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Sample records for multiple cross-layer design

  1. Cross-layer design for decentralized detection in WSNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantawy, Ashraf; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Biswas, Gautam

    2014-12-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) deployed for detection applications has the distinguishing feature that the sensors cooperate to perform the detection task. Therefore, the decoupled and maximum throughput design approaches typically used to design communication networks do not lead to the desired optimal detection performance. Recent work on decentralized detection has addressed the design of media access control (MAC) and routing protocols for detection applications by considering independently the quality of information (QoI), channel state information (CSI), and residual energy information (REI) for each sensor. However, little attention has been given to integrate the three quality measures (QoI, CSI, and REI) in the system design. In this work, we present a cross-layer approach to design a QoI, CSI, and REI-aware transmission control policy (XCP) that coordinates communication between local sensors and the fusion center, in order to maximize the detection performance. We formulate and solve a constrained non-linear optimization problem to find the optimal XCP design variables, for both ALOHA and time-division multiple access (TDMA) sensor networks. We show the detection performance gain compared to the typical decoupled and maximum throughput design approaches, without utilizing additional network resources. We compare ALOHA and TDMA MAC schemes and show the conditions under which each transmission scheme outperforms.

  2. The Balanced Cross-Layer Design Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy Logic.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Hernández Díaz, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the cross-layer design for the wireless sensor network communication protocol has become more and more important and popular. Considering the disadvantages of the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, in this paper we propose a new fuzzy logic-based routing algorithm, named the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic (BCFL) routing algorithm. In BCFL, we use the cross-layer parameters' dispersion as the fuzzy logic inference system inputs. Moreover, we give each cross-layer parameter a dynamic weight according the value of the dispersion. For getting a balanced solution, the parameter whose dispersion is large will have small weight, and vice versa. In order to compare it with the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, BCFL is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that the new routing algorithm can handle the multiple constraints without increasing the complexity of the algorithm and can achieve the most balanced performance on selecting the next hop relay node. Moreover, the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic routing algorithm can adapt to the dynamic changing of the network conditions and topology effectively. PMID:26266412

  3. The Balanced Cross-Layer Design Routing Algorithm in Wireless Sensor Networks Using Fuzzy Logic

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Martínez, José-Fernán; Díaz, Vicente Hernández

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the cross-layer design for the wireless sensor network communication protocol has become more and more important and popular. Considering the disadvantages of the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, in this paper we propose a new fuzzy logic-based routing algorithm, named the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic (BCFL) routing algorithm. In BCFL, we use the cross-layer parameters’ dispersion as the fuzzy logic inference system inputs. Moreover, we give each cross-layer parameter a dynamic weight according the value of the dispersion. For getting a balanced solution, the parameter whose dispersion is large will have small weight, and vice versa. In order to compare it with the traditional cross-layer routing algorithms, BCFL is evaluated through extensive simulations. The simulation results show that the new routing algorithm can handle the multiple constraints without increasing the complexity of the algorithm and can achieve the most balanced performance on selecting the next hop relay node. Moreover, the Balanced Cross-layer Fuzzy Logic routing algorithm can adapt to the dynamic changing of the network conditions and topology effectively. PMID:26266412

  4. Cross-layer protocol design for QoS optimization in real-time wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2010-04-01

    The metrics of quality of service (QoS) for each sensor type in a wireless sensor network can be associated with metrics for multimedia that describe the quality of fused information, e.g., throughput, delay, jitter, packet error rate, information correlation, etc. These QoS metrics are typically set at the highest, or application, layer of the protocol stack to ensure that performance requirements for each type of sensor data are satisfied. Application-layer metrics, in turn, depend on the support of the lower protocol layers: session, transport, network, data link (MAC), and physical. The dependencies of the QoS metrics on the performance of the higher layers of the Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model of the WSN protocol, together with that of the lower three layers, are the basis for a comprehensive approach to QoS optimization for multiple sensor types in a general WSN model. The cross-layer design accounts for the distributed power consumption along energy-constrained routes and their constituent nodes. Following the author's previous work, the cross-layer interactions in the WSN protocol are represented by a set of concatenated protocol parameters and enabling resource levels. The "best" cross-layer designs to achieve optimal QoS are established by applying the general theory of martingale representations to the parameterized multivariate point processes (MVPPs) for discrete random events occurring in the WSN. Adaptive control of network behavior through the cross-layer design is realized through the parametric factorization of the stochastic conditional rates of the MVPPs. The cross-layer protocol parameters for optimal QoS are determined in terms of solutions to stochastic dynamic programming conditions derived from models of transient flows for heterogeneous sensor data and aggregate information over a finite time horizon. Markov state processes, embedded within the complex combinatorial history of WSN events, are more computationally

  5. Collision avoidance in TV white spaces: a cross-layer design approach for cognitive radio networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foukalas, Fotis; Karetsos, George T.

    2015-07-01

    One of the most promising applications of cognitive radio networks (CRNs) is the efficient exploitation of TV white spaces (TVWSs) for enhancing the performance of wireless networks. In this paper, we propose a cross-layer design (CLD) of carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) mechanism at the medium access control (MAC) layer with spectrum sensing (SpSe) at the physical layer, for identifying the occupancy status of TV bands. The proposed CLD relies on a Markov chain model with a state pair containing both the SpSe and the CSMA/CA from which we derive the collision probability and the achievable throughput. Analytical and simulation results are obtained for different collision avoidance and SpSe implementation scenarios by varying the contention window, back off stage and probability of detection. The obtained results depict the achievable throughput under different collision avoidance and SpSe implementation scenarios indicating thereby the performance of collision avoidance in TVWSs-based CRNs.

  6. Cross-layer design for intrusion detection and data security in wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2007-09-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. The nodes are severely resource-constrained, with limited processing, memory and power capacities and must operate cooperatively to fulfill a common mission in typically unattended modes. In a wireless sensor network (WSN), each sensor at a node can observe locally some underlying physical phenomenon and sends a quantized version of the observation to sink (destination) nodes via wireless links. Since the wireless medium can be easily eavesdropped, links can be compromised by intrusion attacks from nodes that may mount denial-of-service attacks or insert spurious information into routing packets, leading to routing loops, long timeouts, impersonation, and node exhaustion. A cross-layer design based on protocol-layer interactions is proposed for detection and identification of various intrusion attacks on WSN operation. A feature set is formed from selected cross-layer parameters of the WSN protocol to detect and identify security threats due to intrusion attacks. A separate protocol is not constructed from the cross-layer design; instead, security attributes and quantified trust levels at and among nodes established during data exchanges complement customary WSN metrics of energy usage, reliability, route availability, and end-to-end quality-of-service (QoS) provisioning. Statistical pattern recognition algorithms are applied that use observed feature-set patterns observed during network operations, viewed as security audit logs. These algorithms provide the "best" network global performance in the presence of various intrusion attacks. A set of mobile (software) agents distributed at the nodes implement the algorithms, by moving among the layers involved in the network response at each active node

  7. Ambient intelligence context-based cross-layer design in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Seet, Boon-Chong; Al-Anbuky, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    By exchanging information directly between non-adjacent protocol layers, cross-layer (CL) interaction can significantly improve and optimize network performances such as energy efficiency and delay. This is particularly important for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where sensor devices are energy-constrained and deployed for real-time monitoring applications. Existing CL schemes mainly exploit information exchange between physical, medium access control (MAC), and routing layers, with only a handful involving application layer. For the first time, we proposed a framework for CL optimization based on user context of ambient intelligence (AmI) application and an ontology-based context modeling and reasoning mechanism. We applied the proposed framework to jointly optimize MAC and network (NET) layer protocols for WSNs. Extensive evaluations show that the resulting optimization through context awareness and CL interaction for both MAC and NET layer protocols can yield substantial improvements in terms of throughput, packet delivery, delay, and energy performances. PMID:25317760

  8. Ambient Intelligence Context-Based Cross-Layer Design in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Seet, Boon-Chong; Al-Anbuky, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    By exchanging information directly between non-adjacent protocol layers, cross-layer (CL) interaction can significantly improve and optimize network performances such as energy efficiency and delay. This is particularly important for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where sensor devices are energy-constrained and deployed for real-time monitoring applications. Existing CL schemes mainly exploit information exchange between physical, medium access control (MAC), and routing layers, with only a handful involving application layer. For the first time, we proposed a framework for CL optimization based on user context of ambient intelligence (AmI) application and an ontology-based context modeling and reasoning mechanism. We applied the proposed framework to jointly optimize MAC and network (NET) layer protocols for WSNs. Extensive evaluations show that the resulting optimization through context awareness and CL interaction for both MAC and NET layer protocols can yield substantial improvements in terms of throughput, packet delivery, delay, and energy performances. PMID:25317760

  9. A review of protocol implementations and energy efficient cross-layer design for wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Laurie; Wang, Xinheng; Chen, Tao

    2012-01-01

    The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties up key healthcare professionals. The introduction of wireless sensor devices as part of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) integrated within an overall eHealth solution could bring a step change in the remote management of patient healthcare. Sensor devices small enough to be placed either inside or on the human body can form a vital part of an overall health monitoring network. An effectively designed energy efficient WBAN should have a minimal impact on the mobility and lifestyle of the patient. WBAN technology can be deployed within a hospital, care home environment or in the patient’s own home. This study is a review of the existing research in the area of WBAN technology and in particular protocol adaptation and energy efficient cross-layer design. The research reviews the work carried out across various layers of the protocol stack and highlights how the latest research proposes to resolve the various challenges inherent in remote continual healthcare monitoring. PMID:23202185

  10. A Review of Protocol Implementations and Energy Efficient Cross-Layer Design for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Laurie; Wang, Xinheng; Chen, Tao

    2012-01-01

    The issues inherent in caring for an ever-increasing aged population has been the subject of endless debate and continues to be a hot topic for political discussion. The use of hospital-based facilities for the monitoring of chronic physiological conditions is expensive and ties up key healthcare professionals. The introduction of wireless sensor devices as part of a Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) integrated within an overall eHealth solution could bring a step change in the remote management of patient healthcare. Sensor devices small enough to be placed either inside or on the human body can form a vital part of an overall health monitoring network. An effectively designed energy efficient WBAN should have a minimal impact on the mobility and lifestyle of the patient. WBAN technology can be deployed within a hospital, care home environment or in the patient's own home. This study is a review of the existing research in the area of WBAN technology and in particular protocol adaptation and energy efficient cross-layer design. The research reviews the work carried out across various layers of the protocol stack and highlights how the latest research proposes to resolve the various challenges inherent in remote continual healthcare monitoring. PMID:23202185

  11. Cross layer design for optimised region of interest of ultrasound video data over mobile WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Debono, Carl J; Micallef, Brian W; Philip, Nada Y; Alinejad, Ali; Istepanian, Robert S H; Amso, Nazar N

    2012-11-01

    The application of advanced error concealment techniques applied as a post-process to conceal lost video information in error-prone channels, such as the wireless channel, demand additional processing at the receiver. This increases the delivery delay and needs more computational power. However, in general, only a small region within medical video is of interest to the physician and thus if only this area is considered, the number of computations can be curtailed. In this paper we present a technique whereby the Region of Interest (ROI) specified by the physician is used to delimit the area where the more complex concealment techniques are applied. A cross layer design approach in mobile WiMAX wireless communication environment is adopted in this paper to provide an optimized Quality of Experience (QoE) in the region that matters most to the mobile physician while relaxing the requirements in the background, ensuring real-time delivery. Results show that a diagnostically acceptable Peak Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (PSNR) of about 36 dB can still be achieved within reasonable decoding time. PMID:22652202

  12. An Improved Cross-Layering Design for IPv6 Fast Handover with IEEE 802.16m Entry Before Break Handover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ronny Yongho; Jung, Inuk; Kim, Young Yong

    IEEE 802.16m is an advanced air interface standard which is under development for IMT-Advanced systems, known as 4G systems. IEEE 802.16m is designed to provide a high data rate and a Quality of Service (QoS) level in order to meet user service requirements, and is especially suitable for mobilized environments. There are several factors that have great impact on such requirements. As one of the major factors, we mainly focus on latency issues. In IEEE 802.16m, an enhanced layer 2 handover scheme, described as Entry Before Break (EBB) was proposed and adopted to reduce handover latency. EBB provides significant handover interruption time reduction with respect to the legacy IEEE 802.16 handover scheme. Fast handovers for mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) was standardized by Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in order to provide reduced handover interruption time from IP layer perspective. Since FMIPv6 utilizes link layer triggers to reduce handover latency, it is very critical to jointly design FMIPv6 with its underlying link layer protocol. However, FMIPv6 based on new handover scheme, EBB has not been proposed. In this paper, we propose an improved cross-layering design for FMIPv6 based on the IEEE 802.16m EBB handover. In comparison with the conventional FMIPv6 based on the legacy IEEE 802.16 network, the overall handover interruption time can be significantly reduced by employing the proposed design. Benefits of this improvement on latency reduction for mobile user applications are thoroughly investigated with both numerical analysis and simulation on various IP applications.

  13. Analytical Models of Cross-Layer Protocol Optimization in Real-Time Wireless Sensor Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    The real-time interactions among the nodes of a wireless sensor network (WSN) to cooperatively process data from multiple sensors are modeled. Quality-of-service (QoS) metrics are associated with the quality of fused information: throughput, delay, packet error rate, etc. Multivariate point process (MVPP) models of discrete random events in WSNs establish stochastic characteristics of optimal cross-layer protocols. Discrete-event, cross-layer interactions in mobile ad hoc network (MANET) protocols have been modeled using a set of concatenated design parameters and associated resource levels by the MVPPs. Characterization of the "best" cross-layer designs for a MANET is formulated by applying the general theory of martingale representations to controlled MVPPs. Performance is described in terms of concatenated protocol parameters and controlled through conditional rates of the MVPPs. Modeling limitations to determination of closed-form solutions versus explicit iterative solutions for ad hoc WSN controls are examined.

  14. Explicit solutions to analytical models of cross-layer protocol optimization in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2009-05-01

    The work is based on the interactions among the nodes of a wireless sensor network (WSN) to cooperatively process data from multiple sensors. Quality-of-service (QoS) metrics are associated with the quality of fused information: throughput, delay, packet error rate, etc. A multivariate point process (MVPP) model of discrete random events in WSNs establishes stochastic characteristics of optimal cross-layer protocols. In previous work by the author, discreteevent, cross-layer interactions in the MANET protocol are modeled in very general analytical terms with a set of concatenated design parameters and associated resource levels by multivariate point processes (MVPPs). Characterization of the "best" cross-layer designs for the MANET is formulated by applying the general theory of martingale representations to controlled MVPPs. Performance is described in terms of concatenated protocol parameters and controlled through conditional rates of the MVPPs. Assumptions on WSN characteristics simplify the dynamic programming conditions to yield mathematically tractable descriptions for the optimal routing protocols. Modeling limitations on the determination of closed-form solutions versus iterative explicit solutions for ad hoc WSN controls are presented.

  15. Analytical approach to cross-layer protocol optimization in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2008-04-01

    In the distributed operations of route discovery and maintenance, strong interaction occurs across mobile ad hoc network (MANET) protocol layers. Quality of service (QoS) requirements of multimedia service classes must be satisfied by the cross-layer protocol, along with minimization of the distributed power consumption at nodes and along routes to battery-limited energy constraints. In previous work by the author, cross-layer interactions in the MANET protocol are modeled in terms of a set of concatenated design parameters and associated resource levels by multivariate point processes (MVPPs). Determination of the "best" cross-layer design is carried out using the optimal control of martingale representations of the MVPPs. In contrast to the competitive interaction among nodes in a MANET for multimedia services using limited resources, the interaction among the nodes of a wireless sensor network (WSN) is distributed and collaborative, based on the processing of data from a variety of sensors at nodes to satisfy common mission objectives. Sensor data originates at the nodes at the periphery of the WSN, is successively transported to other nodes for aggregation based on information-theoretic measures of correlation and ultimately sent as information to one or more destination (decision) nodes. The "multimedia services" in the MANET model are replaced by multiple types of sensors, e.g., audio, seismic, imaging, thermal, etc., at the nodes; the QoS metrics associated with MANETs become those associated with the quality of fused information flow, i.e., throughput, delay, packet error rate, data correlation, etc. Significantly, the essential analytical approach to MANET cross-layer optimization, now based on the MVPPs for discrete random events occurring in the WSN, can be applied to develop the stochastic characteristics and optimality conditions for cross-layer designs of sensor network protocols. Functional dependencies of WSN performance metrics are described in

  16. Physical and Cross-Layer Security Enhancement and Resource Allocation for Wireless Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashar, Muhammad Shafi Al

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, we present novel physical (PHY) and cross-layer design guidelines and resource adaptation algorithms to improve the security and user experience in the future wireless networks. Physical and cross-layer wireless security measures can provide stronger overall security with high efficiency and can also provide better…

  17. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  18. An MILP-Based Cross-Layer Optimization for a Multi-Reader Arbitration in the UHF RFID System

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jinchul; Lee, Chaewoo

    2011-01-01

    In RFID systems, the performance of each reader such as interrogation range and tag recognition rate may suffer from interferences from other readers. Since the reader interference can be mitigated by output signal power control, spectral and/or temporal separation among readers, the system performance depends on how to adapt the various reader arbitration metrics such as time, frequency, and output power to the system environment. However, complexity and difficulty of the optimization problem increase with respect to the variety of the arbitration metrics. Thus, most proposals in previous study have been suggested to primarily prevent the reader collision with consideration of one or two arbitration metrics. In this paper, we propose a novel cross-layer optimization design based on the concept of combining time division, frequency division, and power control not only to solve the reader interference problem, but also to achieve the multiple objectives such as minimum interrogation delay, maximum reader utilization, and energy efficiency. Based on the priority of the multiple objectives, our cross-layer design optimizes the system sequentially by means of the mixed-integer linear programming. In spite of the multi-stage optimization, the optimization design is formulated as a concise single mathematical form by properly assigning a weight to each objective. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization design. PMID:22163743

  19. Cross-Layer Protocol Combining Tree Routing and TDMA Slotting in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Ronggang; Ji, Yusheng; Lin, Zhiting; Wang, Qinghua; Zhou, Xiaofang; Qu, Yugui; Zhao, Baohua

    Being different from other networks, the load and direction of data traffic for wireless sensor networks are rather predictable. The relationships between nodes are cooperative rather than competitive. These features allow the design approach of a protocol stack to be able to use the cross-layer interactive way instead of a hierarchical structure. The proposed cross-layer protocol CLWSN optimizes the channel allocation in the MAC layer using the information from the routing tables, reduces the conflicting set, and improves the throughput. Simulations revealed that it outperforms SMAC and MINA in terms of delay and energy consumption.

