Science.gov

Sample records for multiple antigen binding

  1. Calcium Binding by Ro 60 Multiple Antigenic Peptides on PVDF Membrane.

    PubMed

    Kurien, Biji T; Bachmann, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies directed against ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles are observed in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ro RNP particle is one such target. It is composed of a 60 kDa protein (Ro 60 or SS-A) that is non-covalently associated with at least one of the four short uridine-rich RNAs (the hY RNAs). Previously, we showed that multiple antigenic peptides (MAPs) made from the sequence of the Ro 60 autoantigen could be used, using double-immunodiffusion studies, enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay, affinity chromatography, and surface plasmon resonance, to show intramolecular and intermolecular protein-protein interaction within the Ro 60 RNP particle. We also observed that calcium is important in mediating this interaction. We hypothesized, therefore, that 60 kDa Ro is a calcium-binding protein. To investigate this, we electrophoresed 60 kDa Ro MAPs, transferred them to PVDF membrane, and assayed calcium binding using the Quin-2 system. Several Ro 60 MAPs were found to bind calcium using this assay, as well as bovine serum albumin, another calcium-binding protein. However, a MAP constructed from the Sm autoantigen did not bind to calcium. These data, along with our observation regarding the involvement of calcium in protein-protein interaction occurring between Ro 60 antigen and Ro 60 MAPs, makes us propose that Ro 60 antigen is a calcium-binding protein. PMID:26139264

  2. A critical examination of the numerology of antigen-binding cells: evidence for multiple receptor specificities on single cells.

    PubMed

    Miller, A

    1977-01-01

    The data available from other laboratories as well as our own on the frequency of cells recognizing major histocompatibility antigens or conventional protein and hapten antigens is critically evaluated. The frequency of specific binding for a large number of antigens is sufficiently high to support the idea that at least part of the antigen-binding cell population must have multiple specificities. Our results suggest that these multiple specific cells result from single cells synthesizing and displaying as many as 50-100 species of receptor, each at a frequency of 10(4) per cell. A model involving gene expansion of constant-region genes is suggested and some auxilliary evidence consistent with such C-gene expansion is presented. PMID:68706

  3. Atomic force microscopy measurements reveal multiple bonds between Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen binding adhesin and Lewis b ligand

    PubMed Central

    Parreira, P.; Shi, Q.; Magalhaes, A.; Reis, C. A.; Bugaytsova, J.; Borén, T.; Leckband, D.; Martins, M. C. L.

    2014-01-01

    The strength of binding between the Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen-binding adhesin (BabA) and its cognate glycan receptor, the Lewis b blood group antigen (Leb), was measured by means of atomic force microscopy. High-resolution measurements of rupture forces between single receptor–ligand pairs were performed between the purified BabA and immobilized Leb structures on self-assembled monolayers. Dynamic force spectroscopy revealed two similar but statistically different bond populations. These findings suggest that the BabA may form different adhesive attachments to the gastric mucosa in ways that enhance the efficiency and stability of bacterial adhesion. PMID:25320070

  4. Calcium-dependent antigen binding as a novel modality for antibody recycling by endosomal antigen dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Hironiwa, N; Ishii, S; Kadono, S; Iwayanagi, Y; Mimoto, F; Habu, K; Igawa, T; Hattori, K

    2016-01-01

    The pH-dependent antigen binding antibody, termed a recycling antibody, has recently been reported as an attractive type of second-generation engineered therapeutic antibody. A recycling antibody can dissociate antigen in the acidic endosome, and thus bind to its antigen multiple times. As a consequence, a recycling antibody can neutralize large amounts of antigen in plasma. Because this approach relies on histidine residues to achieve pH-dependent antigen binding, which could limit the epitopes that can be targeted and affect the rate of antigen dissociation in the endosome, we explored an alternative approach for generating recycling antibodies. Since calcium ion concentration is known to be lower in endosome than in plasma, we hypothesized that an antibody with antigen-binding properties that are calcium-dependent could be used as recycling antibody. Here, we report a novel anti-interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibody, identified from a phage library that binds to IL-6R only in the presence of a calcium ion. Thermal dynamics and a crystal structure study revealed that the calcium ion binds to the heavy chain CDR3 region (HCDR3), which changes and possibly stabilizes the structure of HCDR3 to make it bind to antigen calcium dependently (PDB 5AZE). In vitro and in vivo studies confirmed that this calcium-dependent antigen-binding antibody can dissociate its antigen in the endosome and accelerate antigen clearance from plasma, making it a novel approach for generating recycling antibody. PMID:26496237

  5. Human Milk IgGs Contain Various Combinations of Different Antigen-Binding Sites Resulting in Multiple Variants of their Bispecificity

    PubMed Central

    Sedykh, Sergey E.; Buneva, Valentina N.; Nevinsky, Georgy A.

    2012-01-01

    In the classic paradigm, immunoglobulins represent products of clonal B cell populations, each producing antibodies (Abs) recognizing a single antigen. There is a common belief that IgGs in mammalian biological fluids are monovalent molecules having stable structures and two identical antigen-binding sites. However, human milk IgGs to different antigens undergo extensive half-molecule exchange. In the IgGs pool, only 33±5% and 13±5% of Abs contained light chains exclusively of kappa- or lambda-type, respectively, while 54±10% of the IgGs contained both kappa- and lambda- light chains. All Ab preparations contained different amounts of IgGs of all four subclasses. Interestingly, lambda-IgGs contained an increased amount of IgG2 (87%) and only 3–6% of each of IgG1, IgG3, and IgG4, while kappa-IgGs consisted of comparable (17–32%) amounts of all IgG subtypes. Chimeric kappa-lambda-IgGs consisted of ∼74% IgG1, ∼16% IgG2, ∼5% IgG3 and ∼5% IgG4. As the result of the exchange, all IgG fractions eluted from several specific affinity sorbents under the conditions destroying strong immunocomplexes demonstrated high catalytic activities in hydrolysis of ATP, DNA, oligosaccharides, phosphorylation of proteins, lipids, and oligosaccharides. In vitro, an addition of reduced glutathione and milk plasma to two IgG fractions with different affinity for DNA-cellulose led to a transition of 25–60% of Ab of one fraction to the other fraction. Our data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between milk IgGs of various subclasses, raised against different antigens (including abzymes), which explains the polyspecificity and cross-reactivity of these IgGs. PMID:22912765

  6. Antigen binding and capping by lymphocytes of genetic nonresponder mice.

    PubMed

    Dunham, E K; Unanue, E R; Benacerraf, B

    1972-08-01

    Radioautographic study of the binding of GAT-(125)I to spleen cells of genetic responder and nonresponder mice demonstrates that among mice not injected with antigen all strains have approximately the same number of antigen-binding cells; after injection with antigen the number of antigen-binding cells increases in responders but not in nonresponders. Nonresponders are shown to make antibody after injection with GAT complexed with an immunogenic carrier, demonstrating the presence of potentially functional B cells in responders and nonresponders alike. When incubated in the warm, antigen-binding cells of both responders and nonresponders concentrate antigen at one pole of the cell, forming caps. PMID:5043419

  7. Class II HLA antigens in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, D H; Hornabrook, R W; Dagger, J; Fong, R

    1989-01-01

    HLA typing in Wellington revealed a stronger association of multiple sclerosis with DR2 than with DQw1. The association with DQw1 appeared to be due to linkage disequilibrium of this antigen with DR2. These results, when considered in conjunction with other studies, are most easily explained by the hypothesis that susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is influenced by multiple risk factors, with DR2 being an important risk factor in Caucasoid populations. PMID:2732726

  8. Human Milk sIgA Molecules Contain Various Combinations of Different Antigen-Binding Sites Resulting in a Multiple Binding Specificity of Antibodies and Enzymatic Activities of Abzymes

    PubMed Central

    Sedykh, Sergey E.; Buneva, Valentina N.; Nevinsky, Georgy A.

    2012-01-01

    In the classic paradigm, immunoglobulins are monospecific molecules that have stable structures and two or more identical antigen-binding sites. However, we show here for the first time that the sIgA pool of human milk contains, depending on the donor, only 35±5% λ-sIgAs, 48±7% κ-sIgAs, and 17±4% of chimeric λ-κ-sIgAs. sIgA preparations contained no traces of canonical enzymes. However, all sIgA fractions eluted from several specific affinity sorbents under the conditions destroying even strong immune complexes demonstrated high catalytic activities in hydrolysis of ATP, DNA, and oligosaccharides, and phosphorylation of proteins, lipids, and oligosaccharides. Sequential re-chromatographies of the sIgA fractions with high affinity to one affinity sorbents on the second, third and then fourth affinity sorbents bearing other immobilized antigens led to the distribution of Abs and all catalytic activities all over the profiles of these chromatographies; in all cases some fractions eluted from affinity sorbents only under the conditions destroying strong immune complexes. In vitro, only an addition of reduced glutathione and milk plasma containing no Abs to two sIgA fractions with different affinity for DNA-cellulose led to a transition of up to 11–20% of Ab from one fraction to the other. Our data are indicative of the possibility of half-molecule exchange between different IgA and sIgA molecules. In addition, it cannot be excluded that during the penetration of IgAs through the specific milk barrier, the secretory component (S) and the join chain (J) can combine molecules of dimeric H2L2 λ-IgAs and κ-IgAs against different antigens forming many different variants of H4L4SJ sIgA molecules. Therefore, some chimeric molecules of sIgA can contain from two to four HL-fragments to various antigens interacting with high affinity with different sorbents and catalyzing various chemical reactions. Our data essentially expand the ideas concerning explanation of the

  9. Antigen clasping by two antigen-binding sites of an exceptionally specific antibody for histone methylation

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Takamitsu; Lai, Darson; Dementieva, Irina S.; Montaño, Sherwin P.; Kurosawa, Kohei; Zheng, Yupeng; Akin, Louesa R.; Świst-Rosowska, Kalina M.; Grzybowski, Adrian T.; Koide, Akiko; Krajewski, Krzysztof; Strahl, Brian D.; Kelleher, Neil L.; Ruthenburg, Alexander J.; Koide, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies have a well-established modular architecture wherein the antigen-binding site residing in the antigen-binding fragment (Fab or Fv) is an autonomous and complete unit for antigen recognition. Here, we describe antibodies departing from this paradigm. We developed recombinant antibodies to trimethylated lysine residues on histone H3, important epigenetic marks and challenging targets for molecular recognition. Quantitative characterization demonstrated their exquisite specificity and high affinity, and they performed well in common epigenetics applications. Surprisingly, crystal structures and biophysical analyses revealed that two antigen-binding sites of these antibodies form a head-to-head dimer and cooperatively recognize the antigen in the dimer interface. This “antigen clasping” produced an expansive interface where trimethylated Lys bound to an unusually extensive aromatic cage in one Fab and the histone N terminus to a pocket in the other, thereby rationalizing the high specificity. A long-neck antibody format with a long linker between the antigen-binding module and the Fc region facilitated antigen clasping and achieved both high specificity and high potency. Antigen clasping substantially expands the paradigm of antibody–antigen recognition and suggests a strategy for developing extremely specific antibodies. PMID:26862167

  10. Specific binding of antigen onto human T lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Durandy, A.; Fischer, A.; Charron, D.; Griscelli, C.

    1986-05-01

    Human T lymphocytes sensitized to Candida albicans (CA) were shown to proliferate in cultures induced with mannan, a ramified polysaccharide extracted from the cell well of CA. We presently describe that, when we used strongly labeled (/sup 3/H)mannan, antigen-specific T blast cells were able to bind the labeled mannan on their membrane. The observations that irrelevant blast cells did not bind (/sup 3/H)mannan, and that mannan-specific blast cells did not bind tritiated pneumococcal polysaccharide SIII, indicate the specificity of mannan binding. Mannan binding was reversible and saturable. Mannan binding on T blast cells was inhibited by preincubation with monoclonal antibodies to T3 but not to other T cell-related molecules. The characteristics of this receptor suggest its identity with the T cell receptor for antigen. The direct binding of mannan could be either due to a cross-linking of the receptor by multivalent mannan or to a recognition of mannan in association with HLA-DQ molecules, as suggested by partial blocking of mannan binding using anti-HLA-DQ monoclonal antibodies.

  11. Identification of mutant monoclonal antibodies with increased antigen binding.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, R R; French, D L; Gefter, M L; Scharff, M D

    1988-01-01

    Sib selection and an ELISA have been used to isolate hybridoma subclones producing mutant antibodies that bind antigen better than the parental monoclonal antibody. Such mutants arise spontaneously in culture at frequencies of 2.5-5 X 10(-5). The sequences of the heavy and light chain variable regions of the mutant antibodies are identical to that of the parent and the Ka values of the mutants and the parent are the same. The increase in binding is associated with abnormalities of the constant region polypeptide and probably reflect changes in avidity of these antibodies. Images PMID:3267219

  12. Cooperative binding: a multiple personality.

    PubMed

    Martini, Johannes W R; Diambra, Luis; Habeck, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Cooperative binding has been described in many publications and has been related to or defined by several different properties of the binding behavior of the ligand to the target molecule. In addition to the commonly used Hill coefficient, other characteristics such as a sigmoidal shape of the overall titration curve in a linear plot, a change of ligand affinity of the other binding sites when a site of the target molecule becomes occupied, or complex roots of the binding polynomial have been used to define or to quantify cooperative binding. In this work, we analyze how the different properties are related in the most general model for binding curves based on the grand canonical partition function and present several examples which highlight differences between the cooperativity characterizing properties which are discussed. Our results mainly show that among the presented definitions there are not two which fully coincide. Moreover, this work poses the question whether it can make sense to distinguish between positive and negative cooperativity based on the macroscopic binding isotherm only. This article shall emphasize that scientists who investigate cooperative effects in biological systems could help avoiding misunderstandings by stating clearly which kind of cooperativity they discuss. PMID:26319983

  13. Antigen binding properties of highly purified bispecific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Allard, W J; Moran, C A; Nagel, E; Collins, G; Largen, M T

    1992-10-01

    A panel of three bispecific monoclonal antibodies (bsMAbs) binding to follitropin (FSH) and to beta-galactosidase have been prepared by fusion of hybridoma cell lines resistant to oubain and neomycin. One of these bispecific antibodies contains heavy chains of the same IgG subclass, and two are composed of heavy chains of different IgG subclasses. We have investigated methods for the purification of bispecific antibodies from hybrid hybridoma supernatant fluids grown in serum-free medium. Following ammonium sulfate precipitation, bispecific antibodies can be purified in a single step by mixed mode ion-exchange HPLC on Bakerbond Abx columns. In one case, three species were resolved by ion-exchange HPLC and functional analysis showed that two peaks contained parental antibodies, and the third contained the bispecific. Ion-exchange HPLC purification of serum-free preparations from two other hybrid hybridomas resolved seven protein-containing peaks, only one of which was active in a bispecific ELISA. The equilibrium affinity constants for each of the parental antibodies for both FSH and beta-galactosidase were determined and found to be similar to those of the purified bsMAbs. Further, the association of FSH to one binding site on a bispecific antibody was shown to have no effect on the equilibrium binding constant for beta-galactosidase binding to the other site. Our results suggest that bsMAbs can be readily purified from hybrid hybridomas by a simple and rapid method, and the binding of antigen to one binding site on a bsMAb is independent of antigen binding to the second site. PMID:1528192

  14. Antigen-binding small lymphocytes in the guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Donald, D.; Beck, J. Swanson

    1974-01-01

    The time course of the relative distribution of small lymphocytes binding 125I-labelled human thyroglobulin (HTg) in cell suspensions from the peripheral blood and various lymphoid organs was studied in guinea-pigs at progressive intervals up to 28 days after immunization with an emulsion of HTg and BCG in Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA). Small lymphocytes binding 125I-labelled HTg were first detected in peripheral blood, popliteal (draining) lymph node, spleen and bone marrow preparations on the 10th day, and in mesenteric (distant) lymph node and thymus preparations on the 14th day after primary immunization. In general, the percentage of these cells increased progressively thereafter until the end of the period of study. Blocking experiments with unlabelled antigens indicated that the binding of 125I-labelled HTg by small lymphocytes was specific. An anti-HTg antibody cytophilic for guinea-pig small lymphocytes was demonstrated by the passive transfer of antigen-binding capacity to lymphocytes of unimmunized animals with hyperimmune guinea-pig serum. It is proposed that, in these experiments, anti-HTg cytophilic antibody was bound first to small lymphocytes in the tissues participating actively in the immune response (popliteal node, spleen and bone marrow) before spilling over into the general circulation to coat lymphocytes at other sites (mesenteric node and thymus). PMID:4604111

  15. Binding of Todd-Hewitt broth antigens by Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, M W; Jones, C A

    1983-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans 10449, grown in chemically defined culture medium, was tested for its ability to bind 3H-labeled Todd-Hewitt broth components (greater than 12,000 Mr). Maximum adsorption of radioactivity occurred within 5 min at room temperature, and cell-bound material was not completely removed by extended washing with buffer. Heat-killed, arsenate-inhibited, and viable bacteria bound similar quantities. Only 0.09% of the radioactivity in the preparation of high Mr Todd-Hewitt broth components was removed by absorption with excess numbers of S. mutans 10449 cells. Binding followed saturation kinetics and was competitively inhibited by unlabeled medium components, both the dialyzable and nondialyzable fractions. Other oral streptococci were also found to bind these complex medium components. Rabbit antiserum elicited to the high-molecular-weight Todd-Hewitt broth components reacted with monkey cardiac muscle and with S. mutans coated with medium components. Absorption of the anti-Todd-Hewitt broth serum with homogenized heart removed antibodies that reacted with Todd-Hewitt broth-coated S. mutans. Therefore, the tissue-specific antigens of this beef heart infusion medium that adsorb to S. mutans can interfere with the detection and characterization of antigens shared by these bacteria and animal tissues. Images PMID:6852915

  16. Novel Mycobacteria Antigen 85 Complex Binding Motif on Fibronectin*

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chih-Jung; Bell, Hannah; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Ptak, Christopher P.; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2012-01-01

    The members of the antigen 85 protein family (Ag85), consisting of members Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C, are the predominantly secreted proteins of mycobacteria and possess the ability to specifically interact with fibronectin (Fn). Because Fn-binding proteins are likely to be important virulence factors of Mycobacterium spp., Ag85 may contribute to the adherence, invasion, and dissemination of organisms in host tissue. In this study, we reported the Fn binding affinity of Ag85A, Ag85B, and Ag85C from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) (KD values were determined from 33.6 to 68.4 nm) and mapped the Ag85-binding motifs of Fn. Fn14, a type III module located on the heparin-binding domain II (Hep-2) of Fn, was discovered to interact with Ag85 from MAP. The peptide inhibition assay subsequently demonstrated that a peptide consisting of residues 17–26 from Fn14 (17SLLVSWQPPR26, termed P17–26) could interfere with Ag85B binding to Fn (73.3% reduction). In addition, single alanine substitutions along the sequence of P17–26 revealed that the key residues involved in Ag85-Fn binding likely contribute through hydrophobic and charge interactions. Moreover, binding of Ag85 on Fn siRNA-transfected Caco2 cells was dramatically reduced (44.6%), implying the physiological significance of the Ag85-Fn interaction between mycobacteria and host cells during infection. Our results indicate that Ag85 binds to Fn at a novel motif and plays a critical role in mycobacteria adherence to host cells by initiating infection. Ag85 might serve as an important colonization factor potentially contributing to mycobacterial virulence. PMID:22128161

  17. Immunotherapy in Multiple Myeloma Using Cancer-Testis Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Seifi-Alan, Mahnaz; Shamsi, Roshanak; Esfandiary, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Context: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by monoclonal expansion of abnormal plasma cells in the bone marrow. It accounts for 10% of hematological malignancies. Although patients respond to a wide range of anticancer modalities, relapse occurs in a significant number of the cases. Immunotherapeutic approaches have been evolved to tackle this problem. Cancer-testis antigens CTAs as a group of tumor-associated antigens are appropriate targets for cancer immunotherapy as they have restricted expression pattern in normal tissues except for testis which is an immune-privileged site. Expression of these antigens has been assessed in different malignancies including MM. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a computerized search of the MEDLINE/PubMed databases with key words: multiple myeloma, cancer-testis antigen, and cancer stem cell and immunotherapy. Results: Several CTAs including NY-ESO-1, MAGE and GAGE family have been shown to be expressed in MM patients. Cellular and humoral immune responses against these antigens have been detected in MM patients. Conclusions: The frequent and high expression level of CTAs in MM patients shows that these antigens can be applied as cancer biomarkers as well as targets for immunotherapy in these patients. PMID:26634107

  18. PK/PD analysis of a novel pH-dependent antigen-binding antibody using a dynamic antibody-antigen binding model.

    PubMed

    Haraya, Kenta; Tachibana, Tatsuhiko; Iwayanagi, Yuki; Maeda, Atsuhiko; Ozeki, Kazuhisa; Nezu, Junichi; Ishigai, Masaki; Igawa, Tomoyuki

    2016-04-01

    Previously, we have reported novel engineered antibody with pH-dependent antigen-binding (recycling antibody), and with both pH-dependent antigen-binding and increased FcRn-binding at neutral pH (sweeping antibody). The purpose of this study is to perform PK/PD predictions to better understand the potential applications of the antibodies as therapeutics. To demonstrate the applicability of recycling and sweeping antibodies over conventional antibodies, PK/PD analyses were performed. PK/PD parameters for antibody and antigen dynamics were estimated from the results of a pharmacokinetic study in human FcRn transgenic mice. A simulation study was performed using the estimated PK/PD parameters with various target antigen profiles. In comparison to conventional antibody, recycling antibody enhanced antibody-antigen complex clearance by 3 folds, while sweeping antibody accelerated antigen clearance by 10 folds in a pharmacokinetic study. Simulation results showed that recycling and sweeping antibodies can improve dosage frequency and reduce the required dose for target antigens with various clearances, plasma concentrations or binding kinetics. Moreover, importance of the association rate constant to enhance the beneficial effect of antibodies was shown. These results support the conclusion that recycling and sweeping antibodies can be applied to various target antigens with different profiles, and expand the number of antigens that antibodies can target. PMID:26944099

  19. Multiple overlapping homologies between two rheumatoid antigens and immunosuppressive viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Douvas, A; Sobelman, S

    1991-01-01

    Amino acid (aa) sequence homologies between viruses and autoimmune nuclear antigens are suggestive of viral involvement in disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and scleroderma. We analyzed the frequency of exact homologies of greater than or equal to 5 aa between 61 viral proteins (19,827 aa), 8 nuclear antigens (3813 aa), and 41 control proteins (11,743 aa). Both pentamer and hexamer homologies between control proteins and viruses are unexpectedly abundant, with hexamer matches occurring in 1 of 3 control proteins (or once every 769 aa). However, 2 nuclear antigens, the SLE-associated 70-kDa antigen and the scleroderma-associated CENP-B protein, are highly unusual in containing multiple homologies to a group of synergizing immunosuppressive viruses. Two viruses, herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), contain sequences exactly duplicated at 15 sites in the 70-kDa antigen and at 10 sites in CENP-B protein. The immediate-early (IE) protein of HSV-1, which activates HIV-1 regulatory functions, contains three homologies to the 70-kDa antigen (two hexamers and a pentamer) and two to CENP-B (a hexamer and pentamer). There are four homologies (including a hexamer) common to the 70-kDa antigen and Epstein-Barr virus, and three homologies (including two hexamers) common to CENP-B and cytomegalovirus. The majority of homologies in both nuclear antigens are clustered in highly charged C-terminal domains containing epitopes for human autoantibodies. Furthermore, most homologies have a contiguous or overlapping distribution, thereby creating a high density of potential epitopes. In addition to the exact homologies tabulated, motifs of matching sequences are repeated frequently in these domains. Our analysis suggests that coexpression of heterologous viruses having common immunosuppressive functions may generate autoantibodies cross-reacting with certain nuclear proteins. PMID:1712488

  20. Co-Localization of Multiple Antigens and Specific DNA

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Marcus; Wacker, Karin; Hickey, William F.; Ringelstein, Erich B.; Kiefer, Reinhard

    2000-01-01

    Co-localization of proteins and nucleic acid sequences by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry is frequently difficult as the process necessary to detect the target structure of one technique may negatively affect the target of the other. Morphological impairment may also limit the application of the two techniques on sensitive tissue. To overcome these problems we developed a method to perform in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry on semithin sections of methyl methacrylate-embedded tissue. Microwave-stimulated antigen retrieval, signal amplification by catalyzed reporter deposition, and fluorescent dyes were used for both techniques, yielding high sensitivity and excellent morphological preservation compared to conventional paraffin sections. Co-localization of in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry signals with high morphological resolution was achieved on single sections as well as on adjacent multiple serial sections, using computerized image processing. The latter allowed for the co-localization of multiple antigens and a specific DNA sequence at the same tissue level. The method was successfully applied to radiation bone marrow chimeric rats created by transplanting wild-type Lewis rat bone marrow into TK-tsa transgenic Lewis rats, in an attempt to trace and characterize TK-tsa transgenic cells. It also proved useful in the co-localization of multiple antigens in peripheral nerve biopsies. PMID:11106556

  1. T antigen origin-binding domain of simian virus 40: determinants of specific DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth M; Sanford, David G; Luo, Xuelian; Sudmeier, James L; Gurard-Levin, Zachary A; Bullock, Peter A; Bachovchin, William W

    2004-06-01

    To better understand origin recognition and initiation of DNA replication, we have examined by NMR complexes formed between the origin-binding domain of SV40 T antigen (T-ag-obd), the initiator protein of the SV40 virus, and cognate and noncognate DNA oligomers. The results reveal two structural effects associated with "origin-specific" binding that are absent in nonspecific DNA binding. The first is the formation of a hydrogen bond (H-bond) involving His 203, a residue that genetic studies have previously identified as crucial to both specific and nonspecific DNA binding in full-length T antigen. In free T-ag-obd, the side chain of His 203 has a pK(a) value of approximately 5, titrating to the N(epsilon)(1)H tautomer at neutral pH (Sudmeier, J. L., et al. (1996) J. Magn. Reson., Ser. B 113, 236-247). In complexes with origin DNA, His 203 N(delta)(1) becomes protonated and remains nontitrating as the imidazolium cation at all pH values from 4 to 8. The H-bonded N(delta1)H resonates at 15.9 ppm, an unusually large N-H proton chemical shift, of a magnitude previously observed only in the catalytic triad of serine proteases at low pH. The formation of this H-bond requires the middle G/C base pair of the recognition pentanucleotide, GAGGC. The second structural effect is a selective distortion of the A/T base pair characterized by a large (0.6 ppm) upfield chemical-shift change of its Watson-Crick proton, while nearby H-bonded protons remain relatively unaffected. The results indicate that T antigen, like many other DNA-binding proteins, may employ "catalytic" or "transition-state-like" interactions in binding its cognate DNA (Jen-Jacobson, L. (1997) Biopolymers 44, 153-180), which may be the solution to the well-known paradox between the relatively modest DNA-binding specificity exhibited by initiator proteins and the high specificity of initiation. PMID:15170330

  2. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-binding epitopes dataset for the newly identified T-cell antigens of Mycobacterium immunogenum.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Harish; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2016-09-01

    The dataset described herein is related to our article entitled "T-cell antigens of Mycobacterium immunogenum (MI), an etiological agent of occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis'' (Chandra and Yadav, 2016) [1]. The data include in silico-predicted T-cell epitopes of the T-cell antigens AgA and AgD of MI predicted to bind to HLA-I or HLA-II alleles. Data on two reference T-cell antigens ESAT-6 and CFP-10 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv are included for comparison. The data for each antigen include the predicted epitope׳s amino acid sequence, its first amino acid position, and its ability to bind HLA-I or HLA-II allele(s). PMID:27508266

  3. Uncommon structural motifs dominate the antigen binding site in human autoantibodies reactive with basement membrane collagen.

    PubMed

    Foster, Mary H; Buckley, Elizabeth S; Chen, Benny J; Hwang, Kwan-Ki; Clark, Amy G

    2016-08-01

    Autoantibodies mediate organ destruction in multiple autoimmune diseases, yet their origins in patients remain poorly understood. To probe the genetic origins and structure of disease-associated autoantibodies, we engrafted immunodeficient mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and immunized with the non-collagenous-1 (NC1) domain of the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen. This antigen is expressed in lungs and kidneys and is targeted by autoantibodies in anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) nephritis and Goodpasture syndrome (GPS), prototypic human organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Using Epstein Barr virus transformation and cell fusion, six human anti-alpha3(IV)NC1 collagen monoclonal autoantibodies (mAb) were recovered, including subsets reactive with human kidney and with epitopes recognized by patients' IgG. Sequence analysis reveals a long to exceptionally long heavy chain complementarity determining region3 (HCDR3), the major site of antigen binding, in all six mAb. Mean HCDR3 length is 25.5 amino acids (range 20-36), generated from inherently long DH and JH genes and extended regions of non-templated N-nucleotides. Long HCDR3 are suited to forming noncontiguous antigen contacts and to binding recessed, immunologically silent epitopes hidden from conventional antibodies, as seen with self-antigen crossreactive broadly neutralizing anti-HIV Ig (bnAb). The anti-alpha3(IV)NC1 collagen mAb also show preferential use of unmutated variable region genes that are enriched among human chronic lymphocytic leukemia antibodies that share features with natural polyreactive Ig. Our findings suggest unexpected relationships between pathogenic anti-collagen Ig, bnAb, and autoreactive Ig associated with malignancy, all of which arise from B cells expressing unconventional structural elements that may require transient escape from tolerance for successful expansion. PMID:27450516

  4. A Mutant Library Approach to Identify Improved Meningococcal Factor H Binding Protein Vaccine Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Konar, Monica; Rossi, Raffaella; Walter, Helen; Pajon, Rolando; Beernink, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Factor H binding protein (FHbp) is a virulence factor used by meningococci to evade the host complement system. FHbp elicits bactericidal antibodies in humans and is part of two recently licensed vaccines. Using human complement Factor H (FH) transgenic mice, we previously showed that binding of FH decreased the protective antibody responses to FHbp vaccination. Therefore, in the present study we devised a library-based method to identify mutant FHbp antigens with very low binding of FH. Using an FHbp sequence variant in one of the two licensed vaccines, we displayed an error-prone PCR mutant FHbp library on the surface of Escherichia coli. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate FHbp mutants with very low binding of human FH and preserved binding of control anti-FHbp monoclonal antibodies. We sequenced the gene encoding FHbp from selected clones and introduced the mutations into a soluble FHbp construct. Using this approach, we identified several new mutant FHbp vaccine antigens that had very low binding of FH as measured by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance. The new mutant FHbp antigens elicited protective antibody responses in human FH transgenic mice that were up to 20-fold higher than those elicited by the wild-type FHbp antigen. This approach offers the potential to discover mutant antigens that might not be predictable even with protein structural information and potentially can be applied to other microbial vaccine antigens that bind host proteins. PMID:26057742

  5. A Mutant Library Approach to Identify Improved Meningococcal Factor H Binding Protein Vaccine Antigens.

    PubMed

    Konar, Monica; Rossi, Raffaella; Walter, Helen; Pajon, Rolando; Beernink, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Factor H binding protein (FHbp) is a virulence factor used by meningococci to evade the host complement system. FHbp elicits bactericidal antibodies in humans and is part of two recently licensed vaccines. Using human complement Factor H (FH) transgenic mice, we previously showed that binding of FH decreased the protective antibody responses to FHbp vaccination. Therefore, in the present study we devised a library-based method to identify mutant FHbp antigens with very low binding of FH. Using an FHbp sequence variant in one of the two licensed vaccines, we displayed an error-prone PCR mutant FHbp library on the surface of Escherichia coli. We used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to isolate FHbp mutants with very low binding of human FH and preserved binding of control anti-FHbp monoclonal antibodies. We sequenced the gene encoding FHbp from selected clones and introduced the mutations into a soluble FHbp construct. Using this approach, we identified several new mutant FHbp vaccine antigens that had very low binding of FH as measured by ELISA and surface plasmon resonance. The new mutant FHbp antigens elicited protective antibody responses in human FH transgenic mice that were up to 20-fold higher than those elicited by the wild-type FHbp antigen. This approach offers the potential to discover mutant antigens that might not be predictable even with protein structural information and potentially can be applied to other microbial vaccine antigens that bind host proteins. PMID:26057742

  6. Specificity and kinetics of norovirus binding to magnetic bead- conjugated histo-blood group antigens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) have been identified as candidate receptors for human norovirus (NOR). Type A, type H1, and Lewis histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) in humans have been identified as major targets for NOR binding. Pig HBGA-conjugated magnetic beads have been utilized as a means ...

  7. trans activation of the simian virus 40 late promoter by large T antigen requires binding sites for the cellular transcription factor TEF-1.

    PubMed Central

    Casaz, P; Sundseth, R; Hansen, U

    1991-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) T antigen stimulates the level of transcription from several RNA polymerase II promoters, including the SV40 late promoter. The mechanism of trans activation appears to be indirect since binding of T antigen to specific DNA sequences is not required. However, specific promoter elements that respond to T antigen have not previously been defined. We identified DNA sequences from the SV40 late promoter whose ability to stimulate transcription is induced by the expression of T antigen. In particular, the Sph I + II motifs of the SV40 enhancer can confer T-antigen inducibility to the normally uninducible herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene promoter when multiple copies of the sequence are inserted 5' of the transcription initiation site and TATA sequence. Binding sites for the cellular transcription factor TEF-1 and octamer binding proteins are contained within the Sph I + II motifs, as well as at other positions in the SV40 promoter. To study the role of individual protein-binding sites in trans activation by T antigen, mutations were constructed in various TEF-1 and octamer protein-binding sites of the SV40 late promoter. These mutations did not significantly affect basal promoter activity. However, mutation of all three TEF-1 sites prevented detectable activation by T antigen. DNase I footprinting of the mutated promoters with purified proteins demonstrated that inducibility by T antigen correlated with binding affinity of TEF-1 for the DNA and not with binding affinity of an octamer binding protein. Images PMID:1658359

  8. Development of chimeric antigen receptors for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cingolani, Carolina; Bories, Jean Christophe

    2016-04-15

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematologic malignancy characterized by the expansion of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. It is associated with serum or urine monoclonal protein and organ damage including renal failure, anaemia, hypercalcaemia and bone lesions. Despite recent improvements MM still remains an incurable disease. Previous studies have shown that the adoptive transfer of autologous T-cells modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) is effective in cases of acute and chronic lymphoid leukaemia. However, the adjustment of CAR-T-cell therapy to MM is hindered by the scarcity of antigens specific to the tumour plasma cells. Most candidate targets are shared by healthy tissues, and entail high risks of toxicity. Therefore several strategies have been proposed to regulate CAR-T-cell function as well as to enhance CAR-T-cell specificity against tumour cells. In this article we summarize the surface markers that have been investigated as targets to eliminate MM plasma cells and the MM-specific CARs that have been developed to date. Then we describe the different CAR-T-cell designs that could be applied in the case of MM to circumvent current problems of toxicity. PMID:27068946

  9. Autoantibodies from mixed cryoglobulinaemia patients bind glomerular antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Dolcher, M P; Marchini, B; Sabbatini, A; Longombardo, G; Ferri, C; Riente, L; Bombardieri, S; Migliorini, P

    1994-01-01

    Mixed cryoglobulinaemia (MC) is a disorder characterized by the presence of large amounts of cryoprecipitating IgM-IgG complexes. An immune complex glomerulonephritis develops in one third of all patients, but its occurrence does not seem related to the amount of cryoglobulins in the sera, nor to their complement-fixing ability. In this study we investigated the presence of IgG antibodies reactive with kidney antigens in 33 MC patients (11 with glomerulonephritis, 22 without renal involvement). A total glomerular extract was run on a 10% acrylamide gel, blotted to nitrocellulose and probed with the patients' sera. Sera from half of the patients without renal involvement reacted with several glomerular antigens whose molecular weight ranged between 200 and 29 kD. In the group with renal involvement, sera from 7/11 patients reacted with an antigen of 50 kD, which is also expressed in thymus, but not in the heart or liver. In a follow-up study of four patients with renal involvement, the amount of serum antibody specific for the 50-kD antigen fluctuated, either spontaneously or in response to therapy. These results show that antibodies specific for glomerular antigens are detectable in MC sera. The immune response against a 50-kD antigen expressed in the kidney and thymus seems to be restricted to a subset of MC patients with renal involvement. Circulating autoantibodies specific for glomerular antigens might contribute to the induction of glomerulonephritis in MC forming immune complexes in situ. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8187340

  10. Assessment of Solvated Interaction Energy Function for Ranking Antibody-Antigen Binding Affinities.

    PubMed

    Sulea, Traian; Vivcharuk, Victor; Corbeil, Christopher R; Deprez, Christophe; Purisima, Enrico O

    2016-07-25

    Affinity modulation of antibodies and antibody fragments of therapeutic value is often required in order to improve their clinical efficacies. Virtual affinity maturation has the potential to quickly focus on the critical hotspot residues without the combinatorial explosion problem of conventional display and library approaches. However, this requires a binding affinity scoring function that is capable of ranking single-point mutations of a starting antibody. We focus here on assessing the solvated interaction energy (SIE) function that was originally developed for and is widely applied to scoring of protein-ligand binding affinities. To this end, we assembled a structure-function data set called Single-Point Mutant Antibody Binding (SiPMAB) comprising several antibody-antigen systems suitable for this assessment, i.e., based on high-resolution crystal structures for the parent antibodies and coupled with high-quality binding affinity measurements for sets of single-point antibody mutants in each system. Using this data set, we tested the SIE function with several mutation protocols based on the popular methods SCWRL, Rosetta, and FoldX. We found that the SIE function coupled with a protocol limited to sampling only the mutated side chain can reasonably predict relative binding affinities with a Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient of about 0.6, outperforming more aggressive sampling protocols. Importantly, this performance is maintained for each of the seven system-specific component subsets as well as for other relevant subsets including non-alanine and charge-altering mutations. The transferability and enrichment in affinity-improving mutants can be further enhanced using consensus ranking over multiple methods, including the SIE, Talaris, and FOLDEF energy functions. The knowledge gained from this study can lead to successful prospective applications of virtual affinity maturation. PMID:27367467

  11. Identification of antigenic targets of paraproteins by expression cloning does not support a causal role of chronic antigenic stimulation in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma and MGUS.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Klaus-Dieter; Held, Gerhard; Kubuschok, Boris; Hung, Chun-Zhu; Malatsidze, Natalia; Wagner, Mathias; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    2007-07-15

    Antigenic targets of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma (MM) paraproteins have been suggested to play an important role as growth stimulators in the pathogenesis of these neoplasms. To identify such targets, we screened cDNA libraries from human testis, lung and breast cancer, bovine and porcine muscle and wheat germ for reactivity with paraproteins in the sera from 115 patients with MGUS and MM. Of >6 x 10(8) paraprotein-antigen interactions screened, an IgA paraprotein from a female patient bound to sperm-specific cylicin-2, and 3 IgG paraproteins bound to tripeptidyl-peptidase-II (TPP-2), insulin-like growth-factor binding-protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and porcine kinesin. Specificity was confirmed by reverse Western blots using recombinant antigens. The broad spectrum of auto-, allo- and heteroantigens as targets of human paraproteins in patients without signs of chronic antigenic stimulation renders a causal role of the antigenic stimulus in the pathogenesis of MGUS and MM unlikely. PMID:17373665

  12. Specific Fluorine Labeling of the HyHEL10 Antibody Affects Antigen Binding and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Acchione, Mauro; Lee, Yi-Chien; DeSantis, Morgan E.; Lipschultz, Claudia A.; Wlodawer, Alexander; Li, Mi; Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Walter, Richard L.; Smith-Gill, Sandra; Barchi, Joseph J.

    2012-01-01

    To more fully understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for variations in binding affinity with antibody maturation, we explored the use of site specific fluorine labeling and 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Several single-chain (scFv) antibodies, derived from an affinity-matured series of anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) mouse IgG1, were constructed with either complete or individual replacement of tryptophan residues with 5-fluorotryptophan (5FW). An array of biophysical techniques was used to gain insight into the impact of fluorine substitution on the overall protein structure and antigen binding. SPR measurements indicated that 5FW incorporation lowered binding affinity for the HEL antigen. The degree of analogue impact was residue-dependent, and the greatest decrease in affinity was observed when 5FW was substituted for residues near the binding interface. In contrast, corresponding crystal structures in complex with HEL were essentially indistinguishable from the unsubstituted antibody. 19F NMR analysis showed severe overlap of signals in the free fluorinated protein that was resolved upon binding to antigen, suggesting very distinct chemical environments for each 5FW in the complex. Preliminary relaxation analysis suggested the presence of chemical exchange in the antibody–antigen complex that could not be observed by X-ray crystallography. These data demonstrate that fluorine NMR can be an extremely useful tool for discerning structural changes in scFv antibody–antigen complexes with altered function that may not be discernible by other biophysical techniques. PMID:22769726

  13. Simian virus 40 T antigen can regulate p53-mediated transcription independent of binding p53.

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, J J; Jiang, D; Srinivasan, A; Pipas, J M; Robbins, P D

    1997-01-01

    A simian virus 40 (SV40) T-antigen mutant containing only the N-terminal 136 amino acids, able to bind to Rb and p300 but not p53, partially inhibited p53-mediated transcription without affecting the ability of p53 to bind DNA. These results suggest that SV40 T antigen can regulate p53-mediated transcription either directly through protein-protein association or indirectly through interaction with factors which may function to confer p53-mediated transcription. PMID:9188637

  14. Antigen-antibody binding kinetics for biosensor applications. A dual-fractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Sadana, A; Suturia, M

    1997-01-01

    The diffusion-limited binding kinetics of antigen (or antibody) in solution to antibody (or antigen) immobilized on a biosensor surface is analyzed within a fractal framework. The fit obtained by a dual-fractal analysis is compared with that obtained from a single-fractal analysis. In some cases, the dual-fractal analysis provides an improved fit when compared with a single-fractal analysis. This was indicated by the regression analysis provided by Sigmaplot (San Rafael, CA). These examples are presented. It is of interest to note that the state of disorder (or the fractal dimension) and the binding rate coefficient both increase (or decrease, a single example is presented for this case) as the reaction progresses on the biosensor surface. For example, for the binding of monoclonal antibody MAb 49 in solution to surface-immobilized antigen, a 90.4% increase in the fractal dimension (Df1 to Df2) from 1.327 to 2.527 leads to an increase in the binding rate coefficient (k1 to k2) by a factor of 9.4 from 11.74 to 110.3. The different examples analyzed and presented together provide a means by which the antigen-antibody reactions may be better controlled by noting the magnitude of the changes in the fractal dimension and in the binding rate coefficient as the reaction progresses on the biosensor surface. PMID:9170257

  15. Does binding of complement factor H to the meningococcal vaccine antigen, factor H binding protein, decrease protective serum antibody responses?

