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Sample records for multiple consecutive adhesive

  1. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Multiple Myeloma: Prospective Long-Term Follow-Up in 106 Consecutive Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Anselmetti, Giovanni Carlo Manca, Antonio; Montemurro, Filippo; Hirsch, Joshua; Chiara, Gabriele; Grignani, Giovanni Carnevale Schianca, Fabrizio Capaldi, Antonio Rota Scalabrini, Delia; Sardo, Elena Debernardi, Felicino; Iussich, Gabriella; Regge, Daniele

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure involving the injection of bone cement within a collapsed vertebral body. Although this procedure was demonstrated to be effective in osteoporosis and metastases, few studies have been reported in cases of multiple myeloma (MM). We prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of PV in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) resulting from MM. Materials and Methods: PV was performed in 106 consecutive MM patients who had back pain due to VCFs, the treatment of which had failed conservative therapies. Follow-up (28.2 {+-} 12.1 months) was evaluated at 7 and 15 days as well as at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and every 6 months after PV. Visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, opioid use, external brace support, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score were recorded. Results: The median pretreatment VAS score of 9 (range 4-10) significantly (P < 0.001) decreased to 1 (range 0-9) after PV. Median pre-ODI values of 82% (range 36-89%) significantly improved to 7% (range 0-82%) (P < 0.001). Differences in pretreatment and posttreatment use of analgesic drug were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The majority of patients (70 of 81; 86%) did not use an external brace after PV (P < 0.001). Conclusion: PV is a safe, effective, and long-lasting procedure for the treatment of vertebral compression pain resulting from MM.

  2. Electrostatic adhesion of multiple non-uniformly charged dielectric particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, B. A.; Whitney, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    Charged particle adhesion measurements can be as much as one order of magnitude higher than theoretical calculations. This discrepancy has ignited a debate as to the nature of the physics occurring with microscopic particle adhesion. Attempts to bring calculations closer to measured results have produced models that include multiple particle interactions, dielectric polarization, and non-uniform charge. Individually, each of these models can only produce a 2× to 5× enhancement in predicted adhesion force over simple Coulombic attraction. In this correspondence, an analytical model of electrostatic particle forces is developed, which allows for independent assignment of dielectric constant and non-uniform surface charge distribution to an arbitrary number of particles. Because the model can include an image plane, it is ideal for electrostatic adhesion calculations. Application to a monolayer of printed toner particles predicts nearly an order of magnitude increase in adhesion force over Coulombic attraction. These results are the first analytical results to place predictions of charged particle adhesion on the same order of magnitude with measurements.

  3. Rapid chemiluminescent sandwich enzyme immunoassay capable of consecutively quantifying multiple tumor markers in a sample.

    PubMed

    Kim, Julie; Kim, Jennie; Rho, Tae Ho D; Lee, Ji Hoon

    2014-11-01

    Using the role of p-iodophenol in enzyme assay, enhanced 1,1'-oxalyldiimidazole chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassays (ODI-CLEIAs) were developed to consecutively quantify trace levels of triple tumor markers, such as alpha fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and prostate specific antigen (PSA) in a sample. Due to the high sensitivity of enhanced ODI-CLEIAs, it was possible to fix the incubation times (1) to capture a tumor marker with two antibodies, which are primary antibody immobilized on the surface of polystyrene strip-well and detection antibody-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and (2) to form resorufin with the addition of substrates (e.g., Amplex Red, H2O2) in order to quantify triple markers in human serum. Enhanced ODI-CLEIAs capable of consecutively and rapidly quantifying triple markers with the same incubation time were more sensitive than conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) capable of separately and slowly quantifying them with different incubation times. In addition, accuracy, precision, and recovery of enhanced ODI CLEIAs in the presence of p-iodophenol were acceptable within statistical error range. PMID:25127571

  4. Human DNA Polymerase ϵ Is Able to Efficiently Extend from Multiple Consecutive Ribonucleotides*

    PubMed Central

    Göksenin, A. Yasemin; Zahurancik, Walter; LeCompte, Kimberly G.; Taggart, David J.; Suo, Zucai; Pursell, Zachary F.

    2012-01-01

    Replicative DNA polymerases (Pols) help to maintain the high fidelity of replication in large part through their strong selectivity against mispaired deoxyribonucleotides. It has recently been demonstrated that several replicative Pols from yeast have surprisingly low selectivity for deoxyribonucleotides over their analogous ribonucleotides. In human cells, ribonucleotides are found in great abundance over deoxyribonucleotides, raising the possibility that ribonucleotides are incorporated in the human genome at significant levels during normal cellular functions. To address this possibility, the ability of human DNA polymerase ϵ to incorporate ribonucleotides was tested. At physiological concentrations of nucleotides, human Pol ϵ readily inserts and extends from incorporated ribonucleotides. Almost half of inserted ribonucleotides escape proofreading by 3′ → 5′ exonuclease-proficient Pol ϵ, indicating that ribonucleotide incorporation by Pol ϵ is likely a significant event in human cells. Human Pol ϵ is also efficient at extending from primers terminating in up to five consecutive ribonucleotides. This efficient extension appears to result from reduced exonuclease activity on primers containing consecutive 3′-terminal ribonucleotides. These biochemical properties suggest that Pol ϵ is a likely source of ribonucleotides in human genomic DNA. PMID:23093410

  5. Split-Volume Treatment Planning of Multiple Consecutive Vertebral Body Metastases for Cyberknife Image-Guided Robotic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect

    Sahgal, Arjun Chuang, Cynthia; Larson, David; Huang, Kim; Petti, Paula; Weinstein, Phil; Ma Lijun

    2008-10-01

    Cyberknife treatment planning of multiple consecutive vertebral body metastases is challenging due to large target volumes adjacent to critical normal tissues. A split-volume treatment planning technique was developed to improve the treatment plan quality of such lesions. Treatment plans were generated for 1 to 5 consecutive thoracic vertebral bodies (CVBM) prescribing a total dose of 24 Gy in 3 fractions. The planning target volume (PTV) consisted of the entire vertebral body(ies). Treatment plans were generated considering both the de novo clinical scenario (no prior radiation), imposing a dose limit of 8 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord, and the retreatment scenario (prior radiation) with a dose limit of 3 Gy to 1 cc of spinal cord. The split-volume planning technique was compared with the standard full-volume technique only for targets ranging from 2 to 5 CVBM in length. The primary endpoint was to obtain best PTV coverage by the 24 Gy prescription isodose line. A total of 18 treatment plans were generated (10 standard and 8 split-volume). PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line worsened consistently as the number of CVBM increased for both the de novo and retreatment scenario. Split-volume planning was achieved by introducing a 0.5-cm gap, splitting the standard full-volume PTV into 2 equal length PTVs. In every case, split-volume planning resulted in improved PTV coverage by the 24-Gy isodose line ranging from 4% to 12% for the de novo scenario and, 8% to 17% for the retreatment scenario. We did not observe a significant trend for increased monitor units required, or higher doses to spinal cord or esophagus, with split-volume planning. Split-volume treatment planning significantly improves Cyberknife treatment plan quality for CVBM, as compared to the standard technique. This technique may be of particular importance in clinical situations where stringent spinal cord dose limits are required.

  6. Adhesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... adhesions Ovarian cyst References Munireddy S, Kavalukas SL, Barbul A. Intra-abdominal healing: gastrointestinal tract and adhesions. Surg Clin N Am Kulaylat MN, Dayton, MT. Surgical complications. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, ...

  7. Cell-matrix adhesion characterization using multiple shear stress zones in single stepwise microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Doh, Il; Bae, Gab-Yong; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Cho, Young-Ho

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a cell chip capable to characterize cell-matrix adhesion by monitoring cell detachment rate. The proposed cell chip can supply multiple levels of shear stress in single stepwise microchannel. As epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), one of hallmarks of cancer metastasis is closely associated to the interaction with extracelluar matrix (ECM), we took advantage of two lung cancer cell models with different adhesion properties to ECM depending their epithelial or mesenchymal properties, including the pair of lung cancer cells with (A549sh) or without E-cadherin expression (A549sh-Ecad), which would be optimal model to examine the alteration of adhesion properties after EMT induction. The cell-matrix adhesion resisting to shear stress appeared to be remarkably differed between lung cancer cells. The detachment rate of epithelial-like H358 and mesenchymal-like H460 cells was 53%-80% and 25%-66% in the shear stress range of 34-60 dyn/cm2, respectively. A549sh-Ecad cells exhibits lower detachment rate (5%-9%) compared to A549sh cells (14%-40%). By direct comparison of adhesion between A549sh and A549sh-Ecad, we demonstrated that A549shE-cad to mimic EMT were more favorable to the ECM attachment under the various levels of shear stress. The present method can be applied to quantitative analysis of tumor cell-ECM adhesion.

  8. RBQ3 participates in multiple myeloma cell proliferation, adhesion and chemoresistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Ding, Linlin; Shen, Yaodong; Zhong, Fei; Wang, Qiru; Xu, Xiaohong

    2016-10-01

    Cell adhesion mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR) is a major factor that impedes the effect of chemotherapy in multiple myeloma (MM). RBQ3, which is a RB-binding protein, played a crucial role in cell cycle process. Here, we reported that RBQ3 expression was increased gradually during the proliferation process of myeloma cells. Knocking down of RBQ3 resulted in cell cycle arrest in G1 phase and increased myeloma cells adherent to fibronectin or bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Furthermore, silencing of RBQ3 reduced sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs in myeloma cell lines adherent to BMSCs and reduced two apoptotic marker proteins cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP expression. Besides, we also found that RBQ3 participated in MAPK/ERK signal transduction pathway. In summary, these results may shed new insights into the role of RBQ3 in the development of multiple myeloma. PMID:27189701

  9. Efficacy of Anastrozole in a Consecutive Series of Advanced Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Multiple Prior Chemotherapies and Endocrine Agents: M. D. Anderson Cancer Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Knoche, A. Jolynn; Michaud, Laura Boehnke; Buzdar, Aman U.

    1999-05-01

    Anastrozole is a highly selective, nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in January 1996 for the treatment of advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal women with disease progression following tamoxifen therapy. To date, information on anastrozole's use has been limited to breast cancer patients with minimal prior therapy. The purpose of this review was to determine, in clinical practice, the benefits of anastrozole in advanced breast cancer patients treated with multiple prior cytotoxic and endocrine therapies. This was a retrospective review of a consecutive series of 117 patients who received anastrozole after marketing in January 1996. As this was not a prospective study, rigorous response criteria could not be applied. Responses were categorized as improvement in disease (ID), stable disease (SD), or progressive disease (PD). One hundred eight patients were evaluable for response with a median age of 61 years and the number of prior therapies ranging from one to nine. Response, defined as improvement of disease or stable disease >/=8 weeks, was seen in 59% of patients. Patients with three or more prior endocrine therapies demonstrated a 61% response (ID + SD) and patients with ER-negative tumors demonstrated 50% response. Patients with prior aminoglutethamide therapy exhibited similar response rates to the overall group. One male patient received anastrozole without benefit. This data determines the activity of anastrozole even in heavily pretreated patients and suggests that patients who have tumors that are ER-negative may also benefit from anastrozole therapy. PMID:11348281

  10. Epigenetic mechanisms of cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yusuke; Kikuchi, Jiro

    2016-09-01

    Multiple myeloma cells acquire the resistance to anti-cancer drugs through physical and functional interactions with the bone marrow microenvironment via two overlapping mechanisms. First, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) produce soluble factors, such as interleukin-6 and insulin-like growth factor-1, to activate signal transduction pathways leading to drug resistance (soluble factor-mediated drug resistance). Second, BMSCs up-regulate the expression of cell cycle inhibitors, anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family and ABC drug transporters in myeloma cells upon direct adhesion [cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR)]. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying drug resistance may greatly contribute to the advancement of cancer therapies. Recent investigations, including ours, have revealed the involvement of epigenetic alterations in drug resistance especially CAM-DR. For example, we found that class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) determine the sensitivity of proteasome inhibitors and the histone methyltransferase EZH2 regulates the transcription of anti-apoptotic genes during the acquisition of CAM-DR by myeloma cells. In addition, another histone methyltransferase MMSET was shown to confer drug resistance to myeloma cells by facilitating DNA repair. These findings provide a rationale for the inclusion of epigenetic drugs, such as HDAC inhibitors and histone methylation modifiers, in combination chemotherapy for MM patients to increase the therapeutic index. PMID:27411688

  11. Mono- and multiple TiN(/Ti) coating adhesion mechanism on a Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianzhong; Zheng, Hua; Sinkovits, Theo; Hee, Ay Ching; Zhao, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Mono- and multiple TiN(/Ti) coatings deposited on Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy substrates by the filtered arc deposition system were examined using scratch testing and depth-sensing indentation in terms of the relationship between the coating adhesion, deformation mechanism, and microstructure, and mechanical properties at the film/substrate interface. The results show that multilayer TiN/Ti coatings offer a greater resistance to cracking and delamination than monolithic TiN coatings under the same conditions on the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys substrates. And increasing the number of layers for TiN multilayer coating improves the coatings adhesion. In contrast, for the coatings on the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys substrates that were heat-treated to a higher hardness, the limited deformation in the substrates improved remarkably the coating adhesion indiscriminately. The substrate mechanical properties play the major roles in controlling the coating adhesion, and increasing thickness and layers of the TiN multilayer have a limited improvement to the adhesion of coating.

  12. Reelin promotes the adhesion and drug resistance of multiple myeloma cells via integrin β1 signaling and STAT3

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Meng; Liang, Xiaodong; Dai, Hui; Qin, Xiaodan; Zhang, Yan; Hao, Jie; Sun, Xiuyuan; Yin, Yanhui; Huang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jun; Lu, Jin; Ge, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Reelin is an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein that is essential for neuron migration and positioning. The expression of reelin in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and its association with cell adhesion and survival were investigated. Overexpression, siRNA knockdown, and the addition of recombinant protein of reelin were used to examine the function of reelin in MM cells. Clinically, high expression of reelin was negatively associated with progression-free survival and overall survival. Functionally, reelin promoted the adhesion of MM cells to fibronectin via activation of α5β1 integrin. The resulting phosphorylation of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) led to the activation of Src/Syk/STAT3 and Akt, crucial signaling molecules involved in enhancing cell adhesion and protecting cells from drug-induced cell apoptosis. These findings indicate reelin's important role in the activation of integrin-β1 and STAT3/Akt pathways in multiple myeloma and highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting reelin/integrin/FAK axis. PMID:26848618

  13. Sums of Consecutive Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pong, Wai Yan

    2007-01-01

    We begin by answering the question, "Which natural numbers are sums of consecutive integers?" We then go on to explore the set of lengths (numbers of summands) in the decompositions of an integer as such sums.

  14. RNAi targeting multiple cell adhesion molecules reduces immune cell recruitment and vascular inflammation after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Sager, Hendrik B; Dutta, Partha; Dahlman, James E; Hulsmans, Maarten; Courties, Gabriel; Sun, Yuan; Heidt, Timo; Vinegoni, Claudio; Borodovsky, Anna; Fitzgerald, Kevin; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Tricot, Benoit; Khan, Omar F; Kauffman, Kevin J; Xing, Yiping; Shaw, Taylor E; Libby, Peter; Langer, Robert; Weissleder, Ralph; Swirski, Filip K; Anderson, Daniel G; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) leads to a systemic surge of vascular inflammation in mice and humans, resulting in secondary ischemic complications and high mortality. We show that, in ApoE(-/-) mice with coronary ligation, increased sympathetic tone up-regulates not only hematopoietic leukocyte production but also plaque endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. To counteract the resulting arterial leukocyte recruitment, we developed nanoparticle-based RNA interference (RNAi) that effectively silences five key adhesion molecules. Simultaneously encapsulating small interfering RNA (siRNA)-targeting intercellular cell adhesion molecules 1 and 2 (Icam1 and Icam2), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (Vcam1), and E- and P-selectins (Sele and Selp) into polymeric endothelial-avid nanoparticles reduced post-MI neutrophil and monocyte recruitment into atherosclerotic lesions and decreased matrix-degrading plaque protease activity. Five-gene combination RNAi also curtailed leukocyte recruitment to ischemic myocardium. Therefore, targeted multigene silencing may prevent complications after acute MI. PMID:27280687

  15. Evidence of a Role for CD44 and Cell Adhesion in Mediating Resistance to Lenalidomide in Multiple Myeloma: Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bjorklund, Chad C.; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Lin, Heather Y.; Jones, Richard J.; Kuiatse, Isere; Wang, Hua; Yang, Jing; Shah, Jatin J.; Thomas, Sheeba K.; Wang, Michael; Weber, Donna M.; Orlowski, Robert Z.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance of myeloma to lenalidomide is an emerging clinical problem, and though it has been associated in part with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling, the mediators of this phenotype remained undefined. Lenalidomide-resistant models were found to overexpress the hyaluronan (HA)-binding protein CD44, a downstream Wnt/β-catenin transcriptional target. Consistent with a role of CD44 in cell adhesion-mediated drug-resistance (CAM-DR), lenalidomide-resistant myeloma cells were more adhesive to bone marrow stroma and HA-coated plates. Blockade of CD44 with monoclonal antibodies, free HA, or CD44 knockdown reduced adhesion and sensitized to lenalidomide. Wnt/β-catenin suppression by FH535 enhanced the activity of lenalidomide, as did interleukin-6 neutralization with siltuximab. Notably, all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) down-regulated total β-catenin, cell-surface and total CD44, reduced adhesion of lenalidomide-resistant myeloma cells, and enhanced the activity of lenalidomide in a lenalidomide-resistant in vivo murine xenograft model. Finally, ATRA sensitized primary myeloma samples from patients that had relapsed and/or refractory disease after lenalidomide therapy to this immunomodulatory agent ex vivo. Taken together, our findings support the hypotheses that CD44 and CAM-DR contribute to lenalidomide-resistance in multiple myeloma, that CD44 should be evaluated as a putative biomarker of sensitivity to lenalidomide, and that ATRA or other approaches that target CD44 may overcome clinical lenalidomide resistance. PMID:23760401

  16. Normalizing the bone marrow microenvironment with p38 inhibitor reduces multiple myeloma cell proliferation and adhesion and suppresses osteoclast formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Aaron N.; Stebbins, Elizabeth G.; Henson, Margaret; O'Young, Gilbert; Choi, Sun J.; Quon, Diana; Damm, Debby; Reddy, Mamatha; Ma, Jing Y.; Haghnazari, Edwin; Kapoun, Ann M.; Medicherla, Satyanarayana; Protter, Andy; Schreiner, George F.; Kurihara, Noriyoshi; Anderson, Judy; Roodman, G. David; Navas, Tony A.; Higgins, Linda S. . E-mail: lhiggin3@scius.jnj.com

    2006-06-10

    The multiple myeloma (MM) bone marrow (BM) microenvironment plays a critical role in supporting tumor growth and survival as well as in promoting formation of osteolytic lesions. Recent results suggest that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is an important factor in maintaining this activated environment. In this report, we demonstrate that the p38{alpha} MAPK inhibitor, SCIO-469, suppresses secretion of the tumor-supportive factors IL-6 and VEGF from BM stromal cells (BMSCs) as well as cocultures of BMSCs with MM cells, resulting in reduction in MM cell proliferation. Additionally, we show that SCIO-469 prevents TNF{alpha}-induced adhesion of MM cells to BMSCs through an ICAM-1- and VCAM-1-independent mechanism. Microarray analysis revealed a novel set of TNF{alpha}-induced chemokines in BMSCs that is strongly inhibited by SCIO-469. Furthermore, reintroduction of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL8 to BMSCs overcomes the inhibitory effect of SCIO-469 on TNF{alpha}-induced MM adhesion. Lastly, we show that SCIO-469 inhibits secretion and expression of the osteoclast-activating factors IL-11, RANKL, and MIP-1{alpha} as well as prevents human osteoclast formation in vitro. Collectively, these results suggest that SCIO-469 treatment can suppress factors in the bone marrow microenvironment to inhibit MM cell proliferation and adhesion and also to alleviate osteolytic activation in MM.

  17. Loss of laminin alpha 1 results in multiple structural defects and divergent effects on adhesion during vertebrate optic cup morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Chase D; Chien, Chi-Bin; Kwan, Kristen M

    2016-08-15

    The vertebrate eye forms via a complex set of morphogenetic events. The optic vesicle evaginates and undergoes transformative shape changes to form the optic cup, in which neural retina and retinal pigmented epithelium enwrap the lens. It has long been known that a complex, glycoprotein-rich extracellular matrix layer surrounds the developing optic cup throughout the process, yet the functions of the matrix and its specific molecular components have remained unclear. Previous work established a role for laminin extracellular matrix in particular steps of eye development, including optic vesicle evagination, lens differentiation, and retinal ganglion cell polarization, yet it is unknown what role laminin might play in the early process of optic cup formation subsequent to the initial step of optic vesicle evagination. Here, we use the zebrafish lama1 mutant (lama1(UW1)) to determine the function of laminin during optic cup morphogenesis. Using live imaging, we find, surprisingly, that loss of laminin leads to divergent effects on focal adhesion assembly in a spatiotemporally-specific manner, and that laminin is required for multiple steps of optic cup morphogenesis, including optic stalk constriction, invagination, and formation of a spherical lens. Laminin is not required for single cell behaviors and changes in cell shape. Rather, in lama1(UW1) mutants, loss of epithelial polarity and altered adhesion lead to defective tissue architecture and formation of a disorganized retina. These results demonstrate that the laminin extracellular matrix plays multiple critical roles regulating adhesion and polarity to establish and maintain tissue structure during optic cup morphogenesis. PMID:27339294

  18. Consecutive combined response spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Longjun; Zhao, Guochen; Liu, Qingyang; Xie, Yujian; Xie, Lili

    2014-12-01

    Appropriate estimates of earthquake response spectrum are essential for design of new structures, or seismic safety evaluation of existing structures. This paper presents an alternative procedure to construct design spectrum from a combined normalized response spectrum (NRSC) which is obtained from pseudo-velocity spectrum with the ordinate scaled by different peak ground amplitudes (PGA, PGV, PGD) in different period regions. And a consecutive function f( T) used to normalize the ordinates is defined. Based on a comprehensive study of 220 strong ground motions recorded during recent eleven large worldwide earthquakes, the features of the NRSC are discussed and compared with the traditional normalized acceleration, velocity and displacement response spectra (NRSA, NRSV, NRSD). And the relationships between ground amplitudes are evaluated by using a weighted mean method instead of the arithmetic mean. Then the NRSC is used to define the design spectrum with given peak ground amplitudes. At last, the smooth spectrum is compared with those derived by the former approaches, and the accuracy of the proposed spectrum is tested through an analysis of the dispersion of ground motion response spectra.

  19. RANK-RANKL interactions are involved in cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance in multiple myeloma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Tsubaki, Masanobu; Takeda, Tomoya; Yoshizumi, Misako; Ueda, Emi; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Satou, Takao; Nishida, Shozo

    2016-07-01

    Interaction between multiple myeloma (MM) cells and the bone marrow microenvironment plays a critical role in MM pathogenesis and the development of drug resistance. Recently, it has been reported that MM cells express the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) (RANK). However, the role of the RANK/RANK ligand (RANKL) system in drug resistance remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated a novel function of the RANK/RANKL system in promoting drug resistance in MM. We found that RANKL treatment induced drug resistance in RANK-expressing but not RANK-negative cell lines. RANKL stimulation of RANK-expressing cells increased multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and lung resistance protein 1 (LRP1) expression and decreased Bim expression through various signaling molecules. RNA silencing of Bim expression induced drug resistance, but the RANKL-mediated drug resistance could not be overcome through the RNA silencing of MDR1, BCRP, and LRP1 expression. These results indicate that the RANK/RANKL system induces chemoresistance through the activation of multiple signal transduction pathways and by decreasing Bim expression in RANK-positive MM cells. These findings may prove to be useful in the development of cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance inhibitors in RANK-positive MM cells. PMID:26762414

  20. Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)-1/2 Triggering of Multiple Myeloma Cells Modulates Their Adhesion to Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Enhances Bortezomib-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Jahangir; Mutis, Tuna; Garssen, Johan; Redegeld, Frank A.

    2014-01-01

    In multiple myeloma (MM), the malignant plasma cells usually localize to the bone marrow where they develop drug resistance due to adhesion to stromal cells and various environmental signals. Hence, modulation of this interaction is expected to influence drug sensitivity of MM cells. Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands have displayed heterogeneous effects on B-cell malignancies and also on MM cells in a few recent studies, but effects on adhesion and drug sensitivity of myeloma cells in the context of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have never been investigated. In the present study, we explored the modulatory effects of TLR1/2 ligand (Pam3CSK4) on adhesion of human myeloma cells to BMSCs. It is shown that TLR1/2 triggering has opposite effects in different HMCLs on their adhesion to BMSCs. Fravel, L363, UM-6, UM-9 and U266 showed increased adhesion to BMSC in parallel with an increased surface expression of integrin molecules α4 and αVβ3. OPM-1, OPM-2 and NCI-H929 showed a dose-dependent decrease in adhesion upon TLR activation following a downregulation of β7 integrin expression. Importantly, TLR1/2 triggering increased cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of bortezomib in myeloma cells independent of the effect on stromal cell adhesion. Moreover, the apoptosis-enhancing effect of Pam3CSK4 paralleled induction of cleaved caspase-3 protein in FACS analysis suggesting a caspase-dependent mechanism. Our findings uncover a novel role of TLR activation in MM cells in the context of bone marrow microenvironment. Stimulation of TLR1/2 bypasses the protective shield of BMSCs and may be an interesting strategy to enhance drug sensitivity of multiple myeloma cells. PMID:24794258

  1. The multiple myeloma–associated MMSET gene contributes to cellular adhesion, clonogenic growth, and tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Abukhdeir, Abde M.; Konishi, Hiroyuki; Garay, Joseph P.; Gustin, John P.; Wang, Qiuju; Arceci, Robert J.; Matsui, William

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable hematologic malignancy characterized by recurrent chromosomal translocations. Patients with t(4;14)(p16;q32) are the worst prognostic subgroup in MM, although the basis for this poor prognosis is unknown. The t(4;14) is unusual in that it involves 2 potential target genes: fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) and multiple myeloma SET domain (MMSET). MMSET is universally overexpressed in t(4;14) MM, whereas FGFR3 expression is lost in one-third of cases. Nonetheless, the role of MMSET in t(4;14) MM has remained unclear. Here we demonstrate a role for MMSET in t(4;14) MM cells. Down-regulation of MMSET expression in MM cell lines by RNA interference and by selective disruption of the translocated MMSET allele using gene targeting dramatically reduced colony formation in methylcellulose but had only modest effects in liquid culture. In addition, MMSET knockdown led to cell-cycle arrest of adherent MM cells and reduced the ability of MM cells to adhere to extracellular matrix. Finally, MMSET knockdown and knockout reduced tumor formation by MM xenografts. These results provide the first direct evidence that MMSET plays a significant role in t(4;14) MM and suggest that therapies targeting this gene could impact this particular subset of poor-prognosis patients. PMID:17942756

  2. Junctional adhesion molecule-A is overexpressed in advanced multiple myeloma and determines response to oncolytic reovirus

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kevin R.; Espitia, Claudia M.; Zhao, Weiguo; Wendlandt, Erik; Tricot, Guido; Zhan, Fenghuang; Carew, Jennifer S.; Nawrocki, Steffan T.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the development of several new agents for multiple myeloma (MM) therapy over the last decade, drug resistance continues to be a significant problem. Patients with relapsed/refractory disease have high mortality rates and desperately need new precision approaches that directly target specific molecular features that are prevalent in the refractory setting. Reolysin is a proprietary formulation of reovirus for cancer therapy that has demonstrated efficacy in multiple clinical trials. Its selective effects against solid tumors have been largely attributed to RAS-mediated control of reovirus replication. However, the mechanisms regulating its preferential anti-neoplastic effects in MM and other hematological malignancies have not been rigorously studied. Here we report that the reovirus receptor, junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is highly expressed in primary cells from patients with MM and the majority of MM cell lines compared to normal controls. A series of experiments demonstrated that JAM-A expression, rather than RAS, was required for Reolysin-induced cell death in MM models. Notably, analysis of paired primary MM specimens revealed that JAM-A expression was significantly increased at relapse compared to diagnosis. Two different models of acquired resistance to bortezomib also displayed both higher JAM-A expression and elevated sensitivity to Reolysin compared to parental cells, suggesting that Reolysin may be an effective agent for patients with relapsed/refractory disease due to their high JAM-A levels. Taken together, these findings support further investigation of Reolysin for the treatment of patients with relapsed/refractory MM and of JAM-A as a predictive biomarker for sensitivity to Reolysin-induced cell death. PMID:26513296

  3. N-Consecutive-Phase Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Lee, Ho-Kyoung; Weber, Charles

    1995-01-01

    N-consecutive-phase encoder (NCPE) is conceptual encoder for generating alphabet of N consecutive full-response continuous-phase-modulation (CPM) signals. Enables use of binary preencoder of higher rate than used with simple continuous-phase encoder (CPE). NCPE makes possible to achieve power efficiencies and bandwidth efficiencies greater than conventional trellis coders with continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK).

  4. Large registry analysis to accurately define second malignancy rates and risks in a well-characterized cohort of 744 consecutive multiple myeloma patients followed-up for 25 years.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Monika; Ihorst, Gabriele; Landgren, Ola; Pantic, Milena; Reinhardt, Heike; Waldschmidt, Johannes; May, Annette M; Schumacher, Martin; Kleber, Martina; Wäsch, Ralph

    2015-10-01

    Additional malignancies in multiple myeloma patients after first-line and maintenance treatment have been observed, questioning whether specific risks exist. Second primary malignancies have also gained attention since randomized data showed associations to newer drugs. We have conducted this large registry analysis in 744 consecutive patients and analyzed: 1) frequency and onset of additional malignancies; and 2) second primary malignancy- and myeloma-specific risks. We assessed the frequency of additional malignancies in terms of host-, myeloma- and treatment-specific characteristics. To compare these risks, we estimated cumulative incidence rates for second malignancies and myeloma with Fine and Gray regression models taking into account competing risks. Additional malignancies were found in 118 patients: prior or synchronous malignancies in 63% and subsequent in 37%. Cumulative incidence rates for second malignancies were increased in IgG-myeloma and decreased in bortezomib-treated patients (P<0.05). Cumulative incidence rates for myeloma death were increased with higher stage and age, but decreased in IgG-subtypes and due to anti-myeloma treatment (P<0.05). Cytogenetics in patients acquiring second primary malignancies were predominantly favorable, suggesting that indolent myeloma and long disease latency may allow the manifestation of additional malignancies. An assessment of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Program of the National Cancer Institute and our data with long-term follow up of 25 years confirmed a prevalence of second malignancy of 10% at 25 years, whereas death from myeloma decreased from 90% to 83%, respectively. Our important findings widen our knowledge of second malignancies and show that they are of increasing relevance as the prognosis in myeloma improves and mortality rates decrease. PMID:26160877

  5. Large registry analysis to accurately define second malignancy rates and risks in a well-characterized cohort of 744 consecutive multiple myeloma patients followed-up for 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Engelhardt, Monika; Ihorst, Gabriele; Landgren, Ola; Pantic, Milena; Reinhardt, Heike; Waldschmidt, Johannes; May, Annette M.; Schumacher, Martin; Kleber, Martina; Wäsch, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Additional malignancies in multiple myeloma patients after first-line and maintenance treatment have been observed, questioning whether specific risks exist. Second primary malignancies have also gained attention since randomized data showed associations to newer drugs. We have conducted this large registry analysis in 744 consecutive patients and analyzed: 1) frequency and onset of additional malignancies; and 2) second primary malignancy- and myeloma-specific risks. We assessed the frequency of additional malignancies in terms of host-, myeloma- and treatment-specific characteristics. To compare these risks, we estimated cumulative incidence rates for second malignancies and myeloma with Fine and Gray regression models taking into account competing risks. Additional malignancies were found in 118 patients: prior or synchronous malignancies in 63% and subsequent in 37%. Cumulative incidence rates for second malignancies were increased in IgG-myeloma and decreased in bortezomib-treated patients (P<0.05). Cumulative incidence rates for myeloma death were increased with higher stage and age, but decreased in IgG-subtypes and due to anti-myeloma treatment (P<0.05). Cytogenetics in patients acquiring second primary malignancies were predominantly favorable, suggesting that indolent myeloma and long disease latency may allow the manifestation of additional malignancies. An assessment of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result Program of the National Cancer Institute and our data with long-term follow up of 25 years confirmed a prevalence of second malignancy of 10% at 25 years, whereas death from myeloma decreased from 90% to 83%, respectively. Our important findings widen our knowledge of second malignancies and show that they are of increasing relevance as the prognosis in myeloma improves and mortality rates decrease. PMID:26160877

  6. Adhesion and migration of avian neural crest cells on fibronectin require the cooperating activities of multiple integrins of the (beta)1 and (beta)3 families.

    PubMed

    Testaz, S; Delannet, M; Duband, J

    1999-12-01

    Based on genetic, functional and histological studies, the extracellular matrix molecule fibronectin has been proposed to play a key role in the migration of neural crest cells in the vertebrate embryo. In the present study, we have analyzed in vitro the repertoire and function of integrin receptors involved in the adhesive and locomotory responses of avian truncal neural crest cells to fibronectin. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that neural crest cells express multiple integrins, namely (alpha)3(beta)1, (alpha)4(beta)1, (alpha)5(beta)1, (alpha)8(beta)1, (alpha)v(beta)1, (alpha)v(beta)3 and a (beta)8 integrin, as potential fibronectin receptors, and flow cytometry analyses revealed no major heterogeneity among the cell population for expression of integrin subunits. In addition, the integrin repertoire expressed by neural crest cells was found not to change dramatically during migration. At the cellular level, only (alpha)v(beta)1 and (alpha)v(beta)3 were concentrated in focal adhesion sites in connection with the actin microfilaments, whereas the other integrins were predominantly diffuse over the cell surface. In inhibition assays with function-perturbing antibodies, it appeared that complete abolition of cell spreading and migration could be achieved only by blocking multiple integrins of the (beta)1 and (beta)3 families, suggesting possible functional compensations between different integrins. In addition, these studies provided evidence for functional partitioning of integrins in cell adhesion and migration. While spreading was essentially mediated by (alpha)v(beta)1 and (alpha)8(beta)1, migration involved primarily (alpha)4(beta)1, (alpha)v(beta)3 and (alpha)8(beta)1 and, more indirectly, (alpha)3(beta)1. (alpha)5(beta)1 and the (beta)8 integrin were not found to play any major role in either adhesion or migration. Finally, consistent with the results of inhibition experiments, recruitment of (alpha)4(beta)1 and (alpha)v(beta)3, individually or in

  7. Consecutive Measurements in Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Jennifer R.; Adami, Christoph

    The physics of quantum measurement still continues to puzzle with no resolution in sight between competing interpretations, in particular because no interpretation has so far produced predictions that would be falsifiable via experiment. Here we present an analysis of consecutive projective measurements performed on a quantum state using quantum information theory, where the entanglement between the quantum system and a measuring device is explicitly taken into account, and where the consecutive measurements increase the joint Hilbert space while the wavefunction of the joint system never collapses. Using this relative-state formalism we rederive well-known results for the pairwise correlation between any two measurement devices, but show that considering the joint as well as conditional entropy of three devices reveals a difference between the collapse and no-collapse pictures of quantum measurement that is experimentally testable. This research was funded by a Michigan State University Enrichment Fellowship.

  8. Brain endothelial miR-146a negatively modulates T-cell adhesion through repressing multiple targets to inhibit NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongsheng; Cerutti, Camilla; Lopez-Ramirez, Miguel A; Pryce, Gareth; King-Robson, Josh; Simpson, Julie E; van der Pol, Susanne Ma; Hirst, Mark C; de Vries, Helga E; Sharrack, Basil; Baker, David; Male, David K; Michael, Gregory J; Romero, Ignacio A

    2015-03-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced activation of nuclear factor, NF-κB has an important role in leukocyte adhesion to, and subsequent migration across, brain endothelial cells (BECs), which is crucial for the development of neuroinflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In contrast, microRNA-146a (miR-146a) has emerged as an anti-inflammatory molecule by inhibiting NF-κB activity in various cell types, but its effect in BECs during neuroinflammation remains to be evaluated. Here, we show that miR-146a was upregulated in microvessels of MS-active lesions and the spinal cord of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In vitro, TNFα and IFNγ treatment of human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) led to upregulation of miR-146a. Brain endothelial overexpression of miR-146a diminished, whereas knockdown of miR-146a augmented cytokine-stimulated adhesion of T cells to hCMEC/D3 cells, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and expression of adhesion molecules in hCMEC/D3 cells. Furthermore, brain endothelial miR-146a modulates NF-κB activity upon cytokine activation through targeting two novel signaling transducers, RhoA and nuclear factor of activated T cells 5, as well as molecules previously identified, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1, and TNF receptor-associated factor 6. We propose brain endothelial miR-146a as an endogenous NF-κB inhibitor in BECs associated with decreased leukocyte adhesion during neuroinflammation. PMID:25515214

  9. Brain endothelial miR-146a negatively modulates T-cell adhesion through repressing multiple targets to inhibit NF-κB activation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongsheng; Cerutti, Camilla; Lopez-Ramirez, Miguel A; Pryce, Gareth; King-Robson, Josh; Simpson, Julie E; van der Pol, Susanne MA; Hirst, Mark C; de Vries, Helga E; Sharrack, Basil; Baker, David; Male, David K; Michael, Gregory J; Romero, Ignacio A

    2015-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced activation of nuclear factor, NF-κB has an important role in leukocyte adhesion to, and subsequent migration across, brain endothelial cells (BECs), which is crucial for the development of neuroinflammatory disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In contrast, microRNA-146a (miR-146a) has emerged as an anti-inflammatory molecule by inhibiting NF-κB activity in various cell types, but its effect in BECs during neuroinflammation remains to be evaluated. Here, we show that miR-146a was upregulated in microvessels of MS-active lesions and the spinal cord of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In vitro, TNFα and IFNγ treatment of human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) led to upregulation of miR-146a. Brain endothelial overexpression of miR-146a diminished, whereas knockdown of miR-146a augmented cytokine-stimulated adhesion of T cells to hCMEC/D3 cells, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, and expression of adhesion molecules in hCMEC/D3 cells. Furthermore, brain endothelial miR-146a modulates NF-κB activity upon cytokine activation through targeting two novel signaling transducers, RhoA and nuclear factor of activated T cells 5, as well as molecules previously identified, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1, and TNF receptor-associated factor 6. We propose brain endothelial miR-146a as an endogenous NF-κB inhibitor in BECs associated with decreased leukocyte adhesion during neuroinflammation. PMID:25515214

  10. Application Results and Evaluation of Anti-slip Re-adhesion Control Based on Speed Sensor-less Vector Control and Disturbance Observer for Electric Multiple Units, Series 205-5000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadowaki, Satoshi; Hata, Tadashi; Hirose, Hiroshi; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Iida, Norifumi; Takagi, Masashi; Sano, Takashi; Yasukawa, Shinobu

    The improvement of adhesion characteristics is important in electric motor coach. We have already proposed the anti-slip/skid re-adhesion control system based on disturbance observer and sensor-less vector control. The effectiveness of the proposed method has been confirmed by the experiment and the numerical simulation using the tested bogie system of electric motor coach. Then, we apply the proposed method to the actual electric multiple units, which is Series 205-5000. In the experimental results of Series 205-5000, this paper discusses that the proposed anti-slip/skid re-adhesion control system has the desired driving wheel torque response. Moreover, this paper proposes the evaluation method of re-adhesion control test results.

  11. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abdominal Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91– ... are abdominal adhesions and intestinal obstructions ... generally do not require treatment. Surgery is the only way to treat abdominal ...

  12. The effects of cold atmospheric plasma on cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, apoptosis and drug sensitivity of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dehui; Luo, Xiaohui; Xu, Yujing; Cui, Qingjie; Yang, Yanjie; Liu, Dingxin; Chen, Hailan; Kong, Michael G

    2016-05-13

    Cold atmospheric plasma was shown to induce cell apoptosis in numerous tumor cells. Recently, some other biological effects, such as induction of membrane permeation and suppression of migration, were discovered by plasma treatment in some types of tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the biological effects of plasma treatment on multiple myeloma cells. We detected the detachment of adherent myeloma cells by plasma, and the detachment area was correlated with higher density of hydroxyl radical in the gas phase of the plasma. Meanwhile, plasma could promote myeloma differentiation by up-regulating Blimp-1 and XBP-1 expression. The migration ability was suppressed by plasma treatment through decreasing of MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion. In addition, plasma could increase bortezomib sensitivity and induce myeloma cell apoptosis. Taking together, combination with plasma treatment may enhance current chemotherapy and probably improve the outcomes. PMID:27067049

  13. Abdominal Adhesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adhesions 1 Ward BC, Panitch A. Abdominal adhesions: current and novel therapies. Journal of Surgical Research. 2011;165(1):91–111. Seek Help for ... and how to participate, visit the NIH Clinical Research Trials and You website ... Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders 700 West Virginia ...

  14. Microsurgical lumbar discectomy: preliminary report of 83 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Wilson, D H; Kenning, J

    1979-02-01

    The application of microsurgical technique to lumbar discectomy may be of dual value: minimal disruption of the integrity of normal anatomy and meticulous hemostasis may help to speed the process of convalescence, and the retention of epidural fat around the nerve root may help to prevent adhesions, a common cause of the late, "failed disc" syndrome. The authors report their experience with 83 consecutive microdiscectomies for lumbar disc protrusions. The results must be considered as tentative because the follow-up period has been short and the authors found it difficult to quantify the quality of health during the convalescent phase, although this seemed to be excellent. Their short term results are similar to those of the larger series reported by Williams, whose experience with microsurgical lumbar discectomies began 6 years ago. No other series have been reported. The authors describe their technique and compare it to that of Williams. PMID:440544

  15. Differences in expression of junctional adhesion molecule-A and beta-catenin in multiple sclerosis brain tissue: increasing evidence for the role of tight junction pathology.

    PubMed

    Padden, Maureen; Leech, Susie; Craig, Beverly; Kirk, John; Brankin, Brenda; McQuaid, Stephen

    2007-02-01

    Previously we have employed antibodies to the tight junction (TJ)-associated proteins ZO-1 and occludin to describe endothelial tight junction abnormalities, in lesional and normal appearing white matter, in primary and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). This work is extended here by use of antibodies to the independent TJ-specific proteins and junctional adhesion molecule A & B (JAM-A, JAM-B). We have also assessed the expression in MS of beta-catenin, a protein specific to the TJ-associated adherens junction. Immunocytochemistry and semiquantitative confocal microscopy for JAM-A and beta-catenin was performed on snap-frozen sections from MS cases (n=11) and controls (n=6). Data on 1,443 blood vessels was acquired from active lesions (n=13), inactive lesions (n=13), NAWM (n=20) and control white matter (n=13). In MS abnormal JAM-A expression was found in active (46%) and inactive lesions (21%), comparable to previous data using ZO-1. However, a lower level of TJ abnormality was found in MS NAWM using JAM-A (3%) compared to ZO-1 (13%). JAM-B was strongly expressed on a small number of large blood vessels in control and MS tissues but at too low a level for quantitative analysis. By comparison with the high levels of abnormality observed with the TJ proteins, the adherens junction protein beta-catenin was normally expressed in all MS and control tissue categories. These results confirm, by use of the independent marker JAM-A, that TJ abnormalities are most frequent in active white matter lesions. Altered expression of JAM-A, in addition to affecting junctional tightness may also both reflect and affect leukocyte trafficking, with implications for immune status within the diseased CNS. Conversely, the adherens junction component of the TJ, as indicated by beta-catenin expression is normally expressed in all MS and control tissue categories. PMID:17024496

  16. Polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, D. J.; Bell, V. L.; Saintclair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A process of preparing aromatic polyamide-acids for use as adhesives is described. An equimolar quantity of an aromatic dianhydride is added to a stirred solution of an aromatic diamine in a water or alcohol-miscible ether solvent to obtain a viscous polymer solution. The polymeric-acid intermediate polymer does not become insoluble but directly forms a smooth viscous polymer solution. These polyamic-acid polymers are converted, by heating in the range of 200-300 C and with pressure, to form polyimides with excellent adhesive properties.

  17. Cohesion and the Yiddish Consecutive Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Kenneth L.

    Literary Yiddish shows a high frequency of declarative sentences with the subject present and the verb in sentence-initial position, the so-called consecutive order. This construction was analyzed in one collection of 17 short narratives and with reference to a hypothesis of German grammarians regarding a similar structure in German. In this…

  18. Plasma polymerization for cell adhesive/anti-adhesive implant coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meichsner, Juergen; Testrich, Holger; Rebl, Henrike; Nebe, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Plasma polymerization of ethylenediamine (C2H8N2, EDA) and perfluoropropane (C3F8, PFP) with admixture of argon and hydrogen, respectively, was studied using an asymmetric 13.56 MHz CCP. The analysis of the plasma chemical gas phase processes for stable molecules revealed consecutive reactions: C2H8N2 consumption, intermediate product NH3, and main final product HCN. In C3F8- H2 plasma the precursor molecule C3F8 and molecular hydrogen are consumed and HF as well as CF4 and C2F6 are found as main gaseous reaction products. The deposited plasma polymer films on the powered electrode are strongly cross-linked due to ion bombardment. The stable plasma polymerized films from EDA are characterized by high content of nitrogen with N/C ratio of about 0.35. The plasma polymerized fluorocarbon film exhibit a reduced F/C ratio of about 1.2. Adhesion tests with human osteoblast cell line MG-63 on coated Ti6Al4V samples (polished) compared with uncoated reference sample yielded both, the enhanced cell adhesion for plasma polymerized EDA and significantly reduced cell adhesion for fluorocarbon coating, respectively. Aging of the plasma polymerized EDA film, in particular due to the reactions with oxygen from air, showed no significant change in the cell adhesion. The fluorocarbon coating with low cell adhesion is of interest for temporary implants. Funded by the Campus PlasmaMed.

  19. Botulinum Toxin A Treatment of Consecutive Esotropia in Children

    PubMed Central

    Couser, Natario L.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the outcome of Botulinum A toxin (BTXA) to treat surgically overcorrected intermittent exotropia in children. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on a series of children with consecutive esotropia treated with BTXA. Results Six children with a mean consecutive esotropia of 21 PD were treated with BTXA at a mean of 19.8 months following strabismus surgery. Two patients underwent a single injection, 3 patients 2 injections, and 1 patient 3 injections. Complications included transient ptosis and a vertical deviation. Mean follow-up from last BTXA injection was 16 months. At last follow-up, 4 of the 6 patients were orthotropic and stereopsis was present in 4 of 5 patients old enough to cooperate with testing. One patient was treated with strabismus surgery following a single BTXA injection. Conclusions BTXA is an efficacious treatment for consecutive esotropia in children. However, in our series, two-thirds of patients required multiple injections to achieve the desired outcome and one ultimately had an additional strabismus surgery. PMID:23211140

  20. Consecutive GA Pairs Stabilize Medium Size RNA Internal Loops†

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Turner, Douglas H.

    2014-01-01

    Internal loops in RNA are important for folding and function. Consecutive non-canonical pairs can form in internal loops having at least two nucleotides on each side. Thermodynamic and structural insights for such internal loops should improve approximations for their stabilities and predictions of secondary and three-dimensional structures. Most natural internal loops are purine rich. A series of oligoribonucleotides that form purine rich internal loops of 5 – 10 nucleotides, including kink-turn loops, were studied by UV melting, exchangeable proton and phosphorus NMR. Three consecutive GA pairs with the motif of 5′YGGA¯3′RAAG or GGA¯R3′AAGY5′ (i.e. 5′GGA¯3′3′AAG5′ closed on at least one side with a CG, UA, or UG pair with Y representing C or U and R representing A or G) stabilize internal loops having six to ten nucleotides. Certain motifs with two consecutive GA pairs are also stabilizing. In internal loops with three or more nucleotides on each side, the motif 5′UG¯3′GA has stability similar to 5′CG¯3′GA. A revised model for predicting stabilities of internal loops with 6 – 10 nucleotides is derived by multiple linear regression. Loops with 2 × 3 nucleotides are predicted well by a previous thermodynamic model. PMID:16548530

  1. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of CD49e (α5 integrin chain) in human thymic epithelial cells modulates the expression of multiple genes and decreases thymocyte adhesion

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The thymus is a central lymphoid organ, in which bone marrow-derived T cell precursors undergo a complex process of maturation. Developing thymocytes interact with thymic microenvironment in a defined spatial order. A component of thymic microenvironment, the thymic epithelial cells, is crucial for the maturation of T-lymphocytes through cell-cell contact, cell matrix interactions and secretory of cytokines/chemokines. There is evidence that extracellular matrix molecules play a fundamental role in guiding differentiating thymocytes in both cortical and medullary regions of the thymic lobules. The interaction between the integrin α5β1 (CD49e/CD29; VLA-5) and fibronectin is relevant for thymocyte adhesion and migration within the thymic tissue. Our previous results have shown that adhesion of thymocytes to cultured TEC line is enhanced in the presence of fibronectin, and can be blocked with anti-VLA-5 antibody. Results Herein, we studied the role of CD49e expressed by the human thymic epithelium. For this purpose we knocked down the CD49e by means of RNA interference. This procedure resulted in the modulation of more than 100 genes, some of them coding for other proteins also involved in adhesion of thymocytes; others related to signaling pathways triggered after integrin activation, or even involved in the control of F-actin stress fiber formation. Functionally, we demonstrated that disruption of VLA-5 in human TEC by CD49e-siRNA-induced gene knockdown decreased the ability of TEC to promote thymocyte adhesion. Such a decrease comprised all CD4/CD8-defined thymocyte subsets. Conclusion Conceptually, our findings unravel the complexity of gene regulation, as regards key genes involved in the heterocellular cell adhesion between developing thymocytes and the major component of the thymic microenvironment, an interaction that is a mandatory event for proper intrathymic T cell differentiation. PMID:21210968

  2. Consecutive plate acoustic suppressor apparatus and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, Joseph (Inventor); Parrott, Tony (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method for suppressing acoustic noise utilizes consecutive plates, closely spaced to each other so as to exploit dissipation associated with sound propagation in narrow channels to optimize the acoustic resistance at a liner surface. The closely spaced plates can be utilized as high temperature structural materials for jet engines by constructing the plates from composite materials. Geometries of the plates, such as plate depth, shape, thickness, inter-plate spacing, arrangement, etc., can be selected to achieve bulk material-like behavior.

  3. Consecutive Plate Acoustic Suppressor Apparatus and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doychak, Joseph (Inventor); Parrott, Tony L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus and method for suppressing acoustic noise utilizes consecutive plates, closely spaced to each other so as to exploit dissipation associated with sound propagation in narrow channels to optimize the acoustic resistance at a liner surface. The closely spaced plates can be utilized as high temperature structural materials for jet engines by constructing the plates from composite materials. Geometries of the plates, such as plate depth, shape, thickness, inter-plate spacing, arrangement, etc., can be selected to achieve bulk material-like behavior.

  4. α2-Macroglobulin Can Crosslink Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) Molecules and May Facilitate Adhesion of Parasitized Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Liz; Laursen, Erik; Cowan, Graeme J.; Bandoh, Betty; Barfod, Lea; Cavanagh, David R.; Andersen, Gregers R.; Hviid, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Rosetting, the adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to uninfected erythrocytes, involves clonal variants of the parasite protein P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) and soluble serum factors. While rosetting is a well-known phenotypic marker of parasites associated with severe malaria, the reason for this association remains unclear, as do the molecular details of the interaction between the infected erythrocyte (IE) and the adhering erythrocytes. Here, we identify for the first time a single serum factor, the abundant serum protease inhibitor α2-macroglobulin (α2M), which is both required and sufficient for rosetting mediated by the PfEMP1 protein HB3VAR06 and some other rosette-mediating PfEMP1 proteins. We map the α2M binding site to the C terminal end of HB3VAR06, and demonstrate that α2M can bind at least four HB3VAR06 proteins, plausibly augmenting their combined avidity for host receptors. IgM has previously been identified as a rosette-facilitating soluble factor that acts in a similar way, but it cannot induce rosetting on its own. This is in contrast to α2M and probably due to the more limited cross-linking potential of IgM. Nevertheless, we show that IgM works synergistically with α2M and markedly lowers the concentration of α2M required for rosetting. Finally, HB3VAR06+ IEs share the capacity to bind α2M with subsets of genotypically distinct P. falciparum isolates forming rosettes in vitro and of patient parasite isolates ex vivo. Together, our results are evidence that P. falciparum parasites exploit α2M (and IgM) to expand the repertoire of host receptors available for PfEMP1-mediated IE adhesion, such as the erythrocyte carbohydrate moieties that lead to formation of rosettes. It is likely that this mechanism also affects IE adhesion to receptors on vascular endothelium. The study opens opportunities for broad-ranging immunological interventions targeting the α2M—(and IgM-) binding domains of PfEMP1

  5. Control of vascular permeability by adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Sarelius, Ingrid H; Glading, Angela J

    2015-01-01

    Vascular permeability is a vital function of the circulatory system that is regulated in large part by the limited flux of solutes, water, and cells through the endothelial cell layer. One major pathway through this barrier is via the inter-endothelial junction, which is driven by the regulation of cadherin-based adhesions. The endothelium also forms attachments with surrounding proteins and cells via 2 classes of adhesion molecules, the integrins and IgCAMs. Integrins and IgCAMs propagate activation of multiple downstream signals that potentially impact cadherin adhesion. Here we discuss the known contributions of integrin and IgCAM signaling to the regulation of cadherin adhesion stability, endothelial barrier function, and vascular permeability. Emphasis is placed on known and prospective crosstalk signaling mechanisms between integrins, the IgCAMs- ICAM-1 and PECAM-1, and inter-endothelial cadherin adhesions, as potential strategic signaling nodes for multipartite regulation of cadherin adhesion. PMID:25838987

  6. Vernal keratoconjunctivitis in Nigerians: 109 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Ukponmwan, Catherine U

    2003-10-01

    Vernal keratoconjunctivitis was the most common conjunctival disease seen over a 2 year period (January 1997-December 1998) at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria. One hundred and nine consecutive patients were seen with vernal keratoconjunctivitis. There was a male to female ratio of 1:1.3. The age range of the patients was 5 months to 38 years with a mean age of 15.5 +/- 8.3 years (SD). Of the patients 54.1% were children. Itching was the most common symptom, followed by redness, tearing, aching eye and photophobia. Ninety patients (82.6%) had predominantly tarsal papillae, while the others had mixed and limbal papillae. A history of atopic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis was present in only five patients (4.5%). There was no patient with corneal ulcer or scarring. Although the complications were few, health education of the patients about the dangers of self medication with steroids should be emphasized. PMID:14620434

  7. Spatial interactions between consecutive manual responses.

    PubMed

    Avery, Brittany; Cowper-Smith, Christopher D; Westwood, David A

    2015-11-01

    We have shown that the latency to initiate a reaching movement is increased if its direction is the same as a previous movement compared to movements that differ by 90° or 180° (Cowper-Smith and Westwood in Atten Percept Psychophys 75:1914-1922, 2013). An influential study (Taylor and Klein in J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 26:1639-1656, 2000), however, reported the opposite spatial pattern for manual keypress responses: repeated responses on the same side had reduced reaction time compared to responses on opposite sides. In order to determine whether there are fundamental differences in the patterns of spatial interactions between button-pressing responses and reaching movements, we compared both types of manual responses using common methods. Reaching movements and manual keypress responses were performed in separate blocks of trials using consecutive central arrow stimuli that directed participants to respond to left or right targets. Reaction times were greater for manual responses made to the same target as a previous response (M = 390 ms) as compared to the opposite target (M = 365 ms; similarity main effect: p < 0.001) regardless of whether the response was a reaching movement or a keypress response. This finding is broadly consistent with an inhibitory mechanism operating at the level of motor output that discourages movements that achieve the same spatial goal as a recent action. PMID:26259747

  8. Sundew adhesive: a naturally occurring hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Sun, Leming; Agrawal, Richa; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    Bioadhesives have drawn increasing interest in recent years, owing to their eco-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. As a typical bioadhesive, sticky exudate observed on the stalked glands of sundew plants aids in the capture of insects and this viscoelastic adhesive has triggered extensive interests in revealing the implied adhesion mechanisms. Despite the significant progress that has been made, the structural traits of the sundew adhesive, especially the morphological characteristics in nanoscale, which may give rise to the viscous and elastic properties of this mucilage, remain unclear. Here, we show that the sundew adhesive is a naturally occurring hydrogel, consisting of nano-network architectures assembled with polysaccharides. The assembly process of the polysaccharides in this hydrogel is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions mediated with divalent cations. Negatively charged nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 231.9 ± 14.8 nm, are also obtained from this hydrogel and these nanoparticles are presumed to exert vital roles in the assembly of the nano-networks. Further characterization via atomic force microscopy indicates that the stretching deformation of the sundew adhesive is associated with the flexibility of its fibrous architectures. It is also observed that the adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive is susceptible to low temperatures. Both elasticity and adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive reduce in response to lowering the ambient temperature. The feasibility of applying sundew adhesive for tissue engineering is subsequently explored in this study. Results show that the fibrous scaffolds obtained from sundew adhesive are capable of increasing the adhesion of multiple types of cells, including fibroblast cells and smooth muscle cells, a property that results from the enhanced adsorption of serum proteins. In addition, in light of the weak cytotoxic activity exhibited by these scaffolds towards a variety of

  9. Sundew adhesive: a naturally occurring hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Sun, Leming; Agrawal, Richa; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-06-01

    Bioadhesives have drawn increasing interest in recent years, owing to their eco-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. As a typical bioadhesive, sticky exudate observed on the stalked glands of sundew plants aids in the capture of insects and this viscoelastic adhesive has triggered extensive interests in revealing the implied adhesion mechanisms. Despite the significant progress that has been made, the structural traits of the sundew adhesive, especially the morphological characteristics in nanoscale, which may give rise to the viscous and elastic properties of this mucilage, remain unclear. Here, we show that the sundew adhesive is a naturally occurring hydrogel, consisting of nano-network architectures assembled with polysaccharides. The assembly process of the polysaccharides in this hydrogel is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions mediated with divalent cations. Negatively charged nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 231.9 ± 14.8 nm, are also obtained from this hydrogel and these nanoparticles are presumed to exert vital roles in the assembly of the nano-networks. Further characterization via atomic force microscopy indicates that the stretching deformation of the sundew adhesive is associated with the flexibility of its fibrous architectures. It is also observed that the adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive is susceptible to low temperatures. Both elasticity and adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive reduce in response to lowering the ambient temperature. The feasibility of applying sundew adhesive for tissue engineering is subsequently explored in this study. Results show that the fibrous scaffolds obtained from sundew adhesive are capable of increasing the adhesion of multiple types of cells, including fibroblast cells and smooth muscle cells, a property that results from the enhanced adsorption of serum proteins. In addition, in light of the weak cytotoxic activity exhibited by these scaffolds towards a variety of

  10. Thermal Characterization of Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spomer, Ken A.

    1999-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle adhesive bond system is being replaced due to obsolescence. Down-selection and performance testing of the structural adhesives resulted in the selection of two candidate replacement adhesives, Resin Technology Group's Tiga 321 and 3M's EC2615XLW. This paper describes rocket motor testing of these two adhesives. Four forty-pound charge motors were fabricated in configurations that would allow side by side comparison testing of the candidate replacement adhesives and the current RSRM adhesives. The motors provided an environment where the thermal performance of adhesives in flame surface bondlines was compared. Results of the FPC testing show that: 1) The phenolic char depths on radial bond lines is approximately the same and vary depending on the position in the blast tube regardless of which adhesive was used; 2) The adhesive char depth of the candidate replacement adhesives is less than the char depth of the current adhesives; 3) The heat-affected depth of the candidate replacement adhesives is less than the heat-affected depth of the current adhesives; and 4) The ablation rates for both replacement adhesives are slower than that of the current adhesives.

