE-MASS can also show the dependence of the Fourier spectrum on the tuning range of the entanglement time of any externally introduced optical-path delay time. QE-MASS can be extended to any molecule for which an appropriate spectroscopic database is available. It is a means of performing an a priori parametric analysis of entangled photon spectroscopy for development and implementation of emerging quantum-spectroscopic sensing techniques. QE-MASS is currently implemented using the Mathcad software package.

  6. Cloning the entanglement of a pair of quantum bits

    SciTech Connect

    Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Navez, Patrick; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurasek, Jaromir

    2004-04-01

    It is shown that any quantum operation that perfectly clones the entanglement of all maximally entangled qubit pairs cannot preserve separability. This 'entanglement no-cloning' principle naturally suggests that some approximate cloning of entanglement is nevertheless allowed by quantum mechanics. We investigate a separability-preserving optimal cloning machine that duplicates all maximally entangled states of two qubits, resulting in 0.285 bits of entanglement per clone, while a local cloning machine only yields 0.060 bits of entanglement per clone.

  7. Coherent state quantum key distribution based on entanglement sudden death

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, Gregg; Simon, David; Sergienko, Alexander V.

    2016-03-01

    A method for quantum key distribution (QKD) using entangled coherent states is discussed which is designed to provide key distribution rates and transmission distances surpassing those of traditional entangled photon pair QKD by exploiting entanglement sudden death. The method uses entangled electromagnetic signal states of `macroscopic' average photon numbers rather than single photon or entangled photon pairs, which have inherently limited rate and distance performance as bearers of quantum key data. Accordingly, rather than relying specifically on Bell inequalities as do entangled photon pair-based methods, the security of this method is based on entanglement witnesses and related functions.

  8. Path entanglement of continuous-variable quantum microwaves.

    PubMed

    Menzel, E P; Di Candia, R; Deppe, F; Eder, P; Zhong, L; Ihmig, M; Haeberlein, M; Baust, A; Hoffmann, E; Ballester, D; Inomata, K; Yamamoto, T; Nakamura, Y; Solano, E; Marx, A; Gross, R

    2012-12-21

    Path entanglement constitutes an essential resource in quantum information and communication protocols. Here, we demonstrate frequency-degenerate entanglement between continuous-variable quantum microwaves propagating along two spatially separated paths. We combine a squeezed and a vacuum state using a microwave beam splitter. Via correlation measurements, we detect and quantify the path entanglement contained in the beam splitter output state. Our experiments open the avenue to quantum teleportation, quantum communication, or quantum radar with continuous variables at microwave frequencies. PMID:23368439

  9. Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M.; Eric Tai, M.; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus

    2015-12-01

    Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems.

  10. Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system.

    PubMed

    Islam, Rajibul; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp M; Tai, M Eric; Lukin, Alexander; Rispoli, Matthew; Greiner, Markus

    2015-12-01

    Entanglement is one of the most intriguing features of quantum mechanics. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. Entanglement is now being studied in diverse fields ranging from condensed matter to quantum gravity. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially so in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here, we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. Making use of our single-site-resolved control of ultracold bosonic atoms in optical lattices, we prepare two identical copies of a many-body state and interfere them. This enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. These experiments pave the way for using entanglement to characterize quantum phases and dynamics of strongly correlated many-body systems. PMID:26632587

  11. Compact entanglement distillery using realistic quantum memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakhmakhchyan, Levon; Guérin, Stéphane; Nunn, Joshua; Datta, Animesh

    2013-10-01

    We adopt the beam-splitter model for losses to analyze the performance of a recent compact continuous-variable entanglement distillation protocol [A. Datta , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.108.060502 108, 060502 (2012)] implemented using realistic quantum memories. We show that the decoherence undergone by a two-mode squeezed state while stored in a quantum memory can strongly modify the results of the preparatory step of the protocol. We find that the well-known method for locally increasing entanglement, phonon subtraction, may not result in entanglement gain when losses are taken into account. Thus, we investigate the critical number mc of phonon subtraction attempts from the matter modes of the quantum memory. If the initial state is not de-Gaussified within mc attempts, the protocol should be restarted to obtain any entanglement increase. Moreover, the condition mc>1 implies an additional constraint on the subtraction beam-splitter interaction transmissivity, viz., it should be about 50% for a wide range of protocol parameters. Additionally, we consider the average entanglement rate, which takes into account both the unavoidable probabilistic nature of the protocol and its possible failure as a result of a large number of unsuccessful subtraction attempts. We find that a higher value of the average entanglement can be achieved by increasing the subtraction beam-splitter interaction transmissivity. We conclude that the compact distillation protocol with the practical constraints coming from realistic quantum memories allows a feasible experimental realization within existing technologies.

  12. Entanglement and dephasing of quantum dissipative systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stauber, T.; Guinea, F.

    2006-04-15

    The von Neumann entropy of various quantum dissipative models is calculated in order to discuss the entanglement properties of these systems. First, integrable quantum dissipative models are discussed, i.e., the quantum Brownian motion and the quantum harmonic oscillator. In the case of the free particle, the related entanglement of formation shows no nonanalyticity. In the case of the dissipative harmonic oscillator, there is a nonanalyticity at the transition of underdamped to overdamped oscillations. We argue that this might be a general property of dissipative systems. We show that similar features arise in the dissipative two-level system and study different regimes using sub-Ohmic, Ohmic, and super-Ohmic baths, within a scaling approach.

  13. Heralded Quantum Entanglement between Distant Matter Qubits

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wen-Juan; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2015-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize heralded quantum entanglement between two distant matter qubits using two Λ atom systems. Our proposal does not need any photon interference. We also present a general theory of outcome state of non-monochromatic incident light and finite interaction time. PMID:26041259

  14. Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Ru''diger

    2001-04-01

    A concern has been expressed that ''the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki , Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state {rho}{sup (N)} of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for {rho}{sup (N)}. By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

  15. Optimized entanglement-assisted quantum error correction

    SciTech Connect

    Taghavi, Soraya; Brun, Todd A.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2010-10-15

    Using convex optimization, we propose entanglement-assisted quantum error-correction procedures that are optimized for given noise channels. We demonstrate through numerical examples that such an optimized error-correction method achieves higher channel fidelities than existing methods. This improved performance, which leads to perfect error correction for a larger class of error channels, is interpreted in at least some cases by quantum teleportation, but for general channels this interpretation does not hold.

  16. Entanglement and Quantum Computation: An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, R.B.

    2000-06-27

    This report presents a selective compilation of basic facts from the fields of particle entanglement and quantum information processing prepared for those non-experts in these fields that may have interest in an area of physics showing counterintuitive, ''spooky'' (Einstein's words) behavior. In fact, quantum information processing could, in the near future, provide a new technology to sustain the benefits to the U.S. economy due to advanced computer technology.

  17. Quantum Authentication Scheme Based on Entanglement Swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penghao, Niu; Yuan, Chen; Chong, Li

    2016-01-01

    Based on the entanglement swapping, a quantum authentication scheme with a trusted- party is proposed in this paper. With this scheme, two users can perform mutual identity authentication to confirm each other's validity. In addition, the scheme is proved to be secure under circumstances where a malicious attacker is capable of monitoring the classical and quantum channels and has the power to forge all information on the public channel.

  18. Usefulness of entanglement-assisted quantum metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zixin; Macchiavello, Chiara; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    Entanglement-assisted quantum communication employs preshared entanglement between sender and receiver as a resource. We apply the same framework to quantum metrology, introducing shared entanglement between the probe and the ancilla in the preparation stage and allowing entangling operations at the measurement stage, i.e., using some entangled ancillary system that does not interact with the system to be sampled. This is known to be useless in the noiseless case, but was recently shown to be useful in the presence of noise [R. Demkowicz-Dobrzanski and L. Maccone, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 250801 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.250801; W. Dür, M. Skotiniotis, F. Fröwis, and B. Kraus, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 080801 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.080801; E. M. Kessler, I. Lovchinsky, A. O. Sushkov, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 150802 (2014);, 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.150802 R. Demkowicz-Dobrzański and J. Kolodynski, New J. Phys. 15, 073043 (2013), 10.1088/1367-2630/15/7/073043]. Here we detail how and when it can be of use. For example, surprisingly it is useful when two channels are randomly alternated, for both of which ancillas do not help (depolarizing). We show that it is useful for all levels of noise for many noise models and propose a simple optical experiment to test these results.

  19. Efficient Measurement of Multiparticle Entanglement with Embedding Quantum Simulator.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming-Cheng; Wu, Dian; Su, Zu-En; Cai, Xin-Dong; Wang, Xi-Lin; Yang, Tao; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-02-19

    The quantum measurement of entanglement is a demanding task in the field of quantum information. Here, we report the direct and scalable measurement of multiparticle entanglement with embedding photonic quantum simulators. In this embedding framework [R. Di Candia et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240502 (2013)], the N-qubit entanglement, which does not associate with a physical observable directly, can be efficiently measured with only two (for even N) and six (for odd N) local measurement settings. Our experiment uses multiphoton quantum simulators to mimic dynamical concurrence and three-tangle entangled systems and to track their entanglement evolutions. PMID:26943520

  20. Measuring entanglement entropy in a quantum many-body system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rispoli, Matthew; Preiss, Philipp; Tai, Eric; Lukin, Alex; Schittko, Robert; Kaufman, Adam; Ma, Ruichao; Islam, Rajibul; Greiner, Markus

    2016-05-01

    The presence of large-scale entanglement is a defining characteristic of exotic quantum phases of matter. It describes non-local correlations between quantum objects, and is at the heart of quantum information sciences. However, measuring entanglement remains a challenge. This is especially true in systems of interacting delocalized particles, for which a direct experimental measurement of spatial entanglement has been elusive. Here we measure entanglement in such a system of itinerant particles using quantum interference of many-body twins. We demonstrate a novel approach to the measurement of entanglement entropy of any bosonic system, using a quantum gas microscope with tailored potential landscapes. This protocol enables us to directly measure quantum purity, Rényi entanglement entropy, and mutual information. In general, these experiments exemplify a method enabling the measurement and characterization of quantum phase transitions and in particular would be apt for studying systems such as magnetic ordering within the quantum Ising model.

  1. Universal entanglement crossover of coupled quantum wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Romain; Jacobsen, Jesper; Saleur, Hubert

    2014-03-01

    We consider the entanglement between two one-dimensional quantum wires (Luttinger Liquids) coupled by tunneling through a quantum impurity. The physics of the system involves a crossover between weak and strong coupling regimes characterized by an energy scale TB, and methods of conformal field theory therefore cannot be applied. The evolution of the entanglement in this crossover has led to many numerical studies, but has remained little understood, analytically or even qualitatively. This is, in part, due to the fact that the entanglement in this case is non-perturbative in the tunneling amplitude. We argue that the correct universal scaling form of the entanglement entropy S (for an arbitrary interval containing the impurity) is ∂S / ∂lnL = f(LTB) . In the special case where the coupling to the impurity can be refermionized, we show how the universal function f(LTB) can be obtained analytically using recent results on form factors of twist fields and a defect massless-scattering formalism. Our results are carefully checked against numerical simulations. This work was supported by the the French ANR (ANR Projet 2010 Blanc SIMI 4 : DIME), the US DOE (grant number DE-FG03-01ER45908), the Quantum Materials program of LBNL (RV) and the Institut Universitaire de France (JLJ).

  2. Quantum channels with correlated noise and entanglement teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo Ye

    2003-05-01

    Motivated by the results of Macchiavello and Palma on entanglement-enhanced information transmission over a quantum channel with correlated noise, we demonstrate how the entanglement teleportation scheme of Lee and Kim gives rise to two uncorrelated generalized depolarizing channels. In an attempt to find a teleportation scheme that yields two correlated generalized depolarizing channels, we discover a teleportation scheme that allows one to learn about the entanglement in an entangled pure input state, without decreasing the amount of entanglement associated with it.

  3. Undoing the effect of loss on quantum entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulanov, Alexander E.; Fedorov, Ilya A.; Pushkina, Anastasia A.; Kurochkin, Yury V.; Ralph, Timothy C.; Lvovsky, A. I.

    2015-11-01

    Entanglement distillation, the purpose of which is to probabilistically increase the strength and purity of quantum entanglement, is a primary element of many quantum communication and computation protocols. It is particularly necessary in quantum repeaters in order to counter the degradation of entanglement that inevitably occurs due to losses in communication lines. Here, we distil the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state of light, the workhorse of continuous-variable entanglement, using noiseless amplification. The advantage of our technique is that it permits recovering a macroscopic level of entanglement, however low the initial entanglement or however high the loss may be. Experimentally, we recover the original entanglement level after one of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen modes has experienced a loss factor of 20. The level of entanglement in our distilled state is higher than that achievable by direct transmission of any state through a similar loss channel. This is a key step towards realizing practical continuous-variable quantum communication protocols.

  4. Enhancing robustness of multiparty quantum correlations using weak measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Uttam; Mishra, Utkarsh; Dhar, Himadri Shekhar

    2014-11-15

    Multipartite quantum correlations are important resources for the development of quantum information and computation protocols. However, the resourcefulness of multipartite quantum correlations in practical settings is limited by its fragility under decoherence due to environmental interactions. Though there exist protocols to protect bipartite entanglement under decoherence, the implementation of such protocols for multipartite quantum correlations has not been sufficiently explored. Here, we study the effect of local amplitude damping channel on the generalized Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state, and use a protocol of optimal reversal quantum weak measurement to protect the multipartite quantum correlations. We observe that the weak measurement reversal protocol enhances the robustness of multipartite quantum correlations. Further it increases the critical damping value that corresponds to entanglement sudden death. To emphasize the efficacy of the technique in protection of multipartite quantum correlation, we investigate two proximately related quantum communication tasks, namely, quantum teleportation in a one sender, many receivers setting and multiparty quantum information splitting, through a local amplitude damping channel. We observe an increase in the average fidelity of both the quantum communication tasks under the weak measurement reversal protocol. The method may prove beneficial, for combating external interactions, in other quantum information tasks using multipartite resources. - Highlights: • Extension of weak measurement reversal scheme to protect multiparty quantum correlations. • Protection of multiparty quantum correlation under local amplitude damping noise. • Enhanced fidelity of quantum teleportation in one sender and many receivers setting. • Enhanced fidelity of quantum information splitting protocol.

  5. Comb entanglement in quantum spin chains

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, J. P.; Mezzadri, F.; Novaes, M.

    2006-07-15

    Bipartite entanglement in the ground state of a chain of N quantum spins can be quantified either by computing pairwise concurrence or by dividing the chain into two complementary subsystems. In the latter case the smaller subsystem is usually a single spin or a block of adjacent spins and the entanglement differentiates between critical and noncritical regimes. Here we extend this approach by considering a more general setting: our smaller subsystem S{sub A} consists of a comb of L spins, spaced p sites apart. Our results are thus not restricted to a simple area law, but contain nonlocal information, parametrized by the spacing p. For the XX model we calculate the von Neumann entropy analytically when N{yields}{infinity} and investigate its dependence on L and p. We find that an external magnetic field induces an unexpected length scale for entanglement in this case.

  6. Quantifying asymmetry of quantum states using entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toloui, Borzu

    2013-03-01

    For open systems, symmetric dynamics do not always lead to conservation laws. We show that, for a dynamic symmetry associated with a compact Lie group, one can derive new selection rules from entanglement theory. These selection rules apply to both closed and open systems as well as reversible and irreversible time evolutions. Our approach is based on an embedding of the system's Hilbert space into a tensor product of two Hilbert spaces allowing for the symmetric dynamics to be simulated with local operations. The entanglement of the embedded states determines which transformations are forbidden because of the symmetry. In fact, every bipartite entanglement monotone can be used to quantify the asymmetry of the initial states. Moreover, where the dynamics is reversible, each of these monotones becomes a new conserved quantity. This research has been supported by the Institute for Quantum Information Science (IQIS) at the University of Calgary, Alberta Innovates, NSERC, General Dynamics Canada, and MITACS.

  7. Quantum entanglement between diamond spin qubits separated by 3 meters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Ronald

    2013-03-01

    Entanglement of spatially separated objects is one of the most intriguing phenomena that can occur in physics. This can lead ``spooky action at a distance'' where measurement of one object instantaneously affects the state of the other object. Besides being of fundamental interest, entanglement is also a valuable resource in quantum information technology enabling secure quantum communication networks and distributed quantum computing. Here we present our most recent results towards the realization of scalable quantum networks with solid-state qubits. We have entangled two spin qubits in diamond, each associated with a nitrogen vacancy center in diamond. The two diamonds reside in separate setups three meters apart from each other. With no direct interaction between the two spins to mediate the entanglement, we make use of a scheme based on quantum measurements: we perform a joint measurement on photons emitted by the NV centers that are entangled with the electron spins. The detection of the photons projects the spins into an entangled state. We verify the generated entanglement by single-shot readout of the spin qubits in different bases and correlating the results. These results open the door to a range of exciting opportunities. For instance, the remote entanglement can be extended to nuclear spins near the NV center. Our recent experiments demonstrate robust methods for initializing, controlling and entangling nuclear spins by using the electron spin as an ancilla. Entanglement of remote quantum registers will enable deterministic quantum teleportation, distributed quantum computing tasks and the implementation of an elementary quantum repeater.

  8. Quantum entanglement and coherence in molecular magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiddiq, Muhandis

    Quantum computers are predicted to outperform classical computers in certain tasks, such as factoring large numbers and searching databases. The construction of a computer whose operation is based on the principles of quantum mechanics appears extremely challenging. Solid state approaches offer the potential to answer this challenge by tailor-making novel nanomaterials for quantum information processing (QIP). Molecular magnets, which are materials whose energy levels and magnetic quantum states are well defined at the molecular level, have been identified as a class of material with properties that make them attractive for quantum computing purpose. In this dissertation, I explore the possibilities and challenges for molecular magnets to be used in quantum computing architecture. The properties of molecular magnets that are critical for applications in quantum computing, i.e., quantum entanglement and coherence, are comprehensively investigated to probe the feasibility of molecular magnets to be used as quantum bits (qubits). Interactions of qubits with photons are at the core of QIP. Photons can be used to detect and manipulate qubits, after which information can then be transferred over long distances. As a potential candidate for qubits, the interactions between Fe8 single-molecule magnets (SMMs) and cavity photons were studied. An earlier report described that a cavity mode splitting was observed in a spectrum of a cavity filled with a single-crystal of Fe8 SMMs. This splitting was interpreted as a vacuum Rabi splitting (VRS), which is a signature of an entanglement between a large number of SMMs and a cavity photon. However, find that large absorption and dispersion of the magnetic susceptibility are the reasons for this splitting. This finding highlights the fact that an observation of a peak splitting in a cavity transmission spectrum neither represents an unambiguous indication of quantum coherence in a large number of spins, nor a signature of

  9. Scalable engineering of multipartite W states in a spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Vinitha; Gong, Jiangbin

    2012-06-01

    We propose a scalable scheme for engineering multipartite entangled W states in a Heisenberg spin chain. The rather simple scheme is mainly built on the accumulative angular squeezing technique first proposed in the context of quantum kicked rotor for focusing a rotor to a delta-like angular distribution [I. Sh. Averbukh and R. Arvieu, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.87.163601 87, 163601 (2001)]. We show how the efficient generation of various W states may be achieved by engineering the interaction between a spin chain (short or long) and a time-dependent parabolic magnetic field. Our results may further motivate the use of spin chains as a test bed to investigate complex properties of multipartite entangled states. We further numerically demonstrate that our scheme can be extended to engineer arbitrary spin chain quasimomentum states as well as their superposition states.

  10. Quantum key distribution with an entangled light emitting diode

    SciTech Connect

    Dzurnak, B.; Stevenson, R. M.; Nilsson, J.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Shields, A. J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2015-12-28

    Measurements performed on entangled photon pairs shared between two parties can allow unique quantum cryptographic keys to be formed, creating secure links between users. An advantage of using such entangled photon links is that they can be adapted to propagate entanglement to end users of quantum networks with only untrusted nodes. However, demonstrations of quantum key distribution with entangled photons have so far relied on sources optically excited with lasers. Here, we realize a quantum cryptography system based on an electrically driven entangled-light-emitting diode. Measurement bases are passively chosen and we show formation of an error-free quantum key. Our measurements also simultaneously reveal Bell's parameter for the detected light, which exceeds the threshold for quantum entanglement.

  11. Quantum key distribution with an entangled light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzurnak, B.; Stevenson, R. M.; Nilsson, J.; Dynes, J. F.; Yuan, Z. L.; Skiba-Szymanska, J.; Farrer, I.; Ritchie, D. A.; Shields, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements performed on entangled photon pairs shared between two parties can allow unique quantum cryptographic keys to be formed, creating secure links between users. An advantage of using such entangled photon links is that they can be adapted to propagate entanglement to end users of quantum networks with only untrusted nodes. However, demonstrations of quantum key distribution with entangled photons have so far relied on sources optically excited with lasers. Here, we realize a quantum cryptography system based on an electrically driven entangled-light-emitting diode. Measurement bases are passively chosen and we show formation of an error-free quantum key. Our measurements also simultaneously reveal Bell's parameter for the detected light, which exceeds the threshold for quantum entanglement.

  12. Energy transmission using recyclable quantum entanglement.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ming-Yong; Lin, Xiu-Min

    2016-01-01

    It is known that faster-than-light (FTL) transmission of energy could be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic classical mechanics. Here we show that FTL transmission of energy could also be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. In our transmission protocol a two-spin Heisenberg model is considered and the energy is transmitted by two successive local unitary operations on the initially entangled spins. Our protocol does not mean that FTL transmission can be achieved in reality when the theory of relativity is considered, but it shows that quantum entanglement can be used in a recyclable way in energy transmission. PMID:27465431

  13. Energy transmission using recyclable quantum entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ming-Yong; Lin, Xiu-Min

    2016-07-01

    It is known that faster-than-light (FTL) transmission of energy could be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic classical mechanics. Here we show that FTL transmission of energy could also be achieved if the transmission were considered in the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics. In our transmission protocol a two-spin Heisenberg model is considered and the energy is transmitted by two successive local unitary operations on the initially entangled spins. Our protocol does not mean that FTL transmission can be achieved in reality when the theory of relativity is considered, but it shows that quantum entanglement can be used in a recyclable way in energy transmission.

  14. Entangled free-space quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihs, Gregor; Erven, Christopher

    2007-09-01

    We have constructed an entanglement based quantum key distribution system that links three buildings, covering a largest distance of 1575 m. The photons are transmitted via telescopes through free space. In this paper, we give a detailed description of our system and the protocol that we implemented. We analyze system components and design considerations. Some preliminary results of a one-link experiment are presented.

  15. Quantum entanglement establishment between two strangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Tzonelih; Lin, Tzu-Han; Kao, Shih-Hung

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the first quantum entanglement establishment scheme for strangers who neither pre-share any secret nor have any authenticated classical channel between them. The proposed protocol requires only the help of two almost dishonest third parties (TPs) to achieve the goal. The security analyses indicate that the proposed protocol is secure against not only an external eavesdropper's attack, but also the TP's attack.

  16. Distribution of entanglement in large-scale quantum networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perseguers, S.; Lapeyre, G. J., Jr.; Cavalcanti, D.; Lewenstein, M.; Acín, A.

    2013-09-01

    The concentration and distribution of quantum entanglement is an essential ingredient in emerging quantum information technologies. Much theoretical and experimental effort has been expended in understanding how to distribute entanglement in one-dimensional networks. However, as experimental techniques in quantum communication develop, protocols for multi-dimensional systems become essential. Here, we focus on recent theoretical developments in protocols for distributing entanglement in regular and complex networks, with particular attention to percolation theory and network-based error correction.

  17. Entanglement enhances security in quantum communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał; Sen(de), Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2009-07-01

    Secret sharing is a protocol in which a “boss” wants to send a classical message secretly to two “subordinates,” such that none of the subordinates is able to know the message alone, while they can find it if they cooperate. Quantum mechanics is known to allow for such a possibility. We analyze tolerable quantum bit error rates in such secret sharing protocols in the physically relevant case when the eavesdropping is local with respect to the two channels of information transfer from the boss to the two subordinates. We find that using entangled encoding states is advantageous to legitimate users of the protocol. We therefore find that entanglement is useful for secure quantum communication. We also find that bound entangled states with positive partial transpose are not useful as a local eavesdropping resource. Moreover, we provide a criterion for security in secret sharing—a parallel of the Csiszár-Körner criterion in single-receiver classical cryptography.

  18. Entanglement, the quantum formalism and the classical world

    SciTech Connect

    Matzkin, A.

    2011-09-23

    75 years after the term 'entanglement' was coined to a peculiar feature inherent to quantum systems, the connection between quantum and classical mechanics remains an open problem. Drawing on recent results obtained in semiclassical systems, we discuss here the fate of entanglement in a closed system as Planck's constant becomes vanishingly small. In that case the generation of entanglement in a quantum system is perfectly reproduced by properly defined correlations of the corresponding classical system. We speculate on what these results could imply regarding the status of entanglement and of the ensuing quantum correlations.

  19. Quantum Entanglement in a Generic-Spin Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cui-Xia; Ding, Xiong; Huang, Guo-Qiang; Luo, Cui-Lan

    2016-06-01

    We investigate quantum entanglement in a generic-spin model with spin squeezing criterions based on squeezing inequalities. By analytically and numerically calculating the squeezing criterions, we show that the system is always entangled except at some special times and the stronger entanglement may be achieved by decreasing the coupling strength and increasing the number of particles.

  20. Quantum secret sharing and random hopping: Using single states instead of entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimipour, V.; Asoudeh, M.

    2015-09-01

    Quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocols between N players, for sharing classical secrets, either use multipartite entangled states or use sequential manipulation of single d -level states only when d is prime (A. Tavakoli et al., arXiv:1501.05582). We propose a sequential scheme which is valid for any value of d . In contrast to A. Tavakoli et al. whose efficiency (number of valid rounds) is 1/d , the efficiency of our scheme is 1/2 for any d . This, together with the fact that in the limit d ⟶∞ the scheme can be implemented by continuous variable optical states, brings the scheme into the domain of present day technology.

  1. Quantum discord and entanglement in grover search algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bin; Zhang, Tingzhong; Qiu, Liang; Wang, Xuesong

    2016-06-01

    Imperfections and noise in realistic quantum computers may seriously affect the accuracy of quantum algorithms. In this article we explore the impact of static imperfections on quantum entanglement as well as non-entangled quantum correlations in Grover's search algorithm. Using the metrics of concurrence and geometric quantum discord, we show that both the evolution of entanglement and quantum discord in Grover algorithm can be restrained with the increasing strength of static imperfections. For very weak imperfections, the quantum entanglement and discord exhibit periodic behavior, while the periodicity will most certainly be destroyed with stronger imperfections. Moreover, entanglement sudden death may occur when the strength of static imperfections is greater than a certain threshold.

  2. Enhancing entanglement trapping by weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Fan, Heng; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, we propose a scheme to enhance trapping of entanglement of two qubits in the environment of a photonic band gap material. Our entanglement trapping promotion scheme makes use of combined weak measurements and quantum measurement reversals. The optimal promotion of entanglement trapping can be acquired with a reasonable finite success probability by adjusting measurement strengths. - Highlights: • Propose a scheme to enhance entanglement trapping in photonic band gap material. • Weak measurement and its reversal are performed locally on individual qubits. • Obtain an optimal condition for maximizing the concurrence of entanglement trapping. • Entanglement sudden death can be prevented by weak measurement in photonic band gap.

  3. Quantum control on entangled bipartite qubits

    SciTech Connect

    Delgado, Francisco

    2010-04-15

    Ising interactions between qubits can produce distortion on entangled pairs generated for engineering purposes (e.g., for quantum computation or quantum cryptography). The presence of parasite magnetic fields destroys or alters the expected behavior for which it was intended. In addition, these pairs are generated with some dispersion in their original configuration, so their discrimination is necessary for applications. Nevertheless, discrimination should be made after Ising distortion. Quantum control helps in both problems; making some projective measurements upon the pair to decide the original state to replace it, or just trying to reconstruct it using some procedures which do not alter their quantum nature. Results about the performance of these procedures are reported. First, we will work with pure systems studying restrictions and advantages. Then, we will extend these operations for mixed states generated with uncertainty in the time of distortion, correcting them by assuming the control prescriptions for the most probable one.