    PubMed

    Granoff, Dan M; Ram, Sanjay; Beernink, Peter T

    2013-08-01

    Factor H binding protein (fHbp) is a principal antigen in a multicomponent meningococcal vaccine recently licensed in Europe for prevention of serogroup B diseases. The protein recruits the complement downregulator, factor H (fH), to the bacterial surface, which enables the organism to resist complement-mediated bacteriolysis. Binding is specific for human fH. In preclinical studies, mice and rabbits immunized with fHbp vaccines developed serum bactericidal antibody responses, which in humans predict protection against developing meningococcal disease. These studies, however, were in animals whose fH did not bind to the vaccine antigen. Here we review the immunogenicity of fHbp vaccines in human fH transgenic mice. The data suggest that animals with high serum human fH concentrations have impaired protective antibody responses. Further, mutant fHbp vaccines with single amino acid substitutions that decrease fH binding are superior immunogens, possibly by unmasking epitopes in the fH binding site that are important for eliciting serum bactericidal antibody responses. Humans immunized with fHbp vaccines develop serum bactericidal antibody, but achieving broad coverage in infants required incorporation of additional antigens, including outer membrane vesicles, which increased rates of fever and local reactions at the injection site. The experimental results in transgenic mice predict that fHbp immunogenicity can be improved in humans by using mutant fHbp vaccines with decreased fH binding. These results have important public health implications for developing improved fHbp vaccines for control of serogroup B meningococcal disease and for development of vaccines against other microbes that bind host molecules. PMID:23740919

  16. Multiple instance learning of Calmodulin binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Minhas, Fayyaz ul Amir Afsar; Ben-Hur, Asa

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Calmodulin (CaM) is a ubiquitously conserved protein that acts as a calcium sensor, and interacts with a large number of proteins. Detection of CaM binding proteins and their interaction sites experimentally requires a significant effort, so accurate methods for their prediction are important. Results: We present a novel algorithm (MI-1 SVM) for binding site prediction and evaluate its performance on a set of CaM-binding proteins extracted from the Calmodulin Target Database. Our approach directly models the problem of binding site prediction as a large-margin classification problem, and is able to take into account uncertainty in binding site location. We show that the proposed algorithm performs better than the standard SVM formulation, and illustrate its ability to recover known CaM binding motifs. A highly accurate cascaded classification approach using the proposed binding site prediction method to predict CaM binding proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana is also presented. Availability: Matlab code for training MI-1 SVM and the cascaded classification approach is available on request. Contact: fayyazafsar@gmail.com or asa@cs.colostate.edu PMID:22962461

  17. Immunoglobulin VH clan and family identity predicts variable domain structure and may influence antigen binding.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, P M; Mortari, F; Newton, J A; Schroeder, H W

    1992-01-01

    Mammalian immunoglobulin VH families can be grouped into three distinct clans based upon sequence conservation in two of the three framework (FR) intervals. Through replacement/silent site substitution analysis, molecular modeling and mathematical evaluation of known immunoglobulin crystal structures, we demonstrate that this conservation reflects preservation of protein sequence and structure. Each clan contains a characteristic FR 1 interval that is solvent-exposed and structurally separated from the antigen binding site. Families within a clan contain their own unique FR 3 interval that is capable of either influencing the conformation of the antigen binding site or interacting directly with antigen. Our results provide a structural context for theories that address differential use of VH families in the immune response. Images PMID:1537339

  18. Induction of the c-myc protooncogene following antigen binding to hapten-specific B cells

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, E.C.; Fetherston, J.; Zimmer, S.

    1986-03-01

    Considerable controversy has centered on the role that the surface immunoglobulin (sIg) receptor for antigen plays during the induction of B cell activation. Stimulation by anti-Ig reagents has been shown to activate G/sub 0/ B cells to enter the cell cycle. The binding of thymus-dependent antigens to hapten-specific B cell populations apparently does not result in the movement of the antigen-binding cells (ABC) into the G/sub 1/ stage of the cell cycle. However, the authors have recently demonstrated that antigen binding to such hapten-specific B cells does result in the initiation of the membrane phosphatidylinositol cycle. In the present experiments, hapten-specific B cells (80-90% ABC, 99% in G/sub 0/) were incubated with either the correct hapten-carrier conjugate, with the carrier protein, or only media for 2 hours at 37/sup 0/C. At that time, total cellular RNA was isolated and subsequently analyzed by either dot blots or Northern gel techniques. The blots were probed with a (/sup 32/P)-c-myc SstI-Xhol fragment. The results indicate that hapten carrier stimulation of the hapten-specific B cells induces enhanced transcription of the c-myc gene. These observations lend further support to the premise that antigen binding to the sIg receptor results in the transduction to the cell of important signals and implicates the active participation of sIg during the process of antigen-mediated B cell activation.

  19. Antigen

    MedlinePlus

    An antigen is any substance that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against it. This means your immune ... and is trying to fight it off. An antigen may be a substance from the environment, such ...

  20. Specific Fluorine Labeling of the HyHEL10 Antibody Affects Antigen Binding and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Acchione, Mauro; Lee, Yi-Chien; DeSantis, Morgan E.; Lipschultz, Claudia A.; Wlodawer, Alexander; Li, Mi; Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Walter, Richard L.; Smith-Gill, Sandra; Barchi, Jr., Joseph J.

    2012-10-16

    To more fully understand the molecular mechanisms responsible for variations in binding affinity with antibody maturation, we explored the use of site specific fluorine labeling and {sup 19}F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Several single-chain (scFv) antibodies, derived from an affinity-matured series of anti-hen egg white lysozyme (HEL) mouse IgG1, were constructed with either complete or individual replacement of tryptophan residues with 5-fluorotryptophan ({sup 5F}W). An array of biophysical techniques was used to gain insight into the impact of fluorine substitution on the overall protein structure and antigen binding. SPR measurements indicated that {sup 5F}W incorporation lowered binding affinity for the HEL antigen. The degree of analogue impact was residue-dependent, and the greatest decrease in affinity was observed when {sup 5F}W was substituted for residues near the binding interface. In contrast, corresponding crystal structures in complex with HEL were essentially indistinguishable from the unsubstituted antibody. {sup 19}F NMR analysis showed severe overlap of signals in the free fluorinated protein that was resolved upon binding to antigen, suggesting very distinct chemical environments for each {sup 5F}W in the complex. Preliminary relaxation analysis suggested the presence of chemical exchange in the antibody-antigen complex that could not be observed by X-ray crystallography. These data demonstrate that fluorine NMR can be an extremely useful tool for discerning structural changes in scFv antibody-antigen complexes with altered function that may not be discernible by other biophysical techniques.

  1. Comparison of biosensor platforms in the evaluation of high affinity antibody-antigen binding kinetics.

    PubMed

    Yang, Danlin; Singh, Ajit; Wu, Helen; Kroe-Barrett, Rachel

    2016-09-01

    The acquisition of reliable kinetic parameters for the characterization of biomolecular interactions is an important component of the drug discovery and development process. While several benchmark studies have explored the variability of kinetic rate constants obtained from multiple laboratories and biosensors, a direct comparison of these instruments' performance has not been undertaken, and systematic factors contributing to data variability from these systems have not been discussed. To address these questions, a panel of ten high-affinity monoclonal antibodies was simultaneously evaluated for their binding kinetics against the same antigen on four biosensor platforms: GE Healthcare's Biacore T100, Bio-Rad's ProteOn XPR36, ForteBio's Octet RED384, and Wasatch Microfluidics's IBIS MX96. We compared the strengths and weaknesses of these systems and found that despite certain inherent systematic limitations in instrumentation, the rank orders of both the association and dissociation rate constants were highly correlated between these instruments. Our results also revealed a trade-off between data reliability and sample throughput. Biacore T100, followed by ProteOn XPR36, exhibited excellent data quality and consistency, whereas Octet RED384 and IBIS MX96 demonstrated high flexibility and throughput with compromises in data accuracy and reproducibility. Our results support the need for a "fit-for-purpose" approach in instrument selection for biosensor studies. PMID:27365220

  2. Meningococcal Factor H Binding Protein Vaccine Antigens with Increased Thermal Stability and Decreased Binding of Human Factor H.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Raffaella; Konar, Monica; Beernink, Peter T

    2016-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis causes cases of bacterial meningitis and sepsis. Factor H binding protein (FHbp) is a component of two licensed meningococcal serogroup B vaccines. FHbp recruits the complement regulator factor H (FH) to the bacterial surface, which inhibits the complement alternative pathway and promotes immune evasion. Binding of human FH impairs the protective antibody responses to FHbp, and mutation of FHbp to decrease binding of FH can increase the protective responses. In a previous study, we identified two amino acid substitutions in FHbp variant group 2 that increased its thermal stability by 21°C and stabilized epitopes recognized by protective monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Our hypothesis was that combining substitutions to increase stability and decrease FH binding would increase protective antibody responses in the presence of human FH. In the present study, we generated four new FHbp single mutants that decreased FH binding and retained binding of anti-FHbp MAbs and immunogenicity in wild-type mice. From these mutants, we selected two, K219N and G220S, to combine with the stabilized double-mutant FHbp antigen. The two triple mutants decreased FH binding >200-fold, increased the thermal stability of the N-terminal domain by 21°C, and bound better to an anti-FHbp MAb than the wild-type FHbp. In human-FH-transgenic mice, the FHbp triple mutants elicited 8- to 15-fold-higher protective antibody responses than the wild-type FHbp antigen. Collectively, the data suggest that mutations to eliminate binding of human FH and to promote conformational stability act synergistically to optimize FHbp immunogenicity. PMID:27021245

  3. Evidence for diversifying selection on erythrocyte-binding antigens of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax.

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Jake; Thomas, Alan W; Conway, David J

    2003-01-01

    Malaria parasite antigens involved in erythrocyte invasion are primary vaccine candidates. The erythrocyte-binding antigen 175K (EBA-175) of Plasmodium falciparum binds to glycophorin A on the human erythrocyte surface via an N-terminal cysteine-rich region (termed region II) and is a target of antibody responses. A survey of polymorphism in a malaria-endemic population shows that nucleotide alleles in eba-175 region II occur at more intermediate frequencies than expected under neutrality, but polymorphisms in the homologous domains of two closely related genes, eba-140 (encoding a second erythrocyte-binding protein) and psieba-165 (a putative pseudogene), show an opposite trend. McDonald-Kreitman tests employing interspecific comparison with the orthologous genes in P. reichenowi (a closely related parasite of chimpanzees) reveal a significant excess of nonsynonymous polymorphism in P. falciparum eba-175 but not in eba-140. An analysis of the Duffy-binding protein gene, encoding a major erythrocyte-binding antigen in the other common human malaria parasite P. vivax, also reveals a significant excess of nonsynonymous polymorphisms when compared with divergence from its ortholog in P. knowlesi (a closely related parasite of macaques). The results suggest that EBA-175 in P. falciparum and DBP in P. vivax are both under diversifying selection from acquired human immune responses. PMID:12702678

  4. Binding of Streptococcus mutans antigens to heart and kidney basement membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Stinson, M W; Barua, P K; Bergey, E J; Nisengard, R J; Neiders, M E; Albini, B

    1984-01-01

    Using indirect immunofluorescence, alkali-extracted components of Streptococcus mutans were found to bind in vitro to capillary walls and sarcolemmal sheaths of monkey cardiac muscle and to glomerular and tubular basement membranes of monkey kidney. Adsorption of S. mutans components to tissue fragments was also detected by indirect radioimmunoassay and immunoblotting on nitrocellulose paper. Antibodies did not bind to untreated, control tissues in these experiments, proving that antigens shared by S. mutans and tissue components were not involved. Rabbit and monkey heart and kidney components bound S. mutans antigens of 24,000, 35,000, and 65,000 Mr. Monkey heart also bound molecules of 90,000 and 120,000 Mr. Rabbits immunized by intravenous injection of disrupted S. mutans cells developed severe nephritis that was characterized by the deposition of immunoglobulins, complement component C3, and S. mutans antigens in the glomeruli. Immunoglobulin G eluted from nephritic kidneys reacted in immunoblots with the 24,000, 35,000, and 65,000 Mr components of S. mutans extract, indicating that the antigens that bound to tissue in vitro also bound in vivo and reacted with antibodies in situ. Antibodies to other S. mutans antigens were not detected in the kidney eluate, although they were present in the serum of the same rabbit. Images PMID:6384042

  5. The role of antigenically different virus neuraminidases as structures implicated in receptor-binding processes.

    PubMed

    Coimbra, M V; Luiz, M O; Cabral, M C; Couceiro, J N

    1995-06-01

    Influenza A viruses exhibit segmented nucleic acid coding for eight different proteins, two of them as glycoproteins exposed on their lipoprotein envelopes, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Hemagglutinin exhibits receptor-binding activity while neuraminidase develops sialidase cleavage activity which acts on cell receptors. Influenza A strains responsible for human, avian, equine and porcine respiratory infections all over the world present antigenically different hemagglutinin (H1 to H14) and neuraminidase (N1 to N9) structures on their surface. The objective of the present investigation was to study the role of N2, N8, and N9, antigenically diverse neuraminidase structures of human (N2) and animal (N8 and N9) influenza viruses, in the receptor-binding process. Receptor-binding activity of N2 and N8 was analyzed by crossed tests using H3N2 and H3N8 antisera and the hemagglutination inhibition test as a model. Hemagglutinating activity of antigenically different N2 and N8 structures was demonstrable and was inhibited by homologous antisera (N2-H3N2, N8-H3N8) but not by heterologous antisera (N2-H3N8,N8-H3N2). This previously demonstrated N9 hemagglutinating activity was analyzed for receptor-binding specificity using hemagglutination tests and NeuAc alpha2,3Gal and NeuAc alpha2,6Gal derivatized erythrocytes. This highly purified N9 strain was obtained from a virus strain isolated from terns by Dr. Peter Colman (CSIRO Division of Biomolecular Engineering, Parkville, Victoria, Australia). It exhibited receptor-binding specificity for NeuAc alpha2,3Gal sequences, a property similar to that observed in hemagglutinins from avian strains. These results indicate the importance of antigenically different neuraminidase structures as alternative agents for developing receptor-binding activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8547843

  6. DEMONSTRATION OF MULTIPLE ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS ON 'MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIAE' ATTACHMENT PROTEIN BY MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Distinct multiple antigenic determinants of the attachment protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae have been identified by limited proteolytic cleavage using specific monoclonal antibodies. Western blots prepared from the gels containing the cleaved fragments were probed with antiserum ...

  7. Sulfate-binding protein, CysP, is a candidate vaccine antigen of Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Timothy F; Kirkham, Charmaine; Johnson, Antoinette; Brauer, Aimee L; Koszelak-Rosenblum, Mary; Malkowski, Michael G

    2016-07-19

    Moraxella catarrhalis causes otitis media in children and respiratory tract infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A vaccine to prevent M. catarrhalis infections would have an enormous impact globally in preventing morbidity caused by M. catarrhalis in these populations. Using a genome mining approach we have identified a sulfate binding protein, CysP, of an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter system as a novel candidate vaccine antigen. CysP expresses epitopes on the bacterial surface and is highly conserved among strains. Immunization with CysP induces potentially protective immune responses in a murine pulmonary clearance model. In view of these features that indicate CysP is a promising vaccine antigen, we conducted further studies to elucidate its function. These studies demonstrated that CysP binds sulfate and thiosulfate ions, plays a nutritional role for the organism and functions in intracellular survival of M. catarrhalis in human respiratory epithelial cells. The observations that CysP has features of a vaccine antigen and also plays an important role in growth and survival of the organism indicate that CysP is an excellent candidate vaccine antigen to prevent M. catarrhalis otitis media and infections in adults with COPD. PMID:27265455

  8. Quantitative Assessment of the Effects of Oxidants on Antigen-Antibody Binding In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Han, Shuang; Wang, Guanyu; Xu, Naijin; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We quantitatively assessed the influence of oxidants on antigen-antibody-binding activity. Methods. We used several immunological detection methods, including precipitation reactions, agglutination reactions, and enzyme immunoassays, to determine antibody activity. The oxidation-reduction potential was measured in order to determine total serum antioxidant capacity. Results. Certain concentrations of oxidants resulted in significant inhibition of antibody activity but had little influence on total serum antioxidant capacity. Conclusions. Oxidants had a significant influence on interactions between antigen and antibody, but minimal effect on the peptide of the antibody molecule. PMID:27313823

  9. DNA Binding by the Meningococcal RdgC Protein, Associated with Pilin Antigenic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Timothy; Sharples, Gary J.; Lloyd, Robert G.

    2004-01-01

    The RdgC protein of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is required for efficient pilin antigenic variation, although its precise role has yet to be established. We demonstrate that the nearly identical RdgC from Neisseria meningitidis binds DNA with little specificity for sequence or structure, like the Escherichia coli protein. We also show that neither protein is able to constrain torsional tension in relaxed DNA. These data exclude several possible roles for RdgC in pilin antigenic variation and suggest that RdgC performs a similar function in both E. coli and the Neisseria spp. PMID:14729716

  10. Simulation and Theory of Antibody Binding to Crowded Antigen-Covered Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    De Michele, Cristiano; De Los Rios, Paolo; Foffi, Giuseppe; Piazza, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a fully flexible coarse-grained model of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies parametrized directly on cryo-EM data and simulate the binding dynamics of many IgGs to antigens adsorbed on a surface at increasing densities. Moreover, we work out a theoretical model that allows to explain all the features observed in the simulations. Our combined computational and theoretical framework is in excellent agreement with surface-plasmon resonance data and allows us to establish a number of important results. (i) Internal flexibility is key to maximize bivalent binding, flexible IgGs being able to explore the surface with their second arm in search for an available hapten. This is made clear by the strongly reduced ability to bind with both arms displayed by artificial IgGs designed to rigidly keep a prescribed shape. (ii) The large size of IgGs is instrumental to keep neighboring molecules at a certain distance (surface repulsion), which essentially makes antigens within reach of the second Fab always unoccupied on average. (iii) One needs to account independently for the thermodynamic and geometric factors that regulate the binding equilibrium. The key geometrical parameters, besides excluded-volume repulsion, describe the screening of free haptens by neighboring bound antibodies. We prove that the thermodynamic parameters govern the low-antigen-concentration regime, while the surface screening and repulsion only affect the binding at high hapten densities. Importantly, we prove that screening effects are concealed in relative measures, such as the fraction of bivalently bound antibodies. Overall, our model provides a valuable, accurate theoretical paradigm beyond existing frameworks to interpret experimental profiles of antibodies binding to multi-valent surfaces of different sorts in many contexts. PMID:26967624

  11. Structural Constraints on Human Norovirus Binding to Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Bishal K.; Leuthold, Mila M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human norovirus interacts with the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and this interaction is thought to be important for infection. The genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) noroviruses are the dominant cluster, evolve every other year, and are thought to modify their binding interactions with different HBGA types. Most human noroviruses bind HBGAs, while some strains were found to have minimal or no HBGA interactions. Here, we explain some possible structural constraints for several noroviruses that were found to bind poorly to HBGAs by using X-ray crystallography. We showed that one aspartic acid was flexible or positioned away from the fucose moiety of the HBGAs and this likely hindered binding, although other fucose-interacting residues were perfectly oriented. Interestingly, a neighboring loop also appeared to influence the loop hosting the aspartic acid. These new findings might explain why some human noroviruses bound HBGAs poorly, although further studies are required. PMID:27303720

  12. Structural Constraints on Human Norovirus Binding to Histo-Blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bishal K; Leuthold, Mila M; Hansman, Grant S

    2016-01-01

    Human norovirus interacts with the polymorphic human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), and this interaction is thought to be important for infection. The genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) noroviruses are the dominant cluster, evolve every other year, and are thought to modify their binding interactions with different HBGA types. Most human noroviruses bind HBGAs, while some strains were found to have minimal or no HBGA interactions. Here, we explain some possible structural constraints for several noroviruses that were found to bind poorly to HBGAs by using X-ray crystallography. We showed that one aspartic acid was flexible or positioned away from the fucose moiety of the HBGAs and this likely hindered binding, although other fucose-interacting residues were perfectly oriented. Interestingly, a neighboring loop also appeared to influence the loop hosting the aspartic acid. These new findings might explain why some human noroviruses bound HBGAs poorly, although further studies are required. PMID:27303720

  13. Polypharmacology within CXCR4: Multiple binding sites and allosteric behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planesas, Jesús M.; Pérez-Nueno, Violeta I.; Borrell, José I.; Teixidó, Jordi

    2014-10-01

    CXCR4 is a promiscuous receptor, which binds multiple diverse ligands. As usual in promiscuous proteins, CXCR4 has a large binding site, with multiple subsites, and high flexibility. Hence, it is not surprising that it is involved in the phenomenon of allosteric modulation. However, incomplete knowledge of allosteric ligand-binding sites has hampered an in-depth molecular understanding of how these inhibitors work. For example, it is known that lipidated fragments of intracellular GPCR loops, so called pepducins, such as pepducin ATI-2341, modulate CXCR4 activity using an agonist allosteric mechanism. Nevertheless, there are also examples of small organic molecules, such as AMD11070 and GSK812397, which may act as antagonist allosteric modulators. Here, we give new insights into this issue by proposing the binding interactions between the CXCR4 receptor and the above-mentioned allosteric modulators. We propose that CXCR4 has minimum two topographically different allosteric binding sites. One allosteric site would be in the intracellular loop 1 (ICL1) where pepducin ATI-2341 would bind to CXCR4, and the second one, in the extracellular side of CXCR4 in a subsite into the main orthosteric binding pocket, delimited by extracellular loops n° 1, 2, and the N-terminal end, where antagonists AMD11070 and GSK812397 would bind. Prediction of allosteric interactions between CXCR4 and pepducin ATI-2341 were studied first by rotational blind docking to determine the main binding region and a subsequent refinement of the best pose was performed using flexible docking methods and molecular dynamics. For the antagonists AMD11070 and GSK812397, the entire CXCR4 protein surface was explored by blind docking to define the binding region. A second docking analysis by subsites of the identified binding region was performed to refine the allosteric interactions. Finally, we identified the binding residues that appear to be essential for CXCR4 (agonists and antagonists) allosteric

  14. Defining the Erythrocyte Binding Domains of Plasmodium vivax Tryptophan Rich Antigen 33.5

    PubMed Central

    Bora, Hema; Tyagi, Rupesh Kumar; Sharma, Yagya Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Tryptophan-rich antigens play important role in host-parasite interaction. One of the Plasmodium vivax tryptophan-rich antigens called PvTRAg33.5 had earlier been shown to be predominantly of alpha helical in nature with multidomain structure, induced immune responses in humans, binds to host erythrocytes, and its sequence is highly conserved in the parasite population. In the present study, we divided this protein into three different parts i.e. N-terminal (amino acid position 24–106), middle (amino acid position 107–192), and C-terminal region (amino acid position 185–275) and determined the erythrocyte binding activity of these fragments. This binding activity was retained by the middle and C-terminal fragments covering 107 to 275 amino acid region of the PvTRAg33.5 protein. Eight non-overlapping peptides covering this 107 to 275 amino acid region were then synthesized and tested for their erythrocyte binding activity to further define the binding domains. Only two peptides, peptide P4 (at 171–191 amino acid position) and peptide P8 (at 255–275 amino acid position), were found to contain the erythrocyte binding activity. Competition assay revealed that each peptide recognizes its own erythrocyte receptor. These two peptides were found to be located on two parallel helices at one end of the protein in the modelled structure and could be exposed on its surface to form a suitable site for protein-protein interaction. Natural antibodies present in the sera of the P. vivax exposed individuals or the polyclonal rabbit antibodies against this protein were able to inhibit the erythrocyte binding activity of PvTRAg33.5, its fragments, and these two synthetic peptides P4 and P8. Further studies on receptor-ligand interaction might lead to the development of the therapeutic reagent. PMID:23638151

  15. Inhibition of Histo-blood Group Antigen Binding as a Novel Strategy to Block Norovirus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xu-Fu; Tan, Ming; Chhabra, Monica; Dai, Ying-Chun; Meller, Jarek; Jiang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most important viral pathogens that cause epidemic acute gastroenteritis. NoVs recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as receptors or attachment factors. The elucidation of crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of a number of human NoVs representing different HBGA binding patterns opens a new strategy for the development of antiviral compounds against NoVs through rational drug design and computer-aided virtual screening methods. In this study, docking simulations and virtual screening were used to identify hit compounds targeting the A and B antigens binding sites on the surface of the capsid P protein of a GII.4 NoV (VA387). Following validation by re-docking of the A and B ligands, these structural models and AutoDock suite of programs were used to screen a large drug-like compound library (derived from ZINC library) for inhibitors blocking GII.4 binding to HBGAs. After screening >2 million compounds using multistage protocol, 160 hit compounds with best predicted binding affinities and representing a number of distinct chemical classes have been selected for subsequent experimental validation. Twenty of the 160 compounds were found to be able to block the VA387 P dimers binding to the A and/or B HBGAs at an IC50<40.0 µM, with top 5 compounds blocking the HBGA binding at an IC50<10.0 µM in both oligosaccharide- and saliva-based blocking assays. Interestingly, 4 of the top-5 compounds shared the basic structure of cyclopenta [a] dimethyl phenanthren, indicating a promising structural template for further improvement by rational design. PMID:23894462

  16. Inhibition of histo-blood group antigen binding as a novel strategy to block norovirus infections.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xu-Fu; Tan, Ming; Chhabra, Monica; Dai, Ying-Chun; Meller, Jarek; Jiang, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are the most important viral pathogens that cause epidemic acute gastroenteritis. NoVs recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as receptors or attachment factors. The elucidation of crystal structures of the HBGA-binding interfaces of a number of human NoVs representing different HBGA binding patterns opens a new strategy for the development of antiviral compounds against NoVs through rational drug design and computer-aided virtual screening methods. In this study, docking simulations and virtual screening were used to identify hit compounds targeting the A and B antigens binding sites on the surface of the capsid P protein of a GII.4 NoV (VA387). Following validation by re-docking of the A and B ligands, these structural models and AutoDock suite of programs were used to screen a large drug-like compound library (derived from ZINC library) for inhibitors blocking GII.4 binding to HBGAs. After screening >2 million compounds using multistage protocol, 160 hit compounds with best predicted binding affinities and representing a number of distinct chemical classes have been selected for subsequent experimental validation. Twenty of the 160 compounds were found to be able to block the VA387 P dimers binding to the A and/or B HBGAs at an IC50<40.0 µM, with top 5 compounds blocking the HBGA binding at an IC50<10.0 µM in both oligosaccharide- and saliva-based blocking assays. Interestingly, 4 of the top-5 compounds shared the basic structure of cyclopenta [a] dimethyl phenanthren, indicating a promising structural template for further improvement by rational design. PMID:23894462

  17. Mycobacterial antigen 85 complex (Ag85) as a target for ficolins and mannose-binding lectin.

    PubMed

    Świerzko, Anna S; Bartłomiejczyk, Marcin A; Brzostek, Anna; Łukasiewicz, Jolanta; Michalski, Mateusz; Dziadek, Jarosław; Cedzyński, Maciej

    2016-06-01

    The pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) able to activate complement via the lectin pathway are suspected to be involved in the interaction between pathogenic Mycobacteria and the host immune response. Recently, we have found strong interactions between 25 and 35kDa mycobacterial cell fractions and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and ficolins. Here we demonstrate that two biologically important mycobacterial structures, mannosylated lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) and the antigen 85 (Ag85) complex, induce activation of the lectin pathway of complement. The strong interaction of recombinant MBL with purified ManLAM was confirmed, but no binding of recombinant ficolins (ficolin-1, -2, -3) with this structure was observed. Interestingly, all PRMs tested reacted with the mycobacterial antigen 85 (Ag85) complex. Based on the use of specific inhibitors (mannan for MBL, acetylated bovine serum albumin for ficolin-1 and -2, Hafnia alvei PCM 1200 lipopolysaccharide for ficolin-3), we concluded that carbohydrate-recognition (MBL) and fibrinogen-like domains (ficolins) were involved in these interactions. Our results indicate that the mycobacterial antigen 85 complex is a target for ficolins and MBL. Furthermore, those PRMs also bound to fibronectin and therefore might influence the Ag85 complex-dependent interaction of Mycobacterium with the extracellular matrix. PMID:27141819

  18. Novel Drosophila receptor that binds multiple growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, M.R.; Thompson, K.L.; Garcia, V.; Decker, S.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have recently reported the identification of a novel growth factor receptor from Drosophila cell cultures that has dual binding specificity for both insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF). This 100 kDa protein is also antigenically related to the cytoplasmic region of the mammalian EGF receptor-tyrosine kinase. They now report that this protein binds to mammalian nerve growth factor and human transforming growth factor alpha as well as insulin and EGF with apparent dissociation constants ranging from 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -8/ M. The 100 kDa protein can be affinity-labeled with these /sup 125/I-labeled growth factors after immunoprecipitation with anti-EGF receptor antiserum. These four growth factors appear to share a common binding site, as evidenced by their ability to block affinity labelling by /sup 125/I-insulin. No significant binding to the 100 kDa protein was observed with platelet-derived growth factor, transforming growth factor beta, or glucagon. The 100 kDa Drosophila protein has a unique ligand-binding spectrum with no direct counterpart in mammalian cells and may represent an evolutionary precursor of the mammalian receptors for these growth factors.

  19. Decoration of Outer Membrane Vesicles with Multiple Antigens by Using an Autotransporter Approach

    PubMed Central

    Felix, Tristan; Soprova, Zora; ten Hagen-Jongman, Corinne M.; Vikström, David; Majlessi, Laleh; Beskers, Joep; Follmann, Frank; de Punder, Karin; van der Wel, Nicole N.; Baumgarten, Thomas; Pham, Thang V.; Piersma, Sander R.; Jiménez, Connie R.; van Ulsen, Peter; de Gier, Jan-Willem; Leclerc, Claude; Jong, Wouter S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are spherical nanoparticles that naturally shed from Gram-negative bacteria. They are rich in immunostimulatory proteins and lipopolysaccharide but do not replicate, which increases their safety profile and renders them attractive vaccine vectors. By packaging foreign polypeptides in OMVs, specific immune responses can be raised toward heterologous antigens in the context of an intrinsic adjuvant. Antigens exposed at the vesicle surface have been suggested to elicit protection superior to that from antigens concealed inside OMVs, but hitherto robust methods for targeting heterologous proteins to the OMV surface have been lacking. We have exploited our previously developed hemoglobin protease (Hbp) autotransporter platform for display of heterologous polypeptides at the OMV surface. One, two, or three of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens ESAT6, Ag85B, and Rv2660c were targeted to the surface of Escherichia coli OMVs upon fusion to Hbp. Furthermore, a hypervesiculating ΔtolR ΔtolA derivative of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 was generated, enabling efficient release and purification of OMVs decorated with multiple heterologous antigens, exemplified by the M. tuberculosis antigens and epitopes from Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP). Also, we showed that delivery of Salmonella OMVs displaying Ag85B to antigen-presenting cells in vitro results in processing and presentation of an epitope that is functionally recognized by Ag85B-specific T cell hybridomas. In conclusion, the Hbp platform mediates efficient display of (multiple) heterologous antigens, individually or combined within one molecule, at the surface of OMVs. Detection of antigen-specific immune responses upon vesicle-mediated delivery demonstrated the potential of our system for vaccine development. PMID:25038093

  20. Properties of the DNA-binding domain of the simian virus 40 large T antigen.

    PubMed Central

    McVey, D; Strauss, M; Gluzman, Y

    1989-01-01

    T antigen (Tag) from simian virus 40 binds specifically to two distinct sites in the viral origin of replication and to single-stranded DNA. Analysis of the protein domain responsible for these activities revealed the following. (i) The C-terminal boundary of the origin-specific and single-strand-specific DNA-binding domain is at or near amino acid 246; furthermore, the maximum of these DNA-binding activities coincides with a narrow C-terminal boundary, spanning 4 amino acids (246 to 249) and declines sharply in proteins with C termini which differ by a few (4 to 10) amino acids; (ii) a polypeptide spanning residues 132 to 246 of Tag is an independent domain responsible for origin-specific DNA binding and presumably for single-stranded DNA binding; and (iii) a comparison of identical N-terminal fragments of Tag purified from mammalian and bacterial cells revealed differential specificity and levels of activity between the two sources of protein. A role for posttranslational modification (phosphorylation) in controlling the DNA-binding activity of Tag is discussed. Images PMID:2555700

  1. Antigen Binding and Site-Directed Labeling of Biosilica-Immobilized Fusion Proteins Expressed in Diatoms.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nicole R; Hecht, Karen A; Hu, DeHong; Orr, Galya; Xiong, Yijia; Squier, Thomas C; Rorrer, Gregory L; Roesijadi, Guritno

    2016-03-18

    The diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was genetically modified to express biosilica-targeted fusion proteins comprising either enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) or single chain antibodies engineered with a tetracysteine tagging sequence. Of interest were the site-specific binding of (1) the fluorescent biarsenical probe AsCy3 and AsCy3e to the tetracysteine tagged fusion proteins and (2) high and low molecular mass antigens, the Bacillus anthracis surface layer protein EA1 or small molecule explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT), to biosilica-immobilized single chain antibodies. Analysis of biarsenical probe binding using fluorescence and structured illumination microscopy indicated differential colocalization with EGFP in nascent and mature biosilica, supporting the use of either EGFP or bound AsCy3 and AsCy3e in studying biosilica maturation. Large increases in the lifetime of a fluorescent analogue of TNT upon binding single chain antibodies provided a robust signal capable of discriminating binding to immobilized antibodies in the transformed frustule from nonspecific binding to the biosilica matrix. In conclusion, our results demonstrate an ability to engineer diatoms to create antibody-functionalized mesoporous silica able to selectively bind chemical and biological agents for the development of sensing platforms. PMID:26746113

  2. T-cell hybridoma specific for a cytochrome c peptide: specific antigen binding and interleukin 2 production.

    PubMed Central

    Carel, S; Bron, C; Corradin, G

    1983-01-01

    T-cell hybridomas were obtained after fusion of BW 5147 thymoma and long-term cultured T cells specific for cytochrome c peptide 66-80 derivatized with a 2,4-dinitroaminophenyl (DNAP) group. The resulting hybridomas were selected for their capacity to specifically bind to soluble radiolabeled peptide antigen. One T-cell hybrid was positive for antigen binding. This hybrid T cell exhibits surface phenotypic markers of the parent antigen-specific T cells. The binding could be inhibited either by an excess of unlabeled homologous antigen or by cytochrome c peptide 11-25 derivatized with a 2-nitrophenylsulfenyl group. Several other peptide antigens tested failed to inhibit binding of the radioactive peptide. This suggests that a specific amino acid sequence, modified by a DNAP group, is the antigenic structure recognized by the putative T-cell receptor. In addition, direct interaction of DNAP-66-80 peptide with the hybridoma cell line induced production of the T-cell growth factor interleukin 2. Furthermore, supernatants derived from syngeneic macrophages pulsed with the relevant peptide also induced the antigen-specific hybridoma to produce interleukin 2. Images PMID:6192442

  3. Human Antigen R Binding and Regulation of SOX2 mRNA in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Elisa; Carelli, Stephana; Caremoli, Filippo; Giallongo, Toniella; Colli, Mattia; Canazza, Alessandra; Provenzani, Alessandro; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo

    2016-02-01

    Since 2005, sex determining region y-box 2 (SOX2) has drawn the attention of the scientific community for being one of the key transcription factors responsible for pluripotency induction in somatic stem cells. Our research investigated the turnover regulation of SOX2 mRNA in human adipose-derived stem cells, considered one of the most valuable sources of somatic stem cells in regenerative medicine. Mitoxantrone is a drug that acts on nucleic acids primarily used to treat certain types of cancer and was recently shown to ameliorate the outcome of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. In addition, mitoxantrone has been shown to inhibit the binding of human antigen R (HuR) RNA-binding protein to tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA. Our results show that HuR binds to the 3'-untranslated region of SOX2 mRNA together with the RNA-induced silencing complex miR145. The HuR binding works by stabilizing the interaction between the 3'-untranslated region and the RNA-induced silencing complex. Cell exposure to mitoxantrone leads to HuR detachment and the subsequent prolongation of the SOX2 mRNA half-life. The prolonged SOX2 half-life allows improvement of the spheroid-forming capability of the adipose-derived stem cells. The silencing of HuR confirmed the above observations and illustrates how the RNA-binding protein HuR may be a required molecule for regulation of SOX2 mRNA decay. PMID:26677051

  4. Analysis of protective antigen peptide binding motifs using bacterial display technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkes, Deborah A.; Dorsey, Brandi L.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2015-05-01

    In today's fast-paced world, a new biological threat could emerge at any time, necessitating a prompt, reliable, inexpensive detection reagent in each case. Combined with magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS), bacterial display technology makes it possible to isolate selective, high affinity peptide reagents in days to weeks. Utilizing the eCPX display scaffold is also a rapid way to screen potential peptide reagents. Peptide affinity reagents for protective antigen (PA) of the biothreat Bacillus anthracis were previously discovered using bacterial display. Bioinformatics analysis resulted in the consensus sequence WXCFTC. Additionally, we have discovered PA binding peptides with a WW motif, one of which, YGLHPWWKNAPIGQR, can pull down PA from 1% human serum. The strength of these two motifs combined, to obtain a WWCFTC consensus, is assessed here using Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS). While monitoring binding to PA, overall expression of the display scaffold was assessed using the YPet Mona expression control tag (YPet), and specificity was assessed by binding to Streptavidin R-Phycoerythrin (SAPE). The importance of high YPet binding is highlighted as many of the peptides in one of the three replicate experiments fell below our 80% binding threshold. We demonstrate that it is preferable to discard this experiment, due to questionable expression of the peptide itself, than to try to normalize for relative expression. The peptides containing the WWCFTC consensus were of higher affinity and greater specificity than the peptides containing the WW consensus alone, validating further investigation to optimize known PA binders.

  5. The In Vivo Pattern of Binding of RAG1 and RAG2 to Antigen Receptor Loci

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yanhong; Resch, Wolfgang; Corbett, Elizabeth; Yamane, Arito; Casellas, Rafael; Schatz, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The critical initial step in V(D)J recombination, binding of RAG1 and RAG2 to recombination signal sequences flanking antigen receptor V, D, and J gene segments, has not previously been characterized in vivo. Here we demonstrate that RAG protein binding occurs in a highly focal manner to a small region of active chromatin encompassing Igκ and Tcrα J gene segments and Igh and Tcrβ J and J-proximal D gene segments. Formation of these small RAG-bound regions, which we refer to as recombination centers, occurs in a developmental stage- and lineage-specific manner. Each RAG protein is independently capable of specific binding within recombination centers. While RAG1 binding was detected only at regions containing recombination signal sequences, RAG2 binds at thousands of sites in the genome containing histone 3 trimethylated at lysine 4. We propose that recombination centers coordinate V(D)J recombination by providing discrete sites within which gene segments are captured for recombination. PMID:20398922

  6. Four major sequence elements of simian virus 40 large T antigen coordinate its specific and nonspecific DNA binding.

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, D T; Loeber, G; Tegtmeyer, P

    1990-01-01

    By mutational analysis, we have identified a motif critical to the proper recognition and binding of simian virus 40 large tumor antigen (T antigen) to virus DNA sequences at the origin of DNA replication. This motif is tripartite and consists of two elements (termed A1 and B2) that are necessary for sequence-specific binding of the origin and a central element (B1) which is required for nonspecific DNA-binding activity. Certain amino acids in elements A1 (residues 152 to 155) and B2 (203 to 207) may make direct contact with the GAGGC pentanucleotide sequences in binding sites I and II on the DNA. Alternatively, these two elements could determine the proper structure of the DNA-binding domain, although for a number of reasons we favor the first possibility. In contrast, element B1 (183 to 187) is most likely important for recognizing a general structural feature of DNA. Elements A1 and B2 are nearly identical in all known papovavirus T antigens, whereas B1 is identical only in the closely related papovaviruses simian virus 40, BK virus, and JC virus. In addition to these three elements, a fourth (B3; residues 215 to 219) is necessary for the binding of T antigen to site II but not to site I. We propose that additional contact sites on T antigen are involved in the interaction with site II to initiate the replication of the viral DNA. PMID:2157865

  7. Synthetic Peptide Ligands of the Antigen Binding Receptor Induce Programmed Cell Death in a Human B-Cell Lymphoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renschler, Markus F.; Bhatt, Ramesh R.; Dower, William J.; Levy, Ronald

    1994-04-01

    Peptide ligands for the antigen binding site of the surface immunoglobulin receptor of a human B-cell lymphoma cell line were identified with the use of filamentous phage libraries displaying random 8- and 12-amino acid peptides. Corresponding synthetic peptides bound specifically to the antigen binding site of this immunoglobulin receptor and blocked the binding of an anti-idiotype antibody. The ligands, when conjugated to form dimers or tetramers, induced cell death by apoptosis in vitro with an IC50 between 40 and 200 nM. This effect was associated with specific stimulation of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation.