  11. Human climbing with efficiently scaled gecko-inspired dry adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Hawkes, Elliot W.; Eason, Eric V.; Christensen, David L.; Cutkosky, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the mechanism of adhesion in geckos, many synthetic dry adhesives have been developed with desirable gecko-like properties such as reusability, directionality, self-cleaning ability, rough surface adhesion and high adhesive stress. However, fully exploiting these adhesives in practical applications at different length scales requires efficient scaling (i.e. with little loss in adhesion as area grows). Just as natural gecko adhesives have been used as a benchmark for synthetic materials, so can gecko adhesion systems provide a baseline for scaling efficiency. In the tokay gecko (Gekko gecko), a scaling power law has been reported relating the maximum shear stress σmax to the area A: σmax ∝ A−1/4. We present a mechanical concept which improves upon the gecko's non-uniform load-sharing and results in a nearly even load distribution over multiple patches of gecko-inspired adhesive. We created a synthetic adhesion system incorporating this concept which shows efficient scaling across four orders of magnitude of area, yielding an improved scaling power law: σmax ∝ A−1/50. Furthermore, we found that the synthetic adhesion system does not fail catastrophically when a simulated failure is induced on a portion of the adhesive. In a practical demonstration, the synthetic adhesion system enabled a 70 kg human to climb vertical glass with 140 cm2 of adhesive per hand. PMID:25411404

  12. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    H. G. Silverman; F. F. Roberto

    2007-12-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are waterimpervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion.

  13. Understanding marine mussel adhesion.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Heather G; Roberto, Francisco F

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  14. Understanding Marine Mussel Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Francisco F.

    2007-01-01

    In addition to identifying the proteins that have a role in underwater adhesion by marine mussels, research efforts have focused on identifying the genes responsible for the adhesive proteins, environmental factors that may influence protein production, and strategies for producing natural adhesives similar to the native mussel adhesive proteins. The production-scale availability of recombinant mussel adhesive proteins will enable researchers to formulate adhesives that are water-impervious and ecologically safe and can bind materials ranging from glass, plastics, metals, and wood to materials, such as bone or teeth, biological organisms, and other chemicals or molecules. Unfortunately, as of yet scientists have been unable to duplicate the processes that marine mussels use to create adhesive structures. This study provides a background on adhesive proteins identified in the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and introduces our research interests and discusses the future for continued research related to mussel adhesion. PMID:17990038

  15. Rapid Reversible Photoswitching of Integrin-Mediated Adhesion at the Single-Cell Level.

    PubMed

    Kadem, Laith F; Holz, Michelle; Suana, Kristine Grace; Li, Qian; Lamprecht, Constanze; Herges, Rainer; Selhuber-Unkel, Christine

    2016-03-01

    Rapid and reversible photoswitching of cell adhesion is achieved by c(RGDfK)-azobenzenes embedded in a poly(ethylene glycol) background on surfaces. The light-induced cis-trans-isomerization of the azobenzene enables switching of cell adhesion on the surface. Reversibility of switching over several consecutive switching cycles is demonstrated by single-cell force spectroscopy. PMID:26685922

  16. Pathophysiology and prevention of postoperative peritoneal adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Arung, Willy; Meurisse, Michel; Detry, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Peritoneal adhesions represent an important clinical challenge in gastrointestinal surgery. Peritoneal adhesions are a consequence of peritoneal irritation by infection or surgical trauma, and may be considered as the pathological part of healing following any peritoneal injury, particularly due to abdominal surgery. The balance between fibrin deposition and degradation is critical in determining normal peritoneal healing or adhesion formation. Postoperative peritoneal adhesions are a major cause of morbidity resulting in multiple complications, many of which may manifest several years after the initial surgical procedure. In addition to acute small bowel obstruction, peritoneal adhesions may cause pelvic or abdominal pain, and infertility. In this paper, the authors reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis and various prevention strategies of adhesion formation, using Medline and PubMed search. Several preventive agents against postoperative peritoneal adhesions have been investigated. Their role aims in activating fibrinolysis, hampering coagulation, diminishing the inflammatory response, inhibiting collagen synthesis or creating a barrier between adjacent wound surfaces. Their results are encouraging but most of them are contradictory and achieved mostly in animal model. Until additional findings from future clinical researches, only a meticulous surgery can be recommended to reduce unnecessary morbidity and mortality rates from these untoward effects of surgery. In the current state of knowledge, pre-clinical or clinical studies are still necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of the several proposed prevention strategies of postoperative peritoneal adhesions. PMID:22147959

  17. Quantitation of Endothelial Cell Adhesiveness In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Donna J.; Raj, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    One of the cardinal processes of inflammation is the infiltration of immune cells from the lumen of the blood vessel to the surrounding tissue. This occurs when endothelial cells, which line blood vessels, become adhesive to circulating immune cells such as monocytes. In vitro measurement of this adhesiveness has until now been done by quantifying the total number of monocytes that adhere to an endothelial layer either as a direct count or by indirect measurement of the fluorescence of adherent monocytes. While such measurements do indicate the average adhesiveness of the endothelial cell population, they are confounded by a number of factors, such as cell number, and do not reveal the proportion of endothelial cells that are actually adhesive. Here we describe and demonstrate a method which allows the enumeration of adhesive cells within a tested population of endothelial monolayer. Endothelial cells are grown on glass coverslips and following desired treatment are challenged with monocytes (that may be fluorescently labeled). After incubation, a rinsing procedure, involving multiple rounds of immersion and draining, the cells are fixed. Adhesive endothelial cells, which are surrounded by monocytes are readily identified and enumerated, giving an adhesion index that reveals the actual proportion of endothelial cells within the population that are adhesive. PMID:26132714

  18. PH dependent adhesive peptides

    DOEpatents

    Tomich, John; Iwamoto, Takeo; Shen, Xinchun; Sun, Xiuzhi Susan

    2010-06-29

    A novel peptide adhesive motif is described that requires no receptor or cross-links to achieve maximal adhesive strength. Several peptides with different degrees of adhesive strength have been designed and synthesized using solid phase chemistries. All peptides contain a common hydrophobic core sequence flanked by positively or negatively charged amino acids sequences.

  19. Ins and Outs of Microbial Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virji, Mumtaz

    Microbial adhesion is generally a complex process, involving multiple adhesins on a single microbe and their respective target receptors on host cells. In some situations, various adhesins of a microbe may co-operate in an apparently hierarchical and sequential manner whereby the first adhesive event triggers the target cell to express receptors for additional microbial adhesins. In other instances, adhesins may act in concert leading to high avidity interactions, often a prelude to cellular invasion and tissue penetration. Mechanisms used to target the host include both lectin-like interactions and protein-protein interactions; the latter are often highly specific for the host or a tissue within the host. This reflective chapter aims to offer a point of view on microbial adhesion by presenting some experiences and thoughts especially related to respiratory pathogens and explore if there can be any future hope of controlling bacterial infections via preventing adhesion or invasion stages of microbial pathogenesis.

  20. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  1. Adhesion at metal interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1991-01-01

    A basic adhesion process is defined, the theory of the properties influencing metallic adhesion is outlined, and theoretical approaches to the interface problem are presented, with emphasis on first-principle calculations as well as jellium-model calculations. The computation of the energies of adhesion as a function of the interfacial separation is performed; fully three-dimensional calculations are presented, and universality in the shapes of the binding energy curves is considered. An embedded-atom method and equivalent-crystal theory are covered in the framework of issues involved in practical adhesion.

  2. Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Graeme B.; Grobéty, Jocelyne; Majno, Guido

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental model of peritoneal adhesions, in the rat, based on two relatively minor accidents that may occur during abdominal surgery in man: drying of the serosa, and bleeding. Drying alone had little effect; drying plus bleeding consistently produced adhesions to the dried area. Fresh blood alone produced adhesions between the three membranous structures [omentum and pelvic fat bodies (PFBs)]. The formation of persistent adhesions required whole blood. Preformed clots above a critical size induced adhesions even without previous serosal injury; they were usually captured by the omentum and PFBs. If all three membranous structures were excised, the clots caused visceral adhesions. The protective role of the omentum, its structure, and the mechanism of omental adhesions, are discussed. These findings are relevant to the pathogenesis of post-operative adhesions in man. ImagesFig 3Fig 4Fig 5Fig 6Fig 7Fig 12Fig 13Fig 1Fig 2Fig 14Fig 15Fig 8Fig 9Fig 10Fig 11 PMID:5315369

  3. Polymer nanocarriers for dentin adhesion.

    PubMed

    Osorio, R; Osorio, E; Medina-Castillo, A L; Toledano, M

    2014-12-01

    To obtain more durable adhesion to dentin, and to protect collagen fibrils of the dentin matrix from degradation, calcium- and phosphate-releasing particles have been incorporated into the dental adhesive procedure. The aim of the present study was to incorporate zinc-loaded polymeric nanocarriers into a dental adhesive system to facilitate inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-mediated collagen degradation and to provide calcium ions for mineral deposition within the resin-dentin bonded interface. PolymP- N : Active nanoparticles (nanoMyP) were zinc-loaded through 30-minute ZnCl2 immersion and tested for bioactivity by means of 7 days' immersion in simulated body fluid solution (the Kokubo test). Zinc-loading and calcium phosphate depositions were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and x-ray diffraction. Nanoparticles in ethanol solution infiltrated into phosphoric-acid-etched human dentin and Single Bond (3M/ESPE) were applied to determine whether the nanoparticles interfered with bonding. Debonded sticks were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A metalloproteinase collagen degradation assay was also performed in resin-infiltrated dentin with and without nanoparticles, measuring C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) concentration in supernatants, after 4 wk of immersion in artificial saliva. Numerical data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons tests (p < .05). Nanoparticles were effectively zinc-loaded and were shown to have a chelating effect, retaining calcium regardless of zinc incorporation. Nanoparticles failed to infiltrate demineralized intertubular dentin and remained on top of the hybrid layer, without altering bond strength. Calcium and phosphorus were found covering nanoparticles at the hybrid layer, after 24 h. Nanoparticle application in etched dentin also reduced MMP-mediated collagen degradation. Tested nanoparticles may be

  4. Approaching improved adhesive bonding repeatability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlette, Christian; Müller, Tobias; Roβmann, Jürgen; Brecher, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Today, the precision of micro-optics assembly is mostly limited by the accuracy of the bonding process ― and in the case of adhesive bonding by the prediction and compensation of adhesive shrinkage during curing. In this contribution, we present a novel approach to address adhesive bonding based on hybrid control system theory. In hybrid control, dynamic systems are described as "plants" which produce discrete and/or continuous outputs from given discrete and/or continuous inputs, thus yielding a hybrid state space description of the system. The task of hybrid controllers is to observe the plant and to generate a discrete and/or continuous input sequence that guides or holds the plant in a desired target state region while avoiding invalid or unwanted intermediate states. Our approach is based on a series of experiments carried out in order to analyze, define and decouple the dependencies of adhesive shrinkage on multiple parameters, such as application geometries, fixture forces and UV intensities. As some of the dependencies describe continuous effects (e.g. shrinkage from UV intensity) and other dependencies describe discrete state transitions (e.g. fixture removal during curing), the resulting model of the overall bonding process is a hybrid dynamic system in the general case. For this plant model, we then propose a concept of sampling-based parameter search as a basis to design suitable hybrid controllers, which have the potential to optimize process control for a selection of assembly steps, thus improving the repeatability of related production steps like beam-shaping optics or mounting of turning mirrors for fiber coupling.

  5. Polymer Nanocarriers for Dentin Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Osorio, R.; Osorio, E.; Medina-Castillo, A.L.; Toledano, M.

    2014-01-01

    To obtain more durable adhesion to dentin, and to protect collagen fibrils of the dentin matrix from degradation, calcium- and phosphate-releasing particles have been incorporated into the dental adhesive procedure. The aim of the present study was to incorporate zinc-loaded polymeric nanocarriers into a dental adhesive system to facilitate inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-mediated collagen degradation and to provide calcium ions for mineral deposition within the resin-dentin bonded interface. PolymP-nActive nanoparticles (nanoMyP) were zinc-loaded through 30-minute ZnCl2 immersion and tested for bioactivity by means of 7 days’ immersion in simulated body fluid solution (the Kokubo test). Zinc-loading and calcium phosphate depositions were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, and x-ray diffraction. Nanoparticles in ethanol solution infiltrated into phosphoric-acid-etched human dentin and Single Bond (3M/ESPE) were applied to determine whether the nanoparticles interfered with bonding. Debonded sticks were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A metalloproteinase collagen degradation assay was also performed in resin-infiltrated dentin with and without nanoparticles, measuring C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) concentration in supernatants, after 4 wk of immersion in artificial saliva. Numerical data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple comparisons tests (p < .05). Nanoparticles were effectively zinc-loaded and were shown to have a chelating effect, retaining calcium regardless of zinc incorporation. Nanoparticles failed to infiltrate demineralized intertubular dentin and remained on top of the hybrid layer, without altering bond strength. Calcium and phosphorus were found covering nanoparticles at the hybrid layer, after 24 h. Nanoparticle application in etched dentin also reduced MMP-mediated collagen degradation. Tested nanoparticles may be

  6. Yielding Elastic Tethers Stabilize Robust Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Whitfield, Matt J.; Luo, Jonathon P.; Thomas, Wendy E.

    2014-01-01

    Many bacteria and eukaryotic cells express adhesive proteins at the end of tethers that elongate reversibly at constant or near constant force, which we refer to as yielding elasticity. Here we address the function of yielding elastic adhesive tethers with Escherichia coli bacteria as a model for cell adhesion, using a combination of experiments and simulations. The adhesive bond kinetics and tether elasticity was modeled in the simulations with realistic biophysical models that were fit to new and previously published single molecule force spectroscopy data. The simulations were validated by comparison to experiments measuring the adhesive behavior of E. coli in flowing fluid. Analysis of the simulations demonstrated that yielding elasticity is required for the bacteria to remain bound in high and variable flow conditions, because it allows the force to be distributed evenly between multiple bonds. In contrast, strain-hardening and linear elastic tethers concentrate force on the most vulnerable bonds, which leads to failure of the entire adhesive contact. Load distribution is especially important to noncovalent receptor-ligand bonds, because they become exponentially shorter lived at higher force above a critical force, even if they form catch bonds. The advantage of yielding is likely to extend to any blood cells or pathogens adhering in flow, or to any situation where bonds are stretched unequally due to surface roughness, unequal native bond lengths, or conditions that act to unzip the bonds. PMID:25473833

  7. Cytotoxicity of denture adhesives.

    PubMed

    de Gomes, Pedro Sousa; Figueiral, Maria Helena; Fernandes, Maria Helena R; Scully, Crispian

    2011-12-01

    Ten commercially available denture adhesives, nine soluble formulations (six creams, three powders) and one insoluble product (pad), were analyzed regarding the cytotoxicity profile in direct and indirect assays using L929 fibroblast cells. In the direct assay, fibroblasts were seeded over the surface of a thick adhesive gel (5%, creams; 2.5%, powders and pad). In the indirect assay, cells were cultured in the presence of adhesive extracts prepared in static and dynamic conditions (0.5-2%, creams; 0.25-1%, powders and pad). Cell toxicity was assessed for cell viability/proliferation (MTT assay) and cell morphology (observation of the F-actin cytoskeleton organization by confocal laser scanning microscopy). Direct contact of the L929 fibroblasts with the thick adhesive gels caused no, or only a slight, decrease in cell viability/proliferation. The adhesive extracts (especially those prepared in dynamic conditions) caused significantly higher growth inhibition of fibroblasts and, in addition, caused dose- and time-dependent effects, throughout the 6-72 h exposure time. Also, dose-dependent effects on cell morphology, with evident disruption of the F-actin cytoskeleton organization, were seen in the presence of most adhesives. In conclusion, the adhesives possessed different degrees of cytotoxicity, but similar dose- and time-dependent biological profiles. PMID:20844908

  8. Focal adhesions in osteoneogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, M.J.P; Dalby, M.J

    2010-01-01

    As materials technology and the field of tissue engineering advances, the role of cellular adhesive mechanisms, in particular the interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device technology is to use the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to the material surface or chemical stimuli in order to help develop next-generation biomaterials. The focus of this review is on recent studies and developments concerning focal adhesion formation in osteoneogenesis, with an emphasis on the influence of synthetic constructs on integrin mediated cellular adhesion and function. PMID:21287830

  9. Cell adhesion force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sagvolden, G.; Giaever, I.; Pettersen, E. O.; Feder, J.

    1999-01-01

    The adhesion forces of cervical carcinoma cells in tissue culture were measured by using the manipulation force microscope, a novel atomic force microscope. The forces were studied as a function of time and temperature for cells cultured on hydrophilic and hydrophobic polystyrene substrates with preadsorbed proteins. The cells attached faster and stronger at 37°C than at 23°C and better on hydrophilic than on hydrophobic substrates, even though proteins adsorb much better to the hydrophobic substrates. Because cell adhesion serves to control several stages in the cell cycle, we anticipate that the manipulation force microscope can help clarify some cell-adhesion related issues. PMID:9892657

  10. Adhesive Contact Sweeper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Jonathan D.

    1993-01-01

    Adhesive contact sweeper removes hair and particles vacuum cleaner leaves behind, without stirring up dust. Also cleans loose rugs. Sweeper holds commercially available spools of inverted adhesive tape. Suitable for use in environments in which air kept free of dust; optics laboratories, computer rooms, and areas inhabited by people allergic to dust. For carpets, best used in tandem with vacuum cleaner; first pass with vacuum cleaner removes coarse particles, and second pass with sweeper extracts fine particles. This practice extends useful life of adhesive spools.

  11. Confabulations after bilateral consecutive strokes of the lenticulostriate arteries.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman who manifested persistent confabulations after two consecutive strokes encompassing the area of the lenticulostriate arteries territory on both hemispheres. Findings reported on this rare clinical syndrome suggest that fantastic confabulations and delusional thoughts may arise after bilateral damage of subcortical nonthalamic structures. PMID:22649343

  12. Confabulations after Bilateral Consecutive Strokes of the Lenticulostriate Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2012-01-01

    We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman who manifested persistent confabulations after two consecutive strokes encompassing the area of the lenticulostriate arteries territory on both hemispheres. Findings reported on this rare clinical syndrome suggest that fantastic confabulations and delusional thoughts may arise after bilateral damage of subcortical nonthalamic structures. PMID:22649343

  13. Exploring the Sums of Powers of Consecutive q-Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, T.; Ryoo, C. S.; Jang, L. C.; Rim, S. H.

    2005-01-01

    The Bernoulli numbers are among the most interesting and important number sequences in mathematics. They first appeared in the posthumous work "Ars Conjectandi" (1713) by Jacob Bernoulli (1654-1705) in connection with sums of powers of consecutive integers (Bernoulli, 1713; or Smith, 1959). Bernoulli numbers are particularly important in number…

  14. Consecutive parthenogenetic births in a spotted eagle ray Aetobatus narinari.

    PubMed

    Harmon, T S; Kamerman, T Y; Corwin, A L; Sellas, A B

    2016-02-01

    Genetic evidence is given to support consecutive parthenogenesis in a spotted eagle ray Aetobatus narinari using nuclear microsatellite genotyping. To date, only a handful of births involving the parthenogenesis process in chondrichthyans have been verified using microsatellite markers and even fewer verified as recurring births. This appears to be the first documented case of this process occurring in a myliobatid species. PMID:26563982

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: Recent advances in the fabrication and adhesion testing of biomimetic dry adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameoto, D.; Menon, C.

    2010-10-01

    In the past two years, there have been a large number of publications on the topic of biomimetic dry adhesives from modeling, fabrication and testing perspectives. We review and compare the most recent advances in fabrication and testing of these materials. While there is increased convergence and consensus as to what makes a good dry adhesive, the fabrication of these materials is still challenging, particularly for anisotropic or hierarchal designs. Although qualitative comparisons between different adhesive designs can be made, quantifying the exact performance and rating each design is significantly hampered by the lack of standardized testing methods. Manufacturing dry adhesives, which can reliably adhere to rough surfaces, show directional and self-cleaning behavior and are relatively simple to manufacture, is still very challenging—great strides by multiple research groups have however made these goals appear achievable within the next few years.

  16. Optical adhesive property study

    SciTech Connect

    Sundvold, P.D.

    1996-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize the mechanical and thermal properties of selected optical adhesives to identify the most likely candidate which could survive the operating environment of the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI) program. The DOI system consists of a high power laser and an optical module used to split the beam into a number of channels to initiate the system. The DOI requirements are for a high shock environment which current military optical systems do not operate. Five candidate adhesives were selected and evaluated using standardized test methods to determine the adhesives` physical properties. EC2216, manufactured by 3M, was selected as the baseline candidate adhesive based on the test results of the physical properties.

  17. Adhesives for Aerospace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meade, L. E.

    1985-01-01

    The industry is hereby challenged to integrate adhesive technology with the total structure requirements in light of today's drive into automation/mechanization. The state of the art of adhesive technology is fairly well meeting the needs of the structural designers, the processing engineer, and the inspector, each on an individual basis. The total integration of these needs into the factory of the future is the next collective hurdle to be achieved. Improved processing parameters to fit the needs of automation/mechanization will necessitate some changes in the adhesive forms, formulations, and chemistries. Adhesives have, for the most part, kept up with the needs of the aerospace industry, normally leading the rest of the industry in developments. The wants of the aerospace industry still present a challenge to encompass all elements, achieving a totally integrated joined and sealed structural system. Better toughness with hot-wet strength improvements is desired. Lower cure temperatures, longer out times, and improved corrosion inhibition are desired.

  18. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-04-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  19. Adhesion of Lunar Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, Otis R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the physical characteristics of lunar dust and the effects of various fundamental forces acting on dust particles on surfaces in a lunar environment. There are transport forces and adhesion forces after contact. Mechanical forces (i.e., from rover wheels, astronaut boots and rocket engine blast) and static electric effects (from UV photo-ionization and/or tribo-electric charging) are likely to be the major contributors to the transport of dust particles. If fine regolith particles are deposited on a surface, then surface energy-related (e.g., van der Walls) adhesion forces and static-electric-image forces are likely to be the strongest contributors to adhesion. Some measurement techniques are offered to quantify the strength of adhesion forces. And finally some dust removal techniques are discussed.

  20. Leucocyte cellular adhesion molecules.

    PubMed

    Yong, K; Khwaja, A

    1990-12-01

    Leucocytes express adhesion promoting receptors which mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. These adhesive interactions are crucial to the regulation of haemopoiesis and thymocyte maturation, the direction and control of leucocyte traffic and migration through tissues, and in the development of immune and non-immune inflammatory responses. Several families of adhesion receptors have been identified (Table). The leucocyte integrin family comprises 3 alpha beta heterodimeric membrane glycoproteins which share a common beta subunit, designated CD18. The alpha subunits of each of the 3 members, lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), macrophage antigen-1 (Mac-1) and p150,95 are designated CD11a, b and c respectively. These adhesion molecules play a critical part in the immune and inflammatory responses of leucocytes. The leucocyte integrin family is, in turn, part of the integrin superfamily, members of which are evolutionally, structurally and functionally related. Another Integrin subfamily found on leucocytes is the VLA group, so-called because the 'very late activation antigens' VLA-1 and VLA-2 were originally found to appear late in T-cell activation. Members of this family function mainly as extracellular matrix adhesion receptors and are found both on haemopoietic and non-haemopoietic cells. They play a part in diverse cellular functions including tissue organisation, lymphocyte recirculation and T-cell immune responses. A third integrin subfamily, the cytoadhesins, are receptors on platelets and endothelial cells which bind extracellular matrix proteins. A second family of adhesion receptors is the immunoglobulin superfamily, members of which include CD2, LFA-3 and ICAM-1, which participate in T-cell adhesive interactions, and the antigen-specific receptors of T and B cells, CD4, CD8 and the MHC Class I and II molecules. A recently recognised family of adhesion receptors is the selectins, characterised by a common lectin domain. Leucocyte

  1. High temperature adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    The aerospace and electronics industries have an ever increasing need for higher performance materials. In recent years, linear aromatic polyimides have been proven to be a superior class of materials for various applications in these industries. The use of this class of polymers as adhesives is continuing to increase. Several NASA Langley developed polyimides show considerable promise as adhesives because of their high glass transition temperatures, thermal stability, resistance to solvents/water, and their potential for cost effective manufacture.

  2. Maximal charge injection of consecutive electron pulses with uniform temporal pulse separation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. L.; Zhang, P.; Chen, S. H.; Ang, L. K.

    2015-08-15

    A charge sheet model is proposed for the study of the space-charge limited density of consecutive electron pulses injected to in a diode with uniform temporal pulse separation. Based on the model, an analytical formula is derived for expressing the dependency of the charge density limit on the gap spacing, gap voltage, and pulse separation. The theoretical results are verified by numerical solutions up to electron energy of a few MeV, including relativistic effects. The model can be applied to the design of multiple-pulse electron beams for time resolved electron microscopy and free electron lasers.

  3. Laparoscopic Management of Adhesive Small Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Konjic, Ferid; Idrizovic, Enes; Hasukic, Ismar; Jahic, Alen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Adhesions are the reason for bowel obstruction in 80% of the cases. In well selected patients the adhesive ileus laparoscopic treatment has multiple advantages which include the shorter hospitalization period, earlier food taking, and less postoperative morbidity rate. Case report: Here we have a patient in the age of 35 hospitalized at the clinic due to occlusive symptoms. Two years before an opened appendectomy had been performed on him. He underwent the treatment of exploration laparoscopy and laparoscopic adhesiolysis. Dilated small bowel loops connected with the anterior abdominal wall in the ileocecal region by adhesions were found intraoperatively and then resected harmonically with scalpel. One strangulation around which a small bowel loop was wrapped around was found and dissected. Postoperative course was normal. PMID:27041815

  4. Physical outcome in a successful Italian Serie A soccer team over three consecutive seasons.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Gregory; Dellal, Alexandre; Gaudino, Claudio; Chamari, Karim; Rogowski, Isabelle; Alloatti, Guisseppe; Wong, P Del; Owen, Adam; Hautier, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the physical performance of a successful Italian Serie A team of more than 3 consecutive seasons. Twenty-five players participated in the study and were classified into 3 playing positions: defenders (n = 9), midfielders (n = 11), and forwards (n = 5). Activities match were studied by an analysis of multiple match camera SICS throughout the competition Italian Serie A matches played at home (n = 90) for 3 consecutive seasons (first: 2004/2005; second: 2005/2006; and third: 2006/2007). Total team ball possession and time-motion characteristics were examined. Results showed that total ball possession (52.1-54.9%) and the number of points accumulated at home (40/48) improved in the past 3 seasons, whereas the final rankings at home were stable. The total distances covered by minutes of play were significantly different between the 3 seasons (118.32 ± 6.69 m·min to 111.96 ± 8.05 m·min). Distance running and high-intensity activities were similar in the 3 seasons, whereas the distance covered in moderate-intensity running decreased in the third (p < 0.05). Variations between playing positions were found during the 3 consecutive seasons, with midfielders covering greater distances than defenders (p < 0.05) and forwards (p < 0.01). This study showed how for 3 consecutive seasons a Serie A team of successful players reduced their distances performed at submaximal speeds, and increased ball possession, while maintaining the high-intensity activities and the number of points at home. It is suggested that this is because of a better understanding of roles and tactics team organization and to act collectively and individually on these parameters to reduce energy expenditure during the game to maintain a high-level performance throughout the season. PMID:22820208

  5. Unexpected biases in the distribution of consecutive primes.

    PubMed

    Lemke Oliver, Robert J; Soundararajan, Kannan

    2016-08-01

    Although the sequence of primes is very well distributed in the reduced residue classes [Formula: see text], the distribution of pairs of consecutive primes among the permissible ϕ(q)(2) pairs of reduced residue classes [Formula: see text] is surprisingly erratic. This paper proposes a conjectural explanation for this phenomenon, based on the Hardy-Littlewood conjectures. The conjectures are then compared with numerical data, and the observed fit is very good. PMID:27418603

  6. Controllable ON-OFF adhesion for Earth orbit grappling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parness, Aaron; Hilgendorf, Tyler; Daniel, Phillip; Frost, Matt; White, Victor; Kennedy, Brett

    ON-OFF adhesives can benefit multiple Earth orbit applications by providing the capability to selectively anchor two surfaces together repeatedly and releasably without significant preload. Key to this new capability, targets will not need special preparation; ON-OFF adhesives can be used with cooperative and non-cooperative objects, like defunct satellites or space debris. Using an ON-OFF adhesive gripper allows large surfaces on a target to serve as potential grapple points, reducing the precision needed in the sensing and control throughout the grapple operation. A space-rated adhesive structure is presented that can be turned ON-OFF using a slight sliding motion. This adhesive mimics the geometry and performance characteristics of the adhesive structures found on the feet of gecko lizards. Results from adhesive testing on common orbital surfaces like solar panels, thermal blankets, composites, and painted surfaces are presented. Early environmental testing results from cold temperature and vacuum tests are also presented. Finally, the paper presents the design, fabrication, and preliminary testing of a gripping mechanism enabled by these ON-OFF adhesives in preparation for satellite-servicing applications. Adhesive levels range from near zero on rough surfaces to more than 75 kPa on smooth surfaces like glass.

  7. Sorted consecutive local binary pattern for texture classification.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jongbin; Hong, Sungeun; Yang, Hyun S

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a sorted consecutive local binary pattern (scLBP) for texture classification. Conventional methods encode only patterns whose spatial transitions are not more than two, whereas scLBP encodes patterns regardless of their spatial transition. Conventional methods do not encode patterns on account of rotation-invariant encoding; on the other hand, patterns with more than two spatial transitions have discriminative power. The proposed scLBP encodes all patterns with any number of spatial transitions while maintaining their rotation-invariant nature by sorting the consecutive patterns. In addition, we introduce dictionary learning of scLBP based on kd-tree which separates data with a space partitioning strategy. Since the elements of sorted consecutive patterns lie in different space, it can be generated to a discriminative code with kd-tree. Finally, we present a framework in which scLBPs and the kd-tree can be combined and utilized. The results of experimental evaluation on five texture data sets--Outex, CUReT, UIUC, UMD, and KTH-TIPS2-a--indicate that our proposed framework achieves the best classification rate on the CUReT, UMD, and KTH-TIPS2-a data sets compared with conventional methods. The results additionally indicate that only a marginal difference exists between the best classification rate of conventional methods and that of the proposed framework on the UIUC and Outex data sets. PMID:25850088

  8. Flexibilized copolyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    Two copolyimides, LARC-STPI and STPI-LARC-2, with flexible backbones were processed and characterized as adhesives. The processability and adhesive properties were compared to those of a commercially available form of LARC-TPI. Lap shear specimens were fabricated using adhesive tape prepared from each of the three polymers. Lap shear tests were performed at room temperature, 177 C, and 204 C before and after exposure to water-boil and to thermal aging at 204 C for up to 1000 hours. The three adhesive systems possess exceptional lap shear strengths at room temperature and elevated temperatures both before and after thermal exposure. LARC-STPI, because of its high glass transition temperature provided high lap shear strengths up to 260 C. After water-boil, LARC-TPI exhibited the highest lap shear strengths at room temperature and 177 C, whereas the LARC-STPI retained a higher percentage of its original strength when tested at 204 C. These flexible thermoplastic copolyimides show considerable potential as adhesives based on this study and because of the ease of preparation with low cost, commercially available materials.

  9. Platelet Adhesion under Flow

    PubMed Central

    Ruggeri, Zaverio M.

    2011-01-01

    Platelet adhesive mechanisms play a well-defined role in hemostasis and thrombosis, but evidence continues to emerge for a relevant contribution to other pathophysiological processes including inflammation, immune-mediated responses to microbial and viral pathogens, and cancer metastasis. Hemostasis and thrombosis are related aspects of the response to vascular injury, but the former protects from bleeding after trauma while the latter is a disease mechanism. In either situation, adhesive interactions mediated by specific membrane receptors support the initial attachment of single platelets to cellular and extracellular matrix constituents of the vessel wall and tissues. In the subsequent steps of thrombus growth and stabilization, adhesive interactions mediate platelet to platelet cohesion (aggregation) and anchoring to the fibrin clot. A key functional aspect of platelets is their ability to circulate in a quiescent state surveying the integrity of the inner vascular surface, coupled to a prompt reaction wherever alterations are detected. In many respects, therefore, platelet adhesion to vascular wall structures, to one another or to other blood cells are facets of the same fundamental biological process. The adaptation of platelet adhesive functions to the effects of blood flow is the main focus of this review. PMID:19191170

  10. Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule

    PubMed Central

    Trzpis, Monika; McLaughlin, Pamela M.J.; de Leij, Lou M.F.H.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2007-01-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM, CD326) is a glycoprotein of ∼40 kd that was originally identified as a marker for carcinoma, attributable to its high expression on rapidly proliferating tumors of epithelial origin. Normal epithelia express EpCAM at a variable but generally lower level than carcinoma cells. In early studies, EpCAM was proposed to be a cell-cell adhesion molecule. However, recent insights revealed a more versatile role for EpCAM that is not limited only to cell adhesion but includes diverse processes such as signaling, cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Cell surface expression of EpCAM may actually prevent cell-cell adhesion. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the current knowledge on EpCAM biology in relation to other cell adhesion molecules. We discuss the implications of the newly identified functions of EpCAM in view of its prognostic relevance in carcinoma, inflammatory pathophysiology, and tissue development and regeneration as well as its role in normal epithelial homeostasis. PMID:17600130

  11. Protein mediated membrane adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andreas; Mahadevan, L.

    2015-05-01

    Adhesion in the context of mechanical attachment, signaling, and movement in cellular dynamics is mediated by the kinetic interactions between membrane-embedded proteins in an aqueous environment. Here, we present a minimal theoretical framework for the dynamics of membrane adhesion that accounts for the kinetics of protein binding, the elastic deformation of the membrane, and the hydrodynamics of squeeze flow in the membrane gap. We analyze the resulting equations using scaling estimates to characterize the spatiotemporal features of the adhesive patterning and corroborate them using numerical simulations. In addition to characterizing aspects of cellular dynamics, our results might also be applicable to a range of phenomena in physical chemistry and materials science where flow, deformation, and kinetics are coupled to each other in slender geometries.

  12. Adhesive particle shielding

    DOEpatents

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rader, Daniel John; Walton, Christopher; Folta, James

    2009-01-06

    An efficient device for capturing fast moving particles has an adhesive particle shield that includes (i) a mounting panel and (ii) a film that is attached to the mounting panel wherein the outer surface of the film has an adhesive coating disposed thereon to capture particles contacting the outer surface. The shield can be employed to maintain a substantially particle free environment such as in photolithographic systems having critical surfaces, such as wafers, masks, and optics and in the tools used to make these components, that are sensitive to particle contamination. The shield can be portable to be positioned in hard-to-reach areas of a photolithography machine. The adhesive particle shield can incorporate cooling means to attract particles via the thermophoresis effect.

  13. Natural Underwater Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Russell J.; Ransom, Todd C.; Hlady, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The general topic of this review is protein-based underwater adhesives produced by aquatic organisms. The focus is on mechanisms of interfacial adhesion to native surfaces and controlled underwater solidification of natural water-borne adhesives. Four genera that exemplify the broad range of function, general mechanistic features, and unique adaptations are discussed in detail: blue mussels, acorn barnacles, sandcastle worms, and freshwater caddisfly larva. Aquatic surfaces in nature are charged and in equilibrium with their environment, populated by an electrical double layer of ions as well as adsorbed natural polyelectrolytes and microbial biofilms. Surface adsorption of underwater bioadhesives likely occurs by exchange of surface bound ligands by amino acid sidechains, driven primarily by relative affinities and effective concentrations of polymeric functional groups. Most aquatic organisms exploit modified amino acid sidechains, in particular phosphorylated serines and hydroxylated tyrosines (dopa), with high-surface affinity that form coordinative surface complexes. After delivery to the surfaces as a fluid, permanent natural adhesives solidify to bear sustained loads. Mussel plaques are assembled in a manner superficially reminiscent of in vitro layer-by-layer strategies, with sequentially delivered layers associated through Fe(dopa)3 coordination bonds. The adhesives of sandcastle worms, caddisfly larva, and barnacles may be delivered in a form somewhat similar to in vitro complex coacervation. Marine adhesives are secreted, or excreted, into seawater that has a significantly higher pH and ionic strength than the internal environment. Empirical evidence suggests these environment triggers could provide minimalistic, fail-safe timing mechanisms to prevent premature solidification (insolubilization) of the glue within the secretory system, yet allow rapid solidification after secretion. Underwater bioadhesives are further strengthened by secondary covalent

  14. A Continuum Approach to Modelling Cell-Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Nicola J.; Painter, Kevin J.; Sherratt, Jonathan A.

    2007-01-01

    Cells adhere to each other through the binding of cell adhesion molecules at the cell surface. This process, known as cell-cell adhesion, is fundamental in many areas of biology, including early embryo development, tissue homeostasis and tumour growth. In this paper we develop a new continuous mathematical model of this phenomenon by considering the movement of cells in response to the adhesive forces generated through binding. We demonstrate that our model predicts the aggregation behaviour of a disassociated adhesive cell population. Further, when the model is extended to represent the interactions between multiple populations, we demonstrate that it is capable of replicating the different types of cell sorting behaviour observed experimentally. The resulting pattern formation is a direct consequence of the relative strengths of self-population and cross-population adhesive bonds in the model. While cell sorting behaviour has been captured previously with discrete approaches, it has not, until now, been observed with a fully continuous model. PMID:16860344

  15. Elastomer toughened polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A rubber-toughened addition-type polyimide composition is disclosed which has excellent high temperature bonding characteristics in the fully cured state, and improved peel strength and adhesive fracture resistance physical property characteristics. The process for making the improved adhesive involves preparing the rubber containing amic acid prepolymer by chemically reacting an amine-terminated elastomer and an aromatic diamine with an aromatic dianhydride with which a reactive chain stopper anhydride was mixed, and utilizing solvent or mixture of solvents for the reaction.

  16. Metallic Adhesion and Bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, J.; Smith, J. R.; Rose, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Although metallic adhesion has played a central part in much tribological speculation, few quantitative theoretical calculations are available. This is in part because of the difficulties involved in such calculations and in part because the theoretical physics community is not particularly involved with tribology. The calculations currently involved in metallic adhesion are summarized and shown that these can be generalized into a scaled universal relationship. Relationships exist to other types of covalent bonding, such as cohesive, chemisorptive, and molecular bonding. A simple relationship between surface energy and cohesive energy is offered.

  17. Timer cover adhesive optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Carleton, J.J. II.

    1992-03-17

    The implementation of PROCODE as the data acquisition system for processing timers has required some modifications to the method of identifying timer assemblies. PROCODE requires machine-readable labelling of the assemblies. This report describes a series of experiments to find an adhesive that would keep labels attached to timers regardless of the condition of their surface when the label was applied and regardless of the heat, vibration, and shock they endured afterwards. The effect of the variation of these experimental factors on the performance of the adhesive was determined by using a Taguchi experimental design.

  18. Consecutive polarizers arrangement producing maximum polarized light intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirjawan, Johannes V. D.

    2016-03-01

    Polarizer mainly functions as a specific filter that blocks or transmits lights of certain polarization. Malus' law predicts the average intensity of polarized light passing a polarizer that transmits certain polarization direction will be proportional to the squared cosine of angle between the two polarization directions. Arranging several polarizers consecutively with various transmission directions will produce various final intensity as well as final polarized direction. Specific arrangement of an arbitrary number (N > 3) of polarizers producing maximum intensity of polarized light will be discussed in this paper. In addition, interesting pattern of maximum values of some trigonometric functions that are difficult to be solved analytically can be obtained from this discussion.

  19. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  20. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects. PMID:26457864

  1. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm2 provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects. PMID:26457864

  2. Wood Composite Adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Bueso, Jose; Haupt, Robert

    The global environment, in which phenolic resins are being used for wood composite manufacture, has changed significantly during the last decade. This chapter reviews trends that are driving the use and consumption of phenolic resins around the world. The review begins with recent data on volume usage and regional trends, followed by an analysis of factors affecting global markets. In a section on environmental factors, the impact of recent formaldehyde emission regulations is discussed. The section on economics introduces wood composite production as it relates to the available adhesive systems, with special emphasis on the technical requirement to improve phenolic reactivity. Advances in composite process technology are introduced, especially in regard to the increased demands the improvements place upon adhesive system performance. The specific requirements for the various wood composite families are considered in the context of adhesive performance needs. The results of research into current chemistries are discussed, with a review of recent findings regarding the mechanisms of phenolic condensation and acceleration. Also, the work regarding alternate natural materials, such as carbohydrates, lignins, tannins, and proteinaceous materials, is presented. Finally, new developments in alternative adhesive technologies are reported.

  3. Adept Adhesion Reduction Solution

    MedlinePlus

    ... icodextrin. The fluid is used during or after laparoscopic gynecological surgery to separate and protect tissues and decrease the number of new adhesions after surgery. Adept® is supplied sterile, in a single-use bag. How does it work? During surgery, ...

  4. Adhesion molecules and receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adhesion molecules are necessary for leukocyte trafficking and differentiation. They serve to initiate cell-cell interactions under conditions of shear, and they sustain the cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions needed for cellular locomotion. They also can serve directly as signaling molecules act...

  5. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  6. Resistance heating releases structural adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glemser, N. N.

    1967-01-01

    Composite adhesive package bonds components together for testing and enables separation when testing is completed. The composite of adhesives, insulation and a heating element separate easily when an electrical current is applied.

  7. Adhesion testing of aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobo, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    Adhesion testing appeared to offer a less burdensome alternative to replace some of the dynamometer tests. Accordingly, test results and data were requested from retreaders who had used adhesion testing.

  8. 3-D foam adhesive deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, C. R.; Salmassy, O. K.

    1976-01-01

    Bonding method, which reduces amount and weight of adhesive, is applicable to foam-filled honeycomb constructions. Novel features of process include temperature-viscosity control and removal of excess adhesive by transfer to cellophane film.

  9. Scaling Reversible Adhesion in Synthetic and Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Michael; Irschick, Duncan; Crosby, Alfred

    2013-03-01

    High capacity, easy release polymer adhesives, as demonstrated by a gecko's toe, present unique opportunities for synthetic design. However, without a framework that connects biological and synthetic adhesives from basic nanoscopic features to macroscopic systems, synthetic mimics have failed to perform favorably at large length scales. Starting from an energy balance, we develop a scaling approach to understand unstable interfacial fracture over multiple length scales. The simple theory reveals that reversibly adhesive polymers do not rely upon fibrillar features but require contradicting attributes: maximum compliance normal to the substrate and minimum compliance in the loading direction. We use this counterintuitive criterion to create reversible, easy release adhesives at macroscopic sizes (100 cm2) with unprecedented force capacities on the order of 3000 N. Importantly, we achieve this without fibrillar features, supporting our predictions and emphasizing the importance of subsurface anatomy in biological adhesive systems. Our theory describes adhesive force capacity as a function of material properties and geometry and is supported by over 1000 experiments, spanning both synthetic and biological adhesives, with agreement over 14 orders of magnitude in adhesive force.

  10. Analysis of the surface effects on adhesion in MEMS structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusu, F.; Pustan, M.; Bîrleanu, C.; Müller, R.; Voicu, R.; Baracu, A.

    2015-12-01

    One of the main failure causes in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is stiction. Stiction is the adhesion of contacting surfaces due to surface forces. Adhesion force depends on the operating conditions and is influenced by the contact area. In this study, the adhesion force between MEMS materials and the AFM tips is analyzed using the spectroscopy in point mode of the AFM. The aim is to predict the stiction failure mode in MEMS. The investigated MEMS materials are silicon, polysilicon, platinum, aluminum, and gold. Three types of investigations were conducted. The first one aimed to determine the variation of the adhesion force with respect to the variation of the roughness. The roughness has a strong influence on the adhesion because the contact area between components increases if the roughness decreases. The second type of investigation aimed to determine the adhesion force in multiple points of each considered sample. The values obtained experimentally for the adhesion force were also validated using the JKR and DMT models. The third type of investigation was conducted with the purpose of determining the influence of the temperature on the adhesion force.

  11. Coating Reduces Ice Adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Trent; Prince, Michael; DwWeese, Charles; Curtis, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    The Shuttle Ice Liberation Coating (SILC) has been developed to reduce the adhesion of ice to surfaces on the space shuttle. SILC, when coated on a surface (foam, metal, epoxy primer, polymer surfaces), will reduce the adhesion of ice by as much as 90 percent as compared to the corresponding uncoated surface. This innovation is a durable coating that can withstand several cycles of ice growth and removal without loss of anti-adhesion properties. SILC is made of a binder composed of varying weight percents of siloxane(s), ethyl alcohol, ethyl sulfate, isopropyl alcohol, and of fine-particle polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). The combination of these components produces a coating with significantly improved weathering characteristics over the siloxane system alone. In some cases, the coating will delay ice formation and can reduce the amount of ice formed. SILC is not an ice prevention coating, but the very high water contact angle (greater than 140 ) causes water to readily run off the surface. This coating was designed for use at temperatures near -170 F (-112 C). Ice adhesion tests performed at temperatures from -170 to 20 F (-112 to -7 C) show that SILC is a very effective ice release coating. SILC can be left as applied (opaque) or buffed off until the surface appears clear. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the coating is still present after buffing to transparency. This means SILC can be used to prevent ice adhesion even when coating windows or other objects, or items that require transmission of optical light. Car windshields are kept cleaner and SILC effectively mitigates rain and snow under driving conditions.

  12. Relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation value and progression of visual field defect in open-angle glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Keiji; Mizoue, Shiro; Nanno, Mami; Kimura, Tairo; Suzumura, Hirotaka; Takeda, Ryuji; Shiraga, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation (MD) value and glaucomatous visual field (VF) progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG), including primary OAG and normal tension glaucoma. Patients and methods The subjects of the study were patients undergoing treatment for OAG who had performed VF tests at least 10 times with a Humphrey field analyzer (SITA standard, C30-2 program). The VF progression was defined by a significantly negative MD slope (MD slope worsening) at the final VF test during the follow-up period. The relationship between the MD slope worsening and the consecutive deterioration of MD value were retrospectively analyzed. Results A total of 165 eyes of 165 patients were included in the analysis. Significant progression of VF defects was observed in 72 eyes of 72 patients (43.6%), while no significant progression was evident in 93 eyes of 93 patients (56.4%). There was significant relationship between the frequency of consecutive deterioration of MD value and MD slope worsening (P<0.0001, Cochran–Armitage trend test). A significant association was observed for MD slope worsening in the eyes with three (odds ratio: 2.1, P=0.0224) and four (odds ratio: 3.6, P=0.0008) consecutive deterioration of MD value in multiple logistic regression analysis, but no significant association in the eyes with two consecutive deterioration (odds ratio: 1.1, P=0.8282). The eyes with VF progression had significantly lower intraocular pressure reduction rate (P<0.01). Conclusion This retrospective study has shown that three or more consecutive deterioration of MD value might be a predictor to future significant MD slope worsening in OAG. PMID:26648689

  13. Focal Adhesion Kinase-Dependent Regulation of Adhesive Force Involves Vinculin Recruitment to Focal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Hanks, Steven K.; García, Andrés J.

    2016-01-01

    Background information Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an essential non-receptor tyrosine kinase, plays pivotal roles in migratory responses, adhesive signaling, and mechanotransduction. FAK-dependent regulation of cell migration involves focal adhesion turnover dynamics as well as actin cytoskeleton polymerization and lamellipodia protrusion. Whereas roles for FAK in migratory and mechanosensing responses have been established, the contributions of FAK to the generation of adhesive forces are not well understood. Results Using FAK-null cells expressing wild-type and mutant FAK under an inducible tetracycline promoter, we analyzed the role of FAK in the generation of steady-state adhesive forces using micropatterned substrates and a hydrodynamic adhesion assay. FAK expression reduced steady-state strength by 30% compared to FAK-null cells. FAK expression reduced vinculin localization to focal adhesions by 35% independently from changes in integrin binding and localization of talin and paxillin. RNAi knockdown of vinculin abrogated the FAK-dependent differences in adhesive force. FAK-dependent changes in vinculin localization and adhesive force were confirmed in human primary fibroblasts with FAK knocked down by RNAi. The autophosphorylation Y397 and kinase domain Y576/Y577 sites were differentially required for FAK-mediated adhesive responses. Conclusions We demonstrate that FAK reduces steady-state adhesion strength by modulating vinculin recruitment to focal adhesions. These findings provide insights into the role of FAK in mechanical interactions between a cell and the extracellular matrix. PMID:19883375

  14. Vegetarianism in anorexia nervosa? A review of 116 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, M A; Touyz, S W; Dunn, S M; Beumont, P J

    A retrospective study was carried out of 116 consecutive patients with anorexia nervosa to ascertain the extent and nature of vegetarianism in this population. Sixty-three (54.3%) patients were found to be avoiding red meat. In only four (6.3%) of these did meat avoidance predate the onset of their anorexia nervosa. Of the remaining 59 patients (best termed pseudovegetarians), 25 (42.4%) patients continued to avoid red meat by the end of treatment. Pseudovegetarianism was associated with a longer duration of anorexia nervosa, a lower weight during the course of their illness, and living away from the parental home. The reintroduction of red meat into the diet was more likely if vegetarianism were of a short duration. PMID:3696039

  15. Three consecutive pregnancies in a patient with glycogen storage disease type IA (von Gierke's disease).

    PubMed

    Ryan, I P; Havel, R J; Laros, R K

    1994-06-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IA is associated with metabolic abnormalities that can compromise fetal outcome. Normal outcome can be achieved by maintaining euglycemia throughout gestation. We report three consecutive pregnancies in a patient with glycogen storage disease type IA. The patient, a 35-year-old woman, has been maintained on a regimen of nightly nasogastric or cornstarch feedings for the past 12 years with improving metabolic control, reduced liver size, and no progression of multiple hepatic adenomas. On confirmation of each pregnancy, early in the first trimester nightly feeding was changed from cornstarch ingestion to Polycose by nasogastric intubation, with good metabolic control. During the last trimester of each pregnancy metabolic control showed further improvement, with lowering of lactate, urate, and triglyceride levels. During the first pregnancy unexpected fetal death occurred at 33 weeks. During the last two pregnancies, the patient was admitted at 33 and 34 weeks, respectively, for closer supervision of metabolic status and fetal monitoring. She underwent a cesarean section at 35 weeks 4 days of gestation and was delivered of a girl. She underwent a repeat cesarean section at 35 weeks 2 days for the subsequent gestation and was delivered of a boy. Both infants are healthy and appear to be unaffected by von Gierke's disease. Hepatic adenomas did not enlarge during the pregnancies. Meticulous management resulted in normal pregnancy outcomes in two consecutive gestations. Rapid fetal growth late in the third trimester may require particularly careful supervision to maintain euglycemia. PMID:8203427

  16. Consecutive laparoscopic gallbladder and spleen resections in cirrhotic patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ming-Jun; Li, Jun-Li; Zhou, Jin; Wu, Zhong; Peng, Bing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, safety, and effectiveness of consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) plus splenectomy (LS) in liver cirrhosis patients. METHODS: From 2003 to 2013, 17 (group 1) patients with liver cirrhosis complicated by hypersplenism and symptomatic gallstones were treated with combined LC and LS, while 58 (group 2) patients with liver cirrhosis and hypersplenism received LS alone. An additional 14 (group 3) patients who received traditional open procedures during the same period were included as controls. Data were retrospectively collected and reviewed in regard to demographic characteristics and preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative features. Differences between the three groups were assessed by statistical analysis. RESULTS: The three groups showed no significant differences in the demographic characteristics or preoperative status. However, the patients treated with LC and LS required significantly longer operative time, shorter postoperative stay as well as shorter time of return to the first oral intake, and suffered less intraoperative blood loss as well as fewer postoperative surgical infections than the patients treated with traditional open procedures (group 1 vs group 3, P < 0.05 for all). The patients treated with LC and LS showed no significant differences in the intraoperative and postoperative variables from those treated with LS alone (group 1 vs group 2). All patients showed significant improvements in the haematological responses (preoperative period vs postoperative period, P < 0.05 for all). None of the patients treated with LC and LS presented with any gallstone-associated symptoms following discharge, while the patients treated with the traditional open procedures expressed complaints of discomfort related to their surgical incisions. CONCLUSION: Consecutive LC and LS is an appropriate treatment option for liver cirrhosis patients with gallstones and hypersplenism, especially for those with Child-Pugh A and

  17. Adhesion behaviors on superhydrophobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huan; Guo, Zhiguang; Liu, Weimin

    2014-04-18

    The adhesion behaviors of superhydrophobic surfaces have become an emerging topic to researchers in various fields as a vital step in the interactions between materials and organisms/materials. Controlling the chemical compositions and topological structures via various methods or technologies is essential to fabricate and modulate different adhesion properties, such as low-adhesion, high-adhesion and anisotropic adhesion on superhydrophobic surfaces. We summarize the recent developments in both natural superhydrophobic surfaces and artificial superhydrophobic surfaces with various adhesions and also pay attention to superhydrophobic surfaces switching between low- and high-adhesion. The methods to regulate or translate the adhesion of superhydrophobic surfaces can be considered from two perspectives. One is to control the chemical composition and change the surface geometric structure on the surfaces, respectively or simultaneously. The other is to provide external stimulations to induce transitions, which is the most common method for obtaining switchable adhesions. Additionally, adhesion behaviors on solid-solid interfaces, such as the behaviors of cells, bacteria, biomolecules and icing on superhydrophobic surfaces are also noticeable and controversial. This review is aimed at giving a brief and crucial overview of adhesion behaviors on superhydrophobic surfaces. PMID:24575424

  18. Clinical Recommendation: Labial Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Janice L; Romano, Mary E; Quint, Elisabeth H

    2015-10-01

    Labial adhesions, also known as labial agglutination, are a common finding in prepubertal adolescents. They are defined as fusion of the labia minora in the midline or are termed vulvar adhesions when they occur below the labia minora (inner labia). Patients are often asymptomatic but might present with genitourinary complaints. The decision for treatment is based on symptoms. The mainstay of treatment in asymptomatic patients is conservative, with careful attention to vulvar hygiene and reassurance to parents. In symptomatic patients, topical treatment with estrogen and/or steroid cream is often curative. Less often, corrective surgery is necessary. Recurrence is common until a patient goes through puberty. These recommendations are intended for pediatric and gynecologic health care providers who care for pediatric and adolescent girls to facilitate diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26162697

  19. Environmentally compliant adhesive joining technology

    SciTech Connect

    Tira, J.S.

    1996-08-01

    Adhesive joining offers one method of assembling products. Advantages of adhesive joining/assembly include distribution of applied forces, lighter weight, appealing appearance, etc. Selecting environmentally safe adhesive materials and accompanying processes is paramount in today`s business climate if a company wants to be environmentally conscious and stay in business. Four areas of adhesive joining (adhesive formulation and selection, surface preparation, adhesive bonding process, waste and pollution generation/cleanup/management) all need to be carefully evaluated before adhesive joining is selected for commercial as well as military products. Designing for six sigma quality must also be addressed in today`s global economy. This requires material suppliers and product manufacturers to work even closer together.

  20. Ceramic microstructure and adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a ceramic, a polymer, or a metal, strong bond forces can develop between the materials. The bonding forces will depend upon the state of the surfaces, cleanliness and the fundamental properties of the two solids, both surface and bulk. Adhesion between a ceramic and another solid are discussed from a theoretical consideration of the nature of the surfaces and experimentally by relating bond forces to interface resulting from solid state contact. Surface properties of ceramics correlated with adhesion include, orientation, reconstruction and diffusion as well as the chemistry of the surface specie. Where a ceramic is in contact with a metal their interactive chemistry and bond strength is considered. Bulk properties examined include elastic and plastic behavior in the surficial regions, cohesive binding energies, crystal structures and crystallographic orientation. Materials examined with respect to interfacial adhesive interactions include silicon carbide, nickel zinc ferrite, manganese zinc ferrite, and aluminum oxide. The surfaces of the contacting solids are studied both in the atomic or molecularly clean state and in the presence of selected surface contaminants.

  1. Development of phosphorylated adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilow, N.; Giants, T. W.; Jenkins, R. K.; Campbell, P. L.

    1983-01-01

    The synthesis of epoxy prepolymers containing phosphorus was carried out in such a manner as to provide adhesives containing at least 5 percent of this element. The purpose of this was to impart fire retardant properties to the adhesive. The two epoxy derivatives, bis(4-glycidyl-oxyphenyl)phenylphosphine oxide and bis(4-glycidyl-2-methoxyphenyl)phenylphosphonate, and a curing agent, bis(3-aminophenyl)methylphosphine oxide, were used in conjunction with one another and along with conventional epoxy resins and curing agents to bond Tedlar and Polyphenylethersulfone films to Kerimid-glass syntactic foam-filled honeycomb structures. Elevated temperatures are required to cure the epoxy resins with the phosphorus-contaning diamine; however, when Tedlar is being bonded, lower curing temperatures must be used to avoid shrinkage and the concomitant formation of surface defects. Thus, the phosphorus-containing aromatic amine curing agent cannot be used alone, although it is possible to use it in conjunction with an aliphatic amine which would allow lower cure temperatures to be used. The experimental epoxy resins have not provided adhesive bonds quite as strong as those provided by Epon 828 when compared in peel tests, but the differences are not very significant. It should be noted, if optimum properties are to be realized. In any case the fire retardant characteristics of the neat resin systems obtained are quite pronounced, since in most cases the self-extinguishing properties are evident almost instantly when specimens are removed from a flame.