  4. Entangling power and operator entanglement of nonunitary quantum evolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fan-Zhen; Zhao, Jun-Long; Yang, Ming; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2015-07-01

    We propose a method to calculate the operator entanglement and entangling power of a noisy nonunitary operation in terms of linear entropy. By decomposing the Kraus operators of noisy evolution as the sum of products of Pauli matrices, we derive the analytical expression of the operator entanglement for a general nonunitary operation. The definition of entangling power is extended from the ideal unitary operation case to the nonunitary case via a Kraus operator representation and the analytical expression of the entangling power for a general nonunitary operation is derived. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the above method, we investigate the properties of operator entanglement and entangling power of nonunitary operations caused by phase damping noise. Our findings imply that the pure phase damping noise has its own operator entanglement and entangling power, which increase exponentially with time and asymptotically approach their respective upper bounds. In addition, when the phase damping noise is added to an ideal operation, such as an iswap operation or a controlled-Z operation, it can make the operation's entangling power grow exponentially with the strength of noise, but leave its operator entanglement invariant. In this sense, we can conclude that, for a general operation, operator entanglement is a more intrinsic property than entangling power.

  5. Quantum secret sharing schemes and reversibility of quantum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Tomohiro; Sasaki, Akira; Iwamoto, Mitsugu; Yamamoto, Hirosuke

    2005-09-15

    Quantum secret sharing schemes encrypting a quantum state into a multipartite entangled state are treated. The lower bound on the dimension of each share given by Gottesman [Phys. Rev. A 61, 042311 (2000)] is revisited based on a relation between the reversibility of quantum operations and the Holevo information. We also propose a threshold ramp quantum secret sharing scheme and evaluate its coding efficiency.

  6. Origins and optimization of entanglement in plasmonically coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Matthew; Larson, Jeffrey; Min, Misun; Wild, Stefan M.; Pelton, Matthew; Gray, Stephen K.

    2016-08-01

    A system of two or more quantum dots interacting with a dissipative plasmonic nanostructure is investigated in detail by using a cavity quantum electrodynamics approach with a model Hamiltonian. We focus on determining and understanding system configurations that generate multiple bipartite quantum entanglements between the occupation states of the quantum dots. These configurations include allowing for the quantum dots to be asymmetrically coupled to the plasmonic system. Analytical solution of a simplified limit for an arbitrary number of quantum dots and numerical simulations and optimization for the two- and three-dot cases are used to develop guidelines for maximizing the bipartite entanglements. For any number of quantum dots, we show that through simple starting states and parameter guidelines, one quantum dot can be made to share a strong amount of bipartite entanglement with all other quantum dots in the system, while entangling all other pairs to a lesser degree.

  7. Tripartite entanglement in single-neutron interferometer experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Erdösi, Daniel; Hasegawa, Yuji; Huber, Marcus; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.

    2014-12-04

    We present experimental evidence of the generation of distinct types of genuine multipartite entanglement between the spin, energy, and path degrees of freedom within single-neutron quantum systems. This is achieved via the development of new spin manipulation apparatuses for neutron interferometry and the entanglement is detected via appropriately designed and optimized non-linear witnesses. We demonstrate the extraordinarily high controllability and fidelity of the generated entangled states.

  8. Efficient entanglement criteria for discrete, continuous, and hybrid variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, Manuel; Pezzè, Luca; Smerzi, Augusto

    2016-08-01

    We develop a method to construct entanglement criteria for arbitrary multipartite systems of discrete or continuous variables and hybrid combinations of both. While any set of local operators generates a sufficient condition for entanglement of arbitrary quantum states, a suitable set leads to a necessary and sufficient criterion for pure states. The criteria are readily implementable with existing technology and reveal entanglement that remains undetected by the respective state-of-the-art methods for discrete and continuous variables.

  9. Quantum entanglement and informational activities of biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shargi, Hanan; Berkovich, Simon

    2009-03-01

    Our model of holographic Universe [1] explains the surprising property of quantum entanglement and reveals its biological implications. The suggested holographic mechanism handles 2D slices of the physical world as a whole. Fitting this simple holistic process in the Procrustean bed of individual particles interactions leads to intricacies of quantum theory with an unintelligible protrusion of distant correlations. Holographic medium imposes dependence of quantum effects on absolute positioning. Testing this prediction for a non-exponential radioactive decay could resolutely point to outside ``memory.'' The essence of Life is in the sophistication of macromolecules. Distinctions in biological information processing of nucleotides in DNA and amino acids in proteins are related to entropies of their structures. Randomness of genetic configurations as exposed by their maximal entropy is characteristic of passive identification rather than active storage functionality. Structural redundancy of proteins shows their operability, of which different foldings of prions is most indicative. Folding of one prion can reshape another prion without a direct contact appearing like ``quantum entanglement,'' or ``teleportation.'' Testing the surmised influence of absolute orientation on the prion reshaping can uncover the latency effects in the ``mad cow'' disease. 1. Simon Berkovich, TR-GWU-CS-07-006, http://www.cs.gwu.edu/research/reports.php

  10. Inequalities for the quantum privacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trindade, M. A. S.; Pinto, E.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the asymptotic behavior related to the quantum privacy for multipartite systems. In this context, an inequality for quantum privacy was obtained by exploiting of quantum entropy properties. Subsequently, we derive a lower limit for the quantum privacy through the entanglement fidelity. In particular, we show that there is an interval where an increase in entanglement fidelity implies a decrease in quantum privacy.

  11. Understanding Entanglement as a Resource for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Scott M.

    2008-05-01

    Ever since Erwin Schrodinger shocked the physics world by killing (and not killing) his cat, entanglement has played a critical role in attempts to understand quantum mechanics. More recently, entanglement has been shown to be a valuable resource, of central importance for quantum computation and the processing of quantum information. In this talk, I will describe a new diagrammatic approach to understanding why entanglement is so valuable, the key idea being that entanglement between two systems ``creates'' multiple images of the state of a third. By way of example, I will show how to ``visualize'' teleportation of unknown quantum states, and how to use entanglement to implement an interaction between spatially separated (and therefore non-interacting!) systems. These ideas have also proven useful in quantum state discrimination, where the state of a quantum system is unknown and is to be determined.

  12. Manipulation of Entangled States for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, S.; Huelga, S. F.; Jonathan, D.; Knight, P. L.; Murao, M.; Plenio, M. B.; Vedral, V.

    Entanglement manipulation, and especially Entanglement Swapping is at the heart of current work on quantum information processing, purification and quantum teleportation. We will discuss how it may be generalized to multiparticle systems and how this enables multi-user quantum cryptographic protocols to be developed. Our scheme allows us to establish multiparticle entanglement between particles which belong to distant users in a communication network through a prior distribution of Bell state singlets followed by local measurements. We compare our method for generating entanglement with existing schemes using simple quantum networks, and highlight the advantages and applications in cryptographic conferencing and in reading messages from more than one source through a single quantum measurement. We also discuss how entanglement leads to the idea of `telecloning', in which a teleportation-like protocol can be found which reproduces the output of an optimal quantum cloning machine.

  13. Entanglement and Quantum Information Processing with Trapped Ions*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiaverini, John

    2004-05-01

    Atomic ions confined in radio frequency traps, cooled and addressed with laser pulses, constitute a scalable system for bringing about and exploring quantum entanglement and information processing. Along with relatively high entangling-gate and single-qubit-rotation fidelities, long coherence times enable the execution of some basic quantum algorithms and communication protocols. At NIST we use a multi-zone trap in which entanglement can be distributed over the zones through the spatial separation and combination of several entangled ion qubits, each of which can be separately measured. Current experiments include superdense coding, quantum teleportation, entanglement-enhanced quantum state detection, and entangled state spectroscopy. These experiments and those from other groups will be summarized. *This work was supported by ARDA/NSA and NIST, and done in collaboration with T. Schaetz, M. Barrett, D. Leibfried, J. Britton, W. Itano, J. Jost, C. Langer, R. Ozeri, T. Rosenband, and D. J. Wineland.

  14. Entanglement, discord, and the power of quantum computation

    SciTech Connect

    Brodutch, Aharon; Terno, Daniel R.

    2011-01-15

    We show that the ability to create entanglement is necessary for execution of bipartite quantum gates even when they are applied to unentangled states and create no entanglement. Starting with a simple example we demonstrate that to execute such a gate bilocally the local operations and classical communications (LOCC) should be supplemented by shared entanglement. Our results point to the changes in quantum discord, which is a measure of quantumness of correlations even in the absence of entanglement, as the indicator of failure of a LOCC implementation of the gates.

  15. Simulation of n-qubit quantum systems. II. Separability and entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radtke, T.; Fritzsche, S.

    2006-07-01

    increase of the associated Hilbert space. No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:3107 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:13 859 Distribution format:tar.gz Reasons for new version:The first program version established the data structures and commands which are needed to build and manipulate quantum registers. Since the (evolution of) entanglement is a central aspect in quantum information processing the current version adds the capability to analyze separability and entanglement of quantum registers by implementing algebraic separability criteria and entanglement measures and related quantities. Does this version supersede the previous version: Yes Nature of the physical problem: Entanglement has been identified as an essential resource in virtually all aspects of quantum information theory. Therefore, the detection and quantification of entanglement is a necessary prerequisite for many applications, such as quantum computation, communications or quantum cryptography. Up to the present, however, the multipartite entanglement of n-qubit systems has remained largely unexplored owing to the exponential growth of complexity with the number of qubits involved. Method of solution: Using the computer algebra system MAPLE, a set of procedures has been developed which supports the definition and manipulation of n-qubit quantum registers and quantum logic gates [T. Radtke, S. Fritzsche, Comput. Phys. Comm. 173 (2005) 91]. The provided hierarchy of commands can be used interactively in order to simulate the behavior of n-qubit quantum systems (by applying a number of unitary or non-unitary operations) and to analyze their separability and entanglement properties. Restrictions onto the complexity of the problem: The present version of the program facilitates the setup and the manipulation of quantum registers by means of (predefined) quantum logic gates; it now also provides the tools for performing a symbolic and/or numeric analysis

  16. Sensing intruders using entanglement: a photonic quantum fence

    SciTech Connect

    Humble, Travis S; Bennink, Ryan S; Grice, Warren P; Owens, Israel J

    2009-01-01

    We describe the use of quantum-mechanically entangled photons for sensing intrusions across a physical perimeter. Our approach to intrusion detection uses the no-cloning principle of quantum information science as protection against an intruder s ability to spoof a sensor receiver using a classical intercept-resend attack. Moreover, we employ the correlated measurement outcomes from polarization-entangled photons to protect against quantum intercept-resend attacks, i.e., attacks using quantum teleportation. We explore the bounds on detection using quantum detection and estimation theory, and we experimentally demonstrate the underlying principle of entanglement-based detection using the visibility derived from polarization-correlation measurements.

  17. Quantum entanglement in multiparticle systems of two-level atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, Ram Narayan

    2011-09-15

    We propose the necessary and sufficient condition for the presence of quantum entanglement in arbitrary symmetric pure states of two-level atomic systems. We introduce a parameter to quantify quantum entanglement in such systems. We express the inherent quantum fluctuations of a composite system of two-level atoms as a sum of the quantum fluctuations of the individual constituent atoms and their correlation terms. This helps to separate out and study solely the quantum correlations among the atoms and obtain the criterion for the presence of entanglement in such multiatomic systems.

  18. Splitting a quantum secret without the assistance of entanglements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Gao, Fei; Yuan, Zheng; Li, Yan-Bing; Wen, Qiao-Yan

    2012-12-01

    The existing secret sharing schemes of sharing quantum information usually require the resource of entanglements no matter they are based on quantum teleportation or remote state preparation. However, in the practical applications, it is difficult to build faithful and stable entangled channels among many users. We show how the quantum information splitting and reconstruction can be implemented without the assistance of entanglements and give a quantum secret sharing protocol based on the theory of quantum interference. We also discuss its security against the individual attacks and generalize its three-party case into a multiparty case.

  19. Optimal entanglement generation for efficient hybrid quantum repeaters

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Koji; Sota, Naoya; Yamamoto, Takashi; Koashi, Masato; Imoto, Nobuyuki; Namiki, Ryo; Oezdemir, Sahin Kaya

    2009-12-15

    We propose a realistic protocol to generate entanglement between quantum memories at neighboring nodes in hybrid quantum repeaters. Generated entanglement includes only one type of error, which enables efficient entanglement distillation. In contrast to the known protocols with such a property, our protocol with ideal detectors achieves the theoretical limit of the success probability and the fidelity to a Bell state, promising higher efficiencies in the repeaters. We also show that the advantage of our protocol remains even with realistic threshold detectors.

  20. Molecular wave packet interferometry and quantum entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Galicia, Ricardo; Romero-Rochín, Víctor

    2005-03-01

    We study wave packet interferometry (WPI) considering the laser pulse fields both classical and quantum mechanically. WPI occurs in a molecule after subjecting it to the interaction with a sequence of phase-locked ultrashort laser pulses. Typically, the measured quantity is the fluorescence of the molecule from an excited electronic state. This signal has imprinted the interference of the vibrational wave packets prepared by the different laser pulses of the sequence. The consideration of the pulses as quantum entities in the analysis allows us to study the entanglement of the laser pulse states with the molecular states. With a simple model for the molecular system, plus several justified approximations, we solve for the fully quantum mechanical molecule-electromagnetic field state. We then study the reduced density matrices of the molecule and the laser pulses separately. We calculate measurable corrections to the case where the fields are treated classically.

  1. Entanglement Dynamics of Disordered Quantum XY Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Rahman, Houssam; Nachtergaele, Bruno; Sims, Robert; Stolz, Günter

    2016-05-01

    We consider the dynamics of the quantum XY chain with disorder under the general assumption that the expectation of the eigenfunction correlator of the associated one-particle Hamiltonian satisfies a decay estimate typical of Anderson localization. We show that, starting from a broad class of product initial states, entanglement remains bounded for all times. For the XX chain, we also derive bounds on the particle transport which, in particular, show that the density profile of initial states that consist of fully occupied and empty intervals only have significant dynamics near the edges of those intervals, uniformly for all times.

  2. Quantum probabilities from quantum entanglement: experimentally unpacking the Born rule

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Harris, Jérémie; Bouchard, Frédéric; Santamato, Enrico; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2016-05-01

    The Born rule, a foundational axiom was used to deduce probabilities of events from wavefunctions, is indispensable in the everyday practice of quantum physics. It is also key in the quest to reconcile the ostensibly inconsistent laws of the quantum and classical realms, as it confers physical significance to reduced density matrices, the essential tools of decoherence theory. Following Bohr's Copenhagen interpretation, textbooks postulate the Born rule outright. But, recent attempts to derive it from other quantum principles have been successful, holding promise for simplifying and clarifying the quantum foundational bedrock. Moreover, a major family of derivations is based onmore » envariance, a recently discovered symmetry of entangled quantum states. Here, we identify and experimentally test three premises central to these envariance-based derivations, thus demonstrating, in the microworld, the symmetries from which the Born rule is derived. Furthermore, we demonstrate envariance in a purely local quantum system, showing its independence from relativistic causality.« less

  3. Quantum probabilities from quantum entanglement: experimentally unpacking the Born rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Jérémie; Bouchard, Frédéric; Santamato, Enrico; Zurek, Wojciech H.; Boyd, Robert W.; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2016-05-01

    The Born rule, a foundational axiom used to deduce probabilities of events from wavefunctions, is indispensable in the everyday practice of quantum physics. It is also key in the quest to reconcile the ostensibly inconsistent laws of the quantum and classical realms, as it confers physical significance to reduced density matrices, the essential tools of decoherence theory. Following Bohr’s Copenhagen interpretation, textbooks postulate the Born rule outright. However, recent attempts to derive it from other quantum principles have been successful, holding promise for simplifying and clarifying the quantum foundational bedrock. A major family of derivations is based on envariance, a recently discovered symmetry of entangled quantum states. Here, we identify and experimentally test three premises central to these envariance-based derivations, thus demonstrating, in the microworld, the symmetries from which the Born rule is derived. Further, we demonstrate envariance in a purely local quantum system, showing its independence from relativistic causality.

  4. Experimental Quantum Randomness Processing Using Superconducting Qubits.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiao; Liu, Ke; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Weiting; Ma, Yuwei; Zhang, Fang; Yan, Zhaopeng; Vijay, R; Sun, Luyan; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Coherently manipulating multipartite quantum correlations leads to remarkable advantages in quantum information processing. A fundamental question is whether such quantum advantages persist only by exploiting multipartite correlations, such as entanglement. Recently, Dale, Jennings, and Rudolph negated the question by showing that a randomness processing, quantum Bernoulli factory, using quantum coherence, is strictly more powerful than the one with classical mechanics. In this Letter, focusing on the same scenario, we propose a theoretical protocol that is classically impossible but can be implemented solely using quantum coherence without entanglement. We demonstrate the protocol by exploiting the high-fidelity quantum state preparation and measurement with a superconducting qubit in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture and a nearly quantum-limited parametric amplifier. Our experiment shows the advantage of using quantum coherence of a single qubit for information processing even when multipartite correlation is not present. PMID:27419550

  5. Experimental Quantum Randomness Processing Using Superconducting Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Xiao; Liu, Ke; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Weiting; Ma, Yuwei; Zhang, Fang; Yan, Zhaopeng; Vijay, R.; Sun, Luyan; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-07-01

    Coherently manipulating multipartite quantum correlations leads to remarkable advantages in quantum information processing. A fundamental question is whether such quantum advantages persist only by exploiting multipartite correlations, such as entanglement. Recently, Dale, Jennings, and Rudolph negated the question by showing that a randomness processing, quantum Bernoulli factory, using quantum coherence, is strictly more powerful than the one with classical mechanics. In this Letter, focusing on the same scenario, we propose a theoretical protocol that is classically impossible but can be implemented solely using quantum coherence without entanglement. We demonstrate the protocol by exploiting the high-fidelity quantum state preparation and measurement with a superconducting qubit in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture and a nearly quantum-limited parametric amplifier. Our experiment shows the advantage of using quantum coherence of a single qubit for information processing even when multipartite correlation is not present.

  6. Generation of infrared entangled light in asymmetric semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Xin-You; Wu, Jing; Zheng, Li-Li; Huang, Pei

    2010-12-01

    We proposed a scheme to achieve two-mode CV entanglement with the frequencies of entangled modes in the infrared range in an asymmetric semiconductor double-quantum-wells (DQW), where the required quantum coherence is obtained by inducing the corresponding intersubband transitions (ISBTs) with a classical field. By numerically simulating the dynamics of system, we show that the entanglement period can be prolonged via enhancing the intensity of classical field, and the generation of entanglement doesn't depend intensively on the initial condition of system in our scheme. Moreover, we also show that a bipartite entanglement amplifier can be realized in our scheme. The present research provides an efficient approach to achieve infrared entangled light in the semiconductor nanostructure, which may have significant impact on the progress of solid-state quantum information theory.

  7. Entanglement purification based on hybrid entangled state using quantum-dot and microcavity coupled system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chuan; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Ru

    2011-12-01

    We theoretically investigate an entanglement purification protocol with photon and electron hybrid entangled state resorting to quantum-dot spin and microcavity coupled system. The present system is used to construct the parity check gate which allows a quantum non-demolition measurement on the spin parity. The cavity-spin coupled system provides a novel experimental platform of quantum information processing with photon and solid qubit. PMID:22273961

  8. Distilling quantum entanglement via mode-matched filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yuping; Kumar, Prem

    2011-09-15

    We propose an avenue toward distillation of quantum entanglement that is implemented by directly passing the entangled qubits through a mode-matched filter. This approach can be applied to a common class of entanglement impurities appearing in photonic systems, where the impurities inherently occupy different spatiotemporal modes than the entangled qubits. As a specific application, we show that our method can be used to significantly purify the telecom-band entanglement generated via the Kerr nonlinearity in single-mode fibers where a substantial amount of Raman-scattering noise is concomitantly produced.

  9. Security of quantum key distribution with entangled qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Durt, Thomas; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Gisin, Nicolas; Zukowski, Marek

    2003-01-01

    The study of quantum cryptography and quantum entanglement have traditionally been based on two-level quantum systems (qubits). In this paper, we consider a generalization of Ekert's entanglement-based quantum cryptographic protocol where qubits are replaced by three-level systems (qutrits). In order to investigate the security against the optimal individual attack, we derive the information gained by a potential eavesdropper applying a cloning-based attack. We exhibit the explicit form of this cloner, which is distinct from the previously known cloners, and conclude that the protocol is more robust than those based on entangled qubits as well as unentangled qutrits.

  10. Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement of photons and quantum contextuality

    SciTech Connect

    Karimi, Ebrahim; Slussarenko, Sergei; Leach, Jonathan; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Padgett, Miles J.; Piccirillo, Bruno; Santamato, Enrico; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Chen Lixiang; She Weilong

    2010-08-15

    We demonstrate electromagnetic quantum states of single photons and of correlated photon pairs exhibiting ''hybrid'' entanglement between spin and orbital angular momentum. These states are obtained from entangled photon pairs emitted by spontaneous parametric down conversion by employing a q plate for coupling the spin and orbital degrees of freedom of a photon. Entanglement and contextual quantum behavior (that is also nonlocal, in the case of photon pairs) is demonstrated by the reported violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality. In addition, a classical analog of the hybrid spin-orbit photonic entanglement is reported and discussed.

  11. Cosmological implications of quantum entanglement in the multiverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Sugumi

    2015-12-01

    We explore the cosmological implications of quantum entanglement between two causally disconnected universes in the multiverse. We first consider two causally separated de Sitter spaces with a state which is initially entangled. We derive the reduced density matrix of our universe and compute the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. We then consider the same system with an initially non-entangled state. We find that due to quantum interference scale dependent modulations may enter the spectrum for the case of initially non-entangled state. This gives rise to the possibility that the existence of causally disconnected universes may be experimentally tested by analyzing correlators in detail.

  12. Efficient quantum dialogue using entangled states and entanglement swapping without information leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Zhang, Yu Qing; Liu, Xue Feng; Hu, Yu Pu

    2016-06-01

    We propose a novel quantum dialogue protocol by using the generalized Bell states and entanglement swapping. In the protocol, a sequence of ordered two-qutrit entangled states acts as quantum information channel for exchanging secret messages directly and simultaneously. Besides, a secret key string is shared between the communicants to overcome information leakage. Different from those previous information leakage-resistant quantum dialogue protocols, the particles, composed of one of each pair of entangled states, are transmitted only one time in the proposed protocol. Security analysis shows that our protocol can overcome information leakage and resist several well-known attacks. Moreover, the efficiency of our scheme is acceptable.

  13. Efficient quantum dialogue using entangled states and entanglement swapping without information leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Zhang, Yu Qing; Liu, Xue Feng; Hu, Yu Pu

    2016-03-01

    We propose a novel quantum dialogue protocol by using the generalized Bell states and entanglement swapping. In the protocol, a sequence of ordered two-qutrit entangled states acts as quantum information channel for exchanging secret messages directly and simultaneously. Besides, a secret key string is shared between the communicants to overcome information leakage. Different from those previous information leakage-resistant quantum dialogue protocols, the particles, composed of one of each pair of entangled states, are transmitted only one time in the proposed protocol. Security analysis shows that our protocol can overcome information leakage and resist several well-known attacks. Moreover, the efficiency of our scheme is acceptable.

  14. Quantum steganography with large payload based on entanglement swapping of χ-type entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zhi-Guo; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Luo, Ming-Xing; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, we firstly propose a new simple method to calculate entanglement swapping of χ-type entangled states, and then present a novel quantum steganography protocol with large payload. The new protocol adopts entanglement swapping to build up the hidden channel within quantum secure direct communication with χ-type entangled states for securely transmitting secret messages. Comparing with the previous quantum steganographies, the capacity of the hidden channel is much higher, which is increased to eight bits. Meanwhile, due to the quantum uncertainty theorem and the no-cloning theorem its imperceptibility is proved to be great in the analysis, and its security is also analyzed in detail, which is proved that intercept-resend attack, measurement-resend attack, ancilla attack, man-in-the-middle attack or even Dos(Denial of Service) attack couldn't threaten it. As a result, the protocol can be applied in various fields of quantum communication.

  15. Probing quantum entanglement, quantum discord, classical correlation, and the quantum state without disturbing them

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhenni; Jin Jiasen; Yu Changshui

    2011-01-15

    We present schemes for a type of one-parameter bipartite quantum state to probe quantum entanglement, quantum discord, the classical correlation, and the quantum state based on cavity QED. It is shown that our detection does not influence all these measured quantities. We also discuss how the spontaneous emission introduced by our probe atom influences our detection.

  16. Quantum random number generator using photon-number path entanglement.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Osung; Cho, Young-Wook; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2009-03-20

    We report a quantum random number generator based on the photon-number-path entangled state that is prepared by means of two-photon quantum interference at a beam splitter. The randomness in our scheme is truly quantum mechanical in origin since it results from the projection measurement of the entangled two-photon state. The generated bit sequences satisfy the standard randomness test. PMID:19305476

  17. Quantum chimera states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viennot, David; Aubourg, Lucile

    2016-02-01

    We study a theoretical model of closed quasi-hermitian chain of spins which exhibits quantum analogues of chimera states, i.e. long life classical states for which a part of an oscillator chain presents an ordered dynamics whereas another part presents a disordered dynamics. For the quantum analogue, the chimera behaviour deals with the entanglement between the spins of the chain. We discuss the entanglement properties, quantum chaos, quantum disorder and semi-classical similarity of our quantum chimera system. The quantum chimera concept is novel and induces new perspectives concerning the entanglement of multipartite systems.

  18. Relating the Resource Theories of Entanglement and Quantum Coherence.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2016-07-01

    Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement represent two fundamental features of nonclassical systems that can each be characterized within an operational resource theory. In this Letter, we unify the resource theories of entanglement and coherence by studying their combined behavior in the operational setting of local incoherent operations and classical communication (LIOCC). Specifically, we analyze the coherence and entanglement trade-offs in the tasks of state formation and resource distillation. For pure states we identify the minimum coherence-entanglement resources needed to generate a given state, and we introduce a new LIOCC monotone that completely characterizes a state's optimal rate of bipartite coherence distillation. This result allows us to precisely quantify the difference in operational powers between global incoherent operations, LIOCC, and local incoherent operations without classical communication. Finally, a bipartite mixed state is shown to have distillable entanglement if and only if entanglement can be distilled by LIOCC, and we strengthen the well-known Horodecki criterion for distillability. PMID:27447493

  19. Relating the Resource Theories of Entanglement and Quantum Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    2016-07-01

    Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement represent two fundamental features of nonclassical systems that can each be characterized within an operational resource theory. In this Letter, we unify the resource theories of entanglement and coherence by studying their combined behavior in the operational setting of local incoherent operations and classical communication (LIOCC). Specifically, we analyze the coherence and entanglement trade-offs in the tasks of state formation and resource distillation. For pure states we identify the minimum coherence-entanglement resources needed to generate a given state, and we introduce a new LIOCC monotone that completely characterizes a state's optimal rate of bipartite coherence distillation. This result allows us to precisely quantify the difference in operational powers between global incoherent operations, LIOCC, and local incoherent operations without classical communication. Finally, a bipartite mixed state is shown to have distillable entanglement if and only if entanglement can be distilled by LIOCC, and we strengthen the well-known Horodecki criterion for distillability.

  20. Quantum coherence and entanglement in the avian compass.

    PubMed

    Pauls, James A; Zhang, Yiteng; Berman, Gennady P; Kais, Sabre

    2013-06-01

    The radical-pair mechanism is one of two distinct mechanisms used to explain the navigation of birds in geomagnetic fields, however little research has been done to explore the role of quantum entanglement in this mechanism. In this paper we study the lifetime of radical-pair entanglement corresponding to the magnitude and direction of magnetic fields to show that the entanglement lasts long enough in birds to be used for navigation. We also find that the birds appear to not be able to orient themselves directly based on radical-pair entanglement due to a lack of orientation sensitivity of the entanglement in the geomagnetic field. To explore the entanglement mechanism further, we propose a model in which the hyperfine interactions are replaced by local magnetic fields of similar strength. The entanglement of the radical pair in this model lasts longer and displays an angular sensitivity in weak magnetic fields, both of which are not present in previous models. PMID:23848712

  1. Quantum Teamwork for Unconditional Multiparty Communication with Gaussian States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Adesso, Gerardo; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2009-08-01

    We demonstrate the capability of continuous variable Gaussian states to communicate multipartite quantum information. A quantum teamwork protocol is presented according to which an arbitrary possibly entangled multimode state can be faithfully teleported between two teams each comprising many cooperative users. We prove that N-mode Gaussian weighted graph states exist for arbitrary N that enable unconditional quantum teamwork implementations for any arrangement of the teams. These perfect continuous variable maximally multipartite entangled resources are typical among pure Gaussian states and are unaffected by the entanglement frustration occurring in multiqubit states.