  8. The effects of multiple dosing with zileuton on antigen-induced responses in sheep.

    PubMed

    Scuri, M; Allegra, L; Abraham, W M

    1998-01-01

    In a previous study, a single dose of zileuton (10 mg/kg, po) given 2 h before antigen challenge, had a minimal effect on the antigen-induced early airway response (EAR), although it was effective in blocking the late airway response (LAR). Because our previous data indicated that 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) products contribute to the severity of the antigen-induced EAR in these animals, we hypothesized that the lack of effect of zileuton on the EAR may have had to do with inadequate tissue levels. Therefore, in this study, we determined if multiple dosing with zileuton, which theoretically could improve tissue levels, would provide protection against the antigen-induced EAR as well as the LAR. Each sheep was used in each of the three trials (> or = 15 days apart), the order of which was randomized. For trial 1, the sheep were treated with zileuton (10 mg/kg in 0.1% methylcellulose, p.o.) once a day for 4 days; for trials 2, the sheep were treated with zileuton (10 mg/kg, p.o.) for 2 days; and, for trial 3, the animals were treated with vehicle (0.1% methylcellulose) for 4 days as in trial 1. In all trials, antigen challenge followed 1 h after the last treatment. In the placebo trial, antigen challenge resulted in characteristic EAR (407 +/- 102%, increase over baseline) and LAR (335 +/- 75%, increase over baseline). The antigen-induced effects were completely blocked by the 4-day treatment (EAR = 24 +/- 3%; LAR = 17 +/- 3%, P < 0.05 vs. placebo). In the 2-day trial, the immediate increase in R1, after antigen challenge was only partially blocked (EAR = 163 +/- 16%, P < 0.10 vs. placebo and P < 0.05 vs. 4-day trial), but the late response was completely blocked (24 +/- 3%). The protection against the EAR obtained with the 4-day treatment was significantly better (P < 0.05) than that obtained with the 2-day treatment. The results of this study show that multiple dosing with the 5-LO inhibitor, zileuton, provides protection against the antigen-induced EAR as well as LAR

  9. Positive regulatory domain I binding factor 1 silences class II transactivator expression in multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, N; Gyory, I; Wright, G; Wood, J; Wright, K L

    2001-05-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transactivator (CIITA) acts as a master switch to activate expression of the genes required for MHC-II antigen presentation. During B-cell to plasma cell differentiation, MHC-II expression is actively silenced, but the mechanism has been unknown. In plasma cell tumors such as multiple myeloma the repression of MHC-II is associated with the loss of CIITA. We have identified that positive regulatory domain I binding factor 1 (PRDI-BF1), a transcriptional repressor, inhibits CIITA expression in multiple myeloma cell lines. Repression of CIITA depends on the DNA binding activity of PRDI-BF1 and its specific binding site in the CIITA promoter. Deletion of a histone deacetylase recruitment domain in PRDI-BF1 does not inhibit repression of CIITA nor does blocking histone deacetylase activity. This is in contrast to PRDI-BF1 repression of the c-myc promoter. Repression of CIITA requires either the N-terminal acidic and conserved PR motif or the proline-rich domain. PRDI-BF1 has been shown to be a key regulator of B-cell and macrophage differentiation. These findings now indicate that PRDI-BF1 has at least two mechanisms of repression whose function is dependent on the nature of the target promoter. Importantly, PRDI-BF1 is defined as the key molecule in silencing CIITA and thus MHC-II in multiple myeloma cells. PMID:11279146

  10. Contribution of the trifluoroacetyl group in the thermodynamics of antigen-antibody binding.

    PubMed

    Oda, Masayuki; Saito, Minoru; Tsumuraya, Takeshi; Fujii, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the binding of the 7C8 antibody to the chloramphenicol phosphonate antigens-one containing a trifluoroacetyl group (CP-F) and the other containing an acetyl group (CP-H)-by using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The thermodynamic difference due to the substitution of F by H was evaluated using free energy calculations based on molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We have previously shown that another antibody, namely, 6D9, binds more weakly to CP-H than to CP-F, mainly due to the different hydration free energies of the dissociated state and not due to the unfavorable hydrophobic interactions with the antibody in the bound state. Unlike in the binding of the trifluoroacetyl group with 6D9, in its binding with 7C8, it is exposed to the solvent, as seen in the crystal structure of the complex of 7C8 with CP-F. The thermodynamic analysis performed in this study showed that the binding affinity of 7C8 for CP-H is similar to that for CP-F, but this binding to CP-H is accompanied with less favorable enthalpy and more favorable entropy changes. The free energy calculations indicated that, upon the substitution of F by H, enthalpy and entropy changes in the associated and dissociated states were decreased, but the magnitude of enthalpy and entropy changes in the dissociated state was larger than that in the associated state. The differences in binding free energy, enthalpy, and entropy changes determined by the free energy calculations for the substitution of F by H are in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:19544483

  11. Kinetics of antigen binding to arrays of antibodies in different sized spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapsford, K. E.; Liron, Z.; Shubin, Y. S.; Ligler, F. S.

    2001-01-01

    A fluorescence-based array biosensor has been developed which can measure the binding kinetics of an antigen to an immobilized antibody in real time. A patterned array of antibodies immobilized on the surface of a planar waveguide was used to capture a Cy5-labeled antigen present in a solution that was continuously flowed over the surface. The CCD image of the waveguide was monitored continuously for 25 min. The resulting exponential rise in fluorescence signal was determined by image analysis software and fitted to a reaction-limited kinetics model, giving a kf of 3.6 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). Different spot sizes were then patterned on the surface of the waveguide using either a PDMS flow cell or laser exposure, producing width sizes ranging from 80 to 1145 microm. It was demonstrated that under flow conditions, the reduction of spot size did not alter the association rate of the antigen with immobilized antibody; however, as the spot width decreased to < 200 nm, the signal intensity also decreased.

  12. Structural basis of Lewisb antigen binding by the Helicobacter pylori adhesin BabA

    PubMed Central

    Hage, Naim; Howard, Tina; Phillips, Chris; Brassington, Claire; Overman, Ross; Debreczeni, Judit; Gellert, Paul; Stolnik, Snow; Winkler, G. Sebastiaan; Falcone, Franco H.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a leading cause of peptic ulceration and gastric cancer worldwide. To achieve colonization of the stomach, this Gram-negative bacterium adheres to Lewisb (Leb) antigens in the gastric mucosa using its outer membrane protein BabA. Structural information for BabA has been elusive, and thus, its molecular mechanism for recognizing Leb antigens remains unknown. We present the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of BabA, from H. pylori strain J99, in the absence and presence of Leb at 2.0- and 2.1-Å resolutions, respectively. BabA is a predominantly α-helical molecule with a markedly kinked tertiary structure containing a single, shallow Leb binding site at its tip within a β-strand motif. No conformational change occurs in BabA upon binding of Leb, which is characterized by low affinity under acidic [KD (dissociation constant) of ~227 μM] and neutral (KD of ~252 μM) conditions. Binding is mediated by a network of hydrogen bonds between Leb Fuc1, GlcNAc3, Fuc4, and Gal5 residues and a total of eight BabA amino acids (C189, G191, N194, N206, D233, S234, S244, and T246) through both carbonyl backbone and side-chain interactions. The structural model was validated through the generation of two BabA variants containing N206A and combined D233A/S244A substitutions, which result in a reduction and complete loss of binding affinity to Leb, respectively. Knowledge of the molecular basis of Leb recognition by BabA provides a platform for the development of therapeutics targeted at inhibiting H. pylori adherence to the gastric mucosa. PMID:26601230

  13. Structural basis of Lewis(b) antigen binding by the Helicobacter pylori adhesin BabA.

    PubMed

    Hage, Naim; Howard, Tina; Phillips, Chris; Brassington, Claire; Overman, Ross; Debreczeni, Judit; Gellert, Paul; Stolnik, Snow; Winkler, G Sebastiaan; Falcone, Franco H

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a leading cause of peptic ulceration and gastric cancer worldwide. To achieve colonization of the stomach, this Gram-negative bacterium adheres to Lewis(b) (Le(b)) antigens in the gastric mucosa using its outer membrane protein BabA. Structural information for BabA has been elusive, and thus, its molecular mechanism for recognizing Le(b) antigens remains unknown. We present the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of BabA, from H. pylori strain J99, in the absence and presence of Le(b) at 2.0- and 2.1-Å resolutions, respectively. BabA is a predominantly α-helical molecule with a markedly kinked tertiary structure containing a single, shallow Le(b) binding site at its tip within a β-strand motif. No conformational change occurs in BabA upon binding of Le(b), which is characterized by low affinity under acidic [K D (dissociation constant) of ~227 μM] and neutral (K D of ~252 μM) conditions. Binding is mediated by a network of hydrogen bonds between Le(b) Fuc1, GlcNAc3, Fuc4, and Gal5 residues and a total of eight BabA amino acids (C189, G191, N194, N206, D233, S234, S244, and T246) through both carbonyl backbone and side-chain interactions. The structural model was validated through the generation of two BabA variants containing N206A and combined D233A/S244A substitutions, which result in a reduction and complete loss of binding affinity to Le(b), respectively. Knowledge of the molecular basis of Le(b) recognition by BabA provides a platform for the development of therapeutics targeted at inhibiting H. pylori adherence to the gastric mucosa. PMID:26601230

  14. Functional TCR retrieval from single antigen-specific human T cells reveals multiple novel epitopes.

    PubMed

    Simon, Petra; Omokoko, Tana A; Breitkreuz, Andrea; Hebich, Lisa; Kreiter, Sebastian; Attig, Sebastian; Konur, Abdo; Britten, Cedrik M; Paret, Claudia; Dhaene, Karl; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2014-12-01

    The determination of the epitope specificity of disease-associated T-cell responses is relevant for the development of biomarkers and targeted immunotherapies against cancer, autoimmune, and infectious diseases. The lack of known T-cell epitopes and corresponding T-cell receptors (TCR) for novel antigens hinders the efficient development and monitoring of new therapies. We developed an integrated approach for the systematic retrieval and functional characterization of TCRs from single antigen-reactive T cells that includes the identification of epitope specificity. This is accomplished through the rapid cloning of full-length TCR-α and TCR-β chains directly from single antigen-specific CD8(+) or CD4(+) T lymphocytes. The functional validation of cloned TCRs is conducted using in vitro-transcribed RNA transfer for expression of TCRs in T cells and HLA molecules in antigen-presenting cells. This method avoids the work and bias associated with repetitive cycles of in vitro T-cell stimulation, and enables fast characterization of antigen-specific T-cell responses. We applied this strategy to viral and tumor-associated antigens (TAA), resulting in the retrieval of 56 unique functional antigen-specific TCRs from human CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells (13 specific for CMV-pp65, 16 specific for the well-known TAA NY-ESO-1, and 27 for the novel TAA TPTE), which are directed against 39 different epitopes. The proof-of-concept studies with TAAs NY-ESO-1 and TPTE revealed multiple novel TCR specificities. Our approach enables the rational development of immunotherapy strategies by providing antigen-specific TCRs and immunogenic epitopes. PMID:25245536

  15. Polysialic acid as an antigen for monoclonal antibody HIgM12 to treat multiple sclerosis and other neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Watzlawik, Jens O; Kahoud, Robert J; Ng, Shermayne; Painter, Meghan M; Papke, Louisa M; Zoecklein, Laurie; Wootla, Bharath; Warrington, Arthur E; Carey, William A; Rodriguez, Moses

    2015-09-01

    CNS regeneration is a desirable goal for diseases of brain and spinal cord. Current therapeutic strategies for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) aim to eliminate detrimental effects of the immune system, so far without reversing disability or affecting long-term prognosis in patients. Approachable molecular targets that stimulate CNS repair are not part of the clinical praxis or have not been identified yet. The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular target of the human monoclonal antibody HIgM12. HIgM12 reverses motor deficits in chronically demyelinated mice, a model of MS. Here, we identified polysialic acid (PSA) attached to the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) as the antigen for HIgM12 by using different NCAM knockout strains and through PSA removal from the NCAM protein core. Antibody binding to CNS tissue and primary cells, antibody-mediated cell adhesion, and neurite outgrowth on HIgM12-coated nitrocellulose was detected only in the presence of PSA as assessed by western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunocytochemistry, and histochemistry. We conclude that HIgM12 mediates its in vivo and in vitro effects through binding to PSA and has the potential to be an effective therapy for MS and neurodegenerative diseases. The human antibody HIgM12 stimulates neurite outgrowth in vitro and promotes function in chronically demyelinated mice, a model of multiple sclerosis. The cellular antigen for HIgM12 was undetermined. Here, we identified polysialic acid attached to NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) as the cellular target for HIgM12. This includes glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive mouse astrocytes (GFAP, red; HIgM12, green; DAPI, blue) among other cell types of the central nervous system. These findings indicate a new strategy for the treatment of neuro-motor disorders including multiple sclerosis. PMID:25866077

  16. Estrophilin immunoreactivity versus estrogen receptor binding activity in meningiomas: evidence for multiple estrogen binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Lesch, K.P.; Schott, W.; Gross, S.

    1987-09-01

    The existence of estrogen receptors in human meningiomas has long been a controversial issue. This may be explained, in part, by apparent heterogeneity of estrogen binding sites in meningioma tissue. In this study, estrogen receptors were determined in 58 meningiomas with an enzyme immunoassay using monoclonal antibodies against human estrogen receptor protein (estrophilin) and with a sensitive radioligand binding assay using /sup 125/I-labeled estradiol (/sup 125/I-estradiol) as radioligand. Low levels of estrophilin immunoreactivity were found in tumors from 62% of patients, whereas radioligand binding activity was demonstrated in about 46% of the meningiomas examined. In eight (14%) tissue samples multiple binding sites for estradiol were observed. The immunoreactive binding sites correspond to the classical, high affinity estrogen receptors: the Kd for /sup 125/I-estradiol binding to the receptor was approximately 0.2 nM and the binding was specific for estrogens. The second, low affinity class of binding sites considerably influenced measurement of the classical receptor even at low ligand concentrations. The epidemiological and clinical data from patients with meningiomas, and the existence of specific estrogen receptors confirmed by immunochemical detection, may be important factors in a theory of oncogenesis.

  17. Erythrocyte-binding antigen 175 mediates invasion in Plasmodium falciparum utilizing sialic acid-dependent and -independent pathways

    PubMed Central

    Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Maier, Alexander G.; Triglia, Tony; Cowman, Alan F.

    2003-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte-binding antigen 175 (EBA-175) is a ligand for merozoite invasion into human erythrocytes that binds to glycophorin A in a sialic acid-dependent manner. P. falciparum strain W2mef depends on sialic acid for invasion of erythrocytes, whereas 3D7 is sialic acid-independent. We generated parasites that lack expression or express truncated forms of EBA-175 in W2mef and 3D7. Lack of EBA-175 expression in W2mef parasites was associated with a switch to sialic acid-independent invasion. 3D7 parasites lacking expression of EBA-175 showed no alteration in their ability to utilize sialic acid-independent pathways. Strikingly, both W2mef and 3D7 parasites lacking EBA-175 expression invaded chymotrypsin-treated erythrocytes inefficiently compared with the parental lines. This loss of function suggests that the EBA-175/glycophorin A ligand–receptor interaction is the major chymotrypsin-resistant invasion pathway. Parasite lines with truncated EBA-175 had invasion phenotypes equivalent to parasites lacking expression of EBA-175. The EBA-175 ligand is functional in erythrocyte invasion by merozoites that utilize either sialic acid-dependent or -independent invasion pathways. This finding suggests a model where a minimal affinity supplied by multiple ligand–receptor interactions is required for successful invasion and has implications for EBA-175 as a malaria vaccine candidate. PMID:12672957

  18. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-Man; Guo, Yan-Qing; Xiang, Jing-Yao; Wang, Wei-Huan; Zhang, Li-Xia; Gu, Qing-Jiu; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  19. Binding Patterns of Rotavirus Genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8] in China with Histo-Blood Group Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xin; Li, Dan-di; Sun, Xiao-man; Guo, Yan-qing; Xiang, Jing-yao; Wang, Wei-huan; Zhang, Li-xia; Gu, Qing-jiu; Duan, Zhao-jun

    2015-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are an important cause of severe gastroenteritis in children. It has been found that RV may recognize the histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as ligands or receptors and bind HBGAs in a type-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the binding specificity of VP8* proteins from human rotaviruses (RV) that are prevalent in China including genotypes P[4], P[6], and P[8]. Through the saliva- and oligosaccharide-based binding assays, we found that the VP8* proteins of P[4] and P[8] RV showed similar reactivity with the Leb and H type 1 antigens, while P[6] RV weakly bound the Leb antigen. These findings may facilitate further research into RV host specificity and vaccine development. PMID:26274396

  20. Thermodynamics of peptide binding to the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP).

    PubMed

    Neumann, Lars; Abele, Rupert; Tampé, Robert

    2002-12-13

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter TAP plays an essential role in antigen processing and immune response to infected or malignant cells. TAP translocates proteasomal degradation products from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum, where MHC class I molecules are loaded with these peptides. Kinetically stable peptide-MHC complexes are transported to the cell surface for inspection by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. The transport cycle of TAP is initiated by peptide binding, which is responsible for peptide selection and for stimulation of ATP-hydrolysis and subsequent translocation. Here we have analysed the driving forces for the formation of the peptide-TAP complex by kinetic and thermodynamic methods. First, the apparent peptide association and dissociation rates were determined at various temperatures. Strikingly, very high activation energies for apparent association (E(a)(ass)=106 kJmol(-1)) and dissociation (E(a)(diss)=80 kJmol(-1)) of the peptide-TAP complex were found. Next, the temperature-dependence of the peptide affinity constants was investigated by equilibrium-binding assays. Along with calculations of free enthalpy deltaG, enthalpy deltaH and entropy deltaS, a large positive change in heat capacity was resolved (deltaC degrees =23 kJmol(-1)K(-1)), indicating a fundamental structural reorganization of the TAP complex upon peptide binding. The inspection of the conformational entropy reveals that approximately one-fourth of all TAP residues is rearranged. These thermodynamic studies indicate that at physiological temperature, peptide binding is endothermic and driven by entropy. PMID:12470952

  1. Antigenic and sequence diversity in gonococcal transferrin-binding protein A.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, C N; Anderson, J E; Boulton, I C; Sparling, P F

    2000-08-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a gram-negative pathogen that is capable of satisfying its iron requirement with human iron-binding proteins such as transferrin and lactoferrin. Transferrin-iron utilization involves specific binding of human transferrin at the cell surface to what is believed to be a complex of two iron-regulated, transferrin-binding proteins, TbpA and TbpB. The genes encoding these proteins have been cloned and sequenced from a number of pathogenic, gram-negative bacteria. In the current study, we sequenced four additional tbpA genes from other N. gonorrhoeae strains to begin to assess the sequence diversity among gonococci. We compared these sequences to those from other pathogenic bacteria to identify conserved regions that might be important for the structure and function of these receptors. We generated polyclonal mouse sera against synthetic peptides deduced from the TbpA sequence from gonococcal strain FA19. Most of these synthetic peptides were predicted to correspond to surface-exposed regions of TbpA. We found that, while most reacted with denatured TbpA in Western blots, only one antipeptide serum reacted with native TbpA in the context of intact gonococci, consistent with surface exposure of the peptide to which this serum was raised. In addition, we evaluated a panel of gonococcal strains for antigenic diversity using these antipeptide sera. PMID:10899879

  2. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals a functional heparin binding motif involved in binding to the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The HIV surface glycoprotein gp120 (SU, gp120) and the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) bind to chemokine receptors during infection and have a site of amino acid sequence similarity in their binding domains that often includes a heparin binding motif (HBM). Infection by either pathogen has been found to be inhibited by polyanions. Results Specific polyanions that inhibit HIV infection and bind to the V3 loop of X4 strains also inhibited DBP-mediated infection of erythrocytes and DBP binding to the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC). A peptide including the HBM of PvDBP had similar affinity for heparin as RANTES and V3 loop peptides, and could be specifically inhibited from heparin binding by the same polyanions that inhibit DBP binding to DARC. However, some V3 peptides can competitively inhibit RANTES binding to heparin, but not the PvDBP HBM peptide. Three other members of the DBP family have an HBM sequence that is necessary for erythrocyte binding, however only the protein which binds to DARC, the P. knowlesi alpha protein, is inhibited by heparin from binding to erythrocytes. Heparitinase digestion does not affect the binding of DBP to erythrocytes. Conclusion The HBMs of DBPs that bind to DARC have similar heparin binding affinities as some V3 loop peptides and chemokines, are responsible for specific sulfated polysaccharide inhibition of parasite binding and invasion of red blood cells, and are more likely to bind to negative charges on the receptor than cell surface glycosaminoglycans. PMID:22122911

  3. Identification of monoclonal antibody-binding domains within antigen P1 of Streptococcus mutans and cross-reactivity with related surface antigens of oral streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Brady, L J; Piacentini, D A; Crowley, P J; Bleiweis, A S

    1991-01-01

    Eleven monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for P1, the major protein surface antigen of Streptococcus mutans serotype c, were characterized by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis and by radioimmunoassay using whole bacterial cells. The approximate binding domains of the MAbs were determined by using full-length and truncated P1 polypeptides. The accessibility of these binding sites on the surfaces of intact bacteria was determined by radioimmunoassay. The ability of each MAb to cross-react with related proteins from strains of S. mutans serotypes e and f, S. sanguis, and S. sobrinus serotype g is also reported. Images PMID:1937801

  4. Solution structure of the origin DNA-binding domain of SV40 T-antigen.

    PubMed

    Luo, X; Sanford, D G; Bullock, P A; Bachovchin, W W

    1996-12-01

    The structure of the domain from simian virus 40 (SV40) large T-antigen that binds to the SV40 origin of DNA replication (T-ag-OBD131-260) has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The overall fold, consisting of a central five-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet flanked by two alpha-helices on one side and one alpha-helix and one 3(10)-helix on the other, is a new one. Previous mutational analyses have identified two elements, termed A (approximately 152-155) and B2 (203-207), as essential for origin-specific recognition. These elements form two closely juxtaposed loops that define a continuous surface on the protein. The addition of a duplex oligonucleotide containing the origin recognition pentanucleotide GAGGC induces chemical shift changes and slows amide proton exchange in resonances from this region, indicating that this surface directly contacts the DNA. PMID:8946857

  5. The Leptospiral Antigen Lp49 is a Two-Domain Protein with Putative Protein Binding Function

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Giuseppe,P.; Oliveira Neves, F.; Nascimento, A.; Gomes Guimaraes, B.

    2008-01-01

    Pathogenic Leptospira is the etiological agent of leptospirosis, a life-threatening disease that affects populations worldwide. Currently available vaccines have limited effectiveness and therapeutic interventions are complicated by the difficulty in making an early diagnosis of leptospirosis. The genome of Leptospira interrogans was recently sequenced and comparative genomic analysis contributed to the identification of surface antigens, potential candidates for development of new vaccines and serodiagnosis. Lp49 is a membrane-associated protein recognized by antibodies present in sera from early and convalescent phases of leptospirosis patients. Its crystal structure was determined by single-wavelength anomalous diffraction using selenomethionine-labelled crystals and refined at 2.0 Angstroms resolution. Lp49 is composed of two domains and belongs to the all-beta-proteins class. The N-terminal domain folds in an immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich structure, whereas the C-terminal domain presents a seven-bladed beta-propeller fold. Structural analysis of Lp49 indicates putative protein-protein binding sites, suggesting a role in Leptospira-host interaction. This is the first crystal structure of a leptospiral antigen described to date.

  6. Lipid-Free Antigen B Subunits from Echinococcus granulosus: Oligomerization, Ligand Binding, and Membrane Interaction Properties

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Álvarez, Valeria; Franchini, Gisela R.; Pórfido, Jorge L.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.; Ferreira, Ana M.; Córsico, Betina

    2015-01-01

    Background The hydatid disease parasite Echinococcus granulosus has a restricted lipid metabolism, and needs to harvest essential lipids from the host. Antigen B (EgAgB), an abundant lipoprotein of the larval stage (hydatid cyst), is thought to be important in lipid storage and transport. It contains a wide variety of lipid classes, from highly hydrophobic compounds to phospholipids. Its protein component belongs to the cestode-specific Hydrophobic Ligand Binding Protein family, which includes five 8-kDa isoforms encoded by a multigene family (EgAgB1-EgAgB5). How lipid and protein components are assembled into EgAgB particles remains unknown. EgAgB apolipoproteins self-associate into large oligomers, but the functional contribution of lipids to oligomerization is uncertain. Furthermore, binding of fatty acids to some EgAgB subunits has been reported, but their ability to bind other lipids and transfer them to acceptor membranes has not been studied. Methodology/Principal Findings Lipid-free EgAgB subunits obtained by reverse-phase HPLC were used to analyse their oligomerization, ligand binding and membrane interaction properties. Size exclusion chromatography and cross-linking experiments showed that EgAgB8/2 and EgAgB8/3 can self-associate, suggesting that lipids are not required for oligomerization. Furthermore, using fluorescent probes, both subunits were found to bind fatty acids, but not cholesterol analogues. Analysis of fatty acid transfer to phospholipid vesicles demonstrated that EgAgB8/2 and EgAgB8/3 are potentially capable of transferring fatty acids to membranes, and that the efficiency of transfer is dependent on the surface charge of the vesicles. Conclusions/Significance We show that EgAgB apolipoproteins can oligomerize in the absence of lipids, and can bind and transfer fatty acids to phospholipid membranes. Since imported fatty acids are essential for Echinococcus granulosus, these findings provide a mechanism whereby EgAgB could engage in lipid

  7. Influence of Different Parameters on a Dual-Fractal Analysis for Antigen-Antibody Binding Kinetics for Biosensor Applications

    PubMed

    Milum; Sadana

    1997-03-01

    The diffusion-limited binding kinetics of antigen (or antibody) in solution to antibody (or antigen) immobilized on a biosensor surface is analyzed within a fractal framework. The fit obtained by a dual-fractal analysis is compared with that obtained from a single-fractal analysis. In some cases, the dual-fractal analysis provides an improved fit when compared with a single-fractal analysis. This was indicated by the regression analysis provided by Sigmaplot (46). It is of interest to note that the state of disorder (or the fractal dimension) and the binding rate coefficient both increase as the reaction progresses on the biosensor surface. For example, for the binding of HIV-1 p24 in solution to monoclonal antibody (MAb) 18 covalently attached to a biosensor surface (49), an increase in the fractal dimension by 59% from a value of Df1 equal to 1.91 to Df2 equal to 2.95 leads to an increase in the binding rate coefficient by a factor of 15 from k1 equal to 21.1 to k2 equal to 339. Also, the binding of MAb 6301 and 6303 in solution to insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) covalently attached to the sensor surface is adequately described by a single-fractal analysis (48). The binding of MAb 6302 to IGFBP-1, however, requires dual fractals. This indicates a difference in the binding mechanisms of these MAbs. The different examples analyzed and presented together provide a means by which the antigen-antibody reactions may be better controlled by noting the magnitude of the changes in the fractal dimension and in the binding rate coefficient as the reaction progresses on the biosensor surface. Also, the magnitude of the changes in the binding rate coefficients (k1 and k2) and in the fractal dimensions (Df1 and Df2) as different parameters are changed for the different biosensor applications are of particular value. PMID:9245322

  8. Transcriptional activation by simian virus 40 large T antigen: interactions with multiple components of the transcription complex.

    PubMed Central

    Gruda, M C; Zabolotny, J M; Xiao, J H; Davidson, I; Alwine, J C

    1993-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen is a potent transcriptional activator of both viral and cellular promoters. Within the SV40 late promoter, a specific upstream element necessary for T-antigen transcriptional activation is the binding site for transcription-enhancing factor 1 (TEF-1). The promoter structure necessary for T-antigen-mediated transcriptional activation appears to be simple. For example, a promoter consisting of upstream TEF-1 binding sites (or other factor-binding sites) and a downstream TATA or initiator element is efficiently activated. It has been demonstrated that transcriptional activation by T antigen does not require direct binding to the DNA; thus, the most direct effect that T antigen could have on these simple promoters would be through protein-protein interactions with either upstream-bound transcription factors, the basal transcription complex, or both. To determine whether such interactions occur, full-length T antigen or segments of it was fused to the glutathione-binding site (GST fusions) or to the Gal4 DNA-binding domain (amino acids 1 to 147) (Gal4 fusions). With the GST fusions, it was found that TEF-1 and the TATA-binding protein (TBP) bound different regions of T antigen. A GST fusion containing amino acids 5 to 172 (region T1) efficiently bound TBP. TEF-1 bound neither region T1 nor a region between amino acids 168 and 373 (region T2); however, it bound efficiently to the combined region (T5) containing amino acids 5 to 383.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:8423815

  9. A modern approach for epitope prediction: identification of foot-and-mouth disease virus peptides binding bovine leukocyte antigen (BoLA) class I molecules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules regulate adaptive immune responses through the presentation of antigenic peptides to CD8positive T-cells. Polymorphisms in the peptide binding region of class I molecules determine peptide binding affinity and stability during antigen presenta...

  10. Multiple individual and cross-specific indiotypes on 13 levan-binding myeloma proteins of BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    13 leven-binding myeloma proteins (LBMP) of BALB/c origin were classified into two groups with different binding specificities; one group of 11 proteins bound beta2 leads to 1 fructosans, a second group of two proteins bound fructosans probably of beta2 leads to 6 linkage. Anti-idiotypic sera prepared to 10 of the proteins in the appropriate strains of mice identified numerous idiotypic determinants. Each protein used for immunization had its own unique individual idiotypic specificities (IdI) and in addition most of the proteins carried two- nine cross-specific or shared idiotypes (IdX) that were found only among LBMP, and not found in 106 non-LBMP. Most of the IdX determinants and only four of the IdI determinants of the beta2 leads to 1 fructosan binding group were located in the antigen-binding site. The multiplicity of antigenic differences in this functionally related group of immunoglobulins reveals an unexpected degree of heterogeneity in V-regions that appears to be unrelated to binding. PMID:1151286

  11. A single- and a dual-fractal analysis of antigen-antibody binding kinetics for different biosensor applications.

    PubMed

    Sadana, A

    1999-06-30

    The diffusion-limited binding kinetics of antigen (or antibody) in solution to antibody (or antigen) immobilized on a biosensor surface is analyzed within a fractal framework. The data is adequately described by a single- or a dual-fractal analysis. Initially, the data was modelled by a single-fractal analysis. If an inadequate fit was obtained then a dual-fractal analysis was utilized. The regression analysis provided by Sigmaplot, 1993 (Scientific Graphing Software: User's Manual. Jandel Scientific, San Rafael, CA) was utilized to determine if a single-fractal analysis is sufficient, or a dual-fractal analysis is required. In general, it is of interest to note that the binding rate coefficient and the fractal dimension exhibit changes in the same direction (except for a single example) for the antigen-antibody systems analyzed. Binding rate coefficient expressions as a function of the fractal dimension developed for the antigen-antibody binding systems indicate a high sensitivity of the binding rate coefficient on the fractal dimension when both a single -as well as a dual-fractal analysis is used. For example, for a single-fractal analysis and for the binding of human endothelin-1 (ET-1) antibody in solution to ET-1(15-21) x BSA (bovine serum albumin) immobilised on a surface plasmon resonance surface, the order of dependence of the binding rate coefficient, k on the fractal dimension, Df is 7.0945. Similarly, for a dual-fractal analysis and for the binding of parasite L. donovani diluted pooled sera in solution to fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled anti-human immunoglobulin IgG immobilized on an optical fibre, the order of dependence of k1 and k2 on Df1 and Df2 were 6.8018 and -4.393, respectively. Binding rate coefficient expressions are also developed as a function of the analyte (antigen or antibody) concentration in solution. The binding rate coefficient expressions developed as a function of the fractal dimension(s) are of particular value since they

  12. Very Late Antigen-4 (α4β1 Integrin) Targeted PET Imaging of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Soodgupta, Deepti; Hurchla, Michelle A.; Jiang, Majiong; Zheleznyak, Alexander; Weilbaecher, Katherine N.; Anderson, Carolyn J.; Tomasson, Michael H.; Shokeen, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical imaging techniques such as skeletal survey and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)/Positron Emission Tomography (PET) are frequently used to diagnose and stage multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, skeletal survey has limited sensitivity as it can detect osteolytic lesions only after 30–50% cortical bone destruction, and FDG is a marker of cell metabolism that has limited sensitivity for intramedullary lesions in MM. Targeted, and non-invasive novel probes are needed to sensitively and selectively image the unique molecular signatures and cellular processes associated with MM. Very late antigen-4 (VLA-4; also called α4β1 integrin) is over-expressed on MM cells, and is one of the key mediators of myeloma cell adhesion to the bone marrow (BM) that promotes MM cell trafficking and drug resistance. Here we describe a proof-of-principle, novel molecular imaging strategy for MM tumors using a VLA-4 targeted PET radiopharmaceutical, 64Cu-CB-TE1A1P-LLP2A. Cell uptake studies in a VLA-4-positive murine MM cell line, 5TGM1, demonstrated receptor specific uptake (P<0.0001, block vs. non-block). Tissue biodistribution at 2 h of 64Cu-CB-TE1A1P-LLP2A in 5TGM1 tumor bearing syngeneic KaLwRij mice demonstrated high radiotracer uptake in the tumor (12±4.5%ID/g), and in the VLA-4 rich organs, spleen (8.8±1.0%ID/g) and marrow (11.6±2.0%ID/g). Small animal PET/CT imaging with 64Cu-CB-TE1A1P-LLP2A demonstrated high uptake in the 5TGM1 tumors (SUV 6.6±1.1). There was a 3-fold reduction in the in vivo tumor uptake in the presence of blocking agent (2.3±0.4). Additionally, 64Cu-CB-TE1A1P-LLP2A demonstrated high binding to the human MM cell line RPMI-8226 that was significantly reduced in the presence of the cold targeting agent. These results provide pre-clinical evidence that VLA-4-targeted imaging using 64Cu-CB-TE1A1P-LLP2A is a novel approach to imaging MM tumors. PMID:23409060

  13. Preliminary selection and evaluation of the binding of aptamers against a Hantavirus antigen using fluorescence spectroscopy and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missailidis, Sotiris; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Célia Martins; Guterres, Alexandro; Vicente, Luciana Helena Bassan; de Godoy, Daniela Tupy; Lemos, Elba

    2015-12-01

    In this study we have aimed to develop novel aptamers against the Hantavirus nucleoprotein N, a valid antigen already used in the Hantavirus reference laboratory of the Institute Oswaldo Cruz in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Such aptamers, if they are found to bind with high affinity and specificity for the selected hantavirus antigen, they could be translated into novel diagnostic assays with the ability to provide early detection for hantaviroses and their related disease syndromes. In a preliminary screening, we have managed to identify three aptamer species. We have analyzed a short and a long version of these aptamer using fluorescence spectroscopy and modelled their binding. We have identified Stern-Volmer constants for the selected aptamers, which have shown affinity for their target, with a different binding between the short and the long versions of them. Short aptamers have shown to have a higher Stern-Volmer constant and the ability to potentially bind to more than one binding site on the antigen. The information provided by the spectroscopic screening has been invaluable in allowing us to define candidates for further development into diagnostic assays.

  14. Antigen Presentation, Autoantigens, and Immune Regulation in Multiple Sclerosis and Other Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Riedhammer, Christine; Weissert, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Antigen presentation is in the center of the immune system, both in host defense against pathogens, but also when the system is unbalanced and autoimmune diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS) develop. It is not just by chance that a major histocompatibility complex gene is the major genetic susceptibility locus in MS; a feature that MS shares with other autoimmune diseases. The exact etiology of the disease, however, has not been fully understood yet. T cells are regarded as the major players in the disease, but most probably a complex interplay of altered central and peripheral tolerance mechanisms, T-cell and B-cell functions, characteristics of putative autoantigens, and a possible interference of environmental factors like microorganisms are at work. In this review, new data on all these different aspects of antigen presentation and their role in MS will be discussed, probable autoantigens will be summarized, and comparisons to other autoimmune diseases will be drawn. PMID:26136751

  15. Fluorine substitutions in an antigenic peptide selectively modulate T-cell receptor binding in a minimally perturbing manner

    SciTech Connect

    Piepenbrink, Kurt H.; Borbulevych, Oleg Y.; Sommese, Ruth F.; Clemens, John; Armstrong, Kathryn M.; Desmond, Clare; Do, Priscilla; Baker, Brian M.

    2010-08-17

    TCR (T-cell receptor) recognition of antigenic peptides bound and presented by MHC (major histocompatibility complex) molecules forms the basis of the cellular immune response to pathogens and cancer. TCRs bind peptide - MHC complexes weakly and with fast kinetics, features which have hindered detailed biophysical studies of these interactions. Modified peptides resulting in enhanced TCR binding could help overcome these challenges. Furthermore, there is considerable interest in using modified peptides with enhanced TCR binding as the basis for clinical vaccines. In the present study, we examined how fluorine substitutions in an antigenic peptide can selectively impact TCR recognition. Using a structure-guided design approach, we found that fluorination of the Tax peptide [HTLV (human T-cell lymphotropic virus)-1 Tax] enhanced binding by the Tax-specific TCR A6, yet weakened binding by the Tax-specific TCR B7. The changes in affinity were consistent with crystallographic structures and fluorine chemistry, and with the A6 TCR independent of other substitutions in the interface. Peptide fluorination thus provides a means to selectively modulate TCR binding affinity without significantly perturbing peptide composition or structure. Lastly, we probed the mechanism of fluorine's effect on TCR binding and we conclude that our results were most consistent with a 'polar hydrophobicity' mechanism, rather than a purely hydrophobic- or electrostatic-based mechanism. This finding should have an impact on other attempts to alter molecular recognition with fluorine.

  16. Intramolecular trimerization, a novel strategy for making multispecific antibodies with controlled orientation of the antigen binding domains

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Nuñez-Prado, Natalia; Compte, Marta; Cuesta, Angel M.; Blanco-Toribio, Ana; Harwood, Seandean Lykke; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Bonet, Jaume; Navarro, Rocio; Muñoz-Briones, Clara; Sørensen, Karen Marie Juul; Mølgaard, Kasper; Oliva, Baldo; Sanz, Laura; Blanco, Francisco J.; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a new strategy that allows the rapid and efficient engineering of mono and multispecific trivalent antibodies. By fusing single-domain antibodies from camelid heavy-chain-only immunoglobulins (VHHs) to the N-terminus of a human collagen XVIII trimerization domain (TIEXVIII) we produced monospecific trimerbodies that were efficiently secreted as soluble functional proteins by mammalian cells. The purified VHH-TIEXVIII trimerbodies were trimeric in solution and exhibited excellent antigen binding capacity. Furthermore, by connecting with two additional glycine-serine-based linkers three VHH-TIEXVIII modules on a single polypeptide chain, we present an approach for the rational design of multispecific tandem trimerbodies with defined stoichiometry and controlled orientation. Using this technology we report here the construction and characterization of a tandem VHH-based trimerbody capable of simultaneously binding to three different antigens: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Multispecific tandem VHH-based trimerbodies were well expressed in mammalian cells, had good biophysical properties and were capable of simultaneously binding their targeted antigens. Importantly, these antibodies were very effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Multispecific VHH-based trimerbodies are therefore ideal candidates for future applications in various therapeutic areas. PMID:27345490

  17. Intramolecular trimerization, a novel strategy for making multispecific antibodies with controlled orientation of the antigen binding domains.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Cienfuegos, Ana; Nuñez-Prado, Natalia; Compte, Marta; Cuesta, Angel M; Blanco-Toribio, Ana; Harwood, Seandean Lykke; Villate, Maider; Merino, Nekane; Bonet, Jaume; Navarro, Rocio; Muñoz-Briones, Clara; Sørensen, Karen Marie Juul; Mølgaard, Kasper; Oliva, Baldo; Sanz, Laura; Blanco, Francisco J; Alvarez-Vallina, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Here, we describe a new strategy that allows the rapid and efficient engineering of mono and multispecific trivalent antibodies. By fusing single-domain antibodies from camelid heavy-chain-only immunoglobulins (VHHs) to the N-terminus of a human collagen XVIII trimerization domain (TIE(XVIII)) we produced monospecific trimerbodies that were efficiently secreted as soluble functional proteins by mammalian cells. The purified VHH-TIE(XVIII) trimerbodies were trimeric in solution and exhibited excellent antigen binding capacity. Furthermore, by connecting with two additional glycine-serine-based linkers three VHH-TIE(XVIII) modules on a single polypeptide chain, we present an approach for the rational design of multispecific tandem trimerbodies with defined stoichiometry and controlled orientation. Using this technology we report here the construction and characterization of a tandem VHH-based trimerbody capable of simultaneously binding to three different antigens: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and green fluorescence protein (GFP). Multispecific tandem VHH-based trimerbodies were well expressed in mammalian cells, had good biophysical properties and were capable of simultaneously binding their targeted antigens. Importantly, these antibodies were very effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Multispecific VHH-based trimerbodies are therefore ideal candidates for future applications in various therapeutic areas. PMID:27345490

  18. Sequences flanking the pentanucleotide T-antigen binding sites in the polyomavirus core origin help determine selectivity of DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Li, L; Li, B L; Hock, M; Wang, E; Folk, W R

    1995-01-01

    Replication of the genomes of the polyomaviruses requires two virus-specified elements, the cis-acting origin of DNA replication, with its auxiliary DNA elements, and the trans-acting viral large tumor antigen (T antigen). Appropriate interactions between them initiate the assembly of a replication complex which, together with cellular proteins, is responsible for primer synthesis and DNA chain elongation. The organization of cis-acting elements within the origins of the polyomaviruses which replicate in mammalian cells is conserved; however, these origins are sufficiently distinct that the T antigen of one virus may function inefficiently or not at all to initiate replication at the origin of another virus. We have studied the basis for such replication selectivity between the murine polyomavirus T antigen and the primate lymphotropic polyomavirus origin. The murine polyomavirus T antigen is capable of carrying out the early steps of the assembly of an initiation complex at the lymphotropic papovavirus origin, including binding to and deformation of origin sequences in vitro. However, the T antigen inefficiently unwinds the origin, and unwinding is influenced by sequences flanking the T antigen pentanucleotide binding sites on the late side of the viral core origin. These same sequences contribute to the replication selectivity observed in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that the inefficient unwinding is the cause of the replication defect. These observations suggest a mechanism by which origins of DNA replication can evolve replication selectivity and by which the function of diverse cellular origins might be temporally activated during the S phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle. PMID:7494263

  19. Relationship between Fc receptors, antigen-binding sites on T and B cells, and H-2 complex-associated determinants.

    PubMed

    Basten, A; Miller, J F; Abraham, R

    1975-03-01

    The relationship between H-2 complex-associated determinants, Fc receptors, and specific antigen-recognition sites on T and B cells was examined by binding and functional assays. The Fc receptor was detected by radiolabeled immune complexes or aggregated human IgG. Both these reagents selectively bound to B cells, not to T cells. When spleen cells, from mice primed to several antigens, were exposed to highly substituted radioactive aggregates, their capacity to transfer both a direct and indirect plaque-forming cell response to these antigens was abrogated. Addition of B cells, but not of T cells, restored responsiveness. Complexed Ig binding to Fc receptors was prevented by pretreatment of mixed lymphoid cell populations with antisera directed against membrane components on the same cell (e.g., H-2) and on other cells (e.g., theta). The lack of specificity of inhibition was thought to be due to the formation on cell surfaces of antigen-antibody complexes which would then attach to the Fc receptor during the incubation precedure. Specific blockade of the Fc receptor during the incubation procedure. Specific blockade of the Fc receptor however occurred when B cells were pretreated with the Fab fragments of anti-H-2 antibody. This was demonstrated autoradiographically and by inhibition of aggregate-induced suicide. The blocking activity of ante-H-2 Fab was removed by absorption with spleen cells from thymectomized irradiated mice but not with thymus cells of appropriate specificity. This suggested that the antibodies involved had specificity for determinants on the B-cell membrane distinct from those coded by the K or D end of the H-2 complex, and either absent from, or poorly represented on, thymus cells. Specific antigen-induced suicide of B cells was achieved simply by incubating the cells with radioactive antigen in the cold. T-cell suicide on the other hand required that the 125I-labeled antigen be presented to the T cells at 37 degrees-C on the surface of

  20. The role of monogamous bivalency and Fc interactions in the binding of anti-DNA antibodies to DNA antigen.

    PubMed

    Stearns, Nancy A; Pisetsky, David S

    2016-05-01

    Antibodies to DNA (anti-DNA) are the serological hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus. These antibodies can bind DNA avidly by monogamous bivalency, a mechanism which requires the interaction of both Fab combining regions with antigenic determinants on the same polynucleotide. To explore further this mechanism, we tested Fab and F(ab')2 fragments prepared from IgG from patient plasmas in an ELISA with native DNA antigen, detecting antibody with a peroxidase conjugated anti-Fab reagent. These studies showed that Fab fragments, which can only bind monovalently, had negligible activity. Although bivalent F(ab')2 fragments would be predicted to bind DNA, these fragments also showed poor anti-DNA activity. Control studies showed that the fragments retained antibody activity to tetanus toxoid and an EBV antigen preparation. Together, these findings suggest that anti-DNA avidity depends on monogamous bivalency, with the antibody Fc portion also influencing DNA binding, in a mechanism which can be termed Fc-dependent monogamous bivalency. PMID:27083935

  1. Structure, Receptor Binding, and Antigenicity of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinins from the 1957 H2N2 Pandemic

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; McBride, Ryan; Paulson, James C.; Basler, Christopher F.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-03-04

    The hemagglutinin (HA) envelope protein of influenza viruses mediates essential viral functions, including receptor binding and membrane fusion, and is the major viral antigen for antibody neutralization. The 1957 H2N2 subtype (Asian flu) was one of the three great influenza pandemics of the last century and caused 1 million deaths globally from 1957 to 1968. Three crystal structures of 1957 H2 HAs have been determined at 1.60 to 1.75 {angstrom} resolutions to investigate the structural basis for their antigenicity and evolution from avian to human binding specificity that contributed to its introduction into the human population. These structures, which represent the highest resolutions yet recorded for a complete ectodomain of a glycosylated viral surface antigen, along with the results of glycan microarray binding analysis, suggest that a hydrophobicity switch at residue 226 and elongation of receptor-binding sites were both critical for avian H2 HA to acquire human receptor specificity. H2 influenza viruses continue to circulate in birds and pigs and, therefore, remain a substantial threat for transmission to humans. The H2 HA structure also reveals a highly conserved epitope that could be harnessed in the design of a broader and more universal influenza A virus vaccine.