  2. Difficulty and Discrimination Parameters of Boston Naming Test Items in a Consecutive Clinical Series

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Sachs, Bonnie C.; Ferman, Tanis J.; Rush, Beth K.; Lucas, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The Boston Naming Test is one of the most widely used neuropsychological instruments; yet, there has been limited use of modern psychometric methods to investigate its properties at the item level. The current study used Item response theory to examine each item's difficulty and discrimination properties, as well as the test's measurement precision across the range of naming ability. Participants included 300 consecutive referrals to the outpatient neuropsychology service at Mayo Clinic in Florida. Results showed that successive items do not necessarily reflect a monotonic increase in psychometric difficulty, some items are inadequate to distinguish individuals at various levels of naming ability, multiple items provide redundant psychometric information, and measurement precision is greatest for persons within a low-average range of ability. These findings may be used to develop short forms, improve reliability in future test versions by replacing psychometrically poor items, and analyze profiles of intra-individual variability. PMID:21593059

  3. The Role of Glottal Surface Adhesion on Vocal Folds Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Pinaki; Siegmund, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The airway surface liquid (ASL) is a very thin mucus layer and covers the vocal fold (VF) surface. Adhesion mediated by the ASL occurs during phonation as the VFs separate after collision. Such adhesion is hypothesized to determine voice quality and health. However, biomechanical insights into the adhesive processes during VF oscillation are lacking. Here, a computational study is reported on self-sustained VF vibration involving contact and adhesion. The VF structural model and the glottal airflow are considered fully three-dimensional. The mechanical behavior of the ASL is described through a constitutive traction–separation law where mucosal cohesive strength, cohesive energy and rupture length enter. Cohesive energy values considered are bound below by the cohesive energy of water at standard temperature and pressure. Cohesive strength values considered are bound above by prior reported data on the adhesive strength of mucosal surface of rat small intestine. This model introduces a mechanical length scale into the analysis. The sensitivity of various aspects of VF dynamics such as flow-declination rate, VF separation under adhesive condition and formation of multiple local fluid bridges is determined in relation to specific ASL adhesive properties. It is found that for the ASL considered here, the characteristics of the VF separation process are of debond type. Instabilities lead to the breakup of the bond area into several smaller bond patches. Such finding is consistent with in-vivo observations. PMID:25034504

  4. Gecko Adhesion on Wet and Dry Patterned Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Alyssa Y.; Palecek, Amanda M.; Argenbright, Clayton W.; Bernard, Craig; Brennan, Anthony B.; Niewiarowski, Peter H.; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most astounding characteristics of the gecko adhesive system is its versatility. Geckos can locomote across complex substrates in a variety of conditions with apparent ease. In contrast, many of our synthetic pressure sensitive adhesives fail on substrates that are dirty, wet or rough. Although many studies have investigated the effect of environmental challenges on performance, the interaction of multiple, potentially compromising variables is studied less often. Here we focus on substrate structure and surface water, both of which are highly relevant to the biological system and to synthetic design. To do this we utilized a highly controlled, patterned substrate (Sharklet®, by Sharklet® Technologies Inc.). This allowed us to test independently and jointly the effects of reduced surface area substrates, with a defined pattern, on adhesion in both air and water. Our results show that adhesion is not significantly impaired in air, whereas surface area and pattern significantly affect adhesion in water. These findings highlight the need to study multiple parameters that are relevant to the gecko adhesive system to further improve our understanding of the biological system and to design better, more versatile synthetics. PMID:26696412

  5. Gecko Adhesion on Wet and Dry Patterned Substrates.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alyssa Y; Palecek, Amanda M; Argenbright, Clayton W; Bernard, Craig; Brennan, Anthony B; Niewiarowski, Peter H; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps one of the most astounding characteristics of the gecko adhesive system is its versatility. Geckos can locomote across complex substrates in a variety of conditions with apparent ease. In contrast, many of our synthetic pressure sensitive adhesives fail on substrates that are dirty, wet or rough. Although many studies have investigated the effect of environmental challenges on performance, the interaction of multiple, potentially compromising variables is studied less often. Here we focus on substrate structure and surface water, both of which are highly relevant to the biological system and to synthetic design. To do this we utilized a highly controlled, patterned substrate (Sharklet®, by Sharklet® Technologies Inc.). This allowed us to test independently and jointly the effects of reduced surface area substrates, with a defined pattern, on adhesion in both air and water. Our results show that adhesion is not significantly impaired in air, whereas surface area and pattern significantly affect adhesion in water. These findings highlight the need to study multiple parameters that are relevant to the gecko adhesive system to further improve our understanding of the biological system and to design better, more versatile synthetics. PMID:26696412

  6. Chest wall reconstruction. Experience with 100 consecutive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, P G; Pairolero, P C

    1984-01-01

    Experience with 100 consecutive chest wall reconstructions during the past 7 years was reviewed. There were 52 female and 48 male patients with ages ranging from 13 to 78 years (average 53). Of the 100 patients, 42 had tumors of the chest wall, 19 had radiation necrosis, 24 had infected median sternotomies , and 15 had combinations of the three. Seventy-six patients underwent skeletal resection of the chest wall. An average of 5.7 ribs were resected in 63 patients. Total or partial sternectomies were performed in 29. Ninety-two patients underwent 142 muscle flaps: 77 pectoralis major, 29 latissimus dorsi, and 36 other muscles, including serratus anterior, rectus abdominis, and external oblique muscles. The omentum was transposed in ten patients. Chest wall skeletal defects were closed with Prolene mesh in 29 patients and with autogenous ribs in 11. Eighty-nine patients underwent primary closure of the skin. The 100 patients underwent an average of 2.1 operations. Hospitalization averaged 17.5 days. There was one perioperative death (29 days). Two patients required tracheostomy. Follow-up averaged 21.6 months. There were 24 late deaths. All 99 patients who were alive 30 days after operation had excellent results at the time of death or last follow-up. Images Figs. 2A-D. Figs. 3A-F. Figs. 4A-D. Figs. 4A-D. Fig. 5. Fig. 5. PMID:6732314

  7. Subdeltoid lipomas: a consecutive series of 13 cases.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Stefano; Candela, Vittorio; Passaretti, Daniele; Cinotti, Gianluca; Della Rocca, Carlo; Giannicola, Giuseppe; Gumina, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    We describe 13 consecutive cases of patients presenting with shoulder mass and limited function, and to whom we formulated a diagnosis of subdeltoid lipoma. Between 2002 and 2010, 14 patients had a diagnosis of subdeltoid lipoma. Of these, one was excluded from this review because of a concomitant cuff tear. Shoulder was evaluated with X-ray, MRI, EMG and pre-/post-operatively with constant score (CS) and subjective shoulder value (SSV). All patients had complete excision of the mass. Minimum follow-up was 12 months. In 14 cases, the lipoma was causing slight pain or discomfort, and in four cases (28.57 %), it was causing limitation of joint movement. EMG showed axillary nerve neuro apraxia in two cases (14.28 %). Preoperative CS and SSV were on average 80 and 80, respectively. At one-year follow-up, CS and SSV were meanly 92 and 95, respectively (p = 0.034). No recurrence of the lesion was noted. Subdeltoid lipomas quickly grow up and may cause compression of axillary nerve. Surgery is the treatment of these lesions if symptomatic. After complete excision, subdeltoid lipomas do not recur, and clinical signs disappear. Level of evidence Case series, Level IV. PMID:22528845

  8. Squamous Dysplasia of the Urinary Bladder: A Consecutive Cystectomy Series.

    PubMed

    Warrick, Joshua I; Kaag, Matthew; Raman, Jay D; Chan, Wilson; Tran, Truc; Kunchala, Sudhir; DeGraff, David; Chen, Guoli

    2016-06-01

    Squamous dysplasia of the urinary bladder is uncommon and may represent a precursor to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. Though significant focus has been devoted to squamous differentiation in invasive bladder cancer, relatively little attention has been given to squamous dysplasia. We methodically reviewed microscopic slides from a consecutive cystectomy series at our institution (n = 303; 2001-2014), with special attention given to squamous dysplasia and squamous differentiation within association invasive carcinoma. Of these 303 cases, 3% (9 cases) had squamous dysplasia. The majority (89%; 8/9) had a similar morphological appearance to squamous dysplasia of the head and neck (ie, cytological atypia, architectural disturbances, and abnormal keratinization). Invasive carcinoma was present in 230 of the cystectomy cases. Of these 230 cases with invasive carcinoma, 4% (8 cases) also had squamous dysplasia. The invasive carcinoma had evidence of squamous differentiation in all cases with concurrent squamous dysplasia. Concurrent flat urothelial carcinoma in situ was present in 3 of the 8 cases with both invasive carcinoma and squamous dysplasia. Squamous dysplasia was not associated with clinical outcomes data, including death from bladder cancer and bladder cancer recurrence. The data from this study indicate that squamous dysplasia is uncommon in the cystectomy setting, frequently has the morphology of head and neck dysplasia, and is often associated with invasive carcinoma with squamous differentiation. PMID:26860905

  9. A deformable model for tracking tumors across consecutive imaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Nosher, John L.; Schneider, M. D. Benjamin; Foran, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective A deformable registration technique was developed and evaluated to track and quantify tumor response to radiofrequency ablation for patients with liver malignancies. Materials and methods The method uses the combined power of global and local alignment of pre- and post-treatment computed tomography image data sets. The strategy of the algorithm is to infer volumetric deformation based upon surface displacements using a linearly elastic finite element model (FEM). Using this framework, the major challenge for tracking tumor location is not the tissue mechanical properties for FEM modeling but rather the evaluation of boundary conditions. Three different methods were systematically investigated to automatically determine the boundary conditions defined by the correspondences on liver surfaces. Results Using both 2D synthetic phantoms and imaged 3D beef liver data we performed gold standard registration while measuring the accuracy of non-rigid deformation. The fact that the algorithms could support mean displacement error of tumor deformation up to 2 mm indicates that this technique may serve as a useful tool for surgical interventions. The method was further demonstrated and evaluated using consecutive imaging studies for three liver cancer patients. Conclusion The FEM-based surface registration technique provides accurate tracking and monitoring of tumor and surrounding tissue during the course of treatment and follow-up. PMID:19774096

  10. Thoracic wall defects: surgical management of 205 consecutive patients

    SciTech Connect

    Pairolero, P.C.; Arnold, P.G.

    1986-07-01

    In this article, we review our experience during the past 9 years with 205 consecutive thoracic wall reconstructions. The 100 female and 105 male patients ranged in age from 12 to 85 years (mean, 53.4 years). One hundred fourteen patients had thoracic wall tumors, 56 had radiation necrosis, 56 had infected median sternotomy wounds, and 8 had costochondritis. Twenty-nine of these patients had combinations of the aforementioned conditions. One hundred seventy-eight patients underwent skeletal resection. A mean of 5.4 ribs were resected in 142 patients. Total or partial sternectomies were performed in 60. Skeletal defects were closed with prosthetic material in 66 patients and with autogenous ribs in 12. One hundred sixty-eight patients underwent 244 muscle flap procedures: 149 pectoralis major, 56 latissimus dorsi, 14 rectus abdominis, 13 serratus anterior, 8 external oblique, 2 trapezius, and 2 advancement of diaphragm. The omentum was transposed in 20 patients. The mean number of operations per patient was 1.9 (range, 1 to 8). The mean duration of hospitalization was 16.5 days. One perioperative death occurred (at 29 days). Four patients required tracheostomy. During a mean follow-up of 32.4 months, there were 49 late deaths, predominantly due to malignant disease. All 204 patients who were alive 30 days after operation had excellent surgical results at last follow-up examination or at the time of death due to causes unrelated to the reconstructive procedure.

  11. Aspiration-Related Deaths in 57 Consecutive Patients: Autopsy Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaowen; Yi, Eunhee S.; Ryu, Jay H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Aspiration can cause a diverse spectrum of pulmonary disorders some of which can lead to death but can be difficult to diagnose. Patients and Methods The medical records and autopsy findings of 57 consecutive patients in whom aspiration was the immediate cause of death at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA) over a 9-yr period, from January 1 2004 to December 31 2012 were analyzed. Results The median age at death was 72 years (range, 13–95 years) and included 39 (68%) males. The most common symptom before death was dyspnea (63%) and chest radiography revealed bilateral infiltrates in the majority (81%). Most common precipitating factors for aspiration were depressed consciousness (46%) and dysphagia (44%). Aspiration-related syndromes leading to death were aspiration pneumonia in 26 (46%), aspiration pneumonitis in 25 (44%), and large airway obstruction in 6 patients (11%). Aspiration was clinically unsuspected in 19 (33%) patients. Antimicrobial therapy had been empirically administered to most patients (90%) with aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis. Conclusion We conclude aspiration-related deaths occur most commonly in the elderly with identifiable risks and presenting bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. One-third of these aspiration-related pulmonary syndromes were clinically unsuspected at the time of death. PMID:25076409

  12. Effective healthcare system response to consecutive Florida hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Banks, Laura L; Shah, Mark B; Richards, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    In September 2004, two consecutive hurricanes (Hurricane Frances and Hurricane Jeanne) made landfall in Stuart, FL, and created healthcare needs that overtaxed the capacity of the local healthcare system. To determine the character and structure of the response to these hurricanes, researchers from the University of New Mexico, Center for Disaster Medicine conducted both a structured written survey of employees and a guided group interview with healthcare system management. The written survey queried staff on topics related to their ability and willingness to get to work and stay at work during the storms. The roundtable interview with leadership resulted in analysis of the preexisting Emergency Operations Plan and its use during the storms, including preparation and execution of plans for staffing, facility operation, communication, community resource utilization, and recovery. In addition, the interaction with federally deployed Disaster Medical Assistance Teams was documented and reviewed. In general, prior planning on the part of the healthcare system in Stuart, FL, resulted in a successful response to both hurricanes. Employees were willing and able to provide the necessary care for patients during the hurricanes, overcoming many physical and emotional barriers that arose during the month-long response. These barriers included concern for the safety of family and pets, inoperable or insufficient communication methods, and damage to employees' personal property and homes. Recommendations for healthcare system preparedness and response were formulated by the researchers based on this healthcare system's successful response to back-to-back hurricanes, including recommendations for interacting with disaster medical resources. PMID:18297949

  13. Polyurethane adhesive ingestion.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C

    2013-02-01

    Polyurethane adhesives are found in a large number of household products in the United States and are used for a variety of purposes. Several brands of these expanding wood glues (those containing diphenylmethane diisocyanate [MDI]) have the potential to form gastrointestinal (GI) foreign bodies if ingested. The ingested adhesive forms an expanding ball of glue in the esophagus and gastric lumen. This expansion is caused by a polymerization reaction using the heat, water, and gastric acids of the stomach. A firm mass is created that can be 4-8 times its original volume. As little as 2 oz of glue have been reported to develop gastric foreign bodies. The obstructive mass is reported to form within minutes of ingestion of the adhesive. The foreign body can lead to esophageal impaction and obstruction, airway obstruction, gastric outflow obstruction, mucosal hemorrhage, ulceration, laceration, perforation of the esophageal and gastric linings, and death. Clinical signs following ingestion include anorexia, lethargy, vomiting, tachypnea, and abdominal distention and pain, and typically develop within 12 hours. Clinical signs may depend upon the size of the mass. If left untreated, perforation and rupture of the esophagus or stomach can occur. The glue mass does not stick to the GI mucosa and is not always detectable on abdominal palpation. Radiographs are recommended to confirm the presence of the "glue-ball" foreign body, and radiographic evidence of the obstruction may be seen as early as 4-6 hours following ingestion. Emesis is contraindicated owing to the risk of aspiration of the glue into the respiratory tree or the subsequent lodging of the expanding glue mass in the esophagus. Likewise, efforts to dilute the glue and prevent the formation of the foreign body through administration of liquids, activated charcoal, or bulk-forming products to push the foreign body through the GI tract have proven ineffective. Even endoscopy performed to remove the foreign body has

  14. Lessons learned from two consecutive cleft lip and palate missions and the impact of patient education.

    PubMed

    Schönmeyr, Björn; Restrepo, Carolina; Wendby, Lisa; Gillenwater, Justin; Campbell, Alex

    2014-09-01

    Two consecutive cleft missions were conducted in Guwahati, northeastern India in December 2010 and January 2011. In the later mission, a standardized patient education program for postoperative care was introduced. The objective of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the impact of the patient education program on cleft lip complications in terms of wound infection and dehiscence. Two hundred ninety-eight cleft lip repairs were performed in the first mission and 220 (74%) returned for early follow-up. In the second mission, 356 patients were operated on and 252 (71%) returned for follow-up. From the first mission, 8 patients (3.7%) were diagnosed with lip wound infection and 21 patients (9.6%) with lip dehiscence. After the second mission, only 1 patient (0.4%) returned with a wound infection and 16 (6.4%) were diagnosed with dehiscence.Using binary logistic regression including age, cleft type, postoperative antibiotics, surgeon, and patient education program as covariates, the patient education program stood out as the only variable with a statistically significant impact on the incidence of postoperative wound infections. Even though the incidence of lip dehiscence was reduced by one third when the patient education program was utilized, our regression model singled out the surgeons as the only factor significantly related to this type of complication. Moreover, no benefits of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis were found. Further analysis of the data also implied that the use of tissue adhesive as a compliment to sutures does not reduce the risk of dehiscence. PMID:25148620

  15. Elevated pretreatment serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and lactate dehydrogenase as predictors of survival in cutaneous metastatic malignant melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Franzke, A.; Probst-Kepper, M.; Buer, J.; Duensing, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Wittke, F.; Volkenandt, M.; Ganser, A.; Atzpodien, J.

    1998-01-01

    Very rapid progression of disease with a median survival of 6-9 months is a common feature of metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma. Nevertheless, substantial variability of survival suggests that metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma can be divided into several biological subgroups. Pretreatment serum levels of soluble adhesion molecules and various clinical parameters in cutaneous metastatic malignant melanoma were evaluated to determine their prognostic value. In this study pretreatment serum levels of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1), soluble intercellular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), soluble endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 (sE-selectin) and multiple clinical factors were assessed in relation to overall survival of 97 consecutive patients with metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma seen at our institution between May 1990 and April 1996. For statistical analysis, both univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards models were used. Elevated pretreatment serum levels of sVCAM-1 (P < 0.005) and of lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.002) were rendered statistically independent and were significantly associated with unfavourable outcome. Patients were assigned to one of three risk categories (low, intermediate and high) according to a cumulative risk score defined as the function of the sum of these two variables. There were significant differences in overall survival (P < 0.0001) between low- (n = 53, 5-year survival probability of 23.3%), intermediate- (n = 29, 5-year survival probability of 9.9%) and high-risk (n = 15) patients. Elevated pretreatment serum levels of sVCAM-1 and of lactate dehydrogenase correlate with poor outcome in metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma. These data support risk stratification for future therapeutic trials and identify factors that need to be validated in prospective studies and may potentially influence decision-making in palliative management of patients with disseminated cutaneous

  16. Early Requestive Development in Consecutive Third Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safont-Jorda, Maria-Pilar

    2011-01-01

    While research on early simultaneous bilingual acquisition is well-documented, studies on multiple language acquisition in early childhood are still needed. Existing studies have mainly focused on early simultaneous acquisition of three or more languages. Some attention has already been paid to early pragmatic differentiation and cross-linguistic…

  17. JKR adhesion in cylindrical contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaram, Narayan; Farris, T. N.; Chandrasekar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Planar JKR adhesive solutions use the half-plane assumption and do not permit calculation of indenter approach or visualization of adhesive force-displacement curves unless the contact is periodic. By considering a conforming cylindrical contact and using an arc crack analogy, we obtain closed-form indenter approach and load-contact size relations for a planar adhesive problem. The contact pressure distribution is also obtained in closed-form. The solutions reduce to known cases in both the adhesion-free and small-contact solution ( Barquins, 1988) limits. The cylindrical system shows two distinct regimes of adhesive behavior; in particular, contact sizes exceeding the critical (maximum) size seen in adhesionless contacts are possible. The effects of contact confinement on adhesive behavior are investigated. Some special cases are considered, including contact with an initial neat-fit and the detachment of a rubbery cylinder from a rigid cradle. A comparison of the cylindrical solution with the half-plane adhesive solution is carried out, and it indicates that the latter typically underestimates the adherence force. The cylindrical adhesive system is novel in that it possesses stable contact states that may not be attained even on applying an infinite load in the absence of adhesion.

  18. Adhesive sealing of dentin surfaces in vitro: A review

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Nawareg, Manar M; Zidan, Ahmed Z; Zhou, Jianfeng; Agee, Kelli; Chiba, Ayaka; Tagami, Jungi; Pashley, David H

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this review is to describe the evolution of the use of dental adhesives to form a tight seal of freshly prepared dentin to protect the pulp from bacterial products, during the time between crown preparation and final cementum of full crowns. The evolution of these “immediate dentin sealants” follows the evolution of dental adhesives, in general. That is, they began with multiple-step, etch-and-rinse adhesives, and then switched to the use of simplified adhesives. Methods Literature was reviewed for evidence that bacteria or bacterial products diffusing across dentin can irritate pulpal tissues before and after smear layer removal. Smear layers can be solubilized by plaque organisms within 7–10 days if they are directly exposed to oral fluids. It is likely that smear layers covered by temporary restorations may last more than one month. As long as smear layers remain in place, they can partially seal dentin. Thus, many in vitro studies evaluating the sealing ability of adhesive resins use smear layer-covered dentin as a reference condition. Surprisingly, many adhesives do not seal dentin as well as do smear layers. Results Both in vitro and in vivo studies show that resin-covered dentin allows dentinal fluid to cross polymerized resins. The use of simplified single bottle adhesives to seal dentin was a step backwards. Currently, most authorities use either 3-step adhesives such as Scotchbond Multi-Purposea or OptiBond FLb or two-step self-etching primer adhesives, such as Clearfil SEc, Unifil Bondd or AdheSEe, respectfully. PMID:26846037

  19. Mechanisms of fluid production in smooth adhesive pads of insects.

    PubMed

    Dirks, Jan-Henning; Federle, Walter

    2011-07-01

    Insect adhesion is mediated by thin fluid films secreted into the contact zone. As the amount of fluid affects adhesive forces, a control of secretion appears probable. Here, we quantify for the first time the rate of fluid secretion in adhesive pads of cockroaches and stick insects. The volume of footprints deposited during consecutive press-downs decreased exponentially and approached a non-zero steady state, demonstrating the presence of a storage volume. We estimated its size and the influx rate into it from a simple compartmental model. Influx was independent of step frequency. Fluid-depleted pads recovered maximal footprint volumes within 15 min. Pads in stationary contact accumulated fluid along the perimeter of the contact zone. The initial fluid build-up slowed down, suggesting that flow is driven by negative Laplace pressure. Freely climbing stick insects left hardly any traceable footprints, suggesting that they save secretion by minimizing contact area or by recovering fluid during detachment. However, even the highest fluid production rates observed incur only small biosynthesis costs, representing less than 1 per cent of the resting metabolic rate. Our results show that fluid secretion in insect wet adhesive systems relies on simple physical principles, allowing for passive control of fluid volume within the contact zone. PMID:21208970

  20. Diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis: analysis of 20 consecutive patients*

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaowen; Yi, Eunhee Suh; Ryu, Jay Hoon

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aspiration can cause a variety of pulmonary syndromes, some of which are not well recognized. The objective of this study was to assess the demographic, clinical, radiological, and histopathological correlates of diffuse aspiration bronchiolitis (DAB), a bronchiolocentric disorder caused by recurrent aspiration. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 20 consecutive patients with DAB seen at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, between January 1, 1998 and June 30, 2014. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 56.5 years (range, 22-76 years), and the male/female ratio was 2.3:1.0. In 18 patients, the diagnosis of DAB was based on the results of a lung biopsy; in the 2 remaining patients, it was based on clinical and radiological features, together with documented aspiration observed in a videofluoroscopic swallow study. In 19 patients (95%), we identified predisposing factors for aspiration, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), drug abuse, and dysphagia. Common presenting features included cough, sputum production, dyspnea, and fever. Twelve patients (60%) had a history of recurrent pneumonia. In all of the patients, chest CT revealed bilateral pulmonary infiltrates consisting of micronodules and tree-in-bud opacities. In the majority of patients, interventions aimed at preventing recurrent aspiration (e.g., anti-GERD therapies) led to improvement in the symptoms of DAB. CONCLUSIONS: Young to middle-aged subjects with recognizable predisposing factors for aspiration and who report a history of recurrent pneumonia are at increased risk for DAB. Although DAB is not well recognized, certain chest CT features are characteristic of the disorder. PMID:25972969

  1. A Twelve-Year Consecutive Case Experience in Thoracic Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jenny T.; Bonneau, Laura A.; Weigel, Tracey L.; Maloney, James D.; Castro, Francisco; Shulzhenko, Nikita

    2016-01-01

    Background: We describe the second largest contemporary series of flaps used in thoracic reconstruction. Methods: A retrospective review of patients undergoing thoracomyoplasty from 2001 to 2013 was conducted. Ninety-one consecutive patients were identified. Results: Thoracomyoplasty was performed for 67 patients with intrathoracic indications and 24 patients with chest wall defects. Malignancy and infection were the most common indications for reconstruction (P < 0.01). The latissimus dorsi (LD), pectoralis major, and serratus anterior muscle flaps remained the workhorses of reconstruction (LD and pectoralis major: 64% flaps in chest wall reconstruction; LD and serratus anterior: 85% of flaps in intrathoracic indication). Only 12% of patients required mesh. Only 6% of patients with <2 ribs resected required mesh when compared with 24% with 3–4 ribs, and 100% with 5 or more ribs resected (P < 0.01). Increased rib resections required in chest wall reconstruction resulted in a longer hospital stay (P < 0.01). Total comorbidities and complications were related to length of stay only in intrathoracic indication (P < 0.01). Average intubation time was significantly higher in patients undergoing intrathoracic indication (5.51 days) than chest wall reconstruction (0.04 days), P < 0.05. Average hospital stay was significantly higher in patients undergoing intrathoracic indication (23 days) than chest wall reconstruction (12 days), P < 0.05. One-year survival was most poor for intrathoracic indication (59%) versus chest wall reconstruction (83%), P = 0.0048. Conclusion: Thoracic reconstruction remains a safe and successful intervention that reliably treats complex and challenging problems, allowing more complex thoracic surgery problems to be salvaged. PMID:27257568

  2. Laparoscopic splenectomy: outcome and efficacy in 103 consecutive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Katkhouda, N; Hurwitz, M B; Rivera, R T; Chandra, M; Waldrep, D J; Gugenheim, J; Mouiel, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) in patients with predominantly benign hematologic disorders. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The technical feasibility of LS has been recently established. However, data regarding the efficacy of the procedure in a large cohort of patients are scarce. METHODS: One hundred three consecutive patients underwent LS between June 1992 and October 1997. Data were collected prospectively on all patients. RESULTS: Indications were idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), hereditary spherocytosis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, and others. Mean spleen size was 14 cm and mean weight was 263 g. Accessory spleens were found in 12 patients with ITP and in 5 patients without ITP. There were no deaths. Complications occurred in six patients, one requiring a second procedure for small bowel obstruction. Six patients received transfusions, and four procedures were converted to open splenectomy for bleeding. Mean surgical time was 161 minutes and was greater in the first 10 cases than the last 10. Mean postsurgical stay was 2.5 days. Thrombocytopenia resolved after surgery in 84% of patients with ITP, and hematocrit levels increased significantly in 70% of patients with chronic hemolytic anemias. A positive response was noted in 92% of patients with hereditary spherocytosis, without relapse for the duration of the observation. ITP relapsed in four patients during follow-up, three within 12 months. CONCLUSIONS: LS can be performed safely and effectively in a teaching institution. Rigorous technique will minimize capsular fractures, reducing the risk of splenosis. Accessory spleens can be successfully localized, thus improving response and limiting recurrence of ITP. LS should become the technique of choice for treatment of intractable benign hematologic disease. PMID:9790346

  3. Does palliative home oxygen improve dyspnoea? A consecutive cohort study.

    PubMed

    Currow, D C; Agar, M; Smith, J; Abernethy, A P

    2009-06-01

    Palliative oxygen for refractory dyspnoea is frequently prescribed, even when the criteria for long-term home oxygen (based on survival, rather than the symptomatic relief of breathlessness) are not met. Little is known about how palliative home oxygen affects symptomatic breathlessness. A 4-year consecutive cohort from a regional community palliative care service in Western Australia was used to compare baseline breathlessness before oxygen therapy with dyspnoea sub-scales on the symptom assessment scores (SAS; 0-10) 1 and 2 weeks after the introduction of oxygen. Demographic and clinical characteristics of people who responded were included in a multi-variable logistic regression model. Of the study population (n = 5862), 21.1% (n = 1239) were prescribed oxygen of whom 413 had before and after data that could be included in this analysis. The mean breathlessness before home oxygen was 5.3 (SD 2.5; median 5; range 0-10). There were no significant differences overall at 1 or 2 weeks (P = 0.28) nor for any diagnostic sub-groups. One hundred and fifty people (of 413) had more than a 20% improvement in mean dyspnoea scores. In multi-factor analysis, neither the underlying diagnosis causing breathlessness nor the demographic factors predicted responders at 1 week. Oxygen prescribed on the basis of breathlessness alone across a large population predominantly with cancer does not improve breathlessness for the majority of people. Prospective randomised trials in people with cancer and non-cancer are needed to determine whether oxygen can reduce the progression of breathlessness compared to a control arm. PMID:19304806

  4. Static Adhesion Assay for the Study of Integrin Activation in T Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Strazza, Marianne; Azoulay-Alfaguter, Inbar; Pedoeem, Ariel; Mor, Adam

    2014-01-01

    T lymphocyte adhesion is required for multiple T cell functions, including migration to sites of inflammation and formation of immunological synapses with antigen presenting cells. T cells accomplish regulated adhesion by controlling the adhesive properties of integrins, a class of cell adhesion molecules consisting of heterodimeric pairs of transmembrane proteins that interact with target molecules on partner cells or extracellular matrix. The most prominent T cell integrin is lymphocyte function associated antigen (LFA)-1, composed of subunits αL and β2, whose target is the intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1. The ability of a T cell to control adhesion derives from the ability to regulate the affinity states of individual integrins. Inside-out signaling describes the process whereby signals inside a cell cause the external domains of integrins to assume an activated state. Much of our knowledge of these complex phenomena is based on mechanistic studies performed in simplified in vitro model systems. The T lymphocyte adhesion assay described here is an excellent tool that allows T cells to adhere to target molecules, under static conditions, and then utilizes a fluorescent plate reader to quantify adhesiveness. This assay has been useful in defining adhesion-stimulatory or inhibitory substances that act on lymphocytes, as well as characterizing the signaling events involved. Although described here for LFA-1 - ICAM-1 mediated adhesion; this assay can be readily adapted to allow for the study of other adhesive interactions (e.g. VLA-4 - fibronectin). PMID:24961998

  5. Stickiness--some fundamentals of adhesion.

    PubMed

    Gay, Cyprien

    2002-12-01

    We review some adhesion mechanisms that have been understood in the field of synthetic adhesives, and more precisely for adhesives that adhere instantaneously (a property named tackiness) and whose adhesive strength usually depends on the applied pressure (pressure-sensitive adhesives). The discussion includes effects of surface roughness, elasticity, cavitation, viscous and elastic fingering, substrate flexibility. PMID:21680396

  6. Small-bowel enema in the diagnosis of adhesive obstructions.

    PubMed

    Caroline, D F; Herlinger, H; Laufer, I; Kressel, H Y; Levine, M S

    1984-06-01

    The small-bowel enema was evaluated in 60 patients in whom a final diagnosis of adhesive obstruction was made by surgery or on the basis of clinical findings. Distinctive radiographic and clinical features were found with single versus multiple bands. While 72% of 32 single-band obstructions were graded as severe, this grading was given to only 34% of 18 obstructions by multiple bands. Extensive adhesions were demonstrated in 10 patients and presented varied radiographic features. The radiographic diagnosis of adhesive obstruction was found to be correct in 36 (87.8%) of 41 patients in whom a surgical diagnosis could subsequently be made. However, an incorrect radiologic diagnosis of obstruction by metastases was made in five patients. They form the basis for a discussion of the differential diagnosis. PMID:6609596

  7. Improved Adhesion and Compliancy of Hierarchical Fibrillar Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Li, Yasong; Gates, Byron D; Menon, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    The gecko relies on van der Waals forces to cling onto surfaces with a variety of topography and composition. The hierarchical fibrillar structures on their climbing feet, ranging from mesoscale to nanoscale, are hypothesized to be key elements for the animal to conquer both smooth and rough surfaces. An epoxy-based artificial hierarchical fibrillar adhesive was prepared to study the influence of the hierarchical structures on the properties of a dry adhesive. The presented experiments highlight the advantages of a hierarchical structure despite a reduction of overall density and aspect ratio of nanofibrils. In contrast to an adhesive containing only nanometer-size fibrils, the hierarchical fibrillar adhesives exhibited a higher adhesion force and better compliancy when tested on an identical substrate. PMID:26167951

  8. Effect of adhesive thickness on adhesively bonded T-joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. R.; Afendi, Mohd; Majid, M. S. Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of adhesive thickness on tensile strength of adhesively bonded stainless steel T-joint. Specimens were made from SUS 304 Stainless Steel plate and SUS 304 Stainless Steel perforated plate. Four T-joint specimens with different adhesive thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were made. Experiment result shows T-joint specimen with adhesive thickness of 1.0 mm yield highest maximum load. Identical T-joint specimen jointed by spot welding was also tested. Tensile test shows welded T-Joint had eight times higher tensile load than adhesively bonded T-joint. However, in low pressure application such as urea granulator chamber, high tensile strength is not mandatory. This work is useful for designer in fertilizer industry and others who are searching for alternative to spot welding.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and Pulmonary Distribution of Clarithromycin and Rifampicin after Concomitant and Consecutive Administration in Foals.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Sarah; Spieckermann, Lena; Oswald, Stefan; Keiser, Markus; Lumpe, Stefan; Ullrich, Anett; Grube, Markus; Hasan, Mahmoud; Venner, Monica; Siegmund, Werner

    2016-03-01

    Drug interactions often result from multiple pharmacokinetic changes, such as after rifampicin (RIF) and clarithromycin (CLA) in the treatment of abscessing lung diseases. Comedication of RIF may interact with CLA disposition by either induction of presystemic elimination processes and/or inhibition of uptake mechanisms because it regulates gene transcription and modulates function of various CYP enzymes, multidrug efflux and uptake transporters for which CLA is a substrate. To distinguish the transcriptional changes from the modulating interaction components upon CLA absorption and pulmonary distribution, we initiated a repeated-dose study in 12 healthy foals with CLA (7.5 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d.) in comedication with RIF (10 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d.) given either concomitantly with CLA or consecutively 4 h after CLA. Affinity of CLA to human P-gp, MRP2, and MRP3 and to OCT1, OCT3, and PEPT1 was measured using Sf9-derived inside-out membrane vesicles and transfected HEK293 cells, respectively. ABCB1 (P-gp) induction by RIF and affinity of CLA to equine P-gp were studied using primary equine hepatocytes. Absolute bioavailability of CLA was reduced from ∼40% to below 5% after comedication of RIF in both schedules of administration, and Tmax occurred ∼2-3 h earlier. The loss of bioavailability was not associated with increased 14-hydroxyclarithromycin (14-OH-CLA) exposure. After consecutive dosing, absolute bioavailability and pulmonary penetration of CLA increased ∼2-fold compared to concomitant use. In vitro, CLA showed affinity to human and equine P-gp. Expression of ABCB1 mRNA was upregulated by RIF in 7 of 8 duodenal biopsy specimens and in primary equine hepatocytes. In conclusion, the major undesired influence of RIF on oral absorption and pulmonary distribution of CLA is associated with induction of intestinal P-gp. Consecutive administration to avoid competition with its intestinal uptake transport results in significantly, although not clinically relevant

  10. The electrostatic profile of consecutive Cβ atoms applied to protein structure quality assessment

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Venkatramani, Ravindra; Rao, Basuthkar J.; Asgeirsson, Bjarni; Dandekar, Abhaya M.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of a protein provides insight into its physiological interactions with other components of the cellular soup. Methods that predict putative structures from sequences typically yield multiple, closely-ranked possibilities. A critical component in the process is the model quality assessing program (MQAP), which selects the best candidate from this pool of structures. Here, we present a novel MQAP based on the physical properties of sidechain atoms. We propose a method for assessing the quality of protein structures based on the electrostatic potential difference (EPD) of Cβ atoms in consecutive residues. We demonstrate that the EPDs of Cβ atoms on consecutive residues provide unique signatures of the amino acid types. The EPD of Cβ atoms are learnt from a set of 1000 non-homologous protein structures with a resolution cuto of 1.6 Å obtained from the PISCES database. Based on the Boltzmann hypothesis that lower energy conformations are proportionately sampled more, and on Annsen's thermodynamic hypothesis that the native structure of a protein is the minimum free energy state, we hypothesize that the deviation of observed EPD values from the mean values obtained in the learning phase is minimized in the native structure. We achieved an average specificity of 0.91, 0.94 and 0.93 on hg_structal, 4state_reduced and ig_structal decoy sets, respectively, taken from the Decoys `R' Us database. The source code and manual is made available at https://github.com/sanchak/mqap and permanently available on 10.5281/zenodo.7134. PMID:25506420

  11. Platelet adhesiveness in diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, S.; Pegrum, G. D.; Wolff, Sylvia; Ashton, W. L.

    1967-01-01

    Platelet adhesiveness has been assessed on whole blood from a series of 34 diabetics and 50 control subjects using adenosine diphosphate (A.D.P.) and by adherence to glass microspherules (ballotini). Using both techniques it was possible to demonstrate a significant increase in platelet adhesiveness in the diabetic patients. PMID:5614070

  12. Measuring Adhesion And Friction Forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1991-01-01

    Cavendish balance adapted to new purpose. Apparatus developed which measures forces of adhesion and friction between specimens of solid materials in vacuum at temperatures from ambient to 900 degrees C. Intended primarily for use in studying adhesion properties of ceramics and metals, including silicon carbide, aluminum oxide, and iron-base amorphous alloys.

  13. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  14. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  15. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  16. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  17. 21 CFR 880.5240 - Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5240 Medical adhesive tape and adhesive bandage. (a) Identification. A medical adhesive tape or adhesive bandage is a device intended for medical purposes that...

  18. Biological adhesives and fastening devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2012-04-01

    Sea creatures are a leading source to some of the more interesting discoveries in adhesives. Because sea water naturally breaks down even the strongest conventional adhesive, an alternative is important that could be used in repairing or fabricating anything that might have regular contact with moisture such as: Repairing broken and shattered bones, developing a surgical adhesive, use in the dental work, repairing and building ships, and manufacturing plywood. Some of nature's prototypes include the common mussel, limpet, some bacteria and abalone. As we learn more about these adhesives we are also developing non adhesive fasteners, such as mimicked after studying the octopus, burdock burrs (i.e. Velcro®) and the gecko.

  19. Hyaluronan-mediated cellular adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Jennifer

    2005-03-01

    Many cells surround themselves with a cushioning halo of polysaccharides that is further strengthened and organized by proteins. In fibroblasts and chrondrocytes, the primary component of this pericellular matrix is hyaluronan, a large linear polyanion. Hyaluronan production is linked to a variety of disease, developmental, and physiological processes. Cells manipulate the concentration of hyaluronan and hyaluronan receptors for numerous activities including modulation of cell adhesion, cell motility, and differentiation. Recent investigations by identify hyaluronan's role in mediating early-stage cell adhesion. An open question is how the cell removes the 0.5-10 micron thick pericellular matrix to allow for further mature adhesion events requiring nanometer scale separations. In this investigation, holographic optical tweezers are used to study the adhesion and viscoelastic properties of chondrocytes' pericellular matrix. Ultimately, we aim to shed further light on the spatial and temporal details of the dramatic transition from micron to nanometer gaps between the cell and its adhesive substrate.

  20. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, Ray A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe within an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough.

  1. Corrugated pipe adhesive applicator apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Shirey, R.A.

    1983-06-14

    Apparatus for coating selected portions of the troughs of a corrugated pipe with an adhesive includes a support disposed within the pipe with a reservoir containing the adhesive disposed on the support. A pump, including a spout, is utilized for supplying the adhesive from the reservoir to a trough of the pipe. A rotatable applicator is supported on the support and contacts the trough of the pipe. The applicator itself is sized so as to fit within the trough, and contacts the adhesive in the trough and spreads the adhesive in the trough upon rotation. A trough shield, supported by the support and disposed in the path of rotation of the applicator, is utilized to prevent the applicator from contacting selected portions of the trough. A locator head is also disposed on the support and provides a way for aligning the spout, the applicator, and the trough shield with the trough. 4 figs.

  2. Adhesion testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaPeyronnie, Glenn M. (Inventor); Huff, Charles M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a testing apparatus and method for testing the adhesion of a coating to a surface. The invention also includes an improved testing button or dolly for use with the testing apparatus and a self aligning button hook or dolly interface on the testing apparatus. According to preferred forms, the apparatus and method of the present invention are simple, portable, battery operated rugged, and inexpensive to manufacture and use, are readily adaptable to a wide variety of uses, and provide effective and accurate testing results. The device includes a linear actuator driven by an electric motor coupled to the actuator through a gearbox and a rotatable shaft. The electronics for the device are contained in the head section of the device. At the contact end of the device, is positioned a self aligning button hook, attached below the load cell located on the actuator shaft.

  3. Epidural lysis of adhesions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Frank; Jamison, David E; Hurley, Robert W; Cohen, Steven P

    2014-01-01

    As our population ages and the rate of spine surgery continues to rise, the use epidural lysis of adhesions (LOA) has emerged as a popular treatment to treat spinal stenosis and failed back surgery syndrome. There is moderate evidence that percutaneous LOA is more effective than conventional ESI for both failed back surgery syndrome, spinal stenosis, and lumbar radiculopathy. For cervical HNP, cervical stenosis and mechanical pain not associated with nerve root involvement, the evidence is anecdotal. The benefits of LOA stem from a combination of factors to include the high volumes administered and the use of hypertonic saline. Hyaluronidase has been shown in most, but not all studies to improve treatment outcomes. Although infrequent, complications are more likely to occur after epidural LOA than after conventional epidural steroid injections. PMID:24478895

  4. Epidural Lysis of Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Frank; Jamison, David E.; Hurley, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    As our population ages and the rate of spine surgery continues to rise, the use epidural lysis of adhesions (LOA) has emerged as a popular treatment to treat spinal stenosis and failed back surgery syndrome. There is moderate evidence that percutaneous LOA is more effective than conventional ESI for both failed back surgery syndrome, spinal stenosis, and lumbar radiculopathy. For cervical HNP, cervical stenosis and mechanical pain not associated with nerve root involvement, the evidence is anecdotal. The benefits of LOA stem from a combination of factors to include the high volumes administered and the use of hypertonic saline. Hyaluronidase has been shown in most, but not all studies to improve treatment outcomes. Although infrequent, complications are more likely to occur after epidural LOA than after conventional epidural steroid injections. PMID:24478895

  5. [Retention of adhesive bridges].

    PubMed

    Raes, F; De Boever, J

    1994-04-01

    Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rests, interocclusal clearance and cingulum stops is equally important. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. The retention does not depend on one single factor, but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 80% can be obtained. PMID:11830965

  6. Effect of fibril shape on adhesive properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Daniel; Hill, Ginel; Parness, Aaron; Esparza, Noé; Cutkosky, Mark; Kenny, Tom

    2010-08-01

    Research into the gecko's adhesive system revealed a unique architecture for adhesives using tiny hairs. By using a stiff material (β-keratin) to create a highly structured adhesive, the gecko's system demonstrates properties not seen in traditional pressure-sensitive adhesives which use a soft, unstructured planar layer. In contrast to pressure sensitive adhesives, the gecko adhesive displays frictional adhesion, in which increased shear force allows it to withstand higher normal loads. Synthetic fibrillar adhesives have been fabricated but not all demonstrate this frictional adhesion property. Here we report the dual-axis force testing of single silicone rubber pillars from synthetic adhesive arrays. We find that the shape of the adhesive pillar dictates whether frictional adhesion or pressure-sensitive behavior is observed. This work suggests that both types of behavior can be achieved with structures much larger than gecko terminal structures. It also indicates that subtle differences in the shape of these pillars can significantly influence their properties.

  7. Double C-H amination by consecutive SET oxidations.

    PubMed

    Evoniuk, Christopher J; Hill, Sean P; Hanson, Kenneth; Alabugin, Igor V

    2016-06-01

    A new method for intramolecular C-H oxidative amination is based on a FeCl3-mediated oxidative reaction of anilines with activated sp(3) C-H bonds. The amino group plays multiple roles in the reaction cascade: (1) as the activating group in single-electron-transfer (SET) oxidation process, (2) as a directing group in benzylic/allylic C-H activation at a remote position, and (3) internal nucleophile trapping reactive intermediates formed from the C-H activation steps. These multielectron oxidation reactions proceed with catalytic amounts of Fe(iii) and inexpensive reagents. PMID:27170275

  8. Amine-functionalized polypyrrole: Inherently cell adhesive conducting polymer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Y; Schmidt, Christine E

    2015-06-01

    Electrically conducting polymers (CPs) have been recognized as novel biomaterials that can electrically communicate with biological systems. For their tissue engineering applications, CPs have been modified to promote cell adhesion for improved interactions between biomaterials and cells/tissues. Conventional approaches to improve cell adhesion involve the surface modification of CPs with biomolecules, such as physical adsorption of cell adhesive proteins and polycationic polymers, or their chemical immobilization; however, these approaches require additional multiple modification steps with expensive biomolecules. In this study, as a simple and effective alternative to such additional biomolecule treatment, we synthesized amine-functionalized polypyrrole (APPy) that inherently presents cell adhesion-supporting positive charges under physiological conditions. The synthesized APPy provides electrical activity in a moderate range and a hydrophilic surface compared to regular polypyrrole (PPy) homopolymers. Under both serum and serum-free conditions, APPy exhibited superior attachment of human dermal fibroblasts and Schwann cells compared to PPy homopolymer controls. Moreover, Schwann cell adhesion onto the APPy copolymer was at least similar to that on poly-l-lysine treated PPy controls. Our results indicate that amine-functionalized CP substrates will be useful to achieve good cell adhesion and potentially electrically stimulate various cells. In addition, amine functionality present on CPs can further serve as a novel and flexible platform to chemically tether various bioactive molecules, such as growth factors, antibodies, and chemical drugs. PMID:25294089

  9. Fluorescence Fluctuation Approaches to the Study of Adhesion and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bachir, Alexia I.; Kubow, Kristopher E.; Horwitz, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Cell–matrix adhesions are large, multimolecular complexes through which cells sense and respond to their environment. They also mediate migration by serving as traction points and signaling centers and allow the cell to modify the surroucnding tissue. Due to their fundamental role in cell behavior, adhesions are germane to nearly all major human health pathologies. However, adhesions are extremely complex and dynamic structures that include over 100 known interacting proteins and operate over multiple space (nm–µm) and time (ms–min) regimes. Fluorescence fluctuation techniques are well suited for studying adhesions. These methods are sensitive over a large spatiotemporal range and provide a wealth of information including molecular transport dynamics, interactions, and stoichiometry from a single time series. Earlier chapters in this volume have provided the theoretical background, instrumentation, and analysis algorithms for these techniques. In this chapter, we discuss their implementation in living cells to study adhesions in migrating cells. Although each technique and application has its own unique instrumentation and analysis requirements, we provide general guidelines for sample preparation, selection of imaging instrumentation, and optimization of data acquisition and analysis parameters. Finally, we review several recent studies that implement these techniques in the study of adhesions. PMID:23280111

  10. Tunicate-mimetic nanofibrous hydrogel adhesive with improved wet adhesion.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dongyeop X; Kim, Sangsik; Lee, Dohoon; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2015-07-01

    The main impediment to medical application of biomaterial-based adhesives is their poor wet adhesion strength due to hydration-induced softening and dissolution. To solve this problem, we mimicked the wound healing process found in tunicates, which use a nanofiber structure and pyrogallol group to heal any damage on its tunic under sea water. We fabricated a tunicate-mimetic hydrogel adhesive based on a chitin nanofiber/gallic acid (a pyrogallol acid) composite. The pyrogallol group-mediated cross-linking and the nanofibrous structures improved the dissolution resistance and cohesion strength of the hydrogel compared to the amorphous polymeric hydrogels in wet condition. The tunicate-mimetic adhesives showed higher adhesion strength between fully hydrated skin tissues than did fibrin glue and mussel-mimetic adhesives. The tunicate mimetic hydrogels were produced at low cost from recyclable and abundant raw materials. This tunicate-mimetic adhesive system is an example of how natural materials can be engineered for biomedical applications. PMID:25841348

  11. The effect of surface water and wetting on gecko adhesion.

    PubMed

    Stark, Alyssa Y; Sullivan, Timothy W; Niewiarowski, Peter H

    2012-09-01

    Despite profound interest in the mechanics and performance of the gecko adhesive system, relatively few studies have focused on performance under conditions that are ecologically relevant to the natural habitats of geckos. Because geckos are likely to encounter surfaces that are wet, we used shear force adhesion measurements to examine the effect of surface water and toe pad wetting on the whole-animal performance of a tropical-dwelling gecko (Gekko gecko). To test the effect of surface wetting, we measured the shear adhesive force of geckos on three substrate conditions: dry glass, glass misted with water droplets and glass fully submerged in water. We also investigated the effect of wetting on the adhesive toe pad by soaking the toe pads prior to testing. Finally, we tested for repeatability of the adhesive system in each wetting condition by measuring shear adhesion after each step a gecko made under treatment conditions. Wetted toe pads had significantly lower shear adhesive force in all treatments (0.86 ± 0.09 N) than the control (17.96 ± 3.42 N), as did full immersion in water (0.44 ± 0.03 N). Treatments with droplets of water distributed across the surface were more variable and did not differ from treatments where the surface was dry (4.72 ± 1.59 N misted glass; 9.76 ± 2.81 N dry glass), except after the gecko took multiple steps. These findings suggest that surface water and the wetting of a gecko's adhesive toe pads may have significant consequences for the ecology and behavior of geckos living in tropical environments. PMID:22875772

  12. Synergistic and hierarchical adhesive and topographic guidance of BHK cells.

    PubMed

    Britland, S; Morgan, H; Wojiak-Stodart, B; Riehle, M; Curtis, A; Wilkinson, C

    1996-11-01

    Guided cell movement is a fundamental process in development and regeneration. We have used microengineered culture substrates to study the interaction between model topographic and adhesive guidance cues in steering BHK cell orientation. Grooves 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 6.0 microm deep together with pitch-matched aminosilane tracks 5, 12, 25, 50, and 100 microm wide were fabricated on fused silica substrates using photolithographic and dry-etching techniques. The cues were presented to the cells individually, simultaneously in parallel and orthogonally opposed. Cells aligned most strongly to 25-microm-wide adhesive tracks and to 5-microm-wide, 6-microm-deep grooves. Stress fibers and vinculin were found to align with the adhesive tracks and to the grooves and ridges. Cell alignment was profoundly enhanced on all surfaces that presented both cues in parallel. Cells were able to switch alignment from ridges to grooves, and vice versa, depending on the location of superimposed adhesive tracks. Cells aligned preferentially to adhesive tracks superimposed orthogonally over grooves of matched pitch, traversing numerous grooves and ridges. The strength of the cues was more closely matched on narrower 3- and 6-microm-deep gratings with cells showing evidence of alignment to both cues. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed two groups of mutually opposed f-actin stress fibers within the same cell, one oriented with the topographic cues and the other with the adhesive cues. However, the adhesive response was consistently dominant. We conclude that cells are able to detect and respond to multiple guidance cues simultaneously. The adhesive and topographic guidance cues modeled here were capable of interacting both synergistically and hierarchically to guide cell orientation. PMID:8912725

  13. Wet Adhesion and Adhesive Locomotion of Snails on Anti-Adhesive Non-Wetting Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliffe, Neil J.; McHale, Glen; Newton, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    Creating surfaces capable of resisting liquid-mediated adhesion is extremely difficult due to the strong capillary forces that exist between surfaces. Land snails use this to adhere to and traverse across almost any type of solid surface of any orientation (horizontal, vertical or inverted), texture (smooth, rough or granular) or wetting property (hydrophilic or hydrophobic) via a layer of mucus. However, the wetting properties that enable snails to generate strong temporary attachment and the effectiveness of this adhesive locomotion on modern super-slippy superhydrophobic surfaces are unclear. Here we report that snail adhesion overcomes a wide range of these microscale and nanoscale topographically structured non-stick surfaces. For the one surface which we found to be snail resistant, we show that the effect is correlated with the wetting response of the surface to a weak surfactant. Our results elucidate some critical wetting factors for the design of anti-adhesive and bio-adhesion resistant surfaces. PMID:22693563

  14. Marine Bioinspired Underwater Contact Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Sean K; Sodano, Antonio; Cunningham, Dylan J; Huang, Sharon S; Zalicki, Piotr J; Shin, Seunghan; Ahn, B Kollbe

    2016-05-01

    Marine mussels and barnacles are sessile biofouling organisms that adhere to a number of surfaces in wet environments and maintain remarkably strong bonds. Previous synthetic approaches to mimic biological wet adhesive properties have focused mainly on the catechol moiety, present in mussel foot proteins (mfps), and especially rich in the interfacial mfps, for example, mfp-3 and -5, found at the interface between the mussel plaque and substrate. Barnacles, however, do not use Dopa for their wet adhesion, but are instead rich in noncatecholic aromatic residues. Due to this anomaly, we were intrigued to study the initial contact adhesion properties of copolymerized acrylate films containing the key functionalities of barnacle cement proteins and interfacial mfps, for example, aromatic (catecholic or noncatecholic), cationic, anionic, and nonpolar residues. The initial wet contact adhesion of the copolymers was measured using a probe tack testing apparatus with a flat-punch contact geometry. The wet contact adhesion of an optimized, bioinspired copolymer film was ∼15.0 N/cm(2) in deionized water and ∼9.0 N/cm(2) in artificial seawater, up to 150 times greater than commercial pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) tapes (∼0.1 N/cm(2)). Furthermore, maximum wet contact adhesion was obtained at ∼pH 7, suggesting viability for biomedical applications. PMID:27046671

  15. Adhesion molecules in cutaneous inflammation.

    PubMed

    Barker, J N

    1995-01-01

    As in other organs, leukocyte adhesion molecules and their ligands play a major role in cutaneous inflammatory events both by directing leukocyte trafficking and by their effects on antigen presentation. Skin biopsies of inflamed skin from patients with diseases such as as psoriasis or atopic dermatitis reveal up-regulation of endothelial cell expression of P- and E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Studies of evolving lesions following UVB irradiation, Mantoux reaction or application of contact allergen, demonstrate that expression of these adhesion molecules parallels leukocyte infiltration into skin. When cutaneous inflammation is widespread (e.g. in erythroderma), soluble forms of these molecules are detectable in serum. In vitro studies predict that peptide mediators are important regulatory factors for endothelial adhesion molecules. Intradermal injection of the cytokines interleukin 1, tumour necrosis factor alpha and interferon gamma into normal human skin leads to induction of endothelial adhesion molecules with concomitant infiltration of leukocytes. In addition, neuropeptides rapidly induce P-selectin translocation to the cell membrane and expression of E-selectin. Adhesion molecules also play a crucial role as accessory molecules in the presentation of antigen to T lymphocytes by Langerhans' cells. Expression of selectin ligands by Langerhans' cells is up-regulated by various inflammatory stimuli, suggesting that adhesion molecules may be important in Langerhans' cell migration. The skin, because of its accessibility, is an ideal organ in which to study expression of adhesion molecules and their relationship to inflammatory events. Inflammatory skin diseases are common and inhibition of lymphocyte accumulation in skin is likely to prove of great therapeutic benefit. PMID:7587640

  16. Nuclear Signaling from Cadherin Adhesion Complexes

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, Pierre D.; Maher, Meghan T.; Gottardi, Cara J.

    2015-01-01

    The arrival of multicellularity in evolution facilitated cell–cell signaling in conjunction with adhesion. As the ectodomains of cadherins interact with each other directly in trans (as well as in cis), spanning the plasma membrane and associating with multiple other entities, cadherins enable the transduction of “outside-in” or “inside-out” signals. We focus this review on signals that originate from the larger family of cadherins that are inwardly directed to the nucleus, and thus have roles in gene control or nuclear structure–function. The nature of cadherin complexes varies considerably depending on the type of cadherin and its context, and we will address some of these variables for classical cadherins versus other family members. Substantial but still fragmentary progress has been made in understanding the signaling mediators used by varied cadherin complexes to coordinate the state of cell–cell adhesion with gene expression. Evidence that cadherin intracellular binding partners also localize to the nucleus is a major point of interest. In some models, catenins show reduced binding to cadherin cytoplasmic tails favoring their engagement in gene control. When bound, cadherins may serve as stoichiometric competitors of nuclear signals. Cadherins also directly or indirectly affect numerous signaling pathways (e.g., Wnt, receptor tyrosine kinase, Hippo, NFκB, and JAK/STAT), enabling cell–cell contacts to touch upon multiple biological outcomes in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. PMID:25733140

  17. Nuclear signaling from cadherin adhesion complexes.

    PubMed

    McCrea, Pierre D; Maher, Meghan T; Gottardi, Cara J

    2015-01-01

    The arrival of multicellularity in evolution facilitated cell-cell signaling in conjunction with adhesion. As the ectodomains of cadherins interact with each other directly in trans (as well as in cis), spanning the plasma membrane and associating with multiple other entities, cadherins enable the transduction of "outside-in" or "inside-out" signals. We focus this review on signals that originate from the larger family of cadherins that are inwardly directed to the nucleus, and thus have roles in gene control or nuclear structure-function. The nature of cadherin complexes varies considerably depending on the type of cadherin and its context, and we will address some of these variables for classical cadherins versus other family members. Substantial but still fragmentary progress has been made in understanding the signaling mediators used by varied cadherin complexes to coordinate the state of cell-cell adhesion with gene expression. Evidence that cadherin intracellular binding partners also localize to the nucleus is a major point of interest. In some models, catenins show reduced binding to cadherin cytoplasmic tails favoring their engagement in gene control. When bound, cadherins may serve as stoichiometric competitors of nuclear signals. Cadherins also directly or indirectly affect numerous signaling pathways (e.g., Wnt, receptor tyrosine kinase, Hippo, NFκB, and JAK/STAT), enabling cell-cell contacts to touch upon multiple biological outcomes in embryonic development and tissue homeostasis. PMID:25733140

  18. Adhesive Performance of Biomimetic Adhesive-Coated Biologic Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, John L.; Vollenweider, Laura; Xu, Fangmin; Lee, Bruce P.

    2010-01-01

    Surgical repair of a discontinuity in traumatized or degenerated soft tissues is traditionally accomplished using sutures. A current trend is to reinforce this primary repair with surgical grafts, meshes, or patches secured with perforating mechanical devices (i.e., sutures, staples, or tacks). These fixation methods frequently lead to chronic pain and mesh detachment. We developed a series of biodegradable adhesive polymers that are synthetic mimics of mussel adhesive proteins (MAPs), composed of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-derivatives, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and polycaprolactone (PCL). These polymers can be cast into films, and their mechanical properties, extent of swelling, and degradation rate can be tailored through the composition of the polymers as well as blending with additives. When coated onto a biologic mesh used for hernia repair, these adhesive constructs demonstrated adhesive strengths significantly higher than fibrin glue. With further development, a pre-coated bioadhesive mesh may represent a new surgical option for soft tissue repair. PMID:20919699

  19. Focal adhesion kinases in adhesion structures and disease.

    PubMed

    Eleniste, Pierre P; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell migration, proliferation, and embryonic development. Cells can contact the ECM through a wide range of matrix contact structures such as focal adhesions, podosomes, and invadopodia. Although they are different in structural design and basic function, they share common remodeling proteins such as integrins, talin, paxillin, and the tyrosine kinases FAK, Pyk2, and Src. In this paper, we compare and contrast the basic organization and role of focal adhesions, podosomes, and invadopodia in different cells. In addition, we discuss the role of the tyrosine kinases, FAK, Pyk2, and Src, which are critical for the function of the different adhesion structures. Finally, we discuss the essential role of these tyrosine kinases from the perspective of human diseases. PMID:22888421

  20. Focal Adhesion Kinases in Adhesion Structures and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Eleniste, Pierre P.; Bruzzaniti, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for cell migration, proliferation, and embryonic development. Cells can contact the ECM through a wide range of matrix contact structures such as focal adhesions, podosomes, and invadopodia. Although they are different in structural design and basic function, they share common remodeling proteins such as integrins, talin, paxillin, and the tyrosine kinases FAK, Pyk2, and Src. In this paper, we compare and contrast the basic organization and role of focal adhesions, podosomes, and invadopodia in different cells. In addition, we discuss the role of the tyrosine kinases, FAK, Pyk2, and Src, which are critical for the function of the different adhesion structures. Finally, we discuss the essential role of these tyrosine kinases from the perspective of human diseases. PMID:22888421

  1. Interfacial adhesion of carbon fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bascom, Willard D.

    1987-01-01

    Relative adhesion strengths between AS4, AS1, and XAS carbon fibers and thermoplastic polymers were determined using the embedded single filament test. Polymers studied included polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, polyetherimide, polysulfone, polyphenylene oxide blends with polystyrene, and polycarbonate blends with a polycarbonate polysiloxane block copolymer. Fiber surface treatments and sizings improved adhesion somewhat, but adhesion remained well below levels obtained with epoxy matrices. An explanation for the differences between the Hercules and Grafil fibers was sought using X ray photon spectroscopy, wetting, scanning electron microscopy and thermal desorption analysis.

  2. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion.

    PubMed

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of Notch family members dating back to metazoan evolution. We hypothesize that Notch family members may have initially emerged as cell adhesion molecules in order to mediate multicellularity in the last common ancestor of metazoan organisms. PMID:26784245

  3. Photovoltaic module with adhesion promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Xavier, Grace

    2013-10-08

    Photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters and methods for fabricating photovoltaic modules with adhesion promoters are described. A photovoltaic module includes a solar cell including a first surface and a second surface, the second surface including a plurality of interspaced back-side contacts. A first glass layer is coupled to the first surface by a first encapsulating layer. A second glass layer is coupled to the second surface by a second encapsulating layer. At least a portion of the second encapsulating layer is bonded directly to the plurality of interspaced back-side contacts by an adhesion promoter.