  20. Energy Efficient, Cross-Layer Enabled, Dynamic Aggregation Networks for Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Michael S.

    monitoring capabilities to include real-time monitoring of OSNR and polarization mode dispersion (PMD) to enable dynamic wavelength switching and selective restoration. Chapter 4 explains the author?s contributions in designing dynamic networking at the sub-wavelength switching granularity, which can provide greater network efficiency due to its finer granularity. To support dynamic switching, regeneration, adding/dropping, and control decisions on each individual packet, the cross-layer enabled node architecture is enhanced with a FPGA controller that brings much more precise timing and control to the switching, OPM, and control planes. Furthermore, QoS-aware packet protection and dynamic switching, dropping, and regeneration functionalities were experimentally demonstrated in a multi-node network. Chapter 5 describes a technique to perform optical grooming, a process of optically combining multiple incoming data streams into a single data stream, which can simultaneously achieve greater bandwidth utilization and increased spectral efficiency. In addition, an experimental demonstration highlighting a fully functioning multi-node, agile optical networking platform is detailed. Finally, a summary and discussion of future work is provided in Chapter 6. The future of the Internet is very exciting, filled with not-yet-invented applications and services driven by cloud computing and Internet-of-Things. The author is cautiously optimistic that agile, dynamically reconfigurable optical networking is the solution to realizing this future.

  1. A cross-layer optimization algorithm for wireless sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Le Qing

    2010-07-01

    Energy is critical for typical wireless sensor networks (WSN) and how to energy consumption and maximize network lifetime are big challenges for Wireless sensor networks; cross layer algorithm is main method to solve this problem. In this paper, firstly, we analyze current layer-based optimal methods in wireless sensor network and summarize the physical, link and routing optimization techniques. Secondly we compare some strategies in cross-layer optimization algorithms. According to the analysis and summary of the current lifetime algorithms in wireless sensor network A cross layer optimization algorithm is proposed,. Then this optimization algorithm proposed in the paper is adopted to improve the traditional Leach routing protocol. Simulation results show that this algorithm is an excellent cross layer algorithm for reducing energy consumption.

  2. Final report for CCS cross-layer reliability visioning study

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Dehon, Andre; Carter, Nicj

    2010-12-20

    The geometric rate of improvement of transistor size and integrated circuit performance known as Moore's Law has been an engine of growth for our economy, enabling new products and services, creating new value and wealth, increasing safety, and removing menial tasks from our daily lives. Affordable, highly integrated components have enabled both life-saving technologies and rich entertainment applications. Anti-lock brakes, insulin monitors, and GPS-enabled emergency response systems save lives. Cell phones, internet appliances, virtual worlds, realistic video games, and mp3 players enrich our lives and connect us together. Over the past 40 years of silicon scaling, the increasing capabilities of inexpensive computation have transformed our society through automation and ubiquitous communications. Looking forward, increasing unpredictability threatens our ability to continue scaling integrated circuits at Moore's Law rates. As the transistors and wires that make up integrated circuits become smaller, they display both greater differences in behavior among devices designed to be identical and greater vulnerability to transient and permanent faults. Conventional design techniques expend energy to tolerate this unpredictability by adding safety margins to a circuit's operating voltage, clock frequency or charge stored per bit. However, the rising energy costs needed to compensate for increasing unpredictability are rapidly becoming unacceptable in today's environment where power consumption is often the limiting factor on integrated circuit performance and energy efficiency is a national concern. Reliability and energy consumption are both reaching key inflection points that, together, threaten to reduce or end the benefits of feature size reduction. To continue beneficial scaling, we must use a cross-layer, Jull-system-design approach to reliability. Unlike current systems, which charge every device a substantial energy tax in order to guarantee correct operation in

  3. On Internal Validity in Multiple Baseline Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pustejovsky, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Single-case designs are a class of research designs for evaluating intervention effects on individual cases. The designs are widely applied in certain fields, including special education, school psychology, clinical psychology, social work, and applied behavior analysis. The multiple baseline design (MBD) is the most frequently used single-case…

  4. Multiple comparisons in complex clinical trial designs.

    PubMed

    Hung, H M James; Wang, Sue-Jane

    2013-05-01

    Multiple comparisons have drawn a great deal of attention in evaluation of statistical evidence in clinical trials for regulatory applications. As the clinical trial methodology is increasingly more complex to properly take into consideration many practical factors, the multiple testing paradigm widely employed for regulatory applications may not suffice to interpret the results of an individual trial and of multiple trials. In a large outcome trial, an increasing need of studying more than one dose complicates a proper application of multiple comparison procedures. Additional challenges surface when a special endpoint, such as mortality, may need to be tested with multiple clinical trials combined, especially under group sequential designs. Another interesting question is how to study mortality or morbidity endpoints together with symptomatic endpoints in an efficient way, where the former type of endpoints are often studied in only one single trial but the latter type of endpoints are usually studied in at least two independent trials. This article is devoted to discussion of insufficiency of such a widely used paradigm applying only per-trial based multiple comparison procedures and to expand the utility of the procedures to such complex trial designs. A number of viable expanded strategies are stipulated. PMID:23620458

  5. Testing Multiple Outcomes in Repeated Measures Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lix, Lisa M.; Sajobi, Tolulope

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates procedures for controlling the familywise error rate (FWR) when testing hypotheses about multiple, correlated outcome variables in repeated measures (RM) designs. A content analysis of RM research articles published in 4 psychology journals revealed that 3 quarters of studies tested hypotheses about 2 or more outcome…

  6. A Cross-Layer PEP for DVB-RCS Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambene, Giovanni; Hadzic, Snezana

    The aim of this paper is to consider the problems of TCP performance in broadband GEO satellite networks and to propose a cross-layer approach for a transport-layer PEP that makes spoofing actions on ACKs to modify them in case the satellite network is congested. This approach is investigated here from the signaling standpoint with a special attention to the BSM reference model and considering a specific GEO satellite network architecture based on the DVB-S2/-RCS standards. The proposed PEP can prevent congestion in the satellite network, thus allowing a better TCP performance. This work has been carried out within the framework of the EU SatNEx II FP6 Network of Excellence.

  7. Vision for cross-layer optimization to address the dual challenges of energy and reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Dehon, Andre; Carter, Nicholas P

    2009-01-01

    We are rapidly approaching an inflection point where the conventional target of producing perfect, identical transistors that operate without upset can no longer be maintained while continuing to reduce the energy per operation. With power requirements already limiting chip performance, continuing to demand perfect, upset-free transistors would mean the end of scaling benefits. The big challenges in device variability and reliability are driven by uncommon tails in distributions, infrequent upsets, one-size-fits-all technology requirements, and a lack of information about the context of each operation. Solutions co-designed across traditional layer boundaries in our system stack can change the game, allowing architecture and software (a) to compensate for uncommon variation, environments, and events, (b) to pass down invariants and requirements for the computation, and (c) to monitor the health of collections of deVices. Cross-layer codesign provides a path to continue extracting benefits from further scaled technologies despite the fact that they may be less predictable and more variable. While some limited multi-layer mitigation strategies do exist, to move forward redefining traditional layer abstractions and developing a framework that facilitates cross-layer collaboration is necessary.

  8. Cross-layer ultrasound video streaming over mobile WiMAX and HSUPA networks.

    PubMed

    Alinejad, Ali; Philip, Nada Y; Istepanian, Robert S H

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the evolution of 4G-based mobile multimedia network systems will contribute significantly to future mobile healthcare (m-health) applications that require high bandwidth and fast data rates. Central to the success of such emerging applications is the compatibility of broadband networks, such as mobile Worldwide Interoperability For Microwave Access (WiMAX) and High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), and especially their rate adaption issues combined with the acceptable real-time medical quality of service requirements. In this paper, we address the relevant challenges of cross-layer design requirements for real-time rate adaptation of ultrasound video streaming in mobile WiMAX and HSUPA networks. A comparative performance analysis of such approach is validated in two experimental m-health test bed systems for both mobile WiMAX and HSUPA networks. The experimental results have shown an improved performance of mobile WiMAX compared to the HSUPA using the same cross-layer optimization approach. PMID:21571613

  9. CLIO — A Cross-Layer Information Service for Overlay Network Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haage, Dirk; Holz, Ralph; Niedermayer, Heiko; Laskov, Pavel

    New overlay-based services aim to provide properties like resilience, availability or QoS. To achieve this, automatic organization and optimization is required, which again demands accurate information on the network. Collecting and exchanging this data has a significant impact on the network, especially if several overlays are used on the same host. In this paper, we provide a survey of the current state of the art and identify challenges which must be addressed in order for new overlay-based services to be successful. We present our own solution CLIO, a cross-layer information service for overlays. CLIO provides information for the automatic creation and optimization of overlays. The service supports multiple overlays on the same node, the provided information is overlay-independent, and collected information is reused.

  10. Generating multiple new designs from a sketch

    SciTech Connect

    Stahovich, T.F.; Davis, R.; Shrobe, H.

    1996-12-31

    We describe a program called SKETCHIT that transforms a single sketch of a mechanical device into multiple families of new designs. It represents each of these families with a {open_quotes}BEP-Model,{close_quotes} a parametric model augmented with constraints that ensure the device produces the desired behavior. The program is based on qualitative configuration space (qc-space), a novel representation that captures mechanical behavior while abstracting away its implementation. The program employs a paradigm of abstraction and resynthesis: it abstracts the initial sketch into qc-space then maps from qc-space to new implementations.

  11. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW. PMID:25376042

  12. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Design Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; J. L. Dolan; M. T. Kinlaw; A. C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J. T. Johnsom; S. M. Watson

    2012-10-01

    This report documents work performed by Idaho National Laboratory and the University of Michigan in fiscal year (FY) 2012 to examine design parameters related to the use of fast-neutron multiplicity counting for assaying plutonium for materials protection, accountancy, and control purposes. This project seeks to develop a new type of neutron-measurement-based plutonium assay instrument suited for assaying advanced fuel cycle materials. Some current-concept advanced fuels contain high concentrations of plutonium; some of these concept fuels also contain other fissionable actinides besides plutonium. Because of these attributes the neutron emission rates of these new fuels may be much higher, and more difficult to interpret, than measurements made of plutonium-only materials. Fast neutron multiplicity analysis is one approach for assaying these advanced nuclear fuels. Studies have been performed to assess the conceptual performance capabilities of a fast-neutron multiplicity counter for assaying plutonium. Comparisons have been made to evaluate the potential improvements and benefits of fast-neutron multiplicity analyses versus traditional thermal-neutron counting systems. Fast-neutron instrumentation, using for example an array of liquid scintillators such as EJ-309, have the potential to either a) significantly reduce assay measurement times versus traditional approaches, for comparable measurement precision values, b) significantly improve assay precision values, for measurement durations comparable to current-generation technology, or c) moderating improve both measurement precision and measurement durations versus current-generation technology. Using the MCNPX-PoliMi Monte Carlo simulation code, studies have been performed to assess the doubles-detection efficiency for a variety of counter layouts of cylindrical liquid scintillator detector cells over one, two, and three rows. Ignoring other considerations, the best detector design is the one with the most

  13. Cross-layer optimization for video transmission over multirate GMC-CDMA wireless links.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Saurav K; Partasides, George; Kondi, Lisimachos P

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of video transmission over wireless generalized multicarrier code division multiple access (GMC-CDMA) systems. Such systems offer deterministic elimination of multiple access interference. A scalable video source codec is used and a multirate setup is assumed, i.e., each video user is allowed to occupy more than one GMC-CDMA channels. Furthermore, each of these channels can utilize a different number of subcarriers. We propose a cross-layer optimization method to select the source coding rate, channel coding rate, number of subcarriers per GMC-CDMA channel and transmission power per GMC-CDMA channel given a maximum transmission power for each video user and an available chip rate. Universal rate distortion characteristics (URDC) are used to approximate the expected distortion at the receiver. The proposed algorithm is optimal in the operational rate distortion sense, subject to the specific setup used and the approximation caused by the use of the URDC. Experimental results are presented and conclusions are drawn. PMID:18482895

  14. Cross-layer protocols optimized for real-time multimedia services in energy-constrained mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2003-07-01

    Mobile ad hoc networking (MANET) supports self-organizing, mobile infrastructures and enables an autonomous network of mobile nodes that can operate without a wired backbone. Ad hoc networks are characterized by multihop, wireless connectivity via packet radios and by the need for efficient dynamic protocols. All routers are mobile and can establish connectivity with other nodes only when they are within transmission range. Importantly, ad hoc wireless nodes are resource-constrained, having limited processing, memory, and battery capacity. Delivery of high quality-ofservice (QoS), real-time multimedia services from Internet-based applications over a MANET is a challenge not yet achieved by proposed Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) ad hoc network protocols in terms of standard performance metrics such as end-to-end throughput, packet error rate, and delay. In the distributed operations of route discovery and maintenance, strong interaction occurs across MANET protocol layers, in particular, the physical, media access control (MAC), network, and application layers. The QoS requirements are specified for the service classes by the application layer. The cross-layer design must also satisfy the battery-limited energy constraints, by minimizing the distributed power consumption at the nodes and of selected routes. Interactions across the layers are modeled in terms of the set of concatenated design parameters including associated energy costs. Functional dependencies of the QoS metrics are described in terms of the concatenated control parameters. New cross-layer designs are sought that optimize layer interdependencies to achieve the "best" QoS available in an energy-constrained, time-varying network. The protocol design, based on a reactive MANET protocol, adapts the provisioned QoS to dynamic network conditions and residual energy capacities. The cross-layer optimization is based on stochastic dynamic programming conditions derived from time-dependent models of

  15. Cross-layer Energy Optimization Under Image Quality Constraints for Wireless Image Transmissions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Demirkol, Ilker; Heinzelman, Wendi

    2012-01-01

    Wireless image transmission is critical in many applications, such as surveillance and environment monitoring. In order to make the best use of the limited energy of the battery-operated cameras, while satisfying the application-level image quality constraints, cross-layer design is critical. In this paper, we develop an image transmission model that allows the application layer (e.g., the user) to specify an image quality constraint, and optimizes the lower layer parameters of transmit power and packet length, to minimize the energy dissipation in image transmission over a given distance. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated by applying the proposed energy optimization to a reference ZigBee system and a WiFi system, and also by comparing to an energy optimization study that does not consider any image quality constraint. Evaluations show that our scheme outperforms the default settings of the investigated commercial devices and saves a significant amount of energy at middle-to-large transmission distances. PMID:23508852

  16. A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Fei; Xie, Rong; Shu, Lei; Kim, Young-Chon

    2011-01-01

    Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC) for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency. PMID:22163895

  17. Design of a Ku band miniature multiple beam klystron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ayan Kumar; Pal, Debasish; Saini, Anil; Kant, Deepender; Saha, Sukalyan; Joshi, Lalit Mohan

    2016-03-01

    The design of a miniature multiple beam klystron (MBK) working in the Ku-band frequency range is presented in this article. Starting from the main design parameters, design of the electron gun, the input and output couplers and radio frequency section (RF-section) are presented. The design methodology using state of the art commercial electromagnetic design tools, analytical formulae as well as noncommercial design tools are briefly presented in this article.

  18. Multiple Choice: Trends in Dining Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanquist, Barry

    1999-01-01

    Examines changes in the traditional school dining hall and the prevailing trends in food-service design. Explores dining-hall space flexibility and multi-functionality and the need to cater to student preferences for brand names and choice. (GR)

  19. Multiple aperture seeker design for endoatmospheric intercepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Jennifer; Shui, Ven; Reeves, Barry

    1993-06-01

    An IR optical seeker concept developed by Loral Infrared and Imaging Systems to meet the endoatmospheric requirements for hit-to-kill intercepts is presented. The seeker works in conjunction with an uncooled window concept developed by Textron Defense Systems. The combination of the compact seeker design with an uncooled window aperture provides an adequate solution with minimal complexity.

  20. Multiple Perspectives on Blended Learning Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty; Margaryan, Anoush; Amory, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Learning in the corporate setting not only relates to individual competence development but also to a demonstration of business impact and a contribution to the strategic ambitions of the company. An approach to learning design that blends generic principles of learning and instruction with strategic goals important to the particular context,…

  1. 15 meter multiple mirror telescope design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angel, J. R. P.; Woolf, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    Taking as a starting point the existing Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), a concept for a larger and more advanced instrument has been developed. It makes use of four 7.5-m diameter paraboloidal glass primaries of the honeycomb sandwich type being developed by the University of Arizona. These are mounted quite close together in a square configuration, with their axes coaligned. Separate optical configurations are provided, for optical and infrared applications. To minimze telescope emissivity in the thermal infrared at the combined focus, all the beam combining and streering optics that follow the tertiary mirrors are enclosed in a large central dewar and cooled with liquid nitrogen. The diffraction-limited resolution at the combined focus of 0.11 arcsec at 10 micrometers wavelength is equivalent to that of a 20.5 meter filled aperture. Diffraction-limited resolution should be routinely achievable at 10 and 20 micrometers, if active correction of large-scale wavefront errors is implemented.

  2. PrimerDesign-M: A multiple-alignment based multiple-primer design tool for walking across variable genomes

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Hyejin; Leitner, Thomas

    2014-12-17

    Analyses of entire viral genomes or mtDNA requires comprehensive design of many primers across their genomes. In addition, simultaneous optimization of several DNA primer design criteria may improve overall experimental efficiency and downstream bioinformatic processing. To achieve these goals, we developed PrimerDesign-M. It includes several options for multiple-primer design, allowing researchers to efficiently design walking primers that cover long DNA targets, such as entire HIV-1 genomes, and that optimizes primers simultaneously informed by genetic diversity in multiple alignments and experimental design constraints given by the user. PrimerDesign-M can also design primers that include DNA barcodes and minimize primer dimerization. PrimerDesign-M finds optimal primers for highly variable DNA targets and facilitates design flexibility by suggesting alternative designs to adapt to experimental conditions.

  3. PrimerDesign-M: A multiple-alignment based multiple-primer design tool for walking across variable genomes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yoon, Hyejin; Leitner, Thomas

    2014-12-17

    Analyses of entire viral genomes or mtDNA requires comprehensive design of many primers across their genomes. In addition, simultaneous optimization of several DNA primer design criteria may improve overall experimental efficiency and downstream bioinformatic processing. To achieve these goals, we developed PrimerDesign-M. It includes several options for multiple-primer design, allowing researchers to efficiently design walking primers that cover long DNA targets, such as entire HIV-1 genomes, and that optimizes primers simultaneously informed by genetic diversity in multiple alignments and experimental design constraints given by the user. PrimerDesign-M can also design primers that include DNA barcodes and minimize primer dimerization. PrimerDesign-Mmore » finds optimal primers for highly variable DNA targets and facilitates design flexibility by suggesting alternative designs to adapt to experimental conditions.« less

  4. Wireless visual sensor network resource allocation using cross-layer optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Elizabeth S.; Matyjas, John D.; Medley, Michael J.; Kondi, Lisimachos P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to manage network resources for a Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) visual sensor network where nodes monitor scenes with varying levels of motion. It uses cross-layer optimization across the physical layer, the link layer and the application layer. Our technique simultaneously assigns a source coding rate, a channel coding rate, and a power level to all nodes in the network based on one of two criteria that maximize the quality of video of the entire network as a whole, subject to a constraint on the total chip rate. One criterion results in the minimal average end-to-end distortion amongst all nodes, while the other criterion minimizes the maximum distortion of the network. Our approach allows one to determine the capacity of the visual sensor network based on the number of nodes and the quality of video that must be transmitted. For bandwidth-limited applications, one can also determine the minimum bandwidth needed to accommodate a number of nodes with a specific target chip rate. Video captured by a sensor node camera is encoded and decoded using the H.264 video codec by a centralized control unit at the network layer. To reduce the computational complexity of the solution, Universal Rate-Distortion Characteristics (URDCs) are obtained experimentally to relate bit error probabilities to the distortion of corrupted video. Bit error rates are found first by using Viterbi's upper bounds on the bit error probability and second, by simulating nodes transmitting data spread by Total Square Correlation (TSC) codes over a Rayleigh-faded DS-CDMA channel and receiving that data using Auxiliary Vector (AV) filtering.