  2. Structures of Two Melanoma-Associated Antigens Suggest Allosteric Regulation of Effector Binding

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Anette K.; Aitkenhead, Hazel; Oppermann, Udo C. T.; Cho, Hearn J.; Osman, Roman; Gileadi, Opher

    2016-01-01

    The MAGE (melanoma associated antigen) protein family are tumour-associated proteins normally present only in reproductive tissues such as germ cells of the testis. The human genome encodes over 60 MAGE genes of which one class (containing MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A4) are exclusively expressed in tumours, making them an attractive target for the development of targeted and immunotherapeutic cancer treatments. Some MAGE proteins are thought to play an active role in driving cancer, modulating the activity of E3 ubiquitin ligases on targets related to apoptosis. Here we determined the crystal structures of MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A4. Both proteins crystallized with a terminal peptide bound in a deep cleft between two tandem-arranged winged helix domains. MAGE-A3 (but not MAGE-A4), is predominantly dimeric in solution. Comparison of MAGE-A3 and MAGE-A3 with a structure of an effector-bound MAGE-G1 suggests that a major conformational rearrangement is required for binding, and that this conformational plasticity may be targeted by allosteric binders. PMID:26910052

  3. Antigenicity of Recombinant Maltose Binding Protein-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Fusion Proteins with and without Factor Xa Cleaving

    PubMed Central

    Begg, Douglas J.; Purdie, Auriol C.; Bannantine, John P.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants. Proteomic studies have shown that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis expresses certain proteins when exposed to in vitro physiological stress conditions similar to the conditions experienced within a host during natural infection. Such proteins are hypothesized to be expressed in vivo, are recognized by the host immune system, and may be of potential use in the diagnosis of JD. In this study, 50 recombinant maltose binding protein (MBP)-M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis fusion proteins were evaluated using serum samples from sheep infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and 29 (58%) were found to be antigenic. Among 50 fusion proteins, 10 were evaluated in MBP fusion and factor Xa-cleaved forms. A total of 31 proteins (62%) were found to be antigenic in either MBP fusion or factor Xa-cleaved forms. Antigenicity after cleavage and removal of the MBP tag was marginally enhanced. PMID:24132604

  4. Validation of BKV Large T-antigen ATP-Binding Site as a Target for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gang; Bueno, Marta; Camachos, Carlos J; Randhawa, Parmjeet

    2009-01-01

    Summary BK virus large T antigen (LTA) is a hexameric protein with a helicase activity that is powered by ATP hydrolysis. A mutant virus with Lys420Ala, Arg421Ala, and Asp504Ala mutations at the ATP binding sites showed marked reduction in viral fitness. This observation indicates that high throughput screening for ATPase inhibitors will be valid strategy to discover anti-BKV drugs. PMID:19084558

  5. Sequence Requirements for the Assembly of Simian Virus 40 T Antigen and the T-Antigen Origin Binding Domain on the Viral Core Origin of Replication

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Henry Y.; Barbaro, Brett A.; Joo, Woo S.; Prack, Andrea E.; Sreekumar, K. R.; Bullock, Peter A.

    1999-01-01

    The regions of the simian virus 40 (SV40) core origin that are required for stable assembly of virally encoded T antigen (T-ag) and the T-ag origin binding domain (T-ag-obd131–260) have been determined. Binding of the purified T-ag-obd131–260 is mediated by interactions with the central region of the core origin, site II. In contrast, T-ag binding and hexamer assembly requires a larger region of the core origin that includes both site II and an additional fragment of DNA that may be positioned on either side of site II. These studies indicate that in the context of T-ag, the origin binding domain can engage the pentanucleotides in site II only if a second region of T-ag interacts with one of the flanking sequences. The requirements for T-ag double-hexamer assembly are complex; the nucleotide cofactor present in the reaction modulates the sequence requirements for oligomerization. Nevertheless, these experiments provide additional evidence that only a subset of the SV40 core origin is required for assembly of T-ag double hexamers. PMID:10438844

  6. Cul7/p185/p193 binding to simian virus 40 large T antigen has a role in cellular transformation.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Hamid; Kasper, Jocelyn S; Arai, Takehiro; DeCaprio, James A

    2004-03-01

    Simian virus 40 large T antigen (TAg) is a viral oncoprotein that can promote cellular transformation. TAg's transforming activity results in part by binding and inactivating key tumor suppressors, including p53 and the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). We have identified a TAg-associated 185-kDa protein that has significant homology to the cullin family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. TAg binds to an SCF-like complex that contains p185/Cul7, Rbx1, and the F box protein Fbw6. This SCF-like complex binds to an N-terminal region of TAg. Several p185/Cul7-binding-deficient mutants of TAg were generated that retained binding to pRb and p53 and were capable of overcoming Rb-mediated repression of E2F transcription. Despite binding to pRb and p53, these p185/Cul7-binding-defective mutants of TAg were unable to transform primary mouse embryo fibroblasts. Cells expressing p185/Cul7-binding-defective mutants of TAg were unable to grow to high density or grow in an anchorage-independent manner as determined by growth in soft agar. Considering the significance of other TAg-interacting proteins in regulation of the cell cycle, p185/Cul7 may also regulate an important growth control pathway. PMID:14990695

  7. The antigenic landscape of multiple myeloma: mass spectrometry (re)defines targets for T-cell–based immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Simon; Kowalewski, Daniel Johannes; Schuster, Heiko; Weisel, Katja; Backert, Linus; Kahn, Stefan; Nelde, Annika; Stroh, Tatjana; Handel, Martin; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Kanz, Lothar; Salih, Helmut Rainer; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Stevanović, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Direct analysis of HLA-presented antigens by mass spectrometry provides a comprehensive view on the antigenic landscape of different tissues/malignancies and enables the identification of novel, pathophysiologically relevant T-cell epitopes. Here, we present a systematic and comparative study of the HLA class I and II presented, nonmutant antigenome of multiple myeloma (MM). Quantification of HLA surface expression revealed elevated HLA molecule counts on malignant plasma cells compared with normal B cells, excluding relevant HLA downregulation in MM. Analyzing the presentation of established myeloma-associated T-cell antigens on the HLA ligandome level, we found a substantial proportion of antigens to be only infrequently presented on primary myelomas or to display suboptimal degrees of myeloma specificity. However, unsupervised analysis of our extensive HLA ligand data set delineated a panel of 58 highly specific myeloma-associated antigens (including multiple myeloma SET domain containing protein) which are characterized by frequent and exclusive presentation on myeloma samples. Functional characterization of these target antigens revealed peptide-specific, preexisting CD8+ T-cell responses exclusively in myeloma patients, which is indicative of pathophysiological relevance. Furthermore, in vitro priming experiments revealed that peptide-specific T-cell responses can be induced in response-naive myeloma patients. Together, our results serve to guide antigen selection for T-cell–based immunotherapy of MM. PMID:26138685

  8. The antigenic landscape of multiple myeloma: mass spectrometry (re)defines targets for T-cell-based immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Walz, Simon; Stickel, Juliane S; Kowalewski, Daniel Johannes; Schuster, Heiko; Weisel, Katja; Backert, Linus; Kahn, Stefan; Nelde, Annika; Stroh, Tatjana; Handel, Martin; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Kanz, Lothar; Salih, Helmut Rainer; Rammensee, Hans-Georg; Stevanović, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Direct analysis of HLA-presented antigens by mass spectrometry provides a comprehensive view on the antigenic landscape of different tissues/malignancies and enables the identification of novel, pathophysiologically relevant T-cell epitopes. Here, we present a systematic and comparative study of the HLA class I and II presented, nonmutant antigenome of multiple myeloma (MM). Quantification of HLA surface expression revealed elevated HLA molecule counts on malignant plasma cells compared with normal B cells, excluding relevant HLA downregulation in MM. Analyzing the presentation of established myeloma-associated T-cell antigens on the HLA ligandome level, we found a substantial proportion of antigens to be only infrequently presented on primary myelomas or to display suboptimal degrees of myeloma specificity. However, unsupervised analysis of our extensive HLA ligand data set delineated a panel of 58 highly specific myeloma-associated antigens (including multiple myeloma SET domain containing protein) which are characterized by frequent and exclusive presentation on myeloma samples. Functional characterization of these target antigens revealed peptide-specific, preexisting CD8(+) T-cell responses exclusively in myeloma patients, which is indicative of pathophysiological relevance. Furthermore, in vitro priming experiments revealed that peptide-specific T-cell responses can be induced in response-naive myeloma patients. Together, our results serve to guide antigen selection for T-cell-based immunotherapy of MM. PMID:26138685

  9. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals binding residues for the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The surface glycoprotein (SU, gp120) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) must bind to a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4, to invade CD4+ cells. Plasmodium vivax uses the Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) to bind the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) and invade reticulocytes. Results Variable loop 3 (V3) of HIV-1 SU and domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax DBP share a sequence similarity. The site of amino acid sequence similarity was necessary, but not sufficient, for DARC binding and contained a consensus heparin binding site essential for DARC binding. Both HIV-1 and P. vivax can be blocked from binding to their chemokine receptors by the chemokine, RANTES and its analog AOP-RANTES. Site directed mutagenesis of the heparin binding motif in members of the DBP family, the P. knowlesi alpha, beta and gamma proteins abrogated their binding to erythrocytes. Positively charged residues within domain 1 are required for binding of P. vivax and P. knowlesi erythrocyte binding proteins. Conclusion A heparin binding site motif in members of the DBP family may form part of a conserved erythrocyte receptor binding pocket. PMID:21281498

  10. Alternative Antigen Processing for MHC Class I: Multiple Roads Lead to Rome

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Cláudia C.; van Hall, Thorbald

    2015-01-01

    The well described conventional antigen-processing pathway is accountable for most peptides that end up in MHC class I molecules at the cell surface. These peptides experienced liberation by the proteasome and transport by the peptide transporter TAP. However, there are multiple roads that lead to Rome, illustrated by the increasing number of alternative processing pathways that have been reported during last years. Interestingly, TAP-deficient individuals do not succumb to viral infections, suggesting that CD8 T cell immunity is sufficiently supported by alternative TAP-independent processing pathways. To date, a diversity of viral and endogenous TAP-independent peptides have been identified in the grooves of different MHC class I alleles. Some of these peptides are not displayed by normal TAP-positive cells and we therefore called them TEIPP, for “T-cell epitopes associated with impaired peptide processing.” TEIPPs are hidden self-antigens, are derived from normal housekeeping proteins, and are processed via unconventional processing pathways. Per definition, TEIPPs are presented via TAP-independent pathways, but recent data suggest that part of this repertoire still depend on proteasome and metalloprotease activity. An exception is the C-terminal peptide of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-membrane-spanning ceramide synthase Trh4 that is surprisingly liberated by the signal peptide peptidase (SPP), the proteolytic enzyme involved in cleaving leader sequences. The intramembrane cleaving SPP is thereby an important contributor of TAP-independent peptides. Its family members, like the Alzheimer’s related presenilins, might contribute as well, according to our preliminary data. Finally, alternative peptide routing is an emerging field and includes processes like the unfolded protein response, the ER-associated degradation, and autophagy-associated vesicular pathways. These data convince us that there is a world to be discovered in the field of unconventional

  11. Binding to histo-blood group antigen-expressing bacteria protects human norovirus from acute heat stress

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dan; Breiman, Adrien; le Pendu, Jacques; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate if histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) expressing bacteria have any protective role on human norovirus (NoV) from acute heat stress. Eleven bacterial strains were included, belonging to Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Clostridium difficile, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and B. longum. HBGA expression of the bacteria as well as binding of human NoV virus-like particles (VLPs, GI.1, and GII.4 strains) to the bacteria were detected by flow cytometry. NoV VLPs pre-incubated with HBGA expressing or non-HBGA expressing bacteria were heated and detected by both direct ELISA and porcine gastric mucin-binding assay. The NoV-binding abilities of the bacteria correlated well with their HBGA expression profiles. Two HBGA expressing E. coli (LMG8223 and LFMFP861, both GI.1 and GII.4 binders) and one non-HBGA expressing E. coli (ATCC8739, neither GI.1 nor GII.4 binder) were selected for the heat treatment test with NoV VLPs. Compared with the same cell numbers of non-HBGA expressing E. coli, the presence of HBGA-expressing E. coli could always maintain higher antigen integrity, as well as mucin-binding ability of NoV VLPs of both GI.1 and GII.4 after heat-treatment at 90°C for 2 min. These results indicate that HBGA-expressing bacteria may protect NoVs during the food processing treatments, thereby facilitating their transmission. PMID:26191052

  12. Cancer/Testis Antigen MAGE-C1/CT7: New Target for Multiple Myeloma Therapy

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Fabricio; Vettore, André L.; Colleoni, Gisele W. B.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs) are a promising class of tumor antigens that have a limited expression in somatic tissues (testis, ovary, fetal, and placental cells). Aberrant expression of CTAs in cancer cells may lead to abnormal chromosome segregation and aneuploidy. CTAs are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms (DNA methylation and acetylation of histones) and are attractive targets for immunotherapy in cancer because the gonads are immune privileged organs and anti-CTA immune response can be tumor-specific. Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematological malignancy, and several CTAs have been detected in many MM cell lines and patients. Among CTAs expressed in MM we must highlight the MAGE-C1/CT7 located on the X chromosome and expressed specificity in the malignant plasma cells. MAGE-C1/CT7 seems to be related to disease progression and functional studies suggests that this CTA might play a role in cell cycle and mainly in survival of malignant plasma cells, protecting myeloma cells against spontaneous as well as drug-induced apoptosis. PMID:22481966

  13. Use of Multiple Peptide-Based SERS Probes Binding to Different Epitopes on a Protein Biomarker To Improve Detection Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kayeong; Cho, Jun-Haeng; Yoon, Moon-Young; Chung, Hoeil

    2016-04-01

    We propose an analytical strategy to improve the sensitivity for detecting a protein biomarker through signal multiplication by manipulating multiple peptide-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) probes to bind the biomarker. Protective antigen (PA) was used as an Anthrax biomarker in this study. For this purpose, five small peptides selective to various PA epitopes with different binding affinities were chosen and peptide-conjugated Au nanoparticle (AuNP) SERS probes were individually prepared using each peptide. Initially, five different SERS probes were separately used to detect PA and the sensitivities were compared. Next, the possibility of enhancing sensitivity by employing multiple SERS probes was examined. Rather than applying the probes simultaneously, which would induce competitive binding, each probe was added sequentially and an optimal probe-addition sequence was determined to provide maximal sensitivity. Finally, PA samples at seven different concentrations were measured with the optimal sequence. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.1 aM, and the enhancement was more effective at lower PA concentrations. The proposed scheme can be further applicable to detect other protein biomarkers to diagnose various diseases. PMID:26948277

  14. Epitope Mapping of a Monoclonal Antibody Directed against Neisserial Heparin Binding Antigen Using Next Generation Sequencing of Antigen-Specific Libraries.

    PubMed

    Domina, Maria; Lanza Cariccio, Veronica; Benfatto, Salvatore; Venza, Mario; Venza, Isabella; Donnarumma, Danilo; Bartolini, Erika; Borgogni, Erica; Bruttini, Marco; Santini, Laura; Midiri, Angelina; Galbo, Roberta; Romeo, Letizia; Patanè, Francesco; Biondo, Carmelo; Norais, Nathalie; Masignani, Vega; Teti, Giuseppe; Felici, Franco; Beninati, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    We explore here the potential of a newly described technology, which is named PROFILER and is based on next generation sequencing of gene-specific lambda phage-displayed libraries, to rapidly and accurately map monoclonal antibody (mAb) epitopes. For this purpose, we used a novel mAb (designated 31E10/E7) directed against Neisserial Heparin-Binding Antigen (NHBA), a component of the anti-group B meningococcus Bexsero® vaccine. An NHBA phage-displayed library was affinity-selected with mAb 31E10/E7, followed by massive sequencing of the inserts present in antibody-selected phage pools. Insert analysis identified an amino acid stretch (D91-A128) in the N-terminal domain, which was shared by all of the mAb-enriched fragments. Moreover, a recombinant fragment encompassing this sequence could recapitulate the immunoreactivity of the entire NHBA molecule against mAb 31E10/E7. These results were confirmed using a panel of overlapping recombinant fragments derived from the NHBA vaccine variant and a set of chemically synthetized peptides covering the 10 most frequent antigenic variants. Furthermore, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass-spectrometry analysis of the NHBA-mAb 31E10/E7 complex was also compatible with mapping of the epitope to the D91-A128 region. Collectively, these results indicate that the PROFILER technology can reliably identify epitope-containing antigenic fragments and requires considerably less work, time and reagents than other epitope mapping methods. PMID:27508302

  15. Epitope Mapping of a Monoclonal Antibody Directed against Neisserial Heparin Binding Antigen Using Next Generation Sequencing of Antigen-Specific Libraries

    PubMed Central

    Domina, Maria; Lanza Cariccio, Veronica; Benfatto, Salvatore; Venza, Mario; Venza, Isabella; Donnarumma, Danilo; Bartolini, Erika; Borgogni, Erica; Bruttini, Marco; Santini, Laura; Midiri, Angelina; Galbo, Roberta; Romeo, Letizia; Patanè, Francesco; Biondo, Carmelo; Norais, Nathalie; Masignani, Vega; Teti, Giuseppe; Felici, Franco; Beninati, Concetta

    2016-01-01

    We explore here the potential of a newly described technology, which is named PROFILER and is based on next generation sequencing of gene-specific lambda phage-displayed libraries, to rapidly and accurately map monoclonal antibody (mAb) epitopes. For this purpose, we used a novel mAb (designated 31E10/E7) directed against Neisserial Heparin-Binding Antigen (NHBA), a component of the anti-group B meningococcus Bexsero® vaccine. An NHBA phage-displayed library was affinity-selected with mAb 31E10/E7, followed by massive sequencing of the inserts present in antibody-selected phage pools. Insert analysis identified an amino acid stretch (D91-A128) in the N-terminal domain, which was shared by all of the mAb-enriched fragments. Moreover, a recombinant fragment encompassing this sequence could recapitulate the immunoreactivity of the entire NHBA molecule against mAb 31E10/E7. These results were confirmed using a panel of overlapping recombinant fragments derived from the NHBA vaccine variant and a set of chemically synthetized peptides covering the 10 most frequent antigenic variants. Furthermore, hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass-spectrometry analysis of the NHBA-mAb 31E10/E7 complex was also compatible with mapping of the epitope to the D91-A128 region. Collectively, these results indicate that the PROFILER technology can reliably identify epitope-containing antigenic fragments and requires considerably less work, time and reagents than other epitope mapping methods. PMID:27508302

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Reveals the Selective Binding of Human Leukocyte Antigen Alleles Associated with Behçet's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kongkaew, Sirilak; Yotmanee, Pathumwadee; Rungrotmongkol, Thanyada; Kaiyawet, Nopporn; Meeprasert, Arthitaya; Kaburaki, Toshikatsu; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Fujio; Kungwan, Nawee; Hannongbua, Supot

    2015-01-01

    Behçet’s disease (BD), a multi-organ inflammatory disorder, is associated with the presence of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-B*51 allele in many ethnic groups. The possible antigen involvement of the major histocompatibility complex class I chain related gene A transmembrane (MICA-TM) nonapeptide (AAAAAIFVI) has been reported in BD symptomatic patients. This peptide has also been detected in HLA-A*26:01 positive patients. To investigate the link of BD with these two specific HLA alleles, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were applied on the MICA-TM nonapeptide binding to the two BD-associated HLA alleles in comparison with the two non-BD-associated HLA alleles (B*35:01 and A*11:01). The MD simulations were applied on the four HLA/MICA-TM peptide complexes in aqueous solution. As a result, stabilization for the incoming MICA-TM was found to be predominantly contributed from van der Waals interactions. The P2/P3 residue close to the N-terminal and the P9 residue at the C-terminal of the MICA-TM nonapeptide served as the anchor for the peptide accommodated at the binding groove of the BD associated HLAs. The MM/PBSA free energy calculation predicted a stronger binding of the HLA/peptide complexes for the BD-associated HLA alleles than for the non-BD-associated ones, with a ranked binding strength of B*51:01 > B*35:01 and A*26:01 > A*11:01. Thus, the HLAs associated with BD pathogenesis expose the binding efficiency with the MICA-TM nonapeptide tighter than the non-associated HLA alleles. In addition, the residues 70, 73, 99, 146, 147 and 159 of the two BD-associated HLAs provided the conserved interaction for the MICA-TM peptide binding. PMID:26331842

  17. sNebula, a network-based algorithm to predict binding between human leukocyte antigens and peptides

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Heng; Ye, Hao; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Mendrick, Donna L.; Hong, Huixiao

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the binding between human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and peptides is important to understand the functioning of the immune system. Since it is time-consuming and costly to measure the binding between large numbers of HLAs and peptides, computational methods including machine learning models and network approaches have been developed to predict HLA-peptide binding. However, there are several limitations for the existing methods. We developed a network-based algorithm called sNebula to address these limitations. We curated qualitative Class I HLA-peptide binding data and demonstrated the prediction performance of sNebula on this dataset using leave-one-out cross-validation and five-fold cross-validations. This algorithm can predict not only peptides of different lengths and different types of HLAs, but also the peptides or HLAs that have no existing binding data. We believe sNebula is an effective method to predict HLA-peptide binding and thus improve our understanding of the immune system. PMID:27558848

  18. Effect of IVIG Formulation on IgG Binding to Self- and Exo- Antigens In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cattepoel, Susann; Gaida, Annette; Kropf, Alain; Nolte, Marc W.; Bolli, Reinhard; Miescher, Sylvia M.

    2016-01-01

    In relation to the recent trials of Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) it was demonstrated that different IgG preparations contain varying amounts of natural anti-amyloid β (Aβ) antibodies as measured by ELISA. We therefore investigated the relevance of ELISA data for measuring low-affinity antibodies, such as anti-Aβ. We analysed the binding of different commercial Immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparations to Aβ, actin and tetanus toxoid in different binding assays to further investigate the possible cause for observed differences in binding to Aβ and actin between different IgG preparations. We show that the differences of commercial IgG preparations in binding to Aβ and actin in ELISA assays are artefactual and only evident in in vitro binding assays. In functional assays and in vivo animal studies the different IVIG preparations exhibited very similar potency. ELISA data alone are not appropriate to analyse and rank the binding capacity of low-affinity antibodies to Aβ or other endogenous self-antigens contained in IgG preparations. Additional analytical methods should be adopted to complement ELISA data. PMID:27561008

  19. Binding specificity of P[8] VP8* proteins of rotavirus vaccine strains with histo-blood group antigens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoman; Guo, Nijun; Li, Dandi; Jin, Miao; Zhou, Yongkang; Xie, Guangcheng; Pang, Lili; Zhang, Qing; Cao, Youde; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2016-08-01

    RotaTeq(®) and Rotarix™ are two common human rotavirus (RV) vaccines currently on the market worldwide. Recent studies indicate histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) may be attachment factors for RVs. The P[8] VP8* proteins of RotaTeq and Rotarix were expressed and purified, and their binding specificities were evaluated. Saliva-based binding assays showed that the VP8* proteins bound to the saliva samples of secretors irrespective of ABO blood types. However, in the oligosaccharide binding assay, the VP8* proteins displayed no specific binding to the HBGAs tested, including Lewis b and H1. The structure of RotaTeq P[8] VP8* was solved at 1.9Å. Structural comparisons revealed that the putative receptor binding site was different to that of other genotypes and displayed a novel potential binding region. These findings indicate RotaTeq and Rotarix may have better efficiency in areas with a high percentage of secretors. PMID:27209447

  20. sNebula, a network-based algorithm to predict binding between human leukocyte antigens and peptides.

    PubMed

    Luo, Heng; Ye, Hao; Ng, Hui Wen; Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Mendrick, Donna L; Hong, Huixiao

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the binding between human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and peptides is important to understand the functioning of the immune system. Since it is time-consuming and costly to measure the binding between large numbers of HLAs and peptides, computational methods including machine learning models and network approaches have been developed to predict HLA-peptide binding. However, there are several limitations for the existing methods. We developed a network-based algorithm called sNebula to address these limitations. We curated qualitative Class I HLA-peptide binding data and demonstrated the prediction performance of sNebula on this dataset using leave-one-out cross-validation and five-fold cross-validations. This algorithm can predict not only peptides of different lengths and different types of HLAs, but also the peptides or HLAs that have no existing binding data. We believe sNebula is an effective method to predict HLA-peptide binding and thus improve our understanding of the immune system. PMID:27558848

  1. Studies on Immunogenicity and Antigenicity of Baculovirus-Expressed Binding Region of Plasmodium falciparum EBA-140 Merozoite Ligand.

    PubMed

    Zerka, Agata; Rydzak, Joanna; Lass, Anna; Szostakowska, Beata; Nahorski, Wacław; Wroczyńska, Agnieszka; Myjak, Przemyslaw; Krotkiewski, Hubert; Jaskiewicz, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    The erythrocyte binding ligand 140 (EBA-140) is a member of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte binding antigens (EBA) family, which are considered as prospective candidates for malaria vaccine development. EBA proteins were identified as important targets for naturally acquired inhibitory antibodies. Natural antibody response against EBA-140 ligand was found in individuals living in malaria-endemic areas. The EBA-140 ligand is a paralogue of the well-characterized P. falciparum EBA-175 protein. They both share homology of domain structure, including the binding region (Region II), which consists of two homologous F1 and F2 domains and is responsible for ligand-erythrocyte receptor interaction during merozoite invasion. It was shown that the erythrocyte receptor for EBA-140 ligand is glycophorin C-a minor human erythrocyte sialoglycoprotein. In studies on the immunogenicity of P. falciparum EBA ligands, the recombinant proteins are of great importance. In this report, we have demonstrated that the recombinant baculovirus-obtained EBA-140 Region II is immunogenic and antigenic. It can raise specific antibodies in rabbits, and it is recognized by natural antibodies present in sera of patients with malaria, and thus, it may be considered for inclusion in multicomponent blood-stage vaccines. PMID:26439848

  2. Asymmetric Assembly of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Large T-Antigen Origin Binding Domains at the Viral Origin

    SciTech Connect

    C Harrison; G Meinke; H Kwun; H Rogalin; P Phelan; P Bullock; Y Chang; P Moore; A Bohm

    2011-12-31

    The double-stranded DNA polyomavirus Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) causes Merkel cell carcinoma, an aggressive but rare human skin cancer that most often affects immunosuppressed and elderly persons. As in other polyomaviruses, the large T-antigen of MCV recognizes the viral origin of replication by binding repeating G(A/G)GGC pentamers. The spacing, number, orientation, and necessity of repeats for viral replication differ, however, from other family members such as SV40 and murine polyomavirus. We report here the 2.9 {angstrom} crystal structure of the MCV large T-antigen origin binding domain (OBD) in complex with a DNA fragment from the MCV origin of replication. Consistent with replication data showing that three of the G(A/G)GGC-like binding sites near the center of the origin are required for replication, the crystal structure contains three copies of the OBD. This stoichiometry was verified using isothermal titration calorimetry. The affinity for G(A/G)GGC-containing double-stranded DNA was found to be {approx} 740 nM, approximately 8-fold weaker than the equivalent domain in SV40 for the analogous region of the SV40 origin. The difference in affinity is partially attributable to DNA-binding residue Lys331 (Arg154 in SV40). In contrast to SV40, a small protein-protein interface is observed between MCV OBDs when bound to the central region of the origin. This protein-protein interface is reminiscent of that seen in bovine papilloma virus E1 protein. Mutational analysis indicates, however, that this interface contributes little to DNA binding energy.

  3. Latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus interacts with origin recognition complexes at the LANA binding sequence within the terminal repeats.

    PubMed

    Verma, Subhash C; Choudhuri, Tathagata; Kaul, Rajeev; Robertson, Erle S

    2006-03-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) DNA persists in latently infected cells as an episome via tethering to the host chromosomes. The latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of KSHV binds to the cis-acting elements in the terminal repeat (TR) region of the genome through its carboxy terminus. Previous studies have demonstrated that LANA is important for episome maintenance and replication of the TR-containing plasmids. Here we report that LANA associates with origin recognition complexes (ORCs) when bound to its 17-bp LANA binding cognate sequence (LBS). Chromatin immunoprecipitation of multiple regions across the entire genome from two KSHV-infected cell lines, BC-3 and BCBL-1, revealed that the ORCs predominantly associated with the chromatin structure at the TR as well as two regions within the long unique region of the genome. Coimmunoprecipitation of ORCs with LANA-specific antibodies shows that ORCs can bind and form complexes with LANA in cells. This association was further supported by in vitro binding studies which showed that ORCs associate with LANA predominantly through the carboxy-terminal DNA binding region. KSHV-positive BC-3 and BCBL-1 cells arrested in G(1)/S phase showed colocalization of LANA with ORCs. Furthermore, replication of The TR-containing plasmid required both the N- and C termini of LANA in 293 and DG75 cells. Interestingly, our studies did not detect cellular ORCs associated with packaged viral DNA as an analysis of purified virions did not reveal the presence of ORCs, minichromosome maintenance proteins, or LANA. PMID:16474132

  4. Pre-clinical evaluation of CD38 chimeric antigen receptor engineered T cells for the treatment of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Drent, Esther; Groen, Richard W J; Noort, Willy A; Themeli, Maria; Lammerts van Bueren, Jeroen J; Parren, Paul W H I; Kuball, Jürgen; Sebestyen, Zsolt; Yuan, Huipin; de Bruijn, Joost; van de Donk, Niels W C J; Martens, Anton C M; Lokhorst, Henk M; Mutis, Tuna

    2016-05-01

    Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells is a promising strategy for cancer immunotherapy. The CD38 molecule, with its high expression on multiple myeloma cells, appears a suitable target for antibody therapy. Prompted by this, we used three different CD38 antibody sequences to generate second-generation retroviral CD38-chimeric antigen receptor constructs with which we transduced T cells from healthy donors and multiple myeloma patients. We then evaluated the preclinical efficacy and safety of the transduced T cells. Irrespective of the donor and antibody sequence, CD38-chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells proliferated, produced inflammatory cytokines and effectively lysed malignant cell lines and primary malignant cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia and multi-drug resistant multiple myeloma in a cell-dose, and CD38-dependent manner, despite becoming CD38-negative during culture. CD38-chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells also displayed significant anti-tumor effects in a xenotransplant model, in which multiple myeloma tumors were grown in a human bone marrow-like microenvironment. CD38-chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells also appeared to lyse the CD38(+) fractions of CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells, monocytes, natural killer cells, and to a lesser extent T and B cells but did not inhibit the outgrowth of progenitor cells into various myeloid lineages and, furthermore, were effectively controllable with a caspase-9-based suicide gene. These results signify the potential importance of CD38-chimeric antigen receptor-transduced T cells as therapeutic tools for CD38(+) malignancies and warrant further efforts to diminish the undesired effects of this immunotherapy using appropriate strategies. PMID:26858358

  5. A novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide providing heterologous protection in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Feng; Ma, Ji-Hong; Yang, Fu-Ru; Huang, Meng; Zhou, Yan-Jun; Li, Ze-Jun; Wang, Xiu-Hui; Li, Guo-Xin; Jiang, Yi-Feng; Tong, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SwIVs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality in domestic pigs, resulting in a significant economic burden. Moreover, pigs have been considered to be a possible mixing vessel in which novel strains loom. Here, we developed and evaluated a novel M2e-multiple antigenic peptide (M2e-MAP) as a supplemental antigen for inactivated H3N2 vaccine to provide cross-protection against two main subtypes of SwIVs, H1N1 and H3N2. The novel tetra-branched MAP was constructed by fusing four copies of M2e to one copy of foreign T helper cell epitopes. A high-yield reassortant H3N2 virus was generated by plasmid based reverse genetics. The efficacy of the novel H3N2 inactivated vaccines with or without M2e-MAP supplementation was evaluated in a mouse model. M2e-MAP conjugated vaccine induced strong antibody responses in mice. Complete protection against the heterologous swine H1N1 virus was observed in mice vaccinated with M2e-MAP combined vaccine. Moreover, this novel peptide confers protection against lethal challenge of A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (H1N1). Taken together, our results suggest the combined immunization of reassortant inactivated H3N2 vaccine and the novel M2e-MAP provided cross-protection against swine and human viruses and may serve as a promising approach for influenza vaccine development. PMID:27051342

  6. Nucleolin is important for Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1-mediated episome binding, maintenance, and transcription.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-Lin; Liu, Cheng-Der; Cheng, Chi-Ping; Zhao, Bo; Hsu, Hao-Jen; Shen, Chih-Long; Chiu, Shu-Jun; Kieff, Elliott; Peng, Chih-wen

    2014-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) is essential for EBV episome maintenance, replication, and transcription. These effects are mediated by EBNA1 binding to cognate oriP DNA, which comprise 20 imperfect copies of a 30-bp dyad symmetry enhancer and an origin for DNA replication. To identify cell proteins essential for these EBNA1 functions, EBNA1 associated cell proteins were immune precipitated and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Nucleolin (NCL) was identified to be EBNA1 associated. EBNA1's N-terminal 100 aa and NCL's RNA-binding domains were critical for EBNA1/NCL interaction. Lentivirus shRNA-mediated NCL depletion substantially reduced EBNA1 recruitment to oriP DNA, EBNA1-dependent transcription of an EBV oriP luciferase reporter, and EBV genome maintenance in lymphoblastoid cell lines. NCL RNA-binding domain K429 was critical for ATP and EBNA1 binding. NCL overexpression increased EBNA1 binding to oriP and transcription, whereas NCL K429A was deficient. Moreover, NCL silencing impaired lymphoblastoid cell line growth. These experiments reveal a surprisingly critical role for NCL K429 in EBNA1 episome maintenance and transcription, which may be a target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24344309

  7. Inducing Humoral and Cellular Responses to Multiple Sporozoite and Liver-Stage Malaria Antigens Using Exogenous Plasmid DNA

    PubMed Central

    Ferraro, B.; Talbott, K. T.; Balakrishnan, A.; Cisper, N.; Morrow, M. P.; Hutnick, N. A.; Myles, D. J.; Shedlock, D. J.; Obeng-Adjei, N.; Yan, J.; Kayatani, A. K. K.; Richie, N.; Cabrera, W.; Shiver, R.; Khan, A. S.; Brown, A. S.; Yang, M.; Wille-Reece, U.; Birkett, A. J.; Sardesai, N. Y.

    2013-01-01

    A vaccine candidate that elicits humoral and cellular responses to multiple sporozoite and liver-stage antigens may be able to confer protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria; however, a technology for formulating and delivering such a vaccine has remained elusive. Here, we report the preclinical assessment of an optimized DNA vaccine approach that targets four P. falciparum antigens: circumsporozoite protein (CSP), liver stage antigen 1 (LSA1), thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP), and cell-traversal protein for ookinetes and sporozoites (CelTOS). Synthetic DNA sequences were designed for each antigen with modifications to improve expression and were delivered using in vivo electroporation (EP). Immunogenicity was evaluated in mice and nonhuman primates (NHPs) and assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), gamma interferon (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot) assay, and flow cytometry. In mice, DNA with EP delivery induced antigen-specific IFN-γ production, as measured by ELISpot assay and IgG seroconversion against all antigens. Sustained production of IFN-γ, interleukin-2, and tumor necrosis factor alpha was elicited in both the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell compartments. Furthermore, hepatic CD8+ lymphocytes produced LSA1-specific IFN-γ. The immune responses conferred to mice by this approach translated to the NHP model, which showed cellular responses by ELISpot assay and intracellular cytokine staining. Notably, antigen-specific CD8+ granzyme B+ T cells were observed in NHPs. Collectively, the data demonstrate that delivery of gene sequences by DNA/EP encoding malaria parasite antigens is immunogenic in animal models and can harness both the humoral and cellular arms of the immune system. PMID:23897618

  8. Influenza virus binds its host cell using multiple dynamic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sieben, Christian; Kappel, Christian; Zhu, Rong; Wozniak, Anna; Rankl, Christian; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Grubmüller, Helmut; Herrmann, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Influenza virus belongs to a wide range of enveloped viruses. The major spike protein hemagglutinin binds sialic acid residues of glycoproteins and glycolipids with dissociation constants in the millimolar range [Sauter NK, et al. (1992) Biochemistry 31:9609–9621], indicating a multivalent binding mode. Here, we characterized the attachment of influenza virus to host cell receptors using three independent approaches. Optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule force spectroscopy revealed very low interaction forces. Further, the observation of sequential unbinding events strongly suggests a multivalent binding mode between virus and cell membrane. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal a variety of unbinding pathways that indicate a highly dynamic interaction between HA and its receptor, allowing rationalization of influenza virus–cell binding quantitatively at the molecular level. PMID:22869709

  9. The TRPV5/6 calcium channels contain multiple calmodulin binding sites with differential binding properties.

    PubMed

    Kovalevskaya, Nadezda V; Bokhovchuk, Fedir M; Vuister, Geerten W

    2012-06-01

    The epithelial Ca(2+) channels TRPV5/6 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 5/6) are thoroughly regulated in order to fine-tune the amount of Ca(2+) reabsorption. Calmodulin has been shown to be involved into calcium-dependent inactivation of TRPV5/6 channels by binding directly to the distal C-terminal fragment of the channels (de Groot et al. in Mol Cell Biol 31:2845-2853, 12). Here, we investigate this binding in detail and find significant differences between TRPV5 and TRPV6. We also identify and characterize in vitro four other CaM binding fragments of TRPV5/6, which likely are also involved in TRPV5/6 channel regulation. The five CaM binding sites display diversity in binding modes, binding stoichiometries and binding affinities, which may fine-tune the response of the channels to varying Ca(2+)-concentrations. PMID:22354706

  10. Hsp90-peptide complexes stimulate antigen presentation through the class II pathway after binding scavenger receptor SREC-I

    PubMed Central

    Murshid, Ayesha; Gong, Jianlin; Calderwood, Stuart K

    2016-01-01

    Molecular chaperones such as heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) have been shown to form complexes with tumor antigens and can be used to prepare anticancer vaccines largely due to this property. Earlier studies had suggested that, mice immunized with a molecular chaperone based vaccine derived from tumors became immune to further vaccination and that both CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were activated by the chaperone vaccine in a manner dependent on scavenger receptor SREC-I. Here we have investigated mechanisms whereby SREC-I might facilitate uptake of Hsp90 conjugated peptides by APC into the MHC class II pathway for presentation to CD4+ T cells. Our studies showed that antigenic peptides associated with Hsp90 were taken up into the Class II pathway by a mechanism dependent on SREC-I binding and internalization and presented to CD4+ T cells. In addition our studies showed that SREC-I could associate with MHC class II molecules on the cell surface and in intracellular endosomes, suggesting a mechanism involving facilitated uptake of peptides into the MHC class II pathway. These studies in addition to our earlier findings showed SREC-I to play a primary role in chaperone-associated antigen uptake both through cross priming of MHC class I molecules and entry into the class II pathway. PMID:25155057

  11. Characterization of Self-Assembled Monolayers of Peptide Mimotopes of CD20 Antigen and Their Binding with Rituximab.

    PubMed

    Leo, Norman; Shang, Yuqin; Yu, Jing-jiang; Zeng, Xiangqun

    2015-12-29

    CD20, expressed in greater than 90% of B-lymphocytic lymphomas, is a target for antibody therapy. Rituximab is a chimeric therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the protein CD20, allowing it to destroy B cells and to treat lymphoma, leukemia, transplant rejection, and autoimmune disorder. In this work, the binding of rituximab to self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of peptide mimotopes of CD20 antigen was systematically characterized. Four peptide mimotopes of CD 20 antigen were selected from the literature and redesigned to allow their SAM immobilizations on gold electrodes through a peptide linker with cysteine. The bindings of these peptides with rituximab and control mAbs (trastuzumab and bevacizumab) were characterized by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Among the four peptide mimotopes initially selected, the peptide designated as CN-14 (CGSGSGSWPRWLEN) was the most selective and sensitive for rituximab binding. The CN-14 SAM was further characterized by ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. The thickness of the CN-14 SAM film was approximately 32 Å, and the CN-14 SAM is suggested to be stabilized by a salt bridge of Arg-10 and Glu-13 between CN-14 peptides. The CN-14 salt bridge was evaluated by a series of modifications to the CN-14 peptide sequence and characterized by QCM. The CN-14 amide variant produced a better affinity to rituximab than CN-14 without a significant impact on selectivity. As the pKa of the Glu residue of CN-14 increased, the affinity of the SAM to rituximab increased, whereas the selectivity decreased. This was attributed to the weakening of the salt bridge between the CN-14 Arg-10 and Glu-13 at higher pKa values for Glu-13. Our study shows that peptide mimotopes have potential benefits in sensor applications, as the peptide-peptide interactions in the SAMs can be manipulated by the addition of functional groups to the peptide to influence the binding of target proteins. PMID:26609837

  12. CREB Binds to Multiple Loci on Human Chromosome 22

    PubMed Central

    Euskirchen, Ghia; Royce, Thomas E.; Bertone, Paul; Martone, Rebecca; Rinn, John L.; Nelson, F. Kenneth; Sayward, Fred; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Miller, Perry; Gerstein, Mark; Weissman, Sherman; Snyder, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is an important transcription factor that can be activated by hormonal stimulation and regulates neuronal function and development. An unbiased, global analysis of where CREB binds has not been performed. We have mapped for the first time the binding distribution of CREB along an entire human chromosome. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of CREB-associated DNA and subsequent hybridization of the associated DNA to a genomic DNA microarray containing all of the nonrepetitive DNA of human chromosome 22 revealed 215 binding sites corresponding to 192 different loci and 100 annotated potential gene targets. We found binding near or within many genes involved in signal transduction and neuronal function. We also found that only a small fraction of CREB binding sites lay near well-defined 5′ ends of genes; the majority of sites were found elsewhere, including introns and unannotated regions. Several of the latter lay near novel unannotated transcriptionally active regions. Few CREB targets were found near full-length cyclic AMP response element sites; the majority contained shorter versions or close matches to this sequence. Several of the CREB targets were altered in their expression by treatment with forskolin; interestingly, both induced and repressed genes were found. Our results provide novel molecular insights into how CREB mediates its functions in humans. PMID:15082775

  13. A single amino acid substitution (R441A) in the receptor-binding domain of SARS coronavirus spike protein disrupts the antigenic structure and binding activity

    SciTech Connect

    He Yuxian . E-mail: yhe@nybloodcenter.org; Li Jingjing; Jiang Shibo

    2006-05-26

    The spike (S) protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has two major functions: interacting with the receptor to mediate virus entry and inducing protective immunity. Coincidently, the receptor-binding domain (RBD, residues 318-510) of SAR-CoV S protein is a major antigenic site to induce neutralizing antibodies. Here, we used RBD-Fc, a fusion protein containing the RBD and human IgG1 Fc, as a model in the studies and found that a single amino acid substitution in the RBD (R441A) could abolish the immunogenicity of RBD to induce neutralizing antibodies in immunized mice and rabbits. With a panel of anti-RBD mAbs as probes, we observed that R441A substitution was able to disrupt the majority of neutralizing epitopes in the RBD, suggesting that this residue is critical for the antigenic structure responsible for inducing protective immune responses. We also demonstrated that the RBD-Fc bearing R441A mutation could not bind to soluble and cell-associated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the functional receptor for SARS-CoV and failed to block S protein-mediated pseudovirus entry, indicating that this point mutation also disrupted the receptor-binding motif (RBM) in the RBD. Taken together, these data provide direct evidence to show that a single amino acid residue at key position in the RBD can determine the major function of SARS-CoV S protein and imply for designing SARS vaccines and therapeutics.