  2. Optimal entanglement generation from quantum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Leifer, M.S.; Henderson, L.; Linden, N.

    2003-01-01

    We consider how much entanglement can be produced by a nonlocal two-qubit unitary operation, U{sub AB}--the entangling capacity of U{sub AB}. For a single application of U{sub AB}, with no ancillas, we find the entangling capacity and show that it generally helps to act with U{sub AB} on an entangled state. Allowing ancillas, we present numerical results from which we can conclude, quite generally, that allowing initial entanglement typically increases the optimal capacity in this case as well. Next, we show that allowing collective processing does not increase the entangling capacity if initial entanglement is allowed.

  3. Comparison of the attempts of quantum discord and quantum entanglement to capture quantum correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Qasimi, Asma Al-; James, Daniel F. V.

    2011-03-15

    Measurements of quantum systems disturb their states. To quantify this nonclassical characteristic, Zurek and Ollivier [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 017901 (2001)] introduced the quantum discord, a quantum correlation that can be nonzero even when entanglement in the system is zero. Discord has aroused great interest as a resource that is more robust against the effects of decoherence and offers the exponential speed-up of certain computational algorithms. Here, we study general two-level bipartite systems and give general results on the relationship between discord, entanglement, and linear entropy. We also identify the states for which discord takes a maximal value for a given entropy or entanglement, thus placing strong bounds on entanglement-discord and entropy-discord relations. We find out that although discord and entanglement are identical for pure states, they differ when generalized to mixed states as a result of the difference in the method of generalization.

  4. Quantum Conditional Cloning of Continuous Variable Entangled States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Gao, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We extend the technique of conditional preparation to a quantum cloning machine, and present a protocol of 1 -> 2 conditional cloning of squeezed state and entanglement states. It is shown that the entanglement degree of the cloned entangled states can be well preserved even when the fidelity between the input and output states is beyond the limit of 4/9. This scheme is practicable since only the linear elements of beam splitters, homodyne detections, optical modulations and electrical trigger system, are involved.

  5. Quantum phase gate and controlled entanglement with polar molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Charron, Eric; Keller, Arne; Atabek, Osman; Milman, Perola

    2007-03-15

    We propose an alternative scenario for the generation of entanglement between rotational quantum states of two polar molecules. This entanglement arises from dipole-dipole interaction, and is controlled by a sequence of laser pulses simultaneously exciting both molecules. We study the efficiency of the process, and discuss possible experimental implementations with cold molecules trapped in optical lattices or in solid matrices. Finally, various entanglement detection procedures are presented, and their suitability for these two physical situations is analyzed.

  6. Quantum information entropy and multi-qubit entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud

    The exciting new features of entanglement are burgeoning with revolutionary new advances in the areas of quantum communication, quantum information processing and quantum computing. We review recent theoretical studies and applications of pure and mixed states entanglement of trapped ions interacting with a laser field. After an introduction to the basic concepts of traditional entanglement measures and methodology, the main phenomena and observations of two-, three- and four-level systems are summarized. In particular, we explore the influence of the various parameters of these systems on the entanglement. The particular advantages of using atomic Wehrl entropy and Shannon entropy are highlighted. A general expression of the mixed state entanglement is obtained with the physical significance and without the diagonal approximation. Based on this result, we provide a general expression for the entanglement in a multi-level system. We show that the mixed-state and specific eigenstates of the two or three-level system posses remarkable entanglement properties that can reveal new insight into quantum correlations present in the multi-level models. Furthermore, we propose an intuitive picture of the behavior of mixed-state entanglement in the presence of the decoherence. After a short presentation of the entanglement measures of two qubits, each defined as an effective two-level system (negativity, Bures metric and concurrence) we discuss the general behaviors of the concurrence as a measure of entanglement. We identify and numerically demonstrate the region of parameters where significantly large entanglement can be obtained. Most interestingly, it is shown that features of the entanglement are influenced significantly when the multi-photon process is involved.

  7. Natural Mode Entanglement as a Resource for Quantum Communication

    SciTech Connect

    Heaney, Libby; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-11-13

    Natural particle-number entanglement resides between spatial modes in coherent ultracold atomic gases. However, operations on the modes are restricted by a superselection rule that forbids coherent superpositions of different particle numbers. This seemingly prevents mode entanglement being used as a resource for quantum communication. In this Letter, we demonstrate that mode entanglement of a single massive particle can be used for dense coding and quantum teleportation despite the superselection rule. In particular, we provide schemes where the dense coding linear photonic channel capacity is reached without a shared reservoir and where the full quantum channel capacity is achieved if both parties share a coherent particle reservoir.

  8. Exciton absorption of entangled photons in semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Ferney; Guzman, David; Salazar, Luis; Quiroga, Luis; Condensed Matter Physics Group Team

    2013-03-01

    The dependence of the excitonic two-photon absorption on the quantum correlations (entanglement) of exciting biphotons by a semiconductor quantum well is studied. We show that entangled photon absorption can display very unusual features depending on space-time-polarization biphoton parameters and absorber density of states for both bound exciton states as well as for unbound electron-hole pairs. We report on the connection between biphoton entanglement, as quantified by the Schmidt number, and absorption by a semiconductor quantum well. Comparison between frequency-anti-correlated, unentangled and frequency-correlated biphoton absorption is addressed. We found that exciton oscillator strengths are highly increased when photons arrive almost simultaneously in an entangled state. Two-photon-absorption becomes a highly sensitive probe of photon quantum correlations when narrow semiconductor quantum wells are used as two-photon absorbers. Research funds from Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de los Andes

  9. Distributed wireless quantum communication networks with partially entangled pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Zai-Chen; Xu, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Wireless quantum communication networks transfer quantum state by teleportation. Existing research focuses on maximal entangled pairs. In this paper, we analyse the distributed wireless quantum communication networks with partially entangled pairs. A quantum routing scheme with multi-hop teleportation is proposed. With the proposed scheme, is not necessary for the quantum path to be consistent with the classical path. The quantum path and its associated classical path are established in a distributed way. Direct multi-hop teleportation is conducted on the selected path to transfer a quantum state from the source to the destination. Based on the feature of multi-hop teleportation using partially entangled pairs, if the node number of the quantum path is even, the destination node will add another teleportation at itself. We simulated the performance of distributed wireless quantum communication networks with a partially entangled state. The probability of transferring the quantum state successfully is statistically analyzed. Our work shows that multi-hop teleportation on distributed wireless quantum networks with partially entangled pairs is feasible.

  10. Observation of Four-Photon Orbital Angular Momentum Entanglement.

    PubMed

    Hiesmayr, B C; de Dood, M J A; Löffler, W

    2016-02-19

    We demonstrate genuine multipartite quantum entanglement of four photons in their orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom, where a high-dimensional discrete Hilbert space is attached to each photon. This can encode more quantum information compared to the qubit case, but it is a long-standing problem to entangle more than two such photons. In our experiment we use pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversion to produce the photon quadruplets, which allows us to detect about one four-photon event per second. By means of quantum state reconstruction and a suitable witness operator we find that the photon quadruplets form a genuine multipartite entangled symmetric Dicke state. This opens a new tool for addressing foundational questions in quantum mechanics, and for exploration of novel high-dimensional multiparty quantum information applications such as secret sharing. PMID:26943533

  11. Observation of Four-Photon Orbital Angular Momentum Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesmayr, B. C.; de Dood, M. J. A.; Löffler, W.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate genuine multipartite quantum entanglement of four photons in their orbital angular momentum degrees of freedom, where a high-dimensional discrete Hilbert space is attached to each photon. This can encode more quantum information compared to the qubit case, but it is a long-standing problem to entangle more than two such photons. In our experiment we use pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversion to produce the photon quadruplets, which allows us to detect about one four-photon event per second. By means of quantum state reconstruction and a suitable witness operator we find that the photon quadruplets form a genuine multipartite entangled symmetric Dicke state. This opens a new tool for addressing foundational questions in quantum mechanics, and for exploration of novel high-dimensional multiparty quantum information applications such as secret sharing.

  12. Transformations of symmetric multipartite Gaussian states by Gaussian local operations and classical communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černotík, Ondřej; Fiurášek, Jaromír

    2014-04-01

    Multipartite quantum correlations, in spite of years of intensive research, still leave many questions unanswered. While bipartite entanglement is relatively well understood for Gaussian states, the complexity of mere qualitative characterization grows rapidly with increasing number of parties. Here, we present two schemes for transformations of multipartite permutation invariant Gaussian states by Gaussian local operations and classical communication. To this end, we use a scheme for possible experimental realization, making use of the fact that in this picture the whole N-partite state can be described by specifying the states of two separable modes. Numerically, we study entanglement transformations of tripartite states. Finally, we look at the effect our protocols have on fidelity of assisted quantum teleportation and find that, while adding correlated noise does not affect the fidelity at all, there is strong evidence that partial nondemolition measurement leads to a drop in teleportation fidelity.

  13. Collision Microscope to Study Many-Body Quantum Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Craig; Liu, Qi; Gemelke, Nathan

    2014-05-01

    Quantum entanglement over long length scales is present in both quantum critical and quantum ordered many-body systems and can often be used as a fingerprint for underlying dynamics or ground-state structure. Limited quantum measurement and thermal back-action via controlled collisions of cold atoms and subsequent optical detection can be used to probe long-range entanglement. Entanglement Entropy has recently arisen as a quantitative vehicle to describe entanglement in thermodynamic systems, and its scaling with area can reveal detailed character of the system. We present progress in constructing an apparatus to experimentally extract Entanglement Entropy through pair-wise entanglement of cold fermionic potassium and bosonic cesium gases. The measurement will be made by translating localized probe atoms through a portion of a strongly entangled sample, then recording the heating effect of back-action after optical detection of probe atoms. To do so, precise independent control over the atoms will be maintained in a bichromatic lattice formed with a monolithic, common-mode optical setup imbedded in a quantum gas microscope. Other applications are discussed, including cooling of a Mott-Insulator and study of non-equilibrium quantum systems.

  14. Hybrid entanglement in a triple-quantum-dot shuttle device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, J.; Cota, E.; Rojas, F.

    2014-10-01

    We study the H3×N hybrid entanglement between charge and vibrational modes in a triple-quantum-dot shuttle system. Three quantum dots are linearly connected, with the outer dots fixed and the central dot oscillating, described as a quantum harmonic oscillator with oscillation modes that are entangled with the electronic states of the quantum dots. The entangled states are characterized by the Schmidt number as a function of the parameters of the system: detuning and inverse tunneling length. We show that at steady state, as a function of detuning, the excited states of lower energy present Bell-type entanglement 2×N, with the participation of two quantum dots, while the more energetic excited states present 3×N entanglement, with the participation of three quantum dots. In the stationary regime, we find qualitative relationships between the maxima of the electronic current and the Schmidt number. Also, the time evolution of the degree of entanglement for a particular initial condition is studied in the presence of a time-dependent electric field and we evaluate the effects on entanglement of the condition of coherent destruction of tunneling.

  15. Experimental generation of tripartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Liang; Yan, Zhihui; Liu, Yanhong; Deng, Ruijie; Jia, Xiaojun; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2016-04-01

    The multipartite polarization entangled states of bright optical beams directly associating with the spin states of atomic ensembles are one of the essential resources in the future quantum information networks, which can be conveniently utilized to transfer and convert quantum states across a network composed of many atomic nodes. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstration of tripartite polarization entanglement described by Stokes operators of optical field. The tripartite entangled states of light at the frequency resonant with D1 line of Rubidium atoms are transformed into the continuous variable polarization entanglement among three bright optical beams via an optical beam splitter network. The obtained entanglement is confirmed by the extended criterion for polarization entanglement of multipartite quantized optical modes.

  16. Stabilizing entanglement by quantum-jump-based feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, A. R. R.; Hope, J. J.

    2007-07-15

    We show that direct feedback based on quantum-jump detection can be used to generate entangled steady states. We present a strategy that is insensitive to detection inefficiencies and robust against errors in the control Hamiltonian. This feedback procedure is also shown to overcome spontaneous emission effects by stabilizing states with a high degree of entanglement.

  17. Optimal amount of entanglement to distinguish quantum states instantaneously

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Berry; Strelchuk, Sergii

    2015-11-01

    We introduce an aspect of nonlocality which arises when the task of quantum states distinguishability is considered under local operations and shared entanglement in the absence of classical communication. We find the optimal amount of entanglement required to accomplish the task perfectly for sets of orthogonal states and argue that it quantifies information nonlocality.

  18. Perfect entanglement concentration of an arbitrary four-photon polarization entangled state via quantum nondemolition detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meiyu; Yan, Fengli; Xu, Jingzhou

    2016-08-01

    We show how to concentrate an arbitrary four-photon polarization entangled state into a maximally entangled state based on some quantum nondemolition detectors. The entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) resorts to an ancillary single-photon resource and the conventional projection measurement on photons to assist the concentration, which makes it more economical. Our ECP involves weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities, X homodyne measurement and basic linear-optical elements, which make it feasible in the current experimental technology. Moreover, the ECP considers cyclic utilization to enhance a higher success probability. Thus, our scheme is meaningful in practical applications in quantum communication.

  19. More communication with less entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Pankaj; Adhikari, Satyabrata; Nandi, Sumit

    2015-12-01

    We exhibit the intriguing phenomena of "Less is More" using a set of multipartite entangled states. We consider the quantum communication protocols for the exact teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum key distribution. We find that sometimes less entanglement is more useful. To understand this phenomena we obtain a condition that a resource state must satisfy to communicate a n-qubit pure state which has m terms. We find that an appropriate partition of the resource state should have a von-Neumann entropy of log2 m. Furthermore, it is shown that some states may be suitable for exact superdense coding, but not for exact teleportation.

  20. Quantum Entanglement: A Fundamental Concept Finding its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeilinger, Anton

    Entanglement, according to the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger the Essence of Quantum Mechanics, has been known for a long time now to be the source of a number of paradoxical and counterintuitive phenomena. Of those the most remarkable one is usually called non-locality and it is at the heart of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox and of the fact that Quantum Mechanics violates Bell's inequalities. Recent years saw an emergence of novel ideas in entanglement of three or more particles. Most recently it turned out that entanglement is an important concept in the development of quantum communication, quantum cryptography and quantum computation. First explicit experimental realizations with two or more photons include quantum dense coding and quantum teleportation.

  1. Quantum logic as superbraids of entangled qubit world lines

    SciTech Connect

    Yepez, Jeffrey

    2010-02-15

    Presented is a topological representation of quantum logic that views entangled qubit spacetime histories (or qubit world lines) as a generalized braid, referred to as a superbraid. The crossing of world lines can be quantum-mechanical in nature, most conveniently expressed analytically with ladder-operator-based quantum gates. At a crossing, independent world lines can become entangled. Complicated superbraids are systematically reduced by recursively applying quantum skein relations. If the superbraid is closed (e.g., representing quantum circuits with closed-loop feedback, quantum lattice gas algorithms, loop or vacuum diagrams in quantum field theory), then one can decompose the resulting superlink into an entangled superposition of classical links. Thus, one can compute a superlink invariant, for example, the Jones polynomial for the square root of a classical knot.

  2. Quantum walk, entanglement and thermodynamic laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanelli, Alejandro

    2015-09-01

    We consider a special dynamics of a quantum walk (QW) on a line. The walker, initially localized at the origin of the line with arbitrary chirality, evolves to an asymptotic stationary state. In this stationary state a measurement is performed and the state resulting from this measurement is used to start a second QW evolution to achieve a second asymptotic stationary state. In previous works, we developed the thermodynamics associated with the entanglement between the coin and position degrees of freedom in the QW. Here we study the application of the first and second laws of thermodynamics to the process between the two stationary states mentioned above. We show that: (i) the entropy change has upper and lower bounds that are obtained analytically as functions of the initial conditions. (ii) the energy change is associated to a heat-transfer process.

  3. General Monogamy Relation for the Entanglement of Formation in Multiqubit Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yan-Kui; Xu, Yuan-Fei; Wang, Z. D.

    2014-09-01

    We prove exactly that the squared entanglement of formation, which quantifies the bipartite entanglement, obeys a general monogamy inequality in an arbitrary multiqubit mixed state. Based on this kind of exotic monogamy relation, we are able to construct two sets of useful entanglement indicators: the first one can detect all genuine multiqubit entangled states even in the case of the two-qubit concurrence and n-tangles being zero, while the second one can be calculated via quantum discord and applied to multipartite entanglement dynamics. Moreover, we give a computable and nontrivial lower bound for multiqubit entanglement of formation.

  4. Entanglement dynamics in quantum many-body systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Wen Wei; Abanin, Dmitry

    The dynamics of quantum entanglement S (t) has proven useful to distinguishing different quantum many-body phases. In particular, the growth of entanglement following a quantum quench can be used to distinguish between many-body localized(S (t) ~ logt) and ergodic(S (t) ~ t) phases. Here, we provide a theoretical description of the growth of entanglement in a quantum many-body system, and propose a method to experimentally measure it. We show that entanglement growth is related to the spreading of local operators. In ergodic systems, the linear spreading of operators results in a universal, linear in time growth of entanglement. Furthermore, we show that entanglement growth is directly related to the decay of the Loschmidt echo in a composite system comprised of many copies of the original system, subject to a perturbation that reconnects different parts of the system. Using this picture, we propose an experimental set-up to measure entanglement growth by using a quantum switch (two-level system) which controls connections in the composite system. Our work provides a way to directly probe dynamical properties of many-body systems, in particular, allowing for a direct observation of many-body localization. This work was partially supported by Sloan Foundation, Ontario Early Researcher Award and NSERC Discovery Grant.

  5. Quantum Discord Bounds the Amount of Distributed Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piani, Marco; Kok Chuan, Tan; Maillard, Jean; Modi, Kavan; Paterek, Tomasz; Paternostro, Mauro

    2013-03-01

    The ability to distribute quantum entanglement is a prerequisite for many fundamental tests of quantum theory and numerous quantum information protocols. Two distant parties can increase the amount of entanglement between them by means of quantum communication encoded in a carrier that is sent from one party to the other. Intriguingly, entanglement can be increased even when the exchanged carrier is not entangled with the parties. However, in light of the defining property of entanglement stating that it cannot increase under classical communication, the carrier must be quantum. Here we show that, in general, the increase of relative entropy of entanglement between two remote parties is bounded by the amount of nonclassical correlations of the carrier with the parties as quantified by the relative entropy of discord. We study implications of this bound, provide new examples of entanglement distribution via unentangled states, and put further limits on this phenomenon. We thank the National Research Foundation and Ministry of Education in Singapore (T. K. Chuan, K. Modi, and T. Paterek), the John Templeton Foundation (K. Modi), the UK EPSRC (M. Paternostro), NSERC, CIFAR, and the Ontario Centres of Excellence (M. Piani)

  6. The Local Orthogonality Between Quantum States and Entanglement Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sunho; Wu, Junde; Zhang, Lin; Cho, Minhyung

    2016-06-01

    In the paper, we show that when a quantum state can be decomposed as a convex combination of locally orthogonal mixed states, its entanglement can be decomposed into the entanglement of these mixed states without losing them. The obtained result generalizes a corresponding one proved by Horodecki (Acta Phys. Slov. 48, 141 1998). But, for the entanglement cost it requires certain conditions for holding the decomposition, and the distillable entanglement only has a week result as inequality. Finally, we presented an example to show that the conditions of our conclusions are existence.

  7. Efficient single-photon entanglement concentration for quantum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2014-02-01

    We present two entanglement concentration protocols for single-photon entanglement. The first protocol is implemented with linear optics. With the help of the 50:50 beam splitter, variable beam splitter and an auxiliary photon, a less-entangled single-photon state can be concentrated into a maximally single-photon entangled state with some probability. The second protocol is implemented with the cross-Kerr nonlinearity. With the help of the cross-Kerr nonlinearity, the sophisticated single photon detector is not required. Moreover, the second protocol can be reused to get higher success probability. All these advantages may make the protocols useful in the long-distance quantum communication.

  8. Quantum Spin Baths Induced Transition of Decoherence and Entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Pochung; Lai Chengyan; Hung, J.-T.; Mou Chungyu

    2008-11-07

    We investigate the reduced dynamics of single or two qubits coupled to an interacting quantum spin bath modeled by a XXZ spin chain. By using the method of time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (t-DMRG), we evaluate nonperturbatively the induced decoherence and entanglement. We find that the behavior of both decoherence and entanglement strongly depend on the phase of the underlying spin bath. We show that spin baths can induce entanglement for an initially disentangled pair of qubits. We observe that entanglement sudden death only occurs in paramagnetic phase and discuss the effect of the coupling range.

  9. Entanglement entropy in dynamic quantum-coherent conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Konrad H.; Flindt, Christian

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the entanglement and the Rényi entropies of two electronic leads connected by a quantum point contact. For noninteracting electrons, the entropies can be related to the cumulants of the full counting statistics of transferred charge which in principle are measurable. We consider the entanglement entropy generated by operating the quantum point contact as a quantum switch which is opened and closed in a periodic manner. Using a numerically exact approach we analyze the conditions under which a logarithmic growth of the entanglement entropy predicted by conformal field theory should be observable in an electronic conductor. In addition, we consider clean single-particle excitations on top of the Fermi sea (levitons) generated by applying designed pulses to the leads. We identify a Hong-Ou-Mandel-like suppression of the entanglement entropy by interfering two levitons on a quantum point contact tuned to half transmission.

  10. Entangling distant resonant exchange qubits via circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa, Vanita; Taylor, Jacob M.; Tahan, Charles

    Enabling modularity within a quantum information processing device relies on robust entanglement of coherent qubits at macroscopic distances. To address this challenge, we investigate theoretically a hybrid quantum system consisting of spatially separated resonant exchange qubits, defined in three-electron semiconductor triple quantum dots, that are coupled via a superconducting transmission line resonator. By analyzing three specific approaches drawn from circuit quantum electrodynamics and Hartmann-Hahn double resonance techniques for implementing resonator-mediated two-qubit entangling gates in both dispersive and resonant regimes, we show that methods for entangling superconducting qubits map directly to resonant exchange qubits. We also calculate the rate of relaxation via phonons for resonant exchange qubits in silicon triple dots and show that such an implementation is particularly well-suited to achieving the strong coupling regime. Our approach combines the robustness of encoded spin qubits in silicon with the rapid and robust long-range entanglement provided by circuit QED systems.

  11. Quantum Atomic Clock Synchronization: An Entangled Concept of Nonlocal Simultaneity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrams, D.; Dowling, J.; Williams, C.; Jozsa, R.

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that two spatially separated parties (Alice and Bob) can utilize shared prior quantum entanglement, as well as a classical information channel, to establish a synchronized pair of atomic clocks.

  12. Entanglement switching via the Kondo effect in triple quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tooski, S. B.; Bułka, Bogdan R.; Žitko, Rok; Ramšak, Anton

    2014-06-01

    We consider a triple quantum dot system in a triangular geometry with one of the dots connected to metallic leads. Using Wilson's numerical renormalization group method, we investigate quantum entanglement and its relation to the thermodynamic and transport properties in the regime where each of the dots is singly occupied on average, but with non-negligible charge fluctuations. It is shown that even in the regime of significant charge fluctuations the formation of the Kondo singlets induces switching between separable and perfectly entangled states. The quantum phase transition between unentangled and entangled states is analyzed quantitatively and the corresponding phase diagram is explained by exactly solvable spin model. In the framework of an effective model we also explain smearing of the entanglement transition for cases when the symmetry of the triple quantum dot system is relaxed.

  13. Optimal universal asymmetric covariant quantum cloning circuits for qubit entanglement manipulation

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, Levente; Koniorczyk, Matyas; Adam, Peter; Janszky, Jozsef

    2010-03-15

    We consider the entanglement manipulation capabilities of the universal covariant quantum cloner or quantum processor circuit for quantum bits. We investigate its use for cloning a member of a bipartite or a genuine tripartite entangled state of quantum bits. We find that for bipartite pure entangled states a nontrivial behavior of concurrence appears, while for GHZ entangled states a possibility of the partial extraction of bipartite entanglement can be achieved.

  14. Quantum entangled supercorrelated states in the Jaynes-Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, A. K.; Jensen, K. L.; Cummings, F. W.

    1999-08-01

    The regions of independent quantum states, maximally classically correlated states, and purely quantum entangled (supercorrelated) states described in a recent formulation of quantum information theory by Cerf and Adami are explored here numerically in the parameter space of the well-known exactly soluble Jaynes-Cummings model for equilibrium and nonequilibrium time-dependent ensembles.

  15. Entanglement, which-way measurements, and a quantum erasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, Christian; Braunecker, Bernd

    2010-08-01

    We present a didactical approach to the which-way experiment and the counterintuitive effect of the quantum erasure for one-particle quantum interferences. The fundamental concept of entanglement plays a central role and highlights the complementarity between quantum interference and knowledge of which path is followed by the particle.

  16. Entanglement model of homeopathy as an example of generalized entanglement predicted by weak quantum theory.

    PubMed

    Walach, H

    2003-08-01

    Homeopathy is scientifically banned, both for lack of consistent empirical findings, but more so for lack of a sound theoretical model to explain its purported effects. This paper makes an attempt to introduce an explanatory idea based on a generalized version of quantum mechanics (QM), the weak quantum theory (WQT). WQT uses the algebraic formalism of QM proper, but drops some restrictions and definitions typical for QM. This results in a general axiomatic framework similar to QM, but more generalized and applicable to all possible systems. Most notably, WQT predicts entanglement, which in QM is known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlatedness within quantum systems. According to WQT, this entanglement is not only tied to quantum systems, but is to be expected whenever a global and a local variable describing a system are complementary. This idea is used here to reconstruct homeopathy as an exemplification of generalized entanglement as predicted by WQT. It transpires that homeopathy uses two instances of generalized entanglement: one between the remedy and the original substance (potentiation principle) and one between the individual symptoms of a patient and the general symptoms of a remedy picture (similarity principle). By bringing these two elements together, double entanglement ensues, which is reminiscent of cryptographic and teleportation applications of entanglement in QM proper. Homeopathy could be a macroscopic analogue to quantum teleportation. This model is exemplified and some predictions are derived, which make it possible to test the model. PMID:12972724

  17. Building up Space-Time with Quantum Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Raamsdonk, Mark

    In this essay, we argue that the emergence of classically connected space-times is intimately related to the quantum entanglement of degrees of freedom in a nonperturbative description of quantum gravity. Disentangling the degrees of freedom associated with two regions of space-time results in these regions pulling apart and pinching off from each other in a way that can be quantified by standard measures of entanglement.

  18. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C H

    2016-01-01

    Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence. PMID:26935775

  19. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C. H.

    2016-03-01

    Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence.

  20. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence. PMID:26935775

  1. Quantum entanglement and the Bell matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Anna Chiara; Pedicini, Marco; Rognone, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    We present a class of maximally entangled states generated by a high-dimensional generalisation of the cnot gate. The advantage of our constructive approach is the simple algebraic structure of both entangling operator and resulting entangled states. In order to show that the method can be applied to any dimension, we introduce new sufficient conditions for global and maximal entanglement with respect to Meyer and Wallach's measure.

  2. Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin

    2015-12-07

    We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.