  5. SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation of multiple objectives is very important in designing environmentally benign processes. It requires a systematic procedure for solving multiobjective decision-making problems, due to the complex nature of the problems, the need for complex assessments, and complicated ...

  6. EUROPA Multiple-Flyby Trajectory Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, Brent; Campagnola, Stefano; Petropoulos, Anastassios

    2012-01-01

    As reinforced by the 2011 NRC Decadal Survey, Europa remains one of the most scientifically intriguing targets in planetary science due to its potential suitability for life. However, based on JEO cost estimates and current budgetary constraints, the Decadal Survey recommended-and later directed by NASA Headquarters-a more affordable pathway to Europa exploration be derived. In response, a flyby-only proof-of-concept trajectory has been developed to investigate Europa. The trajectory, enabled by employing a novel combination of new mission design techniques, successfully fulfills a set of Science Definition Team derived scientific objectives carried out by a notional payload including ice penetrating radar, topographic imaging, and short wavelength infrared observations, and ion neutral mass spectrometry in-situ measurements. The current baseline trajectory, referred to as 11-F5, consists of 34 Europa and 9 Ganymede flybys executed over the course of 2.4 years, reached a maximum inclination of 15 degrees, has a deterministic delta v of 157 m/s (post-PJR), and has a total ionizing dose of 2.06 Mrad (Si behind 100 mil Al, spherical shell). The 11-F5 trajectory and more generally speaking, flyby-only trajectories-exhibit a number of potential advantages over an Europa orbiter mission.

  7. A Survey on Multimedia-Based Cross-Layer Optimization in Visual Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Daniel G.; Guedes, Luiz Affonso

    2011-01-01

    Visual sensor networks (VSNs) comprised of battery-operated electronic devices endowed with low-resolution cameras have expanded the applicability of a series of monitoring applications. Those types of sensors are interconnected by ad hoc error-prone wireless links, imposing stringent restrictions on available bandwidth, end-to-end delay and packet error rates. In such context, multimedia coding is required for data compression and error-resilience, also ensuring energy preservation over the path(s) toward the sink and improving the end-to-end perceptual quality of the received media. Cross-layer optimization may enhance the expected efficiency of VSNs applications, disrupting the conventional information flow of the protocol layers. When the inner characteristics of the multimedia coding techniques are exploited by cross-layer protocols and architectures, higher efficiency may be obtained in visual sensor networks. This paper surveys recent research on multimedia-based cross-layer optimization, presenting the proposed strategies and mechanisms for transmission rate adjustment, congestion control, multipath selection, energy preservation and error recovery. We note that many multimedia-based cross-layer optimization solutions have been proposed in recent years, each one bringing a wealth of contributions to visual sensor networks. PMID:22163908

  8. Cross-layer restoration with software defined networking based on IP over optical transport networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Cheng, Lei; Deng, Junni; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Lee, Young

    2015-10-01

    The IP over optical transport network is a very promising networking architecture applied to the interconnection of geographically distributed data centers due to the performance guarantee of low delay, huge bandwidth and high reliability at a low cost. It can enable efficient resource utilization and support heterogeneous bandwidth demands in highly-available, cost-effective and energy-effective manner. In case of cross-layer link failure, to ensure a high-level quality of service (QoS) for user request after the failure becomes a research focus. In this paper, we propose a novel cross-layer restoration scheme for data center services with software defined networking based on IP over optical network. The cross-layer restoration scheme can enable joint optimization of IP network and optical network resources, and enhance the data center service restoration responsiveness to the dynamic end-to-end service demands. We quantitatively evaluate the feasibility and performances through the simulation under heavy traffic load scenario in terms of path blocking probability and path restoration latency. Numeric results show that the cross-layer restoration scheme improves the recovery success rate and minimizes the overall recovery time.

  9. Combined bio-inspired/evolutionary computational methods in cross-layer protocol optimization for wireless ad hoc sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2011-06-01

    Published studies have focused on the application of one bio-inspired or evolutionary computational method to the functions of a single protocol layer in a wireless ad hoc sensor network (WSN). For example, swarm intelligence in the form of ant colony optimization (ACO), has been repeatedly considered for the routing of data/information among nodes, a network-layer function, while genetic algorithms (GAs) have been used to select transmission frequencies and power levels, physical-layer functions. Similarly, artificial immune systems (AISs) as well as trust models of quantized data reputation have been invoked for detection of network intrusions that cause anomalies in data and information; these act on the application and presentation layers. Most recently, a self-organizing scheduling scheme inspired by frog-calling behavior for reliable data transmission in wireless sensor networks, termed anti-phase synchronization, has been applied to realize collision-free transmissions between neighboring nodes, a function of the MAC layer. In a novel departure from previous work, the cross-layer approach to WSN protocol design suggests applying more than one evolutionary computational method to the functions of the appropriate layers to improve the QoS performance of the cross-layer design beyond that of one method applied to a single layer's functions. A baseline WSN protocol design, embedding GAs, anti-phase synchronization, ACO, and a trust model based on quantized data reputation at the physical, MAC, network, and application layers, respectively, is constructed. Simulation results demonstrate the synergies among the bioinspired/ evolutionary methods of the proposed baseline design improve the overall QoS performance of networks over that of a single computational method.

  10. An application of design knowledge captured from multiple sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Preston A.; Forbes, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Operational Readiness Expert Safemode Investigation System (HSTORESIS) is a reusable knowledge base shell used to demonstrate the integration and application of design knowledge captured from multiple technical domains. The design of HSTORESIS is based on a partitioning of knowledge to maximize the potential for reuse of certain types of knowledge.

  11. Design-Comparable Effect Sizes in Multiple Baseline Designs: A General Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pustejovsky, James E.; Hedges, Larry V.; Shadish, William R.

    2014-01-01

    In single-case research, the multiple baseline design is a widely used approach for evaluating the effects of interventions on individuals. Multiple baseline designs involve repeated measurement of outcomes over time and the controlled introduction of a treatment at different times for different individuals. This article outlines a general…

  12. The Study of Cross-layer Optimization for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks Implemented in Coal Mines.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xu; Shi, Lei; Han, Jianghong; Lu, Jingting

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks deployed in coal mines could help companies provide workers working in coal mines with more qualified working conditions. With the underground information collected by sensor nodes at hand, the underground working conditions could be evaluated more precisely. However, sensor nodes may tend to malfunction due to their limited energy supply. In this paper, we study the cross-layer optimization problem for wireless rechargeable sensor networks implemented in coal mines, of which the energy could be replenished through the newly-brewed wireless energy transfer technique. The main results of this article are two-fold: firstly, we obtain the optimal relay nodes' placement according to the minimum overall energy consumption criterion through the Lagrange dual problem and KKT conditions; secondly, the optimal strategies for recharging locomotives and wireless sensor networks are acquired by solving a cross-layer optimization problem. The cyclic nature of these strategies is also manifested through simulations in this paper. PMID:26828500

  13. The Study of Cross-layer Optimization for Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks Implemented in Coal Mines

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xu; Shi, Lei; Han, Jianghong; Lu, Jingting

    2016-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks deployed in coal mines could help companies provide workers working in coal mines with more qualified working conditions. With the underground information collected by sensor nodes at hand, the underground working conditions could be evaluated more precisely. However, sensor nodes may tend to malfunction due to their limited energy supply. In this paper, we study the cross-layer optimization problem for wireless rechargeable sensor networks implemented in coal mines, of which the energy could be replenished through the newly-brewed wireless energy transfer technique. The main results of this article are two-fold: firstly, we obtain the optimal relay nodes’ placement according to the minimum overall energy consumption criterion through the Lagrange dual problem and KKT conditions; secondly, the optimal strategies for recharging locomotives and wireless sensor networks are acquired by solving a cross-layer optimization problem. The cyclic nature of these strategies is also manifested through simulations in this paper. PMID:26828500

  14. A multiple objective optimization approach to aircraft control systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabak, D.; Schy, A. A.; Johnson, K. G.; Giesy, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of an aircraft lateral control system, subject to several performance criteria and constraints, is considered. While in the previous studies of the same model a single criterion optimization, with other performance requirements expressed as constraints, has been pursued, the current approach involves a multiple criteria optimization. In particular, a Pareto optimal solution is sought.

  15. A SYSTEMATIC PROCEDURE FOR DESIGNING PROCESSES WITH MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluation and analysis of multiple objectives are very important in designing environmentally benign processes. They require a systematic procedure for solving multi-objective decision-making problems due to the complex nature of the problems and the need for complex assessment....

  16. Towards Robust Designs Via Multiple-Objective Optimization Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Man Mohan, Rai

    2006-01-01

    Fabricating and operating complex systems involves dealing with uncertainty in the relevant variables. In the case of aircraft, flow conditions are subject to change during operation. Efficiency and engine noise may be different from the expected values because of manufacturing tolerances and normal wear and tear. Engine components may have a shorter life than expected because of manufacturing tolerances. In spite of the important effect of operating- and manufacturing-uncertainty on the performance and expected life of the component or system, traditional aerodynamic shape optimization has focused on obtaining the best design given a set of deterministic flow conditions. Clearly it is important to both maintain near-optimal performance levels at off-design operating conditions, and, ensure that performance does not degrade appreciably when the component shape differs from the optimal shape due to manufacturing tolerances and normal wear and tear. These requirements naturally lead to the idea of robust optimal design wherein the concept of robustness to various perturbations is built into the design optimization procedure. The basic ideas involved in robust optimal design will be included in this lecture. The imposition of the additional requirement of robustness results in a multiple-objective optimization problem requiring appropriate solution procedures. Typically the costs associated with multiple-objective optimization are substantial. Therefore efficient multiple-objective optimization procedures are crucial to the rapid deployment of the principles of robust design in industry. Hence the companion set of lecture notes (Single- and Multiple-Objective Optimization with Differential Evolution and Neural Networks ) deals with methodology for solving multiple-objective Optimization problems efficiently, reliably and with little user intervention. Applications of the methodologies presented in the companion lecture to robust design will be included here. The

  17. A centrifugal pump concept designed for multiple use in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderlich, E.; Wulz, H. G.

    A centrifugal pump concept was elaborated for a multiple application in future spacecrafts. Based on this concept a prototype of a small centrifugal pump was manufactured and comprehensively tested. The model pump has been approved in different test series with the fluids liquid ammonia and demineralized water. The design of the model pump was driven by strict requirements of COLUMBUS, namely long life, noiseless operation, minimum mass and low energy consumption. Because of its modular design and as a result of selected materials of multiple compatibility, this pump is suited for the delivery of various further fluids, such as freons, hydrocarbons, propellants (hydrazine) etc.. It is also capable of pumping corrosive or toxic fluids for laboratory processes in space. The wide speed range from about 1,00 to 20,000 rpm which corresponds to a flow from about 1 to 20 l/min, permits an energy saving adaption and flow control.

  18. Online Guidance Law of Missile Using Multiple Design Point Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, Seiji; Ueno, Seiya

    This paper deals with design procedure of online guidance law for future missiles that are required to have agile maneuverability. For the purpose, the authors propose to mount high power side-thrusters on a missile. The guidance law for such missiles is discussed from a point of view of optimal control theory in this paper. Minimum time problem is solved for the approximated system. It is derived that bang-bang control is optimal input from the necessary conditions of optimal solution. Feedback guidance without iterative calculation is useful for actual systems. Multiple design point method is applied to design feedback gains and feedforward inputs of the guidance law. The numerical results show the good performance of the proposed guidance law.

  19. Integration of multiple sensor fusion in controller design.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Kandasamy, Parameshwaran

    2003-04-01

    The main focus of this research is to reduce the risk of a catastrophic response of a feedback control system when some of the feedback data from the system sensors are not reliable, while maintaining a reasonable performance of the control system. In this paper a methodology for integrating multiple sensor fusion into the controller design is presented. The multiple sensor fusion algorithm produces, in addition to the estimate of the measurand, a parameter that measures the confidence in the estimated value. This confidence is integrated as a parameter into the controller to produce fast system response when the confidence in the estimate is high, and a slow response when the confidence in the estimate is low. Conditions for the stability of the system with the developed controller are discussed. This methodology is demonstrated on a cupola furnace model. The simulations illustrate the advantages of the new methodology. PMID:12708539

  20. Automated design of multiple encounter gravity-assist trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longuski, James M.; Williams, Steve N.

    1990-01-01

    Given a range of initial launch dates and a set of target planets, a new approach to planetary mission design is developed, using an automated method for finding all conic solutions. Each point on the diagrams reproduced represents a single ballistic trajectory and is computed by modeling the trajectory as a conic section and solving the corresponding Lambert problem for each set of launch and arrival dates. An example which prescribes a launch period of 1975-2050 and target planets Uranus, Saturn, Jupiter, Neptune and Pluto is described whereby, all possible grand tour missions of this class are found, including the Voyager II trajectory. It is determined that this automated design tool may be applied to a variety of multiple encounter gravity-assist trajectories that are being considered for future missions.

  1. Railway network design with multiple project stages and time sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuby, Michael; Xu, Zhongyi; Xie, Xiaodong

    This paper presents a spatial decision support system for network design problems in which different kinds of projects can be built in stages over time. It was developed by the World Bank and China's Ministry of Railways to plan investment strategies for China's overburdened railway system. We first present a mixed-integer program for the single-period network design problem with project choices such as single or multiple tracks and/or electrification with economies of scale. Then, because such projects can be built all at once or in stages, we developed a heuristic backwards time sequencing procedure with a cost adjustment factor to solve the ``project staging'' problem. Other innovations include a preloading routine; coordinated modeling of arcs, paths, and corridors; and a custom-built GIS.

  2. Design and modeling of small scale multiple fracturing experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cuderman, J F

    1981-12-01

    Recent experiments at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have demonstrated the existence of three distinct fracture regimes. Depending on the pressure rise time in a borehole, one can obtain hydraulic, multiple, or explosive fracturing behavior. The use of propellants rather than explosives in tamped boreholes permits tailoring of the pressure risetime over a wide range since propellants having a wide range of burn rates are available. This technique of using the combustion gases from a full bore propellant charge to produce controlled borehole pressurization is termed High Energy Gas Fracturing (HEGF). Several series of HEGF, in 0.15 m and 0.2 m diameter boreholes at 12 m depths, have been completed in a tunnel complex at NTS where mineback permitted direct observation of fracturing obtained. Because such large experiments are costly and time consuming, smaller scale experiments are desirable, provided results from small experiments can be used to predict fracture behavior in larger boreholes. In order to design small scale gas fracture experiments, the available data from previous HEGF experiments were carefully reviewed, analytical elastic wave modeling was initiated, and semi-empirical modeling was conducted which combined predictions for statically pressurized boreholes with experimental data. The results of these efforts include (1) the definition of what constitutes small scale experiments for emplacement in a tunnel complex at the Nevada Test Site, (2) prediction of average crack radius, in ash fall tuff, as a function of borehole size and energy input per unit length, (3) definition of multiple-hydraulic and multiple-explosive fracture boundaries as a function of boreholes size and surface wave velocity, (4) semi-empirical criteria for estimating stress and acceleration, and (5) a proposal that multiple fracture orientations may be governed by in situ stresses.

  3. Cross Layer Adaptation of Check Intervals in Low Power Listening MAC Protocols for Lifetime Improvement in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Escolar, Soledad; Chessa, Stefano; Carretero, Jesús; Marinescu, Maria-Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Preamble sampling-based MAC protocols designed for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are aimed at prolonging the lifetime of the nodes by scheduling their times of activity. This scheduling exploits node synchronization to find the right trade-off between energy consumption and delay. In this paper we consider the problem of node synchronization in preamble sampling protocols. We propose Cross Layer Adaptation of Check intervals (CLAC), a novel protocol intended to reduce the energy consumption of the nodes without significantly increasing the delay. Our protocol modifies the scheduling of the nodes based on estimating the delay experienced by a packet that travels along a multi-hop path. CLAC uses routing and MAC layer information to compute a delay that matches the packet arrival time. We have implemented CLAC on top of well-known routing and MAC protocols for WSN, and we have evaluated our implementation using the Avrora simulator. The simulation results confirm that CLAC improves the network lifetime at no additional packet loss and without affecting the end-to-end delay. PMID:23112613

  4. SCTPmx: An SCTP Fast Handover Mechanism Using a Single Interface Based on a Cross-Layer Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yunsop; Teraoka, Fumio

    Recently, SCTP is attracting attention to support mobility in the Internet because it does not require additional equipment such as the Home Agent of Mobile IP. This paper focuses on an SCTP fast handover mechanism using a single interface because it is assumed that small mobile devices have a single interface per communication medium such as IEEE802.11b due to hardware limitations. The proposed mechanism called SCTPmx employs a cross layer control information exchange system called LIESto predict handover. LIES was originally designed to achieve network layer fast handover and then it was extended by adding the network layer primitives for efficient interaction among the link layer, the network layer, and the transport layer. Prior to handover, SCTPmx can generate a new address that will be used after handover and can execute duplicate address detection of IPv6. SCTPmx can suppress the delay caused by channel scanning at the link layer by employing selective background scanning mechanism which allows to continue data communication during channel scanning. In addition, SCTPmx can notify the correspondent node of the new address before handover. SCTPmx was implemented on FreeBSD. SCTPmx achieved better than 25 times lower handover latency (100msec) and 2 times higher throughput than previous proposals.

  5. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Signal Processing in Wireless Networks: A Cross-Layer Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraci, Giovanni; Wildemeersch, Matthias; Quek, Tony Q. S.

    2016-02-01

    In order to meet the growing mobile data demand, future wireless networks will be equipped with a multitude of access points (APs). Besides the important implications for the energy consumption, the trend towards densification requires the development of decentralized and sustainable radio resource management techniques. It is critically important to understand how the distribution of signal processing operations affects the energy efficiency of wireless networks. In this paper, we provide a cross-layer framework to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency of wireless networks under different levels of distribution of the signal processing load: (i) hybrid, where the signal processing operations are shared between nodes and APs, (ii) centralized, where signal processing is entirely implemented at the APs, and (iii) fully distributed, where all operations are performed by the nodes. We find that in practical wireless networks, hybrid signal processing exhibits a significant energy efficiency gain over both centralized and fully distributed approaches.