  4. Notch-Mediated Cell Adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Murata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Shin-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    Notch family members are generally recognized as signaling molecules that control various cellular responses in metazoan organisms. Early fly studies and our mammalian studies demonstrated that Notch family members are also cell adhesion molecules; however, information on the physiological roles of this function and its origin is limited. In this review, we discuss the potential present and ancestral roles of Notch-mediated cell adhesion in order to explore its origin and the initial roles of Notch family members dating back to metazoan evolution. We hypothesize that Notch family members may have initially emerged as cell adhesion molecules in order to mediate multicellularity in the last common ancestor of metazoan organisms. PMID:26784245

  5. Adhesives from modified soy protein

    DOEpatents

    Sun, Susan; Wang, Donghai; Zhong, Zhikai; Yang, Guang

    2008-08-26

    The, present invention provides useful adhesive compositions having similar adhesive properties to conventional UF and PPF resins. The compositions generally include a protein portion and modifying ingredient portion selected from the group consisting of carboxyl-containing compounds, aldehyde-containing compounds, epoxy group-containing compounds, and mixtures thereof. The composition is preferably prepared at a pH level at or near the isoelectric point of the protein. In other preferred forms, the adhesive composition includes a protein portion and a carboxyl-containing group portion.

  6. Wear mechanism based on adhesion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    Various concepts concerning wear mechanisms and deformation behavior observed in the sliding wear track are surveyed. The mechanisms for wear fragment formation is discussed on the basis of adhesion. The wear process under unlubricated sliding conditions is explained in relation to the concept of adhesion at the interface during the sliding process. The mechanism for tearing away the surface layer from the contact area and forming the sliding track contour is explained by assuming the simplified process of material removal based on the adhesion theory.

  7. Advances in light curing adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachmann, Andy

    2001-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a new family of light curing adhesives containing a new reactive additive previously not used in optical grade light curing adhesives are obtained with the addition of functionalized cellulositics. Outgassing as low as 10-6 grams/gram has been observed based on headspace sampling. Other additives have lowered the shrinkage rates of positioning adhesives from near 1 percent to less than 0.1 percent with fractional, percentage movements over thermal range of -40 degrees C to +200 degrees C.

  8. [Retention of adhesive bridges].

    PubMed

    Raes, F; De Boever, J

    1990-01-01

    Since the development of adhesive bridges in the early seventies, the retention and therefore the durability of these bridges has been tremendously improved. To ensure an adequate retention over a number of years different factors have to be considered. Conditioning of the non-precious metal by silanisation, careful acid etching of the enamel and the use of the appropriate composite resin (Panavia Ex) are of prime importance. Furthermore, the meticulous preparation with enough interproximal embrace, occlusal rets, interocclusal clearance of 0.4 mm and cingulum stops is equally important. Care should be taken not to remove all the enamel in the cervical region in preparing a mini chamfer. Including more teeth in the design does not necessarily lead to an improved retention. Teeth with a different mobility should not be included in the same bridge. Besides the material and technical aspects, the whole clinical procedure needs much attention. Only an exact impression, a precise model and a reliable casting technique will provide a metal frame with an optimal marginal adaptation and a close fit. The retention does not depend on one single factor but on the precision of all the necessary clinical steps and on a well-defined selection of the material. In this way a five-year survival rate of close to 90% can be obtained. PMID:2077574

  9. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    ScienceCinema

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2010-01-08

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  10. Seafood delicacy makes great adhesive

    SciTech Connect

    Idaho National Laboratory - Frank Roberto, Heather Silverman

    2008-03-26

    Technology from Mother Nature is often hard to beat, so Idaho National Laboratory scientistsgenetically analyzed the adhesive proteins produced by blue mussels, a seafood delicacy. Afterobtaining full-length DNA sequences encoding these proteins, reprod

  11. The bone-added osteotome sinus floor elevation technique: multicenter retrospective report of consecutively treated patients.

    PubMed

    Rosen, P S; Summers, R; Mellado, J R; Salkin, L M; Shanaman, R H; Marks, M H; Fugazzotto, P A

    1999-01-01

    A retrospective clinical evaluation of patients consecutively treated from multiple centers was performed. The treatment of these patients utilized the bone-added osteotome sinus floor elevation (BAOSFE) procedure with immediate implant fixation. The BAOSFE method employs a specific set of osteotome instruments to tent the sinus membrane with bone graft material placed through the osteotomy site. A total of 174 implants was placed in 101 patients. Implants were of both screw and cylinder shapes with machined, titanium plasma-sprayed, and hydroxyapatite surfaces from various manufacturers. The 9 participating clinicians used autografts, allografts, and xenografts alone or in various combinations, and the type of graft was selected by the individual clinicians. The choice of graft material did not appear to influence survival rates. Loading periods varied from 6 to 66 months. The survival rate was 96% or higher when pretreatment bone height was 5 mm or more and dropped to 85.7% when pretreatment bone height was 4 mm or less. The most important factor influencing implant survival with the BAOSFE was the preexisting bone height between the sinus floor and crest. This short-term retrospective investigation suggests that the BAOSFE can be a successful procedure with a wide variety of implant types and grafting procedures. PMID:10612923

  12. Watch and learn: seeing is better than doing when acquiring consecutive motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Larssen, Beverley C; Ong, Nicole T; Hodges, Nicola J

    2012-01-01

    During motor adaptation learning, consecutive physical practice of two different tasks compromises the retention of the first. However, there is evidence that observational practice, while still effectively aiding acquisition, will not lead to interference and hence prove to be a better practice method. Observers and Actors practised in a clockwise (Task A) followed by a counterclockwise (Task B) visually rotated environment, and retention was immediately assessed. An Observe-all and Act-all group were compared to two groups who both physically practised Task A, but then only observed (ObsB) or did not see or practice Task B (NoB). The two observer groups and the NoB control group better retained Task A than Actors, although importantly only the observer groups learnt Task B. RT data and explicit awareness of the rotation suggested that the observers had acquired their respective tasks in a more strategic manner than Actor and Control groups. We conclude that observational practice benefits learning of multiple tasks more than physical practice due to the lack of updating of implicit, internal models for aiming in the former. PMID:22723909

  13. The impact of consecutive freshwater trimix dives at altitude on human cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Lozo, Mislav; Madden, Dennis; Gunjaca, Grgo; Ljubkovic, Marko; Marinovic, Jasna; Dujic, Zeljko

    2015-03-01

    Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) diving is regularly associated with numerous asymptomatic changes in cardiovascular function. Freshwater SCUBA diving presents unique challenges compared with open sea diving related to differences in water density and the potential for dive locations at altitude. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of freshwater trimix diving at altitude on human cardiovascular function. Ten divers performed two dives in consecutive days at 294 m altitude with the surface interval of 24 h. Both dives were at a depth of 45 m with total dive time 29 and 26 min for the first and second dive, respectively. Assessment of venous gas embolization, hydration status, cardiac function and arterial stiffness was performed. Production of venous gas emboli was low, and there were no significant differences between the dives. After the first dive, diastolic blood pressure was significantly reduced, which persisted up to 24 h. Left ventricular stroke volume decreased, and heart rate increased after both dives. Pulse wave velocity was unchanged following the dives. However, the central and peripheral augmentation index became more negative after both dives, indicating reduced wave reflection. Ejection duration and round trip travel time were prolonged 24 h after the first dive, suggesting longer-lasting suppression of cardiac and endothelial function. This study shows that freshwater trimix dives with conservative profiles and low venous gas bubble loads can result in multiple asymptomatic acute cardiovascular changes some of which were present up to 24 h after dive. PMID:24528802

  14. The incidence of Gorlin syndrome in 173 consecutive cases of medulloblastoma.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D. G.; Farndon, P. A.; Burnell, L. D.; Gattamaneni, H. R.; Birch, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the incidence of Gorlin syndrome (GS) in patients with the childhood brain tumour, medulloblastoma. One hundred and seventy-three consecutive cases of medulloblastoma in the North-West Regional Health Authority between 1954 and 1989 (Manchester Regional Health Board before 1974) were studied. After review of case notes, X-rays and health surveys only 2/173 cases had evidence supporting a diagnosis of GS. A further case at 50% risk of GS died of a brain tumour aged 4 years. The incidence of GS in medulloblastoma is, therefore, probably between 1-2%. A population based study of GS in the region started in 1983 was used to assess the incidence of medulloblastoma in GS, which was found to be between 3-5%. This figure is lower than previous estimates, but this is the first population based study undertaken. In view of the early age of onset in GS (mean 2 years) children presenting with medulloblastoma, especially under 5 years, should be examined for signs of the syndrome. Those at high risk of developing multiple invasive basal cell carcinomata will then be identified. PMID:1931625

  15. Engineering invitro cellular microenvironment using polyelectrolyte multilayer films to control cell adhesion and for drug delivery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidambi, Srivatsan

    Over the past decades, the development of new methods for fabricating thin films that provide precise control of the three-dimensional topography and cell adhesion has generated lots of interest. These films could lead to significant advances in the fields of tissue engineering, drug delivery and biosensors which have become increasingly germane areas of research in the field of chemical engineering. The ionic layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique called "Polyelectrolyte Multilayers (PEMs)", introduced by Decher in 1991, has emerged as a versatile and inexpensive method of constructing polymeric thin films, with nanometer-scale control of ionized species. PEMs have long been utilized in such applications as sensors, eletrochromics, and nanomechanical thin films but recently they have also been shown to be excellent candidates for biomaterial applications. In this thesis, we engineered these highly customizable PEM thin films to engineer in vitro cellular microenvironments to control cell adhesion and for drug delivery applications. PEM films were engineered to control the adhesion of primary hepatocytes and primary neurons without the aid of adhesive proteins/ligands. We capitalized upon the differential cell attachment and spreading of primary hepatocytes and neurons on poly(diallyldimethylammoniumchloride) (PDAC) and sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) surfaces to make patterned co-cultures of primary hepatocytes/fibroblasts and primary neurons/astrocytes on the PEM surfaces. In addition, we developed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) patterns of m-d-poly(ethylene glycol) (m-dPEG) acid molecules onto PEMs. The created m-dPEG acid monolayer patterns on PEMs acted as resistive templates, and thus prevented further deposits of consecutive poly(anion)/poly(cation) pairs of charged particles and resulted in the formation of three-dimensional (3-D) patterned PEM films or selective particle depositions atop the original multilayer thin films. These new patterned and structured

  16. Venous Stenosis After Transvenous Lead Placement: A Study of Outcomes and Risk Factors in 212 Consecutive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Abu-El-Haija, Basil; Bhave, Prashant D; Campbell, Dwayne N; Mazur, Alexander; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M; Cotarlan, Vlad; Giudici, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Background Venous stenosis is a common complication of transvenous lead implantation, but the risk factors for venous stenosis have not been well defined to date. This study was designed to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for venous stenosis in a large consecutive cohort. Methods and Results A total of 212 consecutive patients (136 male, 76 female; mean age 69 years) with existing pacing or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator systems presented for generator replacement, lead revision, or device upgrade with a mean time since implantation of 6.2 years. Venograms were performed and percentage of stenosis was determined. Variables studied included age, sex, number of leads, lead diameter, implant duration, insulation material, side of implant, and anticoagulant use. Overall, 56 of 212 patients had total occlusion of the subclavian or innominate vein (26%). There was a significant association between the number of leads implanted and percentage of venous stenosis (P =0.012). Lead diameter, as an independent variable, was not a risk factor; however, greater sum of the lead diameters implanted was a predictor of subsequent venous stenosis (P =0.009). Multiple lead implant procedures may be associated with venous stenosis (P =0.057). No other variables approached statistical significance. Conclusions A significant association exists between venous stenosis and the number of implanted leads and also the sum of the lead diameters. When combined with multiple implant procedures, the incidence of venous stenosis is increased. PMID:26231843

  17. Fibrillar Adhesive for Climbing Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pamess, Aaron; White, Victor E.

    2013-01-01

    A climbing robot needs to use its adhesive patches over and over again as it scales a slope. Replacing the adhesive at each step is generally impractical. If the adhesive or attachment mechanism cannot be used repeatedly, then the robot must carry an extra load of this adhesive to apply a fresh layer with each move. Common failure modes include tearing, contamination by dirt, plastic deformation of fibers, and damage from loading/ unloading. A gecko-like fibrillar adhesive has been developed that has been shown useful for climbing robots, and may later prove useful for grasping, anchoring, and medical applications. The material consists of a hierarchical fibrillar structure that currently contains two levels, but may be extended to three or four levels in continuing work. The contacting level has tens of thousands of microscopic fibers made from a rubberlike material that bend over and create intimate contact with a surface to achieve maximum van der Waals forces. By maximizing the real area of contact that these fibers make and minimizing the bending energy necessary to achieve that contact, the net amount of adhesion has been improved dramatically.

  18. Successional trajectories of rhizosphere bacterial communities over consecutive seasons

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Shengjing; Nuccio, Erin; Herman, Donald J.; Rijkers, Ruud; Estera, Katerina; Li, Jiabao; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; He, Zhili; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Brodie, Eoin L.; Zhou, Jizhong; Firestone, Mary

    2015-08-04

    succession that was consistent and repeatable over two growing seasons. There are few studies assessing the reproducibility over multiple seasons. Through the growing season, the rhizosphere community became progressively less diverse, likely reflecting root homogenization of soil microniches. Phylogenetic clustering of the rhizosphere dynamic taxa suggests evolutionary adaptation to Avena roots. The reproducibility of rhizosphere succession and the apparent phylogenetic conservation of rhizosphere competence traits suggest adaptation of the indigenous bacterial community to this common grass over the many decades of its presence.

  19. Successional trajectories of rhizosphere bacterial communities over consecutive seasons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shi, Shengjing; Nuccio, Erin; Herman, Donald J.; Rijkers, Ruud; Estera, Katerina; Li, Jiabao; da Rocha, Ulisses Nunes; He, Zhili; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Brodie, Eoin L.; et al

    2015-08-04

    over two growing seasons. There are few studies assessing the reproducibility over multiple seasons. Through the growing season, the rhizosphere community became progressively less diverse, likely reflecting root homogenization of soil microniches. Phylogenetic clustering of the rhizosphere dynamic taxa suggests evolutionary adaptation to Avena roots. The reproducibility of rhizosphere succession and the apparent phylogenetic conservation of rhizosphere competence traits suggest adaptation of the indigenous bacterial community to this common grass over the many decades of its presence.« less

  20. Investigation of organic adhesives for hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The properties of organic adhesives were investigated to acquire information for a guideline document regarding the selection of adhesives for use in high reliability hybrid microcircuits. Specifically, investigations were made of (1) alternate methods for determining the outgassing of cured adhesives, (2) effects of long term aging at 150 C on the electrical properties of conductive adhesives, (3) effects of shelf life age on adhesive characteristics, (4) bond strengths of electrically conductive adhesives on thick film gold metallization, (5) a copper filled adhesive, (6) effects of products outgassed from cured adhesives on device electrical parameters, (7) metal migration from electrically conductive adhesives, and (8) ionic content of electrically insulative adhesives. The tests performed during these investigations are described, and the results obtained are discussed.

  1. 34 CFR 237.31 - May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years... ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CHRISTA MCAULIFFE FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by Fellows? § 237.31 May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years? A...

  2. 34 CFR 237.31 - May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years... ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CHRISTA MCAULIFFE FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by Fellows? § 237.31 May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years? A...

  3. 34 CFR 237.31 - May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years... ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CHRISTA MCAULIFFE FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by Fellows? § 237.31 May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years? A...

  4. 34 CFR 237.31 - May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years... ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CHRISTA MCAULIFFE FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by Fellows? § 237.31 May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years? A...

  5. 34 CFR 237.31 - May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years... ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION CHRISTA MCAULIFFE FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM What Conditions Must Be Met by Fellows? § 237.31 May a fellowship be awarded for two consecutive years? A...

  6. Highly Multiplexed Imaging Uncovers Changes in Compositional Noise within Assembling Focal Adhesions

    PubMed Central

    Harizanova, Jana; Fermin, Yessica; Malik-Sheriff, Rahuman S.; Wieczorek, Jakob; Ickstadt, Katja; Grecco, Hernán E.; Zamir, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Integrin adhesome proteins bind each other in alternative manners, forming within the cell diverse cell-matrix adhesion sites with distinct properties. An intriguing question is how such modular assembly of adhesion sites is achieved correctly solely by self-organization of their components. Here we address this question using high-throughput multiplexed imaging of eight proteins and two phosphorylation sites in a large number of single focal adhesions. We found that during the assembly of focal adhesions the variances of protein densities decrease while the correlations between them increase, suggesting reduction in the noise levels within these structures. These changes correlate independently with the area and internal density of focal adhesions, but not with their age or shape. Artificial neural network analysis indicates that a joint consideration of multiple components improves the predictability of paxillin and zyxin levels in internally dense focal adhesions. This suggests that paxillin and zyxin densities in focal adhesions are fine-tuned by integrating the levels of multiple other components, thus averaging-out stochastic fluctuations. Based on these results we propose that increase in internal protein densities facilitates noise suppression in focal adhesions, while noise suppression enables their stable growth and further density increase—hence forming a feedback loop giving rise to a quality-controlled assembly. PMID:27519053

  7. Highly Multiplexed Imaging Uncovers Changes in Compositional Noise within Assembling Focal Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Harizanova, Jana; Fermin, Yessica; Malik-Sheriff, Rahuman S; Wieczorek, Jakob; Ickstadt, Katja; Grecco, Hernán E; Zamir, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Integrin adhesome proteins bind each other in alternative manners, forming within the cell diverse cell-matrix adhesion sites with distinct properties. An intriguing question is how such modular assembly of adhesion sites is achieved correctly solely by self-organization of their components. Here we address this question using high-throughput multiplexed imaging of eight proteins and two phosphorylation sites in a large number of single focal adhesions. We found that during the assembly of focal adhesions the variances of protein densities decrease while the correlations between them increase, suggesting reduction in the noise levels within these structures. These changes correlate independently with the area and internal density of focal adhesions, but not with their age or shape. Artificial neural network analysis indicates that a joint consideration of multiple components improves the predictability of paxillin and zyxin levels in internally dense focal adhesions. This suggests that paxillin and zyxin densities in focal adhesions are fine-tuned by integrating the levels of multiple other components, thus averaging-out stochastic fluctuations. Based on these results we propose that increase in internal protein densities facilitates noise suppression in focal adhesions, while noise suppression enables their stable growth and further density increase-hence forming a feedback loop giving rise to a quality-controlled assembly. PMID:27519053

  8. Phosphonic Acid-Functionalized Polyurethane Dispersions with Improved Adhesion Properties.

    PubMed

    Breucker, Laura; Landfester, Katharina; Taden, Andreas

    2015-11-11

    A facile route to phosphorus-functionalized polyurethane dispersions (P-PUDs) with improved adhesion properties is presented. (Bis)phosphonic acid moieties serve as adhesion promoting sites that are covalently attached via an end-capping reaction to isocyanate-reactive polyurethane particles under aqueous conditions. The synthetic approach circumvents solubility issues, offers great flexibility in terms of polyurethane composition, and allows for the synthesis of semicrystalline systems with thermomechanical response due to reversible physical cross-linking. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is used to investigate the effect of functionalization on the semicrystallinity. The end-capping conversion was determined via inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and was surprisingly found to be almost independent of the stoichiometry of reaction, suggesting an adsorption-dominated process. Particle charge detection (PCD) experiments reveal that a dense surface coverage of phosphonic acid groups can be attained and that, at high functionalization degrees, the phosphonic adhesion moieties are partially dragged inside the colloidal P-PUD particle. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCMD) investigations conducted with hydroxyapatite (HAP) and stainless steel sensors as model surfaces show a greatly enhanced affinity of the aqueous P-PUDs and furthermore indicate polymer chain rearrangements and autonomous film formation under wet conditions. Due to their facile synthesis, significantly improved adhesion, and variable film properties, P-PUD systems such as the one described here are believed to be of great interest for multiple applications, e.g., adhesives, paints, anticorrosion, or dentistry. PMID:26491881

  9. Adhesion and Fusion of Muscle Cells Are Promoted by Filopodia.

    PubMed

    Segal, Dagan; Dhanyasi, Nagaraju; Schejter, Eyal D; Shilo, Ben-Zion

    2016-08-01

    Indirect flight muscles (IFMs) in Drosophila are generated during pupariation by fusion of hundreds of myoblasts with larval muscle templates (myotubes). Live observation of these muscles during the fusion process revealed multiple long actin-based protrusions that emanate from the myotube surface and require Enabled and IRSp53 for their generation and maintenance. Fusion is blocked when formation of these filopodia is compromised. While filopodia are not required for the signaling process underlying critical myoblast cell-fate changes prior to fusion, myotube-myoblast adhesion appears to be filopodia dependent. Without filopodia, close apposition between the cell membranes is not achieved, the cell-adhesion molecule Duf is not recruited to the myotube surface, and adhesion-dependent actin foci do not form. We therefore propose that the filopodia are necessary to prime the heterotypic adhesion process between the two cell types, possibly by recruiting the cell-adhesion molecule Sns to discrete patches on the myoblast cell surface. PMID:27505416

  10. Optimizing Adhesive Design by Understanding Compliance.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel R; Crosby, Alfred J

    2015-12-23

    Adhesives have long been designed around a trade-off between adhesive strength and releasability. Geckos are of interest because they are the largest organisms which are able to climb utilizing adhesive toepads, yet can controllably release from surfaces and perform this action over and over again. Attempting to replicate the hierarchical, nanoscopic features which cover their toepads has been the primary focus of the adhesives field until recently. A new approach based on a scaling relation which states that reversible adhesive force capacity scales with (A/C)(1/2), where A is the area of contact and C is the compliance of the adhesive, has enabled the creation of high strength, reversible adhesives without requiring high aspect ratio, fibrillar features. Here we introduce an equation to calculate the compliance of adhesives, and utilize this equation to predict the shear adhesive force capacity of the adhesive based on the material components and geometric properties. Using this equation, we have investigated important geometric parameters which control force capacity and have shown that by controlling adhesive shape, adhesive force capacity can be increased by over 50% without varying pad size. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that compliance of the adhesive far from the interface still influences shear adhesive force capacity. Utilizing this equation will allow for the production of adhesives which are optimized for specific applications in commercial and industrial settings. PMID:26618537

  11. Endothelial cell adhesion in real time. Measurements in vitro by tandem scanning confocal image analysis.

    PubMed

    Davies, P F; Robotewskyj, A; Griem, M L

    1993-06-01

    Real time measurements of cell-substratum adhesion in endothelial cells were obtained by tandem scanning confocal microscopy of sites of focal contact (focal adhesions) at the abluminal cell surface. Focal contact sites were sharply defined (low radiance levels) in the living cell such that the images could be enhanced, digitized, and isolated from other cellular detail. Sites of focal contact are the principal determinant of cell-substratum adhesion. Measurements of (a) the focal contact area and (b) the closeness of contact (inverse radiance) were used to nominally define the adhesion of a single cell or field of cells, and to record spontaneous and induced changes of cell adhesion in real time. The topography of focal contacts was estimated by calculating separation distances from radiance values using a calibration technique based on interference ring optics. While slightly closer contact was noted between the cell membrane and substratum at or near the center of each focal contact, separation distances throughout the adhesion regions were always < 50 nm. Subtraction of consecutive images revealed continuous spontaneous remodeling of individual focal adhesions in unperturbed cells during periods of < 1 min. Despite extensive remodeling of focal contact sites, however, cell adhesion calculated for an entire cell over extended periods varied by < 10%. When cytoskeletal stability was impaired by exposure to cytochalasin or when cells were exposed to proteolytic enzyme, endothelial adhesion declined rapidly. Such changes were recorded at the level of single cells, groups of cells, and at single focal adhesions. In both unperturbed and manipulated cells, the dynamics of remodeling and cell adhesion characteristics varied greatly between individual sites within the same cell; disappearance of existing sites and appearance of new ones often occurred within minutes while adjacent sites underwent minimal remodelling. Tandem scanning confocal microscopy image analysis of

  12. Innovative Electrostatic Adhesion Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; Macleod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry; Williams, Scott; McCoy, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Developing specialized Electro-Static grippers (commercially used in Semiconductor Manufacturing and in package handling) will allow gentle and secure Capture, Soft Docking, and Handling of a wide variety of materials and shapes (such as upper-stages, satellites, arrays, and possibly asteroids) without requiring physical features or cavities for a pincher or probe or using harpoons or nets. Combined with new rigid boom mechanisms or small agile chaser vehicles, flexible, high speed Electro-Static Grippers can enable compliant capture of spinning objects starting from a safe stand-off distance. Electroadhesion (EA) can enable lightweight, ultra-low-power, compliant attachment in space by using an electrostatic force to adhere similar and dissimilar surfaces. A typical EA enabled device is composed of compliant space-rated materials, such as copper-clad polyimide encapsulated by polymers. Attachment is induced by strong electrostatic forces between any substrate material, such as an exterior satellite panel and a compliant EA gripper pad surface. When alternate positive and negative charges are induced in adjacent planar electrodes in an EA surface, the electric fields set up opposite charges on the substrate and cause an electrostatic adhesion between the electrodes and the induced charges on the substrate. Since the electrodes and the polymer are compliant and can conform to uneven or rough surfaces, the electrodes can remain intimately close to the entire surface, enabling high clamping pressures. Clamping pressures of more than 3 N/cm2 in shear can be achieved on a variety of substrates with ultra-low holding power consumption (measured values are less than 20 microW/Newton weight held). A single EA surface geometry can be used to clamp both dielectric and conductive substrates, with slightly different physical mechanisms. Furthermore EA clamping requires no normal force be placed on the substrate, as conventional docking requires. Internally funded research and

  13. Innovative Electrostatic Adhesion Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, L.; Bryan, T.; Williams, S.; McCoy, B.; MacLeod, T.

    Developing specialized Electro-Static grippers (commercially used in Semiconductor Manufacturing and in package handling) will allow gentle and secure Capture, Soft Docking, and Handling of a wide variety of materials and shapes (such as upper-stages, satellites, arrays, and possibly asteroids) without requiring physical features or cavities for a pincher or probe or using harpoons or nets. Combined with new rigid boom mechanisms or small agile chaser vehicles, flexible, high speed Electro-Static Grippers can enable compliant capture of spinning objects starting from a safe stand-off distance. Electroadhesion (EA) can enable lightweight, ultra-low-power, compliant attachment in space by using an electrostatic force to adhere similar and dissimilar surfaces. A typical EA enabled device is composed of compliant space-rated materials, such as copper-clad polyimide encapsulated by polymers. Attachment is induced by strong electrostatic forces between any substrate material, such as an exterior satellite panel and a compliant EA surface. When alternate positive and negative charges are induced in adjacent planar electrodes in an EA surface, the electric fields set up opposite charges on the substrate and cause an electrostatic adhesion between the electrodes and the induced charges on the substrate. Since the electrodes and the polymer are compliant and can conform to uneven or rough surfaces, the electrodes can remain intimately close to the entire surface, enabling high clamping pressures. Clamping pressures of more than 3 N/cm2 in shear can be achieved on a variety of substrates with ultra-low holding power consumption (measured values are less than 20 microW/Newton weight held). A single EA surface geometry can be used to clamp both dielectric and conductive substrates, with slightly different physical mechanisms. Furthermore EA clamping requires no normal force be placed on the substrate, as conventional docking requires. Internally funded research and development

  14. Elastocapilllarity in insect adhesion: the case of beetle adhesive hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gernay, Sophie; Gilet, Tristan; Lambert, Pierre; Federle, Walter

    2014-11-01

    The feet of many insects are covered with dense arrays of hair-like structures called setae. Liquid capillary bridges at the tip of these micrometric structures are responsible for the controlled adhesion of the insect on a large variety of substrates. The resulting adhesion force can exceed several times the body weight of the insect. The high aspect-ratio of setae suggests that flexibility is a key ingredient in this capillary-based adhesion mechanism. There is indeed a strong coupling between their elastic deformation and the shape of the liquid meniscus. In this experimental work, we observe and quantify the local deflection of dock beetle seta tips under perpendicular loading using interference microscopy. Our results are then interpreted in the light of an analytic model of elastocapillarity. This research has been funded by the FRIA/FNRS and the Interuniversity Attraction Poles Programme (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST) initiated by the Belgian Science Policy Office.

  15. Consecutive successful pregnancies subsequent to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in a patient with recurrent spontaneous miscarriage

    PubMed Central

    Diejomaoh, Michael F; Bello, Zainab; Al Jassar, Waleed; Jirous, Jiri; Karunakaran, Kavitha; Mohammed, Asiya T

    2015-01-01

    . The mother and baby made satisfactory progress and were discharged on January 24, 2015. Conclusion Two consecutive successful pregnancies in Mrs HM with multiple causes of RSM treated with other medications and IVIG strongly suggest that IVIG has a positive role in RSM. PMID:26715864

  16. The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) heparin binding domain binds to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Kallapur, S G; Akeson, R A

    1992-12-01

    The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) has been strongly implicated in several aspects of neural development. NCAM mediated adhesion has been proposed to involve a homophilic interaction between NCAMs on adjacent cells. The heparin binding domain (HBD) is an amino acid sequence within NCAM and has been shown to be involved in NCAM mediated adhesion but the relationship of this domain to NCAM segments mediating homophilic adhesion has not been defined. In the present study, a synthetic peptide corresponding to the HBD has been used as a substrate to determine its role in NCAM mediated adhesion. A neural cell line expressing NCAM (B35) and its derived clone which does not express NCAM (B35 clone 3) adhered similarly to plates coated with HBD peptide. A polyclonal antiserum to NCAM inhibited B35 cell-HBD peptide adhesion by only 10%, a value not statistically different from inhibition caused by preimmune serum. Both these experiments suggested no direct NCAM-HBD interactions. To test whether the HBD peptide bound to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG), HSPG synthesis was inhibited using beta-D-xyloside. After treatment, B35 cell adhesion to the HBD peptide, but not to control substrates, was significantly decreased. B35 cell adhesion to the HBD peptide could be inhibited by 10(-7) M heparin but not chondroitin sulfate. Preincubation of the substrate (HBD peptide) with heparin caused dramatic reduction of B35 cell-HBD peptide adhesion whereas preincubation of B35 cells with heparin caused only modest reductions in cell-HBD adhesion. Furthermore, inhibition of HSPG sulfation with sodium chlorate also decreased the adhesion of B35 cells to the HBD peptide. These results strongly suggest that, within the assay system, the NCAM HBD does not participate in homophilic interactions but binds to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan. This interaction potentially represents an important mechanism of NCAM adhesion and further supports the view that NCAM has

  17. High performance Cu adhesion coating

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.W.; Viehbeck, A.; Chen, W.R.; Ree, M.

    1996-12-31

    Poly(arylene ether benzimidazole) (PAEBI) is a high performance thermoplastic polymer with imidazole functional groups forming the polymer backbone structure. It is proposed that upon coating PAEBI onto a copper surface the imidazole groups of PAEBI form a bond with or chelate to the copper surface resulting in strong adhesion between the copper and polymer. Adhesion of PAEBI to other polymers such as poly(biphenyl dianhydride-p-phenylene diamine) (BPDA-PDA) polyimide is also quite good and stable. The resulting locus of failure as studied by XPS and IR indicates that PAEBI gives strong cohesive adhesion to copper. Due to its good adhesion and mechanical properties, PAEBI can be used in fabricating thin film semiconductor packages such as multichip module dielectric (MCM-D) structures. In these applications, a thin PAEBI coating is applied directly to a wiring layer for enhancing adhesion to both the copper wiring and the polymer dielectric surface. In addition, a thin layer of PAEBI can also function as a protection layer for the copper wiring, eliminating the need for Cr or Ni barrier metallurgies and thus significantly reducing the number of process steps.

  18. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St.clair, Terry L.

    1988-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  19. Flexible backbone aromatic polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Progar, Donald J.; St. Clair, Terry L.

    1989-01-01

    Continuing research at Langley Research Center on the synthesis and development of new inexpensive flexible aromatic polyimides as adhesives has resulted in a material identified as LARC-F-SO2 with similarities to polyimidesulfone, PISO2, and other flexible backbone polyimides recently reported by Progar and St. Clair. Also prepared and evaluated was an endcapped version of PISO2. These two polymers were compared with LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI, polyimides research in our laboratory and reported in the literature. The adhesive evaluation, primarily based on lap shear strength (LSS) tests at RT, 177 C and 204 C, involved preparing adhesive tapes, conducting bonding studies and exposing lap shear specimens to 204 C air for up to 1000 hrs and to a 72-hour water boil. The type of adhesive failure as well as the Tg was determined for the fractured specimens. The results indicate that LARC-TPI provides the highest LSSs. LARC-F-SO2, LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI all retain their strengths after thermal exposure for 1000 hrs and PISO2 retains greater than 80 percent of its control strengths. After a 72-hr water boil exposure, most of the four adhesive systems showed reduced strengths for all test temperatures although still retaining a high percentage of their original strength (greater than 60 percent) except for one case. The predominant failure type was cohesive with no significant change in the Tgs.

  20. Capillarity-based switchable adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Michael J.; Steen, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing inspiration from the adhesion abilities of a leaf beetle found in nature, we have engineered a switchable adhesion device. The device combines two concepts: The surface tension force from a large number of small liquid bridges can be significant (capillarity-based adhesion) and these contacts can be quickly made or broken with electronic control (switchable). The device grabs or releases a substrate in a fraction of a second via a low-voltage pulse that drives electroosmotic flow. Energy consumption is minimal because both the grabbed and released states are stable equilibria that persist with no energy added to the system. Notably, the device maintains the integrity of an array of hundreds to thousands of distinct interfaces during active reconfiguration from droplets to bridges and back, despite the natural tendency of the liquid toward coalescence. We demonstrate the scaling of adhesion strength with the inverse of liquid contact size. This suggests that strengths approaching those of permanent bonding adhesives are possible as feature size is scaled down. In addition, controllability is fast and efficient because the attachment time and required voltage also scale down favorably. The device features compact size, no solid moving parts, and is made of common materials. PMID:20133725

  1. Laboratory evaluation of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Barkmeier, W W; Cooley, R L

    1992-01-01

    Adhesive bonding of resin materials to acid-conditioned enamel is a clinically proven technique in preventative, restorative, and orthodontic procedures. Laboratory evaluations of etched-enamel resin bonding have shown excellent bond strengths and the virtual elimination of marginal microleakage. Adhesion to dentin has been more of a challenge. Earlier-generation dentin bonding systems did not yield high bond strengths in the laboratory or prevent marginal microleakage. Newer-generation adhesive systems generally use a dentin conditioner to modify or remove the smear layer and a subsequent application of an adhesive resin bonding agent. Laboratory evaluations of newer systems have shown bond strengths that approach or actually exceed that of etched enamel resin bonding. Bond strengths have improved with the evolution of dentin bonding systems, and microleakage from the cementum/dentin margin has been significantly reduced or prevented with the newer systems. Although laboratory testing of adhesive systems provides a mechanism to screen and compare newly developed systems, clinical trials are essential to document long-term clinical performance. PMID:1470553

  2. Semen characteristics in consecutive ejaculates with short abstinence in subfertile males.

    PubMed

    Bahadur, G; Almossawi, O; Zeirideen Zaid, R; Ilahibuccus, A; Al-Habib, A; Muneer, A; Okolo, S

    2016-03-01

    This study reports the favourable semen characteristics of 73 subfertile oligozoospermic men with short abstinence periods up to 40 min. Semen characteristics were compared between initial and consecutive ejaculate showing improved semen parameters: progressive grade A spermatozoa, morphology and sperm concentration. Median concentrations in initial and consecutive ejaculates were 10 million/ml and 17 million/ml, respectively. The second sample had a higher median normal morphology (7% versus 6%, P < 0.001). The median of non-progressive spermatozoa (Grade C) was significantly lower in the consecutive sample than the initial sample (0% versus 5%, P < 0.01). Medians for slow progression spermatozoa (B grade) and immotile spermatozoa (D grade) were lower in the consecutive samples (20% versus 13%, P < 0.01 and 60% versus 50%, P < 0.001, respectively). The median for rapid motility (Grade A) was significantly higher in the consecutive sample than the first (30% versus 5%, P < 0.001). Overall median progressive motility as benchmarked by the WHO 2010 criteria was significantly higher in the consecutive sample (43% versus 25%, P < 0.001). Semen analyses of consecutive semen samples collected 30 min (mean) apart in oligozoospemic men should be checked routinely for diagnostic purposes and for managing potential subfertility treatment. PMID:26776821

  3. UV curable pressure sensitive adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    Glotfelter, C.A.

    1995-12-01

    Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSA`s) have become a ubiquitous element in our society, so much so, that the relative status of a society can be determined by the per capita consumption of PSA`s. We discuss new monomers as components of PSA formulations which enable adhesion to be achieved on a variety of substrates. Since solventless coating systems are desirable, the UV PSA market is of utmost importance to meeting the strict environmental guidelines now being imposed worldwide. In addition, highly ethoxylated monomers have shown promise in water dispersed PSA formulations, and a self-emulsifying acrylate monomer has been developed to offer dispersive abilities without using traditional emulsifying agents. This talk will focus on the effects of the materials described on properties of adhesive strength and shear strength in UV PSA formulations.

  4. A novel addition polyimide adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.; Progar, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    An addition polyimide adhesive, LARC 13, was developed which shows promise for bonding both titanium and composites for applications which require service temperatures in excess of 533 K. The LARC 13 is based on an oligomeric bis nadimide containing a meta linked aromatic diamine. The adhesive melts prior to polymerization due to its oligomeric nature, thereby allowing it to be processed at 344 kPa or less. Therefore, LARC 13 is ideal for the bonding of honeycomb sandwich structures. After melting, the resin thermosets during the cure of the nadic endcaps to a highly crosslinked system. Few volatiles are evolved, thus allowing large enclosed structures to be bonded. Preparation of the adhesive as well as bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear and honeycomb samples are discussed.

  5. Liposome adhesion generates traction stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrell, Michael P.; Voituriez, Raphaël; Joanny, Jean-François; Nassoy, Pierre; Sykes, Cécile; Gardel, Margaret L.

    2014-02-01

    Mechanical forces generated by cells modulate global shape changes required for essential life processes, such as polarization, division and spreading. Although the contribution of the cytoskeleton to cellular force generation is widely recognized, the role of the membrane is considered to be restricted to passively transmitting forces. Therefore, the mechanisms by which the membrane can directly contribute to cell tension are overlooked and poorly understood. To address this, we directly measure the stresses generated during liposome adhesion. We find that liposome spreading generates large traction stresses on compliant substrates. These stresses can be understood as the equilibration of internal, hydrostatic pressures generated by the enhanced membrane tension built up during adhesion. These results underscore the role of membranes in the generation of mechanical stresses on cellular length scales and that the modulation of hydrostatic pressure due to membrane tension and adhesion can be channelled to perform mechanical work on the environment.

  6. Interfacial adhesion - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Banerjea, Amitava; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along with recommendations for future progress and needs.

  7. Interfacial adhesion: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.; Banerjea, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along wiith recommendations for future progress and needs.

  8. Two consecutive singleton pregnancies versus one twins pregnancy as preferred outcome of in vitro fertilization for mothers and infants: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    La Sala, Giovanni Battista; Morini, Daria; Gizzo, Salvatore; Nicoli, Alessia; Palomba, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Objective Many infertile couples request a multiple embryo transfer because they desire more than one child. Based on this consideration, the current study aimed to compare the reproductive and perinatal outcomes of two consecutive singleton pregnancies versus one twin pregnancy in a large cohort of in vitro fertilization (IVF) patients. Research design and methods Retrospective analysis of data from patients with clinical twin pregnancy after IVF fresh cycles and from patients with two consecutive IVF fresh cycles and clinical singleton pregnancy. Main outcome measures Miscarriage rate, delivery rate, gestational age at birth, neonatal birth weight, and perinatal complications. A sub-analysis of data according to vanishing twin syndrome (VTS) was also performed. Results A total of 18,703 autologous fresh cycles were analyzed. One hundred seven patients had two consecutive singleton clinical pregnancies, whereas one clinical twin pregnancy occurred in 641 women. In patients who had two consecutive singleton clinical pregnancies the rates of overall pregnancies lost (odds ratio [OR] 4.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4, 6.9) and live births (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1, 0.3) were, respectively, higher and lower when compared to patients who had one clinical twin pregnancy. That data did not change after sub-analysis for VTS. The overall risk of perinatal complications was significantly higher in patients who had one twin delivery rather than patients who had two consecutive singleton deliveries (OR 31.8, 95% CI 14.1, 71.5). No difference between groups was detected in terms of intrauterine/neonatal deaths, perinatal mortality and neonatal intensive care unit admission. Data did not change after adjusting for confounders. Conclusions When compared with two consecutive singleton pregnancies, twin pregnancies are characterized by higher success rates but worse perinatal outcomes irrespectively of VTS. Well designed prospective controlled studies are needed to confirm or rebut

  9. Does the use of a novel self-adhesive flowable composite reduce nanoleakage?

    PubMed Central

    Naga, Abeer Abo El; Yousef, Mohammed; Ramadan, Rasha; Fayez Bahgat, Sherif; Alshawwa, Lana

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study reported here was to evaluate the performance of a self-adhesive flowable composite and two self-etching adhesive systems, when subjected to cyclic loading, in preventing the nanoleakage of Class V restorations. Methods Wedge-shape Class V cavities were prepared (4×2×2 mm [length × width × depth]) on the buccal surfaces of 90 sound human premolars. Cavities were divided randomly into three groups (n=30) according to the used adhesive (Xeno® V [self-etching adhesive system]) and BOND-1® SF (solvent-free self-etching adhesive system) in conjunction with Artiste® Nano Composite resin, and Fusio™ Liquid Dentin (self-adhesive flowable composite), consecutively. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (n=10): (A) control, (B) subjected to occlusal cyclic loading (90N for 5,000 cycles), and (C) subjected to occlusal cyclic loading (90N for 10,000 cycles). Teeth then were coated with nail polish up to 1 mm from the interface, immersed in 50% silver nitrate solution for 24 hours and tested for nanoleakage using the environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis X-ray analysis. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s post hoc tests (P≤0.05). Results The Fusio Liquid Dentin group showed statistically significant lower percentages of silver penetration (0.55 μ) compared with the BOND-1 SF (3.45 μ) and Xeno V (3.82 μ) groups, which were not statistically different from each other, as they both showed higher silver penetration. Conclusion Under the test conditions, the self-adhesive flowable composite provided better sealing ability. Aging of the two tested adhesive systems, as a function of cyclic loading, increased nanoleakage. PMID:25848318

  10. Dual-Mode Adhesive Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartz, Leslie

    1994-01-01

    Tool helps worker grip and move along large, smooth structure with no handgrips or footholds. Adheres to surface but easily released by actuating simple mechanism. Includes handle and segmented contact-adhesive pad. Bulk of pad made of soft plastic foam conforming to surface of structure. Each segment reinforced with rib. In sticking mode, ribs braced by side catches. In peeling mode, side catches retracted, and segmented adhesive pad loses its stiffness. Modified versions useful in inspecting hulls of ships and scaling walls in rescue operations.

  11. Adhesive, elastomeric gel impregnating composition

    DOEpatents

    Shaw, David Glenn; Pollard, John Randolph; Brooks, Robert Aubrey

    2002-01-01

    An improved capacitor roll with alternating film and foil layers is impregnated with an adhesive, elastomeric gel composition. The gel composition is a blend of a plasticizer, a polyol, a maleic anhydride that reacts with the polyol to form a polyester, and a catalyst for the reaction. The impregnant composition is introduced to the film and foil layers while still in a liquid form and then pressure is applied to aid with impregnation. The impregnant composition is cured to form the adhesive, elastomeric gel. Pressure is maintained during curing.

  12. Effect of polyacrylamide as a post-fire erosion mitigation treatment during consecutive rainstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inbar, Assaf; Ben-Hur, Meni; Sternberg, Marcelo; Liñares, Marcos

    2014-05-01

    Anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) has been proven to be an effective chemical soil amendment for reducing erosion in arable lands and infrastructure projects, but few attempts have been made to use it as a post-fire mitigation measure. Moreover, the mechanisms by which PAM reduces soil erosion are not fully understood. In this study, we tested the use of 50 kg/ha granular PAM as a post-fire amendment on infiltration rate (IR), runoff and soil loss both in laboratory and field experiments involving multiple rainstorms. In the laboratory experiments, three consecutive storms separated by drying periods were applied by means of a rainfall simulator to two contrasting soils affected by fire (Humic Cambisol and Calcic Regosol). During the 1st rainstorm, PAM decreased IR and increased runoff in both soils due to an increase in viscosity of the runoff and soil solution. At the same time, a reduction in soil loss was observed in both PAM-treated soils compared to the untreated controls. During the first drying period, PAM was irreversibly adsorbed to soil particles, and in the following storms PAM-induced soil loss reduction persisted while the effect of the polymer on IR and runoff was reversed. Differences in the effect of PAM on soil erosion between soils were attributed to changes in the electrolyte concentration of runoff and soil solution. The positive effect of PAM on post-fire soil loss was confirmed in field experiments with erosion plots constructed in the burnt Calcic Regosol. The application of 25 and 50 kg/ha of granular PAM reduced soil erosion by 23 and 57%, respectively, compared to the untreated control. Runoff was reduced only in the 50 kg/ha treatment. It is suggested that the application of PAM could be a good alternative to current post-fire erosion mitigation measures.

  13. Tuberous sclerosis complex-associated renal angiomyolipomas: A single center study of 17 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hang; Long, Qilai; Wang, Yiwei; Liu, Li; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the treatment options for patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs). A total of 17 patients who were consecutively diagnosed with TSC-associated renal AMLs at the Department of Urology of Zhongshan Hospital between 1998 and 2012 were included in the study. The patient cohort included 7 males and 10 females with a mean age of 37.6 years (range, 18–62 years). A total of 12 patients were diagnosed with renal AML with TSC during physical examination (PE), while 5 patients were admitted to the Emergency Department of Zhongshan Hospital due to spontaneous rupture of renal AMLs. All renal lesions were examined by ultrasonography and abdominal computed tomography prior to treatment. The primary outcome measure was the kidney reservation rate (patients that had not received nephrectomies) in the rupture group and PE group. Both abdominal ultrasonography and CT revealed AMLs in all patients and the mean tumor size was 10.0±4.0 cm (range, 3.0–17.5 cm). Overall, 9 patients underwent surgery, which included unilateral nephrectomy in 4 patients and unilateral partial nephrectomy/tumor enucleation in 5 patients. The remaining 8 patients received medical treatment. All patients were followed-up for between 10 and 67 months. One patient succumbed as a result of multiple organ failure, which was caused by hypovolemic shock due to the spontaneous rupture of renal AML. The kidney reservation rate during surgery was 87.5% (7/8) in the PE group and 25% (1/4) in the spontaneous rupture group. The management of TSC-associated renal AMLs differs from that of solitary sporadic AMLs. Surgical therapy is recommended following careful risk-benefit analysis. PMID:27446460

  14. Biliary reconstructions and complications encountered in 50 consecutive right-lobe living donor liver transplantations.

    PubMed

    Icoz, Gokhan; Kilic, Murat; Zeytunlu, Murat; Celebi, Arzu; Ersoz, Galip; Killi, Refik; Memis, Ahmet; Karasu, Zeki; Yuzer, Yildiray; Tokat, Yaman

    2003-06-01

    Biliary complications appear to be the leading cause of postoperative complications after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). The aim of this study is to analyze the complications, treatment modalities, and outcomes of biliary anastomoses in a series of 50 consecutive right-lobe LDLTs. Median patient age was 45 years, and median right-lobe graft volume was 740 g. Graft-recipient weight ratio was 0.69 to 1.80. Median follow-up time was 15 months (range, 2 to 38 months). Eleven of 50 patients died, resulting in an overall allograft and patient survival rate of 78%. In biliary reconstruction, a duct-to-duct (D-D) anastomosis or a standard Roux-en-Y (R-Y) anastomosis was performed. Twenty-nine grafts (58%) had a single duct for anastomosis. Seventeen grafts (34%) had two bile duct orifices, and four grafts (8%) had three bile duct orifices. A D-D anastomosis was performed in 36 cases (72%), whereas R-Y reconstruction was preferred in 14 cases (28%). The overall incidence of biliary anastomotic complications was 30% in this series. Five patients developed biliary leaks, presumably from the cut surface, and all of them healed spontaneously. Two bilomas were drained percutaneously. Anastomotic strictures occurred in 8 patients (16%) and were significantly greater than in the R-Y group (P =.03). Although strictures seemed to develop more frequently in allografts with multiple bile ducts, this did not reach statistical significance (P =.05). All strictures were managed by nonsurgical measures initially. Restenosis occurred in 2 patients, both of whom had an R-Y anastomotic stricture. These anastomoses were revised surgically, giving a reoperation rate of 4% for biliary problems. No graft or patient was lost because of biliary problems. Our data suggest that D-D anastomosis is a safe and feasible method of biliary reconstruction in LDLT by preserving physiological bilioenteric continuity and allowing easy access through endoscopic techniques. PMID:12783398

  15. State of the art etch-and-rinse adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R; Breschi, Lorenzo; Tjäderhane, Leo; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Carrilho, Marcela; Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Etch-and-rinse adhesive systems are the oldest of the multi-generation evolution of resin bonding systems. In the 3-step version, they involve acid-etching, priming and application of a separate adhesive. Each step can accomplish multiple goals. This review explores the therapeutic opportunities of each separate step. Acid-etching, using 32-37% phosphoric acid (pH 0.1-0.4) not only simultaneously etches enamel and dentin, but the low pH kills many residual bacteria. Some etchants include anti-microbial compounds such as benzalkonium chloride that also inhibits matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in dentin. Primers are usually water and HEMA-rich solutions that ensure complete expansion of the collagen fibril meshwork and wet the collagen with hydrophilic monomers. However, water alone can re-expand dried dentin and can also serve as a vehicle for protease inhibitors or protein cross-linking agents that may increase the durability of resin-dentin bonds. In the future, ethanol or other water-free solvents may serve as dehydrating primers that may also contain antibacterial quaternary ammonium methacrylates to inhibit dentin MMPs and increase the durability of resin-dentin bonds. The complete evaporation of solvents is nearly impossible. Manufacturers may need to optimize solvent concentrations. Solvent-free adhesives can seal resin-dentin interfaces with hydrophobic resins that may also contain fluoride and antimicrobial compounds. Etch-and-rinse adhesives produce higher resin-dentin bonds that are more durable than most 1 and 2-step adhesives. Incorporation of protease inhibitors in etchants and/or cross-linking agents in primers may increase the durability of resin-dentin bonds. The therapeutic potential of etch-and-rinse adhesives has yet to be fully exploited. PMID:21112620

  16. Candida biofilms: is adhesion sexy?

    PubMed

    Soll, David R

    2008-08-26

    The development of Candida albicans biofilms requires two types of adhesion molecule - the Als proteins and Hwp1. Mutational analyses have recently revealed that these molecules play complementary roles, and their characteristics suggest that they may have evolved from primitive mating agglutinins. PMID:18727911

  17. Fluorescence Reveals Contamination From Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolia, William

    1992-01-01

    Contamination of nearby surfaces from ingredients in some adhesive materials detected by ultraviolet illumination and observation of resulting fluorescence. Identification of contaminants via telltale fluorescence not new; rather, significance lies in method of implementation and potential extension to wider variety of materials and applications.

  18. New adhesive withstands temperature extremes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J. J.; Seidenberg, B.

    1978-01-01

    Adhesive, developed for high-temperature components aboard satellites, is useful at both high and low temperatures and exhibits low-vacuum volatility and low shrinkage. System uses polyfunctional epoxy with high aromatic content, low equivalent weight, and more compact polymer than conventional bisphenol A tape.

  19. Computational Chemistry of Adhesive Bonds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is intended to determine the electrical mechanical, and chemical properties of adhesive bonds at the molecular level. The initial determinations will be followed by investigations of the effects of environmental effects on the chemistry and properties of the bond layer.

  20. Photoresist substrate having robust adhesion

    DOEpatents

    Dentinger, Paul M.

    2005-07-26

    A substrate material for LIGA applications w hose general composition is Ti/Cu/Ti/SiO.sub.2. The SiO.sub.2 is preferably applied to the Ti/Cu/Ti wafer as a sputtered coating, typically about 100 nm thick. This substrate composition provides improved adhesion for epoxy-based photoresist materials, and particularly the photoresist material SU-8.

  1. Tackifier Dispersions to Make Pressure Sensitive Adhesives

    SciTech Connect

    2003-02-01

    Development of new processes for tackifier dispersion could improve the production of pressure sensitive adhesives. Pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) have the ability to adhere to different surfaces with manual or finger pressure.

  2. Microfluidic adhesion induced by subsurface microstructures.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Abhijit; Ghatak, Animangsu; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2007-10-12

    Natural adhesives in the feet of different arthropods and vertebrates show strong adhesion as well as excellent reusability. Whereas the hierarchical structures on the surface are known to have a substantial effect on adhesion, the role of subsurface structures such as the network of microchannels has not been studied. Inspired by these bioadhesives, we generated elastomeric layers with embedded air- or oil-filled microchannels. These adhesives showed remarkable enhancement of adhesion ( approximately 30 times), which results from the crack-arresting properties of the microchannels, together with the surface stresses caused by the capillary force. The importance of the thickness of the adhesive layer, channel diameter, interchannel spacing, and vertical position within the adhesive has been examined for developing an optimal design of this microfluidic adhesive. PMID:17932295

  3. Arthroscopic repair of acetabular chondral delamination with fibrin adhesive.

    PubMed

    Tzaveas, Alexandros P; Villar, Richard N

    2010-01-01

    Acetabular chondral delamination is a frequent finding at hip arthroscopy. The cartilage is macroscopically normal but disrupted from the subchondral bone. Excision of chondral flaps is the usual procedure for this type of lesion. However, we report 19 consecutive patients in whom the delaminated chondral flap was re-attached to the underlying subchondral bone with fibrin adhesive. We used the modified Harris hip score for assessment of pain and function. Improvement in pain and function was found to be statistically significant six months and one year after surgery. No local or general complications were noted. Three patients underwent further surgery for unrelated reasons. In each, the area of fibrin repair appeared intact and secure. Our results suggest that fibrin is a safe agent to use for acetabular chondral delamination. PMID:20235074

  4. Evaluation of the metal/adhesive interfaces in the MC2370 fire set

    SciTech Connect

    Zavadil, K.R.

    1997-10-01

    Several analysis methods have been applied to evaluate the structure and composition of the electrode/adhesive interfaces i previously fielded M2370 Fire Sets. A method of interfacial fracture at cryogenic temperatures as been employed to expose regions of these interfaces at multiple levels in a SFE stack. Electron microscopy shows that bond failure induced by the fracture is predominantly adhesive with an equal probability of failure of the Au and Cu interfaces. Some evidence for cohesive, indicative of a possible microstructure related to electrical breakdown. Pinhole-free larger regions of adhesive also exist which may explain the observed high resistance in impedance measurements.

  5. Alterations in cell adhesion proteins and cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jifen

    2014-01-01

    Cell adhesive junction is specialized intercellular structure composed of cell adhesion proteins. They are essential to connect adjacent heart muscle cell and make heart contraction effectively and properly. Clinical and genetic studies have revealed close relationship between cell adhesive proteins and the occurrence of various cardiomyopathies. Here we will review recent development on the disease phenotype, potential cellular and molecular mechanism related to cell adhesion molecules, with particular disease pathogenesis learned from genetic manipulated murine models. PMID:24944760

  6. 21 CFR 175.105 - Adhesives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adhesives. 175.105 Section 175.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives §...

  7. 21 CFR 175.105 - Adhesives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adhesives. 175.105 Section 175.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives §...

  8. Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces polyurethane adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseland, L. M.

    1967-01-01

    Nonwoven glass fiber mat reinforces the adhesive properties of a polyurethane adhesive that fastens hardware to exterior surfaces of aluminum tanks. The mat is embedded in the uncured adhesive. It ensures good control of the bond line and increases the peel strength.

  9. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification. A drape adhesive is a device intended to be placed on the skin to attach a surgical drape....

  10. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and... GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification. A drape adhesive is a device intended to be placed on the skin to attach a surgical drape....

  11. Nature of the adhesion bond between epoxy adhesive and steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vettegren', V. I.; Mamalimov, R. I.; Savitskii, A. V.; Shcherbakov, I. P.; Sytov, V. V.; Sytov, V. A.

    2014-03-01

    The potential difference that appears in the epoxy resin located between two grade 3 steel plates is studied. One of them is stored in epoxy resin to reach equilibrium, and the second plate is coated with an asprepared mixture of epoxy resin with a hardener. It is found that the potential difference decreases in time because of charge transfer by Fe2+ ions through epoxy resin. The luminescence and infrared absorption spectra of the epoxy adhesive on the grade 3 steel surface are recorded. An analysis of these spectra shows that Fe2+ ions penetrate into the as-prepared mixture of epoxy resin with the hardener, and interact with CN groups in the mixture, and form coordination compounds. As a result, a diffusion layer saturated by the coordination compounds forms at the interface between the steel and the adhesive.

  12. Circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), E-selectin and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human malignancies.

    PubMed Central

    Banks, R. E.; Gearing, A. J.; Hemingway, I. K.; Norfolk, D. R.; Perren, T. J.; Selby, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cellular adhesion molecules have been implicated in tumour progression and metastasis. This study examines for the first time the serum concentrations of circulating VCAM-1 and E-selectin in a consecutive series of 110 cancer patients seen in a general medical oncology clinic, and confirms and extends previous studies reporting measurement of circulating ICAM-1. Soluble ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in all the patient groups compared with the controls whereas soluble E-selectin was significantly higher in the ovarian, breast and GI cancer groups and lower in the myeloma group. The significance of these results together with the possible sources and stimuli for release of these adhesion molecules are discussed. PMID:7686390

  13. Therapeutic Targeting of Eosinophil Adhesion and Accumulation in Allergic Conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Baiula, Monica; Bedini, Andrea; Carbonari, Gioia; Dattoli, Samantha Deianira; Spampinato, Santi

    2012-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that eosinophils are important effectors of ocular allergy. Increased worldwide prevalence of allergic eye pathologies has stimulated the identification of novel drug targets, including eosinophils and adhesion molecules. Accumulation of eosinophils in the eye is a key event in the onset and maintenance of allergic inflammation and is mediated by different adhesion molecules. Antihistamines with multiple mechanisms of action can be effective during the early and late phases of allergic conjunctivitis by blocking the interaction between β1 integrins and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. Small molecule antagonists that target key elements in the process of eosinophil recruitment have been identified and reinforce the validity of α4β1 integrin as a therapeutic target. Glucocorticoids are among the most effective drugs for ocular allergy, but their use is limited by adverse effects. Novel dissociated glucocorticoids can prevent eosinophil accumulation and induce apoptosis of eosinophils, making them promising candidates for ophthalmic drugs. This article reviews recent understanding of the role of adhesion molecules in eosinophil recruitment in the inflamed conjunctiva along with effective treatments for allergic conjunctivitis. PMID:23271999

  14. Microfluidic shear devices for quantitative analysis of cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hang; Koo, Lily Y; Wang, Wechung M; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Griffith, Linda G; Jensen, Klavs F

    2004-09-15

    We describe the design, construction, and characterization of microfluidic devices for studying cell adhesion and cell mechanics. The method offers multiple advantages over previous approaches, including a wide range of distractive forces, high-throughput performance, simplicity in experimental setup and control, and potential for integration with other microanalytic modules. By manipulating the geometry and surface chemistry of the microdevices, we are able to vary the shear force and the biochemistry during an experiment. The dynamics of cell detachment under different conditions can be captured simultaneously using time-lapse videomicroscopy. We demonstrate assessment of cell adhesion to fibronectin-coated substrates as a function of the shear stress or fibronectin concentration in microchannels. Furthermore, a combined perfusion-shear device is designed to maintain cell viability for long-term culture as well as to introduce exogenous reagents for biochemical studies of cell adhesion regulation. In agreement with established literature, we show that fibroblasts cultured in the combined device reduced their adhesion strength to the substrate in response to epidermal growth factor stimulation. PMID:15362881

  15. Tuning hydrophobicity and water adhesion by electrospinning and silanization.

    PubMed

    Pisuchpen, Thanarath; Chaim-ngoen, Navarun; Intasanta, Narupol; Supaphol, Pitt; Hoven, Voravee P

    2011-04-01

    Electrospinning and silanization were synergistically employed to fabricate poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and PVA/silica mixtures into flexible and chemically modifiable nanostructured surfaces with varying degrees of hydrophobicity and water adhesion. Surfaces possessing the greatest advancing water contact angle yet exhibiting a high level of water adhesion (θ(A)/θ(R) ≈ 168°/0°) were achieved by the reaction of PVA fiber mats with multiple cycles of SiCl(4)/H(2)O treatment, followed by silanization with (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)trichlorosilane. It is postulated that the strong pinning effect and hence the water adhesion originated from the collapse of the underlying fibrous structures and the removal of air pockets. The addition of silica to the PVA matrix improved the rigidity and thus prevented the fibers from collapsing, allowing air to remain trapped within the fibrous structure and giving the surface greater water repellency. Throughout the investigation, the three wetting models--Wenzel's, Cassie-Baxter's, and the Cassie-impregnating--were regularly referred to as a conceptual framework. The hydrophobic surface that exhibited strong water adhesion, or the so-called "Petal effect", was elucidated in correlation with the fibrous structure of the film, as reviewed by microscopic analysis. In summary, electrospinning as a facile and cost-effective method provides promising opportunities for investigating the mechanistic character of nanowetting, nanoprinting, and nanocoating where the precise control of the dynamical three-phase contact line is of paramount importance. PMID:21401064

  16. Ceramic adhesive restorations and biomimetic dentistry: tissue preservation and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Tirlet, Gil; Crescenzo, Hélène; Crescenzo, Dider; Bazos, Panaghiotis

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to sophisticated adhesive techniques in contemporary dentistry, and the development of composite and ceramic materials, it is possible to reproduce a biomimetic match between substitution materials and natural teeth substrates. Biomimetics or bio-emulation allows for the association of two fundamental parameters at the heart of current therapeutic treatments: tissue preservation and adhesion. This contemporary concept makes the retention of the integrity of the maximum amount of dental tissue possible, while offering exceptional clinical longevity, and maximum esthetic results. It permits the conservation of the biological, esthetic, biomechanical and functional properties of enamel and dentin. Today, it is clearly possible to develop preparations allowing for the conservation of the enamel and dentin in order to bond partial restorations in the anterior and posterior sectors therefore limiting, as Professor Urs Belser from Geneva indicates, "the replacement of previous deficient crowns and devitalized teeth whose conservation are justified but whose residual structural state are insufficient for reliable bonding."1 This article not only addresses ceramic adhesive restoration in the anterior area, the ambassadors of biomimetic dentistry, but also highlights the possibility of occasionally integrating one or two restorations at the heart of the smile as a complement to extensive rehabilitations that require more invasive treatment. PMID:25126616

  17. Bio-inspired adhesion: local chemical environments impact adhesive stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebbie, Matthew A.; Rapp, Michael V.; Yu, Jing; Wei, Wei; Waite, J. Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2014-03-01

    3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa) is an amino acid that is naturally synthesized by marine mussels and exhibits the unique ability to strongly bind to surfaces in aqueous environments. However, the Dopa functional group undergoes auto-oxidation to a non-adhesive quinone form in neutral to basic pH conditions, limiting the utilization of Dopa in biomedical applications. In this work, we performed direct surface force measurements with in situ electrochemical control across a Dopa-rich native mussel foot protein (mfp-5), as well as three simplified model peptide sequences. We find that the neighboring peptide residues can significantly impact the redox stability of Dopa functional groups, with lysine residues imparting a substantial degree of Dopa redox stabilization. Surprisingly, the local chemical environments only minimally impact the magnitude of the adhesion forces measured between molecularly-smooth mica and gold surfaces. Our results provide molecular level insight into approaches that can be used to mitigate the detrimental impact of Dopa auto-oxidation, thus suggesting new molecular design strategies for improving the performance of Dopa-based underwater adhesives.