  3. Quantum entanglement in topological phases on a torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhu-Xi; Hu, Yu-Ting; Wu, Yong-Shi

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of nontrivial spatial topology on quantum entanglement by examining the degenerate ground states of a topologically ordered system on a torus. Using the string-net (fixed-point) wave function, we propose a general formula of the reduced density matrix when the system is partitioned into two cylinders. The cylindrical topology of the subsystems makes a significant difference in regard to entanglement: a global quantum number for the many-body states comes into play, together with a decomposition matrix M which describes how topological charges of the ground states decompose into boundary degrees of freedom. We obtain a general formula for entanglement entropy and generalize the concept of minimally entangled states to minimally entangled sectors. Concrete examples are demonstrated with data from both finite groups and modular tensor categories (i.e., Fibonacci, Ising, etc.), supported by numerical verification.

  4. Quantum entanglement of local operators in conformal field theories.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Masahiro; Numasawa, Tokiro; Takayanagi, Tadashi

    2014-03-21

    We introduce a series of quantities which characterize a given local operator in any conformal field theory from the viewpoint of quantum entanglement. It is defined by the increased amount of (Rényi) entanglement entropy at late time for an excited state defined by acting the local operator on the vacuum. We consider a conformal field theory on an infinite space and take the subsystem in the definition of the entanglement entropy to be its half. We calculate these quantities for a free massless scalar field theory in two, four and six dimensions. We find that these results are interpreted in terms of quantum entanglement of a finite number of states, including Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states. They agree with a heuristic picture of propagations of entangled particles. PMID:24702348

  5. Quantum frequency up-conversion of continuous variable entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenyuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Zongyang; Li, Yongmin

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate experimentally quantum frequency up-conversion of a continuous variable entangled optical field via sum-frequency-generation process. The two-color entangled state initially entangled at 806 and 1518 nm with an amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 3.2 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 3.1 dB is converted to a new entangled state at 530 and 1518 nm with the amplitude quadrature difference squeezing of 1.7 dB and phase quadrature sum squeezing of 1.8 dB. Our implementation enables the observation of entanglement between two light fields spanning approximately 1.5 octaves in optical frequency. The presented scheme is robust to the excess amplitude and phase noises of the pump field, making it a practical building block for quantum information processing and communication networks.

  6. Collapse–revival of quantum discord and entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Xue-Qun Zhang, Bo-Ying

    2014-10-15

    In this paper the correlations dynamics of two atoms in the case of a micromaser-type system is investigated. Our results predict certain quasi-periodic collapse and revival phenomena for quantum discord and entanglement when the field is in Fock state and the two atoms are initially in maximally mixed state, which is a special separable state. Our calculations also show that the oscillations of the time evolution of both quantum discord and entanglement are almost in phase and they both have similar evolution behavior in some time range. The fact reveals the consistency of quantum discord and entanglement in some dynamical aspects. - Highlights: • The correlations dynamics of two atoms in the case of a micromaser-type system is investigated. • A quasi-periodic collapse and revival phenomenon for quantum discord and entanglement is reported. • A phenomenon of correlations revivals different from that of non-Markovian dynamics is revealed. • The oscillations of time evolution of both quantum discord and entanglement are almost in phase in our system. • Quantum discord and entanglement have similar evolution behavior in some time range.

  7. Use of entanglement in quantum optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Michael A.; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Greenberger, Daniel M.; Zeilinger, Anton

    1992-01-01

    Several recent demonstrations of two-particle interferometry are reviewed and shown to be examples of either color entanglement or beam entanglement. A device, called a number filter, is described and shown to be of value in preparing beam entanglements. Finally, we note that all three concepts (color and beam entaglement, and number filtering) may be extended to three or more particles.

  8. Quantum correlations in Gaussian states via Gaussian channels: steering, entanglement, and discord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhong-Xiao; Wang, Shuhao; Li, Qiting; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan

    2016-06-01

    Here we study the quantum steering, quantum entanglement, and quantum discord for Gaussian Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen states via Gaussian channels. And the sudden death phenomena for Gaussian steering and Gaussian entanglement are theoretically observed. We find that some Gaussian states have only one-way steering, which confirms the asymmetry of quantum steering. Also we investigate that the entangled Gaussian states without Gaussian steering and correlated Gaussian states own no Gaussian entanglement. Meanwhile, our results support the assumption that quantum entanglement is intermediate between quantum discord and quantum steering. Furthermore, we give experimental recipes for preparing quantum states with desired types of quantum correlations.

  9. Autonomous quantum thermal machine for generating steady-state entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohr Brask, Jonatan; Haack, Géraldine; Brunner, Nicolas; Huber, Marcus

    2015-11-01

    We discuss a simple quantum thermal machine for the generation of steady-state entanglement between two interacting qubits. The machine is autonomous in the sense that it uses only incoherent interactions with thermal baths, but no source of coherence or external control. By weakly coupling the qubits to thermal baths at different temperatures, inducing a heat current through the system, steady-state entanglement is generated far from thermal equilibrium. Finally, we discuss two possible implementations, using superconducting flux qubits or a semiconductor double quantum dot. Experimental prospects for steady-state entanglement are promising in both systems.

  10. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-06-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature.

  11. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature. PMID:27247078

  12. Measuring Entanglement in a Photonic Embedding Quantum Simulator.

    PubMed

    Loredo, J C; Almeida, M P; Di Candia, R; Pedernales, J S; Casanova, J; Solano, E; White, A G

    2016-02-19

    Measuring entanglement is a demanding task that usually requires full tomography of a quantum system, involving a number of observables that grows exponentially with the number of parties. Recently, it was suggested that adding a single ancillary qubit would allow for the efficient measurement of concurrence, and indeed any entanglement monotone associated with antilinear operations. Here, we report on the experimental implementation of such a device-an embedding quantum simulator-in photonics, encoding the entangling dynamics of a bipartite system into a tripartite one. We show that bipartite concurrence can be efficiently extracted from the measurement of merely two observables, instead of 15, without full tomographic information. PMID:26943521

  13. Privacy Preserving Quantum Anonymous Transmission via Entanglement Relay

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Huang, Liusheng; Song, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Anonymous transmission is an interesting and crucial issue in computer communication area, which plays a supplementary role to data privacy. In this paper, we put forward a privacy preserving quantum anonymous transmission protocol based on entanglement relay, which constructs anonymous entanglement from EPR pairs instead of multi-particle entangled state, e.g. GHZ state. Our protocol achieves both sender anonymity and receiver anonymity against an active adversary and tolerates any number of corrupt participants. Meanwhile, our protocol obtains an improvement in efficiency compared to quantum schemes in previous literature. PMID:27247078

  14. Entanglement in the classical limit: Quantum correlations from classical probabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Matzkin, A.

    2011-08-15

    We investigate entanglement for a composite closed system endowed with a scaling property which allows the dynamics to be kept invariant while the effective Planck constant ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff} of the system is varied. Entanglement increases as ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff}{yields}0. Moreover, for sufficiently low ({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sub eff} the evolution of the quantum correlations, encapsulated, for example, in the quantum discord, can be obtained from the mutual information of the corresponding classical system. We show this behavior is due to the local suppression of path interferences in the interaction that generates the entanglement.

  15. Deterministic controlled remote state preparation using partially entangled quantum channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Na; Quan, Dong Xiao; Yang, Hong; Pei, Chang Xing

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel scheme for deterministic controlled remote state preparation (CRSP) of arbitrary two-qubit states. Suitably chosen partially entangled state is used as the quantum channel. With proper projective measurements carried out by the sender and controller, the receiver can reconstruct the target state by means of appropriate unitary operation. Unit success probability can be achieved for arbitrary two-qubit states. Different from some previous CRSP schemes utilizing partially entangled channels, auxiliary qubit is not required in our scheme. We also show that the success probability is independent of the parameters of the partially entangled quantum channel.

  16. Spin-entangled currents created by a triple quantum dot.

    PubMed

    Saraga, Daniel S; Loss, Daniel

    2003-04-25

    We propose a simple setup of three coupled quantum dots in the Coulomb blockade regime as a source for spatially separated currents of spin-entangled electrons. The entanglement originates from the singlet ground state of a quantum dot with an even number of electrons. To preserve the entanglement of the electron pair during its extraction to the drain leads, the electrons are transported through secondary dots. This prevents one-electron transport by energy mismatch, while joint transport is resonantly enhanced by conservation of the total two-electron energy. PMID:12731992

  17. Converting Nonclassicality into Entanglement.

    PubMed

    Killoran, N; Steinhoff, F E S; Plenio, M B

    2016-02-26

    Quantum mechanics exhibits a wide range of nonclassical features, of which entanglement in multipartite systems takes a central place. In several specific settings, it is well known that nonclassicality (e.g., squeezing, spin squeezing, coherence) can be converted into entanglement. In this work, we present a general framework, based on superposition, for structurally connecting and converting nonclassicality to entanglement. In addition to capturing the previously known results, this framework also allows us to uncover new entanglement convertibility theorems in two broad scenarios, one which is discrete and one which is continuous. In the discrete setting, the classical states can be any finite linearly independent set. For the continuous setting, the pertinent classical states are "symmetric coherent states," connected with symmetric representations of the group SU(K). These results generalize and link convertibility properties from the resource theory of coherence, spin coherent states, and optical coherent states, while also revealing important connections between local and nonlocal pictures of nonclassicality. PMID:26967398

  18. Practical Entanglement Estimation for Spin-System Quantum Simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, O.; Cramer, M.; Plenio, M. B.

    2016-03-01

    We present practical methods to measure entanglement for quantum simulators that can be realized with trapped ions, cold atoms, and superconducting qubits. Focusing on long- and short-range Ising-type Hamiltonians, we introduce schemes that are applicable under realistic experimental conditions including mixedness due to, e.g., noise or temperature. In particular, we identify a single observable whose expectation value serves as a lower bound to entanglement and that may be obtained by a simple quantum circuit. As such circuits are not (yet) available for every platform, we investigate the performance of routinely measured observables as quantitative entanglement witnesses. Possible applications include experimental studies of entanglement scaling in critical systems and the reliable benchmarking of quantum simulators.

  19. Practical Entanglement Estimation for Spin-System Quantum Simulators.

    PubMed

    Marty, O; Cramer, M; Plenio, M B

    2016-03-11

    We present practical methods to measure entanglement for quantum simulators that can be realized with trapped ions, cold atoms, and superconducting qubits. Focusing on long- and short-range Ising-type Hamiltonians, we introduce schemes that are applicable under realistic experimental conditions including mixedness due to, e.g., noise or temperature. In particular, we identify a single observable whose expectation value serves as a lower bound to entanglement and that may be obtained by a simple quantum circuit. As such circuits are not (yet) available for every platform, we investigate the performance of routinely measured observables as quantitative entanglement witnesses. Possible applications include experimental studies of entanglement scaling in critical systems and the reliable benchmarking of quantum simulators. PMID:27015489

  20. Optimized entanglement purification schemes for modular based quantum computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krastanov, Stefan; Jiang, Liang

    The choice of entanglement purification scheme strongly depends on the fidelities of quantum gates and measurements, as well as the imperfection of initial entanglement. For instance, the purification scheme optimal at low gate fidelities may not necessarily be the optimal scheme at higher gate fidelities. We employ an evolutionary algorithm that efficiently optimizes the entanglement purification circuit for given system parameters. Such optimized purification schemes will boost the performance of entanglement purification, and consequently enhance the fidelity of teleportation-based non-local coupling gates, which is an indispensible building block for modular-based quantum computers. In addition, we study how these optimized purification schemes affect the resource overhead caused by error correction in modular based quantum computers.

  1. Quantum Discord and Entanglement of Quasi-Werner States Based on Bipartite Entangled Coherent States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Manoj K.; Maurya, Ajay K.; Prakash, Hari

    2016-06-01

    Present work is an attempt to compare quantum discord and quantum entanglement of quasi-Werner states formed with the four bipartite entangled coherent states (ECS) used recently for quantum teleportation of a qubit encoded in superposed coherent state. Out of these, the quasi-Werner states based on maximally ECS due to its invariant nature under local operation is independent of measurement basis and mean photon numbers, while for quasi-Werner states based on non-maximally ECS, it depends upon measurement basis as well as on mean photon number. However, for large mean photon numbers since non-maximally ECS becomes almost maximally entangled therefore dependence of quantum discord for non-maximally ECS based quasi-Werner states on the measurement basis disappears.

  2. Path Entanglement of Continuous-Variable Quantum Microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, E. P.; Deppe, F.; Eder, P.; Zhong, L.; Haeberlein, M.; Baust, A.; Hoffmann, E.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.; di Candia, R.; Solano, E.; Ballester, D.; Ihmig, M.; Inomata, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Nakamura, Y.

    2013-03-01

    Entanglement is a quantum mechanical phenomenon playing a key role in quantum communication and information processing protocols. Here, we report on frequency-degenerate entanglement between continuous-variable quantum microwaves propagating along two separated paths. In our experiment, we combine a squeezed and a vacuum state via a beam splitter. Overcoming the challenges imposed by the low photon energies in the microwave regime, we reconstruct the squeezed state and, independently from this, detect and quantify the produced entanglement via correlation measurements (E. P. Menzel et al., arXiv:1210.4413). Our work paves the way towards quantum communication and teleportation with continuous variables in the microwave regime. This work is supported by SFB 631, German Excellence Initiative via NIM, EU projects SOLID, CCQED and PROMISCE, MEXT Kakenhi ``Quantum Cybernetics'', JSPS FIRST Program, the NICT Commissioned Research, EPSRC EP/H050434/1, Basque Government IT472-10, and Spanish MICINN FIS2009-12773-C02-01.

  3. Universal Entanglement Entropy in 2D Conformal Quantum Critical Points

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Benjamin; Mulligan, Michael; Fradkin, Eduardo; Kim, Eun-Ah

    2008-12-05

    We study the scaling behavior of the entanglement entropy of two dimensional conformal quantum critical systems, i.e. systems with scale invariant wave functions. They include two-dimensional generalized quantum dimer models on bipartite lattices and quantum loop models, as well as the quantum Lifshitz model and related gauge theories. We show that, under quite general conditions, the entanglement entropy of a large and simply connected sub-system of an infinite system with a smooth boundary has a universal finite contribution, as well as scale-invariant terms for special geometries. The universal finite contribution to the entanglement entropy is computable in terms of the properties of the conformal structure of the wave function of these quantum critical systems. The calculation of the universal term reduces to a problem in boundary conformal field theory.

  4. Generation of entanglement in quantum parametric oscillators using phase control

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Henao, J. C.; Pugliese, E.; Euzzor, S.; Abdalah, S.F.; Meucci, R.; Roversi, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The control of quantum entanglement in systems in contact with environment plays an important role in information processing, cryptography and quantum computing. However, interactions with the environment, even when very weak, entail decoherence in the system with consequent loss of entanglement. Here we consider a system of two coupled oscillators in contact with a common heat bath and with a time dependent oscillation frequency. The possibility to control the entanglement of the oscillators by means of an external sinusoidal perturbation applied to the oscillation frequency has been theoretically explored. We demonstrate that the oscillators become entangled exactly in the region where the classical counterpart is unstable, otherwise when the classical system is stable, entanglement is not possible. Therefore, we can control the entanglement swapping from stable to unstable regions by adjusting amplitude and phase of our external controller. We also show that the entanglement rate is approximately proportional to the real part of the Floquet coefficient of the classical counterpart of the oscillators. Our results have the intriguing peculiarity of manipulating quantum information operating on a classical system. PMID:26286485

  5. Generation of entanglement in quantum parametric oscillators using phase control.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Henao, J C; Pugliese, E; Euzzor, S; Abdalah, S F; Meucci, R; Roversi, J A

    2015-01-01

    The control of quantum entanglement in systems in contact with environment plays an important role in information processing, cryptography and quantum computing. However, interactions with the environment, even when very weak, entail decoherence in the system with consequent loss of entanglement. Here we consider a system of two coupled oscillators in contact with a common heat bath and with a time dependent oscillation frequency. The possibility to control the entanglement of the oscillators by means of an external sinusoidal perturbation applied to the oscillation frequency has been theoretically explored. We demonstrate that the oscillators become entangled exactly in the region where the classical counterpart is unstable, otherwise when the classical system is stable, entanglement is not possible. Therefore, we can control the entanglement swapping from stable to unstable regions by adjusting amplitude and phase of our external controller. We also show that the entanglement rate is approximately proportional to the real part of the Floquet coefficient of the classical counterpart of the oscillators. Our results have the intriguing peculiarity of manipulating quantum information operating on a classical system. PMID:26286485

  6. Transfer of entangled state, entanglement swapping and quantum information processing via the Rydberg blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Li; Chen, Ai-Xi; Zhang, Jian-Song

    2011-11-01

    We provide a scheme with which the transfer of the entangled state and the entanglement swapping can be realized in a system of neutral atoms via the Rydberg blockade. Our idea can be extended to teleport an unknown atomic state. According to the latest theoretical research of the Rydberg excitation and experimental reports of the Rydberg blockade effect in quantum information processing, we discuss the experimental feasibility of our scheme.

  7. Protecting bipartite entanglement by quantum interferences

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Sumanta; Agarwal, G. S.

    2010-05-15

    We show that vacuum-induced coherence in three-level atomic systems can lead to preservation of bipartite entanglement when two such atoms are prepared as two initially entangled qubits, each independently interacting with their respective vacuum reservoirs. We explicitly calculate the time evolution of concurrence for two different Bell states and show that a large amount of entanglement can survive in the long time limit. The amount of entanglement left between the two qubits depends strongly on the ratio of the nonorthogonal transitions in each qubit and can be more than 50%. Moreover, we find that as a consequence of vacuum-induced coherence, sudden death of entanglement is prevented for an initial mixed entangled state of the qubits.

  8. Quantum communication using a multiqubit entangled channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Shohini; Hamel, Angele

    2015-12-01

    We describe a protocol in which two senders each teleport a qubit to a receiver using a multiqubit entangled state. The multiqubit channel used for teleportation is genuinely 4-qubit entangled and is not equivalent to a product of maximally entangled Bell pairs under local unitary operations. We discuss a scenario in which both senders must participate for the qubits to be successfully teleported. Such an all-or-nothing scheme cannot be implemented with standard two-qubit entangled Bell pairs and can be useful for different communication and computing tasks.

  9. Quantum communication using a multiqubit entangled channel

    SciTech Connect

    Ghose, Shohini; Hamel, Angele

    2015-12-31

    We describe a protocol in which two senders each teleport a qubit to a receiver using a multiqubit entangled state. The multiqubit channel used for teleportation is genuinely 4-qubit entangled and is not equivalent to a product of maximally entangled Bell pairs under local unitary operations. We discuss a scenario in which both senders must participate for the qubits to be successfully teleported. Such an all-or-nothing scheme cannot be implemented with standard two-qubit entangled Bell pairs and can be useful for different communication and computing tasks.

  10. Entanglement Dynamics in a Model Tripartite Quantum System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Pradip; Sudarsan, B.; Lakshmibala, S.; Balakrishnan, V.

    2016-09-01

    A Λ-type atom interacting with two radiation fields exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency and other nonclassical effects that appear in the entanglement dynamics of the atomic subsystem and in appropriate field observables. Both EIT and field-atom entanglement are important for quantum information processing. We investigate the roles played by specific initial field states, detuning parameters, field nonlinearities and intensity-dependent field-atom couplings on EIT and the entanglement between subsystems. Departure from coherence of the initial field states produces significant effects. We investigate these aspects in a model that exhibits the salient features of entangled tripartite systems. For initial photon-added coherent states, collapses and revivals of the atomic subsystem von Neumann entropy appear as the intensity parameter varies over a narrow range of values. These features could be useful in enabling entanglement.

  11. Entanglement Dynamics in a Model Tripartite Quantum System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Pradip; Sudarsan, B.; Lakshmibala, S.; Balakrishnan, V.

    2016-05-01

    A Λ-type atom interacting with two radiation fields exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency and other nonclassical effects that appear in the entanglement dynamics of the atomic subsystem and in appropriate field observables. Both EIT and field-atom entanglement are important for quantum information processing. We investigate the roles played by specific initial field states, detuning parameters, field nonlinearities and intensity-dependent field-atom couplings on EIT and the entanglement between subsystems. Departure from coherence of the initial field states produces significant effects. We investigate these aspects in a model that exhibits the salient features of entangled tripartite systems. For initial photon-added coherent states, collapses and revivals of the atomic subsystem von Neumann entropy appear as the intensity parameter varies over a narrow range of values. These features could be useful in enabling entanglement.

  12. Quantum entanglement in three accelerating qubits coupled to scalar fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yue; Shen, Zhejun; Shi, Yu

    2016-07-01

    We consider quantum entanglement of three accelerating qubits, each of which is locally coupled with a real scalar field, without causal influence among the qubits or among the fields. The initial states are assumed to be the GHZ and W states, which are the two representative three-partite entangled states. For each initial state, we study how various kinds of entanglement depend on the accelerations of the three qubits. All kinds of entanglement eventually suddenly die if at least two of three qubits have large enough accelerations. This result implies the eventual sudden death of all kinds of entanglement among three particles coupled with scalar fields when they are sufficiently close to the horizon of a black hole.

  13. Geometric descriptions of entangled states by auxiliary varieties

    SciTech Connect

    Holweck, Frederic; Luque, Jean-Gabriel; Thibon, Jean-Yves

    2012-10-15

    The aim of the paper is to propose geometric descriptions of multipartite entangled states using algebraic geometry. In the context of this paper, geometric means each stratum of the Hilbert space, corresponding to an entangled state, is an open subset of an algebraic variety built by classical geometric constructions (tangent lines, secant lines) from the set of separable states. In this setting, we describe well-known classifications of multipartite entanglement such as 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 Multiplication-Sign (n+ 1), for n Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 1, quantum systems and a new description with the 2 Multiplication-Sign 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 quantum system. Our results complete the approach of Miyake and make stronger connections with recent work of algebraic geometers. Moreover, for the quantum systems detailed in this paper, we propose an algorithm, based on the classical theory of invariants, to decide to which subvariety of the Hilbert space a given state belongs.

  14. Quantum teleportation of composite systems via mixed entangled states

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, Somshubhro; Sanders, Barry C.

    2006-09-15

    We analyze quantum teleportation for composite systems, specifically for concatenated teleporation (decomposing a large composite state into smaller states of dimension commensurate with the channel) and partial teleportation (teleporting one component of a larger quantum state). We obtain an exact expression for teleportation fidelity that depends solely on the dimension and singlet fraction for the entanglement channel and entanglement (measures by I concurrence) for the state; in fact quantum teleportation for composite systems provides an operational interpretation for I concurrence. In addition we obtain tight bounds on teleportation fidelity and prove that the average fidelity approaches the lower bound of teleportation fidelity in the high-dimension limit.

  15. Gravity from entanglement close to a quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Entanglement entropy (EE) in quantum many-body systems reveal interesting non-local aspects of the state or phase of the system. For example, topological order in gapped phases may be characterized in this way. We present calculations of entanglement close to a quantum critical point with relativistic invariance that reveal the existence of an emergent gravitational theory in one higher dimension. The gravitational theory encodes the entanglement of the quantum system in an efficient way. In this way calculations of EE, a usually notoriously difficult quantity to calculate, are reduced to a simple computation in classical gravity. The answer we find is in the spirit of the AdS/CFT duality but goes beyond it since our results apply to any relativistic quantum critical point and not just the known theories with classical gravity duals.

  16. Entanglement, EPR correlations, and mesoscopic quantum superposition by the high-gain quantum injected parametric amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Caminati, Marco; De Martini, Francesco; Perris, Riccardo; Secondi, Veronica; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2006-12-15

    We investigate the multiparticle quantum superposition and the persistence of bipartite entanglement of the output field generated by the quantum injected high-gain optical parametric amplification of a single photon. The physical configuration based on the optimal universal quantum cloning has been adopted to investigate how the entanglement and the quantum coherence of the system persists for large values of the nonlinear parametric gain g.

  17. Entangling polaritons via dynamical Casimir effect in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossatto, D. Z.; Felicetti, S.; Eneriz, H.; Rico, E.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate theoretically how the dynamical Casimir effect can entangle quantum systems in different coupling regimes of circuit quantum electrodynamics, and show the robustness of such entanglement generation against dissipative effects, considering experimental parameters of current technology. We consider two qubit-resonator systems, which are coupled by a SQUID driven with an external magnetic field, and explore the entire range of coupling regimes between each qubit and its resonator. In this scheme, we derive a semianalytic explanation for the entanglement generation between both superconducting qubits when they are coupled to their resonators in the strong coupling regime. For the ultrastrong and deep strong coupling regimes, we design experimentally feasible theoretical protocols to generate maximally entangled polaritonic states.

  18. Maximal atom-photon entanglement in a double- quantum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordi, Zeinab; Ghanbari, Saeed; Mahmoudi, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    The atom-photon entanglement of a dressed atom and its spontaneous emission in a double- closed-loop atomic system is studied under multi-photon resonance condition. It is shown that even in the absence of quantum interference due to the spontaneous emission, the von Neumann entropy is phase-sensitive and it can be controlled by either intensity or relative phase of the applied fields. It is demonstrated that for the special case of Rabi frequency of the applied fields, the system is maximally entangled. Moreover, an open-loop configuration is considered, and it is shown that the degree of entanglement can be controlled by intensity of the applied fields. Furthermore, in electromagnetically induced transparency condition, the system is disentangled. Such a system can be used for quantum information processing via entanglement using optical switching.

  19. Entanglement of two, three, or four plasmonically coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Matthew; Shah, Raman A.; Scherer, Norbert F.; Min, Misun; Pelton, Matthew; Gray, Stephen K.

    2015-09-01

    We model the quantum dynamics of two, three, or four quantum dots (QDs) in proximity to a plasmonic system such as a metal nanoparticle or an array of metal nanoparticles. For all systems, an initial state with only one QD in its excited state evolves spontaneously into a state with entanglement between all pairs of QDs. The entanglement arises from the couplings of the QDs to the dissipative, plasmonic environment. Moreover, we predict that similarly entangled states can be generated in systems with appropriate geometries, starting in their ground states, by exciting the entire system with a single, ultrafast laser pulse. By using a series of repeated pulses, the system can also be prepared in an entangled state at an arbitrary time.

  20. Generation of heralded entanglement between distant quantum dot hole spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delteil, Aymeric

    Entanglement plays a central role in fundamental tests of quantum mechanics as well as in the burgeoning field of quantum information processing. Particularly in the context of quantum networks and communication, some of the major challenges are the efficient generation of entanglement between stationary (spin) and propagating (photon) qubits, the transfer of information from flying to stationary qubits, and the efficient generation of entanglement between distant stationary (spin) qubits. In this talk, I will present such experimental implementations achieved in our team with semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots.Not only are self-assembled quantum dots good single-photon emitters, but they can host an electron or a hole whose spin serves as a quantum memory, and then present spin-dependent optical selection rules leading to an efficient spin-photon quantum interface. Moreover InGaAs quantum dots grown on GaAs substrate can profit from the maturity of III-V semiconductor technology and can be embedded in semiconductor structures like photonic cavities and Schottky diodes.I will report on the realization of heralded quantum entanglement between two semiconductor quantum dot hole spins separated by more than five meters. The entanglement generation scheme relies on single photon interference of Raman scattered light from both dots. A single photon detection projects the system into a maximally entangled state. We developed a delayed two-photon interference scheme that allows for efficient verification of quantum correlations. Moreover the efficient spin-photon interface provided by self-assembled quantum dots allows us to reach an unprecedented rate of 2300 entangled spin pairs per second, which represents an improvement of four orders of magnitude as compared to prior experiments carried out in other systems.Our results extend previous demonstrations in single trapped ions or neutral atoms, in atom ensembles and nitrogen vacancy centers to the domain of

  1. Protecting quantum entanglement and nonlocality for tripartite states under decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Yin, Yu Hao; Ma, Wen Chao; Ye, Liu

    2016-06-01

    Quantum entanglement and nonlocality will suffer inevitable harm from decoherence environment. Based on GHZ state, we study the harm of the generalized amplitude damping (GAD) operation and the protection by the single local filtering (SLF) operation in this paper. We verify that the SLF functions to depress the loss of entanglement and nonlocality from GAD. This conclusion will guide us to select the best method to protect the GHZ state from GAD decoherence.