  6. Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) evolved design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, David; Duncan, Alan; Pitman, Joseph T.; Sigler, Robert; Kendrick, Rick; Smith, Eric H.; Mason, James

    2004-10-01

    An innovative approach to future space telescopes that enables order of magnitude increased science return for astronomical, Earth-observing and planetary science missions is described. Our concept, called Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS), provides a large-aperture, wide-field, diffraction-limited telescope at a fraction of the cost, mass and volume of conventional space telescopes. MIDAS integrates many optical interferometry advances as an evolution of over a decade of technology development in distributed aperture optical imaging systems. Nine collector telescopes are integrated into MIDAS as the primary remote sensing science payload, supporting a collection of six back-end science instruments tailored to a specific mission. By interfacing to multiple science instruments, enabling sequential and concurrent functional modes, we expand the potential science return of future space science missions many fold. Passive imaging modes with MIDAS enable remote sensing at diffraction-limited resolution sequentially by each science instrument, as well as in somewhat lower resolution by multiple science instruments acting concurrently on the image, such as in different wavebands. Our MIDAS concept inherently provides nanometer-resolution hyperspectral passive imaging without the need for any moving parts in the science instruments. For Earth-observing and planetary science missions, the MIDAS optical design provides high-resolution imaging at high altitudes for long dwell times, thereby enabling real-time, wide-area remote sensing of dynamic planetary surface characteristics. In its active remote sensing modes, using an integrated solid-state laser source, MIDAS enables surface illumination, active spectroscopy, LIDAR, vibrometery, and optical communications. Our concept is directly scalable to telescope synthetic apertures of 5m, limited by launch vehicle fairing diameter, and above 5m diameter achieved by means of autonomous deployments or manned

  7. Conservatism implications of shock test tailoring for multiple design environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baca, Thomas J.; Bell, R. Glenn; Robbins, Susan A.

    1987-01-01

    A method for analyzing shock conservation in test specifications that have been tailored to qualify a structure for multiple design environments is discussed. Shock test conservation is qualified for shock response spectra, shock intensity spectra and ranked peak acceleration data in terms of an Index of Conservation (IOC) and an Overtest Factor (OTF). The multi-environment conservation analysis addresses the issue of both absolute and average conservation. The method is demonstrated in a case where four laboratory tests have been specified to qualify a component which must survive seven different field environments. Final judgment of the tailored test specification is shown to require an understanding of the predominant failure modes of the test item.

  8. Analysis and Design of Multiple-Antenna Cognitive Radios With Multiple Primary User Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Jimenez, David; Louie, Raymond H. Y.; McKay, Matthew R.; Chen, Yang

    2015-09-01

    We consider multiple-antenna signal detection of primary user transmission signals by a secondary user receiver in cognitive radio networks. The optimal detector is analyzed for the scenario where the number of primary user signals is no less than the number of receive antennas at the secondary user. We first derive exact expressions for the moments of the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) statistic, yielding approximations for the false alarm and detection probabilities. We then show that the normalized GLRT statistic converges in distribution to a Gaussian random variable when the number of antennas and observations grow large at the same rate. Further, using results from large random matrix theory, we derive expressions to compute the detection probability without explicit knowledge of the channel, and then particularize these expressions for two scenarios of practical interest: 1) a single primary user sending spatially multiplexed signals, and 2) multiple spatially distributed primary users. Our analytical results are finally used to obtain simple design rules for the signal detection threshold.

  9. Design of Spacecraft Missions to Remove Multiple Orbital Debris Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbee, Brent W.; Alfano, Salvatore; Pinon, Elfego; Gold, Kenn; Gaylor, David

    2012-01-01

    The amount of hazardous debris in Earth orbit has been increasing, posing an evergreater danger to space assets and human missions. In January of 2007, a Chinese ASAT test produced approximately 2600 pieces of orbital debris. In February of 2009, Iridium 33 collided with an inactive Russian satellite, yielding approximately 1300 pieces of debris. These recent disastrous events and the sheer size of the Earth orbiting population make clear the necessity of removing orbital debris. In fact, experts from both NASA and ESA have stated that 10 to 20 pieces of orbital debris need to be removed per year to stabilize the orbital debris environment. However, no spacecraft trajectories have yet been designed for removing multiple debris objects and the size of the debris population makes the design of such trajectories a daunting task. Designing an efficient spacecraft trajectory to rendezvous with each of a large number of orbital debris pieces is akin to the famous Traveling Salesman problem, an NP-complete combinatorial optimization problem in which a number of cities are to be visited in turn. The goal is to choose the order in which the cities are visited so as to minimize the total path distance traveled. In the case of orbital debris, the pieces of debris to be visited must be selected and ordered such that spacecraft propellant consumption is minimized or at least kept low enough to be feasible. Emergent Space Technologies, Inc. has developed specialized algorithms for designing efficient tour missions for near-Earth asteroids that may be applied to the design of efficient spacecraft missions capable of visiting large numbers of orbital debris pieces. The first step is to identify a list of high priority debris targets using the Analytical Graphics, Inc. SOCRATES website and then obtain their state information from Celestrak. The tour trajectory design algorithms will then be used to determine the itinerary of objects and v requirements. These results will shed light

  10. Design of multiple-shell gas nozzles for refurbished Z.

    SciTech Connect

    Giuliani, J. L.; Waisman, Eduardo Mario; Velikovich, Aleksandr Lazarevich; Madden, R.; Thornhill, W.; Ampleford, David J.; Krishnan, Mahadevan; Coleman, P. L.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Wilson Elliott, Kristi; Coverdale, Christine Anne; Clark, R.; Jones, Brent Manley

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents initial designs of multiple-shell gas puff imploding loads for the refurbished Z generator. The nozzle has three independent drivers for three independent plena. The outer and middle plena may be charged to 250psia whilst the central jet can be charged to 1000psia. 8-cm and 12-cm outer diameter nozzles have been built and tested on the bench. The unique valve design provides a very fast opening, hence the amount of stray gas outside the core nozzle flow is minimized. A similar 8-cm nozzle was characterized earlier using a fiber optic interferometer, but at lower pressures and without the central jet. Those data have been scaled to the higher pressures required for refurbished Z and used to estimate performance. The use of three independent plena allows variation of the pressure (hence mass distribution) in the nozzle flow, allowing optimization of implosion stability and the on-axis mass that most contributes to K-shell emission. Varying the outer/middle mass ratios influences the implosion time and should affect the details of the assembly on axis as well as the radiation physics. Varying the central jet pressure will have a minor effect on implosion dynamics, but a strong effect on pinch conditions and radiation physics. Optimum mass distributions for planned initial Ar shots on refurbished Z are described. Additional interferometer data including the central jet and at higher pressures will also be presented.

  11. A Multiple-Sequence Variant of the Multiple-Baseline Design: A Strategy for Analysis of Sequence Effects and Treatment Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noell, George H.; Gresham, Frank M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes design logic and potential uses of a variant of the multiple-baseline design. The multiple-baseline multiple-sequence (MBL-MS) consists of multiple-baseline designs that are interlaced with one another and include all possible sequences of treatments. The MBL-MS design appears to be primarily useful for comparison of treatments taking…

  12. Trajectory design of multiple asteroids sample return missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, M.; Yamakawa, H.; Yoshikawa, M.; Abe, M.; Yano, H.

    ISAS's MUSES-C mission will try the World's first asteroid sample return. It is scheduled its launch in November 2002 and is defined as an engineering validation mission for major new technologies necessary for future planetary sample return missions. Following up the MUSES-C, the next generation of Japanese minor body explorations has been discussed for last two years, and two promising candidates have been identified. One of them is a multiple sample return mission from main belt asteroid family members (e.g., Koronis), which may provide direct information to reconstruct the interior of their parent planetesimal and its impact disruption history. Another is a multiple sample return mission from several known spectral types of near-earth asteroids to link major asteroid taxonomy with meteorite and cosmic dust samples. Here we have successfully investigated preliminary but technically feasible trajectory designs of these mission proposals, respectively. In addition, for satisfying these two scientific objectives within one mission, some trajectories for sample returns from the family that holds several spectral types within (e.g., Nysa-Polana) are studied. H2-A class launch vehicle and chemical or electric propulsions are assumed. As results, some good candidates satisfying many constraints from scientific, physical and technological point of view are found. For example, while MUSES-C conducts sample return from one asteroid at one launch within 4 years and its scientific payload is 6kg (only 1% of the wet mass), Nysa-Polana mission plans are possible for sample return from 2 significant asteroids, that have different spectrum, at one launch within 2-3 years in early 2010's and the scientific payloads can allowed up to 150kg (15% of the wet mass).

  13. Teachers and parents as researchers using multiple baseline designs.

    PubMed

    Hall, R V; Cristler, C; Cranston, S S; Tucker, B

    1970-01-01

    Two teachers and a parent used three basic multiple baseline designs to investigate the effects of systematic reinforcement and punishment procedures in the classroom and at home. (1) A fifth-grade teacher concurrently measured the same behavior (tardiness) in three stimulus situations (after morning, noon, and afternoon recesses). Posting the names of pupils on a chart titled "Today's Patriots" was made contingent on being on time after the noon recess, then successively also the morning and afternoon recesses. Tardiness was reduced to near zero rates at the points where contingencies were applied. (2) A highschool teacher recorded the same behavior (daily French-quiz grades) of three students. She then successively applied the same consequences (staying after school for individual tutoring for D and F grades) for each student. At the points where the contingency was applied, D and F grades were eliminated. (3) A mother concurrently measured three different behaviors (clarinet practice, Campfire project work, reading) of her 10-yr-old daughter. She successively applied the same contingency (going to bed early) for less than 30 min spent engaged in one after another of the behaviors. Marked increases in the behaviors were observed at the points where the contingency was applied. PMID:16795265

  14. Cross-Layer Algorithms for QoS Enhancement in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Navrati; Roy, Abhishek; Shin, Jitae

    A lot of emerging applications like advanced telemedicine and surveillance systems, demand sensors to deliver multimedia content with precise level of QoS enhancement. Minimizing energy in sensor networks has been a much explored research area but guaranteeing QoS over sensor networks still remains an open issue. In this letter we propose a cross-layer approach combining Network and MAC layers, for QoS enhancement in wireless multimedia sensor networks. In the network layer a statistical estimate of sensory QoS parameters is performed and a nearoptimal genetic algorithmic solution is proposed to solve the NP-complete QoS-routing problem. On the other hand the objective of the proposed MAC algorithm is to perform the QoS-based packet classification and automatic adaptation of the contention window. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed protocol is capable of providing lower delay and better throughput, at the cost of reasonable energy consumption, in comparison with other existing sensory QoS protocols.

  15. Constraints of nonresponding flows based on cross layers in the networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhi-Chao; Xiao, Yang; Wang, Dong

    2016-02-01

    In the active queue management (AQM) scheme, core routers cannot manage and constrain user datagram protocol (UDP) data flows by the sliding window control mechanism in the transport layer due to the nonresponsive nature of such traffic flows. However, the UDP traffics occupy a large part of the network service nowadays which brings a great challenge to the stability of the more and more complex networks. To solve the uncontrollable problem, this paper proposes a cross layers random early detection (CLRED) scheme, which can control the nonresponding UDP-like flows rate effectively when congestion occurs in the access point (AP). The CLRED makes use of the MAC frame acknowledgement (ACK) transmitting congestion information to the sources nodes and utilizes the back-off windows of the MAC layer throttling data rate. Consequently, the UDP-like flows data rate can be restrained timely by the sources nodes in order to alleviate congestion in the complex networks. The proposed CLRED can constrain the nonresponsive flows availably and make the communication expedite, so that the network can sustain stable. The simulation results of network simulator-2 (NS2) verify the proposed CLRED scheme.

  16. Design practices for multiple-seam room-and-pillar mines. Information circular/1994

    SciTech Connect

    Chekan, G.J.; Listak, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effective mine planning and design is essential for avoiding ground problems related to multiple-seam interactions. The U.S. Bureau of Mines, as part of its mission to improve coal conservation and utilization, has been investigating multiple-seam room-and-pillar designs to increase coal recovery and reduce interactions between operations. This report presents design practices when using room-and-pillar methods in the multiple-seam environment and is a review of relevant literature on multiple-seam ground control, mine planning, and mine design. Its objective is to provide mine planners and operators with practical guidelines and information to design sale and productive mines.

  17. Learner Preferences for Varying Screen Densities Using Realistic Stimulus Materials with Single and Multiple Screen Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Gary R.; And Others

    Learner preferences for varying screen density levels were examined using multiple screen designs (high external validity) and single screen designs (high internal validity). Subjects were 23 graduate and 23 undergraduate student volunteers. When viewing multiple screens for each design in Study I, they indicated the highest preference for medium…

  18. Cross-Layer Cluster-Based Energy-Efficient Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mammu, Aboobeker Sidhik Koyamparambil; Hernandez-Jayo, Unai; Sainz, Nekane; de la Iglesia, Idoia

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in electronics and wireless communications have enabled the improvement of low-power and low-cost wireless sensors networks (WSNs). One of the most important challenges in WSNs is to increase the network lifetime due to the limited energy capacity of the network nodes. Another major challenge in WSNs is the hot spots that emerge as locations under heavy traffic load. Nodes in such areas quickly drain energy resources, leading to disconnection in network services. In such an environment, cross-layer cluster-based energy-efficient algorithms (CCBE) can prolong the network lifetime and energy efficiency. CCBE is based on clustering the nodes to different hexagonal structures. A hexagonal cluster consists of cluster members (CMs) and a cluster head (CH). The CHs are selected from the CMs based on nodes near the optimal CH distance and the residual energy of the nodes. Additionally, the optimal CH distance that links to optimal energy consumption is derived. To balance the energy consumption and the traffic load in the network, the CHs are rotated among all CMs. In WSNs, energy is mostly consumed during transmission and reception. Transmission collisions can further decrease the energy efficiency. These collisions can be avoided by using a contention-free protocol during the transmission period. Additionally, the CH allocates slots to the CMs based on their residual energy to increase sleep time. Furthermore, the energy consumption of CH can be further reduced by data aggregation. In this paper, we propose a data aggregation level based on the residual energy of CH and a cost-aware decision scheme for the fusion of data. Performance results show that the CCBE scheme performs better in terms of network lifetime, energy consumption and throughput compared to low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) and hybrid energy-efficient distributed clustering (HEED). PMID:25860073

  19. Using multiple diffractive optical elements in infrared lens design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, R. Lawrence; High, Martin; Strnad, Vladimir

    1999-07-01

    Many IR lenses include Diffractive Optical Elements (DOEs) which have been incorporated to reduce the lens complexity and/or the tolerance sensitivity. In many cases the diffractive surface includes an asphere to achieve further aberration correction. For complex lens systems such as IR multi-FOV and IR zoom lenses there is a strong motivation to use multiple diffractive optical elements. This paper reviews the performance impact and productivity advantages of using multiple diffractive optical elements in an IR lens.

  20. Undergraduate Design Learning in Multiple Partnerships: For Academies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butcher, John; Schaber, Friedemann

    2013-01-01

    This article reports research into undergraduate design learning through an off-campus partnership. The Sorrell Foundation's Joinedupdesign for Academies programme involved partnerships between university design departments, "failing" 11-18 schools and professional designers, in the context of a funding commitment to rebuild/renew…

  1. Design of an automatic multiple launcher for expendable probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappalà, G.; Reseghetti, F.; Manzella, G. M. R.

    2006-07-01

    A main goal of a ships of opportunity program is the provision of near real time temperature profiles. The use of expandable probes allows the reduction of costs, in comparison to usual scientific cruises. A major cost effectiveness can be achieved by using an automated multiple launcher, that can be used with a minimum personnel effort. A multiple launcher, developed in the framework of the Mediterranean Forecasting System - Toward Environmental Prediction, allows to collect eight temperature profiles, with a sampling strategy that can be monitored automatically by means of a software. The data acquisition system is controlled internally in all functionalities, and data can be transmitted by GSM or satellite telephone systems.

  2. Tether-mission design for multiple flybys of moon Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Charro, M. C.; Sanchez-Arriaga, G. S. A.; Sanchez-Torres, A. S. T.

    2015-10-01

    A tether mission to carry out multiple flybys of Jovian moon Europa is here presented. There is general agreement on elliptic-orbit flybys of Europa resulting in cost to attain given scientific goals lower than if actually orbiting the moon, tethers being naturally fit to fly-by rather than orbit moons1. The present mission is similar in this respect to the Clipper mission considered by NASA, the basic difference lying in location of periapsis, due to different emphasis on mission-challenge metrics. Clipper minimizes damaging radiation-dose by avoiding the Jupiter neighborhood and its very harsh environment; periapsis would be at Europa, apoapsis as far as moon Callisto. As in all past outer-planet missions, Clipper faces, however, critical power and propulsion needs. On the other hand, tethers can provide both propulsion and power, but must reach near the planet to find high plasma density and magnetic field values, leading to high induced tether current, and Lorentz drag and power. The bottom line is a strong radiation dose under the very intense Radiation Belts of Jupiter. Mission design focuses on limiting dose. Perijove would be near Jupiter, at about 1.2-1.3 Jovian radius, apojove about moon Ganymede, corresponding to 1:1 resonance with Europa, so as to keep dose down: setting apojove at Europa, for convenient parallel flybys, would require two perijove passes per flyby (the Ganymede apojove, resulting in high eccentricity, about 0.86, is also less requiring on tether operations). Mission is designed to attain reductions in eccentricity per perijove pass as high as Δe ≈ - 0.04. Due the low gravity-gradient, tether spinning is necessary to keep it straight, plasma contactors placed at both ends taking active turns at being cathodic. Efficiency of capture of the incoming S/C by the tether is gauged by the ratio of S/C mass to tether mass; efficiency is higher for higher tape-tether length and lower thickness and perijove. Low tether bowing due to the Lorentz

  3. Tether-mission design for multiple flybys of moon Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Charro, M. C.; Sanchez-Arriaga, G. S. A.; Sanchez-Torres, A. S. T.