  14. The Crystal Structure of the SV40 T-Antigen Origin Binding Domain in Complex with DNA

    PubMed Central

    Meinke, Gretchen; Phelan, Paul; Moine, Stephanie; Bochkareva, Elena; Bochkarev, Alexey; Bullock, Peter A; Bohm, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    DNA replication is initiated upon binding of “initiators” to origins of replication. In simian virus 40 (SV40), the core origin contains four pentanucleotide binding sites organized as pairs of inverted repeats. Here we describe the crystal structures of the origin binding domain (obd) of the SV40 large T-antigen (T-ag) both with and without a subfragment of origin-containing DNA. In the co-structure, two T-ag obds are oriented in a head-to-head fashion on the same face of the DNA, and each T-ag obd engages the major groove. Although the obds are very close to each other when bound to this DNA target, they do not contact one another. These data provide a high-resolution structural model that explains site-specific binding to the origin and suggests how these interactions help direct the oligomerization events that culminate in assembly of the helicase-active dodecameric complex of T-ag. PMID:17253903

  15. A comparison of binding surfaces for SPR biosensing using an antibody-antigen system and affinity distribution analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Huaying; Gorshkova, Inna I.; Fu, Gregory L.; Schuck, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The application of optical biosensors in the study of macromolecular interactions requires immobilization of one binding partner to the surface. It is often highly desirable that the immobilization is uniform and does not affect the thermodynamic and kinetic binding parameters to soluble ligands. To achieve this goal, a variety of sensor surfaces, coupling strategies and surface chemistries are available. Previously, we have introduced a technique for increasing the level of detail on the immobilized sites beyond an average affinity by determining the distribution of affinities and kinetic rate constants from families of binding and dissociation traces acquired at different concentrations of soluble ligand. In the present work, we explore how this affinity distribution analysis can be useful in the assessment and optimization of surface immobilization. With this goal, using an antibody-antigen interaction as a model system, we study the activity, thermodynamic and kinetic binding parameters, and heterogeneity of surface sites produced with different commonly used sensor surfaces, at different total surface densities and with direct immobilization or affinity capture. PMID:23270815

  16. Structural Analysis of the Synthetic Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) Antigen DEKnull Relevant for Plasmodium vivax Malaria Vaccine Design

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Edwin; Salinas, Nichole D.; Ntumngia, Francis B.; Adams, John H.; Tolia, Niraj H.

    2015-01-01

    The Plasmodium vivax vaccine candidate Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) is a protein necessary for P. vivax invasion of reticulocytes. The polymorphic nature of DBP induces strain-specific immune responses that pose unique challenges for vaccine development. DEKnull is a synthetic DBP based antigen that has been engineered through mutation to enhance induction of blocking inhibitory antibodies. We determined the x-ray crystal structure of DEKnull to identify if any conformational changes had occurred upon mutation. Computational and experimental analyses assessed immunogenicity differences between DBP and DEKnull epitopes. Functional binding assays with monoclonal antibodies were used to interrogate the available epitopes in DEKnull. We demonstrate that DEKnull is structurally similar to the parental Sal1 DBP. The DEKnull mutations do not cause peptide backbone shifts within the polymorphic loop, or at either the DBP dimerization interface or DARC receptor binding pockets, two important structurally conserved protective epitope motifs. All B-cell epitopes, except for the mutated DEK motif, are conserved between DEKnull and DBP. The DEKnull protein retains binding to conformationally dependent inhibitory antibodies. DEKnull is an iterative improvement of DBP as a vaccine candidate. DEKnull has reduced immunogenicity to polymorphic regions responsible for strain-specific immunity while retaining conserved protein folds necessary for induction of strain-transcending blocking inhibitory antibodies. PMID:25793371

  17. The serological response of the chicken to a protein antigen in multiple emulsion oil adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Aitken, I. D.

    1973-01-01

    In adult chickens administration of 4 mg of bovine serum albumin as a multiple emulsion (water-in-oil-in-water) by the s.c., i.m. or i.p. route stimulated a persistent precipitin response that was still detectable in nine out of twelve birds when the experiment was terminated 286 days after injection. In each group the mean serum total antibody response curve was biphasic. An initial rapid response, reaching a peak of 350–500 μg antibody N/ml of serum on day 7–9, declined in fluctuating fashion and was succeeded after 30–60 days by a slower sustained rise in antibody level, reaching a peak similar to that of the initial response. Splenectomy impaired precipitin production, delayed and suppressed the initial phase of antibody synthesis, but did not significantly alter the second phase. Synthesis during the secondary phase is considered to proceed in the granulomata where, in contrast to other tissues of the body, antigen remains in readily detectable amounts for several weeks after injection. ImagesFIG. 1 PMID:4202421

  18. Comprehensive functional characterization of cancer–testis antigens defines obligate participation in multiple hallmarks of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maxfield, Kimberly E.; Taus, Patrick J.; Corcoran, Kathleen; Wooten, Joshua; Macion, Jennifer; Zhou, Yunyun; Borromeo, Mark; Kollipara, Rahul K.; Yan, Jingsheng; Xie, Yang; Xie, Xian-Jin; Whitehurst, Angelique W.

    2015-01-01

    Tumours frequently activate genes whose expression is otherwise biased to the testis, collectively known as cancer–testis antigens (CTAs). The extent to which CTA expression represents epiphenomena or confers tumorigenic traits is unknown. In this study, to address this, we implemented a multidimensional functional genomics approach that incorporates 7 different phenotypic assays in 11 distinct disease settings. We identify 26 CTAs that are essential for tumor cell viability and/or are pathological drivers of HIF, WNT or TGFβ signalling. In particular, we discover that Foetal and Adult Testis Expressed 1 (FATE1) is a key survival factor in multiple oncogenic backgrounds. FATE1 prevents the accumulation of the stress-sensing BH3-only protein, BCL-2-Interacting Killer (BIK), thereby permitting viability in the presence of toxic stimuli. Furthermore, ZNF165 promotes TGFβ signalling by directly suppressing the expression of negative feedback regulatory pathways. This action is essential for the survival of triple negative breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, CTAs make significant direct contributions to tumour biology. PMID:26567849

  19. The Multiple Carbohydrate Binding Specificities of Helicobacter pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teneberg, Susann

    Persistent colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Adhesion of microbes to the target tissue is an important determinant for successful initiation, establishment and maintenance of infection, and a variety of different candidate carbohydrate receptors for H. pylori have been identified. Here the different the binding specifities, and their potential role in adhesion to human gastric epithelium are described. Finally, recent findings on the roles of sialic acid binding SabA adhesin in interactions with human neutrophils and erythrocytes are discussed.

  20. A calmodulin-binding/CGCG box DNA-binding protein family involved in multiple signaling pathways in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Tianbao; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2002-01-01

    We reported earlier that the tobacco early ethylene-responsive gene NtER1 encodes a calmodulin-binding protein (Yang, T., and Poovaiah, B. W. (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 38467-38473). Here we demonstrate that there is one NtER1 homolog as well as five related genes in Arabidopsis. These six genes are rapidly and differentially induced by environmental signals such as temperature extremes, UVB, salt, and wounding; hormones such as ethylene and abscisic acid; and signal molecules such as methyl jasmonate, H(2)O(2), and salicylic acid. Hence, they were designated as AtSR1-6 (Arabidopsis thaliana signal-responsive genes). Ca(2+)/calmodulin binds to all AtSRs, and their calmodulin-binding regions are located on a conserved basic amphiphilic alpha-helical motif in the C terminus. AtSR1 targets the nucleus and specifically recognizes a novel 6-bp CGCG box (A/C/G)CGCG(G/T/C). The multiple CGCG cis-elements are found in promoters of genes such as those involved in ethylene signaling, abscisic acid signaling, and light signal perception. The DNA-binding domain in AtSR1 is located on the N-terminal 146 bp where all AtSR1-related proteins share high similarity but have no similarity to other known DNA-binding proteins. The calmodulin-binding nuclear proteins isolated from wounded leaves exhibit specific CGCG box DNA binding activities. These results suggest that the AtSR gene family encodes a family of calmodulin-binding/DNA-binding proteins involved in multiple signal transduction pathways in plants.

  1. Fibronectin and asialoglyprotein receptor mediate hepatitis B surface antigen binding to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Wang, Feng; Tian, Linlin; Su, Jing; Zhu, Xiangqian; Lin, Li; Ding, Xiaoran; Wang, Xuejun; Wang, Shengqi

    2010-06-01

    Both fibronectin and the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) have been identified by some investigators as partners for hepatitis B virus (HBV) envelope proteins. Because fibronectin is a natural ligand for ASGPR, we speculated that HBV might attach to ASGPR expressed on the hepatocyte surface via fibronectin. To test this hypothesis, we first confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation that ASGPR, fibronectin and HBsAg bind to each other in HepG2.2.15 cells, and possible binding domains were identified by GST pull-down. In addition, by measuring binding of HBsAg to cells, we found that ASGPR and fibronectin enhanced the binding capability of HBsAg to HepG2 cells, and even to 293T and CHO cells, which normally do not bind HBV. In conclusion, our findings suggest that both fibronectin and ASGPR mediate HBsAg binding to the cell surface, which provides further evidence for the potential roles of these two proteins in mediating HBV binding to liver cells. PMID:20364278

  2. A Novel Treponema pallidum Antigen, TP0136, Is an Outer Membrane Protein That Binds Human Fibronectin▿

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Mary Beth; McGill, Melanie A.; Pettersson, Jonas; Rogers, Arthur; Matějková, Petra; Šmajs, David; Weinstock, George M.; Norris, Steven J.; Palzkill, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The antigenicity, structural location, and function of the predicted lipoprotein TP0136 of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum were investigated based on previous screening studies indicating that anti-TP0136 antibodies are present in the sera of syphilis patients and experimentally infected rabbits. Recombinant TP0136 (rTP0136) protein was purified and shown to be strongly antigenic during human and experimental rabbit infection. The TP0136 protein was exposed on the surface of the bacterial outer membrane and bound to the host extracellular matrix glycoproteins fibronectin and laminin. In addition, the TP0136 open reading frame was shown to be highly polymorphic among T. pallidum subspecies and strains at the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Finally, the ability of rTP0136 protein to act as a protective antigen to subsequent challenge with infectious T. pallidum in the rabbit model of infection was assessed. Immunization with rTP0136 delayed ulceration but did not prevent infection or the formation of lesions. These results demonstrate that TP0136 is expressed on the outer membrane of the treponeme during infection and may be involved in attachment to host extracellular matrix components. PMID:18332212

  3. Enhanced antigen-antibody binding affinity mediated by an anti-idiotypic antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Sawutz, D.G.; Koury, R.; Homcy, C.J.

    1987-08-25

    The authors previously described the production of four monoclonal antibodies to the ..beta..-adrenergic receptor antagonist alprenolol. One of these antibodies, 5B7 (IgG/sub 2a/, kappa), was used to raise anti-idiotypic antisera in rabbits. In contrast to the expected results, one of the anti-idiotypic antisera (R9) promotes (/sup 125/I)iodocyanopinodolol (ICYP) binding to antibody 5B7. In the presence of R9, the dissociation constant decreases 100-fold from 20 to 0.3 nM. This increase in binding affinity of antibody 5B7 for ICYP is not observed in the presence of preimmune, rabbit anti-mouse or anti-idiotypic antisera generated to a monoclonal antibody of a different specificity. Furthermore, R9 in the absence of 5B7 does not bind ICYP. The F(ab) fragments of 5B7 and T9 behaved in a similar manner, and the soluble complex responsible for the high-affinity interaction with ICYP can be identified by gel filtration chromatography. The elution position of the complex is consistent with a 5B7 F(ab)-R9 F(ab) dimer, indicating that polyvalency is not responsible for the enhanced ligand binding. Kinetic analysis of ICYP-5B7 binding revealed that the rate of ICYP dissociation from 5B7 in the presence of R9 is approximately 100 times slower than in the absence of R9, consistent with the 100-fold change in binding affinity of 5B7 for ICYP. The available data best fit a model in which an anti-idiotypic antibody binds at or near the binding site of the idiotype participating in the formation of a hybrid ligand binding site. This would allow increased contact of the ligand with the idiotype-anti-idiotype complex and result in an enhanced affinity of the ligand interaction.

  4. Common antigenic domains in transferrin-binding protein 2 of Neisseria meningitidis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, P; Williams, P; Griffiths, E

    1992-06-01

    There is now considerable evidence to show that in the Neisseria and Haemophilus species, membrane receptors specific for either transferrin or lactoferrin are involved in the acquisition of iron from these glycoproteins. In Neisseria meningitidis, the transferrin receptor appears to consist of two proteins, one of which (TBP 1) has an M(r) of 95,000 and the other of which (TBP 2) has an M(r) ranging from 68,000 to 85,000, depending on the strain; TBP 2 binds transferrin after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electroblotting, but TBP 1 does not do so. The relative contributions of these two proteins to the binding reaction observed with intact cells and to iron uptake are presently unknown. However, they are being considered as potential components of a group B meningococcal vaccine. Analogous higher- and lower-molecular-weight proteins associated with transferrin binding have been found in N. gonorrhoeae and Haemophilus influenzae. Previous work with polyclonal antibodies raised in mice with whole cells of iron-restricted N. meningitidis showed that the meningococcal TBP 2 exhibits considerable antigenic heterogeneity. Here, we report that antiserum against purified TBP 2 from one strain of N. meningitidis cross-reacts on immunoblotting with the TBP 2 of all meningococcal isolates examined, as well as with the TBP 2 of N. gonorrhoeae. This antiserum also cross-reacted with the TBP 2 of several strains of H. influenzae type b, thus showing the presence of common antigenic domains among these functionally equivalent proteins in different pathogens; no cross-reaction was detected with a purified sample of the human transferrin receptor. PMID:1587606

  5. Systematic fractionation of serum antibodies using multiple antigen homologous peptides as affinity ligands.

    PubMed

    Tribbick, G; Triantafyllou, B; Lauricella, R; Rodda, S J; Mason, T J; Geysen, H M

    1991-06-01

    The fractionation of polyclonal antibodies on multiple peptide ligands is described. The method is an application of a procedure for the synthesis of large numbers of peptides on individual polyethylene pins (Geysen et al., 1987). In this application, each pin-bound peptide is used as an affinity support. Antibodies bound to the peptides are then eluted, using buffers of either high or low pH. Each eluted antibody is then tested for specific binding to peptides or proteins, using ELISA procedures. A rabbit antiserum raised to gonococcal pilin was fractionated on a complete set of octapeptides homologous with the sequence of the pilin protein. Antibodies eluted from some of the peptides bound to pilin in solution. In a second example three hyperimmune sera raised to three different potyviruses were fractionated on their respective homologous peptide sequences. Testing the eluted antibodies on the three virus coat proteins revealed peptides which bound cross-reacting antibodies. Thus the method can be used to confirm direct peptide binding evidence for sequential epitopes. These peptides can then be used in affinity chromatography to increase the specificity of polyclonal sera. This can be achieved either by elution of the specific antibody from the peptide or by removal of cross-reacting antibodies from the whole serum by absorption on peptide. PMID:1904463

  6. Experimental studies with homologous subtype vaccines produced with multiple antigenically different seed strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the high antigenic variability of avian influenza virus, vaccines need to be continually updated to maintain adequate protection to evolving field strains. One possible approach, to mitigating the effects of antigenic change, is to use vaccines containing more than one isolate of the same su...

  7. Identifying Patient-Specific Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 Genetic Variation and Potential Autoreactive Targets Relevant to Multiple Sclerosis Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tschochner, Monika; Leary, Shay; Cooper, Don; Strautins, Kaija; Chopra, Abha; Clark, Hayley; Choo, Linda; Dunn, David; James, Ian; Carroll, William M.; Kermode, Allan G.; Nolan, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection represents a major environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS), with evidence of selective expansion of Epstein-Barr Nuclear Antigen-1 (EBNA1)-specific CD4+ T cells that cross-recognize MS-associated myelin antigens in MS patients. HLA-DRB1*15-restricted antigen presentation also appears to determine susceptibility given its role as a dominant risk allele. In this study, we have utilised standard and next-generation sequencing techniques to investigate EBNA-1 sequence variation and its relationship to HLA-DR15 binding affinity, as well as examining potential cross-reactive immune targets within the central nervous system proteome. Methods Sanger sequencing was performed on DNA isolated from peripheral blood samples from 73 Western Australian MS cases, without requirement for primary culture, with additional FLX 454 Roche sequencing in 23 samples to identify low-frequency variants. Patient-derived viral sequences were used to predict HLA-DRB1*1501 epitopes (NetMHCII, NetMHCIIpan) and candidates were evaluated for cross recognition with human brain proteins. Results EBNA-1 sequence variation was limited, with no evidence of multiple viral strains and only low levels of variation identified by FLX technology (8.3% nucleotide positions at a 1% cut-off). In silico epitope mapping revealed two known HLA-DRB1*1501-restricted epitopes (‘AEG’: aa 481–496 and ‘MVF’: aa 562–577), and two putative epitopes between positions 502–543. We identified potential cross-reactive targets involving a number of major myelin antigens including experimentally confirmed HLA-DRB1*15-restricted epitopes as well as novel candidate antigens within myelin and paranodal assembly proteins that may be relevant to MS pathogenesis. Conclusions This study demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining autologous EBNA-1 sequences directly from buffy coat samples, and confirms divergence of these sequences from standard laboratory strains

  8. Bacteriophage-mediated Glucosylation Can Modify Lipopolysaccharide O-Antigens Synthesized by an ATP-binding Cassette (ABC) Transporter-dependent Assembly Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Mann, Evan; Ovchinnikova, Olga G; King, Jerry D; Whitfield, Chris

    2015-10-16

    Lysogenic bacteriophages may encode enzymes that modify the structures of lipopolysaccharide O-antigen glycans, altering the structure of the bacteriophage receptor and resulting in serotype conversion. This can enhance virulence and has implications for antigenic diversity and vaccine development. Side chain glucosylation is a common modification strategy found in a number of bacterial species. To date, glucosylation has only been observed in O-antigens synthesized by Wzy-dependent pathways, one of the two most prevalent O-antigen synthesis systems. Here we exploited a heterologous system to study the glucosylation potential of a model O-antigen produced in an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter-dependent system. Although O-antigen production is cryptic in Escherichia coli K-12, because of a mutation in the synthesis genes, it possesses a prophage glucosylation cluster, which modifies the GlcNAc residue in an α-l-Rha-(1→3)-d-GlcNAc motif found in the original O16 antigen. Raoultella terrigena ATCC 33257 produces an O-antigen possessing the same disaccharide motif, but its assembly uses an ABC transporter-dependent system. E. coli harboring the R. terrigena O-antigen biosynthesis genes produced an O-antigen displaying reduced reactivity toward antisera raised against the native R. terrigena repeat structure, indicative of an altered chemical structure. Structural determination using NMR revealed the addition of glucose side chains to the repeat units. O-antigen modification was dependent on a functional ABC transporter, consistent with modification in the periplasm, and was eliminated by deletion of the glucosylation genes from the E. coli chromosome, restoring native level antisera sensitivity and structure. There are therefore no intrinsic mechanistic barriers for bacteriophage-mediated O-antigen glucosylation in ABC transporter-dependent pathways. PMID:26330553

  9. Assessment of Sialic Acid Diversity in Cancer- and Non-Cancer Related CA125 Antigen Using Sialic Acid-Binding Ig-Like Lectins (Siglecs)

    PubMed Central

    Mitic, N.; Milutinovic, B.; Jankovic, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed at obtaining insight into the diversity of sialic acids in cancer- and non-cancer-related CA125 antigen, tumour marker of serous ovarian cancer. Starting from available data suggesting the possible relevance of sialic acids for discriminating CA125 antigens of different origin, we have employed a new experimental approach based on the use of human sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectins, Siglecs, as tools for the investigation of sialylation. Siglec−2, belonging to the group of evolutionarily conserved Siglecs, and Siglec−3, −6, −7, −9 and −10, which are CD33-like Siglecs, were probed in solid-phase binding assays with cancer-related CA125 antigens from pleural fluid of patients with ovarian carcinoma (pfCA125), the OVCAR-3 ovarian carcinoma cell line (clCA125) and a non-cancer-related CA125 antigen, i.e. pregnancy-associated pCA125 antigen. All Siglecs used showed detectable binding to pCA125 antigen. Siglec−3, Siglec−7 and Siglec−2 exhibited moderately stronger binding to pCA125 antigen than the others. In contrast to this, Siglec−2 and Siglec−3 preferentially recognized pfCA125 with greater total binding than for pCA125, whereas Siglec−9 and Siglec−10 were highly selective for clCA125. Siglecs promise to be powerful tools for discriminating CA125 of different origin and could propagate further research on other molecular markers of biomedical and diagnostic importance. PMID:22377735

  10. Heat stable antigen (mouse CD24) supports myeloid cell binding to endothelial and platelet P-selectin.

    PubMed

    Aigner, S; Ruppert, M; Hubbe, M; Sammar, M; Sthoeger, Z; Butcher, E C; Vestweber, D; Altevogt, P

    1995-10-01

    P-selectin is a Ca(2+)-dependent lectin that participates in leukocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium and platelets. Myeloid cells and a subset of T lymphocytes express carbohydrate ligands at the cell surface. Previously, we suggested that heat stable antigen (HSA/mouse CD24), an extensively glycosylated cell surface molecule on many mouse cells, is a ligand for P-selectin. Here we show that HSA mediates the binding of monocytic cells and neutrophils to P-selectin. The monocytic cell lines ESb-MP and J774, peritoneal exudate cells, and bone marrow neutrophils could bind to lipopolysaccharide-activated bend3 endothelioma cells under rotation-induced shear forces and this binding was inhibited by mAb to P-selectin and HSA. Blocking was weak at room temperature but more efficient at 4 degrees C when integrin-mediated binding was decreased. Also the adhesion of neutrophils to stimulated platelets expressing P-selectin was blocked by HSA- and P-selectin-specific mAb. Latex beads coated with purified HSA from myeloid cells bound to activated endothelioma cells or platelets, and the binding was similarly blocked by mAb to P-selectin and HSA respectively. The HSA-coated beads were stained with P-selectin-IgG, very weakly with L-selectin-IgG but not with E-selectin-IgG. The staining was dependent on divalent cations and treatment with endoglycosidase F or neuraminidase indicated that sialylated N-linked glycans were recognized. The presence of these glycans was confirmed by biosynthetic labeling studies. Our data suggest that HSA, in addition to the recently identified 160 kDa glycoprotein ligand on mouse neutrophils, belongs to a group of monospecific P-selectin ligands on myeloid cells. PMID:8562500

  11. Genome-wide analysis of host-chromosome binding sites for Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Nuclear Antigen 1 (EBNA1) protein is required for the establishment of EBV latent infection in proliferating B-lymphocytes. EBNA1 is a multifunctional DNA-binding protein that stimulates DNA replication at the viral origin of plasmid replication (OriP), regulates transcription of viral and cellular genes, and tethers the viral episome to the cellular chromosome. EBNA1 also provides a survival function to B-lymphocytes, potentially through its ability to alter cellular gene expression. To better understand these various functions of EBNA1, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the viral and cellular DNA sites associated with EBNA1 protein in a latently infected Burkitt lymphoma B-cell line. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) combined with massively parallel deep-sequencing (ChIP-Seq) was used to identify cellular sites bound by EBNA1. Sites identified by ChIP-Seq were validated by conventional real-time PCR, and ChIP-Seq provided quantitative, high-resolution detection of the known EBNA1 binding sites on the EBV genome at OriP and Qp. We identified at least one cluster of unusually high-affinity EBNA1 binding sites on chromosome 11, between the divergent FAM55 D and FAM55B genes. A consensus for all cellular EBNA1 binding sites is distinct from those derived from the known viral binding sites, suggesting that some of these sites are indirectly bound by EBNA1. EBNA1 also bound close to the transcriptional start sites of a large number of cellular genes, including HDAC3, CDC7, and MAP3K1, which we show are positively regulated by EBNA1. EBNA1 binding sites were enriched in some repetitive elements, especially LINE 1 retrotransposons, and had weak correlations with histone modifications and ORC binding. We conclude that EBNA1 can interact with a large number of cellular genes and chromosomal loci in latently infected cells, but that these sites are likely to represent a complex ensemble of direct and indirect EBNA1 binding sites. PMID

  12. Multiple approaches to assess pectin binding to galectin-3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zheng, Yi; Zhao, Dongyang; Yan, Jingmin; Sun, Chongliang; Zhou, Yifa; Tai, Guihua

    2016-10-01

    Although several approaches have been used to evaluate binding of carbohydrates to lectins, results are not always comparable, especially with larger polysaccharides. Here, we quantitatively assessed and compared binding of pectin-derived polysaccharides to galectin-3 (Gal-3) using five methods: surface plasmon resonance (SPR), bio-layer interferometry (BLI), fluorescence polarization (FP), competitive fluorescence-linked immunosorbance (cFLISA), and the well-known cell-based hemagglutination assay (G3H). Our studies revealed that whereas Gal-3-pectin binding parameters determined by SPR and BLI were comparable and correlated with inhibitory potencies from the G3H assay, results using FP and cFLISA assays were highly variable and depended greatly on the probe and mass of the polysaccharide. In the cFLISA assay, for example, pectins showed no inhibition when using the DTAF-labeled asialofetuin probe, but did when using a DTAF-labeled pectin probe. And the FP approach with the DTAF-lactose probe did not work on polysaccharides and large galactan chains, although it did work well with smaller galactans. Nevertheless, even though results derived from all of these methods are in general agreement, derived KD, IC50, and MIC values do differ. Our results reflect the variability using various techniques and therefore will be useful to investigators who are developing pectin-derived Gal-3 antagonists as anti-cancer agents. PMID:27328612

  13. Substrate Binding Protein SBP2 of a Putative ABC Transporter as a Novel Vaccine Antigen of Moraxella catarrhalis

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Taketo; Kirkham, Charmaine; Johnson, Antoinette; Jones, Megan M.

    2014-01-01

    Moraxella catarrhalis is a common respiratory tract pathogen that causes otitis media in children and infections in adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines with/without protein D of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae, M. catarrhalis has become a high-priority pathogen in otitis media. For the development of antibacterial vaccines and therapies, substrate binding proteins of ATP-binding cassette transporters are important targets. In this study, we identified and characterized a substrate binding protein, SBP2, of M. catarrhalis. Among 30 clinical isolates tested, the sbp2 gene sequence was highly conserved. In 2 different analyses (whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry), polyclonal antibodies raised to recombinant SBP2 demonstrated that SBP2 expresses epitopes on the bacterial surface of the wild type but not the sbp2 mutant. Mice immunized with recombinant SBP2 showed significantly enhanced clearance of M. catarrhalis from the lung compared to that in the control group at both 25-μg and 50-μg doses (P < 0.001). We conclude that SBP2 is a novel, attractive candidate as a vaccine antigen against M. catarrhalis. PMID:24914218

  14. A Remote Arene-Binding Site on Prostate Specific Membrane Antigen Revealed by Antibody-Recruiting Small Molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Andrew X.; Murelli, Ryan P.; Barinka, Cyril; Michel, Julien; Cocleaza, Alexandra; Jorgensen, William L.; Lubkowski, Jacek; Spiegel, David A.

    2010-09-27

    Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is a membrane-bound glutamate carboxypeptidase overexpressed in many forms of prostate cancer. Our laboratory has recently disclosed a class of small molecules, called ARM-Ps (antibody-recruiting molecule targeting prostate cancer) that are capable of enhancing antibody-mediated immune recognition of prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, during the course of these studies, we found ARM-Ps to exhibit extraordinarily high potencies toward PSMA, compared to previously reported inhibitors. Here, we report in-depth biochemical, crystallographic, and computational investigations which elucidate the origin of the observed affinity enhancement. These studies reveal a previously unreported arene-binding site on PSMA, which we believe participates in an aromatic stacking interaction with ARMs. Although this site is composed of only a few amino acid residues, it drastically enhances small molecule binding affinity. These results provide critical insights into the design of PSMA-targeted small molecules for prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment; more broadly, the presence of similar arene-binding sites throughout the proteome could prove widely enabling in the optimization of small molecule-protein interactions.

  15. Multiple Binding Poses in the Hydrophobic Cavity of Bee Odorant Binding Protein AmelOBP14.

    PubMed

    Pechlaner, Maria; Oostenbrink, Chris

    2015-12-28

    In the first step of olfaction, odorants are bound and solubilized by small globular odorant binding proteins (OBPs) which shuttle them to the membrane of a sensory neuron. Low ligand affinity and selectivity at this step enable the recognition of a wide range of chemicals. Honey bee Apis mellifera's OBP14 (AmelOBP14) binds different plant odorants in a largely hydrophobic cavity. In long molecular dynamics simulations in the presence and absence of ligand eugenol, we observe a highly dynamic C-terminal region which forms one side of the ligand-binding cavity, and the ligand drifts away from its crystallized orientation. Hamiltonian replica exchange simulations, allowing exchanges of conformations sampled by the real ligand with those sampled by a noninteracting dummy molecule and several intermediates, suggest an alternative, quite different ligand pose which is adopted immediately and which is stable in long simulations. Thermodynamic integration yields binding free energies which are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. PMID:26633245

  16. Transporter associated with antigen processing preselection of peptides binding to the MHC: a bioinformatic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Doytchinova, Irini; Hemsley, Shelley; Flower, Darren R

    2004-12-01

    TAP is responsible for the transit of peptides from the cytosol to the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. In an immunological context, this event is followed by the binding of peptides to MHC molecules before export to the cell surface and recognition by T cells. Because TAP transport precedes MHC binding, TAP preferences may make a significant contribution to epitope selection. To assess the impact of this preselection, we have developed a scoring function for TAP affinity prediction using the additive method, have used it to analyze and extend the TAP binding motif, and have evaluated how well this model acts as a preselection step in predicting MHC binding peptides. To distinguish between MHC alleles that are exclusively dependent on TAP and those exhibiting only a partial dependence on TAP, two sets of MHC binding peptides were examined: HLA-A*0201 was selected as a representative of partially TAP-dependent HLA alleles, and HLA-A*0301 represented fully TAP-dependent HLA alleles. TAP preselection has a greater impact on TAP-dependent alleles than on TAP-independent alleles. The reduction in the number of nonbinders varied from 10% (TAP-independent) to 33% (TAP-dependent), suggesting that TAP preselection is an important component in the successful in silico prediction of T cell epitopes. PMID:15557175

  17. Direct detection of antibody-antigen binding using an on-chip artificial pore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Omar A.; Sohn, Lydia L.

    2003-02-01

    We demonstrate a rapid and highly sensitive all-electronic technique based on the resistive pulse method of particle sizing with a pore to detect the binding of unlabeled antibodies to the surface of latex colloids. Here, we use an on-chip pore to sense colloids derivatized with streptavidin and measure accurately their diameter increase on specific binding to several different types of antibodies. We show the sensitivity of this technique to the concentration of free antibody and that it can be used to perform immunoassays in both inhibition and sandwich configurations. Overall, our technique does not require labeling of the reactants and is performed rapidly by using very little solution, and the pore itself is fabricated quickly and inexpensively by using soft lithography. Finally, because this method relies only on the volume of bound ligand, it can be generally applied to detecting a wide range of ligand-receptor binding reactions.

  18. Coinvasion of dentinal tubules by Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus gordonii depends upon binding specificity of streptococcal antigen I/II adhesin.

    PubMed

    Love, R M; McMillan, M D; Park, Y; Jenkinson, H F

    2000-03-01

    Cell wall-anchored polypeptides of the antigen I/II family are produced by many species of oral streptococci. These proteins mediate adhesion of streptococci to salivary glycoproteins and to other oral microorganisms and promote binding of cells to collagen type I and invasion of dentinal tubules. Since infections of the root canal system have a mixed anaerobic bacterial etiology, we investigated the hypothesis that coadhesion of anaerobic bacteria with streptococci may facilitate invasive endodontic disease. Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 cells were able to invade dentinal tubules when cocultured with Streptococcus gordonii DL1 (Challis) but not when cocultured with Streptococcus mutans NG8. An isogenic noninvasive mutant of S. gordonii, with production of SspA and SspB (antigen I/II family) polypeptides abrogated, was deficient in binding to collagen and had a 40% reduced ability to support adhesion of P. gingivalis. Heterologous expression of the S. mutans SpaP (antigen I/II) protein in this mutant restored collagen binding and tubule invasion but not adhesion to P. gingivalis or the ability to promote P. gingivalis coinvasion of dentin. An isogenic afimbrial mutant of P. gingivalis had 50% reduced binding to S. gordonii cells but was unaffected in the ability to coinvade dentinal tubules with S. gordonii wild-type cells. Expression of the S. gordonii SspA or SspB polypeptide on the surface of Lactococcus lactis cells endowed these bacteria with the abilities to bind P. gingivalis, penetrate dentinal tubules, and promote P. gingivalis coinvasion of dentin. The results demonstrate that collagen-binding and P. gingivalis-binding properties of antigen I/II polypeptides are discrete functions. Specificity of antigen I/II polypeptide recognition accounts for the ability of P. gingivalis to coinvade dentinal tubules with S. gordonii but not with S. mutans. This provides evidence that the specificity of interbacterial coadhesion may influence directly the etiology

  19. Defining a protective epitope on factor H binding protein, a key meningococcal virulence factor and vaccine antigen.

    PubMed

    Malito, Enrico; Faleri, Agnese; Lo Surdo, Paola; Veggi, Daniele; Maruggi, Giulietta; Grassi, Eva; Cartocci, Elena; Bertoldi, Isabella; Genovese, Alessia; Santini, Laura; Romagnoli, Giacomo; Borgogni, Erica; Brier, Sébastien; Lo Passo, Carla; Domina, Maria; Castellino, Flora; Felici, Franco; van der Veen, Stijn; Johnson, Steven; Lea, Susan M; Tang, Christoph M; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Savino, Silvana; Norais, Nathalie; Rappuoli, Rino; Bottomley, Matthew J; Masignani, Vega

    2013-02-26

    Mapping of epitopes recognized by functional monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is essential for understanding the nature of immune responses and designing improved vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. In recent years, identification of B-cell epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies has facilitated the design of peptide-based vaccines against highly variable pathogens like HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, and Helicobacter pylori; however, none of these products has yet progressed into clinical stages. Linear epitopes identified by conventional mapping techniques only partially reflect the immunogenic properties of the epitope in its natural conformation, thus limiting the success of this approach. To investigate antigen-antibody interactions and assess the potential of the most common epitope mapping techniques, we generated a series of mAbs against factor H binding protein (fHbp), a key virulence factor and vaccine antigen of Neisseria meningitidis. The interaction of fHbp with the bactericidal mAb 12C1 was studied by various epitope mapping methods. Although a 12-residue epitope in the C terminus of fHbp was identified by both Peptide Scanning and Phage Display Library screening, other approaches, such as hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (MS) and X-ray crystallography, showed that mAb 12C1 occupies an area of ∼1,000 Å(2) on fHbp, including >20 fHbp residues distributed on both N- and C-terminal domains. Collectively, these data show that linear epitope mapping techniques provide useful but incomplete descriptions of B-cell epitopes, indicating that increased efforts to fully characterize antigen-antibody interfaces are required to understand and design effective immunogens. PMID:23396847

  20. Binding of Cryptococcus neoformans by human cultured macrophages. Requirements for multiple complement receptors and actin.

    PubMed Central

    Levitz, S M; Tabuni, A

    1991-01-01

    We studied the receptors on human cultured macrophages (MO-M phi) responsible for binding encapsulated and isogenic mutant acapsular strains of Cryptococcus neoformans, and whether such binding leads to a phagocytic event. Both strains required opsonization with complement components in normal human serum in order for binding to occur. Binding of the acapsular, but not the encapsulated, strain led to phagocytosis. MAb directed against any of the three defined complement receptors (CR) on MO-M phi (CR1, CR3, and CR4) profoundly inhibited binding of serum-opsonized encapsulated (and to a lesser extent acapsular) organisms to MO-M phi. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated migration of CR to the area of the cryptococcal binding site. Trypsin and elastase inhibited binding of encapsulated and, to a lesser extent, acapsular yeasts to MO-M phi. Binding of encapsulated C. neoformans was profoundly inhibited by incubation in the cold or by inhibitors of receptor capping and actin microfilaments. Thus, multiple CR appear to contribute to binding of serum-opsonized encapsulated C. neoformans by MO-M phi. Binding is an energy-dependent process that requires conformational changes in actin yet does not lead to phagocytosis of the organism. In contrast, energy is not required for binding of acapsular yeasts by MO-M phi and binding triggers phagocytosis. Images PMID:1991837

  1. Shear-enhanced binding of intestinal colonization factor antigen I of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Tchesnokova, Veronika; McVeigh, Annette L.; Kidd, Brian; Yakovenko, Olga; Thomas, Wendy E.; Sokurenko, Evgeni V.; Savarino, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY In the intestine, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli works against peristaltic forces, adhering to the epithelium via the CFA/I fimbrial adhesin CfaE. The CfaE adhesin is similar in localization and tertiary (but not primary) structure to FimH, the type 1 fimbrial adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, which shows shear-dependent binding to epithelial receptors by an allosteric catch-bond mechanism. Thus, we speculated that CfaE is also capable of shear-enhanced binding. Indeed, bovine erythrocytes coursing over immobilized CFA/I fimbriae in flow-chambers exhibited low accumulation levels and fast rolling at low shear, but an 80-fold increase in accumulation and 3-fold decrease in rolling velocity at elevated shear. This effect was reversible and abolished by pre-incubation of fimbriae with anti-CfaE antibody. Erythrocytes bound to whole CfaE in the same shear-enhanced manner, but to CfaE adhesin domain in a shear-inhibitable fashion. Residue replacements designed to disrupt CfaE interdomain interaction decreased the shear-dependency of adhesion and increased binding under static conditions to human intestinal epithelial cells. These findings indicate that close interaction between adhesive and anchoring pilin domains of CfaE keeps the former in a low-affinity state that toggles into a high-affinity state upon separation of two domains, all consistent with an allosteric catch-bond mechanism of CfaE binding. PMID:20345656

  2. Identification of a Receptor-Binding Region within Domain 4 of the Protective Antigen Component of Anthrax Toxin

    PubMed Central

    Varughese, Mini; Teixeira, Avelino V.; Liu, Shihui; Leppla, Stephen H.