  2. Groverian entanglement measure of pure quantum states with arbitrary partitions

    SciTech Connect

    Shimoni, Yishai; Biham, Ofer

    2007-02-15

    The Groverian entanglement measure of pure quantum states of n qubits is generalized to the case in which the qubits are divided into any p{<=}n parties. The entanglement between these parties is evaluated numerically using an efficient parametrization. To demonstrate this measure we apply it to symmetric states such as the Greenberg-Horne-Zeiliner state and the W state. Interestingly, this measure is equivalent to an entanglement measure introduced earlier [H. Barnum and N. Linden, J. Phys. A 34, 6787 (2001)], using different considerations.

  3. Thermal entangled four-level quantum Otto heat engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xian; He, JiZhou

    2012-10-01

    Based on a two-qubit isotropic Heisenberg XXX model with a constant external magnetic field, we construct a four-level entangled quantum heat engine (QHE). The expressions for several thermodynamic quantities such as the heat transferred, the work and efficiency are derived. Moreover, the influence of the entanglement on the thermodynamic quantities is investigated analytically and numerically. Several interesting features of the variation of the heat transferred, the work and the efficiency with the concurrences of the thermal entanglement of different thermal equilibrium states are obtained.

  4. Multiparty Controlled Deterministic Secure Quantum Communication Through Entanglement Swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Li; Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Gao, Ya-Jun; Chi, Feng

    A three-party controlled deterministic secure quantum communication scheme through entanglement swapping is proposed firstly. In the scheme, the sender needs to prepare a class of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states which are used as quantum channel. The two communicators may securely communicate under the control of the controller if the quantum channel is safe. The roles of the sender, the receiver, and the controller can be exchanged owing to the symmetry of the quantum channel. Different from other controlled quantum secure communication schemes, the scheme needs lesser additional classical information for transferring secret information. Finally, it is generalized to a multiparty controlled deterministic secure quantum communication scheme.

  5. Multi-state Quantum Teleportation via One Entanglement State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ying; Zeng, Gui-Hua; Moon Ho, Lee

    2008-08-01

    A multi-sender-controlled quantum teleportation scheme is proposed to teleport several secret quantum states from different senders to a distance receiver based on only one Einstein Podolsky Rosen (EPR) pair with controlled-NOT (CNOT) gates. In the present scheme, several secret single-qubit quantum states are encoded into a multi-qubit entangled quantum state. Two communication modes, i.e., the detecting mode and the message mode, are employed so that the eavesdropping can be detected easily and the teleported message may be recovered efficiently. It has an advantage over teleporting several different quantum states for one scheme run with more efficiency than the previous quantum teleportation schemes.

  6. Quantum coherence and entanglement control for atom-cavity systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Wenchong

    Coherence and entanglement play a significant role in the quantum theory. Ideal quantum systems, "closed" to the outside world, remain quantum forever and thus manage to retain coherence and entanglement. Real quantum systems, however, are open to the environment and are therefore susceptible to the phenomenon of decoherence and disentanglement which are major hindrances to the effectiveness of quantum information processing tasks. In this thesis we have theoretically studied the evolution of coherence and entanglement in quantum systems coupled to various environments. We have also studied ways and means of controlling the decay of coherence and entanglement. We have studied the exact qubit entanglement dynamics of some interesting initial states coupled to a high-Q cavity containing zero photon, one photon, two photons and many photons respectively. We have found that an initially correlated environmental state can serve as an enhancer for entanglement decay or generation processes. More precisely, we have demonstrated that the degree of entanglement, including its collapse as well as its revival times, can be significantly modified by the correlated structure of the environmental modes. We have also studied dynamical decoupling (DD) technique --- a prominent strategy of controlling decoherence and preserving entanglement in open quantum systems. We have analyzed several DD control methods applied to qubit systems that can eliminate the system-environment coupling and prolong the quantum coherence time. Particularly, we have proposed a new DD sequence consisting a set of designed control operators that can universally protected an unknown qutrit state against colored phase and amplitude environment noises. In addition, in a non-Markovian regime, we have reformulated the quantum state diffusion (QSD) equation to incorporate the effect of the external control fields. Without any assumptions on the system-environment coupling and the size of environment, we have

  7. Reexamination of entanglement and the quantum phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, M.-F.

    2005-03-01

    We show that, for an exactly solvable quantum spin model, a discontinuity in the first derivative of the ground-state concurrence appears in the absence of a quantum phase transition. It is opposed to the popular belief that the nonanalyticity property of ground-state concurrence can be used to determine quantum phase transitions. We further point out that the analyticity property of the ground-state concurrence in general can be more intricate than that of the ground-state energy. Thus there is no one-to-one correspondence between quantum phase transitions and the nonanalyticity property of the concurrence. Moreover, we show that the von Neumann entropy, as another measure of entanglement, cannot reveal quantum phase transitions in the present model. Therefore, in order to link with quantum phase transitions, some other measures of entanglement are needed.

  8. Revisiting Quantum Authentication Scheme Based on Entanglement Swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri, Mosayeb

    2016-05-01

    The crucial issue of quantum communication protocol is its security. In this paper, the security of the Quantum Authentication Scheme Based on Entanglement Swapping proposed by Penghao et al. (Int J Theor Phys., doi: 10.1007/s10773-015-2662-7) is reanalyzed. It is shown that the original does not complete the task of quantum authentication and communication securely. Furthermore a simple improvement on the protocol is proposed.

  9. Finiteness of entanglement entropy in a quantum black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Wen-Yu

    2016-03-01

    A logarithmic but divergent term usually appears in the computation of entanglement entropy circumferencing a black hole, while the leading quantum correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy also takes the logarithmic form. A quench model of CFT within finite Euclidean time was proposed by Kuwakino and Wen (JHEP, 05 (2015) 099) to regard this logarithmic term as entanglement between radiation and the black hole, and this proposal was justified by the alternative sign for n-partite quantum information. However, this preliminary form suffers from the notorious divergence at its low-temperature limit. In this letter, we propose a modified form for black-hole entanglement entropy such that the divergence sickness can be cured. We discuss the final stage of a black hole due to this modification and its relation to the Rényi entropy, higher-loop quantum correction and higher-spin black holes.

  10. Bell states and entanglement dynamics on two coupled quantum molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, P.A.; Sanz, L.

    2015-05-15

    This work provides a complete description of entanglement properties between electrons inside coupled quantum molecules, nanoestructures which consist of two quantum dots. Each electron can tunnel between the two quantum dots inside the molecule, being also coupled by Coulomb interaction. First, it is shown that Bell states act as a natural basis for the description of this physical system, defining the characteristics of the energy spectrum and the eigenstates. Then, the entanglement properties of the eigenstates are discussed, shedding light on the roles of each physical parameters on experimental setup. Finally, a detailed analysis of the dynamics shows the path to generate states with a high degree of entanglement, as well as physical conditions associated with coherent oscillations between separable and Bell states.

  11. Entanglement of quantum circular states of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horoshko, D. B.; De Bièvre, S.; Kolobov, M. I.; Patera, G.

    2016-06-01

    We present a general approach to calculating the entanglement of formation for superpositions of two-mode coherent states, placed equidistantly on a circle in phase space. We show that in the particular case of rotationally invariant circular states the Schmidt decomposition of two modes, and therefore the value of their entanglement, are given by analytical expressions. We analyze the dependence of the entanglement on the radius of the circle and number of components in the superposition. We also show that the set of rotationally invariant circular states creates an orthonormal basis in the state space of the harmonic oscillator, and this basis is advantageous for representation of other circular states of light.

  12. Entanglement witness operator for quantum teleportation.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Nirman; Adhikari, Satyabrata; Majumdar, A S; Chatterjee, Jyotishman

    2011-12-30

    The ability of entangled states to act as a resource for teleportation is linked to a property of the fully entangled fraction. We show that the set of states with their fully entangled fraction bounded by a threshold value required for performing teleportation is both convex and compact. This feature enables the existence of Hermitian witness operators, the measurement of which could distinguish unknown states useful for performing teleportation. We present an example of such a witness operator illustrating it for different classes of states. PMID:22243295

  13. Entanglement replication via quantum repeated interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendenbaum, Pierre; Platini, Thierry; Karevski, Dragi

    2015-04-01

    We study entanglement creation between two independent XX chains, which are repeatedly coupled locally to spin-1/2 Bell pairs. We show analytically that in the steady state the entanglement of the Bell pairs is perfectly transferred to the chains, generating large-scale interchain pair correlations. However, before the steady state is reached, within a growing causal region around the interacting locus the chains are found in a current driven nonequilibrium steady state (NESS). In the NESS, the chains cross entanglement decays exponentially with respect to the distance to the boundary sites with a typical length scale which is inversely proportional to the driving current.

  14. Mutually unbiased bases and bound entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Löffler, Wolfgang

    2014-04-01

    In this contribution we relate two different key concepts: mutually unbiased bases (MUBs) and entanglement. We provide a general toolbox for analyzing and comparing entanglement of quantum states for different dimensions and numbers of particles. In particular we focus on bound entanglement, i.e. highly mixed states which cannot be distilled by local operations and classical communications. For a certain class of states—for which the state-space forms a ‘magic’ simplex—we analyze the set of bound entangled states detected by the MUB criterion for different dimensions d and number of particles n. We find that the geometry is similar for different d and n, consequently the MUB criterion opens possibilities to investigate the typicality of positivity under partial transposition (PPT)-bound and multipartite bound entanglement more deeply and provides a simple experimentally feasible tool to detect bound entanglement.

  15. Entangled coherent states versus entangled photon pairs for practical quantum-information processing

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Kimin; Jeong, Hyunseok

    2010-12-15

    We compare effects of decoherence and detection inefficiency on entangled coherent states (ECSs) and entangled photon pairs (EPPs), both of which are known to be particularly useful for quantum-information processing (QIP). When decoherence effects caused by photon losses are heavy, the ECSs outperform the EPPs as quantum channels for teleportation both in fidelities and in success probabilities. On the other hand, when inefficient detectors are used, the teleportation scheme using the ECSs suffers undetected errors that result in the degradation of fidelity, while this is not the case for the teleportation scheme using the EPPs. Our study reveals the merits and demerits of the two types of entangled states in realizing practical QIP under realistic conditions.

  16. Gravity-matter entanglement in Regge quantum gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paunković, Nikola; Vojinović, Marko

    2016-03-01

    We argue that Hartle-Hawking states in the Regge quantum gravity model generically contain non-trivial entanglement between gravity and matter fields. Generic impossibility to talk about “matter in a point of space” is in line with the idea of an emergent spacetime, and as such could be taken as a possible candidate for a criterion for a plausible theory of quantum gravity. Finally, this new entanglement could be seen as an additional “effective interaction”, which could possibly bring corrections to the weak equivalence principle.

  17. Entanglement in algebraic quantum mechanics: Majorana fermion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benatti, F.; Floreanini, R.

    2016-07-01

    Many-body entanglement is studied within the algebraic approach to quantum physics in systems made of Majorana fermions. In this framework, the notion of separability stems from partitions of the algebra of observables and properties of the associated correlation functions, rather than on particle tensor products. This allows a complete characterization of non-separable Majorana fermion states to be obtained. These results may have direct application in quantum metrology: using Majorana systems, sub-shot-noise accuracy in parameter estimations can be achieved without preliminary resource-consuming, state entanglement operations.

  18. Minimum-error discrimination of entangled quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y.; Coish, N.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Hamel, D. R.; Resch, K. J.; Croke, S.

    2010-10-15

    Strategies to optimally discriminate between quantum states are critical in quantum technologies. We present an experimental demonstration of minimum-error discrimination between entangled states, encoded in the polarization of pairs of photons. Although the optimal measurement involves projection onto entangled states, we use a result of J. Walgate et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4972 (2000)] to design an optical implementation employing only local polarization measurements and feed-forward, which performs at the Helstrom bound. Our scheme can achieve perfect discrimination of orthogonal states and minimum-error discrimination of nonorthogonal states. Our experimental results show a definite advantage over schemes not using feed-forward.

  19. Entanglement dynamics of photon pairs emitted from quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yang; Gong, Ming; Li, Chuan-Feng; Chen, Geng; Tang, Jian-Shun; Guo, Guang-Can

    2010-06-15

    We present a model that describes states of photon pairs, which have been generated by biexciton cascade decays of self-assembled quantum dots, the use of which yields a finding that agrees well with the experimental result. Furthermore, we calculate the concurrence and determine the temperature behavior associated with the so-called entanglement sudden death that prevents quantum dots emitting entangled photon pairs at raised temperatures. The relationship between the fine-structure splitting and the sudden death temperature is also provided.

  20. Controlled mutual quantum entity authentication using entanglement swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min-Sung, Kang; Chang-Ho, Hong; Jino, Heo; Jong-In, Lim; Hyung-Jin, Yang

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we suggest a controlled mutual quantum entity authentication protocol by which two users mutually certify each other on a quantum network using a sequence of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-like states. Unlike existing unidirectional quantum entity authentication, our protocol enables mutual quantum entity authentication utilizing entanglement swapping; moreover, it allows the managing trusted center (TC) or trusted third party (TTP) to effectively control the certification of two users using the nature of the GHZ-like state. We will also analyze the security of the protocol and quantum channel. Project supported by the Research Foundation of Korea University.

  1. Quantum transitions and quantum entanglement from Dirac-like dynamics simulated by trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittencourt, Victor A. S. V.; Bernardini, Alex E.; Blasone, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Quantum transition probabilities and quantum entanglement for two-qubit states of a four-level trapped ion quantum system are computed for time-evolving ionic states driven by Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonians with interactions mapped onto a SU(2 )⊗SU(2 ) group structure. Using the correspondence of the method of simulating a 3 +1 dimensional Dirac-like Hamiltonian for bispinor particles into a single trapped ion, one preliminarily obtains the analytical tools for describing ionic state transition probabilities as a typical quantum oscillation feature. For Dirac-like structures driven by generalized Poincaré classes of coupling potentials, one also identifies the SU(2 )⊗SU(2 ) internal degrees of freedom corresponding to intrinsic parity and spin polarization as an adaptive platform for computing the quantum entanglement between the internal quantum subsystems which define two-qubit ionic states. The obtained quantum correlational content is then translated into the quantum entanglement of two-qubit ionic states with quantum numbers related to the total angular momentum and to its projection onto the direction of the trapping magnetic field. Experimentally, the controllable parameters simulated by ion traps can be mapped into a Dirac-like system in the presence of an electrostatic field which, in this case, is associated to ionic carrier interactions. Besides exhibiting a complete analytical profile for ionic quantum transitions and quantum entanglement, our results indicate that carrier interactions actively drive an overall suppression of the quantum entanglement.

  2. Entanglement and Quantum Error Correction with Superconducting Qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Quantum information science seeks to take advantage of the properties of quantum mechanics to manipulate information in ways that are not otherwise possible. Quantum computation, for example, promises to solve certain problems in days that would take a conventional supercomputer the age of the universe to decipher. This power does not come without a cost however, as quantum bits are inherently more susceptible to errors than their classical counterparts. Fortunately, it is possible to redundantly encode information in several entangled qubits, making it robust to decoherence and control imprecision with quantum error correction. I studied one possible physical implementation for quantum computing, employing the ground and first excited quantum states of a superconducting electrical circuit as a quantum bit. These ``transmon'' qubits are dispersively coupled to a superconducting resonator used for readout, control, and qubit-qubit coupling in the cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture. In this talk I will give an general introduction to quantum computation and the superconducting technology that seeks to achieve it before explaining some of the specific results reported in my thesis. One major component is that of the first realization of three-qubit quantum error correction in a solid state device, where we encode one logical quantum bit in three entangled physical qubits and detect and correct phase- or bit-flip errors using a three-qubit Toffoli gate. My thesis is available at arXiv:1311.6759.

  3. Nanoshell-mediated robust entanglement between coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakami, Jabir; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2016-02-01

    The exact entanglement dynamics in a hybrid structure consisting of two quantum dots (QDs) in the proximity of a metal nanoshell is investigated. Nanoshells can enhance the local density of states, leading to a strong-coupling regime where the excitation energy can coherently be transferred between the QDs and the nanoshell in the form of Rabi oscillations. The long-lived entangled states can be created deterministically by optimizing the shell thickness as well as the ratio of the distances between the QDs and the surface of the shell. The loss of the system is greatly reduced even when the QDs are ultraclose to the shell, which signifies a slow decay rate of the coherence information and longtime entanglement preservation. Our protocol allows for an on-demand, fast, and almost perfect entanglement even at strong carrier-phonon interaction where other systems fail.

  4. Entanglement and the sign structure of quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Tarun; Fisher, Matthew P. A.

    2015-10-01

    Many-body quantum eigenstates of generic Hamiltonians at finite-energy density typically satisfy the "volume law" of entanglement entropy: the von Neumann entanglement entropy and the Renyi entropies for a subregion scale in proportion to its volume. Here we provide a connection between the volume law and the sign structure of eigenstates. In particular, we ask the following question: Can a positive wave function support a volume law entanglement? Remarkably, we find that a typical random positive wave function exhibits a constant law for Renyi entanglement entropies Sn for n >1 , despite arbitrary large-amplitude fluctuations. We also provide evidence that the modulus of the finite-energy density eigenstates of generic local Hamiltonians shows similar behavior.

  5. Fundamental Entangling Operators in Quantum Mechanics and Their Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao-Ming, Lu

    2016-07-01

    For the first time, we introduce so-called fundamental entangling operators e^{iQ1 P2} and e^{iP1 Q2 } for composing bipartite entangled states of continuum variables, where Q i and P i ( i = 1, 2) are coordinate and momentum operator, respectively. We then analyze how these entangling operators naturally appear in the quantum image of classical quadratic coordinate transformation ( q 1, q 2) → ( A q 1 + B q 2, C q 1 + D q 2), where A D- B C = 1, which means even the basic coordinate transformation ( Q 1, Q 2) → ( A Q 1 + B Q 2, C Q 1 + D Q 2) involves entangling mechanism. We also analyse their Lie algebraic properties and use the integration technique within an ordered product of operators to show they are also one- and two- mode combinatorial squeezing operators.

  6. Fundamental Entangling Operators in Quantum Mechanics and Their Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao-Ming, Lu

    2016-02-01

    For the first time, we introduce so-called fundamental entangling operators e^{iQ1 P2} and e^{iP1 Q2 } for composing bipartite entangled states of continuum variables, where Q i and P i (i = 1, 2) are coordinate and momentum operator, respectively. We then analyze how these entangling operators naturally appear in the quantum image of classical quadratic coordinate transformation (q 1, q 2) → (A q 1 + B q 2, C q 1 + D q 2), where A D-B C = 1, which means even the basic coordinate transformation (Q 1, Q 2) → (A Q 1 + B Q 2, C Q 1 + D Q 2) involves entangling mechanism. We also analyse their Lie algebraic properties and use the integration technique within an ordered product of operators to show they are also one- and two- mode combinatorial squeezing operators.

  7. Deterministic generation of remote entanglement with active quantum feedback

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Martin, Leigh; Motzoi, Felix; Li, Hanhan; Sarovar, Mohan; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2015-12-10

    We develop and study protocols for deterministic remote entanglement generation using quantum feedback, without relying on an entangling Hamiltonian. In order to formulate the most effective experimentally feasible protocol, we introduce the notion of average-sense locally optimal feedback protocols, which do not require real-time quantum state estimation, a difficult component of real-time quantum feedback control. We use this notion of optimality to construct two protocols that can deterministically create maximal entanglement: a semiclassical feedback protocol for low-efficiency measurements and a quantum feedback protocol for high-efficiency measurements. The latter reduces to direct feedback in the continuous-time limit, whose dynamics can bemore » modeled by a Wiseman-Milburn feedback master equation, which yields an analytic solution in the limit of unit measurement efficiency. Our formalism can smoothly interpolate between continuous-time and discrete-time descriptions of feedback dynamics and we exploit this feature to derive a superior hybrid protocol for arbitrary nonunit measurement efficiency that switches between quantum and semiclassical protocols. Lastly, we show using simulations incorporating experimental imperfections that deterministic entanglement of remote superconducting qubits may be achieved with current technology using the continuous-time feedback protocol alone.« less

  8. Realizing quantum advantage without entanglement in single-photon states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado Trapp, Alejandra; Solano, Pablo; Hu, Anzi; Clark, Charles W.

    2016-05-01

    Quantum discord expresses quantum correlations beyond those associated with entanglement. Although it has been extensively studied theoretically, quantum discord has yet to become a standard tool in experimental studies of correlation. We propose a class of experiments in which quantum correlations are present in the absence of entanglement, and are best understood in terms of quantum discord.. These utilize X-states of two qubits, which correspond to the polarization and the optical path of a single photon within a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We show how to produce states with diverse measures of discord and entanglement, including the case of discord without entanglement. With these states we show how a classical random variable K can be encoded by Alice and decoded by Bob. Using our previous results we analytically study the correlations between the spin and path qubits and its relation with the information about K that can be decoded by Bob using local measurements with or without two-qubit gate operations.

  9. Deterministic generation of remote entanglement with active quantum feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Leigh; Motzoi, Felix; Li, Hanhan; Sarovar, Mohan; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2015-12-10

    We develop and study protocols for deterministic remote entanglement generation using quantum feedback, without relying on an entangling Hamiltonian. In order to formulate the most effective experimentally feasible protocol, we introduce the notion of average-sense locally optimal feedback protocols, which do not require real-time quantum state estimation, a difficult component of real-time quantum feedback control. We use this notion of optimality to construct two protocols that can deterministically create maximal entanglement: a semiclassical feedback protocol for low-efficiency measurements and a quantum feedback protocol for high-efficiency measurements. The latter reduces to direct feedback in the continuous-time limit, whose dynamics can be modeled by a Wiseman-Milburn feedback master equation, which yields an analytic solution in the limit of unit measurement efficiency. Our formalism can smoothly interpolate between continuous-time and discrete-time descriptions of feedback dynamics and we exploit this feature to derive a superior hybrid protocol for arbitrary nonunit measurement efficiency that switches between quantum and semiclassical protocols. Lastly, we show using simulations incorporating experimental imperfections that deterministic entanglement of remote superconducting qubits may be achieved with current technology using the continuous-time feedback protocol alone.

  10. Quantum entanglement for helium atom in the Debye plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yen-Chang; Fang, Te-Kuei; Ho, Yew Kam

    2015-03-15

    In the present work, we present an investigation on quantum entanglement of the two-electron helium atom immersed in weakly coupled Debye plasmas, modeled by the Debye-Hückel, or screened Coulomb, potential to mimic the interaction between two charged particles inside the plasma. Quantum entanglement is related to correlation effects in a multi-particle system. In a bipartite system, a measurement made on one of the two entangled particles affects the outcome of the other particle, even if such two particles are far apart. Employing wave functions constructed with configuration interaction B-spline basis, we have quantified von Neumann entropy and linear entropy for a series of He {sup 1,3}S{sup e} and {sup 1,3}P{sup o} states in plasma-embedded helium atom.

  11. Characterization of quantum phase transition using holographic entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Wu, Jian-Pin

    2016-06-01

    The entanglement exhibits extremal or singular behavior near quantum critical points (QCPs) in many condensed matter models. These intriguing phenomena, however, still call for a widely accepted understanding. In this paper we study this issue in holographic framework. We investigate the connection between the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) and the quantum phase transition (QPT) in a lattice-deformed Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory. Novel backgrounds exhibiting metal-insulator transitions (MIT) have been constructed in which both metallic phase and insulating phase have vanishing entropy density in zero temperature limit. We find that the first order derivative of HEE with respect to lattice parameters exhibits extremal behavior near QCPs. We propose that it would be a universal feature that HEE or its derivatives with respect to system parameters can characterize QPT in a generic holographic system. Our work opens a window for understanding the relation between entanglement and the QPT from a holographic perspective.

  12. Bulk Entanglement Spectrum Reveals Quantum Criticality within a Topological State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Timothy; Fu, Liang

    2014-03-01

    A quantum phase transition is usually achieved by tuning physical parameters in a Hamiltonian at zero temperature. Here, we demonstrate that the ground state of a topological phase itself encodes critical properties of its transition to a trivial phase. To extract this information, we introduce a partition of the system into two subsystems both of which extend throughout the bulk in all directions. The resulting bulk entanglement spectrum has a low-lying part that resembles the excitation spectrum of a bulk Hamiltonian, which allows us to access a topological phase transition from a single wavefunction by tuning either the geometry of the partition or the entanglement temperature. As an example, this remarkable correspondence between topological phase transition and entanglement criticality is rigorously established for integer quantum Hall states. TH is supported by NSF Graduate Research Fellowship No. 0645960. LF is partly supported by the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under award DE-SC0010526.

  13. Negativity and strong monogamy of multiparty quantum entanglement beyond qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Jeong San

    2015-10-01

    We propose the square of convex-roof extended negativity (SCREN) as a powerful candidate to characterize strong monogamy of multiparty quantum entanglement. We first provide a strong monogamy inequality of multiparty entanglement using SCREN and show that the tangle-based multiqubit strong-monogamy inequality can be rephrased by SCREN. We further show that the SCREN strong-monogamy inequality is still true for the counterexamples that violate tangle-based the strong-monogamy inequality in higher-dimensional quantum systems other than qubits. We also analytically show that SCREN strong-monogamy inequality is true for a large class of multiqudit states, a superposition of multiqudit generalized W -class states and vacuums. Thus SCREN is a good alternative to characterize the strong monogamy of entanglement even in multiqudit systems.

  14. Single-copy entanglement in critical quantum spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisert, J.; Cramer, M.

    2005-10-01

    We consider the single-copy entanglement as a quantity to assess quantum correlations in the ground state in quantum many-body systems. We show for a large class of models that already on the level of single specimens of spin chains, criticality is accompanied with the possibility of distilling a maximally entangled state of arbitrary dimension from a sufficiently large block deterministically, with local operations and classical communication. These analytical results—which refine previous results on the divergence of block entropy as the rate at which maximally entangled pairs can be distilled from many identically prepared chains—are made quantitative for general isotropic translationally invariant spin chains that can be mapped onto a quasifree fermionic system, and for the anisotropic XY model. For the XX model, we provide the asymptotic scaling of ˜(1/6)log2(L) , and contrast it with the block entropy.

  15. Multiparty quantum-key-distribution protocol without use of entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Ryutaroh

    2007-12-15

    We propose a quantum-key-distribution protocol that enables three parties to agree at once on a shared common random bit string in the presence of an eavesdropper without use of entanglement. We prove its unconditional security and analyze the key rate.

  16. Deterministic generation of remote entanglement with active quantum feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Leigh; Motzoi, Felix; Li, Hanhan; Sarovar, Mohan; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2015-12-01

    We consider the task of deterministically entangling two remote qubits using joint measurement and feedback, but no directly entangling Hamiltonian. In order to formulate the most effective experimentally feasible protocol, we introduce the notion of average-sense locally optimal feedback protocols, which do not require real-time quantum state estimation, a difficult component of real-time quantum feedback control. We use this notion of optimality to construct two protocols that can deterministically create maximal entanglement: a semiclassical feedback protocol for low-efficiency measurements and a quantum feedback protocol for high-efficiency measurements. The latter reduces to direct feedback in the continuous-time limit, whose dynamics can be modeled by a Wiseman-Milburn feedback master equation, which yields an analytic solution in the limit of unit measurement efficiency. Our formalism can smoothly interpolate between continuous-time and discrete-time descriptions of feedback dynamics and we exploit this feature to derive a superior hybrid protocol for arbitrary nonunit measurement efficiency that switches between quantum and semiclassical protocols. Finally, we show using simulations incorporating experimental imperfections that deterministic entanglement of remote superconducting qubits may be achieved with current technology using the continuous-time feedback protocol alone.

  17. Entanglement, Holography, and the Quantum Phases of Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Sachdev, Subir

    2012-11-07

    Electrons in many interesting materials, such as the high temperature superconductors, exhibit low energy states with complex varieties of quantum entanglement. I will describe how the methods of holography, drawn from string theory, have given us a new tool to describe such states, by relating them to theories of gravitation in curved spacetimes with an extra dimension. I will discuss the impact of such ideas on studies of quantum phase transitions, and of novel metals.