    2015-10-01

    A tether mission to carry out multiple flybys of Jovian moon Europa is here presented. There is general agreement on elliptic-orbit flybys of Europa resulting in cost to attain given scientific goals lower than if actually orbiting the moon, tethers being naturally fit to fly-by rather than orbit moons1. The present mission is similar in this respect to the Clipper mission considered by NASA, the basic difference lying in location of periapsis, due to different emphasis on mission-challenge metrics. Clipper minimizes damaging radiation-dose by avoiding the Jupiter neighborhood and its very harsh environment; periapsis would be at Europa, apoapsis as far as moon Callisto. As in all past outer-planet missions, Clipper faces, however, critical power and propulsion needs. On the other hand, tethers can provide both propulsion and power, but must reach near the planet to find high plasma density and magnetic field values, leading to high induced tether current, and Lorentz drag and power. The bottom line is a strong radiation dose under the very intense Radiation Belts of Jupiter. Mission design focuses on limiting dose. Perijove would be near Jupiter, at about 1.2-1.3 Jovian radius, apojove about moon Ganymede, corresponding to 1:1 resonance with Europa, so as to keep dose down: setting apojove at Europa, for convenient parallel flybys, would require two perijove passes per flyby (the Ganymede apojove, resulting in high eccentricity, about 0.86, is also less requiring on tether operations). Mission is designed to attain reductions in eccentricity per perijove pass as high as Δe ≈ - 0.04. Due the low gravity-gradient, tether spinning is necessary to keep it straight, plasma contactors placed at both ends taking active turns at being cathodic. Efficiency of capture of the incoming S/C by the tether is gauged by the ratio of S/C mass to tether mass; efficiency is higher for higher tape-tether length and lower thickness and perijove. Low tether bowing due to the Lorentz

  4. Estimation of a Nonlinear Intervention Phase Trajectory for Multiple-Baseline Design Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembry, Ian; Bunuan, Rommel; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    A multilevel logistic model for estimating a nonlinear trajectory in a multiple-baseline design is introduced. The model is applied to data from a real multiple-baseline design study to demonstrate interpretation of relevant parameters. A simple change-in-levels (?"Levels") model and a model involving a quadratic function…

  5. Regression Discontinuity Designs with Multiple Rating-Score Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Robinson, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of a randomized control trial, regression discontinuity (RD) designs can produce plausible estimates of the treatment effect on an outcome for individuals near a cutoff score. In the standard RD design, individuals with rating scores higher than some exogenously determined cutoff score are assigned to one treatment condition; those…

  6. Learning Design Rashomon II: Exploring One Lesson through Multiple Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto, Luis P.; Dimitriadis, Yannis; Craft, Brock; Derntl, Michael; Emin, Valerie; Katsamani, Mary; Laurillard, Diana; Masterman, Elizabeth; Retalis, Symeon; Villasclaras, Eloy

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of tools are available to support the learning design process at different levels and from different perspectives. However, this variety can make it difficult for researchers and teachers to assess the tool that is best suited to their objectives and contexts as learning designers. Several of the tools are presented elsewhere…

  7. Supporting Affect Regulation in Children with Multiple Disabilities during Psychotherapy: A Multiple Case Design Study of Therapeutic Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuengel, C.; Sterkenburg, P. S.; Jeczynski, P.; Janssen, C. G. C.; Jongbloed, G.

    2009-01-01

    In a controlled multiple case design study, the development of a therapeutic relationship and its role in affect regulation were studied in 6 children with visual disabilities, severe intellectual disabilities, severe challenging behavior, and prolonged social deprivation. In the 1st phase, children had sessions with an experimental therapist…

  8. Multiple methods integration for structural mechanics analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J. M.; Aminpour, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    A new research area of multiple methods integration is proposed for joining diverse methods of structural mechanics analysis which interact with one another. Three categories of multiple methods are defined: those in which a physical interface are well defined; those in which a physical interface is not well-defined, but selected; and those in which the interface is a mathematical transformation. Two fundamental integration procedures are presented that can be extended to integrate various methods (e.g., finite elements, Rayleigh Ritz, Galerkin, and integral methods) with one another. Since the finite element method will likely be the major method to be integrated, its enhanced robustness under element distortion is also examined and a new robust shell element is demonstrated.

  9. Multiple IMU system hardware interface design, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landey, M.; Brown, D.

    1975-01-01

    The design of each system component is described. Emphasis is placed on functional requirements unique in this system, including data bus communication, data bus transmitters and receivers, and ternary-to-binary torquing decision logic. Mechanization drawings are presented.

  10. Launch Vehicle Propulsion Parameter Design Multiple Selection Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Joey Dewayne

    2004-01-01

    The optimization tool described herein addresses and emphasizes the use of computer tools to model a system and focuses on a concept development approach for a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen single-stage-to-orbit system, but more particularly the development of the optimized system using new techniques. This methodology uses new and innovative tools to run Monte Carlo simulations, genetic algorithm solvers, and statistical models in order to optimize a design concept. The concept launch vehicle and propulsion system were modeled and optimized to determine the best design for weight and cost by varying design and technology parameters. Uncertainty levels were applied using Monte Carlo Simulations and the model output was compared to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Shuttle Main Engine. Several key conclusions are summarized here for the model results. First, the Gross Liftoff Weight and Dry Weight were 67% higher for the design case for minimization of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost when compared to the weights determined by the minimization of Gross Liftoff Weight case. In turn, the Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost was 53% higher for optimized Gross Liftoff Weight case when compared to the cost determined by case for minimization of Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost. Therefore, a 53% increase in Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost results in a 67% reduction in Gross Liftoff Weight. Secondly, the tool outputs define the sensitivity of propulsion parameters, technology and cost factors and how these parameters differ when cost and weight are optimized separately. A key finding was that for a Space Shuttle Main Engine thrust level the oxidizer/fuel ratio of 6.6 resulted in the lowest Gross Liftoff Weight rather than at 5.2 for the maximum specific impulse, demonstrating the relationships between specific impulse, engine weight, tank volume and tank weight. Lastly, the optimum chamber pressure for

  11. Launch Vehicle Propulsion Design with Multiple Selection Criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelton, Joey D.; Frederick, Robert A.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    2005-01-01

    The approach and techniques described herein define an optimization and evaluation approach for a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen single-stage-to-orbit system. The method uses Monte Carlo simulations, genetic algorithm solvers, a propulsion thermo-chemical code, power series regression curves for historical data, and statistical models in order to optimize a vehicle system. The system, including parameters for engine chamber pressure, area ratio, and oxidizer/fuel ratio, was modeled and optimized to determine the best design for seven separate design weight and cost cases by varying design and technology parameters. Significant model results show that a 53% increase in Design, Development, Test and Evaluation cost results in a 67% reduction in Gross Liftoff Weight. Other key findings show the sensitivity of propulsion parameters, technology factors, and cost factors and how these parameters differ when cost and weight are optimized separately. Each of the three key propulsion parameters; chamber pressure, area ratio, and oxidizer/fuel ratio, are optimized in the seven design cases and results are plotted to show impacts to engine mass and overall vehicle mass.

  12. Concept and design of a multiple-function laser (MFL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karning, Heinrich; Ruger, James F.; Weispfenning, Martin

    1998-10-01

    The multifunctional properties of modern Laser sources for future military sensor applications will be studied. The goal of this study is the design of a modular laser source which covers various functions like: Laser rangefinding. Target designation (1.06 micrometer), Eyesafe target designation (1.5 micrometer), Laser radar for Automatic target recognition, Identification friend or foe using Laser interrogation with D- band response as well as allowance for Covert communication and Missile jamming with a laser in the 3 to 5 micrometer range. It is obvious that these applications require a wide range of power levels, wavelength agility and pulse repetition rates. The concept for a compact Laser source to cover these requirements will be presented. In addition a concept for the integrated sensor to provide the above mentioned functions will also be presented.

  13. Design of multiple-ply laminated composite tapered beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.

    1993-01-01

    A study of a special case of symmetric laminated composite cantilever beams is presented. The approach models beams that are tapered both in depth and width and investigates the effect of the ply layup angle and the ply taper on bending and interlaminar shearing stresses. For the determination of stresses and deflections, the beam stiffness matrices are expressed as linear functions of the beam length. Using classical lamination theory (CLT) the stiffness matrices are determined and assembled at strategic locations along the length of the beam. They are then inverted and necessary stiffness parameters are obtained numerically and extracted for determination of design information at each location chosen. Several ply layup configurations are investigated, and design considerations are presented based on the findings. Finally, recommendations for the design of these beams are presented, and a means for anticipating the location of highest stresses is offered.

  14. Seismic isolation systems designed with distinct multiple frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Two systems for seismic base isolation are presented. The main feature of these system is that, instead of only one isolation frequency as in conventional isolation systems, they are designed to have two distinct isolation frequencies. When the responses during an earthquake exceed the design value(s), the system will automatically and passively shift to the secondly isolation frequency. Responses of these two systems to different ground motions including a harmonic motion with frequency same as the primary isolation frequency, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of these new systems certainly will greatly enhance the safety and reliability of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs.

  15. Seismic isolation systems designed with distinct multiple frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-12-31

    Two systems for seismic base isolation are presented. The main feature of these system is that, instead of only one isolation frequency as in conventional isolation systems, they are designed to have two distinct isolation frequencies. When the responses during an earthquake exceed the design value(s), the system will automatically and passively shift to the secondly isolation frequency. Responses of these two systems to different ground motions including a harmonic motion with frequency same as the primary isolation frequency, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of these new systems certainly will greatly enhance the safety and reliability of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs.

  16. Percutaneous multiple electrode connector, design parameters and fabrication (biomedical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, L. A.

    1977-01-01

    A percutaneous multielectrode connector was designed which utilizes an ultrapure carbon collar to provide an infection free biocompatible passage through the skin. The device provides reliable electrical continuity, mates and demates readily with the implant, and is fabricated with processes and materials oriented to commercial production.

  17. Including Multiple Voices in Collaboratively Designing a Teacher Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecki, Loretta R.; Sturdivant, Robika L.; King, Caryn M.; Melin, Jacquelyn A.; Lancaster, Paula E.

    2012-01-01

    This narrative case study describes the collaborative processes employed by a midwestern university as it designed and implemented a clinically based, postbaccalaureate teacher preparation program for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates committed to teaching in high need secondary schools. The program development…

  18. Designing Undergraduate Research Experiences: A Multiplicity of Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.

    2001-12-01

    Research experiences for undergraduate students can serve many goals including: developing student understanding of the process of science; providing opportunities for students to develop professional skills or test career plans; completing publishable research; enabling faculty professional development; or enhancing the visibility of a science program. The large range of choices made in the design of an undergraduate research program or opportunity must reflect the goals of the program, the needs and abilities of the students and faculty, and the available resources including both time and money. Effective program design, execution, and evaluation can all be enhanced if the goals of the program are clearly articulated. Student research experiences can be divided into four components: 1) defining the research problem; 2) developing the research plan or experiment design; 3) collecting and interpreting data, and 4) communicating results. In each of these components, the program can be structured in a wide variety of ways and students can be given more or less guidance or freedom. While a feeling of ownership of the research project appears to be very important, examples of successful projects displaying a wide range of design decisions are available. Work with the Keck Geology Consortium suggests that four strategies can enhance the likelihood of successful student experiences: 1) students are well-prepared for research experience (project design must match student preparation); 2) timelines and events are structured to move students through intermediate goals to project completion; 3) support for the emotional, financial, academic and technical challenges of a research project is in place; 4) strong communications between students and faculty set clear expectations and enable mid-course corrections in the program or project design. Creating a research culture for the participants or embedding a project in an existing research culture can also assist students in

  19. Sequential circuit design for radiation hardened multiple voltage integrated circuits

    DOEpatents

    Clark, Lawrence T.; McIver, III, John K.

    2009-11-24

    The present invention includes a radiation hardened sequential circuit, such as a bistable circuit, flip-flop or other suitable design that presents substantial immunity to ionizing radiation while simultaneously maintaining a low operating voltage. In one embodiment, the circuit includes a plurality of logic elements that operate on relatively low voltage, and a master and slave latches each having storage elements that operate on a relatively high voltage.

  20. Signal Design for Improved Ranging Among Multiple Transceivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Lawrence; Tien, Jeffrey; Srinivasan, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    "Ultra-BOC" (where "BOC" signifies "binary offset carrier") is the name of an improved generic design of microwave signals to be used by a group of spacecraft flying in formation to measure ranges and bearings among themselves and to exchange telemetry needed for these measurements. Ultra-BOC could also be applied on Earth for diverse purposes -- for example, measuring relative positions of vehicles on highways for traffic-control purposes and determining the relative alignments of machines operating in mines and of construction machines and structures at construction sites. Ultra-BOC provides for rapid and robust acquisition of signals, even when signal-to-noise ratios are low. The design further provides that each spacecraft or other platform constantly strives to acquire and track the signals from the other platforms while simultaneously transmitting signals that provide full range, bearing, and telemetry service to the other platforms. In Ultra-BOC, unlike in other signal designs that have been considered for the same purposes, it is not necessary to maneuver the spacecraft or other platforms to obtain the data needed for resolving integer-carrier-cycle phase ambiguities.

  1. Design of a Multiple Drug Delivery System Directed at Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaj, Sharath C.; Thomas, Mark V.; Peyyala, Rebecca; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Puleo, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is highly prevalent, with 90% of the world population affected by either periodontitis or its preceding condition, gingivitis. These conditions are caused by bacterial biofilms on teeth, which stimulate a chronic inflammatory response that leads to loss of alveolar bone and, ultimately, the tooth. Current treatment methods for periodontitis address specific parts of the disease, with no individual treatment serving as a complete therapy. The present research sought to demonstrate development of a multiple drug delivery system for stepwise treatment of different stages of periodontal disease. More specifically, multilayered films were fabricated from an association polymer comprising cellulose acetate phthalate and Pluronic F-127 to achieve sequential release of drugs. The four types of drugs used were metronidazole, ketoprofen, doxycycline, and simvastatin to eliminate infection, inhibit inflammation, prevent tissue destruction, and aid bone regeneration, respectively. Different erosion times and adjustable sequential release profiles were achieved by modifying the number of layers or by inclusion of a slower-eroding polymer layer. Analysis of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory bioactivity showed that drugs released from the devices retained 100% bioactivity. The multilayered CAPP delivery system offers a versatile approach for releasing different drugs based on the pathogenesis of periodontitis and other conditions. PMID:23948165

  2. Design of a multiple drug delivery system directed at periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Sundararaj, Sharath C; Thomas, Mark V; Peyyala, Rebecca; Dziubla, Thomas D; Puleo, David A

    2013-11-01

    Periodontal disease is highly prevalent, with 90% of the world population affected by either periodontitis or its preceding condition, gingivitis. These conditions are caused by bacterial biofilms on teeth, which stimulate a chronic inflammatory response that leads to loss of alveolar bone and, ultimately, the tooth. Current treatment methods for periodontitis address specific parts of the disease, with no individual treatment serving as a complete therapy. The present research sought to demonstrate development of a multiple drug delivery system for stepwise treatment of different stages of periodontal disease. More specifically, multilayered films were fabricated from an association polymer comprising cellulose acetate phthalate and Pluronic F-127 to achieve sequential release of drugs. The four types of drugs used were metronidazole, ketoprofen, doxycycline, and simvastatin to eliminate infection, inhibit inflammation, prevent tissue destruction, and aid bone regeneration, respectively. Different erosion times and adjustable sequential release profiles were achieved by modifying the number of layers or by inclusion of a slower-eroding polymer layer. Analysis of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory bioactivity showed that drugs released from the devices retained 100% bioactivity. The multilayered CAPP delivery system offers a versatile approach for releasing different drugs based on the pathogenesis of periodontitis and other conditions. PMID:23948165

  3. Optimality criteria solution strategies in multiple constraint design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.; Parzynski, W.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures and solution strategies are described to solve the conventional structural optimization problem using the Lagrange multiplier technique. The multipliers, obtained through solution of an auxiliary nonlinear optimization problem, lead to optimality criteria to determine the design variables. It is shown that this procedure is essentially equivalent to an alternative formulation using a dual method Lagrangian function objective. Although mathematical formulations are straight-forward, successful applications and computational efficiency depend upon execution procedure strategies. Strategies examined, with application examples, include selection of active constraints, move limits, line search procedures, and side constraint boundaries.

  4. Dynamic Visual Computer Design for Factors and Multiples Word Problem Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Chejen; Lin, Shouhua

    2008-01-01

    This study employs the Excel function to design dynamic visual activities for factors and multiples word problem learning. A teaching experiment was carried out eight times in 4 weeks on three fifth grade students. The result showed that after using multiple-linked representations activities, students made greater progress in understanding target…

  5. Improving Graduate Students' Graphing Skills of Multiple Baseline Designs with Microsoft[R] Excel 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Ya-yu; Starling, A. Leyf Peirce

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a graphing task analysis using the Microsoft[R] Office Excel 2007 program on the single-subject multiple baseline graphing skills of three university graduate students. Using a multiple probe across participants design, the study demonstrated a functional relationship between the number of correct graphing…

  6. Multiple Input Design for Real-Time Parameter Estimation in the Frequency Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    A method for designing multiple inputs for real-time dynamic system identification in the frequency domain was developed and demonstrated. The designed inputs are mutually orthogonal in both the time and frequency domains, with reduced peak factors to provide good information content for relatively small amplitude excursions. The inputs are designed for selected frequency ranges, and therefore do not require a priori models. The experiment design approach was applied to identify linear dynamic models for the F-15 ACTIVE aircraft, which has multiple control effectors.

  7. Optimal design of structures with multiple design variables per group and multiple loading conditions on the personal computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, D. T.; Rogers, J. L., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A finite element based programming system for minimum weight design of a truss-type structure subjected to displacement, stress, and lower and upper bounds on design variables is presented. The programming system consists of a number of independent processors, each performing a specific task. These processors, however, are interfaced through a well-organized data base, thus making the tasks of modifying, updating, or expanding the programming system much easier in a friendly environment provided by many inexpensive personal computers. The proposed software can be viewed as an important step in achieving a 'dummy' finite element for optimization. The programming system has been implemented on both large and small computers (such as VAX, CYBER, IBM-PC, and APPLE) although the focus is on the latter. Examples are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the code. The present programming system can be used stand-alone or as part of the multilevel decomposition procedure to obtain optimum design for very large scale structural systems. Furthermore, other related research areas such as developing optimization algorithms (or in the larger level: a structural synthesis program) for future trends in using parallel computers may also benefit from this study.

  8. Unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe System (MEPS) for Mars observation. Volume 1: Trade analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Daniel E.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Delp, Steve E.; Guidry, Michelle A.; Lisano, Michael E.; Packard, James D.; Striepe, Scott A.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe Systems (MEPS), a space vehicle designed to observe the planet Mars in preparation for manned missions. The options considered for each major element are presented as a trade analysis, and the final vehicle design is defined.