    1999-01-01

    Anthrax toxin from Bacillus anthracis is a three-component toxin consisting of lethal factor (LF), edema factor (EF), and protective antigen (PA). LF and EF are the catalytic components of the toxin, whereas PA is the receptor-binding component. To identify residues of PA that are involved in interaction with the cellular receptor, two solvent-exposed loops of domain 4 of PA (amino acids [aa] 679 to 693 and 704 to 723) were mutagenized, and the altered proteins purified and tested for toxicity in the presence of LF. In addition to the intended substitutions, novel mutations were introduced by errors that occurred during PCR. Substitutions within the large loop (aa 704 to 723) had no effect on PA activity. A mutated protein, LST-35, with three substitutions in the small loop (aa 679 to 693), bound weakly to the receptor and was nontoxic. A mutated protein, LST-8, with changes in three separate regions did not bind to receptor and was nontoxic. Toxicity was greatly decreased by truncation of the C-terminal 3 to 5 aa, but not by their substitution with nonnative residues or the extension of the terminus with nonnative sequences. Comparison of the 28 mutant proteins described here showed that the large loop (aa 704 to 722) is not involved in receptor binding, whereas residues in and near the small loop (aa 679 to 693) play an important role in receptor interaction. Other regions of domain 4, in particular residues at the extreme C terminus, appear to play a role in stabilizing a conformation needed for receptor-binding activity. PMID:10085028

  3. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Class I Restricted Epitope Discovery in Yellow Fewer and Dengue Viruses: Importance of HLA Binding Strength

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Ole; Nascimento, Eduardo J. M.; Maciel, Milton; Nielsen, Morten; Voldby Larsen, Mette; Lundegaard, Claus; Harndahl, Mikkel; Lamberth, Kasper; Buus, Søren; Salmon, Jérôme; August, Thomas J.; Marques, Ernesto T. A.

    2011-01-01

    Epitopes from all available full-length sequences of yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue fever virus (DENV) restricted by Human Leukocyte Antigen class I (HLA-I) alleles covering 12 HLA-I supertypes were predicted using the NetCTL algorithm. A subset of 179 predicted YFV and 158 predicted DENV epitopes were selected using the EpiSelect algorithm to allow for optimal coverage of viral strains. The selected predicted epitopes were synthesized and approximately 75% were found to bind the predicted restricting HLA molecule with an affinity, KD, stronger than 500 nM. The immunogenicity of 25 HLA-A*02:01, 28 HLA-A*24:02 and 28 HLA-B*07:02 binding peptides was tested in three HLA-transgenic mice models and led to the identification of 17 HLA-A*02:01, 4 HLA-A*2402 and 4 HLA-B*07:02 immunogenic peptides. The immunogenic peptides bound HLA significantly stronger than the non-immunogenic peptides. All except one of the immunogenic peptides had KD below 100 nM and the peptides with KD below 5 nM were more likely to be immunogenic. In addition, all the immunogenic peptides that were identified as having a high functional avidity had KD below 20 nM. A*02:01 transgenic mice were also inoculated twice with the 17DD YFV vaccine strain. Three of the YFV A*02:01 restricted peptides activated T-cells from the infected mice in vitro. All three peptides that elicited responses had an HLA binding affinity of 2 nM or less. The results indicate the importance of the strength of HLA binding in shaping the immune response. PMID:22039500

  4. Enhanced humoral and mucosal immune responses after intranasal immunization with chimeric multiple antigen peptide of LcrV antigen epitopes of Yersinia pestis coupled to palmitate in mice.

    PubMed

    Uppada, Srijayaprakash Babu; Bhat, Ajaz Ahmed; Sah, Anil; Donthamshetty, Rao Nageswara

    2011-11-21

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of the most deadly disease plague. F1 and V antigens are the major vaccine candidates. Six protective epitopes of V antigen of varying length (15-25aa) were assembled on a lysine backbone as multiple antigen peptide (MAP) using standard Fmoc chemistry. Palmitate was coupled at amino terminus end. Amino acid analysis, SDS-PAGE, immunoblot and immunoreactivity proved the authenticity of MAP. MAP was immunized intranasally encapsulated in PLGA (polylactide-co-glycolide) microspheres and with/without/adjuvants murabutide and CpG ODN 1826 (CpG), in three strains of mice. Humoral and mucosal immune responses were studied till day 120 and memory response was checked after immunization with native V antigen on day 120. Epitope specific serum and mucosal washes IgG, IgA, IgG subclasses and specific activity were measured by indirect ELISA and sandwich ELISA, respectively. IgG and IgA peak antibody titers of all the MAP construct formulations in sera were ranging from 71,944 to 360,578 and 4493 to 28,644, respectively. MAP with CpG showed significantly high (p<0.0001) antibody titers ranging from 101,690 to 360,578 for IgG and 28,644 for IgA. Mucosal peak IgG and IgA titers were ranging from 1425 to 8072 and 1425 to 7183, respectively in intestinal washes and 799-4528 and 566-4027, respectively in lung washes. MAP with CpG showed significantly high (p<0.001) SIgA titers of 8000 in lung and 16,000 in intestinal washes. IgG isotyping revealed IgG2a/IgG1 ratio>1 with CpG. Serum and mucosal antipeptide IgG and IgA specific activities correlated well with antibody titers. All the constituent peptides contributed towards immune response. Structural analysis of MAP revealed little or no interaction between the peptides. Present study showed MAP to be highly immunogenic with high and long lasting antibody titers in serum and mucosal washes with good recall response with/without CpG as an adjuvant which can be used for vaccine development for

  5. The DNA-Binding Domain of Yeast Rap1 Interacts with Double-Stranded DNA in Multiple Binding Modes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae repressor-activator protein 1 (Rap1) is an essential protein involved in multiple steps of DNA regulation, as an activator in transcription, as a repressor at silencer elements, and as a major component of the shelterin-like complex at telomeres. All the known functions of Rap1 require the known high-affinity and specific interaction of the DNA-binding domain with its recognition sequences. In this work, we focus on the interaction of the DNA-binding domain of Rap1 (Rap1DBD) with double-stranded DNA substrates. Unexpectedly, we found that while Rap1DBD forms a high-affinity 1:1 complex with its DNA recognition site, it can also form lower-affinity complexes with higher stoichiometries on DNA. These lower-affinity interactions are independent of the presence of the recognition sequence, and we propose they originate from the ability of Rap1DBD to bind to DNA in two different binding modes. In one high-affinity binding mode, Rap1DBD likely binds in the conformation observed in the available crystal structures. In the other alternative lower-affinity binding mode, we propose that a single Myb-like domain of the Rap1DBD makes interactions with DNA, allowing for more than one protein molecule to bind to the DNA substrates. Our findings suggest that the Rap1DBD does not simply target the protein to its recognition sequence but rather it might be a possible point of regulation. PMID:25382181

  6. Novel epitope evoking CD138 antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes targeting multiple myeloma and other plasma cell disorders

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jooeun; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Munshi, Nikhil C.

    2012-01-01

    The development of an immunotherapeutic strategy targeting CD138 antigen could potentially represent a new treatment option for multiple myeloma (MM). This study evaluated the immune function of CD138 peptide-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), generated ex vivo using an HLA-A2-specific CD138 epitope against MM cells. A novel immunogenic HLA-A2-specific CD138260-268 (GLVGLIFAV) peptide was identified from the full-length protein sequence of the CD138 antigen, which induced CTL specific to primary CD138+ MM cells. The peptide-induced CD138-CTL contained a high percentage of CD8+ activated/memory T cells with a low percentage of CD4+ T cell and naive CD8+ T cell subsets. The CTL displayed HLA-A2-restricted and CD138 antigen-specific cytotoxicity against MM cell lines. In addition, CD138-CTL demonstrated increased degranulation, proliferation and γ–interferon secretion to HLA-A2+/CD138+ myeloma cells, but not HLA-A2−/CD138+ or HLA-A2+/CD138− cells. The immune functional properties of the CD138-CTL were also demonstrated using primary HLA-A2+/CD138+ cells isolated from myeloma patients. In conclusion, a novel immunogenic CD138260-268 (GLVGLIFAV) peptide can induce antigen-specific CTL, which might be useful for the treatment of MM patients with peptide-based vaccine or cellular immunotherapy strategies. PMID:21902685

  7. Multiple Binding Poses in the Hydrophobic Cavity of Bee Odorant Binding Protein AmelOBP14

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In the first step of olfaction, odorants are bound and solubilized by small globular odorant binding proteins (OBPs) which shuttle them to the membrane of a sensory neuron. Low ligand affinity and selectivity at this step enable the recognition of a wide range of chemicals. Honey bee Apis mellifera’s OBP14 (AmelOBP14) binds different plant odorants in a largely hydrophobic cavity. In long molecular dynamics simulations in the presence and absence of ligand eugenol, we observe a highly dynamic C-terminal region which forms one side of the ligand-binding cavity, and the ligand drifts away from its crystallized orientation. Hamiltonian replica exchange simulations, allowing exchanges of conformations sampled by the real ligand with those sampled by a noninteracting dummy molecule and several intermediates, suggest an alternative, quite different ligand pose which is adopted immediately and which is stable in long simulations. Thermodynamic integration yields binding free energies which are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. PMID:26633245

  8. Mutagenesis of beryllium-specific TCRs suggests an unusual binding topology for antigen recognition.

    PubMed

    Bowerman, Natalie A; Falta, Michael T; Mack, Douglas G; Kappler, John W; Fontenot, Andrew P

    2011-10-01

    Unconventional Ags, such as metals, stimulate T cells in a very specific manner. To delineate the binding landscape for metal-specific T cell recognition, alanine screens were performed on a set of Be-specific TCRs derived from the lung of a chronic beryllium disease patient. These TCRs are HLA-DP2-restricted and express nearly identical TCR Vβ5.1 chains coupled with different TCR α-chains. Site-specific mutagenesis of all amino acids comprising the CDRs of the TCRA and TCRB genes showed a dominant role for Vβ5.1 residues in Be recognition, with little contribution from the TCR α-chain. Solvent-exposed residues along the α-helices of the HLA-DP2 α- and β-chains were also mutated to alanine. Two β-chain residues, located near the proposed Be binding site of HLA-DP2, played a dominant role in T cell recognition with no contribution from the HLA-DP2 α-chain. These findings suggest that Be-specific T cells recognize Ag using an unconventional binding topology, with the majority of interactions contributed by TCR Vβ5.1 residues and the HLA-DP2 β1-chain. Thus, unusual docking topologies are not exclusively used by autoreactive T cells, but also for the recognition of unconventional metal Ags, such as Be. PMID:21873524

  9. Family 42 carbohydrate-binding modules display multiple arabinoxylan-binding interfaces presenting different ligand affinities.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Teresa; Santos-Silva, Teresa; Alves, Victor D; Dias, Fernando M V; Luís, Ana S; Prates, José A M; Ferreira, Luís M A; Romão, Maria J; Fontes, Carlos M G A

    2010-10-01

    Enzymes that degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides display a modular architecture comprising a catalytic domain bound to one or more non-catalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). CBMs display considerable variation in primary structure and are grouped into 59 sequence-based families organized in the Carbohydrate-Active enZYme (CAZy) database. Here we report the crystal structure of CtCBM42A together with the biochemical characterization of two other members of family 42 CBMs from Clostridium thermocellum. CtCBM42A, CtCBM42B and CtCBM42C bind specifically to the arabinose side-chains of arabinoxylans and arabinan, suggesting that various cellulosomal components are targeted to these regions of the plant cell wall. The structure of CtCBM42A displays a beta-trefoil fold, which comprises 3 sub-domains designated as alpha, beta and gamma. Each one of the three sub-domains presents a putative carbohydrate-binding pocket where an aspartate residue located in a central position dominates ligand recognition. Intriguingly, the gamma sub-domain of CtCBM42A is pivotal for arabinoxylan binding, while the concerted action of beta and gamma sub-domains of CtCBM42B and CtCBM42C is apparently required for ligand sequestration. Thus, this work reveals that the binding mechanism of CBM42 members is in contrast with that of homologous CBM13s where recognition of complex polysaccharides results from the cooperative action of three protein sub-domains presenting similar affinities. PMID:20637315

  10. Limited proteolysis of human leukocyte interferon-. cap alpha. 2 and localization of the monoclonal antibody-binding antigenic determinant

    SciTech Connect

    Kostrov, S.V.; Chernovskaya, T.V.; Khodova, O.M.; Borukhov, S.I.; Ryzhavskaya, A.S.; Izotova, L.S.; Strongin, A.Ya.

    1986-05-20

    Large peptide fragments of human leukocyte interferon-..cap alpha..2 (INF-..cap alpha..2) were produced by limited proteolysis with trypsin, pepsin, thermolysin, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens serine proteinase, and the ability of the fragments to react with murine monoclonal antibodies NK2, directed toward INF-..cap alpha..2, was studied by the immunoblotting technique. The region of the sequence 110-149 is the most sensitive to proteinase attack and evidently is exposed on the surface of the INF-..cap alpha..2 molecule. The INF-..cap alpha..2 fragments 1-139, 1-147, and 1-149 react with antibodies, whereas the fragments 1-109 and 1-112 do not bind NK2 antibodies. A comparison of the primary structure of the families of human leukocyte and murine leukocyte INF in the region of the sequence 110-139 and an analysis of the ability of human INF differing in amino acid sequence to interact with NK2 antibodies suggested that the antigenic determinant that binds monoclonal antibodies NK2 is the sequence Glu/sub 114/-Asp/sub 115/-Ser/sub 116/-He/sub 117/ of the INF-..cap alpha..2 molecule.

  11. Antigen-binding cells in the peripheral blood of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka Walbaum, induced by immersion or intraperitoneal injection of Vibrio languilarum bacterin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1981-01-01

    We used an immunocytoadherence assay to monitor the response of antigen-binding cells (ABC) in the peripheral blood of sockeye salmon, Oncorhynchus nerka, after immersion in, or intraperitoneal injection of, Vibrio anguillarum LS 1–74 bacterin. Both methods initiated an elevated ABC response in less than one day; this response persisted one week longer in the injected than in the immersed fish.

  12. Genome Sequence of Enterobacter cloacae Strain SENG-6, a Bacterium Producing Histo-Blood Group Antigen-Like Substances That Can Bind with Human Noroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Amarasiri, Mohan; Hashiba, Satoshi; Yang, Peiyi; Okabe, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enterobacter sp. strain SENG-6, isolated from healthy human feces, produces histo-blood group antigen (HBGA)-like substances that can bind with human noroviruses. Based on the genome sequence analysis, strain SENG-6 belongs to the species Enterobacter cloacae. The genome sequence of this strain should help identify genes associated with the production of HBGA-like substances. PMID:27563051

  13. Identification of a purified complement-fixing antigen as the Epstein-Barr-virus determined nuclear antigen (EBNA) by its binding to metaphase chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Ohno, S; Luka, J; Lindahl, T; Klein, G

    1977-04-01

    A soluble complement-fixing antigen carried by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed human cells has been previously extracted from cell nuclei and purified by DNA-cellulose chromatography [Luka, J., Siegert, W. & Klein, G. (1977) J. Virol., in press]. On addition of this antigen to methanol/acetic acid-fixed metaphase chrmosomes, followed by exposure to human sera containing antibodies against the EBV-determined nuclear antigen (EBNA), brilliant positive staining was obtained by anti-complement immunofluorescence. There was no staining after exposure to EBV-negative sera. Moreover, a nuclear protein fraction, prepared from an EBV-negative cell line in an analogous fashion, failed to induce the staining reaction. These data identify the soluble purified antigen as the EBV-determined nuclear antigen. The purified antigen has a molecular weight of 174,000 +/- 15,000, as determined by sucrose gradient centrifugation and gel filtration experiments. In neutral buffers containing 0.5-1.0 M NaCl, the antigen dissociates into a form of approximately one-half the original molecular weight with retained complement-fixing activity. This "monomer" has a molecular weight of 98,000 +/- 8,000. PMID:67603

  14. Mathematical analysis of a multiple strain, multi-locus-allele system for antigenically variable infectious diseases revisited.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Alhaji

    2015-09-01

    Many important pathogens such as HIV/AIDS, influenza, malaria, dengue and meningitis generally exist in phenotypically distinct serotypes that compete for hosts. Models used to study these diseases appear as meta-population systems. Herein, we revisit one of the multiple strain models that have been used to investigate the dynamics of infectious diseases with co-circulating serotypes or strains, and provide analytical results underlying the numerical investigations. In particular, we establish the necessary conditions for the local asymptotic stability of the steady states and for the existence of oscillatory behaviors via Hopf bifurcation. In addition, we show that the existence of discrete antigenic forms among pathogens can either fully or partially self-organize, where (i) strains exhibit no strain structures and coexist or (ii) antigenic variants sort into non-overlapping or minimally overlapping clusters that either undergo the principle of competitive exclusion exhibiting discrete strain structures, or co-exist cyclically. PMID:26116427

  15. Association of serum Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 antibodies and intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis in early multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pfuhl, Catherina; Oechtering, Johanna; Rasche, Ludwig; Gieß, René M; Behrens, Janina R; Wakonig, Katharina; Freitag, Erik; Pache, Florence C; Otto, Carolin; Hofmann, Jörg; Eberspächer, Bettina; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Paul, Friedemann; Ruprecht, Klemens

    2015-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. A characteristic feature of MS is an intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulin (Ig)G. In 90 patients with clinically isolated syndromes/early relapsing-remitting MS, serum antibodies to Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1, but not to EBV viral capsid antigen, rubella, or varicella zoster virus, were higher (p=0.03) in those with than those without a calculated intrathecal IgG synthesis >0% and correlated with the percentage (r=0.27, p=0.009) and concentration (r=0.27, p=0.012) of intrathecally produced IgG. These findings suggest a link between EBV infection and the events leading to intrathecal IgG synthesis in patients with MS. PMID:26198934

  16. Evaluation of multiple antigenic peptides based on the Chikungunya E2 protein for improved serological diagnosis of infection.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Santwana; Kumar, Pradeep; Mohan, Teena; Verma, Priyanka; Parida, M M; Hoti, S L; Rao, D N

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) reemerged and numerous outbreaks were reported all over the world. After screening CHIKV-positive sera, we had already reported many dominant epitopes within the envelope E2 protein of CHIKV. In the present study, we aimed at developing a highly sensitive immunodiagnostic assay for CHIKV based on a multiple antigenic peptide (MAP) approach using selective epitopes of the E2 protein. MAPs in four different E2 peptide combinations were screened with CHIKV-positive sera. The MAPs reacted with all CHIKV-positive sera and no reactivity was seen with healthy or dengue-positive sera. Our results indicate that MAP 1 seems to be an alternate antigen to full-length protein E2 for immunodiagnosis of CHIKV infections with high sensitivity and specificity. PMID:25412351

  17. Cancer/testis antigens and obligate participation in multiple hallmarks of cancer: an update

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Steven M; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Rangarajan, Govindan; Kulkarni, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    The Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs) are a group of so-called tumor antigens that exhibit provocative expression patterns in most types of cancer. However, because most CTAs appear to be intrinsically disordered, they are recalcitrant to classical structural studies. Thus, the functions of most, if not all, CTAs have remained elusive and their potential as pharmacological targets in cancer has remained largely unexplored. In this viewpoint, we suggest that perhaps, an integrative approach applying dynamical systems theory and a system-level perspective rather a merely reductionist view, may shine new light on these enigmatic molecules. PMID:26908068

  18. Mapping of the amino-terminal half of polyomavirus middle-T antigen indicates that this region is the binding domain for pp60c-src.

    PubMed Central

    Markland, W; Smith, A E

    1987-01-01

    The majority of the carboxy-terminal half of polyomavirus middle-T antigen has been variously mutated and, with the exception of the putative membrane-binding domain (amino acids 394 to 415), was found to be largely dispensible for the transforming activity of the protein. A comparison of the small-T antigen amino acid sequences (equivalent to the region of middle-T encoded by exon 1) of simian virus 40, BK virus, polyomavirus, and a recently described hamster papovavirus highlighted regions of potential interest in mapping functions to the amino-terminal half of polyomavirus middle-T antigen. The regions of interest include amino acids 168 to 191 (previously investigated by this group [S. H. Cheng, W. Markland, A. F. Markham, and A. E. Smith, EMBO J. 5:325-334, 1986]), two cysteine-rich clusters (amino acids 120 to 125 and 148 to 153), and amino acids 92 to 117 (within the limits of the previously described hr-t mutant, SD15). Point mutations, multiple point mutations, and deletions were made by site-specific and site-directed mutagenesis within the cysteine-rich clusters and residues 92 to 117. Studies of the transforming ability of the altered middle-T species demonstrated that this activity is highly sensitive to amino acid changes. All four regions (as defined above) within the amino-terminal half of middle-T have now been studied in detail. The phenotype of the mutants is predominantly transformation defective, and the corresponding variant middle-T species are characterized by being either totally or severely handicapped in the ability to associate actively with pp60c-src. Whether the mutations affect the regions of interaction between middle-T and pp60c-src or simply interfere with the overall conformation of this domain is not known. However, there would appear to be a conformational constraint on this portion of the molecule with regard to its interaction with pp60c-src and by extension to the ability of the middle-T species to transform. Images PMID

  19. Effects of egg-adaptation on receptor-binding and antigenic properties of recent influenza A (H3N2) vaccine viruses.

    PubMed

    Parker, Lauren; Wharton, Stephen A; Martin, Stephen R; Cross, Karen; Lin, Yipu; Liu, Yan; Feizi, Ten; Daniels, Rodney S; McCauley, John W

    2016-06-01

    Influenza A virus (subtype H3N2) causes seasonal human influenza and is included as a component of influenza vaccines. The majority of vaccine viruses are isolated and propagated in eggs, which commonly results in amino acid substitutions in the haemagglutinin (HA) glycoprotein. These substitutions can affect virus receptor-binding and alter virus antigenicity, thereby, obfuscating the choice of egg-propagated viruses for development into candidate vaccine viruses. To evaluate the effects of egg-adaptive substitutions seen in H3N2 vaccine viruses on sialic acid receptor-binding, we carried out quantitative measurement of virus receptor-binding using surface biolayer interferometry with haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays to correlate changes in receptor avidity with antigenic properties. Included in these studies was a panel of H3N2 viruses generated by reverse genetics containing substitutions seen in recent egg-propagated vaccine viruses and corresponding cell culture-propagated wild-type viruses. These assays provide a quantitative approach to investigating the importance of individual amino acid substitutions in influenza receptor-binding. Results show that viruses with egg-adaptive HA substitutions R156Q, S219Y, and I226N, have increased binding avidity to α2,3-linked receptor-analogues and decreased binding avidity to α2,6-linked receptor-analogues. No measurable binding was detected for the viruses with amino acid substitution combination 156Q+219Y and receptor-binding increased in viruses where egg-adaptation mutations were introduced into cell culture-propagated virus. Substitutions at positions 156 and 190 appeared to be primarily responsible for low reactivity in HI assays with post-infection ferret antisera raised against 2012-2013 season H3N2 viruses. Egg-adaptive substitutions at position 186 caused substantial differences in binding avidity with an insignificant effect on antigenicity. PMID:26974849

  20. Coronavirus species specificity: murine coronavirus binds to a mouse-specific epitope on its carcinoembryonic antigen-related receptor glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Compton, S R; Stephensen, C B; Snyder, S W; Weismiller, D G; Holmes, K V

    1992-01-01

    Like most coronaviruses, the coronavirus mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) exhibits strong species specificity, causing natural infection only in mice. MHV-A59 virions use as a receptor a 110- to 120-kDa glycoprotein (MHVR) in the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family of glycoproteins (G. S. Dveksler, M. N. Pensiero, C. B. Cardellichio, R. K. Williams, G. S. Jiang, K. V. Holmes, and C. W. Dieffenbach, J. Virol. 65:6881-6891, 1991; and R. K. Williams, G. S. Jiang, and K. V. Holmes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88:5533-5536, 1991). The role of virus-receptor interactions in determining the species specificity of MHV-A59 was examined by comparing the binding of virus and antireceptor antibodies to cell lines and intestinal brush border membranes (BBM) from many species. Polyclonal antireceptor antiserum (anti-MHVR) raised by immunization of SJL/J mice with BALB/c BBM recognized MHVR specifically in immunoblots of BALB/c BBM but not in BBM from adult SJL/J mice that are resistant to infection with MHV-A59, indicating a major difference in epitopes between MHVR and its SJL/J homolog which does not bind MHV (7). Anti-MHVR bound to plasma membranes of MHV-susceptible murine cell lines but not to membranes of human, cat, dog, monkey, or hamster cell lines. Cell lines from these species were resistant to MHV-A59 infection, and only the murine cell lines tested were susceptible. Pretreatment of murine fibroblasts with anti-MHVR prevented binding of radiolabeled virions to murine cells and prevented virus infection. Solid-phase virus-binding assays and virus overlay protein blot assays showed that MHV-A59 virions bound to MHVR on intestinal BBM from MHV-susceptible mouse strains but not to proteins on intestinal BBM from humans, cats, dogs, pigs, cows, rabbits, rats, cotton rats, or chickens. In immunoblots of BBM from these species, both polyclonal and monoclonal antireceptor antibodies that block MHV-A59 infection of murine cells recognized only the murine CEA-related glycoprotein

  1. Affinity binding of antibodies to supermacroporous cryogel adsorbents with immobilized protein A for removal of anthrax toxin protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Ingavle, Ganesh C; Baillie, Les W J; Zheng, Yishan; Lis, Elzbieta K; Savina, Irina N; Howell, Carol A; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V; Sandeman, Susan R

    2015-05-01

    Polymeric cryogels are efficient carriers for the immobilization of biomolecules because of their unique macroporous structure, permeability, mechanical stability and different surface chemical functionalities. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the potential use of macroporous monolithic cryogels for biotoxin removal using anthrax toxin protective antigen (PA), the central cell-binding component of the anthrax exotoxins, and covalent immobilization of monoclonal antibodies. The affinity ligand (protein A) was chemically coupled to the reactive hydroxyl and epoxy-derivatized monolithic cryogels and the binding efficiencies of protein A, monoclonal antibodies to the cryogel column were determined. Our results show differences in the binding capacity of protein A as well as monoclonal antibodies to the cryogel adsorbents caused by ligand concentrations, physical properties and morphology of surface matrices. The cytotoxicity potential of the cryogels was determined by an in vitro viability assay using V79 lung fibroblast as a model cell and the results reveal that the cryogels are non-cytotoxic. Finally, the adsorptive capacities of PA from phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were evaluated towards a non-glycosylated, plant-derived human monoclonal antibody (PANG) and a glycosylated human monoclonal antibody (Valortim(®)), both of which were covalently attached via protein A immobilization. Optimal binding capacities of 108 and 117 mg/g of antibody to the adsorbent were observed for PANG attached poly(acrylamide-allyl glycidyl ether) [poly(AAm-AGE)] and Valortim(®) attached poly(AAm-AGE) cryogels, respectively, This indicated that glycosylation status of Valortim(®) antibody could significantly increase (8%) its binding capacity relative to the PANG antibody on poly(AAm-AGE)-protien-A column (p < 0.05). The amounts of PA which remained in the solution after passing PA spiked PBS through PANG or Valortim bound poly(AAm-AGE) cryogel were significantly (p < 0

  2. Expression, purification and X-ray crystallographic analysis of the Helicobacter pylori blood group antigen-binding adhesin BabA.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Suresh; Moonens, Kristof; Romão, Ema; Lo, Alvin; Vandenbussche, Guy; Bugaytsova, Jeanna; Muyldermans, Serge; Borén, Thomas; Remaut, Han

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a human pathogen that colonizes about 50% of the world's population, causing chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcers and even gastric cancer. A steady emergence of multiple antibiotic resistant strains poses an important public health threat and there is an urgent requirement for alternative therapeutics. The blood group antigen-binding adhesin BabA mediates the intimate attachment to the host mucosa and forms a major candidate for novel vaccine and drug development. Here, the recombinant expression and crystallization of a soluble BabA truncation (BabA(25-460)) corresponding to the predicted extracellular adhesin domain of the protein are reported. X-ray diffraction data for nanobody-stabilized BabA(25-460) were collected to 2.25 Å resolution from a crystal that belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.96, b = 131.41, c = 123.40 Å, α = 90.0, β = 94.8, γ = 90.0°, and which was predicted to contain two BabA(25-460)-nanobody complexes per asymmetric unit. PMID:25484214

  3. Simian virus Large T antigen interacts with the N-terminal domain of the 70 kD subunit of Replication Protein A in the same mode as multiple DNA damage response factors.

    PubMed

    Ning, Boting; Feldkamp, Michael D; Cortez, David; Chazin, Walter J; Friedman, Katherine L; Fanning, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) serves as an important model organism for studying eukaryotic DNA replication. Its helicase, Large T-antigen (Tag), is a multi-functional protein that interacts with multiple host proteins, including the ubiquitous ssDNA binding protein Replication Protein A (RPA). Tag recruits RPA, actively loads it onto the unwound DNA, and together they promote priming of the template. Although interactions of Tag with RPA have been mapped, no interaction between Tag and the N-terminal protein interaction domain of the RPA 70kDa subunit (RPA70N) has been reported. Here we provide evidence of direct physical interaction of Tag with RPA70N and map the binding sites using a series of pull-down and mutational experiments. In addition, a monoclonal anti-Tag antibody, the epitope of which overlaps with the binding site, blocks the binding of Tag to RPA70N. We use NMR chemical shift perturbation analysis to show that Tag uses the same basic cleft in RPA70N as multiple of DNA damage response proteins. Mutations in the binding sites of both RPA70N and Tag demonstrate that specific charge reversal substitutions in either binding partner strongly diminish the interaction. These results expand the known repertoire of contacts between Tag and RPA, which mediate the many critical roles of Tag in viral replication. PMID:25706313

  4. Multiple chimeric antigen receptors successfully target chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 in several different cancer histologies and cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of immunotherapy has led to significant progress in the treatment of metastatic cancer, including the development of genetic engineering technologies that redirect lymphocytes to recognize and target a wide variety of tumor antigens. Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are hybrid proteins combining antibody recognition domains linked to T cell signaling elements. Clinical trials of CAR-transduced peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) have induced remission of both solid organ and hematologic malignancies. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) is a promising target antigen that is overexpressed in multiple cancer histologies including melanoma, triple-negative breast cancer, glioblastoma, mesothelioma and sarcoma. Methods CSPG4 expression in cancer cell lines was assayed using flow cytometry (FACS) and reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemistry was utilized to assay resected melanomas and normal human tissues (n = 30) for CSPG4 expression and a reverse-phase protein array comprising 94 normal tissue samples was also interrogated for CSPG4 expression. CARs were successfully constructed from multiple murine antibodies (225.28S, TP41.2, 149.53) using second generation (CD28.CD3ζ) signaling domains. CAR sequences were cloned into a gamma-retroviral vector with subsequent successful production of retroviral supernatant and PBL transduction. CAR efficacy was assayed by cytokine release and cytolysis following coculture with target cell lines. Additionally, glioblastoma stem cells were generated from resected human tumors, and CSPG4 expression was determined by RT-PCR and FACS. Results Immunohistochemistry demonstrated prominent CSPG4 expression in melanoma tumors, but failed to demonstrate expression in any of the 30 normal human tissues studied. Two of 94 normal tissue protein lysates were positive by protein array. CAR constructs demonstrated cytokine secretion and cytolytic function after co-culture with tumor cell lines

  5. Loss of DNA-binding and new transcriptional trans-activation function in polyomavirus large T-antigen with mutation of zinc finger motif.

    PubMed Central

    Bergqvist, A; Nilsson, M; Bondeson, K; Magnusson, G

    1990-01-01

    A putative zinc finger in polyomavirus large T-antigen was investigated. We were unable to demonstrate unequivocally a requirement for zinc in specific DNA-binding using the chelating agent 1, 10-phenanthroline. An involvement of the putative zinc finger in specific DNA-binding was nevertheless suggested by the properties of a mutant protein with a cys----ser replacement in the finger motif. Probably as a result of the defective DNA-binding, the mutant protein had lost its activity in initiation of viral DNA-replication and in negative regulation of viral early transcription. However, the trans-activation of the viral late promoter was normal. The analysis also revealed a previously unrecognized activity of large T-antigen. The mutant protein trans-activated the viral early promoter. In the wild-type protein this activity is probably concealed by the separate, negative regulatory function. Images PMID:2160069

  6. A Rapid Method to Characterize Mouse IgG Antibodies and Isolate Native Antigen Binding IgG B Cell Hybridomas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haolin; White, Janice; Crawford, Frances; Jin, Niyun; Ju, Xiangwu; Liu, Kangtai; Jiang, Chengyu; Marrack, Philippa; Zhang, Gongyi; Kappler, John W

    2015-01-01

    B cell hybridomas are an important source of monoclonal antibodies. In this paper, we developed a high-throughput method to characterize mouse IgG antibodies using surface plasmon resonance technology. This assay rapidly determines their sub-isotypes, whether they bind native antigen and their approximate affinities for the antigen using only 50 μl of hybridoma cell culture supernatant. Moreover, we found that mouse hybridomas secreting IgG antibodies also have membrane form IgG expression without Igα. Based on this surface IgG, we used flow cytometry to isolate rare γ2a isotype switched variants from a γ2b antibody secreting hybridoma cell line. Also, we used fluorescent antigen to single cell sort antigen binding hybridoma cells from bulk mixture of fused hybridoma cells instead of the traditional multi-microwell plate screening and limiting dilution sub-cloning thus saving time and labor. The IgG monoclonal antibodies specific for the native antigen identified with these methods are suitable for in vivo therapeutic uses, but also for sandwich ELISA assays, histology, flow cytometry, immune precipitation and x-ray crystallography. PMID:26317987

  7. Nanohole Arrays of Mixed Designs and Microwriting for Simultaneous and Multiple Protein Binding Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jin; Yang, Jiun-Chan; Larson, Dale N.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate using nanohole arrays of mixed designs and a microwriting process based on dip-pen nanolithography to monitor multiple, different protein binding events simultaneously in real time based on the intensity of Extraordinary Optical Transmission of nanohole arrays. The microwriting process and small footprint of the individual nanohole arrays enabled us to observe different binding events located only 16μm apart, achieving high spatial resolution. We also present a novel concept that incorporates nanohole arrays of different designs to improve confidence and accuracy of binding studies. For proof of concept, two types of nanohole arrays, designed to exhibit opposite responses to protein bindings, were fabricated on one transducer. Initial studies indicate that the mixed designs could help to screen out artifacts such as protein intrinsic signals, providing improved accuracy of binding interpretation. PMID:19297143

  8. Structural Analysis of Histo-Blood Group Antigen Binding Specificity in a Norovirus GII.4 Epidemic Variant: Implications for Epochal Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Shanker, Sreejesh; Choi, Jae-Mun; Sankaran, Banumathi; Atmar, Robert L.; Estes, Mary K.; Prasad, B.V. Venkataram

    2012-03-23

    Susceptibility to norovirus (NoV), a major pathogen of epidemic gastroenteritis, is associated with histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), which are also cell attachment factors for this virus. GII.4 NoV strains are predominantly associated with worldwide NoV epidemics with a periodic emergence of new variants. The sequence variations in the surface-exposed P domain of the capsid protein resulting in differential HBGA binding patterns and antigenicity are suggested to drive GII.4 epochal evolution. To understand how temporal sequence variations affect the P domain structure and contribute to epochal evolution, we determined the P domain structure of a 2004 variant with ABH and secretor Lewis HBGAs and compared it with the previously determined structure of a 1996 variant. We show that temporal sequence variations do not affect the binding of monofucosyl ABH HBGAs but that they can modulate the binding strength of difucosyl Lewis HBGAs and thus could contribute to epochal evolution by the potentiated targeting of new variants to Lewis-positive, secretor-positive individuals. The temporal variations also result in significant differences in the electrostatic landscapes, likely reflecting antigenic variations. The proximity of some of these changes to the HBGA binding sites suggests the possibility of a coordinated interplay between antigenicity and HBGA binding in epochal evolution. From the observation that the regions involved in the formation of the HBGA binding sites can be conformationally flexible, we suggest a plausible mechanism for how norovirus disassociates from salivary mucin-linked HBGA before reassociating with HBGAs linked to intestinal epithelial cells during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  9. Antigen Recognition By Variable Lymphocyte Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.W.; Herrin, B.R.; Cooper, M.D.; Wilson, I.A.

    2009-05-18

    Variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) rather than antibodies play the primary role in recognition of antigens in the adaptive immune system of jawless vertebrates. Combinatorial assembly of leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene segments achieves the required repertoire for antigen recognition. We have determined a crystal structure for a VLR-antigen complex, VLR RBC36 in complex with the H-antigen trisaccharide from human blood type O erythrocytes, at 1.67 angstrom resolution. RBC36 binds the H-trisaccharide on the concave surface of the LRR modules of the solenoid structure where three key hydrophilic residues, multiple van der Waals interactions, and the highly variable insert of the carboxyl-terminal LRR module determine antigen recognition and specificity. The concave surface assembled from the most highly variable regions of the LRRs, along with diversity in the sequence and length of the highly variable insert, can account for the recognition of diverse antigens by VLRs.

  10. An Extended Surface Loop on Toxoplasma gondii Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1) Governs Ligand Binding Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Michelle L.; Boulanger, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Apicomplexan parasites are the causative agents of globally prevalent diseases including malaria and toxoplasmosis. These obligate intracellular pathogens have evolved a sophisticated host cell invasion strategy that relies on a parasite-host cell junction anchored by interactions between apical membrane antigens (AMAs) on the parasite surface and rhoptry neck 2 (RON2) proteins discharged from the parasite and embedded in the host cell membrane. Key to formation of the AMA1-RON2 complex is displacement of an extended surface loop on AMA1 called the DII loop. While conformational flexibility of the DII loop is required to expose the mature RON2 binding groove, a definitive role of this substructure has not been elucidated. To establish a role of the DII loop in Toxoplasma gondii AMA1, we engineered a form of the protein where the mobile portion of the loop was replaced with a short Gly-Ser linker (TgAMA1ΔDIIloop). Isothermal titration calorimetry measurements with a panel of RON2 peptides revealed an influential role for the DII loop in governing selectivity. Most notably, an Eimeria tenella RON2 (EtRON2) peptide that showed only weak binding to TgAMA1 bound with high affinity to TgAMA1ΔDIIloop. To define the molecular basis for the differential binding, we determined the crystal structure of TgAMA1ΔDIIloop in complex with the EtRON2 peptide. When analyzed in the context of existing AMA1-RON2 structures, spatially distinct anchor points in the AMA1 groove were identified that, when engaged, appear to provide the necessary traction to outcompete the DII loop. Collectively, these data support a model where the AMA1 DII loop serves as a structural gatekeeper to selectively filter out ligands otherwise capable of binding with high affinity in the AMA1 apical groove. These data also highlight the importance of considering the functional implications of the DII loop in the ongoing development of therapeutic intervention strategies targeting the AMA1-RON2 invasion

  11. Surface co-expression of two different PfEMP1 antigens on single plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes facilitates binding to ICAM1 and PECAM1.

    PubMed

    Joergensen, Louise; Bengtsson, Dominique C; Bengtsson, Anja; Ronander, Elena; Berger, Sanne S; Turner, Louise; Dalgaard, Michael B; Cham, Gerald K K; Victor, Michala E; Lavstsen, Thomas; Theander, Thor G; Arnot, David E; Jensen, Anja T R

    2010-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) antigens play a major role in cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE), antigenic variation, and immunity to malaria. The current consensus on control of variant surface antigen expression is that only one PfEMP1 encoded by one var gene is expressed per cell at a time. We measured var mRNA transcript levels by real-time Q-PCR, analysed var gene transcripts by single-cell FISH and directly compared these with PfEMP1 antigen surface expression and cytoadhesion in three different antibody-selected P. falciparum 3D7 sub-lines using live confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and in vitro adhesion assays. We found that one selected parasite sub-line simultaneously expressed two different var genes as surface antigens, on single IE. Importantly, and of physiological relevance to adhesion and malaria pathogenesis, this parasite sub-line was found to bind both CD31/PECAM1 and CD54/ICAM1 and to adhere twice as efficiently to human endothelial cells, compared to infected cells having only one PfEMP1 variant on the surface. These new results on PfEMP1 antigen expression indicate that a re-evaluation of the molecular mechanisms involved in P. falciparum adhesion and of the accepted paradigm of absolutely mutually exclusive var gene transcription is required. PMID:20824088

  12. Stochastic Analysis of Antibody-antigen Binding in a Microfluidic Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Shauna; Zhang, Cong; Zambrano, Harvey; Conlisk, A. T.

    2012-11-01

    Over the last decade, microfluidic ``Labs on a Chip'' (LOC) have evolved from a single microchannel to micro-total analysis systems (TAS) capable of integrating thousands of reaction vessels, conduits and valves-the contents of an entire chemical laboratory-on a single chip. These systems have several advantages in biomedical applications, including lower equipment and personnel costs, reduced power requirements, faster separations, and smaller sample and reagent volume requirements. Circulating tumor cells (CTC) are cancer cells found in the blood stream indicating the presence of a tumor in the body. We consider the population of magnetically tagged antibodies to be characterized by a collection of stochastic trajectories; the probability of finding an antibody at a given position is assumed to be defined by the Fokker-Planck equation. The first objective is to determine the probability that one or more magnetically labeled antibodies will assume a trajectory that is within the neighborhood of a given cancer cell. Once this occurs the binding process can be described using a deterministic analysis and the modeling of this process is the second objective of the paper. Supported by the NSF Nanoscale Science and Engineering center (NSEC) for the Affordable Nanoengineering of Polymeric Biomedical Devices EEC-0914790.