  18. Adhesives for the composite wood panel industry

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, G.S.; Klareich, F.; Exstrum, B.

    1987-01-01

    This book presents a market and technology analysis of current fossil-fuel-based adhesives for the composite wood panel industry. It is also a study of the potential for, and technology of, less-energy-intensive biomass-derived adhesives for use in the industry. Adhesives manufacturer and production account for a significant portion of overall wood panel industry energy use as well as overall production costs, and the wood panel industry consumes about 25% of the total U.S. adhesives production. Significant savings might be realized if current fossil-fuel-based resins could be replaced with alternative biomass-derived adhesives.

  19. A review of high-temperature adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    The development of high temperature adhesives and polyphenylquinoxalines (PPQ) is reported. Thermoplastic polyimides and linear PPQ adhesive are shown to have potential for bonding both metals and composite structures. A nadic terminated addition polyimide adhesive, LARC-13, and an acetylene terminated phenylquinoxaline (ATPQ) were developed. Both of the addition type adhesives are shown to be more readily processable than linear materials but less thermooxidatively stable and more brittle. It is found that the addition type adhesives are able to perform, at elevated temperatures up to 595 C where linear systems fail thermoplastically.

  20. Viscoelastic analysis of adhesively bonded joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper an adhesively bonded lap joint is analyzed by assuming that the adherends are elastic and the adhesive is linearly viscoelastic. After formulating the general problem a specific example for two identical adherends bonded through a three parameter viscoelastic solid adhesive is considered. The standard Laplace transform technique is used to solve the problem. The stress distribution in the adhesive layer is calculated for three different external loads namely, membrane loading, bending, and transverse shear loading. The results indicate that the peak value of the normal stress in the adhesive is not only consistently higher than the corresponding shear stress but also decays slower.

  1. Viscoelastic analysis of adhesively bonded joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delale, F.; Erdogan, F.

    1980-01-01

    An adhesively bonded lap joint is analyzed by assuming that the adherends are elastic and the adhesive is linearly viscoelastic. After formulating the general problem a specific example for two identical adherends bonded through a three parameter viscoelastic solid adhesive is considered. The standard Laplace transform technique is used to solve the problem. The stress distribution in the adhesive layer is calculated for three different external loads, namely, membrane loading, bending, and transverse shear loading. The results indicate that the peak value of the normal stress in the adhesive is not only consistently higher than the corresponding shear stress but also decays slower.

  2. Association between Image Characteristics on Chest CT and Severe Pleural Adhesion during Lung Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Kwang Nam; Sung, Yong Won; Oh, Se Jin; Choi, Ye Ra; Cho, Hyoun; Choi, Jae-Sung; Moon, Hyeon-Jong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between image characteristics on preoperative chest CT and severe pleural adhesion during surgery in lung cancer patients. We included consecutive 124 patients who underwent lung cancer surgeries. Preoperative chest CT was retrospectively reviewed to assess pleural thickening or calcification, pulmonary calcified nodules, active pulmonary inflammation, extent of emphysema, interstitial pneumonitis, and bronchiectasis in the operated thorax. The extent of pleural thickening or calcification was visually estimated and categorized into two groups: localized and diffuse. We measured total size of pulmonary calcified nodules. The extent of emphysema, interstitial pneumonitis, and bronchiectasis was also evaluated with a visual scoring system. The occurrence of severe pleural adhesion during lung cancer surgery was retrospectively investigated from the electrical medical records. We performed logistic regression analysis to determine the association of image characteristic on chest CT with severe pleural adhesion. Localized pleural thickening was found in 8 patients (6.5%), localized pleural calcification in 8 (6.5%), pulmonary calcified nodules in 28 (22.6%), and active pulmonary inflammation in 22 (17.7%). There was no patient with diffuse pleural thickening or calcification in this study. Trivial, mild, and moderate emphysema was found in 31 (25.0%), 21 (16.9%), and 12 (9.7%) patients, respectively. Severe pleural adhesion was found in 31 (25.0%) patients. The association of localized pleural thickening or calcification on CT with severe pleural adhesion was not found (P = 0.405 and 0.107, respectively). Size of pulmonary calcified nodules and extent of emphysema were significant variables in a univariate analysis (P = 0.045 and 0.005, respectively). In a multivariate analysis, moderate emphysema was significantly associated with severe pleural adhesion (odds ratio of 11.202, P = 0.001). In conclusion, severe

  3. Metabolomics of salivary fatigue markers in soccer players after consecutive games.

    PubMed

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Maeda, Seiji; Higashino, Ryota; Imai, Tomoko; Miyakawa, Shumpei

    2014-10-01

    Strenuous and consecutive exercise leads to fatigue symptoms in athletes. Metabolomics is a comprehensive method to assess metabolites that involves the measurements of the overall metabolic signature of biological samples. Using metabolomic analysis, we investigated the identification of salivary fatigue markers in soccer players after 3 consecutive days of a game program. One hundred twenty-two male soccer players participated in 3 consecutive days of a game program. To detect fatigued athletes, we measured indices of traditional fatigue symptoms, i.e., heart rate, body mass and mood, before and after the program. We detected 37 fatigued players throughout the program. Before and after the program, the saliva in these players was analyzed using capillary electrophoresis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS) and a multivariate statistical technique, principal component analysis, was used to process the data. CE-TOFMS was used to identify 144 metabolites in the saliva of fatigued players. A significant metabolomic difference was observed before and after 3 consecutive days of a soccer game program. Interestingly, metabolites were all increased after the program (P < 0.001). The identified metabolites, including 3-methylhistidine, glucose 1- and 6-phosphate, taurine, and some amino acids, were involved in skeletal muscle catabolism, glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and energy metabolism. Our work demonstrated some salivary metabolites were significantly increased in the fatigued players after consecutive days of short soccer matches. We propose that the detected salivary metabolites may be new fatigue markers in athletes. PMID:24988119

  4. Gecko adhesion pad: a smart surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesika, Noshir S.; Zeng, Hongbo; Kristiansen, Kai; Zhao, Boxin; Tian, Yu; Autumn, Kellar; Israelachvili, Jacob

    2009-11-01

    Recently, it has been shown that humidity can increase the adhesion of the spatula pads that form the outermost (adhesive) surface of the tokay gecko feet by 50% relative to the main adhesion mechanism (i.e. van der Waals adhesive forces), although the mechanism by which the enhancement is realized is still not well understood. A change in the surface hydrophobicity of a gecko setal array is observed when the array, which supports the spatulae, is exposed to a water drop for more than 20 min, suggesting a change in the hydrophilic-lyophilic balance (HLB), and therefore of the conformation of the surface proteins. A surface force apparatus (SFA) was used to quantify these changes, i.e. in the adhesion and friction forces, while shearing the setal array against a silica surface under (i) dry conditions, (ii) 100% humidity and (iii) when fully immersed in water. The adhesion increased in the humid environment but greatly diminished in water. Although the adhesion forces changed significantly, the friction forces remained unaffected, indicating that the friction between these highly textured surfaces is 'load-controlled' rather than 'adhesion-controlled'. These results demonstrate that the gecko adhesive pads have the ability to exploit environmental conditions to maximize their adhesion and stabilize their friction forces. Future designs of synthetic dry adhesives inspired by the gecko can potentially include similar 'smart' surfaces that adapt to their environment.

  5. Nanocapillary Adhesion between Parallel Plates.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Robbins, Mark O

    2016-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study capillary adhesion from a nanometer scale liquid bridge between two parallel flat solid surfaces. The capillary force, Fcap, and the meniscus shape of the bridge are computed as the separation between the solid surfaces, h, is varied. Macroscopic theory predicts the meniscus shape and the contribution of liquid/vapor interfacial tension to Fcap quite accurately for separations as small as two or three molecular diameters (1-2 nm). However, the total capillary force differs in sign and magnitude from macroscopic theory for h ≲ 5 nm (8-10 diameters) because of molecular layering that is not included in macroscopic theory. For these small separations, the pressure tensor in the fluid becomes anisotropic. The components in the plane of the surface vary smoothly and are consistent with theory based on the macroscopic surface tension. Capillary adhesion is affected by only the perpendicular component, which has strong oscillations as the molecular layering changes. PMID:27413872

  6. Particle adhesion in powder coating

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, M.K.; Wankum, D.L.; Knutson, M.; Williams, S.; Banerjee, S.

    1996-12-31

    Electrostatic powder coating is a widely used industrial painting process. It has three major advantages: (1) it provides high quality durable finish, (2) the process is environmentally friendly and does not require the use of organic solvents, and (3) it is economically competitive. The adhesion of electrostatically deposited polymer paint particles on the grounded conducting substrate depends upon many parameters: (a) particle size and shape distributions, (b) electrostatic charge distributions, (c) electrical resistivity, (d) dielectric strength of the particles, (e) thickness of the powder film, (f) presence and severity of the back corona, and (g) the conductivity and surface properties of the substrate. The authors present a model on the forces of deposition and adhesion of corona charged particles on conducting substrates.

  7. Acetylene-terminated polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanky, A. O.

    1983-01-01

    The nadic-encapped LARC-13 addition polyimide exhibits excellent flow, is easy to process, and can be utilized for short terms at temperatures up to 593 C. It retains good lap shear strength as an adhesive for titanium after aging in air up to 125 hours at 316 C; but lap shear strength degrades with longer exposures at that temperature. Thermid 600, an addition polyimide that is acetylene encapped, exhibits thermomechanical properties even after long term exposure in at air at 316 C. An inherent drawback of this system is that it has a narrow processing window. An acetylene encapped, addition polyimide which is a hybrid of these two systems was developed. It has good retention of strength after long term aging and is easily processed. The synthesis and characterization of various molecular weight oligomers of this system are discussed as well as the bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear adhesive samples.

  8. Labial adhesions in pubertal girls.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Roy Kallol; Sonika, Agarwal; Charu, Chanana; Sunesh, Kumar; Neena, Malhotra

    2006-01-01

    Labial adhesions after puberty are rare and are usually the result of chronic inflammation, urinary tract infection, hypoestrogenism or surgical procedures leading to vulval trauma. Sexual abuse leading to labial adhesions is extremely rare in girls who have attained menarche. Complete vulval fusion can rarely occur without any evidence of hypoestrogenism. We address this rare entity in three young pubertal girls wherein one had a history of genital trauma, the second had a history of surgical intervention due to urinary retention and the last one had a history of sexual abuse. All patients had history of genital trauma in common. Accepted management of this condition is adhesiolysis followed by application of estrogen cream in the postoperative period. PMID:16189695

  9. Acetylene-terminated polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanky, A. O.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    The nadic-encapped LARC-43 addition polyimide exhibits excellent flow, is easy to process, and can be utilized for short terms at temperatures up to 593 C. It retains good lap shear strength as an adhesive for titanium after aging in air up to 125 hours at 316 C; but lap shear strength degrades with longer exposures at that temperature. Thermid 600, an addition polyimide that is acetylene encapped, exhibits thermomechanical properties even after long term exposure in at air at 316 C. An inherent drawback of this system is that it has a narrow processing window. An acetylene encapped, addition polyimide which is a hybrid of these two systems was developed. It has good retention of strength after long term aging and is easily processed. The synthesis and characterization of various molecular weight oligomers of this system are discussed as well as the bonding, aging, and testing of lap shear adhesive samples. Previously announced in STAR as N83-18910

  10. Host Selection of Microbiota via Differential Adhesion.

    PubMed

    McLoughlin, Kirstie; Schluter, Jonas; Rakoff-Nahoum, Seth; Smith, Adrian L; Foster, Kevin R

    2016-04-13

    The host epithelium is the critical interface with microbial communities, but the mechanisms by which the host regulates these communities are poorly understood. Here we develop the hypothesis that hosts use differential adhesion to select for and against particular members of their microbiota. We use an established computational, individual-based model to study the impact of host factors that regulate adhesion at the epithelial surface. Our simulations predict that host-mediated adhesion can increase the competitive advantage of microbes and create ecological refugia for slow-growing species. We show how positive selection via adhesion can be transformed into negative selection if the host secretes large quantities of a matrix such as mucus. Our work predicts that adhesion is a powerful mechanism for both positive and negative selection within the microbiota. We discuss molecules-mucus glycans and IgA-that affect microbe adhesion and identify testable predictions of the adhesion-as-selection model. PMID:27053168

  11. Adhesive mechanisms in cephalopods: a review.

    PubMed

    von Byern, Janek; Klepal, Waltraud

    2006-01-01

    Several genera of cephalopods (Nautilus, Sepia, Euprymna and Idiosepius) produce adhesive secretions, which are used for attachment to the substratum, for mating and to capture prey. These adhesive structures are located in different parts of the body, viz. in the digital tentacles (Nautilus), in the ventral surface of the mantle and fourth arm pair (Sepia), in the dorsal epidermis (Euprymna), or in the dorsal mantle side and partly on the fins (Idiosepius). Adhesion in Sepia is induced by suction of dermal structures on the mantle, while for Nautilus, Euprymna and Idiosepius adhesion is probably achieved by chemical substances. Histochemical studies indicate that in Nautilus and Idiosepius secretory cells that appear to be involved in adhesion stain for carbohydrates and protein, whilst in Euprymna only carbohydrates are detectable. De-adhesion is either achieved by muscle contraction of the tentacles and mantle (Nautilus and Sepia) or by secretion of substances (Euprymna). The de-adhesive mechanism used by Idiosepius remains unknown. PMID:17110356

  12. Adhesion effects in contact interaction of solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryacheva, Irina; Makhovskaya, Yulya

    2008-01-01

    An approach to solving problems of the interaction of axisymmetric elastic bodies in the presence of adhesion is developed. The different natures of adhesion, i.e. capillary adhesion, or molecular adhesion described by the Lennard-Jones potential are examined. The effect of additional loading of the interacting bodies outside the contact zone is also investigated. The approach is based on the representation of the pressure outside the contact zone arising from adhesion by a step function. The analytical solution is obtained and is used to analyze the influence of the form of the adhesion interaction potential, of the surface energy of interacting bodies or the films covering the bodies, their shapes (parabolic, higher power exponential function), volume of liquid in the meniscus, density of contact spots, of elastic modulus and the Poisson ratio on the characteristics of the interaction of the bodies in the presence of adhesion. To cite this article: I. Goryacheva, Y. Makhovskaya, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  13. Theory of adhesion: Role of surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, B. N. J.; Scaraggi, M.

    2014-09-01

    We discuss how surface roughness influences the adhesion between elastic solids. We introduce a Tabor number which depends on the length scale or magnification, and which gives information about the nature of the adhesion at different length scales. We consider two limiting cases relevant for (a) elastically hard solids with weak (or long ranged) adhesive interaction (DMT-limit) and (b) elastically soft solids with strong (or short ranged) adhesive interaction (JKR-limit). For the former cases we study the nature of the adhesion using different adhesive force laws (F ˜ u-n, n = 1.5-4, where u is the wall-wall separation). In general, adhesion may switch from DMT-like at short length scales to JKR-like at large (macroscopic) length scale. We compare the theory predictions to results of exact numerical simulations and find good agreement between theory and simulation results.

  14. Culinary Medicine-Jalebi Adhesions.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Vinay K

    2016-02-01

    Culinary terms have been used to describe anatomy (bean-shaped kidneys), pathology (strawberry gall bladder), clinical signs (café-au-lait spots), radiological images (sausage-shaped pancreas), etc. While Indian cuisine is popular all over the world, no Indian dish finds mention in medical terminology. In intra-abdominal adhesions, sometimes, the intestinal loops are so densely adherent that it is difficult to make out proximal from distal and it is impossible to separate them without injuring the bowel resulting in spill of contents-resection is the only option (Fig. 1). Jalebi, an Indian dessert, has a single long tubular strip of fried batter filled with sugary syrup so intertwined that it is impossible to discern its ends; if broken, the syrup spills out-the best way to relish it is to chew the whole piece (Fig. 2). Because of these similarities between them, I propose to name dense intra-abdominal adhesions as 'jalebi adhesions.' PMID:27186047

  15. Adhesive evaluation of new polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stclair, Terry L.; Progar, Donald J.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 10 to 15 years, the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed several novel high temperature polyimide adhesives for anticipated needs of the aerospace industry. These developments have resulted from fundamental studies of structure-property relationships in polyimides. Recent research at LaRC has involved the synthesis and evaluation of copolyimides which incorporate both flexibilizing bridging groups and meta-linked benzene rings. The purpose was to develop systems based on low cost, readily available monomers. Two of these copolyimides evaluated as adhesives for bonding titanium alloy, Ti(6Al-4V), are identified as LARC-STPI and STPI-LARC-2. Lap shear strength (LSS) measurements were used to determine the strength and durability of the adhesive materials. LSS results are presented for LARC-TPI and LARC-STPI lap shear specimens thermally exposed in air at 232 C for up to 5000 hrs. LARC-TPI was shown to perform better than the copolymer LARC-STPI which exhibited poor thermooxidative performance possibly due to the amines used which would tend to oxidize easier than the benzophenone system in LARC-TPI.

  16. [Adhesion to the antiretroviral treatment].

    PubMed

    Carballo, M

    2004-12-01

    The objective of the therapy antiretroviral is to improve the quality of life and the survival of the persons affected by the VIH through the suppression of the viral replication. Nevertheless one of the present problems is the resistant apparition of stumps to the new medicines caused by an incorrect management of the therapeutic plan; by an incorrect adhesion of the personal processing. Since the therapeutic success will depend, among others factors, and of important form of the degree of implication and commitment of the person affected, is a matter of identifying prematurely the possible situations concomitants (personal factors and of addiction, psycho-social, related to the processing and its possible secondary effects, associated factors to the own illness or even to the relation professional-patient) that can interfere in a correct adhesion. For it is necessary of the interaction multidisciplinary of the welfare team, and fundamental the work of nursing at the moment of to detect the possible determinant factors and the intervention definition of strategies arrived at by consensus with the own person, that they promote it or it improve. The quantification of the degree of adhesion (measure in %) values through various direct and indirect methods and should keep in mind in it takes of therapeutic decisions being able to come to be advised the suspension of the processing until obtaining to conscience to the person affected of the importance of a correct therapeutic compliance. PMID:15672996

  17. Localized adhesion of monocytes to human atherosclerotic plaques demonstrated in vitro: implications for atherogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Poston, R. N.; Johnson-Tidey, R. R.

    1996-01-01

    Blood-derived macrophages in the arterial intima are a characteristic feature of active atherosclerotic plaques. Adherent monocytes on the luminal surface and increased adhesion molecules on the endothelium have suggested that specific molecular mechanisms are involved in monocyte/macrophage traffic into the arterial wall. Adhesion of human monocytes and related cell lines was therefore studied in vitro to histological sections of human plaques. At 37 degrees C, these cells bound selectively to the plaques. Binding to the endothelium occurred and was also present extensively in the diseased intima. Inhibition studies showed that the endothelial and general intimal binding had largely similar molecular properties. Strong inhibition was produced by antibodies to the monocyte-specific adhesion molecule CD14, to beta2 integrins, and to ICAM-1. Likewise, a peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence was strongly inhibitory, suggesting that binding of leukocyte integrins to arterial extracellular matrix was synergistic with cell-cell interactions. A P-selectin antibody was exceptional in giving selective inhibition of endothelial adhesion, which correlates with the specific endothelial localization of this adhesion molecule. These results show that monocytes adhere to atherosclerotic plaques through the focal activation of multiple arterial wall adhesion molecules, confirming the adhesion hypothesis. A positive feedback theory for the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis can be suggested, based on the ability of macrophages in the wall to activate the endothelium, induce adhesion molecules, and facilitate additional monocyte entry. The adhesion assay provides a means for the identification of adhesion inhibitors with therapeutic potential. Images Figure 2 PMID:8686764

  18. A new method for computing the reliability of consecutive k-out-of-n:F systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gökdere, Gökhan; Gürcan, Mehmet; Kılıç, Muhammet Burak

    2016-05-01

    In many physical systems, reliability evaluation, such as ones encountered in telecommunications, the design of integrated circuits, microwave relay stations, oil pipeline systems, vacuum systems in accelerators, computer ring networks, and spacecraft relay stations, have had applied consecutive k-out-of-n system models. These systems are characterized as logical connections among the components of the systems placed in lines or circles. In literature, a great deal of attention has been paid to the study of the reliability evaluation of consecutive k-out-of-n systems. In this paper, we propose a new method to compute the reliability of consecutive k-out-of-n:F systems, with n linearly and circularly arranged components. The proposed method provides a simple way for determining the system failure probability. Also, we write R-Project codes based on our proposed method to compute the reliability of the linear and circular systems which have a great number of components.

  19. Clinical risk factors for the development of consecutive exotropia: a comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Taylan Sekeroglu, Hande; Erkan Turan, Kadriye; Karakaya, Jale; Sener, Emin Cumhur; Sanac, Ali Sefik

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare a group of patients with consecutive exotropia with patients who had ≤10 prism diopters (PD) esotropia or no deviation postoperatively in terms of probable clinical risk factors for the development of consecutive exotropia. METHODS The study recruited fourteen patients who developed consecutive exodeviation during follow-up period after the correction of esotropia who were categorized as group 1 and thirty-one patients who had still ≤10 PD esotropia or no deviation at the final visit that were considered as group 2. Clinical risk factors leading the development of consecutive deviation were analyzed as the main outcome measures. RESULTS The mean age of patients was 4.57±3.11y in group 1 and 5.10±3.52y in group 2 (P=0.634). There was no significant difference of preoperative near and distant deviations among two groups (P=0.835, 0.928 respectively). The mean amount of medial rectus recession and lateral rectus resection was similar in both groups (P=0.412, 0.648 respectively). Convergence insufficiency and neurological diseases were more frequent in group 1 (P=0.007, 0.045). Accompanying neurological disease was found to be as a significant factor increasing the risk of the development of consecutive exotropia significantly [odds ratios (OR): 5.75 (1.04-31.93)]. CONCLUSION Accompanying neurological disease appears to be a significant clinical risk factor for the development of consecutive exodeviation during postoperative follow-up after the correction of esotropia. However, larger studies are needed in order to interpret the results to the clinical practice and to ascertain other concurrent risk factors. PMID:27366693

  20. Increased erythrocyte adhesion to VCAM-1 during pulsatile flow: Application of a microfluidic flow adhesion bioassay

    PubMed Central

    White, Jennell; Lancelot, Moira; Sarnaik, Sharada; Hines, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by microvascular occlusion mediated by adhesive interactions of sickle erythrocytes (SSRBCs) to the endothelium. Most in vitro flow adhesion assays measure SSRBC adhesion during continuous flow, although in vivo SSRBC adhesive interactions occur during pulsatile flow. Using a well-plate microfluidic flow adhesion system, we demonstrate that isolated SSRBCs adhere to vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) at greater levels during pulsatile versus continuous flow. A significant increase in adhesive interactions was observed between all pulse frequencies 1 Hz to 2 Hz (60–120 beats/min) when compared to non-pulsatile flow. Adhesion of isolated SSRBCs and whole blood during pulsatile flow was unaffected by protein kinase A (PKA) inhibition, and exposure of SSRBCs to pulsatile flow did not affect the intrinsic adhesive properties of SSRBCs. The cell type responsible for increased adhesion of whole blood varied from patient to patient. We conclude that low flow periods of the pulse cycle allow more adhesive interactions between sickle erythrocytes and VCAM-1, and sickle erythrocyte adhesion in the context of whole blood may better reflect physiologic cellular interactions. The microfluidic flow adhesion bioassay used in this study may have applications for clinical assessment of sickle erythrocyte adhesion during pulsatile flow. PMID:24898561

  1. Structural Insights into Ail-Mediated Adhesion in Yersinia pestis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, Satoshi; Lukacik, Petra; Barnard, Travis J.; Noinaj, Nicholas; Felek, Suleyman; Tsang, Tiffany M.; Krukonis, Eric S.; Hinnebusch, B. Joseph; Buchanan, Susan K.

    2012-01-30

    Ail is an outer membrane protein from Yersinia pestis that is highly expressed in a rodent model of bubonic plague, making it a good candidate for vaccine development. Ail is important for attaching to host cells and evading host immune responses, facilitating rapid progression of a plague infection. Binding to host cells is important for injection of cytotoxic Yersinia outer proteins. To learn more about how Ail mediates adhesion, we solved two high-resolution crystal structures of Ail, with no ligand bound and in complex with a heparin analog called sucrose octasulfate. We identified multiple adhesion targets, including laminin and heparin, and showed that a 40 kDa domain of laminin called LG4-5 specifically binds to Ail. We also evaluated the contribution of laminin to delivery of Yops to HEp-2 cells. This work constitutes a structural description of how a bacterial outer membrane protein uses a multivalent approach to bind host cells.

  2. Tensile adhesion testing of thermal spray coatings on flat substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, S.H.; Berndt, C.C.; Wu, C.L.; Nakamura, T.

    1994-12-31

    The standard tensile adhesion test (TAT), ASTM C633, has been modified to perform multiple tests on flat and wide substrates. The TAT geometry which specifies a 25.4 mm (1 in.) diameter cylindrical substrate has been employed as the pull-off bar. Two renditions of this test were implemented and the Weibull moduli and characteristics tresses for both test methods obtained. The modified TAT, termed as the single bar (SB) method, yields a higher Weibull modulus and characteristic strength than the other method which is termed as the double bar (DB) method. It is expected that the different test results between the two methods arise from different stress distributions near the interface of the coating and substrate. Finite element analysis was used to obtain the stress distribution near the interface of the coating and substrate, and the relationship between the adhesion strength of the SB and DB methods were derived.

  3. Adhesion enhancement of biomimetic dry adhesives by nanoparticle in situ synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Téllez, J. P.; Harirchian-Saei, S.; Li, Y.; Menon, C.

    2013-10-01

    A novel method to increase the adhesion strength of a gecko-inspired dry adhesive is presented. Gold nanoparticles are synthesized on the tips of the microfibrils of a polymeric dry adhesive to increase its Hamaker constant. Formation of the gold nanoparticles is qualitatively studied through a colour change in the originally transparent substance and quantitatively analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. A pull-off force test is employed to quantify the adhesion enhancement. Specifically, adhesion forces of samples with and without embedded gold nanoparticles are measured and compared. The experimental results indicate that an adhesion improvement of 135% can be achieved.

  4. Growth and adhesion properties of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Clare M.

    The presence of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in the synovial fluid has long been associated with the joint disease gout. To elucidate the molecular level growth mechanism and adhesive properties of MSU crystals, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques were employed in the characterization of the (010) and (1-10) faces of MSU, as well as physiologically relevant solutions supersaturated with urate. Topographical AFM imaging of both MSU (010) and (1-10) revealed the presence of crystalline layers of urate arranged into v-shaped features of varying height. Growth rates were measured for both monolayers (elementary steps) and multiple layers (macrosteps) on both crystal faces under a wide range of urate supersaturation in physiologically relevant solutions. Step velocities for monolayers and multiple layers displayed a second order polynomial dependence on urate supersaturation on MSU (010) and (1-10), with step velocities on (1-10) generally half of those measured on MSU (010) in corresponding growth conditions. Perpendicular step velocities on MSU (010) were obtained and also showed a second order polynomial dependence of step velocity with respect to urate supersaturation, which implies a 2D-island nucleation growth mechanism for MSU (010). Extensive topographical imaging of MSU (010) showed island adsorption from urate growth solutions under all urate solution concentrations investigated, lending further support for the determined growth mechanism. Island sizes derived from DLS experiments on growth solutions were in agreement with those measured on MSU (010) topographical images. Chemical force microscopy (CFM) was utilized to characterize the adhesive properties of MSU (010) and (1-10). AFM probes functionalized with amino acid derivatives and bio-macromolecules found in the synovial fluid were brought into contact with both crystal faces and adhesion forces were tabulated into

  5. 40 CFR 141.29 - Monitoring of consecutive public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Monitoring of consecutive public water systems. 141.29 Section 141.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical Requirements § 141.29 Monitoring of...

  6. Discovering the Thermodynamics of Simultaneous Equilibria: An Entropy Analysis Activity Involving Consecutive Equilibria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    An activity is presented in which the thermodynamics of simultaneous, consecutive equilibria are explored. The activity is appropriate for second-year high school or AP chemistry. Students discover that a reactant-favored (entropy-diminishing or endergonic) reaction can be caused to happen if it is coupled with a product-favored reaction of…

  7. Effects of Consecutive Wideband Tympanometry Trials on Energy Absorbance Measures of the Middle Ear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdiek, Laina M.; Sun, Xiao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) is a new technique for assessing middle ear transfer function. It includes energy absorbance (EA) measures and can be acquired with the ear canal pressure varied, known as "wideband tympanometry" (WBTymp). The authors of this study aimed to investigate effects of consecutive WBTymp testing on…

  8. La interpretacion consecutiva: metodologia y tecnicas (Consecutive Interpretation: Methodology and Techniques).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drallny, Ines

    1987-01-01

    Describes the purpose and appropriate methodology for various levels of interpreter training, for both consecutive and simultaneous interpretation. The importance of relating the intent of the text to the explicit language forms through which that intent is realized is discussed, and appropriate criteria for evaluation of student interpreters are…

  9. 40 CFR 141.29 - Monitoring of consecutive public water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of consecutive public water systems. 141.29 Section 141.29 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Monitoring and Analytical Requirements § 141.29 Monitoring of...

  10. The Effect of Three Consecutive Context Sentences on EFL Vocabulary-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Shahry, Mohammad Naseh Nasrollahy

    2011-01-01

    Investigations into the role of context have often failed to find a positive role for this in vocabulary learning. This study, following a line of research concerned with the role of context, adds to the literature by examining the effect of three consecutive context sentences instead of one. Thirty-three Iranian EFL learners were asked to learn…

  11. Bacterial flora of skin of processed broilers after consecutive washings in potassium hydroxide and lauric aid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteria on skin of processed broilers were enumerated after each of five consecutive washes in mixtures of potassium hydroxide and lauric acid. Breast skin was taken from carcasses obtained from a commercial processing facility, and skin was cut into 5 g samples. Portions of skin were washed using ...

  12. CONSECUTIVE SYSTEMS GUIDANCE MANUAL FOR THE STAGE 2 DISINFECTION BYPRODUCT RULE (DBPR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Description: This manual discusses requirements for consecutive systems (public water systems that receive fully treated water from other public water systems) to comply with Stage 2 DBPR monitoring and MCLs. Most previous drinking water rules, including the Stage 1 DBPR, have no...

  13. Compressive Cervicothoracic Adhesive Arachnoiditis following Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Rahmathulla, Gazanfar; Kamian, Kambiz

    2014-08-01

    We present the case of a 55-year-old woman with diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine following posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). She underwent aneurysm clipping with subsequent gradual neurologic decline associated with sensory disturbances, gait ataxia, and spastic paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse adhesive arachnoiditis in the posterior fossa and cervicothoracic spine, syringobulbia, and multiple arachnoid cysts in the cervicothoracic spine along with syringohydromyelia. Early surgical intervention with microlysis of the adhesions and duraplasty at the clinically relevant levels resulted in clinical improvement. Although adhesive arachnoiditis, secondary arachnoid cysts, and cerebrospinal fluid flow abnormalities resulting in syrinx are rare following aneurysmal SAH, early recognition and appropriate intervention lead to good clinical outcomes. PMID:25083391

  14. A preliminary discourse on adhesion of nanofibers derived from electrospun polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pei

    To bio-mimic gecko's foot hair, which possess high adhesion strength and can be re- usable for lifetime, fibrous membranes are fabricated by electrospinning to provide sufficient adhesion energy. Shaft-loaded blister test (SLBT) is firstly used to measure the work of adhesion between electrospun membrane and rigid substrate. Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) were electrospun with an average fiber diameter of 333+/-59 nm. Commercial cardboard with inorganic coating was used to provide a model substrate for adhesion tests. In SLBT, the elastic response PVDF was analyzed and its adhesion energy measured. FEA model with cohesive layer is developed to evaluate the experiment results. The results show SLBT presented a viable methodology for evaluating the adhesion energy of electrospun polymer fabrics. Electrospun membranes with different fiber diameter are tested for their distinctive adhesion property. Five sets of PVDF membranes with different fiber diameters (from 201 +/- 86 nm to 2724 +/- 587 nm) are electrospun for size effect evaluation. Obtaining testing results from SLBT adhesion test, adhesion energy ranges from 258.83 +/- 43.54 mJ/m2 to 8.06 +/- 0.71 mJ/m2. Significant size effect is observed, and electrospun membrane composing from finer fibers possesses greater adhesion energy. Thickness effect is also evaluated. By stacking multiple layers of electrospun membrane together, membrane samples with different thickness are produced. Test results illustrate thick membrane trends to debond easier than thin membrane. After considering the characteristic of electrospun membrane, the effect of substrate is also evaluated. One approach is made by substituting SiC substrates with different roughness for cardboard substrate. The grit size of the SiC substrates varies from 5 mum to 68 mum. A correlation between adhesion energy and mean peak and valley roughness (Rz) is established from mechanical interlocking theory. The other approach is comparing adhesion energies if

  15. Proteomic dataset of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organs and secreted adhesive.

    PubMed

    Lebesgue, Nicolas; da Costa, Gonçalo; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Ribeiro-Silva, Cristina; Martins, Gabriel G; Matranga, Valeria; Scholten, Arjen; Cordeiro, Carlos; Heck, Albert J R; Santos, Romana

    2016-06-01

    Sea urchins have specialized adhesive organs called tube feet, which mediate strong but reversible adhesion. Tube feet are composed by a disc, producing adhesive and de-adhesive secretions for substratum attachment, and a stem for movement. After detachment the secreted adhesive remains bound to the substratum as a footprint. Recently, a label-free quantitative proteomic approach coupled with the latest mass-spectrometry technology was used to analyze the differential proteome of Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organ, comparing protein expression levels in the tube feet adhesive part (the disc) versus the non-adhesive part (the stem), and also to profile the proteome of the secreted adhesive (glue). This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article "Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying sea urchin reversible adhesion: a quantitative proteomics approach" (Lebesgue et al., 2016) [1]. Here we provide a dataset of 1384 non-redundant proteins, their fragmented peptides and expression levels, resultant from the analysis of the tube feet differential proteome. Of these, 163 highly over-expressed tube feet disc proteins (>3-fold), likely representing the most relevant proteins for sea urchin reversible adhesion, were further annotated in order to determine the potential functions. In addition, we provide a dataset of 611 non-redundant proteins identified in the secreted adhesive proteome, as well as their functional annotation and grouping in 5 major protein groups related with adhesive exocytosis, and microbial protection. This list was further analyzed to identify the most abundant protein groups and pinpoint putative adhesive proteins, such as Nectin, the most abundant adhesive protein in sea urchin glue. The obtained data uncover the key proteins involved in sea urchins reversible adhesion, representing a step forward to the development of new wet-effective bio-inspired adhesives. PMID:27182547

  16. Proteomic dataset of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organs and secreted adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Lebesgue, Nicolas; da Costa, Gonçalo; Ribeiro, Raquel Mesquita; Ribeiro-Silva, Cristina; Martins, Gabriel G.; Matranga, Valeria; Scholten, Arjen; Cordeiro, Carlos; Heck, Albert J.R.; Santos, Romana

    2016-01-01

    Sea urchins have specialized adhesive organs called tube feet, which mediate strong but reversible adhesion. Tube feet are composed by a disc, producing adhesive and de-adhesive secretions for substratum attachment, and a stem for movement. After detachment the secreted adhesive remains bound to the substratum as a footprint. Recently, a label-free quantitative proteomic approach coupled with the latest mass-spectrometry technology was used to analyze the differential proteome of Paracentrotus lividus adhesive organ, comparing protein expression levels in the tube feet adhesive part (the disc) versus the non-adhesive part (the stem), and also to profile the proteome of the secreted adhesive (glue). This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article “Deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying sea urchin reversible adhesion: a quantitative proteomics approach” (Lebesgue et al., 2016) [1]. Here we provide a dataset of 1384 non-redundant proteins, their fragmented peptides and expression levels, resultant from the analysis of the tube feet differential proteome. Of these, 163 highly over-expressed tube feet disc proteins (>3-fold), likely representing the most relevant proteins for sea urchin reversible adhesion, were further annotated in order to determine the potential functions. In addition, we provide a dataset of 611 non-redundant proteins identified in the secreted adhesive proteome, as well as their functional annotation and grouping in 5 major protein groups related with adhesive exocytosis, and microbial protection. This list was further analyzed to identify the most abundant protein groups and pinpoint putative adhesive proteins, such as Nectin, the most abundant adhesive protein in sea urchin glue. The obtained data uncover the key proteins involved in sea urchins reversible adhesion, representing a step forward to the development of new wet-effective bio-inspired adhesives. PMID:27182547

  17. Experimental Investigation of Optimal Adhesion of Mushroomlike Elastomer Microfibrillar Adhesives.

    PubMed

    Marvi, Hamidreza; Song, Sukho; Sitti, Metin

    2015-09-22

    Optimal fiber designs for the maximal pull-off force have been indispensable for increasing the attachment performance of recently introduced gecko-inspired reversible micro/nanofibrillar adhesives. There are several theoretical studies on such optimal designs; however, due to the lack of three-dimensional (3D) fabrication techniques that can fabricate such optimal designs in 3D, there have not been many experimental investigations on this challenge. In this study, we benefitted from recent advances in two-photon lithography techniques to fabricate mushroomlike polyurethane elastomer fibers with different aspect ratios of tip to stalk diameter (β) and tip wedge angles (θ) to investigate the effect of these two parameters on the pull-off force. We found similar trends to those predicted theoretically. We found that β has an impact on the slope of the force-displacement curve while both β and θ play a role in the stress distribution and crack propagation. We found that these effects are coupled and the optimal set of parameters also depends on the fiber material. This is the first experimental verification of such optimal designs proposed for mushroomlike microfibers. This experimental approach could be used to evaluate a wide range of complex microstructured adhesive designs suggested in the literature and optimize them. PMID:26322396

  18. Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecules in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leshchyns'ka, Iryna

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative brain disorder associated with the loss of synapses between neurons in the brain. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules are cell surface glycoproteins which are expressed at the synaptic plasma membranes of neurons. These proteins play key roles in formation and maintenance of synapses and regulation of synaptic plasticity. Genetic studies and biochemical analysis of the human brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and sera from AD patients indicate that levels and function of synaptic cell adhesion molecules are affected in AD. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules interact with Aβ, a peptide accumulating in AD brains, which affects their expression and synaptic localization. Synaptic cell adhesion molecules also regulate the production of Aβ via interaction with the key enzymes involved in Aβ formation. Aβ-dependent changes in synaptic adhesion affect the function and integrity of synapses suggesting that alterations in synaptic adhesion play key roles in the disruption of neuronal networks in AD. PMID:27242933

  19. Adhesive curing through low-voltage activation

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Jianfeng; Gao, Feng; Chen, Jian Lin; Webster, Richard D.; Steele, Terry W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Instant curing adhesives typically fall within three categories, being activated by either light (photocuring), heat (thermocuring) or chemical means. These curing strategies limit applications to specific substrates and can only be activated under certain conditions. Here we present the development of an instant curing adhesive through low-voltage activation. The electrocuring adhesive is synthesized by grafting carbene precursors on polyamidoamine dendrimers and dissolving in aqueous solvents to form viscous gels. The electrocuring adhesives are activated at −2 V versus Ag/AgCl, allowing tunable crosslinking within the dendrimer matrix and on both electrode surfaces. As the applied voltage discontinued, crosslinking immediately terminated. Thus, crosslinking initiation and propagation are observed to be voltage and time dependent, enabling tuning of both material properties and adhesive strength. The electrocuring adhesive has immediate implications in manufacturing and development of implantable bioadhesives. PMID:26282730

  20. Mussel-Inspired Adhesives and Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce P.; Messersmith, P.B.; Israelachvili, J.N.; Waite, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    Mussels attach to solid surfaces in the sea. Their adhesion must be rapid, strong, and tough, or else they will be dislodged and dashed to pieces by the next incoming wave. Given the dearth of synthetic adhesives for wet polar surfaces, much effort has been directed to characterizing and mimicking essential features of the adhesive chemistry practiced by mussels. Studies of these organisms have uncovered important adaptive strategies that help to circumvent the high dielectric and solvation properties of water that typically frustrate adhesion. In a chemical vein, the adhesive proteins of mussels are heavily decorated with Dopa, a catecholic functionality. Various synthetic polymers have been functionalized with catechols to provide diverse adhesive, sealant, coating, and anchoring properties, particularly for critical biomedical applications. PMID:22058660

  1. [Prevention of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Revaux, A; Ducarme, G; Luton, D

    2008-03-01

    Intrauterine adhesions are the most frequent complications after hysteroscopic surgery in women of reproductive age. The prevalence of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopic surgery is correlated to intrauterine pathology (myoma, polyp, or adhesions). Few clinical trials have demonstrated the efficiency of barrier agents developed in order to prevent adhesions after operative hysteroscopy. Adhesion barriers are mechanic agent (intrauterine device), fluid agents (Seprafilm, Hyalobarrier) and postoperative systemic treatment (estroprogestative treatment). In this article, we evaluate the efficiency of these barrier agents for adhesion prevention in hysteroscopic surgery, undertaking a review of clinical trials published. The most frequent published studies evaluate the anatomic efficiency of antiadhesion agents after hysteroscopic surgery in order to evaluate the fertility. Data are still insufficient to evaluate them for clinical use. There is a need for other randomised controlled trials. PMID:18308609

  2. Adhesive bonding of carbon and ceramic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kravetskii, G.A.; Anikin, L.T.; Demin, A.V.; Butyrin, G.M.

    1995-12-01

    On the basis of phenol resins and high-melting powder fillers, adhesives for bonding carbon and ceramic materials have been developed at NIIGRAFIT that allow adhesively bonded parts to be used at temperatures as high as 1500 to 1800{degrees}C, Some properties of those adhesives are covered in. The present paper describes results of recent investigations of the heat- and corrosion-resistance of the NIIGRAFIT`s adhesives. As the subjects of investigations were taken adhesives differing in the powder filler composition. Moreover, one adhesive (SVK) was subjected to a preliminary heat treatment (1200{degrees}C, 1 h, Ar) to fully complete the interaction processes between powder components and a binder coke.

  3. Functionally Graded Adhesives for Composite Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stapleton, Scott E.; Waas, Anthony M.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Adhesives with functionally graded material properties are being considered for use in adhesively bonded joints to reduce the peel stress concentrations located near adherend discontinuities. Several practical concerns impede the actual use of such adhesives. These include increased manufacturing complications, alterations to the grading due to adhesive flow during manufacturing, and whether changing the loading conditions significantly impact the effectiveness of the grading. An analytical study is conducted to address these three concerns. An enhanced joint finite element, which uses an analytical formulation to obtain exact shape functions, is used to model the joint. Furthermore, proof of concept testing is conducted to show the potential advantages of functionally graded adhesives. In this study, grading is achieved by strategically placing glass beads within the adhesive layer at different densities along the joint.

  4. Adhesion and wear resistance of materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies into the nature of bonding at the interface between two solids in contact or a solid and deposited film have provided a better understanding of those properties important to the adhesive wear resistance of materials. Analytical and experimental progress are reviewed. For simple metal systems the adhesive bond forces are related to electronic wave function overlap. With metals in contact with nonmetals, molecular-orbital energy, and density of states, respectively can provide insight into adhesion and wear. Experimental results are presented which correlate adhesive forces measured between solids and the electronic surface structures. Orientation, surface reconstruction, surface segregation, adsorption are all shown to influence adhesive interfacial strength. The interrelationship between adhesion and the wear of the various materials as well as the life of coatings applied to substrates are discussed. Metallic systems addressed include simple metals and alloys and these materials in contact with themselves, both oxide and nonoxide ceramics, diamond, polymers, and inorganic coating compounds, h as diamondlike carbon.

  5. Bacterial Adhesion at Synthetic Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cunliffe, D.; Smart, C. A.; Alexander, C.; Vulfson, E. N.

    1999-01-01

    A systematic investigation into the effect of surface chemistry on bacterial adhesion was carried out. In particular, a number of physicochemical factors important in defining the surface at the molecular level were assessed for their effect on the adhesion of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. The primary experiments involved the grafting of groups varying in hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity, chain length, and chemical functionality onto glass substrates such that the surfaces were homogeneous and densely packed with functional groups. All of the surfaces were found to be chemically well defined, and their measured surface energies varied from 15 to 41 mJ · m−2. Protein adsorption experiments were performed with 3H-labelled bovine serum albumin and cytochrome c prior to bacterial attachment studies. Hydrophilic uncharged surfaces showed the greatest resistance to protein adsorption; however, our studies also showed that the effectiveness of poly(ethyleneoxide) (PEO) polymers was not simply a result of its hydrophilicity and molecular weight alone. The adsorption of the two proteins approximately correlated with short-term cell adhesion, and bacterial attachment for L. monocytogenes and E. coli also correlated with the chemistry of the underlying substrate. However, for S. aureus and S. typhimurium a different pattern of attachment occurred, suggesting a dissimilar mechanism of cell attachment, although high-molecular-weight PEO was still the least-cell-adsorbing surface. The implications of this for in vivo attachment of cells suggest that hydrophilic passivating groups may be the best method for preventing cell adsorption to synthetic substrates provided they can be grafted uniformly and in sufficient density at the surface. PMID:10543814

  6. Adhesive for solar control film

    SciTech Connect

    Penn, H.J.

    1984-01-31

    A water-activatable adhesive useful for adhering a solar film, polyester (polyethylene terephthalate) film, to glass or to metal substrates. The adhesive comprises the reacted product of (A) gamma-isocyanatopropyltriethoxy silane, containing a free isocyanate (NCO) group, and (B) a thermoplastic polyester formed by reacting (i) a dibasic acid selected from the group consisting of terephthalic acid, isophthalic acid and hexahydrophthalic acid, and mixtures thereof, with (ii) a polymethylene glycol of the formula HO(CH/sub 2/) /SUB x/ OH where x is an integer from 2 to 10, neopentyl glycol and glycerin, and mixtures thereof, and (iii) an aliphatic dibasic acid selected from the group consisting of those having the formula HOOC(CH/sub 2/) /SUB n/ COOH where n is an integer from 1 to 8, and mixtures of such acids, whereby substantially no free NCO remains in the adhesive. Solar film is used for absorbing and/or reflecting solar radiation. Solar film can be a single sheet of polyester dyed sufficiently to absorb the glare of bright sunlight, or it can be a single sheet of polyester, on one side of which a reflective metal (most often aluminum) is deposited in an amount which can be totally reflective or in an amount which still allows visible light transmission and over which a protective coating is deposited, or it can be a laminated structure of the reflective film adhered to a clear or dyed polyester film by which means the reflective metal is sandwiched between two layers of polyester film, or it can be a laminated structure of a reflective film to a polyolefin film.

  7. Improved Cure-in-Place Silicone Adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, C. E.; Sweet, J.; Gonzalez, R.

    1982-01-01

    Two improved cure-in-place silicone-elastomer-based adhesives have low thermal expansion and low thermal conductivity. Adhesives are flexible at low temperature and withstand high temperatures without disintegrating. New ablative compounds were initially developed for in-flight repair of insulating tile on Space Shuttle orbiter. Could find use in other applications requiring high-performance adhesives, such as sealants for solar collectors.

  8. Compound Charpy specimens by adhesive joining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoneim, M. M.; Hammad, F. H.; Pachur, D.; Britz, L.

    1992-03-01

    Compound (reconstituted) Charpy specimens were manufactured by an adhesive joining method in which each half of a previously tested specimen formed the central section of a new testpiece. 29 adhesives were screened to select the most suitable. Compound specimens were precracked and used as minature fracture mechanics specimens and tested in both 3-point static bending and impact. The results are in good agreement with those of conventional specimens. Recommendations for the most appropriate commercial adhesive for hot cell operations are given.

  9. Structural adhesives for missile external protection material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banta, F. L.; Garzolini, J. A.

    1981-07-01

    Two basic rubber materials are examined as possible external substrate protection materials (EPM) for missiles. The analysis provided a data base for selection of the optimum adhesives which are compatible with the substrate, loads applied and predicted bondline temperatures. Under the test conditions, EA934/NA was found to be the optimum adhesive to bond VAMAC 2273 and/or NBR/EPDM 9969A to aluminum substrate. The optimum adhesive for composite structures was EA956. Both of these adhesives are two-part epoxy systems with a pot life of approximately two hours. Further research is suggested on field repair criteria, nuclear hardness and survivability effects on bondline, and ageing effects.

  10. Computational Contact Formulations for Soft Body Adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Roger A.

    This article gives an overview of adhesive contact for soft bodies and focuses on a general computational framework that is suitable for treating a large class of adhesion problems. The contact formulation is based on a non-linear continuum approach that is capable of describing bodies down to length scales of several nanometers. Several finite element formulations are presented, that introduce various approximations in order to increase the computational efficiency. The approaches are illustrated by several examples throughout the text. These include carbon nanotube interaction, adhesion of spheres, nanoindentation, thin film peeling, gecko adhesion and self-cleaning surface mechanisms.

  11. Investigation of package sealing using organic adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    A systematic study was performed to evaluate the suitability of adhesives for sealing hybrid packages. Selected adhesives were screened on the basis of their ability to seal gold-plated Kovar butterfly-type packages that retain their seal integrity after individual exposures to increasingly severe temperature-humidity environments. Tests were also run using thermal shock, temperature cycling, mechanical shock and temperature aging. The four best adhesives were determined and further tested in a 60 C/98% RH environment and continuously monitored in regard to moisture content. Results are given, however, none of the tested adhesives passed all the tests.

  12. Denture Adhesives in Prosthodontics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P Ranjith; Shajahan, P A; Mathew, Jyothis; Koruthu, Anil; Aravind, Prasad; Ahammed, M Fazeel

    2015-01-01

    The use of denture adhesives is common among denture wearers, and it is also prescribed by many dentists. Prescribing denture adhesives has been viewed by many prosthodontists as a means of compensating for any defects in the fabrication procedures. Denture adhesives add to the retention and thereby improve chewing ability, reduce any instability, provide comfort and eliminate the accumulation of food debris beneath the dentures. Consequently, they increase the patient’s sense of security and satisfaction. However, obtaining the advice of the dental practitioner prior to the use of adhesives is a must. PMID:26225115

  13. Adhesion as a weapon in microbial competition

    PubMed Central

    Schluter, Jonas; Nadell, Carey D; Bassler, Bonnie L; Foster, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Microbes attach to surfaces and form dense communities known as biofilms, which are central to how microbes live and influence humans. The key defining feature of biofilms is adhesion, whereby cells attach to one another and to surfaces, via attachment factors and extracellular polymers. While adhesion is known to be important for the initial stages of biofilm formation, its function within biofilm communities has not been studied. Here we utilise an individual-based model of microbial groups to study the evolution of adhesion. While adhering to a surface can enable cells to remain in a biofilm, consideration of within-biofilm competition reveals a potential cost to adhesion: immobility. Highly adhesive cells that are resistant to movement face being buried and starved at the base of the biofilm. However, we find that when growth occurs at the base of a biofilm, adhesion allows cells to capture substratum territory and force less adhesive, competing cells out of the system. This process may be particularly important when cells grow on a host epithelial surface. We test the predictions of our model using the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae, which produces an extracellular matrix important for biofilm formation. Flow cell experiments indicate that matrix-secreting cells are highly adhesive and form expanding clusters that remove non-secreting cells from the population, as predicted by our simulations. Our study shows how simple physical properties, such as adhesion, can be critical to understanding evolution and competition within microbial communities. PMID:25290505

  14. Adhesive strength of autologous fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Hirozane, K; Kamiya, A

    2000-03-01

    To establish an easy and rapid method for measuring the adhesive strength of fibrin glue and to clarify the factor(s) most affecting the strength, a study was made on the effect of the concentration of plasma components on the strength of cryoprecipitate (Cryo) prepared from a subject's own autologous plasma to be used as fibrin glue. The adhesive strength of the Cryo was measured with various supporting materials instead of animal skin using a tester of tension and compression. The results were as follows: (1) the strength of Cryo applied to ground flat glass (4 cm2) was significantly greater than that applied to clear glass, clear plastic, or smooth and flat wood chips; (2) the adhesive strength of Cryo depended on the concentration of thrombin with the optimal concentration being 50 units/ml; (3) the concentration of CaCl2 did not affect the adhesive strength of Cryo; (4) the adhesive reaction was dependent on the temperature and the adhesive strength more quickly reached a steady state at 37 degrees C than at lower temperature; (5) the adhesive strength was correlated well with the total concentration of fibrinogen and fibronectin. These results indicate that the adhesive strength of Cryo can be easily and quickly evaluated using a tester and ground glass with thrombin at 50 units/ml, and that the adhesive strength of Cryo can be predicted from the total concentration of fibrinogen and fibronectin. PMID:10726885

  15. Effect of water absorption on pollen adhesion.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haisheng; Lizarraga, Leonardo; Bottomley, Lawrence A; Carson Meredith, J

    2015-03-15

    Pollens possess a thin liquid coating, pollenkitt, which plays a major role in adhesion by forming capillary menisci at interfaces. Unfortunately, the influence of humidity on pollenkitt properties and capillary adhesion is unknown. Because humidity varies widely in the environment, the answers have important implications for better understanding plant reproduction, allergy and asthma, and pollen as atmospheric condensation nuclei. Here, pollenkitt-mediated adhesion of sunflower pollen to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces was measured as a function of humidity. The results quantify for the first time the significant water absorption of pollenkitt and the resulting complex dependence of adhesion on humidity. On hydrophilic Si, adhesion increased with increasing RH for pollens with or without pollenkitt, up to 200nN at 70% RH. In contrast, on hydrophobic PS, adhesion of pollenkitt-free pollen is independent of RH. Surprisingly, when pollenkitt was present adhesion forces on hydrophobic PS first increased with RH up to a maximum value at 35% RH (∼160nN), and then decreased with further increases in RH. Independent measurement of pollenkitt properties is used with models of capillary adhesion to show that humidity-dependent changes in pollenkitt wetting and viscosity are responsible for this complex adhesion behavior. PMID:25524008

  16. The development of aerospace polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; St.clair, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    Few materials are available which can be used as aerospace adhesives at temperatures in the range of 300 C. The Materials Division at NASA-Langley Research Center developed several high temperature polyimide adhesives to fulfill the stringent needs of current aerospace programs. These adhesives are the result of a decade of basic research studies on the structure property relationships of both linear and addition aromatic polyimides. The development of both in house and commercially available polyimides is reviewed with regards to their potential for use as aerospace adhesives.

  17. Nucleation and growth of cadherin adhesions

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Mireille; Thoumine, Olivier; Brevier, Julien; Choquet, Daniel; Riveline, Daniel; Mege, Rene-Marc

    2007-11-15

    Cell-cell contact formation relies on the recruitment of cadherin molecules and their anchoring to actin. However, the precise chronology of events from initial cadherin trans-interactions to adhesion strengthening is unclear, in part due to the lack of access to the distribution of cadherins within adhesion zones. Using N-cadherin expressing cells interacting with N-cadherin coated surfaces, we characterized the formation of cadherin adhesions at the ventral cell surface. TIRF and RIC microscopies revealed streak-like accumulations of cadherin along actin fibers. FRAP analysis indicated that engaged cadherins display a slow turnover at equilibrium, compatible with a continuous addition and removal of cadherin molecules within the adhesive contact. Association of cadherin cytoplasmic tail to actin as well as actin cables and myosin II activity are required for the formation and maintenance of cadherin adhesions. Using time lapse microscopy we deciphered how cadherin adhesions form and grow. As lamellipodia protrude, cadherin foci stochastically formed a few microns away from the cell margin. Neo-formed foci coalesced aligned and coalesced with preformed foci either by rearward sliding or gap filling to form cadherin adhesions. Foci experienced collapse at the rear of cadherin adhesions. Based on these results, we present a model for the nucleation, directional growth and shrinkage of cadherin adhesions.