  9. Validation of the MCNPX-PoliMi Code to Design a Fast-Neutron Multiplicity Counter

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Dolan; A. C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; S. A. Pozzi; D. L. Chichester

    2012-07-01

    Many safeguards measurement systems used at nuclear facilities, both domestically and internationally, rely on He-3 detectors and well established mathematical equations to interpret coincidence and multiplicity-type measurements for verifying quantities of special nuclear material. Due to resource shortages alternatives to these existing He-3 based systems are being sought. Work is also underway to broaden the capabilities of these types of measurement systems in order to improve current multiplicity analysis techniques. As a part of a Material Protection, Accounting, and Control Technology (MPACT) project within the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cycle Technology Program we are designing a fast-neutron multiplicity counter with organic liquid scintillators to quantify important quantities such as plutonium mass. We are also examining the potential benefits of using fast-neutron detectors for multiplicity analysis of advanced fuels in comparison with He-3 detectors and testing the performance of such designs. The designs are being developed and optimized using the MCNPX-PoliMi transport code to study detector response. In the full paper, we will discuss validation measurements used to justify the use of the MCNPX-PoliMi code paired with the MPPost multiplicity routine to design a fast neutron multiplicity counter with liquid scintillators. This multiplicity counter will be designed with the end goal of safeguarding advanced nuclear fuels. With improved timing qualities associated with liquid scintillation detectors, we can design a system that is less limited by nuclear materials of high activities. Initial testing of the designed system with nuclear fuels will take place at Idaho National Laboratory in a later stage of this collaboration.

  10. Cross layer optimization for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Sujie; Guo, Shaoyong; Qiu, Xuesong; Yang, Hui; Meng, Luoming

    2016-07-01

    To adapt the 5G communication, the cloud radio access network is a paradigm introduced by operators which aggregates all base stations computational resources into a cloud BBU pool. The interaction between RRH and BBU or resource schedule among BBUs in cloud have become more frequent and complex with the development of system scale and user requirement. It can promote the networking demand among RRHs and BBUs, and force to form elastic optical fiber switching and networking. In such network, multiple stratum resources of radio, optical and BBU processing unit have interweaved with each other. In this paper, we propose a novel multiple stratum optimization (MSO) architecture for cloud-based radio over optical fiber networks (C-RoFN) with software defined networking. Additionally, a global evaluation strategy (GES) is introduced in the proposed architecture. MSO can enhance the responsiveness to end-to-end user demands and globally optimize radio frequency, optical spectrum and BBU processing resources effectively to maximize radio coverage. The feasibility and efficiency of the proposed architecture with GES strategy are experimentally verified on OpenFlow-enabled testbed in terms of resource occupation and path provisioning latency.

  11. Bilevel formulation of a policy design problem considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, Bryant; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2014-07-01

    A bilevel optimization formulation of policy design problems considering multiple objectives and incomplete preferences of the stakeholders is presented. The formulation is presented for Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) policy design for decentralized energy infrastructure. The upper-level problem is the policy designer's problem and the lower-level problem is a Nash equilibrium problem resulting from market interactions. The policy designer has two objectives: maximizing the quantity of energy generated and minimizing policy cost. The stakeholders decide on quantities while maximizing net present value and minimizing capital investment. The Nash equilibrium problem in the presence of incomplete preferences is formulated as a stochastic linear complementarity problem and solved using expected value formulation, expected residual minimization formulation, and the Monte Carlo technique. The primary contributions in this article are the mathematical formulation of the FIT policy, the extension of computational policy design problems to multiple objectives, and the consideration of incomplete preferences of stakeholders for policy design problems.

  12. The UCLA Design Diversity Experiment (DEDIX) system: A distributed testbed for multiple-version software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avizienis, A.; Gunningberg, P.; Kelly, J. P. J.; Strigini, L.; Traverse, P. J.; Tso, K. S.; Voges, U.

    1986-01-01

    To establish a long-term research facility for experimental investigations of design diversity as a means of achieving fault-tolerant systems, a distributed testbed for multiple-version software was designed. It is part of a local network, which utilizes the Locus distributed operating system to operate a set of 20 VAX 11/750 computers. It is used in experiments to measure the efficacy of design diversity and to investigate reliability increases under large-scale, controlled experimental conditions.

  13. Design of Experiments with Multiple Independent Variables: A Resource Management Perspective on Complete and Reduced Factorial Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Linda M.; Dziak, John J.; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    An investigator who plans to conduct an experiment with multiple independent variables must decide whether to use a complete or reduced factorial design. This article advocates a resource management perspective on making this decision, in which the investigator seeks a strategic balance between service to scientific objectives and economy.…

  14. Control design for discrete-time state-multiplicative noise stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krokavec, Dušan; Filasová, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Design conditions for existence of the H∞ linear state feedback control for discretetime stochastic systems with state-multiplicative noise and polytopic uncertainties are presented in the paper. Using an enhanced form of the bounded real lemma for discrete-time stochastic systems with state-multiplicative noise, the LMI-based procedure is provided for computation of the gains of linear, as well as nonlinear, state control law. The approach is illustrated on an example demonstrating the validity of the proposed method.

  15. Designation of lenses with a single freeform surface for multiple point sources.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ku Chin

    2012-03-01

    Optical lenses with a freeform surface can be designed for diverse illumination profiles with uniformity. However, most of the previous studies formulate the problem for a single point source, and the lens topology has freeform top and spherical bottom surfaces. In this study, the formulation is extended for multiple point sources, and a flat surface is included in the lens bottom topology for ease of prototyping and manufacturing. The extended formulation for multiple point sources requires only a freeform surface to design. The formulation of overdetermined coupling equations is solved by applying the weighted least-square method. The weightings are correlated with the emitting intensities of sources in terms of an inverse gamma function. The weighting scheme gives a parameter space for designation of illumination profile fit and uniformity. The adequacy of the extended formulation is demonstrated by simulation. Examples of circular and rectangular illumination for single and multiple point sources are studied. The simulation results show that unbalanced luminance distribution can be induced by an offset source and collimated by a lens, which is designated by taking the offset into account. For multiple point sources, illumination profile fit and uniformity are designated in trade off based on the parameter design. PMID:22472748

  16. Evaluation of cabin design based on the method of multiple attribute group decision-making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaowen; Lv, Linlin; Li, Ping

    2013-07-01

    New century, cabin design has become an important factor affecting the compact capability of modern naval vessels. Traditional cabin design, based on naval rules and designer's subjective feeling and experience, holds that weapons and equipments are more important than habitability. So crew's satisfaction is not high to ships designed by traditional methods. In order to solve this problem, the method of multiple attribute group decision-making was proposed to evaluate the cabin design projects. This method considered many factors affecting cabin design, established a target system, quantified fuzzy factors in cabin design, analyzed the need of crews and gave a reasonable evaluation on cabin design projects. Finally, an illustrative example analysis validates the effectiveness and reliability of this method.

  17. Cross-Layer Self-Adaptive/Self-Aware System Software for Exascale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Gioiosa, Roberto; Kestor, Gokcen; Kerbyson, Darren J.; Hoisie, Adolfy

    2014-10-22

    The extreme level of parallelism coupled with the limited available power budget expected in the exascale era brings unprecedented challenges that demand optimization of performance, power and resiliency in unison. Scalability on such systems is of paramount importance, while power and reliability issues may change the execution environment in which a parallel application runs. To solve these challenges exascale systems will require an introspective system software that combines system and application observations across all system stack layers with online feedback and adaptation mechanisms. In this paper we propose the design of a novel self-aware, self-adaptive system software in which a kernel-level Monitor, which continuously inspects the evolution of the target system through observation of Sensors, is combined with a user-level Controller, which reacts to changes in the execution environment, explores opportunities to increase performance, save power and adapts applications to new execution scenarios. We show that the monitoring system accurately monitors the evolution of parallel applications with a runtime overhead below 1-2%. As a test case, we design and implement a user-runtime system that aims at optimizing application’s performance and system power consumption on complex hierarchical architectures. Our results show that our adaptive system reaches 98% of performance efficiency of manually-tuned applications.

  18. WIFI and WIMAX Optimization Design of Transmission and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Xian Li

    WIFI (Wireless Fidelity) and WIMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) using OFDM / OFDMA, MIMO technology to achieve speeds in a unified platform for data, voice, high-definition video and other wireless transmission, For many industries of wireless communication may be short, very considerable practical prospect. This paper focuses on WIFI and WIMAX transmission optimization design, including space-time coding (abbreviated as: STC), multiple-access control (MAC) protocol of the mathematical model; traffic channel terminal mobility cross-layer design to achieve multi-layer co-optimization, improve the WIFI and WIMAX, transmission efficiency, making WIFI and WIMAX transmission are more reasonable.

  19. Optimum design of a fuel-cell powertrain based on multiple design criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarioglu, Ismail Levent; Czapnik, Bartosch; Bostanci, Emine; Klein, Olaf P.; Schröder, Hendrik; Küçükay, Ferit

    2014-11-01

    As the number of fuel-cell vehicles on the roads increase, the vehicle designs are gaining more importance. Clearly, one major topic in this field is the optimization of powertrain designs. In this design process, the aim of the car manufacturers is to meet the expectations of the potential customer best, while creating a sustainable product. However, due to several trade-offs in the design, it would be non-realistic to expect a single solution that fulfills all design objectives. Therefore, a systematical approach, which includes a trade-off analysis and evaluation methods for this multiobjective design problem, is required. In this paper, a suitable methodology is presented and applied in a case study, where an optimum powertrain design for a typical European long-range passenger car is sought. Simulation-aided powertrain models and scalable component models are used to increase the accuracy of the design process. Furthermore, various visual and quantitative evaluation techniques are applied in order to support the decision making process.

  20. Design of Experiments with Multiple Independent Variables: A Resource Management Perspective on Complete and Reduced Factorial Designs

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Linda M.; Dziak, John J.; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    An investigator who plans to conduct experiments with multiple independent variables must decide whether to use a complete or reduced factorial design. This article advocates a resource management perspective on making this decision, in which the investigator seeks a strategic balance between service to scientific objectives and economy. Considerations in making design decisions include whether research questions are framed as main effects or simple effects; whether and which effects are aliased (confounded) in a particular design; the number of experimental conditions that must be implemented in a particular design and the number of experimental subjects the design requires to maintain the desired level of statistical power; and the costs associated with implementing experimental conditions and obtaining experimental subjects. In this article four design options are compared: complete factorial, individual experiments, single factor, and fractional factorial designs. Complete and fractional factorial designs and single factor designs are generally more economical than conducting individual experiments on each factor. Although relatively unfamiliar to behavioral scientists, fractional factorial designs merit serious consideration because of their economy and versatility. PMID:19719358

  1. PC-based Multiple Information System Interface (PC/MISI) detailed design and implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The design plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intended to be used as a blueprint for the implementation of the system. Each component is described in the detail necessary to allow programmers to implement the system. A description of the system data flow and system file structures is given.

  2. The Design of Lessons Using Mathematics Analysis Software to Support Multiple Representations in Secondary School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Robyn; Stacey, Kaye; Wander, Roger; Ball, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    Current technologies incorporating sophisticated mathematical analysis software (calculation, graphing, dynamic geometry, tables, and more) provide easy access to multiple representations of mathematical problems. Realising the affordances of such technology for students' learning requires carefully designed lessons. This paper reports on design…

  3. IMPROVING DESIGN AND OPERATION OF MULTIPLE-HEARTH AND FLUID BED SLUDGE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the investigation is to document improvements in design, operation, and maintenance of multiple-hearth and fluid bed furnace incineration for combustion of sludge in municipal wastewater treatment plants. The information contained in the report is intended to suppl...

  4. PC-based Multiple Information System Interface (PC/MISI) design plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The general design plan for the implementation of a common user interface to multiple remote information systems within a microcomputer-based environment is presented. The intent is to provide a framework for the development of detailed specifications which will be used as guidelines for the actual development of the system.

  5. Estimation of Reliability for Multiple-Component Measuring Instruments in Hierarchical Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; du Toit, Stephen H. C.

    2005-01-01

    A method for estimation of reliability for multiple-component measuring instruments with clustered data is outlined. The approach is applicable with hierarchical designs where individuals are nested within higher order units and exhibit possibly related performance on components of a scale of interest. The procedure is developed within the…

  6. Optimal design of compact and connected nature reserves for multiple species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yicheng; Önal, Hayri

    2016-04-01

    When designing a conservation reserve system for multiple species, spatial attributes of the reserves must be taken into account at species level. The existing optimal reserve design literature considers either one spatial attribute or when multiple attributes are considered the analysis is restricted only to one species. We built a linear integer programing model that incorporates compactness and connectivity of the landscape reserved for multiple species. The model identifies multiple reserves that each serve a subset of target species with a specified coverage probability threshold to ensure the species' long-term survival in the reserve, and each target species is covered (protected) with another probability threshold at the reserve system level. We modeled compactness by minimizing the total distance between selected sites and central sites, and we modeled connectivity of a selected site to its designated central site by selecting at least one of its adjacent sites that has a nearer distance to the central site. We considered structural distance and functional distances that incorporated site quality between sites. We tested the model using randomly generated data on 2 species, one ground species that required structural connectivity and the other an avian species that required functional connectivity. We applied the model to 10 bird species listed as endangered by the state of Illinois (U.S.A.). Spatial coherence and selection cost of the reserves differed substantially depending on the weights assigned to these 2 criteria. The model can be used to design a reserve system for multiple species, especially species whose habitats are far apart in which case multiple disjunct but compact and connected reserves are advantageous. The model can be modified to increase or decrease the distance between reserves to reduce or promote population connectivity. PMID:26365329

  7. Knowledge-based approach to multiple-transaction processing and distributed data-base design

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.T.

    1987-01-01

    The collective processing of multiple transactions in a data-base system has recently received renewed attention due to its capability of improving the overall performance of a data-base system and its applicability to the design of knowledge-based expert systems and extensible data-base systems. This dissertation consists of two parts. The first part presents a new knowledge-based approach to the problems of processing multiple concurrent queries and distributing replicated data objects for further improvement of the overall system performance. The second part deals with distributed database design, i.e., designing horizontal fragments using a semantic knowledge, and allocating data in a distributed environment. The semantic knowledge on data such as functional dependencies and semantic-data-integrity constraints are newly exploited for the identification of subset relationships between intermediate results of query executions involving joins, such that the (intermediate) results of queries can be utilized for the efficient processing of other queries. The expertise on the collective processing of multiple transactions is embodied into the rules of a rule-based expert system, MTP (Multiple Transaction Processor). In the second part, MTP is applied for the determination of horizontal fragments exploiting the semantic knowledge. Heuristics for allocating data in local area networks are developed.

  8. Modified Esthetic Splint Design for Management of Multiple Traumatic Injuries in Children: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Garla, Bharath Kumar; Deshmukh, Seema; Murthy, Prashanth Sadashiva; Satish, G

    2015-09-01

    Traumatic injuries to the dento-alveolar structures are emergencies that compromise the quality of life of the patients. In addition to symptomatic management, definitive functional restoration and suitable rehabilitation becomes a major treatment objective in such cases. The dynamics of the traumatic forces may cause multiple injuries of different grades to the oral and para-oral structures, which makes comprehensive management a greater challenge to the dentist. The present case report elaborates a modified esthetic splint designed to treat multiple dental injuries in children, which can promote healing, restore optimal functionality along with esthetic rehabilitation to psychologically benefit the child during the time of recovery. PMID:26435631

  9. Modified Esthetic Splint Design for Management of Multiple Traumatic Injuries in Children: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Garla, Bharath Kumar; Deshmukh, Seema; Murthy, Prashanth Sadashiva; Satish, G

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the dento-alveolar structures are emergencies that compromise the quality of life of the patients. In addition to symptomatic management, definitive functional restoration and suitable rehabilitation becomes a major treatment objective in such cases. The dynamics of the traumatic forces may cause multiple injuries of different grades to the oral and para-oral structures, which makes comprehensive management a greater challenge to the dentist. The present case report elaborates a modified esthetic splint designed to treat multiple dental injuries in children, which can promote healing, restore optimal functionality along with esthetic rehabilitation to psychologically benefit the child during the time of recovery. PMID:26435631

  10. Energy Efficient Medium Access Control Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks with Adaptive Cross-Layer Scheduling.

    PubMed

    Sefuba, Maria; Walingo, Tom; Takawira, Fambirai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an Energy Efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for clustered wireless sensor networks that aims to improve energy efficiency and delay performance. The proposed protocol employs an adaptive cross-layer intra-cluster scheduling and an inter-cluster relay selection diversity. The scheduling is based on available data packets and remaining energy level of the source node (SN). This helps to minimize idle listening on nodes without data to transmit as well as reducing control packet overhead. The relay selection diversity is carried out between clusters, by the cluster head (CH), and the base station (BS). The diversity helps to improve network reliability and prolong the network lifetime. Relay selection is determined based on the communication distance, the remaining energy and the channel quality indicator (CQI) for the relay cluster head (RCH). An analytical framework for energy consumption and transmission delay for the proposed MAC protocol is presented in this work. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated based on transmission delay, energy consumption, and network lifetime. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MAC protocol provides improved performance than traditional cluster based MAC protocols. PMID:26393608

  11. Energy Efficient Medium Access Control Protocol for Clustered Wireless Sensor Networks with Adaptive Cross-Layer Scheduling

    PubMed Central

    Sefuba, Maria; Walingo, Tom; Takawira, Fambirai

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an Energy Efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for clustered wireless sensor networks that aims to improve energy efficiency and delay performance. The proposed protocol employs an adaptive cross-layer intra-cluster scheduling and an inter-cluster relay selection diversity. The scheduling is based on available data packets and remaining energy level of the source node (SN). This helps to minimize idle listening on nodes without data to transmit as well as reducing control packet overhead. The relay selection diversity is carried out between clusters, by the cluster head (CH), and the base station (BS). The diversity helps to improve network reliability and prolong the network lifetime. Relay selection is determined based on the communication distance, the remaining energy and the channel quality indicator (CQI) for the relay cluster head (RCH). An analytical framework for energy consumption and transmission delay for the proposed MAC protocol is presented in this work. The performance of the proposed MAC protocol is evaluated based on transmission delay, energy consumption, and network lifetime. The results obtained indicate that the proposed MAC protocol provides improved performance than traditional cluster based MAC protocols. PMID:26393608

  12. Digital Dashboard Design Using Multiple Data Streams for Disease Surveillance With Influenza Surveillance as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Calvin KY; Ip, Dennis KM; Cowling, Benjamin J; Ho, Lai Ming; Leung, Gabriel M

    2011-01-01

    Background Great strides have been made exploring and exploiting new and different sources of disease surveillance data and developing robust statistical methods for analyzing the collected data. However, there has been less research in the area of dissemination. Proper dissemination of surveillance data can facilitate the end user's taking of appropriate actions, thus maximizing the utility of effort taken from upstream of the surveillance-to-action loop. Objective The aims of the study were to develop a generic framework for a digital dashboard incorporating features of efficient dashboard design and to demonstrate this framework by specific application to influenza surveillance in Hong Kong. Methods Based on the merits of the national websites and principles of efficient dashboard design, we designed an automated influenza surveillance digital dashboard as a demonstration of efficient dissemination of surveillance data. We developed the system to synthesize and display multiple sources of influenza surveillance data streams in the dashboard. Different algorithms can be implemented in the dashboard for incorporating all surveillance data streams to describe the overall influenza activity. Results We designed and implemented an influenza surveillance dashboard that utilized self-explanatory figures to display multiple surveillance data streams in panels. Indicators for individual data streams as well as for overall influenza activity were summarized in the main page, which can be read at a glance. Data retrieval function was also incorporated to allow data sharing in standard format. Conclusions The influenza surveillance dashboard serves as a template to illustrate the efficient synthesization and dissemination of multiple-source surveillance data, which may also be applied to other diseases. Surveillance data from multiple sources can be disseminated efficiently using a dashboard design that facilitates the translation of surveillance information to public