  13. Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigen 3 (EBNA3) Proteins Regulate EBNA2 Binding to Distinct RBPJ Genomic Sites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anqi; Welch, Rene; Zhao, Bo; Ta, Tram; Keleş, Sündüz

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Latent infection of B lymphocytes by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in vitro results in their immortalization into lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs); this latency program is controlled by the EBNA2 viral transcriptional activator, which targets promoters via RBPJ, a DNA binding protein in the Notch signaling pathway. Three other EBNA3 proteins (EBNA3A, EBNA3B, and EBNA3C) interact with RBPJ to regulate cell gene expression. The mechanism by which EBNAs regulate different genes via RBPJ remains unclear. Our chromatin immunoprecipitation with deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis of the EBNA3 proteins analyzed in concert with prior EBNA2 and RBPJ data demonstrated that EBNA3A, EBNA3B, and EBNA3C bind to distinct, partially overlapping genomic locations. Although RBPJ interaction is critical for EBNA3A and EBNA3C growth effects, only 30 to 40% of EBNA3-bound sites colocalize with RBPJ. Using LCLs conditional for EBNA3A or EBNA3C activity, we demonstrate that EBNA2 binding at sites near EBNA3A- or EBNA3C-regulated genes is specifically regulated by the respective EBNA3. To investigate EBNA3 binding specificity, we identified sequences and transcription factors enriched at EBNA3A-, EBNA3B-, and EBNA3C-bound sites. This confirmed the prior observation that IRF4 is enriched at EBNA3A- and EBNA3C-bound sites and revealed IRF4 enrichment at EBNA3B-bound sites. Using IRF4-negative BJAB cells, we demonstrate that IRF4 is essential for EBNA3C, but not EBNA3A or EBNA3B, binding to specific sites. These results support a model in which EBNA2 and EBNA3s compete for distinct subsets of RBPJ sites to regulate cell genes and where EBNA3 subset specificity is determined by interactions with other cell transcription factors. IMPORTANCE Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent gene products cause human cancers and transform B lymphocytes into immortalized lymphoblastoid cell lines in vitro. EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs) and membrane proteins constitutively activate pathways important for

  14. A multiple antigen ELISA to detect Neospora-specific antibodies in bovine sera, bovine foetal fluids, ovine and caprine sera.

    PubMed

    Osawa, T; Wastling, J; Maley, S; Buxton, D; Innes, E A

    1998-09-01

    Neospora caninum is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite recently identified as a cause of abortion in cattle. The epidemiology of neosporosis is poorly understood, partly because accurate diagnosis of infection is difficult. In this paper we describe the development of a multiple antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies to N. caninum in sera from cattle, sheep and goats as well as from bovine foetal fluids. A water-soluble fraction (wsf) of sonicated NC-1 strain tachyzoites was used as the antigen in the ELISA. Minimum optical density (OD) values that were considered to be Neospora antibody-positive, that is, the cut-off OD values were determined separately for bovine maternal sera, bovine foetal fluids, ovine sera and caprine sera; they were 0.40, 0.17, 0.23 and 0.41 OD, respectively. The ELISA gave a high signal/noise ratio, giving good sensitivity and specificity, correlating well with the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) currently used to diagnose Neospora infection in cattle, sheep and goats. In both the ELISA and immunoblot analysis using the same antigen, there was no significant cross-reactivity with sera from cattle, sheep or goats that had been infected with Toxoplasma gondii. The ELISA also showed no cross-reactivity in sera from cattle infected with Sarcocystis cruzi, Babesia divergens, B. bovis and B. bigemina. The wsf fraction of sonicated N. caninum tachyzoites used in this ELISA can be easily prepared and may be more sensitive than a single antigen ELISA, whilst still retaining good specificity. PMID:9777723

  15. Campylobacter jejuni binds intestinal H(O) antigen (Fuc alpha 1, 2Gal beta 1, 4GlcNAc), and fucosyloligosaccharides of human milk inhibit its binding and infection.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Cervantes, Luz Elena; Ramos, Pilar; Chavez-Munguia, Bibiana; Newburg, David S

    2003-04-18

    The most common cause of infant mortality is diarrhea; the most common cause of bacterial diarrhea is Campylobacter jejuni, which is also the primary cause of motor neuron paralysis. The first step in campylobacter pathogenesis is adherence to intestinal mucosa. We found that such binding was inhibited in vitro by human milk and, with high avidity, by alpha1,2-fucosylated carbohydrate moieties containing the H(O) blood group epitope (Fuc alpha 1,2Gal beta 1,4GlcNAc em leader ). In studies on the mechanism of adherence, campylobacter, which normally does not bind to Chinese hamster ovary cells, bound avidly when the cells were transfected with a human alpha1,2-fucosyltransferase gene that caused overexpression of H-2 antigen; binding was specifically inhibited by H-2 ligands (lectins Ulex europaeus and Lotus tetragonolobus and H-2 monoclonal antibody), H-2 mimetics, and human milk oligosaccharides. Human milk oligosaccharides inhibited campylobacter colonization of mice in vivo and human intestinal mucosa ex vivo. Campylobacter colonization of nursing mouse pups was inhibited if their dams had been transfected with a human alpha1,2-fucosyltransferase gene that caused expression of H(O) antigen in milk. We conclude that campylobacter binding to intestinal H-2 antigen is essential for infection. Milk fucosyloligosaccharides and specific fucosyl alpha1,2-linked molecules inhibit this binding and may represent a novel class of antimicrobial agents. PMID:12562767

  16. Diagnostic value of antibody responses to multiple antigens from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in active and latent tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Senoputra, Muhammad Andrian; Shiratori, Beata; Hasibuan, Fakhrial Mirwan; Koesoemadinata, Raspati Cundarani; Apriani, Lika; Ashino, Yugo; Ono, Kenji; Oda, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Makoto; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Hattori, Toshio

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the antibody responses to 10 prospective Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) antigens and evaluated their ability to discriminate between latent (LTBI) and active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Our results indicate that plasma levels of anti-α-crystallin (ACR), antilipoarabinomannan, anti-trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate, and anti-tubercular-glycolipid antigen antibodies were higher in patients with active TB, compared to those in the LTBI and control subjects. No differences in the antibodies were observed between the control and LTBI subjects. Antibodies against the glycolipid antigens could not distinguish between Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-negative TB patients and MAC-infected LTBI individuals. The most useful serological marker was antibodies to ACR, with MAC-negative TB patients having higher titers than those observed in MAC-positive LTBI and control subjects. Our data indicate that antibody to ACR is a promising target for the serological diagnosis of patients with active TB patients. When dealing with antiglycolipid antibodies, MAC coinfection should always be considered in serological studies. PMID:26307672

  17. The Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen-binding lectin jacalin interacts with desmoglein-1 and abrogates the pathogenicity of pemphigus foliaceus autoantibodies in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Park, Moonhee; Zhao, Minglang; Hilario-Vargas, Julio; McInnes, David M; Prisayanh, Phillip S; Liu, Zhi; Diaz, Luis A

    2010-12-01

    Pemphigus foliaceus (PF) is an autoimmune skin blistering disease mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies against the desmosomal core glycoprotein desmoglein-1 (Dsg1). This study demonstrated that the O-glycan-specific plant lectin jacalin binds Dsg1 and inhibits the interaction of Dsg1/PF IgG. N-glycosylation is not involved in the interaction of Dsg1/jacalin or Dsg1/PF IgG. Subcutaneous injection of jacalin into neonatal mice drastically reduced PF IgG deposition at the epidermal cell surface and blocked PF IgG-induced skin blisters, both clinically and histologically. Interestingly, another plant lectin, peanut agglutinin, which shares the same carbohydrate specificity toward the O-linked carbohydrate structure known as Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (TF antigen, Galβ1-3GalNAcα-O-Ser/Thr), also bound Dsg1 and blocked the skin blistering. In contrast, the plant lectin vicia villosa-B4 (VVL-B4), which shares the carbohydrate specificity toward the O-linked monosaccharide known as Thomsen-nouveau antigen (GalNAc-α1-O-Ser/Thr), did not bind Dsg1 and did not show a protective effect against the disease induced by the autoantibodies. Collectively, these results suggest that the binding of jacalin to O-linked TF carbohydrate motifs on Dsg1 impairs the Dsg1/PF autoantibody interactions and abrogates its pathogenicity in vivo. TF-specific binding ligands may have a potential therapeutic value for PF. PMID:20631728

  18. Temporally defined neocortical translation and polysome assembly are determined by the RNA-binding protein Hu antigen R.

    PubMed

    Kraushar, Matthew L; Thompson, Kevin; Wijeratne, H R Sagara; Viljetic, Barbara; Sakers, Kristina; Marson, Justin W; Kontoyiannis, Dimitris L; Buyske, Steven; Hart, Ronald P; Rasin, Mladen-Roko

    2014-09-01

    Precise spatiotemporal control of mRNA translation machinery is essential to the development of highly complex systems like the neocortex. However, spatiotemporal regulation of translation machinery in the developing neocortex remains poorly understood. Here, we show that an RNA-binding protein, Hu antigen R (HuR), regulates both neocorticogenesis and specificity of neocortical translation machinery in a developmental stage-dependent manner in mice. Neocortical absence of HuR alters the phosphorylation states of initiation and elongation factors in the core translation machinery. In addition, HuR regulates the temporally specific positioning of functionally related mRNAs into the active translation sites, the polysomes. HuR also determines the specificity of neocortical polysomes by defining their combinatorial composition of ribosomal proteins and initiation and elongation factors. For some HuR-dependent proteins, the association with polysomes likewise depends on the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4, which associates with HuR in prenatal developing neocortices. Finally, we found that deletion of HuR before embryonic day 10 disrupts both neocortical lamination and formation of the main neocortical commissure, the corpus callosum. Our study identifies a crucial role for HuR in neocortical development as a translational gatekeeper for functionally related mRNA subgroups and polysomal protein specificity. PMID:25157170

  19. A novel flow cytometry single tube bead assay for quantitation of von Willebrand factor antigen and collagen-binding.

    PubMed

    Mina, Ashraf; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Koutts, Jerry

    2012-11-01

    Deficiency of or defects in the plasma protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) lead to bleeding and von Willebrand disease (VWD), which may be congenital or acquired. VWD is considered the most common inherited bleeding disorder and laboratory testing for VWF level and activity is critical for appropriate diagnosis and management. We have designed and established a novel Flow Cytometry (FC) based method for measuring VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) and collagen binding (VWF:CB), together in the same tube and at the same time. The results of the novel FC method have been compared against existing reference methods using a range of normal and pathological material. Methods correlated well (VWF:Ag, r=0.866; VWF:CB, r=0.888) and generally permitted similar discrimination of quantitative versus qualitative VWD types (e.g. type 1 vs type 2A or 2B VWD). The novel procedure is expected to permit future streamlined performance of VWD screening, either using stand-alone FC systems or potentially incorporated into FC-capable automated blood cell and particle counters to allow for improved, automated and faster identification or exclusion of VWD. PMID:23014972

  20. Conserved epitope on several human vitamin K-dependent proteins: location of the antigenic site and influence of metal ions on antibody binding

    SciTech Connect

    Church, W.R.; Messier, T.; Howard, P.R.; Amiral, J.; Meyer, D.; Mann, K.G.

    1988-05-05

    A murine monoclonal antibody (designated H-11) produced by injecting mice with purified human protein C was found to bind several human vitamin K-dependent proteins. Using a solid-phase competitive radioimmunoassay with antibody immobilized onto microtiter plates, binding of /sup 125/I-labeled protein C to the antibody was inhibited by increasing amounts of protein C, prothrombin, and Factors X and VII over a concentration range of 1 x 10/sup -8/ to 1 x 10/sup -6/ M. Chemical treatment of prothrombin with a variety of agents did not destroy the antigenic site recognized by the antibody as measured by immunoblotting of prothrombin or prothrombin derivative immobilized onto nitrocellulose. Immunoblotting of purified vitamin K-dependent polypeptides with the monoclonal antibody following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrophoretic transfer to nitrocellulose indicated that the antigenic site was found on the light chains of protein C and Factor X. The exact location of the antigenic determinant for antibody H-11 was established using synthetic peptides. Comparison of protein sequences of bovine and human vitamin K-dependent proteins suggests that the sequence Phe-Leu-Glu-Glu-Xaa-Arg/Lys is required for antibody binding. Increasing concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, or Mn/sup 2 +/ partially inhibited binding of /sup 125/I-protein C to the antibody in a solid-phase assay system with half-maximal binding observed at divalent metal ion concentrations of 2, 4, and 0.6 mM, respectively. The antigenic site thus recognized by monoclonal antibody H-11 is located at the amino-terminal region in the highly conserved ..gamma..-carboxyglutamic acid-containing domains of several, but not all, vitamin K-dependent proteins.

  1. The binding sites of monoclonal antibodies to the non-reducing end of Francisella tularensis O-antigen accommodate mainly the terminal saccharide

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhaohua; Rynkiewicz, Michael J; Yang, Chiou-Ying; Madico, Guillermo; Perkins, Hillary M; Wang, Qi; Costello, Catherine E; Zaia, Joseph; Seaton, Barbara A; Sharon, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    We have previously described two types of protective B-cell epitopes in the O-antigen (OAg) of the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis: repeating internal epitopes targeted by the vast majority of anti-OAg monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and a non-overlapping epitope at the non-reducing end targeted by the previously unique IgG2a mAb FB11. We have now generated and characterized three mAbs specific for the non-reducing end of F. tularensis OAg, partially encoded by the same variable region germline genes, indicating that they target the same epitope. Like FB11, the new mAbs, Ab63 (IgG3), N213 (IgG3) and N62 (IgG2b), had higher antigen-binding bivalent avidity than internally binding anti-OAg mAbs, and an oligosaccharide containing a single OAg repeat was sufficient for optimal inhibition of their antigen-binding. The X-ray crystal structure of N62 Fab showed that the antigen-binding site is lined mainly by aromatic amino acids that form a small cavity, which can accommodate no more than one and a third sugar residues, indicating that N62 binds mainly to the terminal Qui4NFm residue at the nonreducing end of OAg. In efficacy studies with mice infected intranasally with the highly virulent F. tularensis strain SchuS4, N62, N213 and Ab63 prolonged survival and reduced blood bacterial burden. These results yield insights into how antibodies to non-reducing ends of microbial polysaccharides can contribute to immune protection despite the smaller size of their target epitopes compared with antibodies to internal polysaccharide regions. PMID:23844703

  2. The binding sites of monoclonal antibodies to the non-reducing end of Francisella tularensis O-antigen accommodate mainly the terminal saccharide.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhaohua; Rynkiewicz, Michael J; Yang, Chiou-Ying; Madico, Guillermo; Perkins, Hillary M; Wang, Qi; Costello, Catherine E; Zaia, Joseph; Seaton, Barbara A; Sharon, Jacqueline

    2013-11-01

    We have previously described two types of protective B-cell epitopes in the O-antigen (OAg) of the Gram-negative bacterium Francisella tularensis: repeating internal epitopes targeted by the vast majority of anti-OAg monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and a non-overlapping epitope at the non-reducing end targeted by the previously unique IgG2a mAb FB11. We have now generated and characterized three mAbs specific for the non-reducing end of F. tularensis OAg, partially encoded by the same variable region germline genes, indicating that they target the same epitope. Like FB11, the new mAbs, Ab63 (IgG3), N213 (IgG3) and N62 (IgG2b), had higher antigen-binding bivalent avidity than internally binding anti-OAg mAbs, and an oligosaccharide containing a single OAg repeat was sufficient for optimal inhibition of their antigen-binding. The X-ray crystal structure of N62 Fab showed that the antigen-binding site is lined mainly by aromatic amino acids that form a small cavity, which can accommodate no more than one and a third sugar residues, indicating that N62 binds mainly to the terminal Qui4NFm residue at the nonreducing end of OAg. In efficacy studies with mice infected intranasally with the highly virulent F. tularensis strain SchuS4, N62, N213 and Ab63 prolonged survival and reduced blood bacterial burden. These results yield insights into how antibodies to non-reducing ends of microbial polysaccharides can contribute to immune protection despite the smaller size of their target epitopes compared with antibodies to internal polysaccharide regions. PMID:23844703

  3. The kinetics of antibody binding to Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA PfEMP1 antigen and modelling of PfEMP1 antigen packing on the membrane knobs

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infected humans make protective antibody responses to the PfEMP1 adhesion antigens exported by Plasmodium falciparum parasites to the erythrocyte membrane, but little is known about the kinetics of this antibody-receptor binding reaction or how the topology of PfEMP1 on the parasitized erythrocyte membrane influences antibody association with, and dissociation from, its antigenic target. Methods A Quartz Crystal Microbalance biosensor was used to measure the association and dissociation kinetics of VAR2CSA PfEMP1 binding to human monoclonal antibodies. Immuno-fluorescence microscopy was used to visualize antibody-mediated adhesion between the surfaces of live infected erythrocytes and atomic force microscopy was used to obtain higher resolution images of the membrane knobs on the infected erythrocyte to estimate knob surface areas and model VAR2CSA packing density on the knob. Results Kinetic analysis indicates that antibody dissociation from the VAR2CSA PfEMP1 antigen is extremely slow when there is a high avidity interaction. High avidity binding to PfEMP1 antigens on the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes in turn requires bivalent cross-linking of epitopes positioned within the distance that can be bridged by antibody. Calculations of the surface area of the knobs and the possible densities of PfEMP1 packing on the knobs indicate that high-avidity cross-linking antibody reactions are constrained by the architecture of the knobs and the large size of PfEMP1 molecules. Conclusions High avidity is required to achieve the strongest binding to VAR2CSA PfEMP1, but the structures that display PfEMP1 also tend to inhibit cross-linking between PfEMP1 antigens, by holding many binding epitopes at distances beyond the 15-18 nm sweep radius of an antibody. The large size of PfEMP1 will also constrain intra-knob cross-linking interactions. This analysis indicates that effective vaccines targeting the parasite's vulnerable adhesion receptors should

  4. MBSTAR: multiple instance learning for predicting specific functional binding sites in microRNA targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Ghosh, Dip; Mitra, Ramkrishna; Zhao, Zhongming

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) regulates gene expression by binding to specific sites in the 3'untranslated regions of its target genes. Machine learning based miRNA target prediction algorithms first extract a set of features from potential binding sites (PBSs) in the mRNA and then train a classifier to distinguish targets from non-targets. However, they do not consider whether the PBSs are functional or not, and consequently result in high false positive rates. This substantially affects the follow up functional validation by experiments. We present a novel machine learning based approach, MBSTAR (Multiple instance learning of Binding Sites of miRNA TARgets), for accurate prediction of true or functional miRNA binding sites. Multiple instance learning framework is adopted to handle the lack of information about the actual binding sites in the target mRNAs. Biologically validated 9531 interacting and 973 non-interacting miRNA-mRNA pairs are identified from Tarbase 6.0 and confirmed with PAR-CLIP dataset. It is found that MBSTAR achieves the highest number of binding sites overlapping with PAR-CLIP with maximum F-Score of 0.337. Compared to the other methods, MBSTAR also predicts target mRNAs with highest accuracy. The tool and genome wide predictions are available at http://www.isical.ac.in/~bioinfo_miu/MBStar30.htm.

  5. Cloning of a cuticular antigen that contains multiple tandem repeats from the filarial parasite Dirofilaria immitis.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, C B; Grandea, A G; Maina, C V; Jenkins, R E; Selkirk, M E; McReynolds, L A

    1992-01-01

    An unusual antigen composed of tandemly repeated protein units was cloned from the filarial parasite Dirofilaria immitis. The antigen was initially identified by screening a lambda gt11 cDNA library with serum from dogs immunized with irradiated D. immitis third-stage larvae. DNA sequence analysis of the cDNA clone, Di5, revealed a continuous open reading frame composed of two 399-base-pair repeats arranged in tandem. Southern blot analysis of genomic D. immitis DNA showed that the gene coding for Di5 is composed of a tandem array of 25-50 copies of this same 399-base-pair repeat. Antiserum raised against recombinant Di5 protein detected a protein "ladder," from about 14 to greater than 200 kDa with steps approximately 15 kDa apart, on immunoblots of D. immitis extract. Metabolic labeling of adult parasites with [35S]methionine showed that Di5 is synthesized as a large precursor that is subsequently cleaved to produce the ladder-like array. These results suggest that the characteristic ladder is created by proteolytic cleavage of the precursor at the same site in each monomer. The Di5 antigen was localized to the cuticle and hypodermis of adult D. immitis by immunoelectron microscopy. Both male and female parasites were found to release Di5 when cultured in vitro. DNA hybridization analysis demonstrated that Di5 is a member of a gene family present in many filarial parasites that infect both animal and human populations. Images PMID:1631084

  6. Zinc-induced oligomerization of zinc α2 glycoprotein reveals multiple fatty acid-binding sites.

    PubMed

    Zahid, Henna; Miah, Layeque; Lau, Andy M; Brochard, Lea; Hati, Debolina; Bui, Tam T T; Drake, Alex F; Gor, Jayesh; Perkins, Stephen J; McDermott, Lindsay C

    2016-01-01

    Zinc α2 glycoprotein (ZAG) is an adipokine with a class I MHC protein fold and is associated with obesity and diabetes. Although its intrinsic ligand remains unknown, ZAG binds the dansylated C11 fatty acid 11-(dansylamino)undecanoic acid (DAUDA) in the groove between the α1 and α2 domains. The surface of ZAG has approximately 15 weak zinc-binding sites deemed responsible for precipitation from human plasma. In the present study the functional significance of these metal sites was investigated. Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and CD showed that zinc, but not other divalent metals, causes ZAG to oligomerize in solution. Thus ZAG dimers and trimers were observed in the presence of 1 and 2 mM zinc. Molecular modelling of X-ray scattering curves and sedimentation coefficients indicated a progressive stacking of ZAG monomers, suggesting that the ZAG groove may be occluded in these. Using fluorescence-detected sedimentation velocity, these ZAG-zinc oligomers were again observed in the presence of the fluorescent boron dipyrromethene fatty acid C16-BODIPY (4,4-difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-hexadecanoic acid). Fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed that ZAG binds C16-BODIPY. ZAG binding to C16-BODIPY, but not to DAUDA, was reduced by increased zinc concentrations. We conclude that the lipid-binding groove in ZAG contains at least two distinct fatty acid-binding sites for DAUDA and C16-BODIPY, similar to the multiple lipid binding seen in the structurally related immune protein CD1c. In addition, because high concentrations of zinc occur in the pancreas, the perturbation of these multiple lipid-binding sites by zinc may be significant in Type 2 diabetes where dysregulation of ZAG and zinc homoeostasis occurs. PMID:26487699

  7. Multiple opioid receptor binding in dissociated intact guinea pig brain cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tam, S.W.; James, D.W.

    1986-03-05

    Dissociated intact guinea pig brain cells were prepared by the method of Rogers and El-Fakahany. Over 95% of these cells are viable as demonstrated by their exclusion of the dye trypan blue. Opioid receptor binding assays were performed in a modified Kreb-Ringers physiological buffer. The following radiolabeled ligands and conditions were used to selectively labeled multiple opioid receptors: mu binding, 1 nM (/sup 3/H)naloxone + 20 nM DADLE + 300 nM U50,488H; kappa binding, 4 nM (-)-(/sup 3/H)-EKC + 100 nM DAGO + 500 nM DADLE; delta binding, 2 nM (/sup 3/H)-DADLE + 100 nM DAGO + 300 nM U50,488H; sigma binding, 4 nM (+)-(/sup 3/H)SKF 10,047. The intact brain cells in physiological buffer demonstrated specific binding for mu, kappa, delta, and sigma receptors. The relative binding potency of naloxone for each of the receptor types is arbitrarily set at 1.

  8. Evidence for multiple mechanisms for membrane binding and integration via carboxyl-terminal insertion sequences.

    PubMed

    Kim, P K; Janiak-Spens, F; Trimble, W S; Leber, B; Andrews, D W

    1997-07-22

    Subcellular localization of proteins with carboxyl-terminal insertion sequences requires the molecule be both targeted to and integrated into the correct membrane. The mechanism of membrane integration of cytochrome b5 has been shown to be promiscuous, spontaneous, nonsaturable, and independent of membrane proteins. Thus endoplasmic reticulum localization for cytochrome b5 depends primarily on accurate targeting to the appropriate membrane. Here direct comparison of this mechanism with that of three other proteins integrated into membranes via carboxyl-terminal insertion sequences [vesicle-associated membrane protein 1(Vamp1), polyomavirus middle-T antigen, and Bcl-2] revealed that, unlike cytochrome b5, membrane selectivity for these molecules is conferred at least in part by the mechanisms of membrane integration. Bcl-2 membrane integration was similar to that of cytochrome b5 except that insertion into lipid vesicles was inefficient. Unlike cytochrome b5 and Bcl-2, Vamp1 binding to canine pancreatic microsomes was saturable, ATP-dependent, and abolished by mild trypsin treatment of microsomes. Surprisingly, although the insertion sequence of polyomavirus middle-T antigen was sufficient to mediate electrostatic binding to membranes, binding did not lead to integration into the bilayer. Together these results demonstrate that there are at least two different mechanisms for correct membrane integration of proteins with insertion sequences, one mediated primarily by targeting and one relying on factors in the target membrane to mediate selective integration. Our results also demonstrate that, contrary to expectation, hydrophobicity is not sufficient for insertion sequence-mediated membrane integration. We suggest that the structure of the insertion sequence determines whether or not specific membrane-bound receptor proteins are required for membrane integration. PMID:9220974

  9. Lymphocyte receptors. I. Receptors for Fc of IgG and complement (C3b) on immunoglobulin-bearing, antigen-binding and antibody-secreting cells.

    PubMed Central

    McConnell, I; Hurd, C M

    1976-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) bearing, antigen-binding and antibody-secreting cells were investigated for the presence of membrane receptors for the Fc part of IgG and for C3b on their surface. Fc and C3b receptors were detected on the surface of most Ig-bearing and of most antigen-binding cells. Fc receptors were also detected on IgM antibody-secreting cells but not on IgG-secreting cells. C3b receptors were not detected on any antibody-secreting cells. These receptors are either lost from the B cell surface as they differentiate into antibody-secreting cells or are blocked in vivo by immune complexes or C3b. PMID:800392

  10. Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis - Annual Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, N. O.

    2015-04-16

    The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that co-localization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein particles (NLPs) can increase the protective efficacy of recombinant subunit antigens from Burkholderia spp. and Francisella tularensis against an aerosol challenge. NLPs are are biocompatible, high-density lipoprotein mimetics that are amenable to the incorporation of multiple, chemically-disparate adjuvant and antigen molecules. We hypothesize that the ability to co-localize optimized adjuvant formulations with subunit antigens within a single particle will enhance the stimulation and activation of key immune effector cells, increasing the protective efficacy of subunit antigen-based vaccines. While Burkholderia spp. and F. tularensis subunit antigens are the focus of this proposal, we anticipate that this approach is applicable to a wide range of DOD-relevant biothreat agents. The F344 rat aerosol challenge model for F. tularensis has been successfully established at Battelle under this contract, and Year 3 efficacy studies performed at Battelle demonstrated that an NLP vaccine formulation was able to enhance survival of female F344 rats relative to naïve animals. In addition, Year 3 focused on the incorporation of multiple Burkholderia antigens (both polysaccharides and proteins) onto adjuvanted NLPs, with immunological analysis poised to begin in the next quarter.

  11. RNA Binding of T-cell Intracellular Antigen-1 (TIA-1) C-terminal RNA Recognition Motif Is Modified by pH Conditions*

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Gallardo, Isabel; Aroca, Ángeles; Persson, Cecilia; Karlsson, B. Göran; Díaz-Moreno, Irene

    2013-01-01

    T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) is a DNA/RNA-binding protein that regulates critical events in cell physiology by the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA translation. TIA-1 is composed of three RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) and a glutamine-rich domain and binds to uridine-rich RNA sequences through its C-terminal RRM2 and RRM3 domains. Here, we show that RNA binding mediated by either isolated RRM3 or the RRM23 construct is controlled by slight environmental pH changes due to the protonation/deprotonation of TIA-1 RRM3 histidine residues. The auxiliary role of the C-terminal RRM3 domain in TIA-1 RNA recognition is poorly understood, and this work provides insight into its binding mechanisms. PMID:23902765

  12. Humoral Responses to Diverse Autoimmune Disease-Associated Antigens in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Malyavantham, Kishore; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Suresh, Lakshmanan; Zivadinov, Robert; Shanahan, Thomas; Badgett, Darlene; Ramanathan, Murali

    2015-01-01

    To compare frequencies of autoreactive antibody responses to endogenous disease-associated antigens in healthy controls (HC), relapsing and progressive MS and to assess their associations with clinical and MRI measures of MS disease progression. Methods The study analyzed 969 serum samples from 315 HC, 411 relapsing remitting MS (RR-MS), 128 secondary progressive MS (SP-MS), 33 primary progressive MS (PP-MS) and 82 patients with other neurological diseases for autoantibodies against two putative MS antigens CSF114(Glc) and KIR4.1a and KIR4.1b and against 24 key endogenous antigens linked to diseases such as vasculitis, systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, polymyositis, scleroderma, polymyositis, dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease and primary biliary cirrhosis. Associations with disability and MRI measures of lesional injury and neurodegeneration were assessed. Results The frequencies of anti-KIR4.1a and anti-KIR4.1b peptide IgG positivity were 9.8% and 11.4% in HC compared to 4.9% and 7.5% in RR-MS, 8.6% for both peptides in SP-MS and 6.1% for both peptides in PP-MS (p = 0.13 for KIR4.1a and p = 0.34 for KIR4.1b), respectively. Antibodies against CSF114(Glc), KIR4.1a and KIR4.1b peptides were not associated with MS compared to HC, or with MS disease progression. HLA DRB1*15:01 positivity and anti-Epstein Barr virus antibodies, which are MS risk factors, were not associated with these putative MS antibodies. Conclusions Antibody responses to KIR4.1a and KIR4.1b peptides are not increased in MS compared to HC nor associated with MS disease progression. The frequencies of the diverse autoreactive antibodies investigated are similar in MS and HC. PMID:26065913

  13. Specific Targeting of a Naturally Presented Osteosarcoma Antigen, Papillomavirus Binding Factor Peptide, Using an Artificial Monoclonal Antibody*

    PubMed Central

    Tsukahara, Tomohide; Emori, Makoto; Murata, Kenji; Hirano, Takahisa; Muroi, Norihiro; Kyono, Masanori; Toji, Shingo; Watanabe, Kazue; Torigoe, Toshihiko; Kochin, Vitaly; Asanuma, Hiroko; Matsumiya, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Keiji; Himi, Tetsuo; Ichimiya, Shingo; Wada, Takuro; Yamashita, Toshihiko; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Sato, Noriyuki

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a rare but highly malignant tumor occurring most frequently in adolescents. The prognosis of non-responders to chemotherapy is still poor, and new treatment modalities are needed. To develop peptide-based immunotherapy, we previously identified autologous cytotoxic T lymphocyte-defined osteosarcoma antigen papillomavirus binding factor (PBF) in the context of HLA-B55 and the cytotoxic T lymphocyte epitope (PBF A2.2) presented by HLA-A2. PBF and HLA class I are expressed in ∼90 and 70% of various sarcomas, respectively. However, the expression status of peptide PBF A2.2 presented by HLA-A2 on osteosarcoma cells has remained unknown because it is difficult to generate a specific probe that reacts with the HLA·peptide complex. For detection and qualification of the HLA-A*02:01·PBF A2.2 peptide complex on osteosarcoma cells, we tried to isolate a single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody directed to the HLA-*A0201·PBF A2.2 complex using a naïve scFv phage display library. As a result, scFv clone D12 with high affinity (KD = 1.53 × 10−9 m) was isolated. D12 could react with PBF A2.2 peptide-pulsed T2 cells and HLA-A2+PBF+ osteosarcoma cell lines and simultaneously demonstrated that the HLA·peptide complex was expressed on osteosarcoma cells. In conclusion, scFv clone D12 might be useful to select candidate patients for PBF A2.2 peptide-based immunotherapy and develop antibody-based immunotherapy. PMID:24962571

  14. Validation of a von Willebrand factor antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and newly developed collagen-binding assay

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Hilary; Wood, Darren

    2008-01-01

    No single test is comprehensive enough to detect all of the variants of von Willebrand Disease (VWD), making determination of both concentration and function of von Willebrand Factor (VWF) important for an accurate diagnosis. The objective of the study was to validate a newly developed VWF collagen binding assay (VWF:CB) and VWF antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) developed at the Ontario Veterinary College (OVC VWF:Ag). Linearity, sensitivity, and coefficients of variation were determined. The Asserachrom VWF:Ag ELISA was used as the reference assay for this study. Concordance correlation and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate agreement between both VWF:Ag assays. The VWF:CB accuracy was assessed by degree of association with the VWF:Ag assays, and the VWF:Ag to VWF:CB ratio. All assays were assessed for their ability to distinguish between VWD negative and VWD positive patients. Linearity, intra-assay coefficients of variation, and inter-assay coefficients of variation were acceptable for both the newly developed VWF:CB (R2 = 0.97, average CV = 4.4, and 15, respectively) and OVC VWF:Ag assays (R2 = 0.96, average CV = 7.9, and 5.9, respectively). Agreement between the OVC VWF:Ag assay and reference assay was excellent (ρc = 0.89), and although differences between assay results precluded interchangeable use of the assays, both successfully distinguished VWD positive and VWD negative dogs (P < 0.0001). The VWF:CB showed a strong association with both VWF:Ag assays (R2 = 0.86, 0.82) and VWF:Ag to VWF:CB ratios (≤ 1) were as expected. The excellent performance of both assays in this validation study confirm their reliability and potential for clinical application. PMID:19086374

  15. Hydroxychloroquine protects melanocytes from autoantibody-induced injury by reducing the binding of antigen-antibody complexes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Guang; Hu, Wen-Zhi; Ma, Hui-Jun; Liu, Wen; Yang, Qing-Qi; Zhao, Guang

    2016-08-01

    Vitiligo is a polygenic autoimmune disorder characterized by loss of pigmentation due to melanocyte destruction. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an effective immunosuppressant widely used in the treatment of autoimmune disorders. As generalized vitiligo (GV) is commonly considered to be a T cell and autoantibody-induced immune disorder, the present study aimed to determine whether HCQ protects melanocytes from autoantibody‑induced disruption. Anti‑melanocyte antibodies were obtained from the serum of patients with progressive GV and the effects of HCQ on prevent the autoantibody‑induced disruption of melanocytes was observed. Cell‑based ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence and western blotting were used to analyze the autoantibody content of sera samples obtained from 32 patients with progressive GV. The cytotoxicity of HCQ was detected by MTT assay, and 1 µg/ml HCQ was applied to human primary melanocytes (HMCs) to examine whether it could exert protective effects against autoantibody‑induced immune injury. Flow cytometry was used to measure autoantibody binding to the surface of HMCs. Complement‑dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody‑dependent cell‑mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) were monitored by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase‑releasing assays. The concentration of autoantibodies in sera samples taken from GV patients was significantly higher than in controls, particularly in patients who had >10% of their body surface affected by vitiligo. The majority of the autoantibodies presented in the HMCs and human keratinocytes (HKCs) and were predominantly localized to the cell surface and cytoplasm. The molecular weights of the autoantigens were identified as 30, 37‑39, 42, 53, 60‑75, 90, 100, 110, and 126 kDa; the 30 kDa protein was observed only in HMCs. The addition of HCQ at a concentration of 1 µg/ml produced no significant cytotoxicity in HMCs and was demonstrated to reduce the binding of GV immunoglobulin G (IgG) to the surface of HMCs

  16. B-cell Maturation Antigen is a Promising Target for Adoptive T-cell Therapy of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Robert O.; Evbuomwan, Moses O.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Rose, Jeremy J.; Raffeld, Mark; Yang, Shicheng; Gress, Ronald E.; Hakim, Frances T.; Kochenderfer, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Multiple myeloma (MM) is a usually incurable malignancy of plasma cells. New therapies are urgently needed for MM. Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-expressing T cells is a promising new therapy for hematologic malignancies, but an ideal target antigen for CAR-expressing T cell therapies of MM has not been identified. B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) is a protein that has been reported to be selectively expressed by B-lineage cells including MM cells. Our goal was to determine if BCMA is a suitable target for CAR-expressing T cells. Experimental Design We conducted an assessment of BCMA expression in normal human tissues and MM cells by flow cytometry, quantitative PCR, and immunohistochemistry. We designed and tested novel anti-BCMA CARs. Results BCMA had a restricted RNA expression pattern. Except for expression on plasma cells, BCMA protein was not detected in normal human tissues. BCMA was not detected on primary human CD34+ hematopoietic cells. We detected uniform BCMA cell-surface expression on primary MM cells from 5 of 5 patients. We designed the first anti-BCMA CARs to be reported, and we transduced T cells with lentiviral vectors encoding these CARs. The CARs gave T cells the ability to specifically recognize BCMA. The anti-BCMA-CAR-transduced T cells exhibited BCMA-specific functions including cytokine production, proliferation, cytotoxicity, and in vivo tumor eradication. Importantly, anti-BCMA-CAR-transduced T cells recognized and killed primary MM cells. Conclusions BCMA is a suitable target for CAR-expressing T cells, and adoptive transfer of anti-BCMA-CAR-expressing T cells is a promising new strategy for treating MM. PMID:23344265

  17. A Multiple Antigenic Peptide Mimicking Peptidoglycan Induced T Cell Responses to Protect Mice from Systemic Infection with Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiang-Yu; Huang, Zhao-Xia; Chen, Yi-Guo; Lu, Xiao; Zhu, Ping; Wen, Kun; Fu, Ning; Liu, Bei-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Due to the enormous capacity of Staphylococcus aureus to acquire antibiotic resistance, it becomes imperative to develop vaccines for decreasing the risk of its life-threatening infections. Peptidoglycan (PGN) is a conserved and major component of S. aureus cell wall. However, it has not been used as a vaccine candidate since it is a thymus-independent antigen. In this study, we synthesized a multiple antigenic peptide, named MAP27, which comprised four copies of a peptide that mimics the epitope of PGN. After immunization with MAP27 five times and boosting with heat-inactivated bacterium one time, anti-MAP27 serum bound directly to S. aureus or PGN. Immunization with MAP27 decreased the bacterial burden in organs of BALB/c mice and significantly prolonged their survival time after S. aureus lethal-challenge. The percentage of IFN-γ+CD3+ T cells and IL-17+CD4+ T cells in spleen, as well as the levels of IFN-γ, IL-17A/F and CCL3 in spleen and lung, significantly increased in the MAP27-immunized mice after infection. Moreover, in vitro incubation of heat-inactivated S. aureus with splenocytes isolated from MAP27-immunized mice stimulated the production of IFN-γ and IL-17A/F. Our findings demonstrated that MAP27, as a thymus-dependent antigen, is efficient at eliciting T cell-mediated responses to protect mice from S. aureus infection. This study sheds light on a possible strategy to design vaccines against S. aureus. PMID:26317210

  18. Antigen-Specific Tolerance by Autologous Myelin Peptide–Coupled Cells: A Phase 1 Trial in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lutterotti, Andreas; Yousef, Sara; Sputtek, Andreas; Stürner, Klarissa H.; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Breiden, Petra; Reinhardt, Stefanie; Schulze, Christian; Bester, Maxim; Heesen, Christoph; Schippling, Sven; Miller, Stephen D.; Sospedra, Mireia; Martin, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating inflammatory disease of the brain and spinal cord that is thought to result from an autoimmune attack directed against antigens in the central nervous system. The aim of this first-in-man trial was to assess the feasibility, safety, and tolerability of a tolerization regimen in MS patients that uses a single infusion of autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells chemically coupled with seven myelin peptides (MOG1–20, MOG35–55, MBP13–32, MBP83–99, MBP111–129, MBP146–170, and PLP139–154). An open-label, single-center, dose-escalation study was performed in seven relapsing-remitting and two secondary progressive MS patients who were off-treatment for standard therapies. All patients had to show T cell reactivity against at least one of the myelin peptides used in the trial. Neurological, magnetic resonance imaging, laboratory, and immunological examinations were performed to assess the safety, tolerability, and in vivo mechanisms of action of this regimen. Administration of antigen-coupled cells was feasible, had a favorable safety profile, and was well tolerated in MS patients. Patients receiving the higher doses (>1 × 109) of peptide-coupled cells had a decrease in antigen-specific T cell responses after peptide-coupled cell therapy. In summary, this first-in-man clinical trial of autologous peptide-coupled cells in MS patients establishes the feasibility and indicates good tolerability and safety of this therapeutic approach. PMID:23740901

  19. Do antibodies to myelin basic protein isolated from multiple sclerosis cross-react with measles and other common virus antigens?