  18. Importance of loading and unloading procedures for gecko-inspired controllable adhesives.

    PubMed

    Tamelier, John; Chary, Sathya; Turner, Kimberly L

    2013-08-27

    The importance of loading and unloading procedures has been shown in a variety of different methods for biological dry adhesives, such as the fibers on the feet of the Tokay gecko, but biomimetic dry adhesives have yet to be explored in a similar manner. To date, little work has systematically varied multiple parameters to discern the influence of the testing procedure, and the effect of the approach angle remains uncertain. In this study, a synthetic adhesive is moved in 13 individual approach and retraction angles relative to a flat substrate as well as 9 different shear lengths to discern how loading and unloading procedures influence the preload, adhesion, and shear/friction forces supported. The synthetic adhesive, composed of vertical 10 μm diameter semicircular poly(dimethylsiloxane) fibers, is tested against a 4 mm diameter flat glass puck on a home-built microtribometer using both vertical approach and retraction tests and angled approach and retraction tests. The results show that near maximum adhesion and friction can be obtained for most approach and retraction angles, provided that a sufficient shear length is performed. The results also show that the reaction forces during adhesive placement can be significantly reduced by using specific approach angles, resulting for the vertical fibers in a 38-fold increase in the ratio of adhesion force to preload force, μ', when compared to that when using a vertical approach. These results can be of use to those currently researching gecko-inspired adhesives when designing their testing procedures and control algorithms for climbing and perching robots. PMID:23875720

  19. The effect of saliva decontamination procedures on dentin bond strength after universal adhesive curing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jayang; Hong, Sungok; Choi, Yoorina

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of multiple decontamination procedures for salivary contamination after curing of a universal adhesive on dentin bond strength according to its etch modes. Materials and Methods Forty-two extracted bovine incisors were trimmed by exposing the labial dentin surfaces and embedded in cylindrical molds. A universal adhesive (All-Bond Universal, Bisco) was used. The teeth were randomly divided into groups according to etch mode and decontamination procedure. The adhesive was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions for a given etch mode. With the exception of the control groups, the cured adhesive was contaminated with saliva for 20 sec. In the self-etch group, the teeth were divided into three groups: control, decontamination with rinsing and drying, and decontamination with rinsing, drying, and adhesive. In the etch-and-rinse group, the teeth were divided into four groups: control, decontamination with rinsing and drying, decontamination with rinsing, drying, and adhesive, and decontamination with rinsing, drying, re-etching, and reapplication of adhesive. A composite resin (Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE) was used for filling and was cured on the treated surfaces. Shear bond strength was measured, and failure modes were evaluated. The data were subjected to one-way analysis of variation and Tukey's HSD test. Results The etch-and-rinse subgroup that was decontaminated by rinse, drying, re-etching, and reapplication of adhesive showed a significantly higher bond strength. Conclusions When salivary contamination occurs after curing of the universal adhesive, additional etching improves the bond strength to dentin. PMID:26587416

  20. New developments for the investigation of hard X-rays emitted by peeling adhesive tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krämer, D.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Lühmann, B.; Keite-Telgenbüscher, K.; Frahm, R.

    2013-05-01

    We realized an advanced apparatus for the investigation of emitted X-rays produced by peeling adhesive tape rolls under vacuum conditions. Two stepper motors can unwind and rewind a tape roll, and an additional roller with an optical encoder provides measurement and control of the tape speed. This way reproducible and consecutive experiments are feasible without having to change the tape or break the vacuum. The dependence of the X-ray emission on tape speed, gas pressure, type of adhesive tape, and detector angle has been investigated. The resulting spectra are continuous and span an X-ray energy range of typically 2-60 keV with high intensity. Furthermore, the new apparatus allows the in situ metalization of adhesive tape rolls by a gold sputter source. A significantly increased X-ray emission was observed for adhesive tapes with a metal coating. Thin metal foils have been placed between the tape and the detector, different K- and L-absorption edges could be measured. A considerable enhancement of the emission was achieved under the influence of the magnetic field of an NdFeB permanent magnet.

  1. New developments for the investigation of hard X-rays emitted by peeling adhesive tapes.

    PubMed

    Krämer, D; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D; Lühmann, B; Keite-Telgenbüscher, K; Frahm, R

    2013-05-01

    We realized an advanced apparatus for the investigation of emitted X-rays produced by peeling adhesive tape rolls under vacuum conditions. Two stepper motors can unwind and rewind a tape roll, and an additional roller with an optical encoder provides measurement and control of the tape speed. This way reproducible and consecutive experiments are feasible without having to change the tape or break the vacuum. The dependence of the X-ray emission on tape speed, gas pressure, type of adhesive tape, and detector angle has been investigated. The resulting spectra are continuous and span an X-ray energy range of typically 2-60 keV with high intensity. Furthermore, the new apparatus allows the in situ metalization of adhesive tape rolls by a gold sputter source. A significantly increased X-ray emission was observed for adhesive tapes with a metal coating. Thin metal foils have been placed between the tape and the detector, different K- and L-absorption edges could be measured. A considerable enhancement of the emission was achieved under the influence of the magnetic field of an NdFeB permanent magnet. PMID:23742586

  2. Extended Maxwell Garnett formalism for composite adhesives for microwave-assisted adhesion of polymer surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shanker, B.; Lakhtakia, A. )

    1993-01-01

    Adhesives with dielectric loss are needed for microwave-assisted joining of polymeric substances. The dielectric loss in an otherwise suitable adhesive may be enhanced by doping it with fine metallic particles. Here we use a recently extended Maxwell Garnett formalism to estimate the complex dielectric constant of a metal-doped composite adhesive, with specific focus on the imaginary part of the dielectric constant of the composite adhesive. 14 refs.

  3. Misfit effects in adhesion calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitker, Jurgen; Srolovitz, David J.

    1998-03-01

    The work of adhesion of bimaterial interfaces is commonly computed using quantum mechanical methods in which the two materials are strained into coherency. There is no relaxation of the coherency by the formation of an array of interfacial misfit dislocations, contrary to what is commonly observed for essentially all systems other than very thin films. In this paper, we investigate the errors introduced into the work of adhesion associated with the assumption of coherency. Series of atomistic simulations in two and three dimensions are performed using a simple Lennard-Jones-type model potential. We demonstrate that the assumption of coherency introduces errors that increase rapidly with misfit (for small misfit) and can easily be of the order of several tens of percent. We trace the source of these errors to the neglect of the elastic fields of misfit dislocations and to the variation in the number of bonds per unit interfacial area with misfit when coherency is assumed. Suggestions are made to minimize and/or correct for this error.

  4. 21 CFR 175.125 - Pressure-sensitive adhesives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pressure-sensitive adhesives. 175.125 Section 175... Adhesives § 175.125 Pressure-sensitive adhesives. Pressure-sensitive adhesives may be safely used as the... prescribed conditions: (a) Pressure-sensitive adhesives prepared from one or a mixture of two or more of...

  5. Design and fabrication of polymer based dry adhesives inspired by the gecko adhesive system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Kejia

    There has been significant interest in developing dry adhesives mimicking the gecko adhesive system, which offers several advantages compared to conventional pressure sensitive adhesives. Specifically, gecko adhesive pads have anisotropic adhesion properties: the adhesive pads (spatulae) stick strongly when sheared in one direction but are non-adherent when sheared in the opposite direction. This anisotropy property is attributed to the complex topography of the array of fine tilted and curved columnar structures (setae) that bear the spatulae. In this thesis, easy, scalable methods, relying on conventional and unconventional techniques are presented to incorporate tilt in the fabrication of synthetic polymer-based dry adhesives mimicking the gecko adhesive system, which provide anisotropic adhesion properties. In the first part of the study, the anisotropic adhesion and friction properties of samples with various tilt angles to test the validity of a nanoscale tape-peeling model of spatular function are measured. Consistent with the Peel Zone model, samples with lower tilt angles yielded larger adhesion forces. Contact mechanics of the synthetic array were highly anisotropic, consistent with the frictional adhesion model and gecko-like. Based on the original design, a new design of gecko-like dry adhesives was developed which showed superior tribological properties and furthermore showed anisotropic adhesive properties without the need for tilt in the structures. These adhesives can be used to reversibly suspend weights from vertical surfaces (e.g., walls) and, for the first time to our knowledge, horizontal surfaces (e.g., ceilings) by simultaneously and judiciously activating anisotropic friction and adhesion forces. Furthermore, adhesion properties between artificial gecko-inspired dry adhesives and rough substrates with varying roughness are studied. The results suggest that both adhesion and friction forces on a rough substrate depends significantly on the

  6. Interfacial pH during mussel adhesive plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Martinez Rodriguez, Nadine R; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Mussel (Mytilus californianus) adhesion to marine surfaces involves an intricate and adaptive synergy of molecules and spatio-temporal processes. Although the molecules, such as mussel foot proteins (mfps), are well characterized, deposition details remain vague and speculative. Developing methods for the precise surveillance of conditions that apply during mfp deposition would aid both in understanding mussel adhesion and translating this adhesion into useful technologies. To probe the interfacial pH at which mussels buffer the local environment during mfp deposition, a lipid bilayer with tethered pH-sensitive fluorochromes was assembled on mica. The interfacial pH during foot contact with modified mica ranged from 2.2 to 3.3, which is well below the seawater pH of ~ 8. The acidic pH serves multiple functions: it limits mfp-Dopa oxidation, thereby enabling the catecholic functionalities to adsorb to surface oxides by H-bonding and metal ion coordination, and provides a solubility switch for mfps, most of which aggregate at pH ≥ 7-8. PMID:25875963

  7. Interfacial pH during mussel adhesive plaque formation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Nadine R. Martinez; Das, Saurabh; Kaufman, Yair; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Waite, J. Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Mussel (Mytilus californianus) adhesion to marine surfaces involves an intricate and adaptive synergy of molecules and spatio-temporal processes. Although the molecules, such as mussel foot proteins (mfps), are well characterized, deposition details remain vague and speculative. Developing methods for the precise surveillance of conditions that apply during mfp deposition would aid both in understanding mussel adhesion and translating this adhesion into useful technologies. To probe the interfacial pH at which mussels buffer the local environment during mfp deposition, a lipid bilayer with tethered pH-sensitive fluorochromes was assembled on mica. The interfacial pH during foot contact with modified mica ranged from 2.2−3.3, which is well below the seawater pH of ~8. The acidic pH serves multiple functions: it limits mfp-Dopa oxidation, thereby enabling the catecholic functionalities to adsorb to surface oxides by H-bonding and metal ion coordination, and provides a solubility switch for mfps, most of which aggregate at pH ≥ 7-8. PMID:25875963

  8. Effects of surface wettability on gecko adhesion underwater.

    PubMed

    Peng, Z L; Wang, C; Chen, S H

    2014-10-01

    Recent experiments have shown that gecko adhesion underwater depends significantly on surface wettability. Theoretical models of a gecko seta adhering on different substrates are firstly established in order to disclose such an adhesion mechanism. The results show that the capillary force induced by nano-bubbles between gecko seta and the substrate is the mainly influencing factor. The capillary force exhibits an attractive feature between gecko setae and hydrophobic surfaces underwater. However, it is extremely weak or even repulsive on hydrophilic surfaces underwater. A self-similarly splitting model is further considered to simulate multiple gecko setae on substrates underwater. It is interesting to find that the total capillary force depends significantly on the number of nano-bubble bridges and wettability of substrates. The total force is attractive and increases monotonically with the increase of the splitting number on hydrophobic substrates underwater. However, it decreases drastically or even becomes repulsive on hydrophilic substrates underwater. The present result can not only give a reasonable explanation on the existing experimental observations but also be helpful for the design of novel biomimetic adhesives. PMID:25139291

  9. Influence of consecutive picosecond pulses at 532 nm wavelength on laser ablation of human teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirdan, Balsam M.; Antonelli, Luca; Batani, Dimitri; Jafer, Rashida; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Tarazi, Saad al; Villa, Anna Maria; Vodopivec, Bruno; Volpe, Luca

    2014-07-01

    The interaction of 40 ps pulse duration laser emitting at 532 nm wavelength with human dental tissue (enamel, dentin, and dentin-enamel junction) has been investigated. The crater profile and the surface morphology have been studied by using a confocal auto-fluorescence microscope (working in reflection mode) and a scanning electron microscope. Crater profile and crater morphology were studied after applying consecutive laser pulses and it was found that the ablation depth increases with the number of consecutive pulses, leaving the crater diameter unchanged. We found that the thermal damage is reduced by using short duration laser pulses, which implies an increased retention of restorative material. We observe carbonization of the irradiated samples, which does not imply changes in the chemical composition. Finally, the use of 40 ps pulse duration laser may become a state of art in conservative dentistry.

  10. Micromechanical characterization of the interphase zone in adhesive joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safavi-Ardebili, Vahid

    The interphase in an epoxy-aluminum adhesive system has been characterized using acoustic microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ion etching, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and nano-indentation, with particular attention to micromechanical characterization. A systematic search method was proposed for locating an acoustic coupling fluid which had a sufficiently low velocity of sound and attenuation factor for the acoustic microscopy of polymers. A new acoustic microscope system was developed, which operated at a frequency of 250 MHz, and utilized an ultrasonic probe designed specifically for the characteristics of the new couplant. This acoustic microscope system is the first one being able to induce Rayleigh waves on the surface of plastics. A new angular spectrum formulation was introduced for a type-II acoustic microscope probe. No prior assumption, regarding the field on the aperture plane of the transducer, is needed in this new formulation. The angular spectrum model was extended to the case of a type-I probe in the presence of deviations of the lens shape from the ideal sphere as long as it remains axisymmetric. A multiple curve fitting procedure was used to infer the interphase property profiles by simultaneously fitting a large number of calculated V (z) curves to the experimental ones. The interphase was between 2 and 6 mum thick, and corresponded to a region of greater resistance to ion etching and a marked absence of the silica particles used in the epoxy adhesive. The acoustic microscope V(z) scans showed that the interphase had, on average, 20% larger values of tensile and shear moduli than the bulk, and smaller values of the shear attenuation factor and density than the bulk adhesive. Nano-indentation tests, traversing various sections of the interphase from the aluminum to the bulk adhesive, showed that the interphase region had, on average, a reduced elastic modulus (E/(1 - nu2)) that was 13% greater than that of the bulk adhesive. The

  11. Contamination of Ambient Air with Acinetobacter baumannii on Consecutive Inpatient Days.

    PubMed

    Shimose, Luis A; Doi, Yohei; Bonomo, Robert A; De Pascale, Dennise; Viau, Roberto A; Cleary, Timothy; Namias, Nicholas; Kett, Daniel H; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2015-07-01

    Acinetobacter-positive patients had their ambient air tested for up to 10 consecutive days. The air was Acinetobacter positive for an average of 21% of the days; the rate of contamination was higher among patients colonized in the rectum than in the airways (relative risk [RR], 2.35; P = 0.006). Of the 6 air/clinical isolate pairs available, 4 pairs were closely related according to rep-PCR results. PMID:25926496

  12. Consecutive Endovascular Treatment of 20 Ruptured Very Small (<3 mm) Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Asif, Kaiz S.; Sattar, Ahsan; Lazzaro, Marc A.; Fitzsimmons, Brian-Fred; Lynch, John R.; Zaidat, Osama O.

    2016-01-01

    Background Small aneurysms located at the anterior communicating artery carry significant procedural challenges due to a complex anatomy. Recent advances in endovascular technologies have expanded the use of coil embolization for small aneurysm treatment. However, limited reports describe their safety and efficacy profiles in very small anterior communicating artery aneurysms. Objective We sought to review and report the immediate and long-term clinical as well as radiographic outcomes of consecutive patients with ruptured very small anterior communicating artery aneurysms treated with current endovascular coil embolization techniques. Methods A prospectively maintained single-institution neuroendovascular database was accessed to identify consecutive cases of very small (<3 mm) ruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms treated endovascularly between 2006 and 2013. Results A total of 20 patients with ruptured very small (<3 mm) anterior communicating artery aneurysms were consecutively treated with coil embolization. The average maximum diameter was 2.66 ± 0.41 mm. Complete aneurysm occlusion was achieved for 17 (85%) aneurysms and near-complete aneurysm occlusion for 3 (15%) aneurysms. Intraoperative perforation was seen in 2 (10%) patients without any clinical worsening or need for an external ventricular drain. A thromboembolic event occurred in 1 (5 %) patient without clinical worsening or radiologic infarct. Median clinical follow-up was 12 (±14.1) months and median imaging follow-up was 12 (±18.4) months. Conclusion This report describes the largest series of consecutive endovascular treatments of ruptured very small anterior communicating artery aneurysms. These findings suggest that coil embolization of very small aneurysms in this location can be performed with acceptable rates of complications and recanalization. PMID:27610122

  13. Comparative Metaproteomic Analysis on Consecutively Rehmannia glutinosa-Monocultured Rhizosphere Soil

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Linkun; Lin, Rui; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2011-01-01

    Background The consecutive monoculture for most of medicinal plants, such as Rehmannia glutinosa, results in a significant reduction in the yield and quality. There is an urgent need to study for the sustainable development of Chinese herbaceous medicine. Methodology/Principal Findings Comparative metaproteomics of rhizosphere soil was developed and used to analyze the underlying mechanism of the consecutive monoculture problems of R. glutinosa. The 2D-gel patterns of protein spots for the soil samples showed a strong matrix dependency. Among the spots, 103 spots with high resolution and repeatability were randomly selected and successfully identified by MALDI TOF-TOF MS for a rhizosphere soil metaproteomic profile analysis. These proteins originating from plants and microorganisms play important roles in nutrient cycles and energy flow in rhizospheric soil ecosystem. They function in protein, nucleotide and secondary metabolisms, signal transduction and resistance. Comparative metaproteomics analysis revealed 33 differentially expressed protein spots in rhizosphere soil in response to increasing years of monoculture. Among them, plant proteins related to carbon and nitrogen metabolism and stress response, were mostly up-regulated except a down-regulated protein (glutathione S-transferase) involving detoxification. The phenylalanine ammonia-lyase was believed to participate in the phenylpropanoid metabolism as shown with a considerable increase in total phenolic acid content with increasing years of monoculture. Microbial proteins related to protein metabolism and cell wall biosynthesis, were up-regulated except a down-regulated protein (geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase) functioning in diterpenoid synthesis. The results suggest that the consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa changes the soil microbial ecology due to the exudates accumulation, as a result, the nutrient cycles are affected, leading to the retardation of plant growth and development. Conclusions

  14. Bilateral diffuse lamellar keratitis following consecutive selective laser trabeculoplasty in LASIK patient.

    PubMed

    Holz, Huck; Pirouzian, Amir

    2010-05-01

    A 48-year-old man with a history of myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) had selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) for the treatment of glaucoma in the right eye. He subsequently developed grade 2 diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK). He then elected to have SLT in the left eye and developed grade 1 DLK. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bilateral consecutive late postoperative DLK following SLT after LASIK. PMID:20457380

  15. Consecutive exotropia: why does it happen, and can medial rectus advancement correct it?

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Bhambi Gesite-de; Demer, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether consecutive exotropia following medial rectus muscle recession is associated with muscle slippage and to assess the effectiveness of treating the condition with medial rectus advancement. Methods The records of patients with consecutive exotropia after medial rectus recession were reviewed to determine medial rectus muscle insertion location at the time of advancement surgery. Measurements before and after medial rectus advancement were compared. Success was defined as alignment within 10Δ of orthotropia. The dose effect of medial rectus advancement was determined by nonlinear regression. Results A total of 20 patients were included. The mean age (± standard deviation) at time of surgery was 19 ± 19 years (range, 1.1–65.4). The mean preoperative exotropia was 28Δ ± 16Δ (range, 12Δ–60Δ). Medial rectus slippage of 2.5 ± 1.7 mm (range, 1.0–5.0 mm) was found in 14 patients (36%) who had previously undergone medial rectus recession. Surgery corrected about 4Δ of exotropia per mm total medial rectus advancement. Although 95% of patients were aligned successfully immediately after surgery, averaging 2Δ ± 4Δ esotropia, there was significant late exodrift, averaging 17Δ at final follow-up. At final follow-up, 1.6 ± 1.8 (range, 0.10–6.2) years after surgery, 50% of patients maintained alignment within 10Δ of orthotropia (mean, 3Δ ± 4Δ exotropia); the rest experienced recurrent exotropia of 25Δ ± 8Δ. Conclusions Medial rectus slippage is common in consecutive exotropia. Medial rectus advancement effectively treated consecutive exotropia, whether or not there was muscle slippage. It is however, associated with late exodrift; hence patients should be warned about potential for further XT recurrence. PMID:25454022

  16. Evaluation of progestogens for postoperative adhesion prevention.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, P J; Quigley, M M; Held, B

    1984-10-01

    Progesterone (P) has been shown to have potent antiinflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. Previous reports have suggested that the use of P decreases postoperative adhesion formation. To further evaluate the role of pharmacologic doses of progestogens in adhesion prevention, 42 mature New Zealand White rabbits underwent standardized injuries to the uterine horns, fimbriae, and pelvic peritoneum and received one of six treatments. Group S had intraperitoneal placement of normal saline (0.9%); group H received intraperitoneal placement of 32% dextran 70; group IM-P received intramuscular P-in-oil 10 days before and after laparotomy in addition to intraperitoneal saline; group IP-P had intraperitoneal placement of an aqueous P suspension; group DP received medroxyprogesterone acetate intraperitoneally; and group C received no intramuscular or intraperitoneal adhesion-prevention agents. The animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after laparotomy, and the adhesions were scored. Intraperitoneal saline (group S) significantly reduced the amount of adhesions when compared with the control group (C) (P less than 0.05). No significant difference was observed when group S was compared with group H. Intramuscular P added to saline (group IM-P) did not cause further reduction in adhesions when compared with group S. Both group IP-P and group DP had more adhesions than did group S (P less than 0.01). These data fail to support previous claims regarding adhesion prevention by the use of locally or parenterally administered progestogens. PMID:6237937

  17. Molecular Adhesion between Cartilage Extracellular Matrix Macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular adhesion between the major constituents of cartilage extracellular matrix, namely, the highly negatively charged proteoglycan aggrecan and the type II/IX/XI fibrillar collagen network, in simulated physiological conditions. Colloidal force spectroscopy was applied to measure the maximum adhesion force and total adhesion energy between aggrecan end-attached spherical tips (end radius R ≈ 2.5 μm) and trypsin-treated cartilage disks with undamaged collagen networks. Studies were carried out in various aqueous solutions to reveal the physical factors that govern aggrecan–collagen adhesion. Increasing both ionic strength and [Ca2+] significantly increased adhesion, highlighting the importance of electrostatic repulsion and Ca2+-mediated ion bridging effects. In addition, we probed how partial enzymatic degradation of the collagen network, which simulates osteoarthritic conditions, affects the aggrecan–collagen interactions. Interestingly, we found a significant increase in aggrecan–collagen adhesion even when there were no detectable changes at the macro- or microscales. It is hypothesized that the aggrecan–collagen adhesion, together with aggrecan–aggrecan self-adhesion, works synergistically to determine the local molecular deformability and energy dissipation of the cartilage matrix, in turn, affecting its macroscopic tissue properties. PMID:24491174

  18. Tensile and shear strength of adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stibolt, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    This experiment is conducted in a freshman-level course: Introduction to Engineering Materials. There are no prerequisites for the course although students should have some knowledge of basic algebra. The objectives are to tension and shear test adhesives and to determine the tensile and shear properties of adhesives. Details of equipment of procedure are given.

  19. Adhesion force studies of nanofibers and nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xing, Malcolm; Zhong, Wen; Xu, Xiuling; Thomson, Douglas

    2010-07-20

    Surface adhesion between nanofibers and nanoparticles has attracted attention for potential biomedical applications, but the measurement has not been reported. Adhesion forces were measured using a polystyrene (PS) nanoparticle attached to an atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip/probe. Electrospun PS nanofibers of different diameters were tapped with the probe to study the effect of fiber diameters on adhesion force. Both AFM experiments and numerical models suggest that the adhesion force increases with increased fiber diameters. Numerical models further demonstrated that local deformation of the fiber surface, including the flattening of surface asperities and the nanofiber wrapping around the particle during contact, may have a significant impact on the adhesion force. The adhesion forces are in the order of 100 nN, much smaller than the adhesion forces of the gecko foot hair, but much larger than that of the receptor-ligand pair, antibody-antigen pair, and single-stranded DNA from a substrate. Adhesion forces of nanofibers with roughness were predicted by numerical analysis. This study is expected to provide approaches and information useful in the design of nanomedicine and scaffold based on nanofibers for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:20552953

  20. Polyurethane adhesive with improved high temperature properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    A polyurethane resin with paste activator, capable of providing useful bond strengths over the temperature range of -184 C to 149 C, is described. The adhesive system has a pot life of over one hour. Tensile shear strength ratings are given for various adhesive formulations.

  1. Sticky fingers: Adhesive properties of human fingertips.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Marlene; Wiechert, Anke B; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2016-02-29

    Fingertip friction is a rather well studied subject. Although the phenomenon of finger stickiness is known as well, the pull-off force and the adhesive strength of human finger tips have never been previously quantified. For the first time, we provided here characterization of adhesive properties of human fingers under natural conditions. Human fingers can generate a maximum adhesive force of 15mN on a smooth surface of epoxy resin. A weak correlation of the adhesive force and the normal force was found on all test surfaces. Up to 300mN load, an increase of the normal force leads to an increase of the adhesive force. On rough surfaces, the adhesive strength is significantly reduced. Our data collected from untreated hands give also an impression of an enormous scattering of digital adhesion depending on a large set of inter-subject variability and time-dependent individual factors (skin texture, moisture level, perspiration). The wide inter- and intra-individual range of digital adhesion should be considered in developing of technical and medical products. PMID:26892897

  2. ISOLATION OF INTEGRIN-BASED ADHESION COMPLEXES

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Matthew C.; Humphries, Jonathan D.; Byron, Adam; Millon-Frémillon, Angelique; Robertson, Joseph; Paul, Nikki R.; Ng, Daniel H. J.; Askari, Janet A.; Humphries, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of cells with their extracellular environment is facilitated by cell surface adhesion receptors, such as integrins, which play important roles in both normal development and the onset of pathologies. Engagement of integrins with their ligands in the extracellular matrix, or counter receptors on other cells, initiates the intracellular assembly of a wide variety of proteins into adhesion complexes such as focal contacts, focal adhesions and fibrillar adhesions. The proteins recruited to these complexes mediate bidirectional signalling across the plasma membrane and as such help to coordinate and / or modulate the multitude of physical or chemical signals to which the cell is subjected. The protocols in this unit describe two approaches for the isolation or enrichment of proteins contained within integrin-associated adhesion complexes together with their local plasma membrane / cytosolic environments from cells in culture. In the first protocol integrin-associated adhesion structures are affinity isolated using microbeads coated with extracellular ligands or antibodies. The second protocol describes the isolation of ventral membrane preparations that are enriched for adhesion complex structures. The protocols permit the determination of adhesion complex components by subsequent downstream analysis by Western blotting or mass spectrometry. PMID:25727331

  3. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification....

  4. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification....

  5. 21 CFR 878.4380 - Drape adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drape adhesive. 878.4380 Section 878.4380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4380 Drape adhesive. (a) Identification....

  6. Adhesions and Adhesiolysis: The Role of Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kavic, Suzanne M.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Adhesions commonly result from abdominal and pelvic surgical procedures and may result in intestinal obstruction, infertility, chronic pain, or complicate subsequent operations. Laparoscopy produces less peritoneal trauma than does conventional laparotomy and may result in decreased adhesion formation. We present a review of the available data on laparoscopy and adhesion formation, as well as laparoscopic adhesiolysis. We also review current adjuvant techniques that may be used by practicing laparoscopists to prevent adhesion formation. Database: A Medline search using “adhesions,” “adhesiolysis,” and “laparoscopy” as key words was performed for English-language articles. Further references were obtained through cross-referencing the bibliography cited in each work. Discussion: The majority of studies indicate that laparoscopy may reduce postoperative adhesion formation relative to laparotomy. However, laparoscopy by itself does not appear to eliminate adhesions completely. A variety of adjuvant materials are available to surgeons, and the most recent investigation has demonstrated significant potential for intraperitoneal barriers. Newer technologies continue to evolve and should result in clinically relevant reductions in adhesion formation. PMID:12113430

  7. Adhesion mechanism of a gecko-inspired oblique structure with an adhesive tip for asymmetric detachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, Yu; Takahashi, Kunio; Sato, Chiaki

    2015-12-01

    An adhesion model of an oblique structure with an adhesive tip is proposed by considering a limiting stress for adhesion to describe the detachment mechanism of gecko foot hairs. When a force is applied to the root of the oblique structure, normal and shear stresses are generated at contact and the adhesive tip is detached from the surface when reaching the limiting stress. An adhesion criterion that considers both the normal and shear stresses is introduced, and the asymmetric detachment of the oblique structure is theoretically investigated. In addition, oblique beam array structures are manufactured, and an inclination effect of the structure on the asymmetric detachment is experimentally verified.

  8. Indo-Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Influences on Failed Consecutive Rainy Seasons over Eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, A.; Funk, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    Rainfall over eastern Africa (3S-12N; 40E-50E) is bimodal, with seasonal maxima during the "long rains" of March-April-May (MAM) and the "short rains" of October-November-December (OND). Below average precipitation during consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa can have devastating long-term impacts on water availability and agriculture. Here, we examine the forcing of drought during consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa by Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The forcing of eastern Africa precipitation and circulation by SSTs is tested using twelve ensemble simulations of a global weather forecast model forced by 1950-2010 observed global SSTs. Since the 1980s, Indo-Pacific SSTs have forced more frequent droughts spanning consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa. The increased frequency of dry conditions is linked to warming SSTs over the Indo-west Pacific and to a lesser degree to Pacific decadal variability. During MAM, long-term warming of tropical west Pacific SSTs from 1950-2010 has forced statistically significant precipitation reductions over eastern Africa. The warming west Pacific SSTs have forced changes in the regional lower tropospheric circulation by weakening the Somali Jet, which has reduced moisture and rainfall over the Horn of Africa. During OND, reductions in precipitation over recent decades are oftentimes overshadowed by strong year-to-year precipitation variability forced by the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  9. Effects of consecutive monoculture of Pseudostellaria heterophylla on soil fungal community as determined by pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linkun; Chen, Jun; Wu, Hongmiao; Wang, Juanying; Wu, Yanhong; Lin, Sheng; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Pseudostellaria heterophylla declines significantly. In this study, a three-year field experiment was conducted to identify typical growth inhibition effects caused by extended monoculturing of P. heterophylla. Deep pyrosequencing was used to examine changes in the structure and composition of soil fungal community along a three-year gradient of monoculture. The results revealed a distinct separation between the newly planted plot and the two-year, three-year monocultured plots. The Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were significantly higher in the two-year and three-year monoculture soils than in the newly planted soil. Consecutive monoculture of this plant led to a significant increase in relative abundance of Fusarium, Trichocladium and Myrothecium and Simplicillium, etc., but a significant decrease in the relative abundance of Penicillium. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed a significant increase in Fusarium oxysporum, an agent known to cause wilt and rot disease of P. heterophylla. Furthermore, phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth of pathogenic F. oxysporum. Overall, this study demonstrated that consecutive monoculture of P. heterophylla can alter the fungal community in the rhizosphere, including enrichment of host-specific pathogenic fungi at the expense of plant-beneficial fungi. PMID:27216019

  10. Effects of consecutive monoculture of Pseudostellaria heterophylla on soil fungal community as determined by pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Linkun; Chen, Jun; Wu, Hongmiao; Wang, Juanying; Wu, Yanhong; Lin, Sheng; Khan, Muhammad Umar; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Pseudostellaria heterophylla declines significantly. In this study, a three-year field experiment was conducted to identify typical growth inhibition effects caused by extended monoculturing of P. heterophylla. Deep pyrosequencing was used to examine changes in the structure and composition of soil fungal community along a three-year gradient of monoculture. The results revealed a distinct separation between the newly planted plot and the two-year, three-year monocultured plots. The Shannon and Simpson diversity indices were significantly higher in the two-year and three-year monoculture soils than in the newly planted soil. Consecutive monoculture of this plant led to a significant increase in relative abundance of Fusarium, Trichocladium and Myrothecium and Simplicillium, etc., but a significant decrease in the relative abundance of Penicillium. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed a significant increase in Fusarium oxysporum, an agent known to cause wilt and rot disease of P. heterophylla. Furthermore, phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth of pathogenic F. oxysporum. Overall, this study demonstrated that consecutive monoculture of P. heterophylla can alter the fungal community in the rhizosphere, including enrichment of host-specific pathogenic fungi at the expense of plant-beneficial fungi. PMID:27216019

  11. The empirical evaluation and examination of breechface markings on ten consecutively manufactured pistol slides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Sascha

    Previously published research and case studies exist pertaining to consecutively manufactured tool marks and the individuality of those markings on tools. This study seeked to assess the Association of Firearm and Tool Mark Examiners (AFTE) Theory of Identification and provide additional research into the investigation of characteristics potentially viewed on the breechfaces of pistol slides. The researcher obtained ten consecutively manufactured Ruger LCP .380 Auto slides for examination. The tool marks exhibited on the breechfaces were macroscopically examined, evaluated in terms of potential for the transfer of subclass characteristics, and examined for the presence of individual characteristics. This research indicated whether breechface markings were accorded to their respective slide or if misidentification by examiners was possible. The first phase of this study was in further validating the AFTE Theory of Identification through generation of a test for AFTE members. This test required examiners to distinguish between subclass and individual characteristics, identify cartridge cases to their respective slide, and determine whether there was potential for misidentification of breechface markings due to subclass carryover. The second phase observed the differences and similarities of examiner ability and IBISRTM BRASSTRAX-3D(TM) ability to identify cartridge cases. This study might also function as a test for firearm and tool mark examiners to utilize in their laboratories as a training exercise related to consecutively manufactured breechfaces. The research findings might also facilitate the development of error rates pertaining to this study.

  12. Interhypothalamic Adhesion in a 9-Month-Old Male with Cleft Palate

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Matthew T.; Angel, Jacqueline D. S.

    2013-01-01

    A 9-month-old male infant with multiple congenital anomalies including cleft lip and palate was referred to us for a brain MR to exclude additional intracranial abnormalities. Imaging revealed an interhypothalamic adhesion, which we present as a possible forme fruste of holoprosencephaly. PMID:24368961

  13. Adhesion hysteresis of silane coated microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    DE BOER,MAARTEN P.; KNAPP,JAMES A.; MICHALSKE,TERRY A.; SRINIVASAN,U.; MABOUDIAN,R.

    2000-04-17

    The authors have developed a new experimental approach for measuring hysteresis in the adhesion between micromachined surfaces. By accurately modeling the deformations in cantilever beams that are subject to combined interfacial adhesion and applied electrostatic forces, they determine adhesion energies for advancing and receding contacts. They draw on this new method to examine adhesion hysteresis for silane coated micromachined structures and found significant hysteresis for surfaces that were exposed to high relative humidity (RH) conditions. Atomic force microscopy studies of these surfaces showed spontaneous formation of agglomerates that they interpreted as silages that have irreversibly transformed from uniform surface layers at low RH to isolated vesicles at high RH. They used contact deformation models to show that the compliance of these vesicles could reasonably account for the adhesion hysteresis that develops at high RH as the surfaces are forced into contact by an externally applied load.

  14. Coating to enhance metal-polymer adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathi, A.; Mahulikar, D.

    1996-12-31

    An ultra-thin electroplated coating has been developed to enhance adhesion of metals to polymers. The coating was developed for microelectronic packaging applications where it greatly improves adhesion of metal leadframes to plastic molding compounds. Recent tests show that the coating enhances adhesion of different metals to other types of adhesives as well and may thus have wider applicability. Results of adhesion tests with this coating, as well as its other characteristics such as corrosion resistance, are discussed. The coating is a very thin transparent electroplated coating containing zinc and chromium. It has been found to be effective on a variety of metal surfaces including copper alloys, Fe-Ni alloys, Al alloys, stainless steel, silver, nickel, Pd/Ni and Ni-Sn. Contact resistance measurements show that the coating has little or no effect on electrical resistivity.

  15. Critical length scale controls adhesive wear mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Aghababaei, Ramin; Warner, Derek H.; Molinari, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    The adhesive wear process remains one of the least understood areas of mechanics. While it has long been established that adhesive wear is a direct result of contacting surface asperities, an agreed upon understanding of how contacting asperities lead to wear debris particle has remained elusive. This has restricted adhesive wear prediction to empirical models with limited transferability. Here we show that discrepant observations and predictions of two distinct adhesive wear mechanisms can be reconciled into a unified framework. Using atomistic simulations with model interatomic potentials, we reveal a transition in the asperity wear mechanism when contact junctions fall below a critical length scale. A simple analytic model is formulated to predict the transition in both the simulation results and experiments. This new understanding may help expand use of computer modelling to explore adhesive wear processes and to advance physics-based wear laws without empirical coefficients. PMID:27264270

  16. [Adhesive and hemagglutinating properties of lactobacilli].

    PubMed

    Brilis, V I; Brilene, T A; Lentsner, Kh P; Lentsner, A A

    1982-09-01

    The study of the adhesive and hemagglutinating properties of the strains of different Lactobacillus species isolated from the human digestive tract and sour milk products were carried out. 49 strains of 9 Lactobacillus species were studied; of these, 10 strains had been isolated from saliva, 11 strains from feces, 7 strains from milk and 5 strains from sour cream. 11 collection strains and 2 strains used in the production of lactobacterin served as controls. Adhesion was studied in vitro on human red blood cells used as a model. Red blood cells used in the experiments had been taken from 23 donors aged 25-52 years. Lactobacilli were found to have certain inter and intraspecific differences in their adhesiveness. The adhesiveness of the lactobacilli isolated from human feces was considerably greater than that of the strains isolated from sour milk products and of the collection strains. Only the strains of lactobacilli with low adhesiveness possessed pronounced hemagglutinating properties. PMID:7148229

  17. Critical length scale controls adhesive wear mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Aghababaei, Ramin; Warner, Derek H; Molinari, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    The adhesive wear process remains one of the least understood areas of mechanics. While it has long been established that adhesive wear is a direct result of contacting surface asperities, an agreed upon understanding of how contacting asperities lead to wear debris particle has remained elusive. This has restricted adhesive wear prediction to empirical models with limited transferability. Here we show that discrepant observations and predictions of two distinct adhesive wear mechanisms can be reconciled into a unified framework. Using atomistic simulations with model interatomic potentials, we reveal a transition in the asperity wear mechanism when contact junctions fall below a critical length scale. A simple analytic model is formulated to predict the transition in both the simulation results and experiments. This new understanding may help expand use of computer modelling to explore adhesive wear processes and to advance physics-based wear laws without empirical coefficients. PMID:27264270

  18. Critical length scale controls adhesive wear mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghababaei, Ramin; Warner, Derek H.; Molinari, Jean-Francois

    2016-06-01

    The adhesive wear process remains one of the least understood areas of mechanics. While it has long been established that adhesive wear is a direct result of contacting surface asperities, an agreed upon understanding of how contacting asperities lead to wear debris particle has remained elusive. This has restricted adhesive wear prediction to empirical models with limited transferability. Here we show that discrepant observations and predictions of two distinct adhesive wear mechanisms can be reconciled into a unified framework. Using atomistic simulations with model interatomic potentials, we reveal a transition in the asperity wear mechanism when contact junctions fall below a critical length scale. A simple analytic model is formulated to predict the transition in both the simulation results and experiments. This new understanding may help expand use of computer modelling to explore adhesive wear processes and to advance physics-based wear laws without empirical coefficients.

  19. Adhesion, friction and micromechanical properties of ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1988-01-01

    The adhesion, friction, and micromechanical properties of ceramics, both in monolithic and coating form, are reviewed. Ceramics are examined in contact with themselves, other harder materials, and metals. For the simplicity of discussion, the tribological properties of concern in the processes are separated into two parts. The first part discusses the pull-off force (adhesion) and the shear force required to break the interfacial junctions between contacting surfaces. The role of chemical bonding in adhesion and friction, and the effects of surface contaminant films and temperature on tribological response with respect to adhesion and friction are discussed. The second part deals with abrasion of ceramics. Elastic, plastic, and fracture behavior of ceramics in solid state contact is discussed. The scratch technique of determining the critical load needed to fracture interfacial adhesive bonds of ceramic deposited on substrates is also addressed.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... adhesion deficiency type 1 leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 is a disorder that causes the immune system ...

  1. Adhesion Awareness: A National Survey of Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Schreinemacher, Marc H. F.; ten Broek, Richard P.; Bakkum, Erica A.; van Goor, Harry

    2010-01-01

    Background Postoperative adhesions are the most frequent complication of abdominal surgery, leading to high morbidity, mortality, and costs. However, the problem seems to be neglected by surgeons for largely unknown reasons. Methods A survey assessing knowledge and personal opinion about the extent and impact of adhesions was sent to all Dutch surgeons and surgical trainees. The informed-consent process and application of antiadhesive agents were questioned in addition. Results The response rate was 34.4%. Two thirds of all respondents (67.7%) agreed that adhesions exert a clinically relevant, negative effect. A negative perception of adhesions correlated with a positive attitude regarding adhesion prevention (ρ = 0.182, p < 0.001). However, underestimation of the extent and impact of adhesions resulted in low knowledge scores (mean test score 37.6%). Lower scores correlated with more uncertainty about indications for antiadhesive agents which, in turn, correlated with never having used any of these agents (ρ = 0.140, p = 0.002; ρ = 0.095, p = 0.035; respectively). Four in 10 respondents (40.9%) indicated that they never inform patients on adhesions and only 9.8% informed patients routinely. A majority of surgeons (55.9%) used antiadhesive agents in the past, but only a minority (13.4%) did in the previous year. Of trainees, 82.1% foresaw an increase in the use of antiadhesive agents compared to 64.5% of surgeons (p < 0.001). Conclusions The magnitude of the problem of postoperative adhesions is underestimated and informed consent is provided inadequately by Dutch surgeons. Exerting adhesion prevention is related to the perception of and knowledge about adhesions. PMID:20814678

  2. Therapeutic polymers for dental adhesives: Loading resins with bio-active components

    PubMed Central

    Imazato, Satoshi; Ma, Sai; Chen, Ji-hua; Xu, Hockin H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Many recent adhesives on the market exhibit reasonable clinical performance. Future innovations in adhesive materials should therefore seek out novel properties rather than simply modifying existing technologies. It is proposed that adhesive materials that are “bio-active” could contribute to better prognosis of restorative treatments. Methods This review examines the recent approaches used to achieve therapeutic polymers for dental adhesives by incorporating bio-active components. A strategy to maintain adhesive restorations is the focus of this paper. Results Major trials on therapeutic dental adhesives have looked at adding antibacterial activities or remineralization effects. Applications of antibacterial resin monomers based on quaternary ammonium compounds have received much research attention, and the loading of nano-sized bioactive particles or multiple ion-releasing glass fillers have been perceived as advantageous since they are not expected to influence the mechanical properties of the carrier polymer. Significance The therapeutic polymer approaches described here have the potential to provide clinical benefits. However, not many technological applications in this category have been successfully commercialized. Clinical evidence as well as further advancement of these technologies can be a driving force to make these new types of materials clinically available. PMID:23899387

  3. Photo-crosslinking, bio-inspired terpolymer adhesives intended for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Tristan

    A bio-inspired, modular terpolymer adhesive has been synthesized containing three different functionalities: a photocrosslinking segment, wet adhesion segment, and a water soluble segment. Wet adhesion is brought on by an amino acid from mussel byssal plaques called 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl--L-alanine, which has been known to generate strong bonding under wet conditions. The photocrosslinking segment consists of an anthracene based monomer used for mechanical fortification of polymer chains. The water soluble segment consists of poly(acrylic acid), which has been known to increase water solubility of polymers and increase adhesion strength of adhesives. The terpolymer was designed to easily applicable using biologically friendly solvents including water and ethanol. Structural design was confirmed by NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Reversible cycloaddition reactions were executed using a handheld UV lamp along with a photoreactor. Molecular weight increases were seen from 4.120 x 104 Da to 7.429 x 104 Da. Lap shear strength testing showed effects of UV exposure through increases in adhesion energy above 450%. Multiple application variables were tested to determine optimal conditions, such as solvent, concentration, and substrate. Currently, optimal conditions show a 1:1 weight ratio of polymer:solvent in water for all surfaces.

  4. Generation of Shear Adhesion Map Using SynVivo Synthetic Microvascular Networks

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ashley M.; Prabhakarpandian, Balabhaskar; Pant, Kapil

    2014-01-01

    Cell/particle adhesion assays are critical to understanding the biochemical interactions involved in disease pathophysiology and have important applications in the quest for the development of novel therapeutics. Assays using static conditions fail to capture the dependence of adhesion on shear, limiting their correlation with in vivo environment. Parallel plate flow chambers that quantify adhesion under physiological fluid flow need multiple experiments for the generation of a shear adhesion map. In addition, they do not represent the in vivo scale and morphology and require large volumes (~ml) of reagents for experiments. In this study, we demonstrate the generation of shear adhesion map from a single experiment using a microvascular network based microfluidic device, SynVivo-SMN. This device recreates the complex in vivo vasculature including geometric scale, morphological elements, flow features and cellular interactions in an in vitro format, thereby providing a biologically realistic environment for basic and applied research in cellular behavior, drug delivery, and drug discovery. The assay was demonstrated by studying the interaction of the 2 µm biotin-coated particles with avidin-coated surfaces of the microchip. The entire range of shear observed in the microvasculature is obtained in a single assay enabling adhesion vs. shear map for the particles under physiological conditions. PMID:24893648

  5. A metal–ion-responsive adhesive material via switching of molecular recognition properties

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takashi; Takashima, Yoshinori; Hashidzume, Akihito; Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Harada, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Common adhesives stick to a wide range of materials immediately after they are applied to the surfaces. To prevent indiscriminate sticking, smart adhesive materials that adhere to a specific target surface only under particular conditions are desired. Here we report a polymer hydrogel modified with both β-cyclodextrin (βCD) and 2,2′-bipyridyl (bpy) moieties (βCD–bpy gel) as a functional adhesive material responding to metal ions as chemical stimuli. The adhesive property of βCD–bpy gel based on interfacial molecular recognition is expressed by complexation of metal ions to bpy that controlled dissociation of supramolecular cross-linking of βCD–bpy. Moreover, adhesion of βCD–bpy gel exhibits selectivity on the kinds of metal ions, depending on the efficiency of metal–bpy complexes in cross-linking. Transduction of two independent chemical signals (metal ions and host–guest interactions) is achieved in this adhesion system, which leads to the development of highly orthogonal macroscopic joining of multiple objects. PMID:25099995

  6. Investigation of Biological Adhesives and Polyurea Crosslinked Silica-Based Aerogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Laura; Cauble, Meagan; Cole, Judith; Sabri, Firouzeh

    2009-11-01

    One of the key steps towards developing new technology for nerve repair is to look at the interaction mechanism and strength of biological components with the material under investigation. The existing technology for peripheral nerve repair relies on suturing techniques for attaching and immobilization of the implant. It is also limited to connecting two nerve components only, through a cylindrical-shaped unit which we will refer to as 1-D. The focus of our work is to develop an aerogel-based printed circuit board (PCB) system for precise guidance of multiple (n-D) neuronal components, simultaneously. Here we report on the adhesion strength of sciatic nerve segments removed from cadaver Sprague Dawley rats and the surface of treated and untreated polyurea cross-linked silica-based aerogels. The adhesion strength of the nerve to the aerogel surface was studied under varying environmental conditions as well as surface coating types. The coatings tested were basement membrane extract (BME), Cell Tak, and the combination. Since the mechanism of adhesion to cells and other surfaces is different and non-competing for BME and Cell Tak it is expected that a stronger adhesion should be accomplished by combining these two adhesives. The effect of temperature, nerve elasticity, and ionic concentration on the strength of adhesion was investigated also and will be reported.

  7. Nuclear transport of paxillin depends on focal adhesion dynamics and FAT domains

    PubMed Central

    Sathe, Aneesh R.; Shivashankar, G. V.; Sheetz, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The nuclear transport of paxillin appears to be crucial for paxillin function but the mechanism of transport remains unclear. Here, we show that the nuclear transport of paxillin is regulated by focal adhesion turnover and the presence of FAT domains. Focal adhesion turnover was controlled using triangular or circular fibronectin islands. Circular islands caused higher focal adhesion turnover and increased the nuclear transport of paxillin relative to triangular islands. Mutating several residues of paxillin had no effect on its nuclear transport, suggesting that the process is controlled by multiple domains. Knocking out FAK (also known as PTK2) and vinculin caused an increase in nuclear paxillin. This could be reversed by rescue with wild-type FAK but not by FAK with a mutated FAT domain, which inhibits paxillin binding. Expressing just the FAT domain of FAK not only brought down nuclear levels of paxillin but also caused a large immobile fraction of paxillin to be present at focal adhesions, as demonstrated by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies. Taken together, focal adhesion turnover and FAT domains regulate the nuclear localization of paxillin, suggesting a possible role for transcriptional control, through paxillin, by focal adhesions. PMID:27068537

  8. Aquaporin-4 Immuneglobulin G Testing in 36 Consecutive Jamaican Patients with Inflammatory Central Nervous System Demyelinating Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sandy, Sherri; Seemungal, Terence A.R.; Ali, Amza

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) in Jamaica are lacking. Here we reviewed the clinical records of 700 patients undergoing neurological evaluation at the Kingston Public Hospital, the largest tertiary institution in Jamaica over a 4 month period. We investigated the diagnostic utility of Aquaporin-4 ImmuneglobulinG (AQP4-IgG) testing in 36 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of an inflammatory demyelinating disorder (IDD) of the central nervous system (CNS). Patients were classified into 3 categories: i) NMO, n=10; ii) multiple sclerosis (MS), n=14 and iii) unclassified IDD (n=12). All sera were tested for AQP-IgG status by cell binding assay (Euroimmun). No MS cases were positive. Ninety per cent of NMO cases were positive. Four of 12 patients with unclassified IDD tested positive for AQP4-IgG. AQP4-IgG seropositivity was associated with a lower socioeconomic status, higher EDSS (P=0.04) and lower pulmonary function than the seronegative cases (P=0.007). Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity may account for a significant proportion of Jamaican CNS IDDs. PMID:25309712

  9. Deep UV patterning of acrylic masters for molding biomimetic dry adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameoto, D.; Menon, C.

    2010-11-01

    We present a novel fabrication method for the production of biomimetic dry adhesives that allows enormous variation in fiber shapes and sizes. The technology is based on deep-UV patterning of commercial acrylic with semi-collimated light available from germicidal lamps, and combined careful processing conditions, material selection and novel developer choices to produce relatively high-aspect-ratio fibers with overhanging caps on large areas. These acrylic fibers are used as a master mold for subsequent silicone rubber negative mold casting. Because the bulk acrylic demonstrates little inherent adhesion to silicone rubbers, the master molds created in this process do not require any surface treatments to achieve high-yield demolding of interlocked structures. Multiple polymers can be cast from silicone rubber negative molds and this process could be used to structure smart materials on areas over multiple square feet. Using direct photopatterning of acrylic allows many of the desired structures for biomimetic dry adhesives to be produced with relative ease compared to silicon-based molding processes, including angled fibers and hierarchical structures. Optimized fiber shapes for a variety of polymers can be produced using this process, and adhesion measurements on a well-characterized polyurethane, ST-1060, are used to determine the effect of fiber geometry on adhesion performance.

  10. Application of chemometrics methods with kinetic constraints for estimation of rate constants of second order consecutive reactions.

    PubMed

    Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen; Khoshkam, Maryam

    2008-05-01

    To determine the rate constants for the second order consecutive reactions of the form U + V -(k1)--> W -(k2)--> P, a number of chemometrics and hard modeling-based methods are described. The absorption spectroscopic data from the reaction were utilized for performing the analysis. Concentrations and extinctions of components were comparable, and all of them were absorbing species. The number of steps in the reaction was less than the number of absorbing species, which resulted in a rank-deficient response matrix. This can cause difficulties for some of the methods described in the literature. The standard MATLAB functions were used for determining the solutions of the differential equations as well as for finding the optimal rate constants to describe the kinetic profiles. The available knowledge about the system determines the approaches described in this paper. The knowledge includes the spectra of reactants and products, the initial concentrations, and the exact kinetics. Some of this information is sometimes not available or is hard to estimate. Multiple linear regression for fitting the kinetic parameters to the obtained concentration profiles, rank augmentation using multiple batch runs, a mixed spectral approach which treats the reaction using a pseudo species concept, and principal components regression are the four groups of methods discussed in this study. In one of the simulated datasets the spectra are quite different, and in the other one the spectra of one reactant and of the product share a high degree of overlap. Instrumental noise, sampling error are the sources of error considered. Our aim was the investigation of the relative merits of each method. PMID:18469471

  11. A protein interaction map for cell-cell adhesion regulators identifies DUSP23 as a novel phosphatase for β-catenin

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos, Lisa Leon; Ng, Mei Rosa; Sowa, Mathew E.; Selfors, Laura M.; White, Anne; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Singh, Pragya; Dhakal, Sabin; Harper, J. Wade; Brugge, Joan S.

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion is central to morphogenesis and maintenance of epithelial cell state. We previously identified 27 candidate cell-cell adhesion regulatory proteins (CCARPs) whose down-regulation disrupts epithelial cell-cell adhesion during collective migration. Using a protein interaction mapping strategy, we found that 18 CCARPs link to core components of adherens junctions or desmosomes. We further mapped linkages between the CCARPs and other known cell-cell adhesion proteins, including hits from recent screens uncovering novel components of E-cadherin adhesions. Mechanistic studies of one novel CCARP which links to multiple cell-cell adhesion proteins, the phosphatase DUSP23, revealed that it promotes dephosphorylation of β-catenin at Tyr 142 and enhances the interaction between α- and β-catenin. DUSP23 knockdown specifically diminished adhesion to E-cadherin without altering adhesion to fibronectin matrix proteins. Furthermore, DUSP23 knockdown produced “zipper-like” cell-cell adhesions, caused defects in transmission of polarization cues, and reduced coordination during collective migration. Thus, this study identifies multiple novel connections between proteins that regulate cell-cell interactions and provides evidence for a previously unrecognized role for DUSP23 in regulating E-cadherin adherens junctions through promoting the dephosphorylation of β-catenin. PMID:27255161

  12. Peritoneal adhesions after laparoscopic gastrointestinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Mais, Valerio

    2014-01-01

    Although laparoscopy has the potential to reduce peritoneal trauma and post-operative peritoneal adhesion formation, only one randomized controlled trial and a few comparative retrospective clinical studies have addressed this issue. Laparoscopy reduces de novo adhesion formation but has no efficacy in reducing adhesion reformation after adhesiolysis. Moreover, several studies have suggested that the reduction of de novo post-operative adhesions does not seem to have a significant clinical impact. Experimental data in animal models have suggested that CO2 pneumoperitoneum can cause acute peritoneal inflammation during laparoscopy depending on the insufflation pressure and the surgery duration. Broad peritoneal cavity protection by the insufflation of a low-temperature humidified gas mixture of CO2, N2O and O2 seems to represent the best approach for reducing peritoneal inflammation due to pneumoperitoneum. However, these experimental data have not had a significant impact on the modification of laparoscopic instrumentation. In contrast, surgeons should train themselves to perform laparoscopy quickly, and they should complete their learning curves before testing chemical anti-adhesive agents and anti-adhesion barriers. Chemical anti-adhesive agents have the potential to exert broad peritoneal cavity protection against adhesion formation, but when these agents are used alone, the concentrations needed to prevent adhesions are too high and could cause major post-operative side effects. Anti-adhesion barriers have been used mainly in open surgery, but some clinical data from laparoscopic surgeries are already available. Sprays, gels, and fluid barriers are easier to apply in laparoscopic surgery than solid barriers. Results have been encouraging with solid barriers, spray barriers, and gel barriers, but they have been ambiguous with fluid barriers. Moreover, when barriers have been used alone, the maximum protection against adhesion formation has been no greater than

  13. Introduction of p130cas signaling complex formation upon integrin-mediated cell adhesion: a role for Src family kinases.

    PubMed Central

    Vuori, K; Hirai, H; Aizawa, S; Ruoslahti, E

    1996-01-01

    Integrin-mediated cell adhesion triggers intracellular signaling cascades, including tyrosine phosphorylation of intracellular proteins. Among these are the focal adhesion proteins p130cas (Cas) and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Here we identify the kinase(s) mediating integrin-induced Cas phosphorylation and characterize protein-protein interactions mediated by phosphorylated Cas. We found that expression of a constitutively active FAK in fibroblasts results in a consecutive tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas. This effect required the autophosphorylation site of FAK, which is a binding site for Src family kinases. Integrin-mediated phosphorylation of Cas was not, however, compromised in fibroblasts lacking FAK. In contrast, adhesion-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas was reduced in cells lacking Src, whereas enhanced phosphorylation of Cas was observed Csk- cells, in which Src kinases are activated. These results suggest that Src kinases are responsible for the integrin-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas. FAK seems not to be necessary for phosphorylation of Cas, but when autophosphorylated, FAK may recruit Src family kinases to phosphorylate Cas. Cas was found to form complexes with Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing signaling molecules, such as the SH2/SH3 adapter protein Crk, following integrin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors C3G and Sos were found in the Cas-Crk complex upon integrin ligand binding. These observations suggest that Cas serves as a docking protein and may transduce signals to downstream signaling pathways following integrin-mediated cell adhesion. PMID:8649368

  14. Discriminatory bio-adhesion over nano-patterned polymer brushes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gon, Saugata

    Surfaces functionalized with bio-molecular targeting agents are conventionally used for highly-specific protein and cell adhesion. This thesis explores an alternative approach: Small non-biological adhesive elements are placed on a surface randomly, with the rest of the surface rendered repulsive towards biomolecules and cells. While the adhesive elements themselves, for instance in solution, typically exhibit no selectivity for various compounds within an analyte suspension, selective adhesion of targeted objects or molecules results from their placement on the repulsive surface. The mechanism of selectivity relies on recognition of length scales of the surface distribution of adhesive elements relative to species in the analyte solution, along with the competition between attractions and repulsions between various species in the suspension and different parts of the collecting surface. The resulting binding selectivity can be exquisitely sharp; however, complex mixtures generally require the use of multiple surfaces to isolate the various species: Different components will be adhered, sharply, with changes in collector composition. The key feature of these surface designs is their lack of reliance on biomolecular fragments for specificity, focusing entirely on physicochemical principles at the lengthscales from 1 - 100 nm. This, along with a lack of formal patterning, provides the advantages of simplicity and cost effectiveness. This PhD thesis demonstrates these principles using a system in which cationic poly-L-lysine (PLL) patches (10 nm) are deposited randomly on a silica substrate and the remaining surface is passivated with a bio-compatible PEG brush. TIRF microscopy revealed that the patches were randomly arranged, not clustered. By precisely controlling the number of patches per unit area, the interfaces provide sharp selectivity for adhesion of proteins and bacterial cells. For instance, it was found that a critical density of patches (on the order of

  15. 49 CFR 365.511 - Requirement for CVSA inspection of vehicles during first three consecutive years of permanent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... first three consecutive years of permanent operating authority. 365.511 Section 365.511 Transportation... inspection of vehicles during first three consecutive years of permanent operating authority. A Mexico... Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)-certified inspectors every three months and display a current...

  16. Ionically Crosslinked Polymer Networks for Underwater Adhesion and Long-Term Controlled Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Patrick G.