  13. SWiss Atorvastatin and Interferon Beta-1b Trial In Multiple Sclerosis (SWABIMS) - rationale, design and methodology

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Statins have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties in addition to their lipid-lowering effects. Currently, the effects of statins on multiple sclerosis are still controversial. Therefore, randomized clinical trials are needed to provide better evidence on the therapeutic potential of statins in multiple sclerosis. The SWiss Atorvastatin and Interferon Beta-1b trial in Multiple Sclerosis (SWABIMS) evaluates the efficacy, safety and tolerability of atorvastatin 40 mg per os daily and subcutaneous interferon beta-1b every other day compared to monotherapy with subcutaneous interferon beta-1b every other day in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Methods/Design SWABIMS is a multi-centre, randomized, parallel-group, rater-blinded, Phase IIb-study conducted in eight hospitals in Switzerland. 80 treatment naïve patients with relapsing-remitting forms of multiple sclerosis will receive subcutaneous interferon beta-1b for three months. Afterwards, they are randomized into two equal-sized parallel arms, receiving atorvastatin 40 mg/d or not in addition to interferon beta-1b for another 12 months. Disease activity measured by the proportion of patients with new T2 lesions is the primary endpoint. Discussion SWABIMS is designed to give further information about the therapeutic effect of atorvastatin 40 mg per os daily as add-on therapy to interferon beta-1b in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Furthermore important safety and tolerability data will be generated. Trial Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00942591; Swissmedic reference number: 2005DR2119 PMID:20003436

  14. Design and implementation of GRID-based PACS in a hospital with multiple imaging departments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanyuan; Jin, Jin; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2008-03-01

    Usually, there were multiple clinical departments providing imaging-enabled healthcare services in enterprise healthcare environment, such as radiology, oncology, pathology, and cardiology, the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is now required to support not only radiology-based image display, workflow and data flow management, but also to have more specific expertise imaging processing and management tools for other departments providing imaging-guided diagnosis and therapy, and there were urgent demand to integrate the multiple PACSs together to provide patient-oriented imaging services for enterprise collaborative healthcare. In this paper, we give the design method and implementation strategy of developing grid-based PACS (Grid-PACS) for a hospital with multiple imaging departments or centers. The Grid-PACS functions as a middleware between the traditional PACS archiving servers and workstations or image viewing clients and provide DICOM image communication and WADO services to the end users. The images can be stored in distributed multiple archiving servers, but can be managed with central mode. The grid-based PACS has auto image backup and disaster recovery services and can provide best image retrieval path to the image requesters based on the optimal algorithms. The designed grid-based PACS has been implemented in Shanghai Huadong Hospital and been running for two years smoothly.

  15. Automatic differentiation for design sensitivity analysis of structural systems using multiple processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Duc T.; Storaasli, Olaf O.; Qin, Jiangning; Qamar, Ramzi

    1994-01-01

    An automatic differentiation tool (ADIFOR) is incorporated into a finite element based structural analysis program for shape and non-shape design sensitivity analysis of structural systems. The entire analysis and sensitivity procedures are parallelized and vectorized for high performance computation. Small scale examples to verify the accuracy of the proposed program and a medium scale example to demonstrate the parallel vector performance on multiple CRAY C90 processors are included.

  16. Development of a turbomachinery design optimization procedure using a multiple-parameter nonlinear perturbation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahara, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to complete the preliminary development of a combined perturbation/optimization procedure and associated computational code for designing optimized blade-to-blade profiles of turbomachinery blades. The overall purpose of the procedures developed is to provide demonstration of a rapid nonlinear perturbation method for minimizing the computational requirements associated with parametric design studies of turbomachinery flows. The method combines the multiple parameter nonlinear perturbation method, successfully developed in previous phases of this study, with the NASA TSONIC blade-to-blade turbomachinery flow solver, and the COPES-CONMIN optimization procedure into a user's code for designing optimized blade-to-blade surface profiles of turbomachinery blades. Results of several design applications and a documented version of the code together with a user's manual are provided.

  17. Nanohole Arrays of Mixed Designs and Microwriting for Simultaneous and Multiple Protein Binding Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jin; Yang, Jiun-Chan; Larson, Dale N.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate using nanohole arrays of mixed designs and a microwriting process based on dip-pen nanolithography to monitor multiple, different protein binding events simultaneously in real time based on the intensity of Extraordinary Optical Transmission of nanohole arrays. The microwriting process and small footprint of the individual nanohole arrays enabled us to observe different binding events located only 16μm apart, achieving high spatial resolution. We also present a novel concept that incorporates nanohole arrays of different designs to improve confidence and accuracy of binding studies. For proof of concept, two types of nanohole arrays, designed to exhibit opposite responses to protein bindings, were fabricated on one transducer. Initial studies indicate that the mixed designs could help to screen out artifacts such as protein intrinsic signals, providing improved accuracy of binding interpretation. PMID:19297143

  18. Design of the cooling systems for the multiplicity and vertex detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardin, J.D.; Cunningham, R.

    1997-11-01

    The PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory is being constructed to investigate a phase of matter termed the quark-gluon plasma. The plasma will be produced through the collision of two heavy ions. The multiplicity and vertex detector (MVD) located in the center of PHENIX will characterize the events, determine the collision point, and act as a central trigger. This report presents the final mechanical designs of the cooling systems for the Multiplicity and Vertex Detector (MVD). In particular, the design procedure and layouts are discussed for two different air cooling systems for the multichip modules and MVD enclosure, and a liquid cooling system for the low dropout voltage regulators. First of all, experimental prototype cooling system test results used to drive the final mechanical designs are summarized and discussed. Next, the cooling system requirements and design calculation for the various subsystem components are presented along with detailed lists of supply vendors, components, and costs. Finally, safety measures incorporated in the final mechanical design and operation procedures for each of the subsystems are detailed.

  19. Development of a completion design to control screenouts caused by multiple near-wellbore fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Stadulis, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper discusses possible explanations, based upon previous studies, for the hypothesis that multiple fractures at the borehole wall may be a common feature of the hydraulic fracturing process. It then uses field examples to show how the authors concluded that a type of low-concentration screenout common to three fields in Texas and Oklahoma was caused by multiple fractures. Next, it shows how they developed a completion that controls loss of the pad and slurry to multiple fractures. Finally, it discusses some of the implications of their experience for completion design in general. Since the symptoms of the low-concentration screenout have been documented in the literature by other authors and appear to be quite common, their design techniques should be effective in other areas as well. The completion design combines unoriented, zero-degree-phased, big-hole perforations shot at low density; and small, high-concentration proppant slugs with clean spacer stages pumped very early in the treatment. These strategies were chosen (1) to limit the number of separate fractures that initiate from individual perforations, and (2) to screen out narrow fractures early in the treatment so that more width is developed in the remaining fracture(s). They have used these techniques to increase overall sand/fluid ratios (including the pad) from about 2.3 ppg (lbm added per gal fluid) to over 8 ppg, on modestly-sized treatments up to 200,000 lbm.

  20. Development of a completion design to control screenouts caused by multiple near-wellborne fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Stadulis, J.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper discusses possible explanations, based upon previous studies, for the hypothesis that multiple fractures at the borehole wall may be a common feature of the hydraulic fracturing process. It then uses field examples to show how we concluded that a type of low-concentration screenout common to three fields in Texas and Oklahoma was caused by multiple fractures. Next, it shows how we developed a completion that controls loss of the pad and slurry to multiple fractures. Finally, it discusses some of the implications of our experience for completion design in general. Since the symptoms of the low-concentration screenout have been documented in the literature by other authors and appear to be quite common, our design techniques should be effective in other areas as well. The completion design combines unoriented, zero-degree-phased, big-hole perforations shot at low density- and small, high-concentration proppant slugs with clean spacer stages pumped very early in the treatment. These strategies were chosen (1) to limit the number of separate fractures that initiate from individual perforations, and (2) to screen out narrow fractures early in the treatment (so that more width is developed in the remaining fractures). We have used these techniques to increase overall sand/fluid ratios (including the pad) from about 2.3 ppg (lbm added per gal fluid) to over 8 ppg, on modestly-sized treatments up to 200,000 lbm.

  1. Brief Report: Staged-informed Consent in the Cohort Multiple Randomized Controlled Trial Design.

    PubMed

    Young-Afat, Danny A; Verkooijen, Helena A M; van Gils, Carla H; van der Velden, Joanne M; Burbach, Johannes P; Elias, Sjoerd G; van Delden, Jonannes J; Relton, Clare; van Vulpen, Marco; van der Graaf, Rieke

    2016-05-01

    The "cohort multiple randomized controlled trial," a new design for pragmatic trials, embeds multiple trials within a cohort. The cohort multiple RCT is an attractive alternative to conventional RCTs in fields where recruitment is slow, multiple new (competing) interventions for the same condition have to be tested, new interventions are highly preferred by patients and doctors, and the risk of disappointment bias, cross-over, and contamination is considerable. To prevent these unwanted effects, the cohort multiple RCT provides information on randomization to the intervention group/arm only, and only after randomization (i.e., prerandomization). To some, especially in a clinical setting, this is not ethically acceptable. In this article, we argue that prerandomization in the cohort multiple randomized controlled trial (cmRCT) can be avoided by adopting a staged-informed consent procedure. In the first stage, at entry into the cohort, all potential participants are asked for their informed consent to participate in a cohort study and broad consent to be either randomly selected to be approached for experimental interventions or to serve as control without further notice during participation in the cohort. In a second stage, at the initiation of an RCT within the cohort, informed consent to receive the intervention is then only sought in those randomly selected for the intervention arm. At the third stage, after completion of each RCT, all cohort participants receive aggregate disclosure of trial results. This staged-informed consent procedure avoids prerandomization in cmRCT and aims to keep participants actively engaged in the research process. PMID:27035689

  2. Conditions for perfect focusing multiple point sources with the SMS design method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benítez, P.; Miñano, Juan C.; Nikolic, Milena; Liu, Jiayao; Infante, Jose; Duerr, Fabian

    2014-09-01

    In this work, we demonstrate how it is possible to sharply image multiple object points. The Simultaneous Multiple Surface (SMS) design method has usually been presented as a method to couple N wave-front pairs with N surfaces, but recent findings show that when using N surfaces, we can obtain M image points when Ndesigns of six surfaces imaging up to eight object points. These designs are limited with the condition that the surfaces cannot be placed at the aperture stop. In the process of maximizing the object points to sharp image, we try to exhaust the degrees of freedom of aspherics and free-forms. We conjecture that maximal SMS designs are very close to a good solution, hence using them as a starting point for the optimization will lead us faster to a final optical system. We suggest here different optimization strategies which combined with the SMS method are proven to give the best solution. Through the example of imaging with the high aspect ratio, we compare the results obtained optimizing the rotational lens and using a combination of SMS method and optimization, showing that the second approach is giving significantly smaller value of overall RMS spot diameter.

  3. An Application of Graphical Approach to Construct Multiple Testing Procedures in a Hypothetical Phase III Design

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bushi; Ting, Naitee

    2014-01-01

    Many multiple testing procedures (MTP) have been developed in recent years. Among these new procedures, the graphical approach is flexible and easy to communicate with non-statisticians. A hypothetical Phase III clinical trial design is introduced in this manuscript to demonstrate how graphical approach can be applied in clinical product development. In this design, an active comparator is used. It is thought that this test drug under development could potentially be superior to this comparator. For comparison of efficacy, the primary endpoint is well established and widely accepted by regulatory agencies. However, an important secondary endpoint based on Phase II findings looks very promising. The target dose may have a good opportunity to deliver superiority to the comparator. Furthermore, a lower dose is included in case the target dose may demonstrate potential safety concerns. This Phase III study is designed as a non-inferiority trial with two doses, and two endpoints. This manuscript will illustrate how graphical approach is applied to this design in handling multiple testing issues. PMID:24432299

  4. Design and optimization of an RF energy harvesting system from multiple sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Mai; Albasha, Lutfi; Qaddoumi, Nasser

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the design and optimization of an RF energy harvesting system from multiple sources. The RF power is harvested from four frequency bands representing five wireless systems, namely GSM, UMTS, DTV, Wi-Fi, and road tolling system. A Schottky diode model was developed based on which an RF-DC rectifier joined with a voltage multiplier circuits were designed. The simulation results of the complete RF harvesting system showed superior performance to similar state of the art systems. To further optimize the design, and to eliminate use of a non-standard CMOS process associated with Schottky diodes, the Schottky diode based rectifier was replaced by diode connected transistor configuration based on self-threshold cancellation (SVC) technique.

  5. A water quality monitoring network design using fuzzy theory and multiple criteria analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Ling; Lin, You-Tze

    2014-10-01

    A proper water quality monitoring design is required in a watershed, particularly in a water resource protected area. As numerous factors can influence the water quality monitoring design, this study applies multiple criteria analysis to evaluate the suitability of the water quality monitoring design in the Taipei Water Resource Domain (TWRD) in northern Taiwan. Seven criteria, which comprise percentage of farmland area, percentage of built-up area, amount of non-point source pollution, green cover ratio, landslide area ratio, ratio of over-utilization on hillsides, and density of water quality monitoring stations, are selected in the multiple criteria analysis. The criteria are normalized and weighted. The weighted method is applied to score the subbasins. The density of water quality stations needs to be increased in priority in the subbasins with a higher score. The fuzzy theory is utilized to prioritize the need for a higher density of water quality monitoring stations. The results show that the need for more water quality stations in subbasin 2 in the Bei-Shih Creek Basin is much higher than those in the other subbasins. Furthermore, the existing water quality station in subbasin 2 requires maintenance. It is recommended that new water quality stations be built in subbasin 2. PMID:24974234

  6. Application of multiple criteria decision methods in space exploration initiative design and planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masud, Abu S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Fellowship activities were directed towards the identification of opportunities for application of the Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques in the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) domain. I identified several application possibilities and proposed demonstration application in these three areas: evaluation and ranking of SEI architectures, space mission planning and selection, and space system design. Here, only the first problem is discussed. The most meaningful result of the analysis is the wide separation between the two top ranked architectures, indicating a significant preference difference between them. It must also be noted that the final ranking reflects, to some extent, the biases of the evaluators and their understanding of the architecture.

  7. Design and performance evaluation of a wideband FM spread-spectrum multiple-access system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wachsman, R. H.; Ghais, A. F.

    1971-01-01

    The system described performs the tracking and communications functions of a tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRS). The spread-spectrum signal format is achieved through wide deviation FM by a sinusoidal subcarrier unique to each multiple-access user. A compound phase-locked loop tracks carrier and subcarrier and demodulates data and ranging signals. Design parameters of user and ground terminals for TDRS are given. Acquisition procedures are described. Performance analyses are presented including the effects of noise, RFI, multipath and other users.

  8. Minimum weight design of rotorcraft blades with multiple frequency and stress constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.

    1988-01-01

    Minimum weight designs of helicopter rotor blades with constraints on multiple coupled flap-lag natural frequencies are studied. Constraints are imposed on the minimum value of the blade autorotational inertia to ensure sufficient rotary inertia to autorotate in case of engine failure and on stresses to guard against structural failure due to blade centrifugal forces. Design variables include blade taper ratio, dimensions of the box beam located inside the airfoil and magnitudes of nonstructural weights. The program CAMRAD is used for the blade modal analysis; the program CONMIN is used for the optimization. A linear approximation involving Taylor series expansion is used to reduce the analysis effort. The procedure contains a sensitivity analysis consisting of analytical derivatives for objective function and constraints on autorotational inertia and stresses. Central finite difference derivatives are used for frequency constraints. Optimal designs are obtained for both rectangular and tapered blades. Using this method, it is possible to design a rotor blade with reduced weight, when compared to a baseline blade, while satisfying all the imposed design requirements.

  9. Use of a randomized multiple baseline design: rationale and design of the spirited life holistic health intervention study.

    PubMed

    Proeschold-Bell, Rae Jean; Swift, Robin; Moore, H Edgar; Bennett, Gary; Li, Xiang-Fang; Blouin, Rachel; Williams, Virginia P; Williams, Redford B; Toole, David

    2013-07-01

    Clergy suffer from high rates of obesity, chronic disease, and depression, and simultaneously underestimate the toll these take on their daily functioning. Health interventions are needed for clergy and may be tailored to their occupational context and theological beliefs. Few studies have sought to improve clergy health. No prior studies have utilized a randomized design. Spirited Life is a randomized, multiple baseline study that offered enrollment to nearly all United Methodist Church clergy in North Carolina in fall 2010. A total of 1114 clergy (response rate = 64%) enrolled. Using a multiple baseline design, we randomized participants to three cohorts. Each cohort began the health intervention in one of three consecutive years. The third cohort served as a randomized waitlist control cohort, allowing comparisons between the first and third cohorts. The two-year Spirited Life intervention consists of: 1) a theological underpinning for health stewardship based on incarnation, grace, and response and delivered during workshops; 2) the stress management program Williams LifeSkills; 3) Naturally Slim, an online weight loss program; 4) phone contact with a Wellness Advocate; and 5) $500 small grants for health goals. Metabolic syndrome is the primary endpoint. Stress and depressive severity are secondary endpoints. We measured each construct before, twice during, and at the end of the two-year intervention. Study outcomes, to be published after follow-up data are gathered, will provide evidence of the effectiveness of the combined intervention components of Spirited Life. If successful, the intervention may be considered for use with other clergy and faith populations. PMID:23685205

  10. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (CPS) Configuration in Support of NASA's Multiple Design Reference Missions (DRMs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, Stephen G.; Jones, David L.; Creech, Stephen D.; Lawrence, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    In support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), the Space Launch System (SLS) is being designed for safe, affordable, and sustainable human and scientific exploration missions beyond Earth's or-bit (BEO). The SLS Team is tasked with developing a system capable of safely and repeatedly lofting a new fleet of spaceflight vehicles beyond Earth orbit. The Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (CPS) is a key enabler for evolving the SLS capability for BEO missions. This paper reports on the methodology and initial recommendations relative to the CPS, giving a brief retrospective of early studies on this promising propulsion hardware. This paper provides an overview of the requirements development and CPS configuration in support of NASA's multiple Design Reference Missions (DRMs).

  11. Design and operation of the multiple-pulse driver line on the OMEGA laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosc, T. Z.; Kelly, J. H.; Hill, E. M.; Waxer, L. J.