  18. Excitonic entanglement of protected states in quantum dot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, H. S.; Sanz, L.; Alcalde, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    The entanglement of an optically generated electron-hole pair in artificial quantum dot molecules is calculated considering the effects of decoherence by interaction with environment. Since the system evolves into mixed states and due to the complexity of energy level structure, we use the negativity as entanglement quantifier, which is well defined in D ⊗D‧ composite vector spaces. By a numerical analysis of the non-unitary dynamics of the exciton states, we establish the feasibility of producing protected entangled superposition by an appropriate tuning of bias electric field, F. A stationary state with a high value of negativity (high degree of entanglement) is obtained by fine tuning of F close to a resonant condition between indirect excitons. We also found that when the optical excitation is approximately equal to the electron tunneling coupling, Ω /Te ∼ 1, the entanglement reaches a maximum value. In front of the experimental feasibility of the specific condition mentioned before, our proposal becomes an useful strategy to find robust entangled states in condensed matter systems.

  19. Spin operator and entanglement in quantum field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Oh, C. H.; Zhang, Chengjie

    2014-07-01

    Entanglement is studied in the framework of Dyson's S-matrix theory in relativistic quantum field theory, which leads to a natural definition of entangled states of a particle-antiparticle pair and the spin operator from a Noether current. As an explicit example, the decay of a massive pseudo-scalar particle into a pair of electron and positron is analyzed. Two spin operators are extracted from the Noether current. The Wigner spin operator characterizes spin states at the rest frame of each fermion and, although not measurable in the laboratory, gives rise to a straightforward generalization of low-energy analysis of entanglement to the ultrarelativistic domain. In contrast, if one adopts a (modified) Dirac spin operator, the entanglement measured by spin correlation becomes maximal near the threshold of the decay, while the entanglement is replaced by the classical correlation for the ultrarelativistic electron-positron pair by analogy to the case of neutrinos, for which a hidden-variables type of description is possible. Chiral symmetry differentiates the spin angular momentum and the magnetic moment. The use of weak interaction that can measure helicity is suggested in the analysis of entanglement at high energies instead of a Stern-Gerlach apparatus, which is useless for the electron. A difference between the electron spin at high energies and the photon linear polarization is also noted. The Standard Model can describe all of the observable properties of leptons.

  20. Cavity-based architecture to preserve quantum coherence and entanglement

    PubMed Central

    Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie; Lo Franco, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Quantum technology relies on the utilization of resources, like quantum coherence and entanglement, which allow quantum information and computation processing. This achievement is however jeopardized by the detrimental effects of the environment surrounding any quantum system, so that finding strategies to protect quantum resources is essential. Non-Markovian and structured environments are useful tools to this aim. Here we show how a simple environmental architecture made of two coupled lossy cavities enables a switch between Markovian and non-Markovian regimes for the dynamics of a qubit embedded in one of the cavity. Furthermore, qubit coherence can be indefinitely preserved if the cavity without qubit is perfect. We then focus on entanglement control of two independent qubits locally subject to such an engineered environment and discuss its feasibility in the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics. With up-to-date experimental parameters, we show that our architecture allows entanglement lifetimes orders of magnitude longer than the spontaneous lifetime without local cavity couplings. This cavity-based architecture is straightforwardly extendable to many qubits for scalability. PMID:26351004

  1. Cavity-based architecture to preserve quantum coherence and entanglement.

    PubMed

    Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie; Lo Franco, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Quantum technology relies on the utilization of resources, like quantum coherence and entanglement, which allow quantum information and computation processing. This achievement is however jeopardized by the detrimental effects of the environment surrounding any quantum system, so that finding strategies to protect quantum resources is essential. Non-Markovian and structured environments are useful tools to this aim. Here we show how a simple environmental architecture made of two coupled lossy cavities enables a switch between Markovian and non-Markovian regimes for the dynamics of a qubit embedded in one of the cavity. Furthermore, qubit coherence can be indefinitely preserved if the cavity without qubit is perfect. We then focus on entanglement control of two independent qubits locally subject to such an engineered environment and discuss its feasibility in the framework of circuit quantum electrodynamics. With up-to-date experimental parameters, we show that our architecture allows entanglement lifetimes orders of magnitude longer than the spontaneous lifetime without local cavity couplings. This cavity-based architecture is straightforwardly extendable to many qubits for scalability. PMID:26351004

  2. Entanglement-secured single-qubit quantum secret sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Scherpelz, P.; Resch, R.; Berryrieser, D.; Lynn, T. W.

    2011-09-15

    In single-qubit quantum secret sharing, a secret is shared between N parties via manipulation and measurement of one qubit at a time. Each qubit is sent to all N parties in sequence; the secret is encoded in the first participant's preparation of the qubit state and the subsequent participants' choices of state rotation or measurement basis. We present a protocol for single-qubit quantum secret sharing using polarization entanglement of photon pairs produced in type-I spontaneous parametric downconversion. We investigate the protocol's security against eavesdropping attack under common experimental conditions: a lossy channel for photon transmission, and imperfect preparation of the initial qubit state. A protocol which exploits entanglement between photons, rather than simply polarization correlation, is more robustly secure. We implement the entanglement-based secret-sharing protocol with 87% secret-sharing fidelity, limited by the purity of the entangled state produced by our present apparatus. We demonstrate a photon-number splitting eavesdropping attack, which achieves no success against the entanglement-based protocol while showing the predicted rate of success against a correlation-based protocol.

  3. Quantum entanglement in the two-impurity Kondo model

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Sam Young; McKenzie, Ross H.

    2006-01-15

    In order to quantify quantum entanglement in two-impurity Kondo systems, we calculate the concurrence, negativity, and von Neumann entropy. The entanglement of the two Kondo impurities is shown to be determined by two competing many-body effects, namely the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction, I. Due to the spin-rotational invariance of the ground state, the concurrence and negativity are uniquely determined by the spin-spin correlation between the impurities. It is found that there exists a critical minimum value of the antiferromagnetic correlation between the impurity spins which is necessary for entanglement of the two impurity spins. The critical value is discussed in relation with the unstable fixed point in the two-impurity Kondo problem. Specifically, at the fixed point there is no entanglement between the impurity spins. Entanglement will only be created [and quantum information processing (QIP) will only be possible] if the RKKY interaction exchange energy, I, is at least several times larger than the Kondo temperature, T{sub K}. Quantitative criteria for QIP are given in terms of the impurity spin-spin correlation.

  4. Computable criterion for partial entanglement in continuous-variable quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, Andreas; Huber, Marcus; Radic, Sasa; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.

    2011-05-15

    A general and computable criterion for k-(in)separability in continuous multipartite quantum systems is presented. The criterion can be experimentally implemented with a finite and comparatively low number of local observables. We discuss in detail how the detection quality can be optimized.

  5. Quantum correlations through event horizons: Fermionic versus bosonic entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Martinez, Eduardo; Leon, Juan

    2010-03-15

    We disclose the behavior of quantum and classical correlations among all the different spatial-temporal regions of a space-time with an event horizon, comparing fermionic with bosonic fields. We show the emergence of conservation laws for entanglement and classical correlations, pointing out the crucial role that statistics plays in the information exchange (and more specifically, the entanglement tradeoff) across horizons. The results obtained here could shed new light on the problem of information behavior in noninertial frames and in the presence of horizons, giving better insight into the black-hole information paradox.

  6. Entangling power of permutation-invariant quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Popkov, Vladislav; Salerno, Mario; Schuetz, Gunter

    2005-09-15

    We investigate the von Neumann entanglement entropy as function of the size of a subsystem for permutation invariant ground states in models with finite number of states per site, e.g., in quantum spin models. We demonstrate that the entanglement entropy of n sites in a system of length L generically grows as {sigma} log{sub 2}[2{pi}en(L-n)/L]+C, where {sigma} is the on-site spin and C is a function depending only on magnetization.

  7. Quantum correlations through event horizons: Fermionic versus bosonic entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; León, Juan

    2010-03-01

    We disclose the behavior of quantum and classical correlations among all the different spatial-temporal regions of a space-time with an event horizon, comparing fermionic with bosonic fields. We show the emergence of conservation laws for entanglement and classical correlations, pointing out the crucial role that statistics plays in the information exchange (and more specifically, the entanglement tradeoff) across horizons. The results obtained here could shed new light on the problem of information behavior in noninertial frames and in the presence of horizons, giving better insight into the black-hole information paradox.

  8. Packet narrowing and quantum entanglement in photoionization and photodissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, M.V.; Efremov, M.A.; Kazakov, A.E.; Chan, K.W.; Eberly, J.H.; Law, C.K.

    2004-05-01

    The narrowing of electron and ion wave packets in the process of photoionization is investigated, with the electron-ion recoil taken fully into account. Packet localization of this type is directly related to entanglement in the joint quantum state of the electron and ion, and to Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen localization. Experimental observation of such packet-narrowing effects is suggested via coincidence registration by two detectors, with a fixed position of one and varying position of the other. A similar effect, typically with an enhanced degree of entanglement, is shown to occur in the case of photodissociation of molecules.

  9. Impact of quantum entanglement on spectrum of cosmological fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanno, Sugumi

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the effect of entanglement between two causally separated open charts in de Sitter space on the spectrum of vacuum fluctuations. We consider a free massive scalar field, and construct the reduced density matrix by tracing out the vacuum state for one of the open charts, as recently derived by Maldacena and Pimentel. We formulate the mean-square vacuum fluctuations by using the reduced density matrix and show that the scale invariant spectrum of massless scalar field is realized on small scales. On the other hand, we find that the quantum entanglement affects the shape of the spectrum on large scales comparable to or greater than the curvature radius.

  10. High-dimensional mode analyzers for spatial quantum entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Oemrawsingh, S. S. R.; Jong, J. A. de; Ma, X.; Aiello, A.; Eliel, E. R.; Hooft, G. W. 't; Woerdman, J. P.

    2006-03-15

    By analyzing entangled photon states in terms of high-dimensional spatial mode superpositions, it becomes feasible to expose high-dimensional entanglement, and even the nonlocality of twin photons. To this end, a proper analyzer should be designed that is capable of handling a large number of spatial modes, while still being convenient to use in an experiment. We compare two variants of a high-dimensional spatial mode analyzer on the basis of classical and quantum considerations. These analyzers have been tested in classical optical experiments.

  11. Entanglement of Two-Qubit Quantum Heisenberg XYZ Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xiao-Qiang; Hao, San-Ru; Chen, Wen-Xue; Yue, Rui-Hong

    2002-08-01

    We derive the analytic expression of the concurrence in the quantum Heisenberg XYZ model and discuss the influence of parameters J, Δ and Γ on the concurrence. By choosing different values of Γ and Δ, we obtain the XX, XY, XXX and XXZ chains. The concurrence decreases with increasing temperature. When T→0, the concurrence reaches its maximum value 1, i.e. the entangled state, |Ψ> = (((2)1/2)/2)(|01>-|10>), is maximum entanglement. For the XXZ chain, when Γ→∞, the concurrence will meet its maximum value Cmax = (sinh (1/T))/(cosh (1/T)).

  12. Optimal dynamics for quantum-state and entanglement transfer through homogeneous quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Banchi, L.; Apollaro, T. J. G.; Cuccoli, A.; Vaia, R.; Verrucchi, P.

    2010-11-15

    The capability of faithfully transmit quantum states and entanglement through quantum channels is one of the key requirements for the development of quantum devices. Different solutions have been proposed to accomplish such a challenging task, which, however, require either an ad hoc engineering of the internal interactions of the physical system acting as the channel or specific initialization procedures. Here we show that optimal dynamics for efficient quantum-state and entanglement transfer can be attained in generic quantum systems with homogeneous interactions by tuning the coupling between the system and the two attached qubits. We devise a general procedure to determine the optimal coupling, and we explicitly implement it in the case of a channel consisting of a spin-(1/2)XY chain. The quality of quantum-state and entanglement transfer is found to be very good and, remarkably, almost independent of the channel length.

  13. Improved algorithm for quantum separability and entanglement detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ioannou, L.M.; Ekert, A.K.; Travaglione, B.C.; Cheung, D.

    2004-12-01

    Determining whether a quantum state is separable or entangled is a problem of fundamental importance in quantum information science. It has recently been shown that this problem is NP-hard, suggesting that an efficient, general solution does not exist. There is a highly inefficient 'basic algorithm' for solving the quantum separability problem which follows from the definition of a separable state. By exploiting specific properties of the set of separable states, we introduce a classical algorithm that solves the problem significantly faster than the 'basic algorithm', allowing a feasible separability test where none previously existed, e.g., in 3x3-dimensional systems. Our algorithm also provides a unique tool in the experimental detection of entanglement.

  14. Locality, entanglement, and thermalization of isolated quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlebnikov, S.; Kruczenski, M.

    2014-11-01

    A way to understand thermalization in an isolated system is to interpret it as an increase in entanglement between subsystems. Here we test this idea through a combination of analytical and Krylov-subspace-based numerical methods applied to a quantum gas of bosons. We find that the entanglement entropy of a subsystem is rapidly generated at the initial state of the evolution, to quickly approach the thermal value. Our results also provide an accurate numerical test of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH), according to which a single energy eigenstate of an isolated system behaves in certain respects as a thermal state. In the context of quantum black holes, we propose that the ETH is a quantum version of the classical no-hair theorem.

  15. Quantum extremal surfaces: holographic entanglement entropy beyond the classical regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.

    2015-01-01

    We propose that holographic entanglement entropy can be calculated at arbitrary orders in the bulk Planck constant using the concept of a "quantum extremal surface": a surface which extremizes the generalized entropy, i.e. the sum of area and bulk entanglement entropy. At leading order in bulk quantum corrections, our proposal agrees with the formula of Faulkner, Lewkowycz, and Maldacena, which was derived only at this order; beyond leading order corrections, the two conjectures diverge. Quantum extremal surfaces lie outside the causal domain of influence of the boundary region as well as its complement, and in some spacetimes there are barriers preventing them from entering certain regions. We comment on the implications for bulk reconstruction.

  16. Locality, entanglement, and thermalization of isolated quantum systems.

    PubMed

    Khlebnikov, S; Kruczenski, M

    2014-11-01

    A way to understand thermalization in an isolated system is to interpret it as an increase in entanglement between subsystems. Here we test this idea through a combination of analytical and Krylov-subspace-based numerical methods applied to a quantum gas of bosons. We find that the entanglement entropy of a subsystem is rapidly generated at the initial state of the evolution, to quickly approach the thermal value. Our results also provide an accurate numerical test of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH), according to which a single energy eigenstate of an isolated system behaves in certain respects as a thermal state. In the context of quantum black holes, we propose that the ETH is a quantum version of the classical no-hair theorem. PMID:25493719

  17. Measurement-device-independent entanglement-based quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiuqing; Wei, Kejin; Ma, Haiqiang; Sun, Shihai; Liu, Hongwei; Yin, Zhenqiang; Li, Zuohan; Lian, Shibin; Du, Yungang; Wu, Lingan

    2016-05-01

    We present a quantum key distribution protocol in a model in which the legitimate users gather statistics as in the measurement-device-independent entanglement witness to certify the sources and the measurement devices. We show that the task of measurement-device-independent quantum communication can be accomplished based on monogamy of entanglement, and it is fairly loss tolerate including source and detector flaws. We derive a tight bound for collective attacks on the Holevo information between the authorized parties and the eavesdropper. Then with this bound, the final secret key rate with the source flaws can be obtained. The results show that long-distance quantum cryptography over 144 km can be made secure using only standard threshold detectors.

  18. Synchronization, quantum correlations and entanglement in oscillator networks

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, Gonzalo; Galve, Fernando; Giorgi, Gian Luca; Hernández-García, Emilio; Zambrini, Roberta

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization is one of the paradigmatic phenomena in the study of complex systems. It has been explored theoretically and experimentally mostly to understand natural phenomena, but also in view of technological applications. Although several mechanisms and conditions for synchronous behavior in spatially extended systems and networks have been identified, the emergence of this phenomenon has been largely unexplored in quantum systems until very recently. Here we discuss synchronization in quantum networks of different harmonic oscillators relaxing towards a stationary state, being essential the form of dissipation. By local tuning of one of the oscillators, we establish the conditions for synchronous dynamics, in the whole network or in a motif. Beyond the classical regime we show that synchronization between (even unlinked) nodes witnesses the presence of quantum correlations and entanglement. Furthermore, synchronization and entanglement can be induced between two different oscillators if properly linked to a random network. PMID:23486526

  19. Quantum and concept combination, entangled measurements, and prototype theory.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Diederik

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the meaning of the violation of the marginal probability law for situations of correlation measurements where entanglement is identified. We show that for quantum theory applied to the cognitive realm such a violation does not lead to the type of problems commonly believed to occur in situations of quantum theory applied to the physical realm. We briefly situate our quantum approach for modeling concepts and their combinations with respect to the notions of "extension" and "intension" in theories of meaning, and in existing concept theories. PMID:24482332

  20. One Step Quantum Key Distribution Based on EPR Entanglement.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Li, Na; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A novel quantum key distribution protocol is presented, based on entanglement and dense coding and allowing asymptotically secure key distribution. Considering the storage time limit of quantum bits, a grouping quantum key distribution protocol is proposed, which overcomes the vulnerability of first protocol and improves the maneuverability. Moreover, a security analysis is given and a simple type of eavesdropper's attack would introduce at least an error rate of 46.875%. Compared with the "Ping-pong" protocol involving two steps, the proposed protocol does not need to store the qubit and only involves one step. PMID:27357865

  1. Holographic entanglement entropy close to quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Yi; Liu, Peng; Niu, Chao; Wu, Jian-Pin; Xian, Zhuo-Yu

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the holographic entanglement entropy (HEE) of a strip geometry in four dimensional Q-lattice backgrounds, which exhibit metal-insulator transitions in the dual field theory. Remarkably, we find that the HEE always displays a peak in the vicinity of the quantum critical points. Our model provides the first direct evidence that the HEE can be used to characterize the quantum phase transition (QPT). We also conjecture that the maximization behavior of HEE at quantum critical points would be universal in general holographic models.

  2. Superconducting quantum node for entanglement and storage of microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Flurin, E; Roch, N; Pillet, J D; Mallet, F; Huard, B

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting circuits and microwave signals are good candidates to realize quantum networks, which are the backbone of quantum computers. We have realized a quantum node based on a 3D microwave superconducting cavity parametrically coupled to a transmission line by a Josephson ring modulator. We first demonstrate the time-controlled capture, storage, and retrieval of an optimally shaped propagating microwave field, with an efficiency as high as 80%. We then demonstrate a second essential ability, which is the time-controlled generation of an entangled state distributed between the node and a microwave channel. PMID:25793790

  3. One Step Quantum Key Distribution Based on EPR Entanglement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Li, Na; Li, Lei-Lei; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    A novel quantum key distribution protocol is presented, based on entanglement and dense coding and allowing asymptotically secure key distribution. Considering the storage time limit of quantum bits, a grouping quantum key distribution protocol is proposed, which overcomes the vulnerability of first protocol and improves the maneuverability. Moreover, a security analysis is given and a simple type of eavesdropper’s attack would introduce at least an error rate of 46.875%. Compared with the “Ping-pong” protocol involving two steps, the proposed protocol does not need to store the qubit and only involves one step. PMID:27357865

  4. Quantifying quantum discord and entanglement of formation via unified purifications

    SciTech Connect

    Cen Lixiang; Li Xinqi; Shao Jiushu; Yan Yijing

    2011-05-15

    We propose a scheme to evaluate the amount of quantum discord and entanglement of formation for mixed states and reveal their ordering relation via an intrinsic relationship between the two quantities distributed in the purification of different states. This approach enables us to achieve analytical expressions of the two measures for some quantum states, such as an arbitrary two-qubit density matrix reduced from pure three-qubit states and a class of rank-2 mixed states of 4x2 systems. Moreover, we apply the scheme to characterize fully the dynamic behavior of quantum correlations for the specified physical systems under decoherence.

  5. Entanglement oscillations in non-Markovian quantum channels

    SciTech Connect

    Maniscalco, Sabrina; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2007-06-15

    We study the non-Markovian dynamics of a two-mode bosonic system interacting with two uncorrelated thermal bosonic reservoirs. We present the solution to the exact microscopic Master equation in terms of the quantum characteristic function and study in detail the dynamics of entanglement for bipartite Gaussian states. In particular, we analyze the effects of short-time system-reservoir correlations on the separability thresholds and show that the relevant parameter is the reservoir spectral density. If the frequencies of the involved modes are within the reservoir spectral density, entanglement persists for a longer time than in a Markovian channel. On the other hand, when the reservoir spectrum is out of resonance, short-time correlations lead to a faster decoherence and to the appearance of entanglement oscillations.

  6. Linear Plotkin bound for entanglement-assisted quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Luobin; Li, Ruihu

    2013-03-01

    The entanglement-assisted (EA) formalism is a generalization of the standard stabilizer formalism, and it can transform arbitrary quaternary classical linear codes into entanglement-assisted quantum error correcting codes (EAQECCs) by using of shared entanglement between the sender and the receiver. Using the special structure of linear EAQECCs, we derive an EA-Plotkin bound for linear EAQECCs, which strengthens the previous known EA-Plotkin bound. This linear EA-Plotkin bound is tighter then the EA-Singleton bound, and matches the EA-Hamming bound and the EA-linear programming bound in some cases. We also construct three families of EAQECCs with good parameters. Some of these EAQECCs saturate this linear EA-Plotkin bound and the others are near optimal according to this bound; almost all of these linear EAQECCs are degenerate codes.

  7. Quantum nonlocality via local contextuality with qubit-qubit entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Debashis; Cabello, Adán; Choudhary, Sujit K.; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    Quantum nonlocality can be revealed "via local contextuality" in qudit-qudit entangled systems with d >2 , that is, through the violation of inequalities containing Alice-Bob correlations that admit a local description, and Alice-Alice correlations (between the results of sequences of measurements on Alice's subsystem) that admit a local (but contextual) description. A fundamental question to understand the respective roles of entanglement and local contextuality is whether nonlocality via local contextuality exists when the parties have only qubit-qubit entanglement. Here we respond affirmatively to this question. This result further clarifies the connection between contextuality and nonlocality and opens the door for observing nonlocality via local contextuality in actual experiments.

  8. Large-scale quantum networks based on graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epping, Michael; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruß, Dagmar

    2016-05-01

    Society relies and depends increasingly on information exchange and communication. In the quantum world, security and privacy is a built-in feature for information processing. The essential ingredient for exploiting these quantum advantages is the resource of entanglement, which can be shared between two or more parties. The distribution of entanglement over large distances constitutes a key challenge for current research and development. Due to losses of the transmitted quantum particles, which typically scale exponentially with the distance, intermediate quantum repeater stations are needed. Here we show how to generalise the quantum repeater concept to the multipartite case, by describing large-scale quantum networks, i.e. network nodes and their long-distance links, consistently in the language of graphs and graph states. This unifying approach comprises both the distribution of multipartite entanglement across the network, and the protection against errors via encoding. The correspondence to graph states also provides a tool for optimising the architecture of quantum networks.

  9. Error filtration and entanglement purification for quantum communication

    SciTech Connect

    Gisin, N.; Linden, N.; Massar, S.; Popescu, S.

    2005-07-15

    The key realization that led to the emergence of the new field of quantum information processing is that quantum mechanics, the theory that describes microscopic particles, allows the processing of information in fundamentally new ways. But just as in classical information processing, errors occur in quantum information processing, and these have to be corrected. A fundamental breakthrough was the realization that quantum error correction is in fact possible. However, most work so far has not been concerned with technological feasibility, but rather with proving that quantum error correction is possible in principle. Here we describe a method for filtering out errors and entanglement purification which is particularly suitable for quantum communication. Our method is conceptually new, and, crucially, it is easy to implement in a wide variety of physical systems with present-day technology and should therefore be of wide applicability.

  10. Spin-orbit hybrid entanglement quantum key distribution scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, ChengXian; Guo, BangHong; Cheng, GuangMing; Guo, JianJun; Fan, RongHua

    2014-11-01

    We propose a novel quantum key distribution scheme by using the SAM-OAM hybrid entangled state as the physical resource. To obtain this state, the polarization entangled photon pairs are created by the spontaneous parametric down conversion process, and then, the q-plate acts as a SAM-to-OAM transverter to transform the polarization entangled pairs into the hybrid entangled pattern, which opens the possibility to exploit the features of the higher-dimensional space of OAM state to encode information. In the manipulation and encoding process, Alice performs the SAM measurement by modulating the polarization state | θ>π on one photon, whereas Bob modulates the OAM sector state | χ> l on the other photon to encode his key elements using the designed holograms which is implemented by the computer-controlled SLM. With coincidence measurement, Alice could extract the key information. It is showed that N-based keys can be encoded with each pair of entangled photon, and this scheme is robust against Eve's individual attack. Also, the MUBs are not used. Alice and Bob do not need the classical communication for the key recovery.

  11. Single-copy entanglement in a gapped quantum spin chain.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Christopher

    2008-05-01

    The single-copy entanglement of a given many-body quantum system is defined [J. Eisert and M. Cramer, Phys. Rev. A 72, 042112 (2005)10.1103/PhysRevA.72.042112] as the maximal entanglement deterministically distillable from a bipartition of a single specimen of that system. For critical (gapless) spin chains, it was recently shown that this is exactly half the von Neumann entropy [R. Orús, J. I. Latorre, J. Eisert, and M. Cramer, Phys. Rev. A 73, 060303(R) (2006)], itself defined as the entanglement distillable in the asymptotic limit-i.e., given an infinite number of copies of the system. It is an open question as to what the equivalent behavior for gapped systems is. In this Letter, I show that for the paradigmatic spin-S Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki chain (the archetypal gapped chain), the single-copy entanglement is equal to the von Neumann entropy; i.e., all the entanglement present may be distilled from a single specimen. PMID:18518329

  12. Quantum state sharing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P.; Sanders, Barry C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2004-05-01

    We demonstrate a multipartite protocol that utilizes entanglement to securely distribute and reconstruct a quantum state. A secret quantum state is encoded into a tripartite entangled state and distributed to three players. By collaborating together, a majority of the players can reconstruct the state, whilst the remaining player obtains nothing. This (2,3) threshold quantum state sharing scheme is characterized in terms of fidelity (F), signal transfer (T) and reconstruction noise (V). We demonstrate a fidelity averaged over all reconstruction permutations of 0.73 +/- 0.04, a level achievable only using quantum resources.

  13. Quantum Versus Classical Advantages in Secret Key Distillation (and Their Links to Quantum Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitambar, Eric; Fortescue, Benjamin; Hsieh, Min-Hsiu

    We consider the extraction of shared secret key from correlations that are generated by either a classical or quantum source. In the classical setting, two honest parties (Alice and Bob) use public discussion and local operations to distill secret key from some distribution pXYZ that is shared with an unwanted eavesdropper (Eve). In the quantum settings, the correlations pXYZ are delivered to the parties as either an incoherent mixture of orthogonal quantum states or as coherent superposition of such states. Here we demonstrate that the classical and quantum key rates are equivalent when the correlations are generated incoherently in the quantum setting. For coherent sources, we next show that the rates are incomparable, and in fact, their difference can be arbitrarily large in either direction. However, we identify a large class of non-trivial distributions that possess the following properties: (i) Eve's advantage is always greater in the quantum source than classically, and (ii) for the entanglement shared in the coherent source, the so-called entanglement cost/squashed entanglement/relative entropy of entanglement can all be computed. We thus present a rare instance in which various entropic entanglement measures of a quantum state can be explicitly computed.

  14. Quantum Entanglement and the Topological Order of Fractional Hall States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezayi, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Fractional quantum Hall states or, more generally, topological phases of matter defy Landau classification based on order parameter and broken symmetry. Instead they have been characterized by their topological order. Quantum information concepts, such as quantum entanglement, appear to provide the most efficient method of detecting topological order solely from the knowledge of the ground state wave function. This talk will focus on real-space bi-partitioning of quantum Hall states and will present both exact diagonalization and quantum Monte Carlo studies of topological entanglement entropy in various geometries. Results on the torus for non-contractible cuts are quite rich and, through the use of minimum entropy states, yield the modular S-matrix and hence uniquely determine the topological order, as shown in recent literature. Concrete examples of minimum entropy states from known quantum Hall wave functions and their corresponding quantum numbers, used in exact diagonalizations, will be given. In collaboration with Clare Abreu and Raul Herrera. Supported by DOE Grant DE-SC0002140.