    Underwater adhesives have several potential applications in industry as well as in medicine. Much of the recent research in this area has focused on adhesive preparation from biological or custom-designed biomimetic polymers. As a simpler alternative, we have recently shown that ionically crosslinked, gel-like underwater adhesive complexes can be prepared by the mixing of the readily-available and inexpensive polyelectrolyte, poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH), with commonly-used multivalent anions, pyrophosphate (PPi) and tripolyphosphate (TPP). Remarkably, these gel-like complexes adhere to both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates under water with tensile adhesive strength considerably greater than that of Scotch Permanent Double Sided Tape (up to ˜400 kPa vs. ˜85 kPa when used as a pressure-sensitive adhesives) and due to the reversible nature of the ionic crosslinks, self-heal when torn. These complexes also exhibit very high storage moduli (greater than 100 kPa), indicative of a very high crosslink density. The high crosslink density allow these gel-like complexes to also entrap and deliver small molecule payloads over multiple-month timescales. Moreover, their formation and rheological/adhesion properties can be controlled using external stimuli (pH and ionic strength). In this thesis we characterize formation and rheological/adhesion properties of gel-like PAH/PPi and PAH/TPP complexes the through the use of dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering, rheology and tensile adhesion tests. We also describe their sensitivity to pH and ionic strength, and explain how the complexes can be dissolved on demand by raising or lowering the ambient pH, and can form spontaneously by increasing the NaCl concentration (which can be used for developing injectable underwater adhesive formulations). Finally, we demonstrate the ability of these adhesives to release small molecule payloads over multiple-month timescales by characterizing their ability to take up and

  17. Functional analysis of putative adhesion factors in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM.

    PubMed

    Buck, B Logan; Altermann, Eric; Svingerud, Tina; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2005-12-01

    Lactobacilli are major inhabitants of the normal microflora of the gastrointestinal tract, and some select species have been used extensively as probiotic cultures. One potentially important property of these organisms is their ability to interact with epithelial cells in the intestinal tract, which may promote retention and host-bacterial communication. However, the mechanisms by which they attach to intestinal epithelial cells are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate cell surface proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus that may promote attachment to intestinal tissues. Using genome sequence data, predicted open reading frames were searched against known protein and protein motif databases to identify four proteins potentially involved in adhesion to epithelial cells. Homologous recombination was used to construct isogenic mutations in genes encoding a mucin-binding protein, a fibronectin-binding protein, a surface layer protein, and two streptococcal R28 homologs. The abilities of the mutants to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells were then evaluated in vitro. Each strain was screened on Caco-2 cells, which differentiate and express markers characteristic of normal small-intestine cells. A significant decrease in adhesion was observed in the fibronectin-binding protein mutant (76%) and the mucin-binding protein mutant (65%). A surface layer protein mutant also showed reduction in adhesion ability (84%), but the effect of this mutation is likely due to the loss of multiple surface proteins that may be embedded in the S-layer. This study demonstrated that multiple cell surface proteins in L. acidophilus NCFM can individually contribute to the organism's ability to attach to intestinal cells in vitro. PMID:16332821

  18. Dangling chain elastomers as repeatable fibrillar adhesives.

    PubMed

    Sitti, Metin; Cusick, Brian; Aksak, Burak; Nese, Alper; Lee, Hyung-il; Dong, Hongchen; Kowalewski, Tomasz; Matyjaszewski, Krzysztof

    2009-10-01

    This work reports on repeatable adhesive materials prepared by controlled grafting of dangling hetero chains from polymer elastomers. The dangling chain elastomer system was prepared by grafting poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PBA) chains from prefunctionalized polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer networks using atom transfer radical polymerization. To study the effects of chain growth and network strain as they relate to network adhesion mechanics, various lengths of PBA chains with degree of polymerizations (DP) of 65, 281, 508, and 1200 were incorporated into the PDMS matrix. PBA chains with a DP value of 281 grafted from a flat PDMS substrate showed the highest (approximately 3.5-fold) enhancement of nano- and macroscale adhesion relative to a flat raw (ungrafted and not prefunctionalized) PDMS substrate. Moreover, to study the effect of PBA dangling chains on adhesion in fibrillar elastomer structures inspired by gecko foot hairs, a dip-transfer fabrication method was used to graft PBA chains with a DP value of 296 from the tip endings of mushroom-shaped PDMS micropillars. A PBA chain covered micropillar array showed macroscale adhesion enhancement up to approximately 7 times relative to the flat ungrafted prefunctionalized PDMS control substrate, showing additional nonoptimized approximately 2-fold adhesion enhancement due to fibrillar structuring and mushroom-shaped tip ending. These dangling hetero chains on elastomer micro-/nanofibrillar structures may provide a novel fabrication platform for multilength scale, repeatable, and high-strength fibrillar adhesives inspired by gecko foot hairs. PMID:20355863

  19. Tissue Mechanics and Adhesion during Embryo Development

    PubMed Central

    Shawky, Joseph H.; Davidson, Lance A.

    2014-01-01

    During development cells interact mechanically with their microenvironment through cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. Many proteins involved in these adhesions serve both mechanical and signaling roles. In this review we will focus on the mechanical roles of these proteins and their complexes in transmitting force or stress from cell to cell or from cell to the extracellular matrix. As forces operate against tissues they establish tissue architecture, extracellular matrix assembly, and pattern cell shapes. As tissues become more established, adhesions play a major role integrating cells with the mechanics of their local environment. Adhesions may serve as both a molecular-specific glue, holding defined populations of cells together, and as a lubricant, allowing tissues to slide past one another. We review the biophysical principles and experimental tools used to study adhesion so that we may aid efforts to understand how adhesions guide these movements and integrate their signaling functions with mechanical function. As we conclude we review efforts to develop predictive models of adhesion that can be used to interpret experiments and guide future efforts to control and direct the process of tissue self-assembly during development. PMID:25512299

  20. Adhesion in ceramics and magnetic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1989-01-01

    When a ceramic is brought into contact with a metal or a polymeric material such as a magnetic medium, strong bonds form between the materials. For ceramic-to-metal contacts, adhesion and friction are strongly dependent on the ductility of the metals. Hardness of metals plays a much more important role in adhesion and friction than does the surface energy of metals. Adhesion, friction, surface energy, and hardness of a metal are all related to its Young's modulus and shear modulus, which have a marked dependence on the electron configuration of the metal. An increase in shear modulus results in a decrease in area of contact that is greater than the corresponding increase in surface energy (the fond energy) with shear modulus. Consequently, the adhesion and friction decrease with increasing shear modulus. For ceramics in contact with polymeric magnetic tapes, environment is extremely important. For example, a nitrogen environment reduces adhesion and friction when ferrite contacts polymeric tape, whereas a vacuum environment strengthens the ferrite-to-tape adhesion and increases friction. Adhesion and friction are strongly dependent on the particle loading of the tape. An increase in magnetic particle concentration increases the complex modulus of the tape, and a lower real area of contact and lower friction result.

  1. Thrombospondin-induced adhesion of human platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Tuszynski, G P; Kowalska, M A

    1991-01-01

    Washed human unactivated platelets attached and spread on thrombospondin (TSP)-coated microtiter plates. Platelet adhesion was promoted by divalent cations Mn2+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ as compared to buffer having all divalent cations complexed with EDTA. TSP-dependent adhesion was inhibited by anti-TSP fab fragments, an anti-TSP monoclonal antibody, an RGD-containing peptide, complex-specific anti-glycoprotein (GP)IIb-IIIa monoclonal antibodies (A2A9 or AP-2) and anti-VLA-2 monoclonal antibodies (6F1 and Gi9), but not by rabbit preimmune fab fragments, mouse IgG, an anti-GPIIIa monoclonal antibody, or monoclonal antibodies against either the human vitronectin receptor, glycocalicin, or GPIV. At saturating concentrations, anti-GPIIb-IIIa inhibited adhesion by 40-60%. Glanzman's thrombasthenic platelets, which lack GPIIb-IIIa, adhered to TSP to the same extent as anti-GPIIb-IIIa-treated normal platelets or 40-60% as well as untreated normal platelets. Antibody 6F1 (5-10 micrograms/ml) inhibited platelet adhesion of both normal and thrombasthenic platelets by 84-100%. Both VLA-2 antibodies also inhibited collagen-induced platelet adhesion, but had no effect on fibronectin-induced adhesion of normal platelets. These data indicate that platelets specifically adhere to TSP and that this adhesion is mediated through GPIIb-IIIa and/or VLA-2. Images PMID:2010551

  2. Penile adhesion: the hidden complication of circumcision.

    PubMed

    Gracely-Kilgore, K A

    1984-05-01

    A penile or prepuce adhesion can occur after a circumcision if the remaining skin is not retracted after the circumcision has healed. When a circumcision is done, tissue which would normally be intact is split. Unless proper care is taken, the epithelium of the inner prepuce at the point where the foreskin was removed can reattach to the epithelium of the glans. The result of this is a penile adhesion. Usually the adhesions can be released by simple retraction. Sometimes, however, the fusion is so complete that simple retraction will not work, and the child must be referred to a urologist. Another problem is that smegma or bacteria can collect under the adhesion if it covers the preputial cavity and cause infection. Professionals must look for this problem, and parents must be taught how to care for the normal circumcised penis so that penile adhesions do not develop. This article discusses the formation and identification of penile adhesions, the process by which adhesions can be released, when a referral to a urologist is necessary and the proper care for the circumcised penis. PMID:6728346

  3. Strategies to Minimize Adhesion Formation After Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Lazarou, George; Mondesir, Carlene; Wei, Kai; Khullar, Poonan; Ogden, Lorna

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the potential for postoperative laparoscopic adhesion formation utilizing either monopolar cautery or ultrasonic energy and to determine whether there is added benefit with the addition of a suspension of hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose in saline versus saline alone. Methods: Injuries were induced in rabbits by using monopolar cautery on 1 uterine horn and adjacent sidewall and ultrasonic energy on the opposite. Hyaluronate/ carboxymethylcellulose or saline was added to every other animal. Autopsies were performed after 3 weeks. Clinical and pathologic scoring of adhesions was performed by blinded investigators. Results: A very significant difference occurred in pathologic adhesion scores favoring the ultrasonic scalpel when the animals were treated with saline. However, a borderline significant difference was found in pathologic scores favoring the ultrasonic scalpel compared to the monopolar cautery. There was no significant difference in clinical adhesion scores between the 2 modalities. No significant difference in either score was found with the addition of hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose or saline with either instrument. Conclusion: No benefit was found for adhesion prevention with hyaluronate/carboxymethylcellulose. Although no reduction was achieved in clinical adhesions, the ultrasonic scalpel resulted in fewer histologic signs of tissue inflammation in the early postoperative period, suggesting that further clinical adhesions might develop over time with cautery. PMID:21985723

  4. Adhesion of actinomyces isolates to experimental pellicles.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, D; Kopec, L K; Bowen, W H

    1993-06-01

    The ability of oral bacteria to adhere to surfaces is associated with their pathogenicity. Actinomyces can adhere to pellicle and cells through extracellular fimbriae. Research on adhesion of actinomyces has been conducted with use of hydroxyapatite (HA) coated with mammalian-derived salivary constituents, whereas the bacterial-derived components of the acquired pellicle have been largely ignored. The influence of the cell-free bacterial enzyme, glucosyltransferase (GTF), on adhesion of human and rodent isolates of Actinomyces viscosus was examined. Cell-free GTF was adsorbed onto parotid saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA). Next, A. viscosus was exposed to the pellicle following the synthesis of glucan formed in situ by GTF. Glucans formed on the pellicle served as binding sites for adhesion of a rodent strain of A. viscosus. Conversely, the presence of in situ glucans on sHA reduced the adhesion of human isolates of A. viscosus compared with their adhesion to sHA. Adhesion of the rodent strains may be facilitated through a dextran-binding protein, since the rodent strains aggregated in the presence of dextrans and mutan. The human isolates were not aggregated by dextran or mutan. Pellicle harboring A. viscosus rodent strains interfered with the subsequent adhesion of Streptococcus mutans to the bacterial-coated pellicle. In contrast, the adhesion of S. mutans to pellicle was not decreased when the pellicle was pre-exposed to a human isolate of A. viscosus. The experimental data suggest that human and the rodent isolates of A. viscosus have distinct glucan adhesion properties.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8496474

  5. Adhesion of Dental Materials to Tooth Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sumita B.

    2000-03-01

    The understanding and proper application of the principles of adhesion has brought forth a new paradigm in the realm of esthetic dentistry. Modern restorative tooth procedures can now conserve the remaining tooth-structure and also provide for the strengthening of the tooth. Adhesive restorative techniques call for the application and curing of the dental adhesive at the interface between the tooth tissue and the filling material. Hence the success of the restoration depends largely on the integrity of this interface. The mechanism of adhesion of the bonding materials to the dental hard tissue will be discussed in this paper. There are four main steps that occur during the application of the dental adhesive to the oral hard tissues: 1) The first step is the creation of a microstructure in the tooth enamel or dentin by means of an acidic material. This can be through the application of a separate etchant or can be accomplished in situ by the adhesive/primer. This agent has to be effective in removing or modifying the proteinaceous “smear” layer, which would otherwise act as a weak boundary layer on the surface to be bonded. 2) The primer/adhesive must then be able to wet and penetrate the microstructure created in the tooth. Since the surface energies of etched enamel and that of etched dentin are different finding one material to prime both types of dental tissues can be quite challenging. 3) The ionomer types of materials, particularly those that are carboxylate ion-containing, can chemically bond with the calcium ions of the hydroxyapatite mineral. 4) Polymerization in situ allows for micromechanical interlocking of the adhesive. The importance of having the right mechanical properties of the cured adhesive layer and its role in absorbing and dissipating stresses encountered by a restored tooth will also be discussed.

  6. Improving controllable adhesion on both rough and smooth surfaces with a hybrid electrostatic/gecko-like adhesive.

    PubMed

    Ruffatto, Donald; Parness, Aaron; Spenko, Matthew

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes a novel, controllable adhesive that combines the benefits of electrostatic adhesives with gecko-like directional dry adhesives. When working in combination, the two technologies create a positive feedback cycle whose adhesion, depending on the surface type, is often greater than the sum of its parts. The directional dry adhesive brings the electrostatic adhesive closer to the surface, increasing its effect. Similarly, the electrostatic adhesion helps engage more of the directional dry adhesive fibrillar structures, particularly on rough surfaces. This paper presents the new hybrid adhesive's manufacturing process and compares its performance to three other adhesive technologies manufactured using a similar process: reinforced PDMS, electrostatic and directional dry adhesion. Tests were performed on a set of ceramic tiles with varying roughness to quantify its effect on shear adhesive force. The relative effectiveness of the hybrid adhesive increases as the surface roughness is increased. Experimental data are also presented for different substrate materials to demonstrate the enhanced performance achieved with the hybrid adhesive. Results show that the hybrid adhesive provides up to 5.1× greater adhesion than the electrostatic adhesive or directional dry adhesive technologies alone. PMID:24451392

  7. Improving controllable adhesion on both rough and smooth surfaces with a hybrid electrostatic/gecko-like adhesive

    PubMed Central

    Ruffatto, Donald; Parness, Aaron; Spenko, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel, controllable adhesive that combines the benefits of electrostatic adhesives with gecko-like directional dry adhesives. When working in combination, the two technologies create a positive feedback cycle whose adhesion, depending on the surface type, is often greater than the sum of its parts. The directional dry adhesive brings the electrostatic adhesive closer to the surface, increasing its effect. Similarly, the electrostatic adhesion helps engage more of the directional dry adhesive fibrillar structures, particularly on rough surfaces. This paper presents the new hybrid adhesive's manufacturing process and compares its performance to three other adhesive technologies manufactured using a similar process: reinforced PDMS, electrostatic and directional dry adhesion. Tests were performed on a set of ceramic tiles with varying roughness to quantify its effect on shear adhesive force. The relative effectiveness of the hybrid adhesive increases as the surface roughness is increased. Experimental data are also presented for different substrate materials to demonstrate the enhanced performance achieved with the hybrid adhesive. Results show that the hybrid adhesive provides up to 5.1× greater adhesion than the electrostatic adhesive or directional dry adhesive technologies alone. PMID:24451392

  8. Hierarchical bioinspired adhesive surfaces-a review.

    PubMed

    Brodoceanu, D; Bauer, C T; Kroner, E; Arzt, E; Kraus, T

    2016-01-01

    The extraordinary adherence and climbing agility of geckos on rough surfaces has been attributed to the multiscale hierarchical structures on their feet. Hundreds of thousands of elastic hairs called setae, each of which split into several spatulae, create a large number of contact points that generate substantial adhesion through van der Waals interactions. The hierarchical architecture provides increased structural compliance on surfaces with roughness features ranging from micrometers to millimeters. We review synthetic adhesion surfaces that mimic the naturally occurring hierarchy with an emphasis on microfabrication strategies, material choice and the adhesive performance achieved. PMID:27529743

  9. The development of low temperature curing adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, H. E.; Sutherland, J. D.; Hom, J. M.; Sheppard, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach for the development of a practical low temperature (293 K-311 K/68 F-100 F) curing adhesive system based on a family of amide/ester resins was studied and demonstrated. The work was conducted on resin optimization and adhesive compounding studies. An improved preparative method was demonstrated which involved the reaction of an amine-alcohol precursor, in a DMF solution with acid chloride. Experimental studies indicated that an adhesive formulation containing aluminum powder provided the best performance when used in conjunction with a commercial primer.

  10. Large bowel obstruction secondary to adhesive bands.

    PubMed

    El-Masry, Nabil S; Geevarghese, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Large bowel obstruction (LBO) is most commonly due to malignancy, volvulus, hernia, diverticular disease and inflammatory bowel disease. LBO due to adhesions is unusual. A literature review was conducted which revealed that only a few such cases have been reported. We report two cases of LBO secondary to adhesions in patients, one with and one without a past abdominal surgical history. We highlight that while rare, the aetiology of LBO secondary to adhesions must be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients presenting with obstructive symptoms. PMID:25650387

  11. Method of making thermally removable adhesives

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, James H.

    2004-11-30

    A method of making a thermally-removable adhesive is provided where a bismaleimide compound, a monomeric furan compound, containing an oxirane group an amine curative are mixed together at an elevated temperature of greater than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a homogeneous solution, which, when cooled to less than approximately 70.degree. C., simultaneously initiates a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and the bismaleimide and a epoxy curing reaction between the amine curative and the oxirane group to form a thermally-removable adhesive. Subsequent heating to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. causes the adhesive to melt and allows separation of adhered pieces.

  12. Weld bonding of titanium with polyimide adhesives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. W.; Sheppard, C. H.; Orell, M. K.

    1975-01-01

    A conductive adhesive primer and a capillary flow adhesive were developed for weld bonding titanium alloy joints. Both formulations contained ingredients considered to be non-carcinogenic. Lap-shear joint test specimens and stringer-stiffened panels were weld bonded using a capillary flow process to apply the adhesive. Static property information was generated for weld bonded joints over the temperature range of 219K (-65 F) to 561K (550 F). The capillary flow process was demonstrated to produce weld bonded joints of equal strength to the weld through weld bonding process developed previously.

  13. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-09-08

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  14. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, Robert J.; McMillan, April D.; Paulauskas, Felix L.; Fathi, Zakaryae; Wei, Jianghua

    1998-01-01

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy.

  15. Adhesive bonding using variable frequency microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Paulauskas, F.L.; Fathi, Z.; Wei, J.

    1998-08-25

    Methods of facilitating the adhesive bonding of various components with variable frequency microwave energy are disclosed. The time required to cure a polymeric adhesive is decreased by placing components to be bonded via the adhesive in a microwave heating apparatus having a multimode cavity and irradiated with microwaves of varying frequencies. Methods of uniformly heating various articles having conductive fibers disposed therein are provided. Microwave energy may be selectively oriented to enter an edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein. An edge portion of an article having conductive fibers therein may be selectively shielded from microwave energy. 26 figs.

  16. Neospora caninum: Chronic and congenital infection in consecutive pregnancies of mice.

    PubMed

    Mazuz, Monica L; Shkap, Varda; Wollkomirsky, Ricardo; Leibovich, Benjamin; Savitsky, Igor; Fleiderovitz, Ludmila; Noam, Sugar; Elena, Blinder; Molad, Thea; Golenser, Jacob

    2016-03-30

    Neospora caninum, the causative agent of bovine neosporosis is the major cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. The principal route of transmission is via in utero infection of the offspring. Congenitally-infected dams remain persistently infected for life and might undergo abortions in consecutive pregnancies. In the present study, the effect of N. caninum in chronic and congenital infection was examined. CD1 mice were infected intra-peritoneally with live tachyzoites of the NcIs491 isolate, while non-infected mice served as a control. There were no clinical signs of infection observed following inoculation, but high titers of specific anti- N. caninum antibodies were detected. A month after infection, when chronic-infection was established, mice were mated. Fertility, litter size and mortality rate were monitored within two generations of four consecutive pregnancies. During a nine months period of the study all females maintained high level of antibodies, while the non- infected control mice remained seronegative. There was no difference in the fertility rate of the dams, or in the litter size of infected and control mice. Mortality of offspring of the first and second generations of the infected dams was observed within the two first weeks of life. The vertical transmission was analyzed by PCR assay of offspring brains. PCR positive results were found in all 13 litters of the first generation tested during four consecutive pregnancies. The rate of vertical transmission slightly decreased in successive pregnancies being 74.2%, 59.5%, 48.1% and 40% for the first to fourth pregnancies respectively. In the second generation 21 out of 28 litters were found positive and the overall rate of vertical transmission was 28.5%. In chronically and congenitally infected dams N. caninum infection was maintained during all successive pregnancies for about 9 months. The results show that CD-1 outbred mice are a suitable model for studying chronic and congenital neosporosis

  17. Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature influences on failed consecutive rainy seasons over eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Rainfall over eastern Africa (10°S-10°N; 35°E-50°E) is bimodal, with seasonal maxima during the "long rains" of March-April-May (MAM) and the "short rains" of October-November-December (OND). Below average precipitation during consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa can have devastating long-term impacts on water availability and agriculture. Here, we examine the forcing of drought during consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa by Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The forcing of eastern Africa precipitation and circulation by SSTs is tested using ten ensemble simulations of a global weather forecast model forced by 1950-2010 observed global SSTs. Since the 1980s, Indo-Pacific SSTs have forced more frequent droughts spanning consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa. The increased frequency of dry conditions is linked to warming SSTs over the Indo-west Pacific and to a lesser degree to Pacific Decadal Variability. During MAM, long-term warming of tropical west Pacific SSTs from 1950-2010 has forced statistically significant precipitation reductions over eastern Africa. The warming west Pacific SSTs have forced changes in the regional lower tropospheric circulation by weakening the Somali Jet, which has reduced moisture and rainfall over the Horn of Africa. During OND, reductions in precipitation over recent decades are oftentimes overshadowed by strong year-to-year precipitation variability forced by the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.

  18. Population control of an overabundant species achieved through consecutive anthropogenic perturbations.

    PubMed

    Payo-Payo, Ana; Oro, Daniel; Igual, José Manuel; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carolina; Tavecchia, Giacomo

    2015-12-01

    The control of overabundant vertebrates is often problematic. Much work has focused on population-level responses and overabundance due to anthropogenic subsidies. However, far less work has been directed at investigating responses following the removal of subsidies. We investigate the consequences of two consecutive perturbations, the closure of a landfill and an inadvertent poisoning event, on the trophic ecology (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S), survival, and population size of an overabundant generalist seabird species, the Yellow-legged Gull (Larus michahellis). We expected that the landfill closure would cause a strong dietary shift and the inadvertent poisoning a decrease in gull population size. As a long-lived species, we also anticipated adult survival to be buffered against the decrease in food availability but not against the inadvertent poisoning event. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the dietary shift towards marine resources after the disappearance of the landfill. Although the survival model was inconclusive, it did suggest that the perturbations had a negative effect on survival, which was followed by a recovery back to average values. Food limitation likely triggered dispersal to other populations, while poisoning may have increased mortality; these two processes were likely responsible for the large fall in population size that occurred after the two consecutive perturbations. Life-history theory suggests that perturbations may encourage species to halt existing breeding investment in order to ensure future survival. However, under strong perturbation pulses the resilience threshold might be surpassed and changes in population density can arise. Consecutive perturbations may effectively manage overabundant species. PMID:26910951

  19. Delirium risk stratification in consecutive unselected admissions to acute medicine: validation of externally derived risk scores

    PubMed Central

    Pendlebury, Sarah T.; Lovett, Nicola; Smith, Sarah C.; Cornish, Emily; Mehta, Ziyah; Rothwell, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: reliable delirium risk stratification will aid recognition, anticipation and prevention and will facilitate targeting of resources in clinical practice as well as identification of at-risk patients for research. Delirium risk scores have been derived for acute medicine, but none has been prospectively validated in external cohorts. We therefore aimed to determine the reliability of externally derived risk scores in a consecutive cohort of older acute medicine patients. Methods: consecutive patients aged ≥65 over two 8-week periods (2010, 2012) were screened prospectively for delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), and delirium was diagnosed using the DSM IV criteria. The reliability of existing delirium risk scores derived in acute medicine cohorts and simplified for use in routine clinical practice (USA, n = 2; Spain, n = 1; Indonesia, n = 1) was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Delirium was defined as prevalent (on admission), incident (occurring during admission) and any (prevalent + incident) delirium. Results: among 308 consecutive patients aged ≥65 (mean age/SD = 81/8 years, 164 (54%) female), existing delirium risk scores had AUCs for delirium similar to those reported in their original internal validations ranging from 0.69 to 0.76 for any delirium and 0.73 to 0.83 for incident delirium. All scores performed better than chance but no one score was clearly superior. Conclusions: externally derived delirium risk scores performed well in our independent acute medicine population with reliability unaffected by simplification and might therefore facilitate targeting of multicomponent interventions in routine clinical practice. PMID:26764396

  20. Risk for definite neuroleptic malignant syndrome. A prospective study in 223 consecutive in-patients.

    PubMed

    Hermesh, H; Aizenberg, D; Weizman, A; Lapidot, M; Mayor, C; Munitz, H

    1992-08-01

    The occurrence of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) was studied prospectively in two series of consecutive psychiatric in-patients (n = 223). The first group (n = 120) suffered from schizophrenia and was treated only with haloperidol. The second group (n = 103) was treated with diverse neuroleptics. All patients were on a single antipsychotic agent with no anticholinergic drug as prophylaxis. The incidence of full NMS per admission and first neuroleptic exposure was 5/223 (2.2%). Patients with bipolar affective disorder and those treated with injections were significantly over-represented in the NMS group. PMID:1355693

  1. Diffuse Axonal Injury: CT Findings and Clinical Profiles in Six Consecutive Cases.

    PubMed

    Moschnegootz, S; Ushakov, A; Gatin, D; Shalyakin, K; Rokhlenko, O

    2010-06-01

    Diffuse axonal injury is a relatively rare type of brain trauma when prolonged coma with generally poor clinical outcome is often associated with negative neuroimaging findings. Although magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for evaluation of diffuse axonal injury, computed tomography still plays an important role as an emergency visualization modality. We compared computed tomography findings with clinical data, short and medium-term outcomes and, if available, autopsy results of six consecutive patients admitted to our hospital during the year of 2009. We found that corpus callosum lesions were most closely associated with diffuse axonal injury, followed by subdural hematoma or hygroma. PMID:24148587

  2. Consecutive Charging of a Molecule-on-Insulator Ensemble Using Single Electron Tunnelling Methods.

    PubMed

    Rahe, Philipp; Steele, Ryan P; Williams, Clayton C

    2016-02-10

    We present the local charge state modification at room temperature of small insulator-supported molecular ensembles formed by 1,1'-ferrocenedicarboxylic acid on calcite. Single electron tunnelling between the conducting tip of a noncontact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) and the molecular islands is observed. By joining NC-AFM with Kelvin probe force microscopy, successive charge build-up in the sample is observed from consecutive experiments. Charge transfer within the islands and structural relaxation of the adsorbate/surface system is suggested by the experimental data. PMID:26713686

  3. Note: Consecutive capture of images of ions and electrons using high-voltage vacuum relay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, S.; Himura, H.

    2016-03-01

    For the first time, images of both ions and electrons appearing on a fluorescent screen attached to a micro-channel plate (MCP) [S. Nakata et al., "Applicability of micro-channel plate followed by phosphor screen to charged particles," Rev. Sci. Instrum. (submitted)] were captured in one attempt. The profile of electrostatic potential applied externally to the MCP with the fluorescent screen was quickly changed using a high-voltage vacuum relay. This method allows consecutive images of ions and electrons to be successfully captured.

  4. A Repairable Linear m-Consecutive-k-Out-of-n:F System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Sheng-Dao; Hou, Wei-Gen

    2012-09-01

    We propose a solvable model of topological characteristics for a microwave signal transmitting system, which is named as a repairable linear m-consecutive-k-out-of-n:F system with l repairers. It is assumed that both the working time and repair time of each component are exponentially distributed, and the repair is perfect. The transition rate matrix is determined by defining the generalized transition probability. Furthermore, some important reliability indices are evaluated. Finally, the proposed approach is illustrated by a numerical example. The results are helpful to guide the stability of network nodes and the reliability of microwave signal transmitting systems.

  5. Direct Synthesis of Polyaryls by Consecutive Oxidative Cross-Coupling of Phenols with Arenes.

    PubMed

    Dyadyuk, Alina; Sudheendran, Kavitha; Vainer, Yulia; Vershinin, Vlada; Shames, Alexander I; Pappo, Doron

    2016-09-01

    A bioinspired iron-catalyzed consecutive oxidative cross-coupling reaction between a single phenolic unit and nucleophilic arenes was developed. This sustainable transformation offers a selective synthetic strategy for the preparation of complex polyaryl compounds directly from readily available phenols. With the aid of electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, it was demonstrated that the groups ortho to the phenolic functionality (whether hydrogen, methyl, or methoxy) direct the regioselectivity (ortho, para, or meta via dienone-phenol rearrangement) and chemoselectivity (C-C coupling or C-O coupling) in this multistep process. PMID:27529128

  6. Analysis of risks and aesthetics in a consecutive series of tissue expansion breast reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B E; Casso, D; Whetstone, M

    1992-05-01

    A consecutive series of 73 patients underwent tissue expansion for breast reconstruction between 1980 and 1986. The cases were reviewed, and preoperative risk factors, postoperative complications, and aesthetic results were assessed. Cigarette smoking correlated with a higher incidence of complications and unfavorable results. Similar correlations were found among patients with histories of significant medical disorders or alcohol abuse, although patient numbers were small in these categories. Subpectoral and suprapectoral placement of expanders yielded similar complication rates and aesthetic results. Surgical techniques contributing to improved aesthetic results are described. PMID:1561255

  7. Formation of focal adhesion-stress fibre complexes coordinated by adhesive and non-adhesive surface domains.

    PubMed

    Zimerman, B; Arnold, M; Ulmer, J; Blümmel, J; Besser, A; Spatz, J P; Geiger, B

    2004-04-01

    Cell motility consists of repeating cycles of protrusion of a leading edge in the direction of migration, attachment of the advancing membrane to the matrix, and pulling of the trailing edge forward. In this dynamic process there is a major role for the cytoskeleton, which drives the protrusive events via polymerisation of actin in the lamellipodium, followed by actomyosin contractility. To study the transition of the actin cytoskeleton from a 'protrusive' to 'retractive' form, we have monitored the formation of focal adhesions and stress fibres during cell migration on a micro-patterned surface. This surface consisted of parallel arrays of 2 microm-wide, fibronectin-coated gold stripes, separated by non-adhesive (poly(ethylene glycol)-coated) glass areas with variable width, ranging from 4-12 microm. Monitoring the spreading of motile cells indicated that cell spreading was equally effective along and across the adhesive stripes, as long as the non-adhesive spaces between them did not exceed 6 microm. When the width of the PEG region was 8 microm or more, cells became highly polarised upon spreading, and failed to reach the neighboring adhesive stripes. It was also noted that as soon as the protruding lamella successfully crossed the PEG-coated area and reached an adhesive region, the organisation of actin in that area was transformed from a diffuse meshwork into a bundle, oriented perpendicularly to the stripes and anchored at its ends in focal adhesions. This transition depends on actomyosin-based contractility and is apparently triggered by the adhesion to the rigid fibronectin surface. PMID:16475844

  8. Vaginal epithelial cells regulate membrane adhesiveness to co-ordinate bacterial adhesion.

    PubMed

    Younes, Jessica A; Klappe, Karin; Kok, Jan Willem; Busscher, Henk J; Reid, Gregor; van der Mei, Henny C

    2016-04-01

    Vaginal epithelium is colonized by different bacterial strains and species. The bacterial composition of vaginal biofilms controls the balance between health and disease. Little is known about the relative contribution of the epithelial and bacterial cell surfaces to bacterial adhesion and whether and how adhesion is regulated over cell membrane regions. Here, we show that bacterial adhesion forces with cell membrane regions not located above the nucleus are stronger than with regions above the nucleus both for vaginal pathogens and different commensal and probiotic lactobacillus strains involved in health. Importantly, adhesion force ratios over membrane regions away from and above the nucleus coincided with the ratios between numbers of adhering bacteria over both regions. Bacterial adhesion forces were dramatically decreased by depleting the epithelial cell membrane of cholesterol or sub-membrane cortical actin. Thus, epithelial cells can regulate membrane regions to which bacterial adhesion is discouraged, possibly to protect the nucleus. PMID:26477544

  9. Transcriptional changes in adhesion-related genes are site-specific during noise-induced cochlear pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qunfeng; Patel, Minal; Coling, Donald; Hu, Bo Hua

    2012-01-01

    Cell–cell junctions and junctions between cells and extracellular matrix are essential for maintenance of the structural and functional integrity of the cochlea, and are also a major target of acoustic trauma. While morphological assessments have revealed adhesion dysfunction in noise-traumatized cochleae, the molecular mechanisms responsible for adhesion disruption are not clear. Here, we screened the transcriptional expression of 49 adhesion-related genes in normal rat cochleae and measured the expression changes in the early phases of cochlear pathogenesis after acoustic trauma. We found that genes from four adhesion families, including the immunoglobulin superfamily and the integrin, cadherin, and selectin families, are expressed in the normal cochlea. Exposure to an intense noise at 120 dB sound pressure level (SPL) for 2 h caused site-specific changes in expression levels in the apical and the basal sections of the sensory epithelium. Expression changes that occurred in the cochlear sensory epithelium were biphasic, with early upregulation at 2 h post-noise exposure and subsequent downregulation at 1 day post-exposure. Importantly, the altered expression level of seven genes (Sgce, Sell, Itga5, Itgal, Selp, Cntn1 and Col5a1) is related to the level of threshold shift of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), an index reflecting functional change in the cochlea. Notably, the genes showing expression changes exhibited diverse constitutive expression levels and belong to multiple adhesion gene families. The finding of expression changes in multiple families of adhesion genes in a temporal fashion (2 h vs. 1 day) and a spatial fashion (the apical and the basal sensory epithelia as well as the lateral wall tissue) suggests that acoustic overstimulation provokes a complex response in adhesion genes, which likely involves multiple adhesion-related signaling pathways. PMID:20091770

  10. Transcriptional changes in adhesion-related genes are site-specific during noise-induced cochlear pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Qunfeng; Patel, Minal; Coling, Donald; Hu, Bo Hua

    2011-01-01

    Cell-cell junctions and junctions between cells and extracellular matrix are essential for maintenance of the structural and functional integrity of the cochlea, and are also a major target of acoustic trauma. While morphological assessments have revealed adhesion dysfunction in noise-traumatized cochleae, the molecular mechanisms responsible for adhesion disruption are not clear. Here, we screened the transcriptional expression of 49 adhesion-related genes in normal rat cochleae and measured the expression changes in the early phases of cochlear pathogenesis after acoustic trauma. We found that genes from four adhesion families, including the immunoglobulin superfamily and the integrin, cadherin, and selectin families, are expressed in the normal cochlea. Exposure to an intense noise at 120 dB sound pressure level (SPL) for 2 h caused site-specific changes in expression levels in the apical and the basal sections of the sensory epithelium. Expression changes that occurred in the cochlear sensory epithelium were biphasic, with early upregulation at 2 h post-noise exposure and subsequent downregulation at 1 day post-exposure. Importantly, the altered expression level of seven genes (Sgce, sell, Itga5, Itgal, Selp, Cntn1 and Col5a1) is related to the level of threshold shift of the auditory brainstem response (ABR), an index reflecting functional change in the cochlea. Notably, the genes showing expression changes exhibited diverse constitutive expression levels and belong to multiple adhesion gene families. The finding of expression changes in multiple families of adhesion genes in a temporal fashion (2 h vs. 1 day) and a spatial fashion (the apical and the basal sensory epithelia as well as the lateral wall tissue) suggests that acoustic overstimulation provokes a complex response in adhesion genes, which likely involves multiple adhesion-related signaling pathways. PMID:22044737

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of interfacial adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Yarovsky, I.; Chaffee, A.L.

    1996-12-31

    Chromium salts are often used in the pretreatment stages of steel painting processes in order to improve adhesion at the metal oxide/primer interface. Although well established empirically, the chemical basis for the improved adhesion conferred by chromia is not well understood. A molecular level understanding of this behaviour should provide a foundation for the design of materials offering improved adhesion control. Molecular modelling of adhesion involves simulation and analysis of molecular behaviour at the interface between two interacting phases. The present study concerns behaviour at the boundary between the metal coated steel surface (with or without chromium pretreatment) and an organic primer based on a solid epoxide resin produced from bisphenol A and epichlorohydrin. An epoxy resin oligomer of molecular weight 3750 was used as the model for the primer.

  12. Chemistry technology: Adhesives and plastics: A compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Technical information on chemical formulations for improving and/or producing adhesives is presented. Data are also reported on polymeric plastics with special characteristics or those plastics that were produced by innovative means.

  13. [PROPHYLAXIS OF AN ACUTE ADHESIVE ILEUS RECURRENCE].

    PubMed

    Evtushenko, D A

    2015-10-01

    The results of treatment of 56 patients were studied, in whom for adhesive abdominal disease, complicated by an acute adhesive ileus (AAI), the adhesiolysis with intraabdominal introduction of antiadhesive measures, named Mezogel, Defensal were conducted, as well as in 42 patients, operated on in emergency for AAI, using a routine method. Application of videolaparoscopy gives a possibility to control the adhesive process in the early postoperative period, what is necessary for prophylaxis of the adhesive disease occurence. Application of the apparatus, we have elaborated, permitted to conduct a precisional viscerolysis due to good visualization of organs, pathologically changed and healthy tissues. Application of the procedures elaborated for prophylaxis of the AAI recurrence have promoted the reduction of risk for the AAI occurence down to 1.8%, and of disorders of the gut contents transit in terms up to 1 yr - to 3.6%. PMID:26946653

  14. Recent Advances in Nanostructured Biomimetic Dry Adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Pattantyus-Abraham, Andras; Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The relatively large size of the gecko and its ability to climb a multitude of structures with ease has often been cited as the inspiration upon which the field of dry adhesives is based. Since 2010, there have been many advances in the field of dry adhesives with much of the new research focusing on developing nanoscale and hierarchical features in a concentrated effort to develop synthetic gecko-like dry adhesives which are strong, durable, and self-cleaning. A brief overview of the geckos and the hairs which it uses to adhere to many different surfaces is provided before delving into the current methods and materials used to fabricate synthetic gecko hairs. A summary of the recently published literature on bio-inspired, nanostructured dry adhesives is presented with an emphasis being placed on fabrication techniques. PMID:25023409

  15. Thread-Pull Test Of Curing Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, James A.

    1992-01-01

    Hardness (and degree of cure) of adhesive layer measured by pulling previously inserted thread out of layer. Strength of bond measured directly on assembly rather than on samples, which can be misleading.

  16. NREL Turning Biomass into Adhesives and Plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and it's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are developing technology to make wood adhesives from sawdust, bark, or other biomass (plant materials or wastes derived from them).

  17. Adhesive wafer bonding for MEMS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoi, Viorel; Glinsner, Thomas; Mittendorfer, Gerald; Wieder, Bernhard; Lindner, Paul

    2003-04-01

    Low temperature wafer bonding is a powerful technique for MEMS/MOEMS devices fabrication and packaging. Among the low temperature processes adhesive bonding focuses a high technological interest. Adhesive wafer bonding is a bonding approach using an intermediate layer for bonding (e.g. glass, polymers, resists, polyimides). The main advantages of this method are: surface planarization, encapsulation of structures on the wafer surface, particle compensation and decrease of annealing temperature after bonding. This paper presents results on adhesive bonding using spin-on glass and Benzocyclobutene (BCB) from Dow Chemicals. The advantages of using adhesive bonding for MEMS applications will be illustrated be presenting a technology of fabricating GaAs-on-Si substrates (up to 150 mm diameter) and results on BCB bonding of Si wafers (200 mm diameter).

  18. TOWARD MINIMALLY ADHESIVE SURFACES UTILIZING SILOXANES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three types of siloxane-based network polymers have been investigated for their surface properties towards potential applications as minimally adhesive coatings. A filled poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomer, RTV it, has been studied to determine surface weldability and stabil...

  19. Micropatterning cell adhesion on polyacrylamide hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Guo, Wei-Hui; Rape, Andrew; Wang, Yu-Li

    2013-01-01

    Cell shape and substrate rigidity play critical roles in regulating cell behaviors and fate. Controlling cell shape on elastic adhesive materials holds great promise for creating a physiologically relevant culture environment for basic and translational research and clinical applications. However, it has been technically challenging to create high-quality adhesive patterns on compliant substrates. We have developed an efficient and economical method to create precise micron-scaled adhesive patterns on the surface of a hydrogel (Rape et al., Biomaterials 32:2043-2051, 2011). This method will facilitate the research on traction force generation, cellular mechanotransduction, and tissue engineering, where precise controls of both materials rigidity and adhesive patterns are important. PMID:23955741

  20. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  1. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called multiple pregnancy . If more than one egg is released during the menstrual cycle and each ... fraternal twins (or more). When a single fertilized egg splits, it results in multiple identical embryos. This ...

  2. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  3. My First 100 Consecutive Microvascular Free Flaps: Pearls and Lessons Learned in First Year of Practice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background: Microvascular reconstruction for oncologic defects is a challenging and rewarding endeavor, and successful outcomes are dependent on a multitude of factors. This study represents lessons learned from a personal prospective experience with 100 consecutive free flaps. Methods: All patients’ medical records were reviewed for demographics, operative notes, and complications. Results: Overall 100 flaps were performed in 84 consecutive patients for reconstruction of breast, head and neck, trunk, and extremity defects. Nineteen patients underwent free flap breast reconstruction with 10 patients undergoing bilateral reconstruction and 2 patients receiving a bipedicle flap for reconstruction of a unilateral breast defect. Sixty-five free flaps were performed in 61 patients with 3 patients receiving 2 free flaps for reconstruction of extensive head and neck defects and 1 patient who required a second flap for partial flap loss. Trunk and extremity reconstruction was less common with 2 free flaps performed in each group. Overall, 19 patients (22.6%) developed complications and 14 required a return to the operating room. There were no flap losses in this cohort. Thorough preoperative evaluation and workup, meticulous surgical technique and intraoperative planning, and diligent postoperative monitoring and prompt intervention are critical for flap success. Conclusions: As a young plastic surgeon embarking in reconstructive plastic surgery at an academic institution, the challenges and dilemmas presented in the first year of practice have been daunting but also represent opportunities for learning and improvement. Skills and knowledge acquired from time, experience, and mentors are invaluable in optimizing outcomes in microvascular free flap reconstruction. PMID:25289221

  4. Evaluation of VIIRS SST fields through the analysis of overlap regions between consecutive orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayula, Jean-François P.; May, Douglas A.; Arnone, Robert A.; Vandermeulen, Ryan A.

    2015-05-01

    Full-swath Sea Surface Temperature (SST) derived from data acquired by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on-board the Suomi-National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite produces significant overlap between consecutive orbits at all latitudes. In this study, we use those overlap regions to evaluate VIIRS SST, as inconsistencies between SST values from consecutive orbits are indications of likely degraded quality. The studies investigate two sources of inconsistencies: those resulting from the response of the SST equations when observing a scene from differing view angles and those caused by undetected data contamination. This study will present results for two VIIRS SST products: one from the Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO), which is assimilated in the Navy Ocean Models, and the Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) product from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Center for Satellite Applications and Research (STAR). Global statistics based on drifting buoys for both NAVOCEANO and NOAA products complete the analysis.

  5. Consecutive Reaction to Construct Hierarchical Nanocrystalline CuS “Branch” with Tunable Catalysis Properties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiangdan; Yang, Feifei; Cui, Shizhong; Wei, Wutao; Chen, Weihua; Mi, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    New CuS nanocrystals with a 3D hierarchical branched structure are successfully synthesized through in situ consecutive reaction method with copper foam as template. The formation mechanism of the 3D hierarchical branched structure obtained from the secondary reaction is investigated by adjusting the reaction time. The morphology of CuS nanosheet arrays with the 3D hierarchical branched structure is changed through Cu2+ exchange. In this method, the copper foam reacted completely, and the as-synthesized CuS@Cu9S5 nanocrystals are firmly grown on the surface of the 3D framework. This tunable morphology significantly influence the physical and chemical properties, particularly catalytic performance, of the materials. The as-obtained material of Cu@CuS-2 with the 3D hierarchical branched structure as catalyst for methylene blue degradation exhibits good catalytic performance than that of the material of Cu@CuS with 2D nanosheets in dark environment. Furthermore, the cation exchange between Cu and Cu2+ indicates that Cu2+ in wastewater could be absorbed by Cu@CuS-2 with the 3D hierarchical branched structure. The exchanged resultant of CuS@Cu9S5 retains its capability to degrade organic dyes. This in situ consecutive reaction method may have a significant impact on controlling the crystal growth direction of inorganic material. PMID:27465583

  6. Consecutive Reaction to Construct Hierarchical Nanocrystalline CuS "Branch" with Tunable Catalysis Properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangdan; Yang, Feifei; Cui, Shizhong; Wei, Wutao; Chen, Weihua; Mi, Liwei

    2016-01-01

    New CuS nanocrystals with a 3D hierarchical branched structure are successfully synthesized through in situ consecutive reaction method with copper foam as template. The formation mechanism of the 3D hierarchical branched structure obtained from the secondary reaction is investigated by adjusting the reaction time. The morphology of CuS nanosheet arrays with the 3D hierarchical branched structure is changed through Cu(2+) exchange. In this method, the copper foam reacted completely, and the as-synthesized CuS@Cu9S5 nanocrystals are firmly grown on the surface of the 3D framework. This tunable morphology significantly influence the physical and chemical properties, particularly catalytic performance, of the materials. The as-obtained material of Cu@CuS-2 with the 3D hierarchical branched structure as catalyst for methylene blue degradation exhibits good catalytic performance than that of the material of Cu@CuS with 2D nanosheets in dark environment. Furthermore, the cation exchange between Cu and Cu(2+) indicates that Cu(2+) in wastewater could be absorbed by Cu@CuS-2 with the 3D hierarchical branched structure. The exchanged resultant of CuS@Cu9S5 retains its capability to degrade organic dyes. This in situ consecutive reaction method may have a significant impact on controlling the crystal growth direction of inorganic material. PMID:27465583

  7. Consecutive Reaction to Construct Hierarchical Nanocrystalline CuS “Branch” with Tunable Catalysis Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdan; Yang, Feifei; Cui, Shizhong; Wei, Wutao; Chen, Weihua; Mi, Liwei

    2016-07-01

    New CuS nanocrystals with a 3D hierarchical branched structure are successfully synthesized through in situ consecutive reaction method with copper foam as template. The formation mechanism of the 3D hierarchical branched structure obtained from the secondary reaction is investigated by adjusting the reaction time. The morphology of CuS nanosheet arrays with the 3D hierarchical branched structure is changed through Cu2+ exchange. In this method, the copper foam reacted completely, and the as-synthesized CuS@Cu9S5 nanocrystals are firmly grown on the surface of the 3D framework. This tunable morphology significantly influence the physical and chemical properties, particularly catalytic performance, of the materials. The as-obtained material of Cu@CuS-2 with the 3D hierarchical branched structure as catalyst for methylene blue degradation exhibits good catalytic performance than that of the material of Cu@CuS with 2D nanosheets in dark environment. Furthermore, the cation exchange between Cu and Cu2+ indicates that Cu2+ in wastewater could be absorbed by Cu@CuS-2 with the 3D hierarchical branched structure. The exchanged resultant of CuS@Cu9S5 retains its capability to degrade organic dyes. This in situ consecutive reaction method may have a significant impact on controlling the crystal growth direction of inorganic material.

  8. Plant-microbe rhizosphere interactions mediated by Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates under consecutive monoculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Yang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-10-01

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa declines significantly. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa in a four-year field trial led to significant growth inhibition. Most phenolic acids in root exudates had cumulative effects over time under sterile conditions, but these effects were not observed in the rhizosphere under monoculture conditions. It suggested soil microbes might be involved in the degradation and conversion of phenolic acids from the monocultured plants. T-RFLP and qPCR analysis demonstrated differences in both soil bacterial and fungal communities during monoculture. Prolonged monoculture significantly increased levels of Fusarium oxysporum, but decreased levels of Pseudomonas spp. Abundance of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. with antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum was lower in extended monoculture soils. Phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth, sporulation, and toxin (3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol) production of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibiting growth of the beneficial Pseudomonas sp. W12. This study demonstrates that extended monoculture can alter the microbial community of the rhizosphere, leading to relatively fewer beneficial microorganisms and relatively more pathogenic and toxin-producing microorganisms, which is mediated by the root exudates.

  9. A clinical trial of oral cholecystography using combinations of contrast agents and two consecutive doses.

    PubMed

    Thoeni, R F; Moss, A A

    1982-07-01

    Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent a randomized trial of oral cholecystography (OCG) using 5 different combinations of contrast agents given as 2 consecutive doses: Telepaque (iopanoic acid) given with food (TF) or without food (T), Bilopaque (sodium tyropanoate) given without food, and a combination of both agents (TF-B). The density of gallbladder opacification was judged visually on a scale of 1+ to 4+ and quantitatively by a densitometric method. Comparison of gallbladder opacification on the first and second days of the study revealed 52 of 75 (70%) combinations (TF-T, TF-TF,T-T, TF-B, B-B) resulted in improved opacification, 17% in equal opacification, and 13% in worse opacification on day 2. The TF-B combination showed the highest number (9) of excellent (grade 4+) results and the lowest number (2) of poor (grade 1+ and 2+) results, gave the best opacification in 8 volunteers, and had the highest average density difference (0.32) between first- and second-day opacifications. The TF-TF combination was the next most effective, and the T-T combination was the least effective. The results indicate that OCG in 2 consecutive doses is superior to single-dose OCG, and that a combination of TF-B or TF-TF will provide the greatest gallbladder opacification. The TF-B combination is recommended because of better patient tolerance. PMID:7045975

  10. Prediction of Behavior of Ceramic/Metal Composite Panels Under Two Consecutive Ballistic Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, A.; Rajasankar, J.; Iyer, N. R.; Anandavalli, N.; Biswas, S. K.; Mukhopadhyay, A. K.

    2014-05-01

    This article presents a numerical investigation to predict the behavior of ceramic (Al2O3 99.5)/metal (Al5083 H116) composite panels under two consecutive high-velocity impacts of 7.62 mm sharp-nosed small projectiles. A numerical model is developed using the advanced nonlinear software AUTODYN. The aim of the study is to predict the impact behavior of ceramic/metal composite panels. The study mainly focuses on the effect of arrangement of front ceramic tiles having collinear and non-collinear joints on the impact damage pattern. The novelty of the study presented in this article is the prediction of high-velocity-impact response under two consecutive and closely spaced hits on composite panels carried out in a more realistic manner. Numerical responses, such as depth of penetration, and deformation in back plate and crack patterns, are found to match well with the experimental results. It is believed that the outcome of this study is helpful in the design of a ceramic tile joint arrangement to minimize damage in the target panel.

  11. Plant-microbe rhizosphere interactions mediated by Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates under consecutive monoculture

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Yang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-01-01

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa declines significantly. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa in a four-year field trial led to significant growth inhibition. Most phenolic acids in root exudates had cumulative effects over time under sterile conditions, but these effects were not observed in the rhizosphere under monoculture conditions. It suggested soil microbes might be involved in the degradation and conversion of phenolic acids from the monocultured plants. T-RFLP and qPCR analysis demonstrated differences in both soil bacterial and fungal communities during monoculture. Prolonged monoculture significantly increased levels of Fusarium oxysporum, but decreased levels of Pseudomonas spp. Abundance of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. with antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum was lower in extended monoculture soils. Phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth, sporulation, and toxin (3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol) production of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibiting growth of the beneficial Pseudomonas sp. W12. This study demonstrates that extended monoculture can alter the microbial community of the rhizosphere, leading to relatively fewer beneficial microorganisms and relatively more pathogenic and toxin-producing microorganisms, which is mediated by the root exudates. PMID:26515244

  12. Fast Imaging Technique for fMRI: Consecutive Multishot Echo Planar Imaging Accelerated with GRAPPA Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Daehun; Sung, Yul-Wan; Kang, Chang-Ki

    2015-01-01

    This study was to evaluate the proposed consecutive multishot echo planar imaging (cmsEPI) combined with a parallel imaging technique in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and acceleration for a functional imaging study. We developed cmsEPI sequence using both consecutively acquired multishot EPI segments and variable flip angles to minimize the delay between segments and to maximize the SNR, respectively. We also combined cmsEPI with the generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (GRAPPA) method. Temporal SNRs were measured at different acceleration factors and number of segments for functional sensitivity evaluation. We also examined the geometric distortions, which inherently occurred in EPI sequence. The practical acceleration factors, R = 2 or R = 3, of the proposed technique improved the temporal SNR by maximally 18% in phantom test and by averagely 8.2% in in vivo experiment, compared to cmsEPI without parallel imaging. The data collection time was decreased in inverse proportion to the acceleration factor as well. The improved temporal SNR resulted in better statistical power when evaluated on the functional response of the brain. In this study, we demonstrated that the combination of cmsEPI with the parallel imaging technique could provide the improved functional sensitivity for functional imaging study, compensating for the lower SNR by cmsEPI. PMID:26413518

  13. Relationships between water wettability and ice adhesion.

    PubMed

    Meuler, Adam J; Smith, J David; Varanasi, Kripa K; Mabry, Joseph M; McKinley, Gareth H; Cohen, Robert E

    2010-11-01

    Ice formation and accretion may hinder the operation of many systems critical to national infrastructure, including airplanes, power lines, windmills, ships, and telecommunications equipment. Yet despite the pervasiveness of the icing problem, the fundamentals of ice adhesion have received relatively little attention in the scientific literature and it is not widely understood which attributes must be tuned to systematically design "icephobic" surfaces that are resistant to icing. Here we probe the relationships between advancing/receding water contact angles and the strength of ice adhesion to bare steel and twenty-one different test coatings (∼200-300 nm thick) applied to the nominally smooth steel discs. Contact angles are measured using a commercially available goniometer, whereas the average strengths of ice adhesion are evaluated with a custom-built laboratory-scale adhesion apparatus. The coatings investigated comprise commercially available polymers and fluorinated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (fluorodecyl POSS), a low-surface-energy additive known to enhance liquid repellency. Ice adhesion strength correlates strongly with the practical work of adhesion required to remove a liquid water drop from each test surface (i.e., with the quantity [1 + cos θ(rec)]), and the average strength of ice adhesion was reduced by as much as a factor of 4.2 when bare steel discs were coated with fluorodecyl POSS-containing materials. We argue that any further appreciable reduction in ice adhesion strength will require textured surfaces, as no known materials exhibit receding water contact angles on smooth/flat surfaces that are significantly above those reported here (i.e., the values of [1 + cos θ(rec)] reported here have essentially reached a minimum for known materials). PMID:20949900

  14. Cryogenic adhesives and sealants: Abstracted publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, F. R.; Olien, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts of primary documents containing original experimental data on the properties of adhesives and sealants at cryogenic temperatures are presented. The most important references mentioned in each document are cited. In addition, a brief annotation is given for documents considered secondary in nature, such as republications or variations of original reports, progress reports leading to final reports included as primary documents, and experimental data on adhesive properties at temperatures between about 130 K and room temperature.

  15. Pseudoelastic deformation during nanoscale adhesive contact formation.

    PubMed

    Mordehai, Dan; Rabkin, Eugen; Srolovitz, David J

    2011-08-26

    Molecular dynamics simulations are employed to demonstrate that adhesive contact formation through classical jump to contact is mediated by extensive dislocation activity in metallic nanoparticles. The dislocations generated during jump to contact are completely annihilated by the completion of the adhesive contact, leaving the nanoparticles dislocation-free. This rapid and efficient jump to contact process is pseudoelastic, rather than purely elastic or plastic. PMID:21929255

  16. New pressure-sensitive silicone adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiffer, J. L.; Stoops, W. E., Jr.; St. Clair, T. L.; Watkins, V. E., Jr.; Kelly, T. P.

    1981-01-01

    Adhesive for high or low temperatures does not stretch severely under load. It is produced by combining intermediate-molecular-weight pressure sensitive adhesive which does not cure with silicone resin that cures with catalyst to rubbery tack-free state. Blend of silicone tackifier and cured rubbery silicone requires no solvents in either atmospheric or vacuum environments. Ratio of ingredients varies for different degrees of tack, creep resistance, and tensile strength.

  17. Shear adhesion strength of aligned electrospun nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Najem, Johnny F; Wong, Shing-Chung; Ji, Guang

    2014-09-01

    Inspiration from nature such as insects' foot hairs motivates scientists to fabricate nanoscale cylindrical solids that allow tens of millions of contact points per unit area with material substrates. In this paper, we present a simple yet robust method for fabricating directionally sensitive shear adhesive laminates. By using aligned electrospun nylon-6, we create dry adhesives, as a succession of our previous work on measuring adhesion energies between two single free-standing electrospun polymer fibers in cross-cylinder geometry, randomly oriented membranes and substrate, and peel forces between aligned fibers and substrate. The synthetic aligned cylindrical solids in this study are electrically insulating and show a maximal Mode II shear adhesion strength of 27 N/cm(2) on a glass slide. This measured value, for the purpose of comparison, is 270% of that reported from gecko feet. The Mode II shear adhesion strength, based on a commonly known "dead-weight" test, is 97-fold greater than the Mode I (normal) adhesion strength of the same. The data indicate a strong shear binding on and easy normal lifting off. Anisotropic adhesion (Mode II/Mode I) is pronounced. The size and surface boundary effects, crystallinity, and bending stiffness of fibers are used to understand these electrospun nanofibers, which vastly differ from otherwise known adhesive technologies. The anisotropic strength distribution is attributed to a decreasing fiber diameter and an optimized laminate thickness, which, in turn, influences the bending stiffness and solid-state "wettability" of points of contact between nanofibers and surface asperities. PMID:25105533

  18. Processable polyimide adhesive and matrix composite resin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Progar, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature polyimide composition prepared by reacting 4,4'-isophthaloyldiphthalic anhydride with metaphenylenediamine is employed to prepare matrix resins, adhesives, films, coatings, moldings, and laminates, especially those showing enhanced flow with retention of mechanical and adhesive properties. It can be used in the aerospace industry, for example, in joining metals to metals or metals to composite structures. One area of application is in the manufacture of lighter and stronger aircraft and spacecraft structures.

  19. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  20. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Condensed from Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Multiple Sclerosis? An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, ...

  1. 21 CFR 175.125 - Pressure-sensitive adhesives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pressure-sensitive adhesives. 175.125 Section 175... Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives § 175.125 Pressure-sensitive adhesives. Pressure-sensitive... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Pressure-sensitive adhesives prepared from one or...

  2. 21 CFR 878.3750 - External prosthesis adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false External prosthesis adhesive. 878.3750 Section 878.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... adhesive. (a) Identification. An external prosthesis adhesive is a silicone-type adhesive intended to...

  3. 21 CFR 175.125 - Pressure-sensitive adhesives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pressure-sensitive adhesives. 175.125 Section 175...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADHESIVES AND COMPONENTS OF COATINGS Substances for Use Only as Components of Adhesives § 175.125 Pressure-sensitive adhesives....

  4. 21 CFR 878.3750 - External prosthesis adhesive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External prosthesis adhesive. 878.3750 Section 878.3750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... adhesive. (a) Identification. An external prosthesis adhesive is a silicone-type adhesive intended to...

  5. Cell-Substrate Adhesion by Amoeboid Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanders, Bret; Panta, Krishna

    Amoeboid migration is a rapid (10 μm min-1) mode of migration that some tumor cells exhibit. To permit such rapid movement, the adhesive contacts between the cell and the substrate must be relatively short-lived and weak. In this study, we investigate the basic adhesive character of amoeboid cells (D. discoideum) in contact with silanized glass substrates. We observe the initiation and spreading of the adhesive contacts that these cells establish as they settle under gravity onto the substrate and relax towards mechanical equilibrium. The use of interference reflection microscopy and cellular tethering measurements have allowed us to determine the basic adhesive properties of the cell: the membrane-medium interfacial energy; the bending modulus; the equilibrium contact angle; and the work of adhesion. We find the time scale on which settling occurs to be longer than expected. Implications of these results on adhesion and migration will be discussed. The authors are grateful for support from NSF (CBET-1451903) and NIH (1R21EY026392).