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, C C; Townsend, E; Randell, V B; Williamson, H G

    1983-01-01

    Immunological activity to various antigens, including brain components, measles and other viruses, has been associated with IgG in multiple sclerosis (MS). One possible explanation for the presence of anti-viral antibodies and antibody to myelin basic protein (MBP) in MS patients is that there are antigenic determinants common to certain viruses and MBP. To assess this possibility, IgG from individual brains and sera from patients with MS, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) and controls was isolated by protein A and MBP-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Antibody to MBP was measured with a solid phase radioimmunoassay and antibody to measles and other viruses by immunofluorescence and/or complement fixation. Anti-MBP activity was detected in brain extracts and sera of all MS patients tested. In contrast to the low levels of antibody to MBP in control brains, high levels of anti-MBP antibodies were found in most of the normal sera. There was no correlation between the presence and levels of serum anti-measles antibodies and the anti-MBP activity. None of the anti-MBP antibodies affinity purified from brain and serum of MS patients reacted with any of the viruses tested, including measles. IgG purified from SSPE patients or from a rabbit hyperimmunized with measles antigen had no reactivity to MBP, despite high levels of anti-measles antibody. It is concluded that there is not direct link between the presence of antibody to MBP and antibody to measles and other viruses in MS patients. PMID:6190599

  20. Development of multiple sclerosis after vaccination against hepatitis B: a study based on human leucocyte antigen haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Ozakbas, S; Idiman, E; Yulug, B; Pakoz, B; Bahar, H; Gulay, Z

    2006-09-01

    The aetiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still not fully understood. Infectious agents are believed to play a role in the development of this multifactorial disease. Cases in which this disease occurs after administration of both plasma-derived and recombinant hepatitis B vaccines have been reported. In this study, we compared a group of 11 MS patients who developed first clinical symptoms after hepatitis B vaccination (group I) with 71 MS patients who were never vaccinated against hepatitis B and were negative for hepatitis B serology (group II), and 20 healthy controls (group III). Mean age was 27.75 years (19-39) in group I, 30.16 years (18-50) in group II, and 34.4 years (18-50) in group III. Mean attack rate after 2 years was 1.5 in group I and 1.63 in group II. Mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score after 2 years was 1.31 in group I and 1.89 in group II. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) typing and serology for hepatitis B surface antigen were performed in all groups. In groups I and II, HLA-DR2 was more frequent than in normal healthy subjects. This reflects the general role of HLA in the pathogenesis of MS but suggests that antigen presentation by different HLA is not involved in the development of MS after hepatitis B vaccination. Since there was no difference in the clinical features between vaccinated and nonvaccinated MS patients, this study supports recent reports that hepatitis B vaccination is safe in MS patients and that hepatitis B vaccination is not involved in the development of MS. PMID:16948644

  1. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 15 (Siglec-15) mediates periarticular bone loss, but not joint destruction, in murine antigen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tomohiro; Takahata, Masahiko; Kameda, Yusuke; Endo, Tsutomu; Hamano, Hiroki; Hiratsuka, Shigeto; Ota, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2015-10-01

    Osteoclastogenesis requires immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif signaling. Multiple immunoreceptors associated with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif adaptor proteins, including DNAX-activating protein 12 kDa (DAP12) and Fc receptor common γ (FcRγ), have been identified in osteoclast lineage cells, and some are involved in arthritis-induced bone destruction. Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 15 (Siglec-15) is an immunoreceptor that regulates osteoclast development and bone resorption in association with DAP12. Whether Siglec-15 is involved in arthritis-induced bone lesions, however, remains unknown. Here we used a murine antigen-induced arthritis model to examine the role of Siglec-15 in the development of bone lesions induced by joint inflammation. Arthritis was unilaterally induced in the knee joints of 8-week-old female wild-type (WT) and Siglec-15(-/-) mice, and the contralateral knees were used as a control. The degree of joint inflammation, and cartilage and subchondral bone destruction in Siglec-15(-/-) mice was comparable to that in WT mice, indicating that Siglec-15 is not involved in the development of arthritis and concomitant cartilage and subchondral bone destruction. On the other hand, the degree of periarticular bone loss in the proximal tibia of the arthritic knee was significantly lower in Siglec-15(-/-) mice compared to WT mice. Although osteoclast formation in the metaphysis was enhanced in both WT and Siglec-15(-/-) mice after arthritis induction, mature multinucleated osteoclast formation was impaired in Siglec-15(-/-) mice, indicating impaired osteoclast bone resorptive function in the periarticular regions of the arthritic joint in Siglec-15(-/-) mice. Confirming this result, Siglec-15(-/-) primary unfractionated bone marrow cells harvested from arthritic femurs and tibiae failed to develop into mature multinuclear osteoclasts. Our findings suggest that Siglec-15 is a therapeutic target for periarticular

  2. Expression of a Chimeric Antigen Receptor in Multiple Leukocyte Lineages in Transgenic Mice.

    PubMed

    Yong, Carmen S M; Westwood, Jennifer A; Schröder, Jan; Papenfuss, Anthony T; von Scheidt, Bianca; Moeller, Maria; Devaud, Christel; Darcy, Phillip K; Kershaw, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified CD8+ T lymphocytes have shown significant anti-tumor effects in the adoptive immunotherapy of cancer, with recent studies highlighting a potential role for a combination of other immune subsets to enhance these results. However, limitations in present genetic modification techniques impose difficulties in our ability to fully explore the potential of various T cell subsets and assess the potential of other leukocytes armed with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). To address this issue, we generated a transgenic mouse model using a pan-hematopoietic promoter (vav) to drive the expression of a CAR specific for a tumor antigen. Here we present a characterization of the immune cell compartment in two unique vav-CAR transgenic mice models, Founder 9 (F9) and Founder 38 (F38). We demonstrate the vav promoter is indeed capable of driving the expression of a CAR in cells from both myeloid and lymphoid lineage, however the highest level of expression was observed in T lymphocytes from F38 mice. Lymphoid organs in vav-CAR mice were smaller and had reduced cell numbers compared to the wild type (WT) controls. Furthermore, the immune composition of F9 mice differed greatly with a significant reduction in lymphocytes found in the thymus, lymph node and spleen of these mice. To gain insight into the altered immune phenotype of F9 mice, we determined the chromosomal integration site of the transgene in both mouse strains using whole genome sequencing (WGS). We demonstrated that compared to the 7 copies found in F38 mice, F9 mice harbored almost 270 copies. These novel vav-CAR models provide a ready source of CAR expressing myeloid and lymphoid cells and will aid in facilitating future experiments to delineate the role for other leukocytes for adoptive immunotherapy against cancer. PMID:26505904

  3. Expression of a Chimeric Antigen Receptor in Multiple Leukocyte Lineages in Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Carmen S. M.; Westwood, Jennifer A.; Schröder, Jan; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; von Scheidt, Bianca; Moeller, Maria; Devaud, Christel

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified CD8+ T lymphocytes have shown significant anti-tumor effects in the adoptive immunotherapy of cancer, with recent studies highlighting a potential role for a combination of other immune subsets to enhance these results. However, limitations in present genetic modification techniques impose difficulties in our ability to fully explore the potential of various T cell subsets and assess the potential of other leukocytes armed with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). To address this issue, we generated a transgenic mouse model using a pan-hematopoietic promoter (vav) to drive the expression of a CAR specific for a tumor antigen. Here we present a characterization of the immune cell compartment in two unique vav-CAR transgenic mice models, Founder 9 (F9) and Founder 38 (F38). We demonstrate the vav promoter is indeed capable of driving the expression of a CAR in cells from both myeloid and lymphoid lineage, however the highest level of expression was observed in T lymphocytes from F38 mice. Lymphoid organs in vav-CAR mice were smaller and had reduced cell numbers compared to the wild type (WT) controls. Furthermore, the immune composition of F9 mice differed greatly with a significant reduction in lymphocytes found in the thymus, lymph node and spleen of these mice. To gain insight into the altered immune phenotype of F9 mice, we determined the chromosomal integration site of the transgene in both mouse strains using whole genome sequencing (WGS). We demonstrated that compared to the 7 copies found in F38 mice, F9 mice harbored almost 270 copies. These novel vav-CAR models provide a ready source of CAR expressing myeloid and lymphoid cells and will aid in facilitating future experiments to delineate the role for other leukocytes for adoptive immunotherapy against cancer. PMID:26505904

  4. A rigorous multiple independent binding site model for determining cell-based equilibrium dissociation constants.

    PubMed

    Drake, Andrew W; Klakamp, Scott L

    2007-01-10

    A new 4-parameter nonlinear equation based on the standard multiple independent binding site model (MIBS) is presented for fitting cell-based ligand titration data in order to calculate the ligand/cell receptor equilibrium dissociation constant and the number of receptors/cell. The most commonly used linear (Scatchard Plot) or nonlinear 2-parameter model (a single binding site model found in commercial programs like Prism(R)) used for analysis of ligand/receptor binding data assumes only the K(D) influences the shape of the titration curve. We demonstrate using simulated data sets that, depending upon the cell surface receptor expression level, the number of cells titrated, and the magnitude of the K(D) being measured, this assumption of always being under K(D)-controlled conditions can be erroneous and can lead to unreliable estimates for the binding parameters. We also compare and contrast the fitting of simulated data sets to the commonly used cell-based binding equation versus our more rigorous 4-parameter nonlinear MIBS model. It is shown through these simulations that the new 4-parameter MIBS model, when used for cell-based titrations under optimal conditions, yields highly accurate estimates of all binding parameters and hence should be the preferred model to fit cell-based experimental nonlinear titration data. PMID:17141800

  5. Structure-based design of a disulfide-linked oligomeric form of the simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen DNA-binding domain

    SciTech Connect

    Meinke, Gretchen; Phelan, Paul; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Archambault, Jacques; Bullock, Peter A.

    2011-06-01

    With the aim of forming the ‘lock-washer’ conformation of the origin-binding domain of SV40 large T antigen in solution, using structure-based analysis an intermolecular disulfide bridge was engineered into the origin-binding domain to generate higher order oligomers in solution. The 1.7 Å resolution structure shows that the mutant forms a spiral in the crystal and has the de novo disulfide bond at the protein interface, although structural rearrangements at the interface are observed relative to the wild type. The modular multifunctional protein large T antigen (T-ag) from simian virus 40 orchestrates many of the events needed for replication of the viral double-stranded DNA genome. This protein assembles into single and double hexamers on specific DNA sequences located at the origin of replication. This complicated process begins when the origin-binding domain of large T antigen (T-ag ODB) binds the GAGGC sequences in the central region (site II) of the viral origin of replication. While many of the functions of purified T-ag OBD can be studied in isolation, it is primarily monomeric in solution and cannot assemble into hexamers. To overcome this limitation, the possibility of engineering intermolecular disulfide bonds in the origin-binding domain which could oligomerize in solution was investigated. A recent crystal structure of the wild-type T-ag OBD showed that this domain forms a left-handed spiral in the crystal with six subunits per turn. Therefore, we analyzed the protein interface of this structure and identified two residues that could potentially support an intermolecular disulfide bond if changed to cysteines. SDS–PAGE analysis established that the mutant T-ag OBD formed higher oligomeric products in a redox-dependent manner. In addition, the 1.7 Å resolution crystal structure of the engineered disulfide-linked T-ag OBD is reported, which establishes that oligomerization took place in the expected manner.

  6. Multiple antigens of Yersinia pestis delivered by live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains elicit protective immunity against plague.

    PubMed

    Sanapala, Shilpa; Rahav, Hannah; Patel, Hetal; Sun, Wei; Curtiss, Roy

    2016-05-01

    Based on our improved novel Salmonella vaccine delivery platform, we optimized the recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine (RASV) χ12094 to deliver multiple Yersinia pestis antigens. These included LcrV196 (amino acids, 131-326), Psn encoded on pYA5383 and F1 encoded in the chromosome, their synthesis did not cause adverse effects on bacterial growth. Oral immunization with χ12094(pYA5383) simultaneously stimulated high antibody titers to LcrV, Psn and F1 in mice and presented complete protection against both subcutaneous (s.c.) and intranasal (i.n.) challenges with high lethal doses of Y. pestis CO92. Moreover, no deaths or other disease symptoms were observed in SCID mice orally immunized with χ12094(pYA5383) over a 60-day period. Therefore, the trivalent S. typhimurium-based live vaccine shows promise for a next-generation plague vaccine. PMID:27060051

  7. Coexpression of binding sites for A(B) histo-blood group trisaccharides with galectin-3 and Lag antigen in human Langerhans cells.

    PubMed

    Smetana, K; Holíková, Z; Klubal, R; Bovin, N V; Dvoránková, B; Bartůnková, J; Liu, F T; Gabius, H J

    1999-10-01

    Galectin-3 is an immunomodulatory protein with binding capacity for various glycoconjugates including IgE. It has been shown to be produced by epidermal keratinocytes and is present on the surfaces of skin Langerhans cells (LC). Therefore, it may have a role in the pathogenesis of various skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis. To study the expression of galectin-3 in LC, we used, in addition to specific antibodies, a panel of synthetic, carrier-immobilized, specific oligosaccharides of the A- and B-histo-blood group, which are recognized by this lectin. In the mean time, Birbeck granules were visualized with an anti-Lag antibody. The double labeling experiments showed a remarkable colocalization of signals for Lag antigen (Birbeck granules) and galectin-3, as well as the binding sites for A- and B-histo-blood group trisaccharides. The specificity of the oligosaccharide binding was demonstrated by the lack of binding by Le(c), Le(d) (H blood group antigen), and sLe(x), which are not recognized by galectin-3. These results suggest that galectin-3 is present in Birbeck granules, where it retains reactivity for its glycoligands. PMID:10534121

  8. Strategic priming with multiple antigens can yield memory cell phenotypes optimized for infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A computational study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ziraldo, Cordelia; Gong, Chang; Kirschner, Denise E.; Linderman, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-06

    Lack of an effective vaccine results in 9 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) every year and 1.8 million deaths worldwide. While many infants are vaccinated at birth with BCG (an attenuated M. bovis), this does not prevent infection or development of TB after childhood. Immune responses necessary for prevention of infection or disease are still unknown, making development of effective vaccines against TB challenging. Several new vaccines are ready for human clinical trials, but these trials are difficult and expensive; especially challenging is determining the appropriate cellular response necessary for protection. The magnitude of an immune response is likelymore » key to generating a successful vaccine. Characteristics such as numbers of central memory (CM) and effector memory (EM) T cells responsive to a diverse set of epitopes are also correlated with protection. Promising vaccines against TB contain mycobacterial subunit antigens (Ag) present during both active and latent infection. We hypothesize that protection against different key immunodominant antigens could require a vaccine that produces different levels of EM and CM for each Ag-specific memory population. We created a computational model to explore EM and CM values, and their ratio, within what we term Memory Design Space. Our model captures events involved in T cell priming within lymph nodes and tracks their circulation through blood to peripheral tissues. We used the model to test whether multiple Ag-specific memory cell populations could be generated with distinct locations within Memory Design Space at a specific time point post vaccination. Boosting can further shift memory populations to memory cell ratios unreachable by initial priming events. By strategically varying antigen load, properties of cellular interactions within the LN, and delivery parameters (e.g., number of boosts) of multi-subunit vaccines, we can generate multiple Ag-specific memory populations that cover a wide range of

  9. Strategic Priming with Multiple Antigens can Yield Memory Cell Phenotypes Optimized for Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Ziraldo, Cordelia; Gong, Chang; Kirschner, Denise E.; Linderman, Jennifer J.

    2016-01-01

    Lack of an effective vaccine results in 9 million new cases of tuberculosis (TB) every year and 1.8 million deaths worldwide. Although many infants are vaccinated at birth with BCG (an attenuated M. bovis), this does not prevent infection or development of TB after childhood. Immune responses necessary for prevention of infection or disease are still unknown, making development of effective vaccines against TB challenging. Several new vaccines are ready for human clinical trials, but these trials are difficult and expensive; especially challenging is determining the appropriate cellular response necessary for protection. The magnitude of an immune response is likely key to generating a successful vaccine. Characteristics such as numbers of central memory (CM) and effector memory (EM) T cells responsive to a diverse set of epitopes are also correlated with protection. Promising vaccines against TB contain mycobacterial subunit antigens (Ag) present during both active and latent infection. We hypothesize that protection against different key immunodominant antigens could require a vaccine that produces different levels of EM and CM for each Ag-specific memory population. We created a computational model to explore EM and CM values, and their ratio, within what we term Memory Design Space. Our model captures events involved in T cell priming within lymph nodes and tracks their circulation through blood to peripheral tissues. We used the model to test whether multiple Ag-specific memory cell populations could be generated with distinct locations within Memory Design Space at a specific time point post vaccination. Boosting can further shift memory populations to memory cell ratios unreachable by initial priming events. By strategically varying antigen load, properties of cellular interactions within the LN, and delivery parameters (e.g., number of boosts) of multi-subunit vaccines, we can generate multiple Ag-specific memory populations that cover a wide range of

  10. Extensive multiple test centre evaluation of the VecTest malaria antigen panel assay.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J R; Davé, K; Collins, K M; Hochberg, L; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Coleman, R E; Dunton, R F; Bangs, M J; Mbogo, C M; Cooper, R D; Schoeler, G B; Rubio-Palis, Y; Magris, M; Romer, L I; Padilla, N; Quakyi, I A; Bigoga, J; Leke, R G; Akinpelu, O; Evans, B; Walsey, M; Patterson, P; Wirtz, R A; Chan, A S T

    2002-09-01

    To determine which species and populations of Anopheles transmit malaria in any given situation, immunological assays for malaria sporozoite antigen can replace traditional microscopical examination of freshly dissected Anopheles. We developed a wicking assay for use with mosquitoes that identifies the presence or absence of specific peptide epitopes of circumsporozoite (CS) protein of Plasmodium falciparum and two strains of Plasmodium vivax (variants 210 and 247). The resulting assay (VecTest Malaria) is a rapid, one-step procedure using a 'dipstick' test strip capable of detecting and distinguishing between P. falciparum and P. vivax infections in mosquitoes. The objective of the present study was to test the efficacy, sensitivity, stability and field-user acceptability of this wicking dipstick assay. In collaboration with 16 test centres world-wide, we evaluated more than 40 000 units of this assay, comparing it to the standard CS ELISA. The 'VecTest Malaria' was found to show 92% sensitivity and 98.1% specificity, with 97.8% accuracy overall. In accelerated storage tests, the dipsticks remained stable for > 15 weeks in dry conditions up to 45 degrees C and in humid conditions up to 37 degrees C. Evidently, this quick and easy dipstick test performs at an acceptable level of reliability and offers practical advantages for field workers needing to make rapid surveys of malaria vectors. PMID:12243234

  11. Multiple factors dictate target selection by Hfq-binding small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Beisel, Chase L; Updegrove, Taylor B; Janson, Ben J; Storz, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    Hfq-binding small RNAs (sRNAs) in bacteria modulate the stability and translational efficiency of target mRNAs through limited base-pairing interactions. While these sRNAs are known to regulate numerous mRNAs as part of stress responses, what distinguishes targets and non-targets among the mRNAs predicted to base pair with Hfq-binding sRNAs is poorly understood. Using the Hfq-binding sRNA Spot 42 of Escherichia coli as a model, we found that predictions using only the three unstructured regions of Spot 42 substantially improved the identification of previously known and novel Spot 42 targets. Furthermore, increasing the extent of base-pairing in single or multiple base-pairing regions improved the strength of regulation, but only for the unstructured regions of Spot 42. We also found that non-targets predicted to base pair with Spot 42 lacked an Hfq-binding site, folded into a secondary structure that occluded the Spot 42 targeting site, or had overlapping Hfq-binding and targeting sites. By modifying these features, we could impart Spot 42 regulation on non-target mRNAs. Our results thus provide valuable insights into the requirements for target selection by sRNAs. PMID:22388518

  12. Epitope mapping of anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis: microwave-assisted synthesis of the peptide antigens and ELISA screening.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Giulia; Ieronymaki, Matthaia; Nuti, Francesca; Sabatino, Giuseppina; Larregola, Maud; Aharoni, Rina; Papini, Anna Maria; Rovero, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The role of pathologic auto-antibodies against myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in multiple sclerosis is a highly controversial matter. As the use of animal models may enable to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the human disorder, numerous studies on multiple sclerosis are carried out using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In particular, the most extensively used EAE model is obtained by immunizing C57BL/6 mice with the immunodominant peptide MOG(35-55). In this scenario, we analyzed the anti-MOG antibody response in this model using the recombinant refolded extracellular domain of the protein, MOG(1-117). To assess the presence of a B-cell intramolecular epitope spreading mechanism, we tested also five synthetic peptides mapping the 1-117 sequence of MOG, including MOG(35-55). For this purpose, we cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli and on-column refolded MOG(1-117), and we applied an optimized microwave-assisted solid-phase synthetic strategy to obtain the designed peptide sequences. Subsequently, we set up a solid-phase immunoenzymatic assay testing both naïve and EAE mice sera and using MOG protein and peptides as antigenic probes. The results obtained disclose an intense IgG antibody response against both the recombinant protein and the immunizing peptide, while no response was observed against the other synthetic fragments, thus excluding the presence of an intramolecular epitope spreading mechanism. Furthermore, as the properly refolded recombinant probe is able to bind antibodies with greater efficiency compared with MOG(35-55), we hypothesize the presence of both linear and conformational epitopes on MOG(35-55) sequence. PMID:26663200

  13. Monoclonal antibodies directed against major histocompatibility complex antigens bind to the surface of Treponema pallidum isolated from infected rabbits or humans.

    PubMed

    Marchitto, K S; Kindt, T J; Norgard, M V

    1986-09-01

    Evidence is presented for the association of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens with the surface of Treponema pallidum during infection. A monoclonal antibody (IgG2a) directed against a murine H-2Kb epitope of public specificity reacted with the cell surface of T. pallidum, as assayed by the binding of protein A-colloidal gold in immunoelectron microscopy. Monoclonal antibodies directed against class I rabbit MHC antigens also reacted in immunofluorescence assays with material on the surface of rabbit-cultivated T. pallidum. In addition, impression smears of human syphilitic genital ulcers that were darkfield-positive for the presence of spirochetes were tested in immunofluorescence assays with monoclonal antibodies directed against human MHC antigens; antibody directed against HLA-ABC (class I) was reactive whereas antibody directed against HLA-DR (class II) was nonreactive. Results of the study suggest that the association of host-derived class I MHC antigens or molecular mimicry may play a role in T. pallidum evasion of host immune defenses. PMID:2428519

  14. A single amino acid substitution in the DNA-binding domain of Aeropyrum pernix DNA ligase impairs its interaction with proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

    PubMed

    Kiyonari, Shinichi; Kamigochi, Toru; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2007-09-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is known as a DNA sliding clamp that acts as a platform for the assembly of enzymes involved in DNA replication and repair. Previously, it was reported that a crenarchaeal PCNA formed a heterotrimeric structure, and that each PCNA subunit has distinct binding specificity to PCNA-binding proteins. Here we describe the PCNA-binding properties of a DNA ligase from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1. Based on our findings on the Pyrococcus furiosus DNA ligase-PCNA interaction, we predicted that the aromatic residue, Phe132, in the DNA-binding domain of A. pernix DNA ligase (ApeLig) would play a critical role in binding to A. pernix PCNA (ApePCNA). Surface plasmon resonance analyses revealed that the ApeLig F132A mutant does not interact with an immobilized subunit of ApePCNA. Furthermore, we could not detect any stimulation of the ligation activity of the ApeLig F132A protein by ApePCNA in vitro. These results indicated that the phenylalanine, which is located in our predicted PCNA-binding region in ApeLig, has a critical role for the physical and functional interaction with ApePCNA. PMID:17487442

  15. Estimation of Recent and Long-Term Malaria Transmission in a Population by Antibody Testing to Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Ondigo, Bartholomew N.; Hodges, James S.; Ireland, Kathleen F.; Magak, Ng'wena G.; Lanar, David E.; Dutta, Sheetij; Narum, David L.; Park, Gregory S.; Ofulla, Ayub V.; John, Chandy C.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tools that estimate recent and long-term malaria transmission in a population would be highly useful for malaria elimination programs. Methods. The prevalence of antibodies to 11 Plasmodium falciparum antigens was assessed by cytometric bead assay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 1000 people in a highland area of Kenya over 14 months, during a period of interrupted malaria transmission. Results. Antibodies differed by antigen in acquisition with age: rapid (>80% antibody positive by age 20 years, 5 antigens), moderate (>40% positive by age 20 years, 3 antigens), or slow (<40% positive by age 20 years, 3 antigens). Antibody seroreversion rates in the 14 months between samples decreased with age rapidly (7 antigens), slowly (3 antigens), or remained high at all ages (schizont extract). Estimated antibody half-lives in individuals >10 years of age were long (40 to >80 years) for 5 antigens, moderate (5–20 years) for 3 antigens, and short (<1 year) for 3 antigens. Conclusions. Antibodies to P. falciparum antigens in malaria-endemic areas vary by age, antigen, and time since last exposure to P. falciparum. Multiplex P. falciparum antibody testing could provide estimates of long-term and recent malaria transmission and potentially of a population's susceptibility to future clinical malaria. PMID:24737801

  16. EBNA1 antigen-specific CD8+ T cells in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Erdur, Hebun; Scholz, Veronika; Streitz, Mathias; Hammer, Markus; Meisel, Christian; Schönemann, Constanze; Wandinger, Klaus-Peter; Rosche, Berit

    2016-05-15

    Epidemiological data suggests that Epstein-Barr virus may be involved in the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis (MS). We aimed to determine the frequency of CD8+ T cells specific for one EBNA1-derived epitope (HPVGEADYFEY) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood of patients with MS and other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND). The frequency of specific CD8+ T cells was assessed by HLA-class-I-binding pentamers restricted to HLA-B35. The frequency of HPVGEADYFEY-specific CD8+ T cells did neither differ significantly in blood nor CSF in MS compared to OIND, but was consistently higher in CSF compared to blood regardless of diagnosis. PMID:27138093

  17. Class-switched anti-insulin antibodies originate from unconventional antigen presentation in multiple lymphoid sites.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xiaoxiao; Thomas, James W; Unanue, Emil R

    2016-05-30

    Autoantibodies to insulin are a harbinger of autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes in humans and in non-obese diabetic mice. To understand the genesis of these autoantibodies, we investigated the interactions of insulin-specific T and B lymphocytes using T cell and B cell receptor transgenic mice. We found spontaneous anti-insulin germinal center (GC) formation throughout lymphoid tissues with GC B cells binding insulin. Moreover, because of the nature of the insulin epitope recognized by the T cells, it was evident that GC B cells presented a broader repertoire of insulin epitopes. Such broader recognition was reproduced by activating naive B cells ex vivo with a combination of CD40 ligand and interleukin 4. Thus, insulin immunoreactivity extends beyond the pancreatic lymph node-islets of Langerhans axis and indicates that circulating insulin, despite its very low levels, can have an influence on diabetogenesis. PMID:27139492

  18. Orthogonal matrix factorization enables integrative analysis of multiple RNA binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Stražar, Martin; Žitnik, Marinka; Zupan, Blaž; Ule, Jernej; Curk, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: RNA binding proteins (RBPs) play important roles in post-transcriptional control of gene expression, including splicing, transport, polyadenylation and RNA stability. To model protein–RNA interactions by considering all available sources of information, it is necessary to integrate the rapidly growing RBP experimental data with the latest genome annotation, gene function, RNA sequence and structure. Such integration is possible by matrix factorization, where current approaches have an undesired tendency to identify only a small number of the strongest patterns with overlapping features. Because protein–RNA interactions are orchestrated by multiple factors, methods that identify discriminative patterns of varying strengths are needed. Results: We have developed an integrative orthogonality-regularized nonnegative matrix factorization (iONMF) to integrate multiple data sources and discover non-overlapping, class-specific RNA binding patterns of varying strengths. The orthogonality constraint halves the effective size of the factor model and outperforms other NMF models in predicting RBP interaction sites on RNA. We have integrated the largest data compendium to date, which includes 31 CLIP experiments on 19 RBPs involved in splicing (such as hnRNPs, U2AF2, ELAVL1, TDP-43 and FUS) and processing of 3’UTR (Ago, IGF2BP). We show that the integration of multiple data sources improves the predictive accuracy of retrieval of RNA binding sites. In our study the key predictive factors of protein–RNA interactions were the position of RNA structure and sequence motifs, RBP co-binding and gene region type. We report on a number of protein-specific patterns, many of which are consistent with experimentally determined properties of RBPs. Availability and implementation: The iONMF implementation and example datasets are available at https://github.com/mstrazar/ionmf. Contact: tomaz.curk@fri.uni-lj.si Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available

  19. Neisseria gonorrhoeae MutS Affects Pilin Antigenic Variation through Mismatch Correction and Not by pilE Guanine Quartet Binding

    PubMed Central

    Rotman, Ella

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many pathogens use homologous recombination to vary surface antigens to avoid immune surveillance. Neisseria gonorrhoeae achieves this in part by changing the properties of its surface pili in a process called pilin antigenic variation (AV). Pilin AV occurs by high-frequency gene conversion reactions that transfer silent pilS sequences into the expressed pilE locus and requires the formation of an upstream guanine quartet (G4) DNA structure to initiate this process. The MutS and MutL proteins of the mismatch correction (MMC) system act to correct mismatches after replication and prevent homeologous (i.e., partially homologous) recombination, but MutS orthologs can also bind to G4 structures. A previous study showed that mutation of MutS resulted in a 3-fold increase in pilin AV, which could be due to the loss of MutS antirecombination properties or loss of G4 binding. We tested two site-directed separation-of-function MutS mutants that are both predicted to bind to G4s but are not able to perform MMC. Pilus phase variation assays and DNA sequence analysis of pilE variants produced in these mutants showed that all three mutS mutants and a mutL mutant had similar increased frequencies of pilin AV. Moreover, the mutS mutants all showed similar increased levels of pilin AV-dependent synthetic lethality. These results show that antirecombination by MMC is the reason for the effect that MutS has on pilin AV and is not due to pilE G4 binding by MutS. IMPORTANCE Neisseria gonorrhoeae continually changes its outer surface proteins to avoid recognition by the immune system. N. gonorrhoeae alters the antigenicity of the pilus by directed recombination between partially homologous pilin copies in a process that requires a guanine quartet (G4) structure. The MutS protein of the mismatch correction (MMC) system prevents recombination between partially homologous sequences and can also bind to G4s. We confirmed that loss of MMC increases the frequency of pilin antigenic

  20. Logic nanoparticle beacon triggered by the binding-induced effect of multiple inputs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Dong, Chen; Dong, Yafei; Liu, Shi; Pan, Linqiang; Zhang, Cheng

    2014-08-27

    Recently, the toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement reaction has been widely used in detecting molecular signals. However, traditional strand displacement, without cooperative signaling among DNA inputs, is insufficient for the design of more complicated nanodevices. In this work, a logic computing system is established using the cooperative "binding-induced" mechanism, based on the AuNP-based beacons, in which five kinds of multiple-input logic gates have been constructed. This system can recognize DNA and protein streptavidin simultaneously. Finally, the manipulations of the logic system are also demonstrated by controlling programmed conjugate DNA/AuNP clusters. This study provides the possibility of detecting multiple input signals and designing complex nanodevices that can be potentially applied to the detection of multiple molecular targets and the construction of large-scale DNA-based computation. PMID:25089841

  1. Post-transcriptional Regulation of Meprin α by the RNA-binding Proteins Hu Antigen R (HuR) and Tristetraprolin (TTP)*

    PubMed Central

    Roff, Alanna N.; Panganiban, Ronaldo P.; Bond, Judith S.; Ishmael, Faoud T.

    2013-01-01

    Meprins are multimeric proteases that are implicated in inflammatory bowel disease by both genetic association studies and functional studies in knock-out mice. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease show decreased colonic expression of meprin α, although regulation of expression, particularly under inflammatory stimuli, has not been studied. The studies herein demonstrate that the human meprin α transcript is bound and stabilized by Hu antigen R at baseline, and that treatment with the inflammatory stimulus phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate downregulates meprin α expression by inducing tristetraprolin. The enhanced binding of tristetraprolin to the MEP1A 3′-UTR results in destabilization of the transcript and occurs at a discrete site from Hu antigen R. This is the first report to describe a mechanism for post-transcriptional regulation of meprin α and will help clarify the role of meprins in the inflammatory response and disease. PMID:23269677

  2. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  3. Stability and activity of MCSP-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) depend on the scFv antigen-binding domain and the protein backbone.

    PubMed

    Krug, Christian; Birkholz, Katrin; Paulus, Alexander; Schwenkert, Michael; Schmidt, Patrick; Hoffmann, Nicole; Hombach, Andreas; Fey, Georg; Abken, Hinrich; Schuler, Gerold; Schuler-Thurner, Beatrice; Dörrie, Jan; Schaft, Niels

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells emerged as effective tools in the immunotherapy of cancer but can produce severe on-target off-tissue toxicities. This risk can conceivably be overcome, at least partially, by transient transfection. The design of CARs, however, has so far not been optimized for use in non-permanent T cell modification. Here we compared the performance of T cells modified with three different first- and second-generation CARs, each specific for MCSP (HMW-MAA) which is commonly expressed by melanoma cells. Upon RNA transfer, the expression of all receptors was limited in time. The second-generation CARs, which combined CD28-CD3ζ signaling, were expressed at higher levels and more prolonged than first-generation CARs with CD3ζ only. The CD28 domain increased the cytokine production, but had only an indirect effect on the lytic capacity, by prolonging the CAR expression. Especially for the second-generation CARs, the scFv clearly impacted the level and duration of CAR expression and the T cell performance. Thus, we identified a CAR high in both expression and anti-tumor cell reactivity. T cells transfected with this CAR increased the mean survival time of mice after challenge with melanoma cells. To facilitate clinical application, this CAR was used to redirect T cells from late-stage melanoma patients by RNA transfection. These T cells mediated effective antigen-specific tumor cell lysis and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, even after cryoconservation of the transfected T cells. Taken together, the analysis identified a CAR with superior anti-melanoma performance after RNA transfer which is a promising candidate for clinical exploration. PMID:26515978

  4. Effect of antigen-dependent clearance on pharmacokinetics of anti-heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Noriyuki; Yoshikawa, Yukitaka; Enokizono, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a member of the EGF family and is an important therapeutic target in some types of human cancers. KM3566 is a mouse anti-HB-EGF monoclonal antibody that neutralizes HB-EGF activity by inhibiting the binding of HB-EGF to its receptors. Based on the results of our pharmacokinetics study, a humanized derivative antibody, KHK2866, is rapidly cleared from serum and shows nonlinear pharmacokinetics in cynomolgus monkeys. In this study, we examined the antigen-dependent clearance of an anti-HB-EGF monoclonal antibody in vivo and in vitro in order to pharmacokinetically explain the rapid elimination of KHK2866. We revealed tumor size-dependent clearance of KM3566 in in vivo studies and obtained good fits between the observed and simulated concentrations of KM3566 based on the two-compartment with a saturable route of clearance model. Furthermore, in vivo imaging analyses demonstrated tumor-specific distribution of KM3566. We then confirmed rapid internalization and distribution to lysosome of KM3566 at a cellular level. Moreover, we revealed that the amounts of HB-EGF on cell surface membrane were maintained even while HB-EGF was internalized with KM3566. Recycled or newly synthesized HB-EGF, therefore, may contribute to a consecutive clearance of KM3566, which could explain a rapid clearance from serum. These data suggested that the rapid elimination in pharmacokinetics of KM3566 is due to antigen-dependent clearance. Given that its antigen is expressed in a wide range of normal tissue, it is estimated that the rapid elimination of KHK2866 from cynomolgus monkey serum is caused by antigen-dependent clearance. PMID:25517307

  5. PI3Kδ promotes CD4(+) T-cell interactions with antigen-presenting cells by increasing LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1.

    PubMed

    Garçon, Fabien; Okkenhaug, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    Activation of T lymphocytes by peptide/major histocompatibility complex on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) involves dynamic contacts between the two cells, during which T cells undergo marked morphological changes. These interactions are facilitated by integrins. Activation of the T cells increases the binding of the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) expressed by T cells to intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-2 expressed by APCs. The signalling pathways that control integrin affinities are incompletely defined. The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) generate second-messenger signalling molecules that control cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and trafficking. Here we show that in T cells, PI3Kδ attenuates the activation of Rac1, but sustains the activation of Rap1. Consequently, PI3Kδ increases LFA-1-dependent adhesion to form stable conjugates with APCs. Increased Rap1 activity and LFA-1 adhesion were only in part mediated by the downstream kinase Akt, suggesting the involvement of additional phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)P3-binding proteins. These results establish a link between PI3K activity, cytoskeletal changes and integrin binding and help explain the impaired T-cell-dependent immune responses in PI3Kδ-deficient mice. PMID:26740009

  6. PI3Kδ promotes CD4+ T-cell interactions with antigen-presenting cells by increasing LFA-1 binding to ICAM-1

    PubMed Central

    Garçon, Fabien; Okkenhaug, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Activation of T lymphocytes by peptide/major histocompatibility complex on antigen-presenting cells (APCs) involves dynamic contacts between the two cells, during which T cells undergo marked morphological changes. These interactions are facilitated by integrins. Activation of the T cells increases the binding of the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) expressed by T cells to intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and ICAM-2 expressed by APCs. The signalling pathways that control integrin affinities are incompletely defined. The phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) generate second-messenger signalling molecules that control cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and trafficking. Here we show that in T cells, PI3Kδ attenuates the activation of Rac1, but sustains the activation of Rap1. Consequently, PI3Kδ increases LFA-1-dependent adhesion to form stable conjugates with APCs. Increased Rap1 activity and LFA-1 adhesion were only in part mediated by the downstream kinase Akt, suggesting the involvement of additional phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)P3-binding proteins. These results establish a link between PI3K activity, cytoskeletal changes and integrin binding and help explain the impaired T-cell-dependent immune responses in PI3Kδ-deficient mice. PMID:26740009

  7. Structure-based Design of a Disulfide-lined Oligomeric Form of the Simian Virus 40 (SV40) Large T Antigen DNA-Binding Domain

    SciTech Connect

    G Meinke; P Phelan; A Fradet-Turcotte; J Archambault; P Bullock

    2011-12-31

    The modular multifunctional protein large T antigen (T-ag) from simian virus 40 orchestrates many of the events needed for replication of the viral double-stranded DNA genome. This protein assembles into single and double hexamers on specific DNA sequences located at the origin of replication. This complicated process begins when the origin-binding domain of large T antigen (T-ag ODB) binds the GAGGC sequences in the central region (site II) of the viral origin of replication. While many of the functions of purified T-ag OBD can be studied in isolation, it is primarily monomeric in solution and cannot assemble into hexamers. To overcome this limitation, the possibility of engineering intermolecular disulfide bonds in the origin-binding domain which could oligomerize in solution was investigated. A recent crystal structure of the wild-type T-ag OBD showed that this domain forms a left-handed spiral in the crystal with six subunits per turn. Therefore, we analyzed the protein interface of this structure and identified two residues that could potentially support an intermolecular disulfide bond if changed to cysteines. SDS-PAGE analysis established that the mutant T-ag OBD formed higher oligomeric products in a redox-dependent manner. In addition, the 1.7 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of the engineered disulfide-linked T-ag OBD is reported, which establishes that oligomerization took place in the expected manner.

  8. Differential recognition of the multiple banded antigen isoforms across Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum species by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Aboklaish, Ali F; Ahmed, Shatha; McAllister, Douglas; Cassell, Gail; Zheng, Xiaotian T; Spiller, Owen B

    2016-08-01

    Two separate species of Ureaplasma have been identified that infect humans: Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum. Most notably, these bacteria lack a cell wall and are the leading infectious organism associated with infection-related induction of preterm birth. Fourteen separate representative prototype bacterial strains, called serovars, are largely differentiated by the sequence of repeating units in the C-terminus of the major surface protein: multiple-banded antigen (MBA). Monoclonal antibodies that recognise single or small groups of serovars have been previously reported, but these reagents remain sequestered in individual research laboratories. Here we characterise a panel of commercially available monoclonal antibodies raised against the MBA and describe the first monoclonal antibody that cross-reacts by immunoblot with all serovars of U. parvum and U. urealyticum species. We also describe a recombinant MBA expressed by Escherichia coli which facilitated further characterisation by immunoblot and demonstrate immunohistochemistry of paraffin-embedded antigens. Immunoblot reactivity was validated against well characterised previously published monoclonal antibodies and individual commercial antibodies were found to recognise all U. parvum strains, only serovars 3 and 14 or only serovars 1 and 6, or all strains belonging to U. parvum and U. urealyticum. MBA mass was highly variable between strains, consistent with variation in the number of C-terminal repeats between strains. Antibody characterisation will enable future investigations to correlate severity of pathogenicity to MBA isoform number or mass, in addition to development of antibody-based diagnostics that will detect infection by all Ureaplasma species or alternately be able to differentiate between U. parvum, U. urealyticum or mixed infections. PMID:27208664

  9. Mucosal immunogenicity of polysaccharides conjugated to a peptide or multiple-antigen peptide containing T- and B-cell epitopes.

    PubMed Central

    Lett, E; Klopfenstein, C; Klein, J P; Schöller, M; Wachsmann, D

    1995-01-01

    In this study we investigated the mucosal and systemic responses to two T-cell-independent polysaccharides, a serogroup f polysaccharide (formed of rhamnose glucose polymers [RGPs]) from Streptococcus mutans OMZ 175 and a mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, covalently conjugated either to a linear peptide (peptide 3) or to a multiple-antigen peptide (MAP), both derived from S. mutans protein SR, an adhesin of the I/II protein antigen family of oral streptococci. Peptide 3 and MAP, which contained at least one B- and one T-cell epitope, were tested as carriers for the polysaccharides and as protective immunogens. Intragastric intubation of rats with the conjugates (RGPs-peptide 3, RGPs-MAP, mannan-peptide 3, and mannan-MAP) associated with liposomes produced salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies which reacted with RGPs or mannan, peptide 3 or MAP, protein SR, and S. mutans or S. cerevisiae cells. Administration of conjugate boosters to the animals showed that both carriers conjugated to the polysaccharides were able to induce, in immunized animals, a salivary antipolysaccharide IgA memory. In contrast, animals primed and challenged with unconjugated polysaccharide showed no anamnestic response. Rats orally immunized with the conjugates also developed systemic primary antipolysaccharide and antipeptide IgM antibody responses which were characterized by a switch from IgM to IgG during the course of the secondary response. Data presented here demonstrated that both peptide 3 and the MAP construct can act as good carriers for orally administered polysaccharides. Unexpectedly, the use of a MAP did not further improve the immunogenicity of polysaccharides at the mucosal level; nevertheless, such a construct should be of great interest in overcoming the problem of genetic restriction induced by linear peptides. PMID:7790080

  10. Three-Dimensional Structures Reveal Multiple ADP/ATP Binding Modes

    SciTech Connect

    C Simmons; C Magee; D Smith; L Lauman; J Chaput; J Allen

    2011-12-31

    The creation of synthetic enzymes with predefined functions represents a major challenge in future synthetic biology applications. Here, we describe six structures of de novo proteins that have been determined using protein crystallography to address how simple enzymes perform catalysis. Three structures are of a protein, DX, selected for its stability and ability to tightly bind ATP. Despite the addition of ATP to the crystallization conditions, the presence of a bound but distorted ATP was found only under excess ATP conditions, with ADP being present under equimolar conditions or when crystallized for a prolonged period of time. A bound ADP cofactor was evident when Asp was substituted for Val at residue 65, but ATP in a linear configuration is present when Phe was substituted for Tyr at residue 43. These new structures complement previously determined structures of DX and the protein with the Phe 43 to Tyr substitution [Simmons, C. R., et al. (2009) ACS Chem. Biol. 4, 649-658] and together demonstrate the multiple ADP/ATP binding modes from which a model emerges in which the DX protein binds ATP in a configuration that represents a transitional state for the catalysis of ATP to ADP through a slow, metal-free reaction capable of multiple turnovers. This unusual observation suggests that design-free methods can be used to generate novel protein scaffolds that are tailor-made for catalysis.