  15. Entanglement-assisted operator codeword stabilized quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jeonghwan; Heo, Jun; Brun, Todd A.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a unified framework to construct entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs), including additive and nonadditive codes, based on the codeword stabilized (CWS) framework on subsystems. The CWS framework is a scheme to construct QECCs, including both additive and nonadditive codes, and gives a method to construct a QECC from a classical error-correcting code in standard form. Entangled pairs of qubits (ebits) can be used to improve capacity of quantum error correction. In addition, it gives a method to overcome the dual-containing constraint. Operator quantum error correction (OQEC) gives a general framework to construct QECCs. We construct OQEC codes with ebits based on the CWS framework. This new scheme, entanglement-assisted operator codeword stabilized (EAOCWS) quantum codes, is the most general framework we know of to construct both additive and nonadditive codes from classical error-correcting codes. We describe the formalism of our scheme, demonstrate the construction with examples, and give several EAOCWS codes

  16. Quantum phase estimation using path-symmetric entangled states

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jaehak; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states |φ〉|0〉 + |0〉|φ〉, where an arbitrary state |φ〉 occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. With this generalization, we identify the fundamental limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state |φ〉. We show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be indefinitely lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state |φ〉. For possible measurement schemes, we demonstrate that a full photon-counting employing the path-symmetric entangled states achieves the QCRB over the entire range [0, 2π] of unknown phase shift ϕ whereas a parity measurement does so in a certain confined range of ϕ. By introducing a component state of the form , we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. This component state also provides the most robust resource against photon loss among considered entangled states over the range of the average input energy Nav > 1. Finally we propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states for phase estimation. PMID:27457267

  17. Quantum phase estimation using path-symmetric entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jaehak; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-07-01

    We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states |φ>|0> + |0>|φ>, where an arbitrary state |φ> occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. With this generalization, we identify the fundamental limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state |φ>. We show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be indefinitely lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state |φ>. For possible measurement schemes, we demonstrate that a full photon-counting employing the path-symmetric entangled states achieves the QCRB over the entire range [0, 2π] of unknown phase shift ϕ whereas a parity measurement does so in a certain confined range of ϕ. By introducing a component state of the form , we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. This component state also provides the most robust resource against photon loss among considered entangled states over the range of the average input energy Nav > 1. Finally we propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states for phase estimation.

  18. Quantum phase estimation using path-symmetric entangled states.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Yong; Lee, Chang-Woo; Lee, Jaehak; Nha, Hyunchul

    2016-01-01

    We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states |φ〉|0〉 + |0〉|φ〉, where an arbitrary state |φ〉 occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. With this generalization, we identify the fundamental limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state |φ〉. We show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be indefinitely lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state |φ〉. For possible measurement schemes, we demonstrate that a full photon-counting employing the path-symmetric entangled states achieves the QCRB over the entire range [0, 2π] of unknown phase shift ϕ whereas a parity measurement does so in a certain confined range of ϕ. By introducing a component state of the form , we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. This component state also provides the most robust resource against photon loss among considered entangled states over the range of the average input energy Nav > 1. Finally we propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states for phase estimation. PMID:27457267

  19. Are all maximally entangled states pure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Brandão, F. G. S. L.; Terra Cunha, M. O.

    2005-10-01

    We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.

  20. Are all maximally entangled states pure?

    SciTech Connect

    Cavalcanti, D.; Brandao, F.G.S.L.; Terra Cunha, M.O.

    2005-10-15

    We study if all maximally entangled states are pure through several entanglement monotones. In the bipartite case, we find that the same conditions which lead to the uniqueness of the entropy of entanglement as a measure of entanglement exclude the existence of maximally mixed entangled states. In the multipartite scenario, our conclusions allow us to generalize the idea of the monogamy of entanglement: we establish the polygamy of entanglement, expressing that if a general state is maximally entangled with respect to some kind of multipartite entanglement, then it is necessarily factorized of any other system.

  1. Generation and protection of a maximally entangled state between many modes in an optical network with dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coto, Raul; Orszag, Miguel; Eremeev, Vitalie

    2016-06-01

    We present a three-cavity network model with two modes in each cavity and a nonlinear medium that generates a Kerr-type interaction via both self-phase and cross-phase modulation processes. We have two main goals. The first one is to generate a multipartite maximally entangled state (MES), starting from the ground state of the system. We address the problem both without and with dissipation. Second, we want to protect the MES from decoherence. While studying the MES, we analyze different bipartite and multipartite entanglement measures. We also study the effect of an avoided level crossing identified by the critical behavior of the entanglement measures, thus showing that the quantum correlations act as a witness for such phenomena. Our findings provide the quantum tools to perform the operation of generation and protection of a maximally entangled state in a cavity QED environment.

  2. Investigation of Quantum Phase Transition and Entanglement in Spin Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shik, Hoi Yin

    In this thesis, the critical behaviour of concurrence in spin models and its relationship to quantum phase transitions (QPT) are explored. The relation between the ground state entanglement and excited states, in connection with quantum phase transitions, is studied. Besides, a generalization of the Majumdar-Ghosh model [1, 2], studied in my M.Phil research, to finite temperatures is also studied. Firstly, the relationship between quantum entanglement and QPT is studied. In this thesis, concurrence is chosen as the measure of pairwise entanglement. The quantum phase transitions in the XXZ and J1- J2 models are investigated by examining contributions of excited states to the ground state concurrence. The critical behaviour of the concurrence at the quantum critical points is explained by the excited states' contributions. Also, the dependence of the concurrence at the quantum critical points with lattice size is investigated. Secondly, under open boundary conditions, the different quantum phases in the XXZ and J1-J2 models are distinguished by investigating the responses of the end spins to a small perturbation. Meanwhile, the properties of the concurrence of the spin models under different boundary conditions are compared. Finally, the thermodynamic properties of a spin-half ladder system are studied. We find that a completely dimerized state exists in one kind of twoleg spin-half ladder, which has local anti-ferromagnetic ordering and frustration effect at the same time. The system's low-lying excitations can be obtained exactly and this enables us to calculate thermodynamic quantities at low temperatures. Our results also show that a subset of the energy spectrum is a good approximation to the whole spectrum when used in the calculation of specific heat capacities and magnetic susceptibilities, even for the two-leg spin-half ladder without frustration.

  3. Physical realization of quantum teleportation for a nonmaximal entangled state

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Yoshiharu; Asano, Masanari; Ohya, Masanori

    2010-08-15

    Recently, Kossakowski and Ohya (K-O) proposed a new teleportation scheme which enables perfect teleportation even for a nonmaximal entangled state [A. Kossakowski and M. Ohya, Infinite Dimensional Analysis Quantum Probability and Related Topics 10, 411 (2007)]. To discuss a physical realization of the K-O scheme, we propose a model based on quantum optics. In our model, we take a superposition of Schroedinger's cat states as an input state being sent from Alice to Bob, and their entangled state is generated by a photon number state through a beam splitter. When the average photon number for our input states is equal to half the number of photons into the beam splitter, our model has high fidelity.

  4. Scalable network of quadrangle entanglements via multiple phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Xiangming; Sun Hong; Wang Fei

    2010-10-15

    One important class of multipartite continuous variable entanglement is described by a closed polygon, where every vertex represents one optical field and every side corresponds to the entanglement between the two connected vertices. Here we show that it is possible to obtain a scalable network of quadrangle entanglements by using multiple phase-dependent electromagnetically induced transparency. For 4,6,8,...,2n (n{>=}2) mode cases the network consists of 1,9,36,...,(1/4)n{sup 2} (n-1){sup 2} quadrangles, respectively. This suggests an efficient way of creating complex quantum networks and has great potentials for quantum information and computation.

  5. Localization and Entanglement in Relativistic Quantum Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yngvason, Jakob

    These notes are a slightly expanded version of a lecture presented in February 2012 at the workshop "The Message of Quantum Science—Attempts Towards a Synthesis" held at the ZIF in Bielefeld. The participants were physicists with a wide range of different expertise and interests. The lecture was intended as a survey of a small selection of the insights into the structure of relativistic quantum physics that have accumulated through the efforts of many people over more than 50 years. (Including, among many others, R. Haag, H. Araki, D. Kastler, H.-J. Borchers, A. Wightman, R. Streater, B. Schroer, H. Reeh, S. Schlieder, S. Doplicher, J. Roberts, R. Jost, K. Hepp, J. Fröhlich, J. Glimm, A. Jaffe, J. Bisognano, E. Wichmann, D. Buchholz, K. Fredenhagen, R. Longo, D. Guido, R. Brunetti, J. Mund, S. Summers, R. Werner, H. Narnhofer, R. Verch, G. Lechner, ….) This contribution discusses some facts about relativistic quantum physics, most of which are quite familiar to practitioners of Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT) [Also known as Local Quantum Physics (Haag, Local quantum physics. Springer, Berlin, 1992).] but less well known outside this community. No claim of originality is made; the goal of this contribution is merely to present these facts in a simple and concise manner, focusing on the following issues: Explaining how quantum mechanics (QM) combined with (special) relativity, in particular an upper bound on the propagation velocity of effects, leads naturally to systems with an infinite number of degrees of freedom (relativistic quantum fields).

  6. Entanglement and Weak Values: A Quantum Miracle Cookbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botero, Alonso

    The concept of the weak value has proved to be a powerful and operationally grounded framework for the assignment of physical properties to a quantum system at any given time. More importantly, this framework has allowed us to identify a whole range of surprising quantum effects, or "miracles", which are readily testable but which lie buried "under the noise" when the results of measurements are not post-selected. In all cases, these miracles have to do with the fact that weak values can take values lying outside the conventional ranges of quantum expectation values. We explore the extent to which such miracles are possible within the weak value framework. As we show, given appropriate initial and final states, it is generally possible to produce any set of weak values that is consistent with the linearity of weak values, provided that the states are entangled states of the system with some external ancillary system. Through a simple constructive proof, we obtain a recipe for arbitrary quantum miracles, and give examples of some interesting applications. In particular, we show how the classical description of an infinitely-localized point in phase-space is contained in the weak-value framework augmented by quantum entanglement. [Editor's note: for a video of the talk given by Prof. Botero at the Aharonov-80 conference in 2012 at Chapman University, see http://quantum.chapman.edu/talk-27.

  7. Quantum Beats from Entangled Localized Surface Plasmons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, David

    Recent experiments report observations of quantum interference between plasmon resonances, inviting descriptions of plasmon-photon interaction using methods from quantum optics. Here we demonstrate, using a Heisenberg-Langevin approach, that the radiation emitted from the localized surface plasmon resonances of a mixed-metal heterodimer may exhibit observable, beat frequency interferences at a far-field detector, known as quantum beats. This prediction represents a correspondence between V-type atoms of quantum optics and the familiar heterodimer system of plasmonics. We explore this analogy in depth and find that although both systems support quantum beats, the heterodimer emits photons in bunches due to the bosonic nature of the plasmon. This highlights a significant difference between the properties of atomic and plasmonic systems. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation's CAREER program under Award Number CHE-1253775 and NSF XSEDE resources under Award Number PHY-130045.

  8. Participation spectroscopy and entanglement Hamiltonian of quantum spin models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luitz, David J.; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Alet, Fabien

    2014-08-01

    Shannon-Rényi entropies and associated participation spectra quantify how much a many-body wave-function is localized in a given configuration basis. Using these tools, we present an analysis of the ground-state wave functions of various quantum spin systems in one and two dimensions. General ideas and a review of the current status of this field are first given, with a particular emphasis on universal subleading terms characterizing different quantum phases of matter, and associated transitions. We highlight the connection with the related entanglement entropies and spectra when this is possible. In a second part, new results are presented for the participation spectra of interacting spin models, mostly based on quantum Monte Carlo simulations, but also using perturbation theory in some cases. For full antiferromagnetic one-dimensional systems, participation spectra are analyzed in terms of ferromagnetic domain walls which experience a pairwise attractive interaction. This confinement potential is either linear for long-range Néel order, or logarithmic for quasi-long-range order. The case of subsystems is also analyzed in great detail for a 2d dimerized Heisenberg model undergoing a quantum phase transition between a gapped paramagnet and a Néel phase. Participation spectra of line shaped (1d) sub-systems are quantitatively compared with finite temperature participation spectra of ansatz effective boundary (1d) entanglement Hamiltonians. While short-range models describe almost perfectly the gapped side, the Néel regime is best compared using long-range effective Hamiltonians. Spectral comparisons performed using Kullback-Leibler divergences, a tool potentially useful for entanglement spectra, provide a quantitative way to identify both the best boundary entanglement Hamiltonian and effective temperature.

  9. Tripartite entanglement dynamics of vibrations in triatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Liangjun; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the dynamical behaviors of tripartite entanglement of vibrations in triatomic molecules are studied based on the Lie algebraic models of molecules. The dynamical behaviors of tripartite entanglement of the local mode molecule H2O and normal mode molecule NO2 are comparatively studied for different initial states by employing the general concurrence. Our results show that the dynamics of tripartite entanglement are relied on the dynamics of intramolecular energy distribution. The local mode molecule is more suitable to construct the tripartite entangled states. Also, the greater degree of tripartite entanglement can be obtained if the stretching vibration is first excited. These results shed new light on the understanding of quantum multipartite entanglement of vibrations in the polyatomic molecules.

  10. Tripartite entanglement dynamics of vibrations in triatomic molecules.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Liangjun; Zheng, Yujun

    2016-06-21

    In the present study, the dynamical behaviors of tripartite entanglement of vibrations in triatomic molecules are studied based on the Lie algebraic models of molecules. The dynamical behaviors of tripartite entanglement of the local mode molecule H2O and normal mode molecule NO2 are comparatively studied for different initial states by employing the general concurrence. Our results show that the dynamics of tripartite entanglement are relied on the dynamics of intramolecular energy distribution. The local mode molecule is more suitable to construct the tripartite entangled states. Also, the greater degree of tripartite entanglement can be obtained if the stretching vibration is first excited. These results shed new light on the understanding of quantum multipartite entanglement of vibrations in the polyatomic molecules. PMID:27334163

  11. Entangled states of two quantum dots mediated by Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Z. C.; Wang, W.; Yi, X. X.

    2016-02-01

    With the assistance of a pair of Majorana fermions, we propose schemes to entangle two quantum dots by Lyapunov control in the charge and spin degrees of freedom. Four different schemes are considered, i.e., the teleportation scheme, the crossed Andreev reflection scheme, the intradot spin flip scheme, and the scheme beyond the intradot spin flip. We demonstrate that the entanglement can be generated by modulating the chemical potential of quantum dots with square pulses, which is easily realized in practice. In contrast to Lyapunov control, the preparation of entangled states by adiabatic passage is also discussed. There are two advantages in the scheme by Lyapunov control, i.e., it is flexible to choose a control Hamiltonian, and the control time is much shorter with respect to the scheme by adiabatic passage. Furthermore, we find that the results are quite different by different adiabatic passages in the scheme beyond the intradot spin flip, which can be understood as an effect of quantum destructive interference.

  12. Speedup of quantum evolution of multiqubit entanglement states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Tian, Jian-Xiang; Fan, Heng

    2016-06-01

    As is well known, quantum speed limit time (QSLT) can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of quantum systems. We mainly investigate the QSLT of generalized N-qubit GHZ-type states and W-type states in the amplitude-damping channels. It is shown that, in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels, the QSLT of the entangled GHZ-type state is closely related to the number of qubits in the small-scale system. And the larger entanglement of GHZ-type states can lead to the shorter QSLT of the evolution process. However, the QSLT of the W-type states are independent of the number of qubits and the initial entanglement. Furthermore, by considering only M qubits among the N-qubit system respectively interacting with their own noise channels, QSLTs for these two types states are shorter than in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels. We therefore reach the interesting result that the potential speedup of quantum evolution of a given N-qubit GHZ-type state or W-type state can be realized in the case the number of the applied noise channels satisfying M < N.

  13. Speedup of quantum evolution of multiqubit entanglement states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Tian, Jian-Xiang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    As is well known, quantum speed limit time (QSLT) can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of quantum systems. We mainly investigate the QSLT of generalized N-qubit GHZ-type states and W-type states in the amplitude-damping channels. It is shown that, in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels, the QSLT of the entangled GHZ-type state is closely related to the number of qubits in the small-scale system. And the larger entanglement of GHZ-type states can lead to the shorter QSLT of the evolution process. However, the QSLT of the W-type states are independent of the number of qubits and the initial entanglement. Furthermore, by considering only M qubits among the N-qubit system respectively interacting with their own noise channels, QSLTs for these two types states are shorter than in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels. We therefore reach the interesting result that the potential speedup of quantum evolution of a given N-qubit GHZ-type state or W-type state can be realized in the case the number of the applied noise channels satisfying M < N. PMID:27283757

  14. Speedup of quantum evolution of multiqubit entanglement states

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying-Jie; Han, Wei; Xia, Yun-Jie; Tian, Jian-Xiang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    As is well known, quantum speed limit time (QSLT) can be used to characterize the maximal speed of evolution of quantum systems. We mainly investigate the QSLT of generalized N-qubit GHZ-type states and W-type states in the amplitude-damping channels. It is shown that, in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels, the QSLT of the entangled GHZ-type state is closely related to the number of qubits in the small-scale system. And the larger entanglement of GHZ-type states can lead to the shorter QSLT of the evolution process. However, the QSLT of the W-type states are independent of the number of qubits and the initial entanglement. Furthermore, by considering only M qubits among the N-qubit system respectively interacting with their own noise channels, QSLTs for these two types states are shorter than in the case N qubits coupled with independent noise channels. We therefore reach the interesting result that the potential speedup of quantum evolution of a given N-qubit GHZ-type state or W-type state can be realized in the case the number of the applied noise channels satisfying M < N. PMID:27283757

  15. Limited-path-length entanglement percolation in quantum complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuquet, Martí; Calsamiglia, John

    2011-03-01

    We study entanglement distribution in quantum complex networks where nodes are connected by bipartite entangled states. These networks are characterized by a complex structure, which dramatically affects how information is transmitted through them. For pure quantum state links, quantum networks exhibit a remarkable feature absent in classical networks: it is possible to effectively rewire the network by performing local operations on the nodes. We propose a family of such quantum operations that decrease the entanglement percolation threshold of the network and increase the size of the giant connected component. We provide analytic results for complex networks with an arbitrary (uncorrelated) degree distribution. These results are in good agreement with numerical simulations, which also show enhancement in correlated and real-world networks. The proposed quantum preprocessing strategies are not robust in the presence of noise. However, even when the links consist of (noisy) mixed-state links, one can send quantum information through a connecting path with a fidelity that decreases with the path length. In this noisy scenario, complex networks offer a clear advantage over regular lattices, namely, the fact that two arbitrary nodes can be connected through a relatively small number of steps, known as the small-world effect. We calculate the probability that two arbitrary nodes in the network can successfully communicate with a fidelity above a given threshold. This amounts to working out the classical problem of percolation with a limited path length. We find that this probability can be significant even for paths limited to few connections and that the results for standard (unlimited) percolation are soon recovered if the path length exceeds by a finite amount the average path length, which in complex networks generally scales logarithmically with the size of the network.

  16. Novel Quantum Proxy Signature without Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Guang-bao

    2015-08-01

    Proxy signature is an important research topic in classic cryptography since it has many application occasions in our real life. But only a few quantum proxy signature schemes have been proposed up to now. In this paper, we propose a quantum proxy signature scheme, which is designed based on quantum one-time pad. Our scheme can be realized easily since it only uses single-particle states. Security analysis shows that it is secure and meets all the properties of a proxy signature, such as verifiability, distinguishability, unforgeability and undeniability.

  17. Entanglement under the renormalization-group transformations on quantum states and in quantum phase transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T.-C.

    2010-06-15

    We consider quantum states under the renormalization-group (RG) transformations introduced by Verstraete et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 140601 (2005)] and propose a quantification of entanglement under such RGs (via the geometric measure of entanglement). We examine the resulting entanglement under RG transformations for the ground states of ''matrix-product-state'' Hamiltonians constructed by Wolf et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 110403 (2006)] that possess quantum phase transitions. We find that near critical points, the ground-state entanglement exhibits singular behavior. The singular behavior within finite steps of the RG obeys a scaling hypothesis and reveals the correlation length exponent. However, under the infinite steps of RG transformation, the singular behavior is rendered different and is universal only when there is an underlying conformal-field-theory description of the critical point.

  18. Scheme for implementing perfect quantum teleportation with four-qubit entangled states in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jing-Wu; Zhao, Guan-Xiang; He, Xiong-Hui

    2011-05-01

    Recently, Peng et al. [2010 Eur. Phys. J. D 58 403] proposed to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state with a family of four-qubit entangled states, which simultaneously include the tensor product of two Bell states, linear cluster state and Dicke-class state. This paper proposes to implement their scheme in cavity quantum electrodynamics and then presents a new family of four-qubit entangled state |Ω4>1234. It simultaneously includes all the well-known four-qubit entangled states which can be used to teleport an arbitrary two-qubit state. The distinct advantage of the scheme is that it only needs a single setup to prepare the whole family of four-qubit entangled states, which will be very convenient for experimental realization. After discussing the experimental condition in detail, we show the scheme may be feasible based on present technology in cavity quantum electrodynamics.

  19. Entanglement under the renormalization-group transformations on quantum states and in quantum phase transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Tzu-Chieh

    2010-06-01

    We consider quantum states under the renormalization-group (RG) transformations introduced by Verstraete [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.94.140601 94, 140601 (2005)] and propose a quantification of entanglement under such RGs (via the geometric measure of entanglement). We examine the resulting entanglement under RG transformations for the ground states of “matrix-product-state” Hamiltonians constructed by Wolf [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.110403 97, 110403 (2006)] that possess quantum phase transitions. We find that near critical points, the ground-state entanglement exhibits singular behavior. The singular behavior within finite steps of the RG obeys a scaling hypothesis and reveals the correlation length exponent. However, under the infinite steps of RG transformation, the singular behavior is rendered different and is universal only when there is an underlying conformal-field-theory description of the critical point.

  20. Proposed Robust Entanglement-Based Magnetic Field Sensor Beyond the Standard Quantum Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Tohru; Knott, Paul; Matsuzaki, Yuichiro; Dooley, Shane; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Munro, William J.; Saito, Shiro

    2015-10-01

    Recently, there have been significant developments in entanglement-based quantum metrology. However, entanglement is fragile against experimental imperfections, and quantum sensing to beat the standard quantum limit in scaling has not yet been achieved in realistic systems. Here, we show that it is possible to overcome such restrictions so that one can sense a magnetic field with an accuracy beyond the standard quantum limit even under the effect of decoherence, by using a realistic entangled state that can be easily created even with current technology. Our scheme could pave the way for the realizations of practical entanglement-based magnetic field sensors.

  1. A probabilistic quantum communication protocol using mixed entangled channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Binayak S.; Dhara, Arpan

    2016-05-01

    Qubits are realized as polarization state of photons or as superpositions of the spin states of electrons. In this paper we propose a scheme to probabilistically teleport an unknown arbitrary two-qubit state using a non-maximally entangled GHZ- like state and a non-maximally Bell state simultaneously as quantum channels. We also discuss the success probability of our scheme. We perform POVM in the protocol which is operationally advantageous. In our scheme we show that the non-maximal quantum resources perform better than maximal resources.

  2. Demonstrating various quantum effects with two entangled laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hage, B.; Janoušek, J.; Armstrong, S.; Symul, T.; Bernu, J.; Chrzanowski, H. M.; Lam, P. K.; Bachor, H. A.

    2011-08-01

    We report on the preparation of entangled two mode squeezed states of yet unseen quality. Based on a measurement of the covariance matrix we found a violation of the Reid and Drummond EPR-criterion at a value of only 0.36 ± 0.03 compared to the threshold of 1. Furthermore, quantum state tomography was used to extract a single photon Fock state solely based on homodyne detection, demonstrating the strong quantum features of this pair of laser-beams. The probability for a single photon in this ensemble measurement exceeded 2/3.

  3. Quantum correlations of helicity entangled states in non-inertial frames beyond single mode approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Harsij, Zeynab Mirza, Behrouz

    2014-12-15

    A helicity entangled tripartite state is considered in which the degree of entanglement is preserved in non-inertial frames. It is shown that Quantum Entanglement remains observer independent. As another measure of quantum correlation, Quantum Discord has been investigated. It is explicitly shown that acceleration has no effect on the degree of quantum correlation for the bipartite and tripartite helicity entangled states. Geometric Quantum Discord as a Hilbert–Schmidt distance is computed for helicity entangled states. It is shown that living in non-inertial frames does not make any influence on this distance, either. In addition, the analysis has been extended beyond single mode approximation to show that acceleration does not have any impact on the quantum features in the limit beyond the single mode. As an interesting result, while the density matrix depends on the right and left Unruh modes, the Negativity as a measure of Quantum Entanglement remains constant. Also, Quantum Discord does not change beyond single mode approximation. - Highlights: • The helicity entangled states here are observer independent in non-inertial frames. • It is explicitly shown that Quantum Discord for these states is observer independent. • Geometric Quantum Discord is also not affected by acceleration increase. • Extending to beyond single mode does not change the degree of entanglement. • Beyond single mode approximation the degree of Quantum Discord is also preserved.

  4. Investigate the entanglement of a quintuple quantum dot molecule via entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzhang, B.; Mehmannavaz, M. R.; Rezaei, M.

    2015-12-01

    The time evaluation of quantum entropy in the quintuple-coupled quantum dots based on a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure is theoretically investigated. The quantum entanglement of quantum dot molecules (QDMs) and their spontaneous emission fields is then discussed via quantum entropy. The effects of the tunneling effect, i.e. T , an incoherent pumping field and voltage controllable detuning on entanglement between QDMs and their spontaneous emission fields is then discussed. We found that in the presence of the tunneling effect and an incoherent pumping field the entanglement between the QDMs and their spontaneous emission fields is increased, while in the presence of voltage controllable detuning the entanglement reduced. Finally, we investigated the switching time from a disentangled state to an entangled state. The results may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in optoelectronics, solid-state quantum information science, quantum computing, teleportation, encryption, and compression codec.

  5. Improved data analysis for verifying quantum nonlocality and entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanbao; Glancy, Scott; Knill, Emanuel

    2012-06-01

    Given a finite number of experimental results originating from local measurements on two separated quantum systems in an unknown state, are these systems nonlocally correlated or entangled with each other? These properties can be verified by violating a Bell inequality or satisfying an entanglement witness. However, violation or satisfaction could be due to statistical fluctuations in finite measurements. Rigorous upper bounds, on the maximum probability (i.e., the p-value) according to local realistic or separable states of a violation or satisfaction as high as the observed, are required. Here, we propose a rigorous upper bound that improves the known bound from large deviation theory [R. Gill, arXiv:quant-ph/0110137]. The proposed bound is robust against experimental instability and the memory loophole [J. Barrett et al., Phys. Rev. A 66, 042111 (2002)]. Compared with our previous method [Phys. Rev. A 84, 062118 (2011)], the proposed method takes advantage of the particular Bell inequality or entanglement witness tested in an experiment, so the computation complexity is reduced. Also, this method can be easily extended to test a set of independent Bell inequalities or entanglement witnesses simultaneously.

  6. Entanglement distillation for quantum communication network with atomic-ensemble memories.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo

    2014-10-01

    Atomic ensembles are effective memory nodes for quantum communication network due to the long coherence time and the collective enhancement effect for the nonlinear interaction between an ensemble and a photon. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving the entanglement distillation for nonlocal atomic ensembles by the input-output process of a single photon as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We give an optimal entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for two-atomic-ensemble systems in a partially entangled pure state with known parameters and an efficient ECP for the systems in an unknown partially entangled pure state with a nondestructive parity-check detector (PCD). For the systems in a mixed entangled state, we introduce an entanglement purification protocol with PCDs. These entanglement distillation protocols have high fidelity and efficiency with current experimental techniques, and they are useful for quantum communication network with atomic-ensemble memories. PMID:25321967

  7. Entanglement via tunable Fano-type interference in asymmetric semiconductor quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xiangying; Li, Jiahua; Lv, Xin-You; Si, Liu-Gang; Yang, Xiaoxue

    2009-10-01

    Entanglement is realized in asymmetric coupled double quantum wells (DQWs) trapped in a doubly resonant cavity by means of Fano-type interference through a tunneling barrier, which is different from the previous studies on entanglement induced by strong external driven fields in atomic media. We investigate the generation and evolution of entanglement and show that the strength of Fano interference can influence effectively the degree of the entanglement between two cavity modes and the enhanced entanglement can be generated in this DQW system. The present investigation may provide research opportunities in quantum entangled experiments in the DQW solid-state nanostructures and may result in a substantial impact on the technology for entanglement engineering in quantum information processing.