  6. Force transmission during adhesion-independent migration.

    PubMed

    Bergert, Martin; Erzberger, Anna; Desai, Ravi A; Aspalter, Irene M; Oates, Andrew C; Charras, Guillaume; Salbreux, Guillaume; Paluch, Ewa K

    2015-04-01

    When cells move using integrin-based focal adhesions, they pull in the direction of motion with large, ∼100 Pa, stresses that contract the substrate. Integrin-mediated adhesions, however, are not required for in vivo confined migration. During focal adhesion-free migration, the transmission of propelling forces, and their magnitude and orientation, are not understood. Here, we combine theory and experiments to investigate the forces involved in adhesion-free migration. Using a non-adherent blebbing cell line as a model, we show that actin cortex flows drive cell movement through nonspecific substrate friction. Strikingly, the forces propelling the cell forward are several orders of magnitude lower than during focal-adhesion-based motility. Moreover, the force distribution in adhesion-free migration is inverted: it acts to expand, rather than contract, the substrate in the direction of motion. This fundamentally different mode of force transmission may have implications for cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions during migration in vivo. PMID:25774834

  7. Controlled Adhesion of Silicone Elastomer Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Michael

    2000-03-01

    Opportunities exist for controllably enhancing the adhesion of silicone surfaces, ranging from modest enhancement of release force levels of pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) release liners by incorporation of adhesion promoters known as high release additives (HRA), to permanent bonding of silicone elastomers using surface modification techniques such as plasma or corona treatment. Although only a part of the complex interaction of factors contributing to adhesion, surface properties such as wettability are a critical component in the understanding and control of release and adhesion phenomena. Surface characterization studies of low-surface-energy silicones before and after various adhesion modification strategies are reviewed. The silicones include polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and fluorosiloxane elastomers and coatings. Techniques used include contact angle, the Johnson, Kendall and Roberts (JKR) contact mechanics approach, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Topics addressed are: use of HRA in PDMS release liners, the interaction of PDMS PSAs with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and the effect of plasma treatment on PDMS and fluorosiloxane surfaces.

  8. Fibroblasts adhesion on ion beam modified polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švorčík, V.; Tomášová, P.; Dvořánková, B.; Hnatowicz, V.; Ochsner, R.; Ryssel, H.

    2004-02-01

    Polyethylene (PE) was irradiated with 15 keV O +, P + and Ar + ions to the fluences from 3 × 10 12 to 1 × 10 15 cm -2. The changes of surface structure and polarity and oxygen concentration were examined on pristine and as-irradiated PE. The in vitro adhesion of rat 3T3 fibroblasts on the modified PE was evaluated 24 h after inoculation. Degradation of PE is manifested by the creation of conjugated double bonds and oxidation of the PE main chain. It was proved that the implanted P atoms are chemically bound onto degraded polymer chain. Wettability of the polymer surface is affected by the structure and composition of the modified surface layer. In comparison with pristine PE (i) higher cell adhesion is observed on implanted PE and (ii) the cells cultivated on implanted PE are larger and their adherence is significantly more homogeneous. The enhancement of 3T3 cells adhesion is highest and smallest for PE implanted with O + and Ar + ions, respectively. Highest cell adhesion was observed on PE implanted to the fluence of 1 × 10 13 cm -2 regardless of the ion specie. It was shown that the cell adhesion is related to the wettability of the PE surface and that there exists an optimal wettability with respect to the cell adhesion.

  9. Adhesion of colloidal particles on modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Volodymyr; Papastavrou, Georg

    2012-12-01

    The adhesion between colloidal silica particles and modified electrodes has been studied by direct force measurements with the colloidal probe technique based on the atomic force microscope (AFM). The combination of potentiostatic control of gold electrodes and chemical modification of their surface with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) allows for the decoupling of forces due to the electrical double layers and functional groups at the solid/liquid interface. Adhesion on such electrodes can be tuned over a large range using the externally applied potential and the aqueous solution's ionic strength. By utilizing cantilevers with a high force constant, it is possible to separate the various contributions to adhesion in an unambiguous manner. These contributions comprise diffuse-layer overlap, van der Waals forces, solvent exclusion, and electrocapillarity. A quantitative description of the observed adhesion forces is obtained by taking into account the surface roughness of the silica particle. The main component of the adhesion forces originates from the overlap of the electrical double layers, which is tuned by the external potential. By contrast, effects due to electrocapillarity are of only minor importance. Based on our quantitative analysis, a new approach is proposed that allows tuning of the adhesion force as a function of the externally applied potential. We expect this approach to have important applications for the design of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), the development of electrochemical sensors, and the application of micro- and nanomanipulation. PMID:23072548

  10. Bistability of Cell Adhesion in Shear Flow

    PubMed Central

    Efremov, Artem; Cao, Jianshu

    2011-01-01

    Cell adhesion plays a central role in multicellular organisms helping to maintain their integrity and homeostasis. This complex process involves many different types of adhesion proteins, and synergetic behavior of these proteins during cell adhesion is frequently observed in experiments. A well-known example is the cooperation of rolling and stationary adhesion proteins during the leukocytes extravasation. Despite the fact that such cooperation is vital for proper functioning of the immune system, its origin is not fully understood. In this study we constructed a simple analytic model of the interaction between a leukocyte and the blood vessel wall in shear flow. The model predicts existence of cell adhesion bistability, which results from a tug-of-war between two kinetic processes taking place in the cell-wall contact area—bond formation and rupture. Based on the model results, we suggest an interpretation of several cytoadhesion experiments and propose a simple explanation of the existing synergy between rolling and stationary adhesion proteins, which is vital for effective cell adherence to the blood vessel walls in living organisms. PMID:21889439

  11. Plasma treatment of polymers for improved adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Kelber, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of plasma treatments of polymer surfaces for improved adhesion are reviewed: noble and reactive gas treatment of fluoropolymers; noble and reactive treatment of polyolefins, and plasma-induced amination of polymer fibers. The plasma induced surface chemical and morphological changes are discussed, as are the mechanisms of adhesion to polymeric adhesives, particularly epoxy. Noble gas plasma etching of flouropolymers produces a partially defluorinated, textured surface. The mechanical interlocking of this textured surface is the primary cause of improved adhesion to epoxy. Reactive gas plasmas also induce defluorination, but oxygen containing gases cause continual ablation of the fluoropolymer surface. Noble and reactive gas (exept for hydrogen) etching of polyolefins results in surface oxidation and improved adhesion via hydrogen bonding of these oxygen containing groups across the interface. The introduction of amine groups to a polymer surface by amonia or amine plasma treatment generally results in improved adhesion to epoxy. However, amine-epoxy ring interactions can be severely effected by steric factors due to chemical groups surrounding the amine. 41 refs.

  12. Enhanced adhesion of diamond coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhido

    potential layers identified: TiN and TiC. Crystalline diamond coatings are subsequently deposited on these layers by hot filament CVD. A large grained TiC coating with a relatively rough surface was found to provide the best adhesion to the diamond layer. As judged qualitatively by the extent of spallation adjacent to hardness indentation, this intermediate layer performs better than similar TiC layers reported in the literature. The residual stresses in the diamond coatings are analysed using Raman microprobe spectroscopy, and compared with the predictions of the analytical model. The adhesion of the diamond coatings on various substrates with and without an intermediate layer of TiC is quantitatively evaluated by measuring the length of the delamination crack surrounding through-thickness holes in the coating and comparing with the relationship derived between crack length and strain energy release rate. The measured adherence on WC-Co substrates, as characterised by the critical strain energy release rate for growth of the delamination crack, was found to be significantly higher in the presence of the TiC intermediate layer developed during the course of this work.

  13. Multiple vehicle detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betke, Margrit; Haritaoglu, Ismail; Davis, Larry S.

    1997-02-01

    A hard real time vision system has been developed that recognizes and tracks multiple cars from video sequences taken from a car driving on highways and country roads. Recognition is accomplished by combining the analysis of single image frames with the analysis of the motion information provided by multiple consecutive image frames. In single image frames, cars are recognized by matching deformable gray-scale templates, by detecting image features, such as corners, and by evaluating how these features relate to each other. Cars are also recognized by tracking motion parameters that are typical for cars. The vision system utilizes the hard real-time operating system Maruti which guarantees that the timing constraints on the various vision processes are satisfied. The dynamic creation and termination of tracking processes optimizes the amount of computational resources spent and allows fast detection and tracking of multiple cars. Experimental results demonstrate robust, real-time recognition and tracking over thousands of image frames.

  14. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  15. Design guidelines for hybrid microcircuits; organic adhesives for hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, K. L.; Licari, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    The properties of organic adhesives were studied to acquire an adequate information base to generate a guideline document for the selection of adhesives for use in high reliability hybrid microcircuits. Specific areas covered include: (1) alternate methods for determining the outgassing of cured adhesives; (2) effects of long term aging at 150C on the electrical properties of conductive adhesives; (3) effects of shelf life age on adhesive characteristics; (4) bond strengths of electrically conductive adhesives on thick film gold metallization, (5) a copper filled adhesive; (6) effects of products outgassed from cured adhesives on device electrical parameters; (7) metal migration from electrically conductive adhesives; and (8) ionic content of electrically insulative adhesives. The tests performed during these investigations are described, and the results obtained are discussed in detail.

  16. Investigation of chitosan-phenolics systems as wood adhesives.

    PubMed

    Peshkova, Svetlana; Li, Kaichang

    2003-04-24

    Chitosan-phenolics systems were investigated as wood adhesives. Adhesion between two pieces of wood veneer developed only when all three components-chitosan, a phenolic compound, and laccase-were present. For the adhesive systems containing a phenolic compound with only one phenolic hydroxyl group, adhesive strengths were highly dependent upon the chemical structures of phenolic compounds used in the system and the relative oxidation rates of the phenolic compounds by laccase. The adhesive strengths were also directly related to the viscosity of the adhesive systems. However, for the adhesive systems containing a phenolic compound with two or three phenolic hydroxyl groups adjacent to each other, no correlations among adhesive strengths, relative oxidation rates of the phenolic compounds by laccase, and viscosities were observed. The adhesion mechanisms of these chitosan-phenolics systems were proposed to be similar to those of mussel adhesive proteins. PMID:12697397

  17. Spontaneous Bone Regeneration After Enucleation of Large Jaw Cysts: A Digital Radiographic Analysis of 44 Consecutive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Rabin; Paul, Arun; Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the healing in cystic defect of the jaw to substantiate our understanding of spontaneous bone healing after enucleation of jaw cysts subjectively and with analysis of digital postoperative panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods Fourty four consecutive patients reporting to the Department of Dental and Oral Surgery, during the period between 2008-2012 having maxillary and mandibular cysts treated by either surgical enucleation or by marsupialization followed by enucleation were evaluated for subsequent bone formation at the site of cystectomy defect by subjective clinical examination along with digital radiographic examination. Postoperative clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at 6,9,12, and 24 months. Bone regeneration was evaluated by reduction of the size of residual cavities at the cystectomy defect using digital orthopantomogram. Results Out of 44 patients 15 patients completed two years of follow-up with all the patients having 6 months follow-up. The maximum size of the cystic pathology was 150.40mm and minimum of 14.73mm at the time of presentation (average size of 58.16mm). Twenty patients were diagnosed with odontogenic keratocyst, with one patient having multiple OKC associated with Gorlin Goltz Syndrome, 17 patients had dentigerous cyst, 5 had Radicular cyst; solitary bone cyst and globulomaxillary cyst formed one each. Uneventful healing and spontaneous filling of the residual cavities were obtained in all cases. The digital analysis of the postoperative radiographs showed mean values of reduction in size of the residual cavity of 25.85% after 6 months, 57.13% after 9 months, 81.03% after one year and 100% after two year. Conclusion Spontaneous bone regeneration can occur after surgical removal of jaw cysts without the aid of any graft materials even in large cystic cavity sufficiently surrounded by enough bony walls. This simplifies the surgical procedure, decreases the overall cost of surgery, and

  18. The Incidence of Patent Foramen Ovale in 1,000 Consecutive Patients: A Contrast Transesophageal Echocardiography Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Daniel C.; Fisher, Edward A.; Budd, Jacqueline H.; Rosen, Stacey E.; Goldman, Martin E.

    1995-01-01

    Study objective: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is present in 10 to 35% of people and has been reported to be an important risk factor for cardioembolic cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) and transient ischemic attacks (TIAS), especially in younger patients. While contrast transthoracic echocardiography has been used to detect PFO, contrast transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has a greater sensitivity. Prior studies reported the incidence of PFO in patients presenting with a CVA or TIA. Design: To determine the incidence of PFO in a more general population, we reviewed 1,000 consecutive TEES performed with contrast and color Doppler for the presence of PFO and other cardioembolic risk factors, including atrial septal aneurysm (ASA), aortic plaque, atrial fibrillation (AFib), and atrial thrombi. While imaging with monoplane or biplane TEE, multiple injections of agitated saline solution were injected during cough or Valsalva maneuver to detect flow through a PFO. Patients: There were 482 male and 518 female patients with mean age of 60 + 17 years (range 11 to 93 years). Results: Patent foramen ovale was found in 9.2% of all patients and, though seen in all age groups divided by decade, the incidence in patients aged 40 to 49 years was greater than those aged 70 to 79 years (12.96% vs 6.15%',, p=0.03). Contrast TEE had a much higher detection rate than color Doppler alone. Importantly, there was no greater incidence of PFO in patients with CVA vs thos without CVA, or in male vs female patients. Also, there was a very strong correlation between the presence of ASA and PFO (p<.001). Conclusion: Thus, PFO detected by TEE, frequently seen with ASA, is seen in all age groups and does not in itself present a risk factor for CVA. The association of PFO with peripheral thrombosis and CVA needs further study.

  19. Implementation of Cognitive Therapy for PTSD in routine clinical care: Effectiveness and moderators of outcome in a consecutive sample☆

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Anke; Grey, Nick; Wild, Jennifer; Stott, Richard; Liness, Sheena; Deale, Alicia; Handley, Rachel; Albert, Idit; Cullen, Deborah; Hackmann, Ann; Manley, John; McManus, Freda; Brady, Francesca; Salkovskis, Paul; Clark, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Trauma-focused psychological treatments are recommended as first-line treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), but clinicians may be concerned that the good outcomes observed in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) may not generalize to the wide range of traumas and presentations seen in clinical practice. This study investigated whether Cognitive Therapy for PTSD (CT-PTSD) can be effectively implemented into a UK National Health Service Outpatient Clinic serving a defined ethnically mixed urban catchment area. Method A consecutive sample of 330 patients with PTSD (age 17–83) following a wide range of traumas were treated by 34 therapists, who received training and supervision in CT-PTSD. Pre and post treatment data (PTSD symptoms, anxiety, depression) were collected for all patients, including dropouts. Hierarchical linear modeling investigated candidate moderators of outcome and therapist effects. Results CT-PTSD was well tolerated and led to very large improvement in PTSD symptoms, depression and anxiety. The majority of patients showed reliable improvement/clinically significant change: intent-to-treat: 78.8%/57.3%; completer: 84.5%/65.1%. Dropouts and unreliable attenders had worse outcome. Statistically reliable symptom exacerbation with treatment was observed in only 1.2% of patients. Treatment gains were maintained during follow-up (M = 280 days, n = 220). Few of the selection criteria used in some RCTs, demographic, diagnostic and trauma characteristics moderated treatment outcome, and only social problems and needing treatment for multiple traumas showed unique moderation effects. There were no random effects of therapist on symptom improvement, but therapists who were inexperienced in CT-PTSD had more dropouts than those with greater experience. Conclusions The results support the effectiveness of CT-PTSD and suggest that trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy can be successfully implemented in routine clinical services

  20. Secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1) regulates spermatid adhesion in the testis via dephosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and the nectin-3 adhesion protein complex

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Elissa W. P.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan

    2013-01-01

    Development of spermatozoa in adult mammalian testis during spermatogenesis involves extensive cell migration and differentiation. Spermatogonia that reside at the basal compartment of the seminiferous epithelium differentiate into more advanced germ cell types that migrate toward the apical compartment until elongated spermatids are released into the tubule lumen during spermiation. Apical ectoplasmic specialization (ES; a testis-specific anchoring junction) is the only cell junction that anchors and maintains the polarity of elongating/elongated spermatids (step 8–19 spermatids) in the epithelium. Little is known regarding the signaling pathways that trigger the disassembly of the apical ES at spermiation. Here, we show that secreted Frizzled-related protein 1 (sFRP1), a putative tumor suppressor gene that is frequently down-regulated in multiple carcinomas, is a crucial regulatory protein for spermiation. The expression of sFRP1 is tightly regulated in adult rat testis to control spermatid adhesion and sperm release at spermiation. Down-regulation of sFRP1 during testicular development was found to coincide with the onset of the first wave of spermiation at approximately age 45 d postpartum, implying that sFRP1 might be correlated with elongated spermatid adhesion conferred by the apical ES before spermiation. Indeed, administration of sFRP1 recombinant protein to the testis in vivo delayed spermiation, which was accompanied by down-regulation of phosphorylated (p)-focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-Tyr397 and retention of nectin-3 adhesion protein at the apical ES. To further investigate the functional relationship between p-FAK-Tyr397 and localization of nectin-3, we overexpressed sFRP1 using lentiviral vectors in the Sertoli-germ cell coculture system. Consistent with the in vivo findings, overexpression of sFRP1 induced down-regulation of p-FAK-Tyr397, leading to a decline in phosphorylation of nectin-3. In summary, this report highlights the critical role of s

  1. Assay of Adhesion Under Shear Stress for the Study of T Lymphocyte-Adhesion Molecule Interactions.

    PubMed

    Strazza, Marianne; Azoulay-Alfaguter, Inbar; Peled, Michael; Mor, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Overall, T cell adhesion is a critical component of function, contributing to the distinct processes of cellular recruitment to sites of inflammation and interaction with antigen presenting cells (APC) in the formation of immunological synapses. These two contexts of T cell adhesion differ in that T cell-APC interactions can be considered static, while T cell-blood vessel interactions are challenged by the shear stress generated by circulation itself. T cell-APC interactions are classified as static in that the two cellular partners are static relative to each other. Usually, this interaction occurs within the lymph nodes. As a T cell interacts with the blood vessel wall, the cells arrest and must resist the generated shear stress.(1,2) These differences highlight the need to better understand static adhesion and adhesion under flow conditions as two distinct regulatory processes. The regulation of T cell adhesion can be most succinctly described as controlling the affinity state of integrin molecules expressed on the cell surface, and thereby regulating the interaction of integrins with the adhesion molecule ligands expressed on the surface of the interacting cell. Our current understanding of the regulation of integrin affinity states comes from often simplistic in vitro model systems. The assay of adhesion using flow conditions described here allows for the visualization and accurate quantification of T cell-epithelial cell interactions in real time following a stimulus. An adhesion under flow assay can be applied to studies of adhesion signaling within T cells following treatment with inhibitory or stimulatory substances. Additionally, this assay can be expanded beyond T cell signaling to any adhesive leukocyte population and any integrin-adhesion molecule pair. PMID:27404581

  2. Contribution from pressure-sensitive adhesives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Gilbert

    1996-03-01

    The successful use of many security papers, foils and films depends on the technology of chemical fastening systems -- especially pressure sensitive adhesives. These are adhesives activated not by heat or by the evaporation of water or some other solvent, but simply by the act of application -- by pressure. These adhesives provide the means whereby laminations, substrates and seals are made effective. In addition to their physical properties these adhesives are often required to possess optical properties to allow the security materials to be visibly active and indeed the adhesive system may itself contribute as a carrier for a variety of security materials. Recent advances in adhesives chemistry have made it possible to achieve virtually all the required physical performance characteristics combined with a choice of optical properties ranging from total opacity to invisibility and including controlled translucency and tinting. The implications for security printing and packaging are important. Opacity is easy to achieve, for example by loading the adhesive with aluminum powder, by the selection of totally opaque materials like metallized film or by various printing processes. But achieving transparency is a different matter, and transparency is mandatory for applications involving the protection of documents, photographs, etc. with a clear film over-laminate. Obvious examples would be for passports, visas and other personal identification. But some security devices may themselves require protection; for example holograms or embossings. And transparency in the test laboratory is not enough. The Australian driving licence is stuck to the windshield, so the transparency of the adhesive must be sustained over long periods without deterioration due to prolonged u/v exposure, climatic conditions or aging. The commercial label market has helped to push the technology forward. There is a strong demand for the 'no-label look' for packaging of clear plastic and glass

  3. Mesospheric Zonal Mean Winds Derived from Consecutive Orbits of AIM Cips Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, P. P.; Yue, J.; Russell, J. M., III; Lumpe, J. D., Jr.; Gong, J.; Wu, D. L.; Randall, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    In order to infer mesospheric wind velocities, polar mesospheric cloud (PMC) pattern variations are investigated using images from consecutive orbits taken by the Cloud Imaging and Particle Size instrument (CIPS) aboard the AIM satellite. CIPS measurements are analyzed to detect patterns that repeat from one orbit to the next, but are displaced in location; the displacement provides a measure of the wind velocity. Pattern matching is achieved by re-sampling the CIPS data to a standard geographic grid with a horizontal resolution of 0.2° longitude × 0.05° latitude (~25 km2), and correlating patterns within geographic frames of size 24° longitude × 3.6° latitude. Such a frame size is arbitrarily chosen, but it covers a hierarchy of cloud structures including scales as large as several hundred kilometers. A relatively larger frame is required because after ~90 minutes, the time of one orbit, the smaller scale features are no longer conserved. Several thousand pairs, taken from 10-14 July 2007, are matched to derive the statistics. These pairs are mostly evenly distributed at longitudes and latitudes north of 70⁰N for each given day. The results suggest that the zonal velocity probability distribution during this 5-day period was peaked at around -40m/s with a 1-σ scatter of ~35m/s. The meridional velocity distribution peaked at 0 m/s with a 1-σ scatter of ~25m/s. These prevailing velocities can be determined with high precision because the corresponding patterns are shifted by at least half of the frame size from one orbit to the next. The CIPS cloud albedo on consecutive orbits is also examined for variations at fixed locations. The statistical results suggest that the mean cloud albedo within a given frame will most likely be weakened or strengthened by < 30% on consecutive orbits, although larger variations can occur with lower probability. Such a conclusion applies to both bright and dim clouds. This indicates that within 90 minutes the cloud brightness

  4. Pressure-sensitive adhesives for transdermal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Tan; Pfister

    1999-02-01

    Adhesives are a critical component in transdermal drug delivery (TDD) devices. In addition to the usual requirements of functional adhesive properties, adhesives for TDD applications must have good biocompatibility with the skin, chemical compatibility with the drug, various components of the formulation, and provide consistent, effective delivery of the drug. This review discusses the three most commonly used adhesives (polyisobutylenes, polyacrylates and silicones) in TDD devices, and provides an update on recently introduced TDD products and recent developments of new adhesives. PMID:10234208

  5. Adhesives for the composite wood panel industry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, G.S.; Klareich, F.; Exstrum, B.

    1986-01-13

    Significant energy savings could be realized if current fossil fuel-based resins could be replaced with alternative biomass-derived adhesives. Hence, a program was performed to analyze the current wood panel adhesives market, identify both domestic and international R and D efforts in the area of biomass-derived alternative adhesives that might serve as substitutes for conventional fossil fuel-based adhesives, and assess the technical and economic factors that will influence commercial success of these alternative adhesives.

  6. The pro-adhesive and pro-survival effects of glucocorticoid in human ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yin, Lijuan; Fang, Fang; Song, Xinglei; Wang, Yan; Huang, Gaoxiang; Su, Jie; Hui, Ning; Lu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Cell adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) is controlled by multiple signaling molecules and intracellular pathways, and is pivotal for survival and growth of cells from most solid tumors. Our previous works demonstrated that dexamethasone (DEX) significantly enhances cell adhesion and cell resistance to chemotherapeutics by increasing the levels of integrin β1, α4, and α5 in human ovarian cancer cells. However, it is unclear whether the components of ECM or other membrane molecules are also involved in the pro-adhesive effect of DEX in ovarian cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that the treatment of cells with DEX did not change the expression of collagens (I, III, and IV), laminin, CD44, and its principal ligand hyaluronan (HA), but significantly increased the levels of intracellular and secreted fibronectin (FN). Inhibiting the expression of FN with FN1 siRNA or blocking CD44, another FN receptor, with CD44 blocking antibody significantly attenuated the pro-adhesion of DEX, indicating that upregulation of FN mediates the pro-adhesive effect of DEX by its interaction with CD44 besides integrin β1. Moreover, DEX significantly enhanced cell resistance to the chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel (PTX) by activating PI-3K-Akt pathway. Finally, we found that DEX also significantly upregulated the expression of MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein. Inhibiting the expression of MUC1 with MUC1 siRNA significantly attenuated the DEX-induced effects of pro-adhesion, Akt-activation, and pro-survival. In conclusion, these results provide new data that upregulation of FN and MUC1 by DEX contributes to DEX-induced pro-adhesion and protects ovarian cancer cells from chemotherapy. PMID:27151574

  7. A simple surface treatment and characterization of AA 6061 aluminum alloy surface for adhesive bonding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleema, N.; Sarkar, D. K.; Paynter, R. W.; Gallant, D.; Eskandarian, M.

    2012-11-01

    Structural adhesive bonding of aluminum is widely used in aircraft and automotive industries. It has been widely noted that surface preparation of aluminum surfaces prior to adhesive bonding plays a significant role in improving the strength of the adhesive bond. Surface cleanliness, surface roughness, surface wettability and surface chemistry are controlled primarily by proper surface treatment methods. In this study, we have employed a very simple technique influencing all these criteria by simply immersing aluminum substrates in a very dilute solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and we have studied the effect of varying the treatment period on the adhesive bonding characteristics. A bi-component epoxy adhesive was used to join the treated surfaces and the bond strengths were evaluated via single lap shear (SLS) tests in pristine as well as degraded conditions. Surface morphology, chemistry, crystalline nature and wettability of the NaOH treated surfaces were characterized using various surface analytical tools such as scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), optical profilometry, infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and contact angle goniometry. Excellent adhesion characteristics with complete cohesive failure of the adhesive were encountered on the NaOH treated surfaces that are comparable to the benchmark treatments such as anodization, which involve use of strong acids and multiple steps of treatment procedures. The NaOH treatment reported in this work is a very simple method with the use of a very dilute solution with simple ultrasonication being sufficient to produce durable joints.

  8. Ghrelin Inhibits Post-Operative Adhesions via Blockage of the TGF-β Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Enrica; Boekelheide, Kim; Sigman, Mark; Lamb, Dolores J.; Hall, Susan J.; Hwang, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Post-operative adhesions are a critical problem in pelvic and abdominal surgery despite a multitude of studies dedicated to finding modalities to prevent their occurrence. Ghrelin administration promotes an anti-fibrotic response in a surgical mouse model of adhesion-induction, but the mechanisms mediating this effect have not been established. In the current study, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the anti-adhesion effect of ghrelin were investigated. Post-surgical adhesions were experimentally created in C57BL/6 wild-type mice via a combination of ischemic peritoneal buttons and cecal multiple abrasions. Ghrelin or saline intraperitoneal injections were given twice daily from two days before surgery to selected time points post-surgically to assess the phenotypic and molecular effects of treatment (1 day (n = 20), 4 days (n = 20) and 20 days (n = 40) after surgery). Endpoints included the scoring of adhesions and gene and protein expression analysis of pro-fibrogenic factors conducted on peritoneal ischemic tissue by quantitative PCR and Western blot. Ghrelin administration significantly reduced post-surgical adhesions and down-regulated pro-inflammatory gene and protein expression, including Tgfb3 and Tgfbr2. The up-regulation of inhibitory proteins Smad6 and Smad7 confirmed the ghrelin-induced blockage of TGF-β signaling. Ghrelin is a candidate therapeutic drug for post-operative adhesion prevention, inhibiting inflammatory responses via blockage of the TGF-β signaling pathway at the onset of surgery before the occurrence of the granulation-remodeling phase. PMID:27082244

  9. Structural specializations of α4β7, an integrin that mediates rolling adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yamei; Zhu, Jianghai; Mi, Li-Zhi; Walz, Thomas; Sun, Hao; Chen, JianFeng

    2012-01-01

    The lymphocyte homing receptor integrin α4β7 is unusual for its ability to mediate both rolling and firm adhesion. α4β1 and α4β7 are targeted by therapeutics approved for multiple sclerosis and Crohn’s disease. Here, we show by electron microscopy and crystallography how two therapeutic Fabs, a small molecule (RO0505376), and mucosal adhesion molecule-1 (MAdCAM-1) bind α4β7. A long binding groove at the α4–β7 interface for immunoglobulin superfamily domains differs in shape from integrin pockets that bind Arg-Gly-Asp motifs. RO0505376 mimics an Ile/Leu-Asp motif in α4 ligands, and orients differently from Arg-Gly-Asp mimics. A novel auxiliary residue at the metal ion–dependent adhesion site in α4β7 is essential for binding to MAdCAM-1 in Mg2+ yet swings away when RO0505376 binds. A novel intermediate conformation of the α4β7 headpiece binds MAdCAM-1 and supports rolling adhesion. Lack of induction of the open headpiece conformation by ligand binding enables rolling adhesion to persist until integrin activation is signaled. PMID:22232704

  10. Adaptive simplification and the evolution of gecko locomotion: Morphological and biomechanical consequences of losing adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Higham, Timothy E.; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra V.; Collins, Clint E.; Hulsey, C. Darrin; Russell, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Innovations permit the diversification of lineages, but they may also impose functional constraints on behaviors such as locomotion. Thus, it is not surprising that secondary simplification of novel locomotory traits has occurred several times among vertebrates and could potentially lead to exceptional divergence when constraints are relaxed. For example, the gecko adhesive system is a remarkable innovation that permits locomotion on surfaces unavailable to other animals, but has been lost or simplified in species that have reverted to a terrestrial lifestyle. We examined the functional and morphological consequences of this adaptive simplification in the Pachydactylus radiation of geckos, which exhibits multiple unambiguous losses or bouts of simplification of the adhesive system. We found that the rates of morphological and 3D locomotor kinematic evolution are elevated in those species that have simplified or lost adhesive capabilities. This finding suggests that the constraints associated with adhesion have been circumvented, permitting these species to either run faster or burrow. The association between a terrestrial lifestyle and the loss/reduction of adhesion suggests a direct link between morphology, biomechanics, and ecology. PMID:25548182

  11. Phylogenetic analysis of the scaling of wet and dry biological fibrillar adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Peattie, A. M.; Full, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Fibrillar, or “hairy,” adhesives have evolved multiple times independently within arthropods and reptiles. These adhesives exhibit highly desirable properties for dynamic attachment, including orientation dependence, wear resistance, and self-cleaning. Our understanding of how these properties are related to their fibrillar structure is limited, although theoretical models from the literature have generated useful hypotheses. We survey the morphology of 81 species with fibrillar adhesives to test the hypothesis that packing density of contact elements should increase with body size, whereas the size of the contact elements should decrease. We test this hypothesis in a phylogenetic context to avoid treating historically related species as statistically independent data points. We find that fiber morphology is better predicted by evolutionary history and adhesive mechanism than by body size. As we attempt to identify which morphological parameters are most responsible for the performance of fibrillar adhesives, it will be important to take advantage of the natural variation in morphology and the potentially suboptimal outcomes it encompasses, rather than assuming evolution to be an inherently optimizing process. PMID:18000044

  12. Multiscale evaluation of cellular adhesion alteration and cytoskeleton remodeling by magnetic bead twisting.

    PubMed

    Isabey, Daniel; Pelle, Gabriel; André Dias, Sofia; Bottier, Mathieu; Nguyen, Ngoc-Minh; Filoche, Marcel; Louis, Bruno

    2016-08-01

    Cellular adhesion forces depend on local biological conditions meaning that adhesion characterization must be performed while preserving cellular integrity. We presently postulate that magnetic bead twisting provides an appropriate stress, i.e., basically a clamp, for assessment in living cells of both cellular adhesion and mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton. A global dissociation rate obeying a Bell-type model was used to determine the natural dissociation rate ([Formula: see text]) and a reference stress ([Formula: see text]). These adhesion parameters were determined in parallel to the mechanical properties for a variety of biological conditions in which either adhesion or cytoskeleton was selectively weakened or strengthened by changing successively ligand concentration, actin polymerization level (by treating with cytochalasin D), level of exerted stress (by increasing magnetic torque), and cell environment (by using rigid and soft 3D matrices). On the whole, this multiscale evaluation of the cellular and molecular responses to a controlled stress reveals an evolution which is consistent with stochastic multiple bond theories and with literature results obtained with other molecular techniques. Present results confirm the validity of the proposed bead-twisting approach for its capability to probe cellular and molecular responses in a variety of biological conditions. PMID:26459324

  13. Ileal and cecal microbial populations in broilers given specific essential oil blends and probiotics in two consecutive grow-outs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Digestive microbial populations (MP) are key components for sustained healthy broiler production. Specific essential oil (EO) blends and probiotics used as feed additives have shown to promote healthy digestive microbials, resulting in improved poultry production. Two consecutive experiments were ...

  14. Evaluation and Discussion of Disturbance Observer Based Anti-Slip/Skid Re-Adhesion Control for Electric Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Yosuke; Kadowaki, Satoshi; Ohishi, Kiyoshi; Hata, Tadashi; Sano, Takashi; Yasukawa, Shinobu

    The improvement of adhesion characteristics is very important for electric train. The driving system of electric train is requested to have a fine anti-slip and anti-skid re-adhesion control system. In order to overcome this problem, we have already proposed anti-slip/skid re-adhesion control system based on disturbance observer and sensor-less vector control. Moreover, we have already applied the proposed method to the actual electric multiple units, which is Series 205-5000. In the experimental results of Series 205-5000 and the numerical simulation results, this paper evaluates and discusses that the proposed anti-slip/skid re-adhesion control system has the desired driving wheel torque response.

  15. TRANSITORY CONSECUTIVE ESOTROPIA AFTER AMITRIPTYLINE TREATMENT FOR NOCTURNAL ENURESIS -CASE REPORT.

    PubMed

    Cioplean, E Daniela; Camburu, L Raluca

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 9-year-old child operated for intermittent exotropia and V-pattern with a good result 2 months after bilateral Lateral Rectus Muscle Recession. The binocular vision was restored in primary position and down-gaze with excellent stereopsis at near and distance and a deviation of +4 PD in primary position. Three months later, the patient developed a consecutive esotropia of + 18 PD in primary position with diplopia in all gazes triggered by Amitriptyline treatment prescribed one month earlier for nocturnal enuresis. Diplopia was solved in time after anticholinergic medication cessation. During the recovery period, Fresnell prisms have been used in order to eliminate diplopia. Three months after diplopia onset, the binocular vision was restored showing a transitory and reversible effect of the Amitriptyline treatment. Fusion vulnerability can be a possible risk factor in developing diplopia and esotropia in patients treated with anticholinergic drugs. PMID:26978874

  16. Concurrent dorsal dimelia in 160 consecutive patients with congenital anomalies of the hands and feet.

    PubMed

    Al-Qattan, M M

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of dorsal dimelia in a series of 160 consecutive patients with congenital anomalies of the hands and feet, and to investigate the distribution of dorsal dimelia and the concurrent anomalies. Five cases (3.1%) showed evidence of dorsal dimelia and the distribution of dorsal dimelia was similar to the distribution of concurrent anomalies in all five cases. Another 11 cases of concurrent dorsal dimelia with other congenital anomalies have been reported previously with a positive match in the distributions in all cases. This similarity in the distribution in all 16 reported cases (including the five cases in the current study) is statistically significant. It is concluded that dorsal dimelia in humans is not as rare as it is generally thought to be, and that it may be viewed as an error of dorso-ventral patterning, which occurs in the same distribution as other concurrent anomalies. PMID:24362255

  17. Report of 302 consecutive ridge augmentation procedures: technical considerations and clinical results.

    PubMed

    Fugazzotto, P A

    1998-01-01

    Three hundred two consecutive ridge augmentation procedures (289 in a buccolingual and 13 in an apico-occlusal direction) were performed in 284 patients. Gore-Tex membranes of various configurations were used in conjunction with various nonautogenous particulate materials. Two hundred ninety-one of the augmented ridges (279 buccolingual and 12 apico-occlusal augmentations) demonstrated sufficient regenerated hard tissues for implant placement in ideal prosthetic positions. This represents an overall "success" rate of 96%, 97% for horizontally augmented ridges and 92% for vertically augmented ridges. A total of 574 implants were placed in the augmented ridges; 346 of these implants have subsequently been uncovered and restored. Seven implants failed to achieve osseointegration, and three implants (in one patient) were lost in function, for an overall survival rate of 97% for the uncovered implants. PMID:9638006

  18. Analysing human neural stem cell ontogeny by consecutive isolation of Notch active neural progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Edri, Reuven; Yaffe, Yakey; Ziller, Michael J.; Mutukula, Naresh; Volkman, Rotem; David, Eyal; Jacob-Hirsch, Jasmine; Malcov, Hagar; Levy, Carmit; Rechavi, Gideon; Gat-Viks, Irit; Meissner, Alexander; Elkabetz, Yechiel

    2015-01-01

    Decoding heterogeneity of pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neural progeny is fundamental for revealing the origin of diverse progenitors, for defining their lineages, and for identifying fate determinants driving transition through distinct potencies. Here we have prospectively isolated consecutively appearing PSC-derived primary progenitors based on their Notch activation state. We first isolate early neuroepithelial cells and show their broad Notch-dependent developmental and proliferative potential. Neuroepithelial cells further yield successive Notch-dependent functional primary progenitors, from early and midneurogenic radial glia and their derived basal progenitors, to gliogenic radial glia and adult-like neural progenitors, together recapitulating hallmarks of neural stem cell (NSC) ontogeny. Gene expression profiling reveals dynamic stage-specific transcriptional patterns that may link development of distinct progenitor identities through Notch activation. Our observations provide a platform for characterization and manipulation of distinct progenitor cell types amenable for developing streamlined neural lineage specification paradigms for modelling development in health and disease. PMID:25799239

  19. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    PubMed

    Chin, H L; Aw, M M; Quak, S H; Huang, J; Hart, C E; Prabhakaran, K; Goh, D L

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation. PMID:26937410

  20. Whole-Exome Sequencing in the Clinic: Lessons from Six Consecutive Cases from the Clinician's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Amber; Conboy, Erin; Wical, Beverly; Patterson, Marc; Kirmani, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is being used clinically to diagnose rare Mendelian disorders, especially when standard tests have failed. The diagnostic yield from WES is reported to be ∼15-30%; however, data regarding the clinical utility and interpretative challenges from the clinician's perspective are lacking. Here, we present a series of the first 6 unselected consecutive cases seen over a period of 6 months where WES was employed in clinical labs via trio-based testing (proband and parents). While we do not discount the value of WES in the clinical setting, our cases and experience illustrate the significant clinical challenges of WES, even when a diagnosis may be achieved. PMID:25852444

  1. Whole-Exome Sequencing in the Clinic: Lessons from Six Consecutive Cases from the Clinician's Perspective.

    PubMed

    Volk, Amber; Conboy, Erin; Wical, Beverly; Patterson, Marc; Kirmani, Salman

    2015-02-01

    Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is being used clinically to diagnose rare Mendelian disorders, especially when standard tests have failed. The diagnostic yield from WES is reported to be ∼15-30%; however, data regarding the clinical utility and interpretative challenges from the clinician's perspective are lacking. Here, we present a series of the first 6 unselected consecutive cases seen over a period of 6 months where WES was employed in clinical labs via trio-based testing (proband and parents). While we do not discount the value of WES in the clinical setting, our cases and experience illustrate the significant clinical challenges of WES, even when a diagnosis may be achieved. PMID:25852444

  2. EF-P is essential for rapid synthesis of proteins containing consecutive proline residues.

    PubMed

    Doerfel, Lili K; Wohlgemuth, Ingo; Kothe, Christina; Peske, Frank; Urlaub, Henning; Rodnina, Marina V

    2013-01-01

    Elongation factor P (EF-P) is a translation factor of unknown function that has been implicated in a great variety of cellular processes. Here, we show that EF-P prevents ribosome from stalling during synthesis of proteins containing consecutive prolines, such as PPG, PPP, or longer proline strings, in natural and engineered model proteins. EF-P promotes peptide-bond formation and stabilizes the peptidyl-transfer RNA in the catalytic center of the ribosome. EF-P is posttranslationally modified by a hydroxylated β-lysine attached to a lysine residue. The modification enhances the catalytic proficiency of the factor mainly by increasing its affinity to the ribosome. We propose that EF-P and its eukaryotic homolog, eIF5A, are essential for the synthesis of a subset of proteins containing proline stretches in all cells. PMID:23239624

  3. Effects of previous aeroionization on consecutive waking and sleeping phases in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, J. F.; Olivereau, J. M.

    1987-12-01

    The investigation showed that positive and negative air ions have opposite general effects on the structure of sleep in rats. When submitted to positive air ions, the animals consecutively exhibited during sleep an EEG with increased amplitude and lowered frequency. This decrease in vigilance level is nevertheless accompanied by obvious signs of a disturbed sleep, that is: more polyphasic sleep and decrease of slow wave sleep which is the most efficient for physical restoration. The generally opposite action of negative air ions is consistent with their effects described by other authors who have studied human sleep after aeroionotherapy. The general paradigm of air ion action on sleep is in agreement with implications of recent sleep theories.

  4. Dissolved and particulate organic carbon fluxes from an agricultural watershed during consecutive tropical storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caverly, Emma; Kaste, James M.; Hancock, Gregory S.; Chambers, Randolph M.

    2013-10-01

    Low-frequency high-magnitude hydrologic events mobilize a disproportionate amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from watersheds, but few studies measure the role of extreme storms in exporting organic carbon from croplands. We use high-resolution measurements of storm runoff to quantify DOC and particulate organic carbon (POC) fluxes from an agricultural field during consecutive tropical storms that delivered 41 cm of rainfall to the Virginia Coastal Plain. Over a 2 week period, we measured exports of 22 kg DOC ha-1 and 11.3 kg POC ha-1. Ultraviolet absorbance measurements indicate that the aromatic DOC fraction systematically increased as plant-derived aliphatic carbon was depleted during the initial event. Croplands can have event-scale carbon losses that equal or exceed published estimates of annual export for perennial streams draining forested and mixed land use watersheds. We quantify aromatic DOC fractions approaching 50%, indicating that agricultural stormflow can produce a significant load of relatively photoreactive carbon.

  5. Ablation and analysis of small cell populations and single cells by consecutive laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Bindesh; Nemes, Peter; Vertes, Akos

    2010-10-01

    Laser ablation of single cells through a sharpened optical fiber is used for the detection of metabolites by laser ablation electrospray ionization (LAESI) mass spectrometry (MS). Ablation of the same Allium cepa epidermal cell by consecutive pulses indicates the rupture of the cell wall by the second shot. Intracellular sucrose heterogeneity is detected by subsequent laser pulses pointing to rupturing the vacuolar membrane by the third exposure. Ion production by bursts of laser pulses shows that the drying of ruptured A. cepa cells occurs in ˜50 s at low pulse rates (10 pulses/s bursts) and significantly faster at high pulse rates (100 pulses/s bursts). These results point to the competing role of cytoplasm ejection and evaporative drying in diminishing the LAESI-MS signal in ˜50 s or 100 laser pulses, whichever occurs first.

  6. Familial Apple Peel Jejunal Atresia with Helical Umbilical Cord Ulcerations in Three Consecutive Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Jaiman, Sunil; Gundabattula, Sirisha Rao; Ratha, Chinmayee

    2016-01-01

    Apple peel deformity is a rare form of upper intestinal atresia of unknown etiology. Umbilical cord ulcers can occur secondary to reflux of gastric juice and bile as a result of the atresia and can cause lethal intrauterine hemorrhage. The authors report 3 instances of congenital apple peel jejunal atresia with helical umbilical cord ulcers afflicting all female offspring in consecutive pregnancies in a single nonconsanguineous family. There was no hemorrhage from the cord ulcers, but all 3 pregnancies resulted in perinatal death. Although familial occurrence is known, our case series is probably the 1st from the Indian subcontinent and warrants further research into the genetic mechanisms and possible ethnic differences of congenital upper intestinal atresia. The causation of sudden fetal demise in the absence of antecedent cord hemorrhage remains elusive. PMID:26213797

  7. [EHEC-associated colon stenosis after ulcerous-chronic haemorrhagic colitis and consecutive resulting ileus].

    PubMed

    Lipp, M J; Schirmer, J; Feyerabend, B; Stavrou, G A; Cordruwisch, W; Faiss, S; Oldhafer, K J

    2012-05-01

    We report on the case of a segmentally emphasised, ulcerous chronic haemorrhagic colitis with the development of granulation tissue und scarred fibrosis with consecutive resulting stenosis of the colon. A 49-year-old male patient was infected with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli bacteria during the EHEC-epidemic in northern Germany in early summer 2011. In the course of the infection the patient suffered from haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) with acute renal failure and neurological symptoms. Haemodialysis and plasmapheresis had become mandatory. A simultaneous ileus was estimated to be of paralytic origin. One month after treatment of the acute phase of the infection a CT scan of the abdomen was performed and discovered a symptomatic stenosis of the proximal colon transversum. This obstruction needed to be treated by performing a right hemicolectomy with an ileo-transverso anastomosis. After surgery the patient recovered continuously. The histopathological examination verified an ulcerous-chronic haemorrhagic colitis on the background of an EHEC infection. PMID:22581700

  8. Adhesion of latex films. Influence of surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Charmeau, J.Y.; Kientz, E.; Holl, Y.

    1996-12-31

    In the applications of film forming latexes in paint, paper, coating, adhesive, textile industries, one of the most important property of latex films is adhesion onto a support. From the point of view of adhesion, latex films have two specificities. The first one arises from the particular structure of the film which is usually not homogeneous but retains to a certain extent the memory of the particles it was made from. These structure effects are clearly apparent when one compares mechanical or adhesion properties of pure latex films and of films of the same polymers but prepared from a solution. Latex films show higher Young`s moduli and lower adhesion properties than solution films. The second specificity of latex films comes from the presence of the surfactant which was used in the synthesis and as stabilizer for the latex. Most industrial latexes contain low amounts of surfactant, typically in the range 0.1 to 2-3 wt%. However, being usually incompatible with the polymer, the surfactant is not homogeneously distributed in the film. It tends to segregate towards the film-air or film-support interfaces or to form domains in the bulk of the film. Distribution of surfactants in latex films has been studied by several authors. The influence of the surfactant on adhesion, as well as on other properties, is thus potentially very important. This article presents the results of the authors investigation of surfactant effects on adhesion properties of latex films. To the authors knowledge, there is no other example, in the open literature, of this kind of study.

  9. Submandibular Gland Reduction in Aesthetic Surgery of the Neck: Review of 112 Consecutive Cases

    PubMed Central

    Tutino, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background: The indications for reduction of excessive submandibular gland volume in aesthetic rejuvenation of the neck have been well described, as has the surgical anatomy and the surgical technique. Despite this, submandibular gland reduction does not appear to be widely adopted, nor have significant case series been reported in the literature. This review of a consecutive series of aesthetic submandibular gland reductions was undertaken to provide a perspective about its place in neck contouring. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of all patients on whom the senior author (B.C.M.) had performed submandibular gland reduction for aesthetic reasons. Complications and reoperations were specifically analyzed. Results: Submandibular gland reduction was performed in 112 of 736 consecutive face lifts between 2002 and 2013, an incidence of 13 percent in primary face lifts and 25 percent in secondary face lifts. The median patient age was 57 years, and 87 percent were women. Major complications were those requiring early reoperation (1.8 percent) to manage significant hematomas; one was potentially fatal. Minor complications (10.8 percent) were managed nonoperatively. Submandibular sialocele (4.5 percent) and marginal mandibular branch neurapraxia (4.5 percent) were the most frequent, and all resolved fully by 3 months. Significantly, no patient reported a permanent dry mouth. Conclusions: The complication rate with submandibular gland reduction is comparable to that of a neck lift with platysma plication alone, with some additional specific risks: (1) catastrophic airway compression from bleeding deep in the neck, (2) significant increase of neurapraxias in secondary neck lifts, and (3) a moderate incidence of benign submandibular sialocele. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:25989302

  10. Quantitative/Statistical Approach to Bullet-to-Firearm Identification with Consecutively Manufactured Barrels

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Striupaitis; R.E. Gaensslen

    2005-01-30

    Efforts to use objective image comparison and bullet scanning technologies to distinguish bullets from consecutively manufactured handgun barrels from two manufacturers gave mixed results. The ability of a technology to reliably distinguish between matching and non-matching bullets, where the non-matching bullets were as close in pattern to the matching ones as is probably possible, would provide evidence that the distinctions could be made ''objectively'', and independently of human eyes. That evidence is identical or very close to what seems to be needed to satisfy Daubert standards. It is fair to say that the FTI IBIS image comparison technology correctly distinguished between all the Springfield barrel bullets, and between most but not all of the HiPoint barrel bullets. In the HiPoint cases that were not distinguished 100% of the time, they would he distinguished correctly at least 83% of the time. These results, although obviously limited to the materials used in the comparisons, provide strong evidence that barrel-to-bullet matching is objectively reliable. The results with SciClops were less compelling. The results do not mean that bullet-to-barrel matching is not objectively reliable--rather, they mean that this version of the particular technology could not quite distinguish between these extremely similar yet different bullets as well as the image comparison technology did. In a number of cases, the numerical results made the correct distinctions, although they were close to one another. It is hard to say from this data that this technology differs in its ability to make distinctions between the manufacturers, because the results are very similar with both. The human examiner results were as expected. We did not expect any misidentifications, and there were not any. It would have been preferable to have a higher return rate, and thus more comparisons in the overall sample. As noted, the ''consecutively manufactured barrel exercise'' has been done before

  11. Venous Thrombosis in Handsewn vs. Coupled Venous Anastomoses in 857 Consecutive Breast Free Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Anita R; Mehrara, Babak J; Pusic, Andrea L; Cordeiro, Peter G; Matros, Evan; McCarthy, Colleen M; Disa, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Background The Anastomotic Coupling Device has demonstrated safety and efficacy; however, the coupler has never been compared directly to handsewn venous anastomoses exclusively in breast reconstruction. We hypothesized that rates of venous thrombosis would be lower using the coupler versus handsewn anastomoses in free flap breast reconstruction. Methods We performed a retrospective review utilizing clinic records, hospital records, and operative reports for 857 consecutive breast free flaps at a single institution from 1997-2012. Data was collected on reconstruction type, recipient vessels, timing, laterality, preoperative radiation, chemotherapy, venous thrombosis, and flap outcome. We compared rates of venous thrombosis between handsewn and coupled anastomoses for breast free flaps. Chi square test was used to calculate statistical significance. Results A total of 857 consecutive free flaps were performed for breast reconstruction in 647 patients over 16 years. The venous anastomosis was handsewn in 303 flaps, and the anastomotic coupler was used in 554 flaps. The rate of venous thrombosis requiring anastomotic revision in the handsewn group was 0.04% (12/303), compared to 0.01% in the coupled group (8/554; p=0.02). Conclusion The anastomotic coupler was more effective in preventing venous thrombosis than handsewn anastomoses in our series. While our study demonstrates improved patency rates using the venous coupler in breast reconstruction, we were unable to definitively separate this finding from potential confounding variables due to the low rates of thrombosis in both groups. Our data is consistent with current literature, which suggests that the coupler is a safe and effective alternative to hand sutured anastomoses. PMID:26372685

  12. Direct observation of microcavitation in underwater adhesion of mushroom-shaped adhesive microstructure.

    PubMed

    Heepe, Lars; Kovalev, Alexander E; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-01-01

    In this work we report on experiments aimed at testing the cavitation hypothesis [Varenberg, M.; Gorb, S. J. R. Soc., Interface 2008, 5, 383-385] proposed to explain the strong underwater adhesion of mushroom-shaped adhesive microstructures (MSAMSs). For this purpose, we measured the pull-off forces of individual MSAMSs by detaching them from a glass substrate under different wetting conditions and simultaneously video recording the detachment behavior at very high temporal resolution (54,000-100,000 fps). Although microcavitation was observed during the detachment of individual MSAMSs, which was a consequence of water inclusions present at the glass-MSAMS contact interface subjected to negative pressure (tension), the pull-off forces were consistently lower, around 50%, of those measured under ambient conditions. This result supports the assumption that the recently observed strong underwater adhesion of MSAMS is due to an air layer between individual MSAMSs [Kizilkan, E.; Heepe, L.; Gorb, S. N. Underwater adhesion of mushroom-shaped adhesive microstructure: An air-entrapment effect. In Biological and biomimetic adhesives: Challenges and opportunities; Santos, R.; Aldred, N.; Gorb, S. N.; Flammang, P., Eds.; The Royal Society of Chemistry: Cambridge, U.K., 2013; pp 65-71] rather than by cavitation. These results obtained due to the high-speed visualisation of the contact behavior at nanoscale-confined interfaces allow for a microscopic understanding of the underwater adhesion of MSAMSs and may aid in further development of artificial adhesive microstructures for applications in predominantly liquid environments. PMID:24991528

  13. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    PubMed Central

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives. PMID:26508080

  14. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N; Patil, Navinkumar J; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives. PMID:26508080

  15. Mussel adhesion is dictated by time-regulated secretion and molecular conformation of mussel adhesive proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrone, Luigi; Kumar, Akshita; Sutanto, Clarinda N.; Patil, Navinkumar J.; Kannan, Srinivasaraghavan; Palaniappan, Alagappan; Amini, Shahrouz; Zappone, Bruno; Verma, Chandra; Miserez, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Interfacial water constitutes a formidable barrier to strong surface bonding, hampering the development of water-resistant synthetic adhesives. Notwithstanding this obstacle, the Asian green mussel Perna viridis attaches firmly to underwater surfaces via a proteinaceous secretion (byssus). Extending beyond the currently known design principles of mussel adhesion, here we elucidate the precise time-regulated secretion of P. viridis mussel adhesive proteins. The vanguard 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (Dopa)-rich protein Pvfp-5 acts as an adhesive primer, overcoming repulsive hydration forces by displacing surface-bound water and generating strong surface adhesion. Using homology modelling and molecular dynamics simulations, we find that all mussel adhesive proteins are largely unordered, with Pvfp-5 adopting a disordered structure and elongated conformation whereby all Dopa residues reside on the protein surface. Time-regulated secretion and structural disorder of mussel adhesive proteins appear essential for optimizing extended nonspecific surface interactions and byssus' assembly. Our findings reveal molecular-scale principles to help the development of wet-resistant adhesives.

  16. Nanorough titanium surfaces reduce adhesion of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus via nano adhesion points.

    PubMed

    Lüdecke, Claudia; Roth, Martin; Yu, Wenqi; Horn, Uwe; Bossert, Jörg; Jandt, Klaus D

    2016-09-01

    Microbial adhesion to natural and synthetic materials surfaces is a key issue e.g. in food industry, sewage treatment and most importantly in the biomedical field. The current development and progress in nanoscale structuring of materials surfaces to control microbial adhesion requires an advanced understanding of the microbe-material-interaction. This study aimed to investigate the nanostructure of the microbe-material-interface and link it to microbial adhesion kinetics as function of titanium surface nanoroughness to gain new insight into controlling microbial adhesion via materials' surface nanoroughness. Adhesion of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was statistically significantly reduced (p≤0.05) by 55.6 % and 40.5 %, respectively, on physical vapor deposited titanium thin films with a nanoroughness of 6nm and the lowest surface peak density compared to 2nm with the highest surface peak density. Cross-sectioning of the microbial cells with a focused ion beam (FIB) and SEM imaging provided for the first time direct insight into the titanium-microbe-interface. High resolution SEM micrographs gave evidence that the surface peaks are the loci of initial contact between the microbial cells and the material's surface. In a qualitative model we propose that the initial microbial adhesion on nanorough surfaces is controlled by the titanium surface peak density via nano adhesion points. This new understanding will help towards the design of materials surfaces for controlling microbial adhesion. PMID:27288816

  17. Cadherin-11 localizes to focal adhesions and promotes cell–substrate adhesion

    PubMed Central

    Langhe, Rahul P.; Gudzenko, Tetyana; Bachmann, Michael; Becker, Sarah F.; Gonnermann, Carina; Winter, Claudia; Abbruzzese, Genevieve; Alfandari, Dominique; Kratzer, Marie-Claire; Franz, Clemens M.; Kashef, Jubin

    2016-01-01

    Cadherin receptors have a well-established role in cell–cell adhesion, cell polarization and differentiation. However, some cadherins also promote cell and tissue movement during embryonic development and tumour progression. In particular, cadherin-11 is upregulated during tumour and inflammatory cell invasion, but the mechanisms underlying cadherin-11 stimulated cell migration are still incompletely understood. Here, we show that cadherin-11 localizes to focal adhesions and promotes adhesion to fibronectin in Xenopus neural crest, a highly migratory embryonic cell population. Transfected cadherin-11 also localizes to focal adhesions in different mammalian cell lines, while endogenous cadherin-11 shows focal adhesion localization in primary human fibroblasts. In focal adhesions, cadherin-11 co-localizes with β1-integrin and paxillin and physically interacts with the fibronectin-binding proteoglycan syndecan-4. Adhesion to fibronectin mediated by cadherin-11/syndecan-4 complexes requires both the extracellular domain of syndecan-4, and the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of cadherin-11. These results reveal an unexpected role of a classical cadherin in cell–matrix adhesion during cell migration. PMID:26952325

  18. Serum matrix metalloproteinase‐3 levels correlate with disease activity in relapsing‐remitting multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Kanesaka, T; Mori, M; Hattori, T; Oki, T; Kuwabara, S

    2006-01-01

    Background Adhesion molecules and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be relevant to the ongoing development and disappearance of areas of demyelination in the white matter of the CNS of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This study examined whether serum matrix metalloproteinase‐3 (MMP‐3) levels correlate with disease activity in MS. Methods Serum MMP‐3 levels in 47 consecutive patients with relapsing‐remitting MS were measured by immunoassay every 4 weeks over a 15 month period. Results During the study period, 48 clinical relapses occurred. Serum MMP‐3 levels within 1 month of relapse were significantly higher than during the remission phase. Sequential analysis showed that serum MMP‐3 levels had increased transiently at the time of clinical relapse but returned to the normal range within a month. Conclusions Circulatory MMP‐3 levels are correlated with disease activity in relapsing‐remitting MS. This may contribute to the breakdown of the blood‐brain barrier at the time of relapse. PMID:16421119

  19. Shear Strength of Conductive Adhesive Joints on Rigid and Flexible Substrates Depending on Adhesive Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirman, Martin; Steiner, Frantisek

    2016-05-01

    This article deals with the impact of electrically conductive adhesive quantity on the shear strength of joints glued by adhesives "EPO-TEKⓇ H20S" and "MG8331S" on three types of substrates (FR-4, MELINEXⓇST504, DuPont™ PyraluxⓇAC). These joints were made by gluing chip resistors 1206, 0805 and 0603, with two curing profiles for each adhesive. Different thicknesses of stencil and reductions in the size of the hole in stencils were used for this experiment. These differences have an effect on the quantity of conductive adhesives which must be used on the samples. Samples were measured after the curing process by using a shear strength test applied by the device LabTest 3.030. This article presents the effects of different curing profiles, various types of substrates, and different quantities of adhesives on the mechanical strength of the joint.

  20. BIOLOGICAL ADHESIVES. Adaptive synergy between catechol and lysine promotes wet adhesion by surface salt displacement.

    PubMed

    Maier, Greg P; Rapp, Michael V; Waite, J Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Butler, Alison

    2015-08-01

    In physiological fluids and seawater, adhesion of synthetic polymers to solid surfaces is severely limited by high salt, pH, and hydration, yet these conditions have not deterred the evolution of effective adhesion by mussels. Mussel foot proteins provide insights about adhesive adaptations: Notably, the abundance and proximity of catecholic Dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and lysine residues hint at a synergistic interplay in adhesion. Certain siderophores—bacterial iron chelators—consist of paired catechol and lysine functionalities, thereby providing a convenient experimental platform to explore molecular synergies in bioadhesion. These siderophores and synthetic analogs exhibit robust adhesion energies (E(ad) ≥-15 millijoules per square meter) to mica in saline pH 3.5 to 7.5 and resist oxidation. The adjacent catechol-lysine placement provides a "one-two punch," whereby lysine evicts hydrated cations from the mineral surface, allowing catechol binding to underlying oxides. PMID:26250681