  8. Uniform Entanglement Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-03-01

    We present several criteria for genuine multipartite entanglement from universal uncertainty relations based on majorization theory. Under non-negative Schur-concave functions, the vector-type uncertainty relation generates a family of infinitely many detectors to check genuine multipartite entanglement. We also introduce the concept of k-separable circles via geometric distance for probability vectors, which include at most (k-1)-separable states. The entanglement witness is also generalized to a universal entanglement witness which is able to detect the k-separable states more accurately.

  9. Uniform Entanglement Frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yunlong; Jing, Naihuan; Li-Jost, Xianqing; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2016-08-01

    We present several criteria for genuine multipartite entanglement from universal uncertainty relations based on majorization theory. Under non-negative Schur-concave functions, the vector-type uncertainty relation generates a family of infinitely many detectors to check genuine multipartite entanglement. We also introduce the concept of k-separable circles via geometric distance for probability vectors, which include at most ( k-1)-separable states. The entanglement witness is also generalized to a universal entanglement witness which is able to detect the k-separable states more accurately.

  10. Towards quantum-dot arrays of entangled photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juska, Gediminas; Dimastrodonato, Valeria; Mereni, Lorenzo O.; Gocalinska, Agnieszka; Pelucchi, Emanuele

    2013-07-01

    To make photonic quantum information a reality, a number of extraordinary challenges need to be overcome. One challenge is to achieve large arrays of reproducible `entangled' photon generators, while maintaining compatibility for integration with optical devices and detectors. Semiconductor quantum dots are potentially ideal for this as they allow photons to be generated on demand without relying on probabilistic processes. Nevertheless, most quantum-dot systems are limited by their intrinsic lack of symmetry, which allows only a small number (typically 1 out of 100, or worse) of good dots to be achieved per chip. The recent retraction of Mohan et al. seemed to question the very possibility of simultaneously achieving site control and high symmetry. Here, we show that with a new family of (111)-grown pyramidal site-controlled InGaAs1-δNδ quantum dots it is possible to overcome previous hurdles and obtain areas with up to 15% of polarization-entangled photon emitters, with fidelities as high as 0.721 +/- 0.043.

  11. Entanglement-based quantum communication secured by nonlocal dispersion cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Catherine; Zhang, Zheshen; Steinbrecher, Gregory R.; Zhou, Hongchao; Mower, Jacob; Zhong, Tian; Wang, Ligong; Hu, Xiaolong; Horansky, Robert D.; Verma, Varun B.; Lita, Adriana E.; Mirin, Richard P.; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Nam, Sae Woo; Wornell, Gregory W.; Wong, Franco N. C.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.; Englund, Dirk

    2014-12-01

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) enables participants to exchange secret information over long distances with unconditional security. However, the performance of today's QKD systems is subject to hardware limitations, such as those of available nonclassical-light sources and single-photon detectors. By encoding photons in high-dimensional states, the rate of generating secure information under these technical constraints can be maximized. Here, we demonstrate a complete time-energy entanglement-based QKD system with proven security against the broad class of arbitrary collective attacks. The security of the system is based on nonlocal dispersion cancellation between two time-energy entangled photons. This resource-efficient QKD system is implemented at telecommunications wavelength, is suitable for optical fiber and free-space links, and is compatible with wavelength-division multiplexing.

  12. Nonlocal entanglement of coherent states, complementarity, and quantum erasure

    SciTech Connect

    Gerry, Christopher C.; Grobe, R.

    2007-03-15

    We describe a nonlocal method for generating entangled coherent states of a two-mode field wherein the field modes never meet. The proposed method is an extension of an earlier proposal [C. C. Gerry, Phys. Rev. A 59, 4095 (1999)] for the generation of superpositions of coherent states. A single photon injected into a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with cross-Kerr media in both arms coupling with two external fields in coherent states produces entangled coherent states upon detection at one of the output ports. We point out that our proposal can be alternatively viewed as a 'which path' experiment, and in the case of only one external field, we describe the implementation of a quantum eraser.

  13. Dynamics and improvement of quantum correlations in the triple Jaynes-Cummings model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ling-Juan; Zhang, Ying-Jie; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the dynamics and improvement of tripartite quantum correlations in three atoms interacting with the independent cavities, in terms of genuinely multipartite concurrence, lower bound of concurrence and tripartite geometric quantum discord. By choosing the GHZ and W states as atomic initial states, we study the relationship between the initial state and entanglement transfer, and the robustness of different correlation measures. The results show that the different initial states can control entanglement transfer between the subsystems, and the tripartite geometric quantum discord is more robust than tripartite entanglement in the evolution process. Then, we propose the optimal scheme to improve tripartite entanglement in certain conditions via the weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal. In addition, we find that our study also works for the N-qubit GHZ state by using genuinely multipartite concurrence.

  14. Quantum entanglement and quantum phase transitions in frustrated Majumdar-Ghosh model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guang-Hua; Wang, Chun-Hai; Deng, Xiao-Yan

    2011-01-01

    By using the density matrix renormalization group technique, the quantum phase transitions in the frustrated Majumdar-Ghosh model are investigated. The behaviors of the conventional order parameter and the quantum entanglement entropy are analyzed in detail. The order parameter is found to peak at J2∼0.58, but not at the Majumdar-Ghosh point ( J2=0.5). Although, the quantum entanglements calculated with different subsystems display dissimilarly, the extremes of their first derivatives approach to the same critical point. By finite size scaling, this quantum critical point JC2 converges to around 0.301 in the thermodynamic limit, which is consistent with those predicted previously by some authors (Tonegawa and Harada, 1987 [6]; Kuboki and Fukuyama, 1987 [7]; Chitra et al., 1995 [9]). Across the JC2, the system undergoes a quantum phase transition from a gapless spin-fluid phase to a gapped dimerized phase.

  15. Experimental quantum teleportation and multiphoton entanglement via interfering narrowband photon sources

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Jian; Zhang Han; Peng Chengzhi; Chen Zengbing; Bao Xiaohui; Chen Shuai; Pan Jianwei

    2009-10-15

    In this paper, we report a realization of synchronization-free quantum teleportation and narrowband three-photon entanglement through interfering narrowband photon sources. Since both the single-photon and the entangled photon pair utilized are completely autonomous, it removes the requirement of high-demanding synchronization techniques in long-distance quantum communication with pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversion sources. The frequency linewidth of the three-photon entanglement realized is on the order of several MHz, which matches the requirement of atomic ensemble based quantum memories. Such a narrowband multiphoton source will have applications in some advanced quantum communication protocols and linear optical quantum computation.

  16. Entanglement transfer from electrons to photons in quantum dots: an open quantum system approach.

    PubMed

    Budich, Jan C; Trauzettel, Björn

    2010-07-01

    We investigate entanglement transfer from a system of two spin-entangled electron-hole pairs, each placed in a separate single mode cavity, to the photons emitted due to cavity leakage. Dipole selection rules and a splitting between the light hole and the heavy hole subbands are the crucial ingredients establishing a one-to-one correspondence between electron spins and circular photon polarizations. To account for the measurement of the photons as well as dephasing effects, we choose a stochastic Schrödinger equation and a conditional master equation approach, respectively. The influence of interactions with the environment as well as asymmetries in the coherent couplings on the photon entanglement is analysed for two concrete measurement schemes. The first one is designed to violate the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, while the second one employs the visibility of interference fringes to prove the entanglement of the photons. Because of the spatial separation of the entangled electronic system over two quantum dots, a successful verification of entangled photons emitted by this system would imply the detection of nonlocal spin entanglement of massive particles in a solid state structure. PMID:20571188

  17. A Weak Quantum Blind Signature with Entanglement Permutation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhigang; Guo, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Motivated by the permutation encryption algorithm, a weak quantum blind signature (QBS) scheme is proposed. It involves three participants, including the sender Alice, the signatory Bob and the trusted entity Charlie, in four phases, i.e., initializing phase, blinding phase, signing phase and verifying phase. In a small-scale quantum computation network, Alice blinds the message based on a quantum entanglement permutation encryption algorithm that embraces the chaotic position string. Bob signs the blinded message with private parameters shared beforehand while Charlie verifies the signature's validity and recovers the original message. Analysis shows that the proposed scheme achieves the secure blindness for the signer and traceability for the message owner with the aid of the authentic arbitrator who plays a crucial role when a dispute arises. In addition, the signature can neither be forged nor disavowed by the malicious attackers. It has a wide application to E-voting and E-payment system, etc.

  18. Entanglement-Based Machine Learning on a Quantum Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.-D.; Wu, D.; Su, Z.-E.; Chen, M.-C.; Wang, X.-L.; Li, Li; Liu, N.-L.; Lu, C.-Y.; Pan, J.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, learns from previous experience to optimize performance, which is ubiquitous in various fields such as computer sciences, financial analysis, robotics, and bioinformatics. A challenge is that machine learning with the rapidly growing "big data" could become intractable for classical computers. Recently, quantum machine learning algorithms [Lloyd, Mohseni, and Rebentrost, arXiv.1307.0411] were proposed which could offer an exponential speedup over classical algorithms. Here, we report the first experimental entanglement-based classification of two-, four-, and eight-dimensional vectors to different clusters using a small-scale photonic quantum computer, which are then used to implement supervised and unsupervised machine learning. The results demonstrate the working principle of using quantum computers to manipulate and classify high-dimensional vectors, the core mathematical routine in machine learning. The method can, in principle, be scaled to larger numbers of qubits, and may provide a new route to accelerate machine learning.

  19. Entanglement-based machine learning on a quantum computer.

    PubMed

    Cai, X-D; Wu, D; Su, Z-E; Chen, M-C; Wang, X-L; Li, Li; Liu, N-L; Lu, C-Y; Pan, J-W

    2015-03-20

    Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, learns from previous experience to optimize performance, which is ubiquitous in various fields such as computer sciences, financial analysis, robotics, and bioinformatics. A challenge is that machine learning with the rapidly growing "big data" could become intractable for classical computers. Recently, quantum machine learning algorithms [Lloyd, Mohseni, and Rebentrost, arXiv.1307.0411] were proposed which could offer an exponential speedup over classical algorithms. Here, we report the first experimental entanglement-based classification of two-, four-, and eight-dimensional vectors to different clusters using a small-scale photonic quantum computer, which are then used to implement supervised and unsupervised machine learning. The results demonstrate the working principle of using quantum computers to manipulate and classify high-dimensional vectors, the core mathematical routine in machine learning. The method can, in principle, be scaled to larger numbers of qubits, and may provide a new route to accelerate machine learning. PMID:25839250

  20. Studying the thermally entangled state of a three-qubit Heisenberg XX ring via quantum teleportation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, Ye

    2003-08-01

    We consider quantum teleportation as a tool to investigate the thermally entangled state of a three-qubit Heisenberg XX ring. Our investigation reveals interesting aspects of quantum entanglement not reflected by the pairwise thermal concurrence of the state. In particular, two mixtures of different pairs of W states, which result in the same concurrence, could yield very different average teleportation fidelities.

  1. Control of the entanglement between triple quantum dot molecule and its spontaneous emission fields via quantum entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahrai, M.; Arzhang, B.; Taherkhani, D.; Boroojerdi, V. Tahmoorian Askari

    2015-03-01

    The time evolution of the quantum entropy in a coherently driven triple quantum dot molecule is investigated. The entanglement of the quantum dot molecule and its spontaneous emission field is coherently controlled by the gate voltage and the rate of an incoherent pump field. The degree of entanglement between a triple quantum dot molecule and its spontaneous emission fields is decreased by increasing the tunneling parameter.

  2. Should Entanglement Measures be Monogamous or Faithful?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancien, Cécilia; Di Martino, Sara; Huber, Marcus; Piani, Marco; Adesso, Gerardo; Winter, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    "Is entanglement monogamous?" asks the title of a popular article [B. Terhal, IBM J. Res. Dev. 48, 71 (2004)], celebrating C. H. Bennett's legacy on quantum information theory. While the answer is affirmative in the qualitative sense, the situation is less clear if monogamy is intended as a quantitative limitation on the distribution of bipartite entanglement in a multipartite system, given some particular measure of entanglement. Here, we formalize what it takes for a bipartite measure of entanglement to obey a general quantitative monogamy relation on all quantum states. We then prove that an important class of entanglement measures fail to be monogamous in this general sense of the term, with monogamy violations becoming generic with increasing dimension. In particular, we show that every additive and suitably normalized entanglement measure cannot satisfy any nontrivial general monogamy relation while at the same time faithfully capturing the geometric entanglement structure of the fully antisymmetric state in arbitrary dimension. Nevertheless, monogamy of such entanglement measures can be recovered if one allows for dimension-dependent relations, as we show explicitly with relevant examples.

  3. Should Entanglement Measures be Monogamous or Faithful?

    PubMed

    Lancien, Cécilia; Di Martino, Sara; Huber, Marcus; Piani, Marco; Adesso, Gerardo; Winter, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    "Is entanglement monogamous?" asks the title of a popular article [B. Terhal, IBM J. Res. Dev. 48, 71 (2004)], celebrating C. H. Bennett's legacy on quantum information theory. While the answer is affirmative in the qualitative sense, the situation is less clear if monogamy is intended as a quantitative limitation on the distribution of bipartite entanglement in a multipartite system, given some particular measure of entanglement. Here, we formalize what it takes for a bipartite measure of entanglement to obey a general quantitative monogamy relation on all quantum states. We then prove that an important class of entanglement measures fail to be monogamous in this general sense of the term, with monogamy violations becoming generic with increasing dimension. In particular, we show that every additive and suitably normalized entanglement measure cannot satisfy any nontrivial general monogamy relation while at the same time faithfully capturing the geometric entanglement structure of the fully antisymmetric state in arbitrary dimension. Nevertheless, monogamy of such entanglement measures can be recovered if one allows for dimension-dependent relations, as we show explicitly with relevant examples. PMID:27541447

  4. Arbitrated quantum signature scheme based on χ-type entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Huijuan; Huang, Wei; Qin, Sujuan

    2013-10-01

    An arbitrated quantum signature scheme, which is mainly applied in electronic-payment systems, is proposed and investigated. The χ-type entangled states are used for quantum key distribution and quantum signature in this protocol. Compared with previous quantum signature schemes which also utilize χ-type entangled states, the proposed scheme provides higher efficiency. Finally, we also analyze its security under various kinds of attacks.

  5. Bounds on corner entanglement in quantum critical states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Pablo; Witczak-Krempa, William

    2016-01-01

    The entanglement entropy in many gapless quantum systems receives a contribution from the corners in the entangling surface in 2+1d, which is characterized by a universal function a (θ ) depending on the opening angle θ , and contains pertinent low energy information. For conformal field theories (CFTs), the leading expansion coefficient in the smooth limit θ →π yields the stress tensor two-point function coefficient CT. Little is known about a (θ ) beyond that limit. Here, we show that the next term in the smooth limit expansion contains information beyond the two- and three-point correlators of the stress tensor. We conjecture that it encodes four-point data, making it much richer. Further, we establish strong constraints on this and higher-order smooth-limit coefficients. We also show that a (θ ) is lower-bounded by a nontrivial function multiplied by the central charge CT, e.g., a (π /2 ) ≥(π2ln2 ) CT/6 . This bound for 90-degree corners is nearly saturated by all known results, including recent numerics for the interacting Wilson-Fisher quantum critical points (QCPs). A bound is also given for the Rényi entropies. We illustrate our findings using O(N ) QCPs, free boson and Dirac fermion CFTs, strongly coupled holographic ones, and other models. Exact results are also given for Lifshitz quantum critical points, and for conical singularities in 3+1d.

  6. Diagonal unitary entangling gates and contradiagonal quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayan, Arul; Puchała, Zbigniew; Życzkowski, Karol

    2014-09-01

    Nonlocal properties of an ensemble of diagonal random unitary matrices of order N2 are investigated. The average Schmidt strength of such a bipartite diagonal quantum gate is shown to scale as lnN, in contrast to the lnN2 behavior characteristic of random unitary gates. Entangling power of a diagonal gate U is related to the von Neumann entropy of an auxiliary quantum state ρ =AA†/N2, where the square matrix A is obtained by reshaping the vector of diagonal elements of U of length N2 into a square matrix of order N. This fact provides a motivation to study the ensemble of non-Hermitian unimodular matrices A, with all entries of the same modulus and random phases and the ensemble of quantum states ρ, such that all their diagonal entries are equal to 1/N. Such a state is contradiagonal with respect to the computational basis, in the sense that among all unitary equivalent states it maximizes the entropy copied to the environment due to the coarse-graining process. The first four moments of the squared singular values of the unimodular ensemble are derived, based on which we conjecture a connection to a recently studied combinatorial object called the "Borel triangle." This allows us to find exactly the mean von Neumann entropy for random phase density matrices and the average entanglement for the corresponding ensemble of bipartite pure states.

  7. A Quantum Electrodynamics Kondo Circuit with Orbital and Spin Entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiro, Marco; Deng, Guang-Wei; Henriet, Loic; Wei, Da; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Le Hur, Karyn; Guo, Guo-Ping

    Recent progress in nanotechnology allows to engineer hybrid mesoscopic devices comprising on chip an artificial atom or quantum dot, capacitively coupled to a microwave (superconducting) resonator and to biased metallic leads. Here, we build such a prototype system where the artificial atom is a graphene double quantum dot (DQD) to probe non-equilibrium aspects of strongly-entangled many body states between light and matter at the nanoscale. Controlling the coupling of the photon field and the charge states of the DQD, we measure the microwave reflection spectrum of the resonator. When the DQD is at the charge degeneracy points, experimental results are consistent with a Kondo impurity model entangling charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom with the quantum fluctuations of the cavity photon. The light coming out from the resonator reveals the formation of the Kondo or Abrikosov-Suhl resonance at low temperatures. We also explore other routes to investigate nonlinear transport by increasing the microwave power, the bias and gate voltages.

  8. Realizing quantum advantage without entanglement in single-photon states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Trapp, Alejandra; Solano, Pablo; Hu, Anzi; Clark, Charles W.

    Correlations allow us to measure, and quantitatively study, the properties of physical systems, their evolution and their interactions. Quantum discord expresses quantum correlations beyond those associated with entanglement. However, discord has not yet been adopted as a standard subject of study by the experimental community. Here we propose a feasible optical setup to generate symmetric two-qubit X-states with controllable coherences, where the two qubits correspond to the spin and path of a photon. With these states we show how a classical random variable K can be encoded by Alice and decoded by Bob. Using our previous results we study the correlations between the spin and path qubits and its relation with the information about K that can be decoded by Bob using local measurements with or without two-qubit gate operations. Discord is the mutual information contained in the coherences of the system, and it is possible to exploit it for quantum advantage even in the absence of entanglement.

  9. On entanglement-assisted quantum codes achieving the entanglement-assisted Griesmer bound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruihu; Li, Xueliang; Guo, Luobin

    2015-12-01

    The theory of entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs) is a generalization of the standard stabilizer formalism. Any quaternary (or binary) linear code can be used to construct EAQECCs under the entanglement-assisted (EA) formalism. We derive an EA-Griesmer bound for linear EAQECCs, which is a quantum analog of the Griesmer bound for classical codes. This EA-Griesmer bound is tighter than known bounds for EAQECCs in the literature. For a given quaternary linear code {C}, we show that the parameters of the EAQECC that EA-stabilized by the dual of {C} can be determined by a zero radical quaternary code induced from {C}, and a necessary condition under which a linear EAQECC may achieve the EA-Griesmer bound is also presented. We construct four families of optimal EAQECCs and then show the necessary condition for existence of EAQECCs is also sufficient for some low-dimensional linear EAQECCs. The four families of optimal EAQECCs are degenerate codes and go beyond earlier constructions. What is more, except four codes, our [[n,k,d_{ea};c

  10. Direct measurement of nonlocal entanglement of two-qubit spin quantum states.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liu-Yong; Yang, Guo-Hui; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    We propose efficient schemes of direct concurrence measurement for two-qubit spin and photon-polarization entangled states via the interaction between single-photon pulses and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond embedded in optical microcavities. For different entangled-state types, diversified quantum devices and operations are designed accordingly. The initial unknown entangled states are possessed by two spatially separated participants, and nonlocal spin (polarization) entanglement can be measured with the aid of detection probabilities of photon (NV center) states. This non-demolition entanglement measurement manner makes initial entangled particle-pair avoid complete annihilation but evolve into corresponding maximally entangled states. Moreover, joint inter-qubit operation or global qubit readout is not required for the presented schemes and the final analyses inform favorable performance under the current parameters conditions in laboratory. The unique advantages of spin qubits assure our schemes wide potential applications in spin-based solid quantum information and computation. PMID:26778340

  11. Direct measurement of nonlocal entanglement of two-qubit spin quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Liu-Yong; Yang, Guo-Hui; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    We propose efficient schemes of direct concurrence measurement for two-qubit spin and photon-polarization entangled states via the interaction between single-photon pulses and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond embedded in optical microcavities. For different entangled-state types, diversified quantum devices and operations are designed accordingly. The initial unknown entangled states are possessed by two spatially separated participants, and nonlocal spin (polarization) entanglement can be measured with the aid of detection probabilities of photon (NV center) states. This non-demolition entanglement measurement manner makes initial entangled particle-pair avoid complete annihilation but evolve into corresponding maximally entangled states. Moreover, joint inter-qubit operation or global qubit readout is not required for the presented schemes and the final analyses inform favorable performance under the current parameters conditions in laboratory. The unique advantages of spin qubits assure our schemes wide potential applications in spin-based solid quantum information and computation.

  12. Direct measurement of nonlocal entanglement of two-qubit spin quantum states

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Liu-Yong; Yang, Guo-Hui; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-01-01

    We propose efficient schemes of direct concurrence measurement for two-qubit spin and photon-polarization entangled states via the interaction between single-photon pulses and nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond embedded in optical microcavities. For different entangled-state types, diversified quantum devices and operations are designed accordingly. The initial unknown entangled states are possessed by two spatially separated participants, and nonlocal spin (polarization) entanglement can be measured with the aid of detection probabilities of photon (NV center) states. This non-demolition entanglement measurement manner makes initial entangled particle-pair avoid complete annihilation but evolve into corresponding maximally entangled states. Moreover, joint inter-qubit operation or global qubit readout is not required for the presented schemes and the final analyses inform favorable performance under the current parameters conditions in laboratory. The unique advantages of spin qubits assure our schemes wide potential applications in spin-based solid quantum information and computation. PMID:26778340

  13. Quantum-enhanced spectroscopy with entangled multiphoton states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinani, Hossein T.; Gupta, Manish K.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Berry, Dominic W.

    2016-06-01

    Traditionally, spectroscopy is performed by examining the position of absorption lines. However, at frequencies near the transition frequency, additional information can be obtained from the phase shift. In this work we consider the information about the transition frequency obtained from both the absorption and the phase shift, as quantified by the Fisher information in an interferometric measurement. We examine the use of multiple single-photon states, NOON states, and numerically optimized states that are entangled and have multiple photons. We find the optimized states that improve over the standard quantum limit set by independent single photons for some atom number densities.

  14. DeSitter entropy, quantum entanglement and ADS/CFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, Stephen; Maldacena, Juan; Strominger, Andrew

    2001-05-01

    A de Sitter brane-world bounding regions of anti-de Sitter space has a macroscopic entropy given by one-quarter the area of the observer horizon. A proposed variant of the AdS/CFT correspondence gives a dual description of this cosmology as conformal field theory coupled to gravity in de Sitter space. In the case of two-dimensional de Sitter space this provides a microscopic derivation of the entropy, including the one-quarter, as quantum entanglement of the conformal field theory across the horizon.

  15. Bright bichromatic entanglement and quantum dynamics of sum frequency generation

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, M. K.; Bradley, A. S.

    2008-02-15

    We investigate the quantum properties of the well-known process of sum frequency generation, showing that it is potentially a very useful source of nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field, some of which are not possible with the more common techniques. We show that it can produce quadrature squeezed light, bright bichromatic entangled states, and symmetric and asymmetric demonstrations of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. We also show that the semiclassical equations totally fail to describe the mean-field dynamics when the cavity is strongly pumped.

  16. Dissipative preparation of multibody entanglement via quantum feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jie; Xia, Yan; Sun, Xiu-Dong; Song, He-Shan

    2012-09-01

    We investigate the generation of a multibody Dicke state in a coupled cavity system subject to environmental noise. Based on quantum feedback control, cavity decay may play a constructive role in obtaining the intended state. The required interaction time need not be accurately controlled. In addition, the feedback operations are only applied to a single atom in one cavity during the whole evolution process, and it is not necessary to change the control strategy as the number of atoms increases. Thus, our proposal can exploit the core advantage of coupled cavities to implement a scalable control scheme for preparing multibody entanglement.

  17. Entanglement in a second-order quantum phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, Julien; Palacios, Guillaume; Mosseri, Remy

    2004-02-01

    We consider a system of mutually interacting spins 1/2 embedded in a transverse magnetic field which undergoes a second-order quantum phase transition. We analyze the entanglement properties and the spin squeezing of the ground state and show that, contrarily to the one-dimensional case, a cusplike singularity appears at the critical point {lambda}{sub c} in the thermodynamical limit. We also show that there exists a value {lambda}{sub 0}{>=}{lambda}{sub c} above which the ground state is not spin squeezed despite a nonvanishing concurrence.

  18. Security of quantum key distributions with entangled qudits

    SciTech Connect

    Durt, Thomas; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Chen, Jing-Ling; Kwek, L.C.

    2004-03-01

    We consider a generalization of Ekert's entanglement-based quantum cryptographic protocol where qubits are replaced by N- or d-dimensional systems (qudits). In order to study its robustness against optimal incoherent attacks, we derive the information gained by a potential eavesdropper during a cloning-based individual attack. In doing so, we generalize Cerf's formalism for cloning machines and establish the form of the most general cloning machine that respects all the symmetries of the problem. We obtain an upper bound on the error rate that guarantees the confidentiality of qudit generalizations of the Ekert's protocol for qubits.

  19. Practical long-distance quantum communication using concatenated entanglement swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalique, Aeysha; Tittel, Wolfgang; Sanders, Barry C.

    2013-08-01

    We construct a theory for long-distance quantum communication based on sharing entanglement through a linear chain of N elementary swapping segments of length L=Nl where l is the length of each elementary swap setup. Entanglement swapping is achieved by linear optics, photon counting, and postselection, and we include effects due to multiphoton sources, transmission loss, and detector inefficiencies and dark counts. Specifically we calculate the resultant four-mode state shared by the two parties at the two ends of the chain, and we derive the two-photon coincidence rate expected for this state and thereby the visibility of this long-range-entangled state. The expression is a nested sum with each sum extending from zero to infinite photons, and we solve the case N=2 exactly for the ideal case (zero dark counts, unit-efficiency detectors, and no transmission loss) and numerically for N=2 in the nonideal case with truncation at nmax=3 photons in each mode. For the general case, we show that the computational complexity for the numerical solution is nmax12N.

  20. Entanglement entropy of disordered quantum chains following a global quench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Andraschko, F.; Sirker, J.

    2016-05-01

    We numerically investigate the growth of the entanglement entropy Sent(t ) in time t , after a global quench from a product state, in quantum chains with various kinds of disorder. The main focus is, in particular, on fermionic chains with bond disorder. In the noninteracting case at criticality we numerically test recent predictions by the real-space renormalization group for the entanglement growth in time, the maximal entanglement as a function of block size, and the decay of a density-wave order parameter. We show that multiprecision calculations are required to reach the scaling regime and perform such calculations for specific cases. For interacting models with binary bond disorder we present data based on infinite-size density matrix renormalization group calculations and exact diagonalizations. We obtain numerical evidence of a many-body localized phase in bond-disordered systems where Sent(t ) ˜lnt seems to hold. Our results for bond disorder are contrasted with the well-studied case of potential disorder.