    2016-05-01

    The multiple-pulse driver line (MPD) provides on-shot co-propagation of two separately generated pulse shapes in all 60 OMEGA beams at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), which increases the laser bandwidth, can be applied to either one of the two pulse shapes, thereby enabling dynamic bandwidth reduction. The design of the MPD required careful consideration of beam combination as well as the minimum pulse separation for two pulses generated by two separate seed sources. A new combined-pulse-shape diagnostic needed to be designed and installed after the last SSD grating. The capability of MPD to reduce dynamic bandwidth has been used on a series of campaigns on OMEGA and the performance data are presented.

  12. Novel anti-HIV peptides containing multiple copies of artificially designed heptad repeat motifs

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Weiguo; Qi Zhi; Pan Chungen; Xue Na; Debnath, Asim K.; Qie Jiankun; Jiang Shibo Liu Keliang

    2008-10-03

    The peptidic anti-HIV drug T20 (Fuzeon) and its analog C34 share a common heptad repeat (HR) sequence, but they have different functional domains, i.e., pocket- and lipid-binding domains (PBD and LBD, respectively). We hypothesize that novel anti-HIV peptides may be designed by using artificial sequences containing multiple copies of HR motifs plus zero, one or two functional domains. Surprisingly, we found that the peptides containing only the non-natural HR sequences could significantly inhibit HIV-1 infection, while addition of PBD and/or LBD to the peptides resulted in significant improvement of anti-HIV-1 activity. These results suggest that these artificial HR sequences, which may serve as structural domains, could be used as templates for the design of novel antiviral peptides against HIV and other viruses with class I fusion proteins.

  13. Design of a dynamic model of genes with multiple autonomous regulatory modules by evolutionary computations.

    PubMed

    Spirov, Alexander V; Holloway, David M

    2010-05-01

    A new approach to design a dynamic model of genes with multiple autonomous regulatory modules by evolutionary computations is proposed. The approach is based on Genetic Algorithms (GA), with new crossover operators especially designed for these purposes. The new operators use local homology between parental strings to preserve building blocks found by the algorithm. The approach exploits the subbasin-portal architecture of the fitness functions suitable for this kind of evolutionary modeling. This architecture is significant for Royal Road class fitness functions. Two real-life Systems Biology problems with such fitness functions are implemented here: evolution of the bacterial promoter rrnPl and of the enhancer of the Drosophila even-skipped gene. The effectiveness of the approach compared to standard GA is demonstrated on several benchmark and real-life tasks. PMID:20930945

  14. Design of a dynamic model of genes with multiple autonomous regulatory modules by evolutionary computations

    PubMed Central

    Spirov, Alexander V.; Holloway, David M.

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to design a dynamic model of genes with multiple autonomous regulatory modules by evolutionary computations is proposed. The approach is based on Genetic Algorithms (GA), with new crossover operators especially designed for these purposes. The new operators use local homology between parental strings to preserve building blocks found by the algorithm. The approach exploits the subbasin-portal architecture of the fitness functions suitable for this kind of evolutionary modeling. This architecture is significant for Royal Road class fitness functions. Two real-life Systems Biology problems with such fitness functions are implemented here: evolution of the bacterial promoter rrnPl and of the enhancer of the Drosophila even-skipped gene. The effectiveness of the approach compared to standard GA is demonstrated on several benchmark and real-life tasks. PMID:20930945

  15. An intelligent, knowledge-based multiple criteria decision making advisor for systems design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongchang

    In systems engineering, design and operation of systems are two main problems which always attract researcher's attentions. The accomplishment of activities in these problems often requires proper decisions to be made so that the desired goal can be achieved, thus, decision making needs to be carefully fulfilled in the design and operation of systems. Design is a decision making process which permeates through out the design process, and is at the core of all design activities. In modern aircraft design, more and more attention is paid to the conceptual and preliminary design phases so as to increase the odds of choosing a design that will ultimately be successful at the completion of the design process, therefore, decisions made during these early design stages play a critical role in determining the success of a design. Since aerospace systems are complex systems with interacting disciplines and technologies, the Decision Makers (DMs) dealing with such design problems are involved in balancing the multiple, potentially conflicting attributes/criteria, transforming a large amount of customer supplied guidelines into a solidly defined set of requirement definitions. Thus, one could state with confidence that modern aerospace system design is a Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) process. A variety of existing decision making methods are available to deal with this type of decision problems. The selection of the most appropriate decision making method is of particular importance since inappropriate decision methods are likely causes of misleading engineering design decisions. With no sufficient knowledge about each of the methods, it is usually difficult for the DMs to find an appropriate analytical model capable of solving their problems. In addition, with the complexity of the decision problem and the demand for more capable methods increasing, new decision making methods are emerging with time. These various methods exacerbate the difficulty of the selection

  16. Design and Protocol of a Randomized Multiple Behavior Change Trial: Make Better Choices 2 (MBC2)

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Christine A.; Steglitz, Jeremy; Johnston, Winter; Warnick, Jennifer; Adams, Tiara; McFadden, H.G.; Siddique, Juned; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Background Suboptimal diet and inactive lifestyle are among the most prevalent preventable causes of premature death. Interventions that target multiple behaviors are potentially efficient; however the optimal way to initiate and maintain multiple health behavior changes is unknown. Objective The Make Better Choices 2 (MBC2) trial aims to examine whether sustained healthful diet and activity change are best achieved by targeting diet and activity behaviors simultaneously or sequentially. Study Design Approximately 250 inactive adults with poor quality diet will be randomized to 3 conditions examining the best way to prescribe healthy diet and activity change. The 3 intervention conditions prescribe: 1) an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption (F/V+), decrease in sedentary leisure screen time (Sed−), and increase in physical activity (PA+) simultaneously (Simultaneous); 2) F/V+ and Sed− first, and then sequentially add PA+ (Sequential); or 3) Stress Management Control that addresses stress, relaxation, and sleep. All participants will receive a smartphone application to self-monitor behaviors and regular coaching calls to help facilitate behavior change during the 9 month intervention. Healthy lifestyle change in fruit/vegetable and saturated fat intakes, sedentary leisure screen time, and physical activity will be assessed at 3, 6, and 9 months. Significance MBC2 is a randomized m-Health intervention examining methods to maximize initiation and maintenance of multiple healthful behavior changes. Results from this trial will provide insight about an optimal technology supported approach to promote improvement in diet and physical activity. PMID:25625810

  17. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, X.; Tatano, H.

    2015-08-01

    Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  18. Developing elementary teachers' ability to design and implement multiple representations of science content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, Cheryl D.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of science instruction emphasizing multiple representations of science principles on elementary teachers' science knowledge, on their knowledge of how to use multiple representations in their science teaching practice, and the integration of this knowledge into pedagogical content knowledge. The overarching goal was to contribute to the on-going national debate on teacher quality. The study was exploratory using a mixed method, qualitative and quantitative, pre-test/post-test design. Multiple forms of data were collected including copies of all the participants' work products, detailed field notes taken during observations of the classes, and audio taped class and small group discussions. Changes in the teachers' science content knowledge, their ability to use multiple representations of science principles, and their ability to assess the appropriateness of the representations for teaching were measured over a fifteen week period of instruction in elementary science methods. Shulman's construct, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), provided the framework for the study. Changes in the teachers' PCK were analyzed using Anderson's Schema Theory and Paivio's Duel Coding Theory. Participants' increased their use of science content knowledge, their ability to represent science principles in alternative ways, and their ability to explain the relationship between the principles and the representations. Their beliefs about how young children learn science did not change. The study illuminated the complexity of pedagogical content knowledge and how intellectually challenging it is to provide practicing elementary teachers with the kinds of experiences necessary to develop basic pedagogical content knowledge for the teaching of science.

  19. Model observer design for detecting multiple abnormalities in anatomical background images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Gezheng; Markey, Mia K.; Park, Subok

    2016-03-01

    As psychophysical studies are resource-intensive to conduct, model observers are commonly used to assess and optimize medical imaging quality. Existing model observers were typically designed to detect at most one signal. However, in clinical practice, there may be multiple abnormalities in a single image set (e.g., multifocal and multicentric breast cancers (MMBC)), which can impact treatment planning. Prevalence of signals can be different across anatomical regions, and human observers do not know the number or location of signals a priori. As new imaging techniques have the potential to improve multiple-signal detection (e.g., digital breast tomosynthesis may be more effective for diagnosis of MMBC than planar mammography), image quality assessment approaches addressing such tasks are needed. In this study, we present a model-observer mechanism to detect multiple signals in the same image dataset. To handle the high dimensionality of images, a novel implementation of partial least squares (PLS) was developed to estimate different sets of efficient channels directly from the images. Without any prior knowledge of the background or the signals, the PLS channels capture interactions between signals and the background which provide discriminant image information. Corresponding linear decision templates are employed to generate both image-level and location-specific scores on the presence of signals. Our preliminary results show that the model observer using PLS channels, compared to our first attempts with Laguerre-Gauss channels, can achieve high performance with a reasonably small number of channels, and the optimal design of the model observer may vary as the tasks of clinical interest change.

  20. Design of eight-mode polarization-maintaining few-mode fiber for multiple-input multiple-output-free spatial division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixian; LaRochelle, Sophie

    2015-12-15

    We propose a polarization-maintaining few-mode fiber (FMF) that features an elliptical ring shaped core with a high refractive index contrast ∼0.03 between the core and the cladding. This fiber design alleviates the usual trade-off between the number of guided modes and the achievable birefringence that is usually observed in conventional elliptical-core FMFs. Through numerical simulations, we show that this fiber design can support up to 10 guided vector modes over the entire C band while providing large birefringence. Except for the two fundamental modes, the eight higher-order vector modes are all separated from their adjacent modes by effective index differences >10⁻⁴, which is the typical birefringence value of single-mode polarization maintaining fibers. The designed fiber targets applications in spatial division multiplexing of optical channels, without multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing, for short-reach optical interconnects. PMID:26670527

  1. Rational Design of Peptide Vaccines Against Multiple Types of Human Papillomavirus

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Sumanta; De, Antara; Nandy, Ashesh

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) occurs in many types, some of which cause cervical, genital, and other cancers. While vaccination is available against the major cancer-causing HPV types, many others are not covered by these preventive measures. Herein, we present a bioinformatics study for the designing of multivalent peptide vaccines against multiple HPV types as an alternative strategy to the virus-like particle vaccines being used now. Our technique of rational design of peptide vaccines is expected to ensure stability of the vaccine against many cycles of mutational changes, elicit immune response, and negate autoimmune possibilities. Using the L1 capsid protein sequences, we identified several peptides for potential vaccine design for HPV 16, 18, 33, 35, 45, and 11 types. Although there are concerns about the epitope-binding affinities for the peptides identified in this process, the technique indicates possibilities of multivalent, adjuvanted, peptide vaccines against a wider range of HPV types, and tailor-made different combinations of the peptides to address frequency variations of types over different population groups as required for prophylaxis and at lower cost than are in use at the present time. PMID:27279731

  2. Rational Design of Peptide Vaccines Against Multiple Types of Human Papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Dey, Sumanta; De, Antara; Nandy, Ashesh

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) occurs in many types, some of which cause cervical, genital, and other cancers. While vaccination is available against the major cancer-causing HPV types, many others are not covered by these preventive measures. Herein, we present a bioinformatics study for the designing of multivalent peptide vaccines against multiple HPV types as an alternative strategy to the virus-like particle vaccines being used now. Our technique of rational design of peptide vaccines is expected to ensure stability of the vaccine against many cycles of mutational changes, elicit immune response, and negate autoimmune possibilities. Using the L1 capsid protein sequences, we identified several peptides for potential vaccine design for HPV 16, 18, 33, 35, 45, and 11 types. Although there are concerns about the epitope-binding affinities for the peptides identified in this process, the technique indicates possibilities of multivalent, adjuvanted, peptide vaccines against a wider range of HPV types, and tailor-made different combinations of the peptides to address frequency variations of types over different population groups as required for prophylaxis and at lower cost than are in use at the present time. PMID:27279731

  3. Cognitive and psychomotor performance tests and experiment design in multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Wetherell, A

    1997-01-01

    People suffering from multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) complain of a variety of symptoms that could impair cognitive and psychomotor function either directly or indirectly. This paper discusses the use of cognitive and psychomotor performance tests together with some experiment designs that could be considered for use to assess fitness of MCS sufferers for work or the efficacy of diagnostic, preventative, or therapeutic measures. The tests could also contribute to the body of objective information on MCS and help sway the opinion of those who are dubious of its authenticity. The credentials of cognitive and psychomotor performance tests are derived from their successful use in studying the effects of drugs, and the types of tests are illustrated by describing those used by the United Kingdom Defence Evaluation and Research Agency Chemical and Biological Defence Human Studies Group, which has been involved in the assessment of drugs and chemicals on work performance for many years. The tests include mathematical, verbal and spatial processing, tracking, reaction time, attention and vigilance, and memory tests. The discussion of experiment designs includes both repeated measures and parallel groups designs together with their advantages and disadvantages and some suggested modifications to accommodate the particular problems posed by MCS. PMID:9167986

  4. Robust design method and thermostatic experiment for multiple piezoelectric vibration absorber system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambu, Yohsuke; Takashima, Toshihide; Inagaki, Akiya

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the effects of connecting multiplexing shunt circuits composed of inductors and resistors to piezoelectric transducers so as to improve the robustness of a piezoelectric vibration absorber (PVA). PVAs are well known to be effective at suppressing the vibration of an adaptive structure; their weakness is low robustness to changes in the dynamic parameters of the system, including the main structure and the absorber. In the application to space structures, the temperature-dependency of capacitance of piezoelectric ceramics is the factor that causes performance reduction. To improve robustness to the temperature-dependency of the capacitance, this paper proposes a multiple-PVA system that is composed of distributed piezoelectric transducers and several shunt circuits. The optimization problems that determine both the frequencies and the damping ratios of the PVAs are multi-objective problems, which are solved using a real-coded genetic algorithm in this paper. A clamped aluminum beam with four groups of piezoelectric ceramics attached was considered in simulations and experiments. Numerical simulations revealed that the PVA systems designed using the proposed method had tolerance to changes in the capacitances. Furthermore, experiments using a thermostatic bath were conducted to reveal the effectiveness and robustness of the PVA systems. The maximum peaks of the transfer functions of the beam with the open circuit, the single-PVA system, the double-PVA system, and the quadruple-PVA system at 20 °C were 14.3 dB, -6.91 dB, -7.47 dB, and -8.51 dB, respectively. The experimental results also showed that the multiple-PVA system is more robust than a single PVA in a variable temperature environment from -10 °C to 50 °C. In conclusion, the use of multiple PVAs results in an effective, robust vibration control method for adaptive structures.

  5. Logistics system design for biomass-to-bioenergy industry with multiple types of feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyan; Yao, Qingzhu

    2011-12-01

    It is technologically possible for a biorefinery to use a variety of biomass as feedstock including native perennial grasses (e.g., switchgrass) and agricultural residues (e.g., corn stalk and wheat straw). Incorporating the distinct characteristics of various types of biomass feedstocks and taking into account their interaction in supplying the bioenergy production, this paper proposed a multi-commodity network flow model to design the logistics system for a multiple-feedstock biomass-to-bioenergy industry. The model was formulated as a mixed integer linear programming, determining the locations of warehouses, the size of harvesting team, the types and amounts of biomass harvested/purchased, stored, and processed in each month, the transportation of biomass in the system, and so on. This paper demonstrated the advantages of using multiple types of biomass feedstocks by comparing with the case of using a single feedstock (switchgrass) and analyzed the relationship of the supply capacity of biomass feedstocks to the output and cost of biofuel. PMID:21974884

  6. Design, testing and two-dimensional flow modeling of a multiple-disk fan

    SciTech Connect

    Engin, Tahsin; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cesmeci, Sevki

    2009-11-15

    A multiple-disk Tesla type fan has been designed, tested and analyzed two-dimensionally using the conservation of angular momentum principle. Experimental results showed that such multiple-disk fans exhibited exceptionally low performance characteristics, which could be attributed to the low viscosity, tangential nature of the flow, and large mechanical energy losses at both suction and discharge sections that are comparable to the total input power. By means of theoretical analysis, local and overall shearing stresses on the disk surfaces have been determined based on tangential and radial velocity distributions of the air flow of different volume flow rates at prescribed disk spaces and rotational speeds. Then the total power transmitted by rotating disks to air flow, and the power acquired by the air flow in the gap due to transfer of angular momentum have been obtained by numerically integrating shearing stresses over the disk surfaces. Using the measured shaft and hydraulic powers, these quantities were utilized to evaluate mechanical energy losses associated with the suction and discharge sections of the fan. (author)

  7. Driving modes for designing the cornering response of fully electric vehicles with multiple motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Novellis, Leonardo; Sorniotti, Aldo; Gruber, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Fully electric vehicles with multiple drivetrains allow a significant variation of the steady-state and transient cornering responses through the individual control of the electric motor drives. As a consequence, alternative driving modes can be created that provide the driver the option to select the preferred dynamic vehicle behavior. This article presents a torque-vectoring control structure based on the combination of feedforward and feedback contributions for the continuous control of vehicle yaw rate. The controller is specifically developed to be easily implementable on real-world vehicles. A novel model-based procedure for the definition of the control objectives is described in detail, together with the automated tuning process of the algorithm. The implemented control functions are demonstrated with experimental vehicle tests. The results show the possibilities of torque-vectoring control in designing the vehicle understeer characteristic.

  8. Design of a LQR Controller of Reduced Inputs for Multiple Spacecraft Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starin, Scott R.; Yedavalli, R. K.; Sparks, Andrew G.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Regarding multiple spacecraft formation flying, the observation is made that control thrust need only be applied coplanar to the local horizon to achieve complete controllability of a two-satellite formation. Without the need for zenith-nadir (radial) thrust, simplifications and reduction of the weight of the propulsion system may be accomplished. This work focuses on the validation of this radial-excluding control system on its own merits, and in comparison to a related system which does provide thrust parallel to the orbital radius. Simulations are performed using commercial ODE solvers to propagate the Keplerian dynamics of a controlled satellite relative to an uncontrolled, leader satellite. The conclusion is drawn that, despite the exclusion of the radial thrust axis, the remaining control thrust available still provides enough control to design a gain matrix of adequate performance using linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) techniques.

  9. Conceptual design of a multiple cable crane for planetary surface operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.; Yang, Li-Farn

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design study is presented of a mobile crane suitable for conducting remote, automated construction operations on planetary surfaces. A cursory study was made of earth based mobile cranes and the needs for major improvements were identified. Current earth based cranes have a single cable supporting the payload, and precision positioning is accomplished by the use of construction workers controlling the payload by the use of tethers. For remote, autonomous operations on planetary surfaces it will be necessary to perform the precision operations without the use of humans. To accomplish this the payload must be stabilized relative to the crane. One approach for accomplishing this is to suspend the payload on multiple cable. A 3-cable suspension system crane concept is discussed. An analysis of the natural frequency of the system is presented which verifies the legitimacy of the concept.

  10. Networks in Urban Design. Six Years of Research in Multiple Centrality Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porta, Sergio; Latora, Vito; Strano, Emanuele

    Multiple Centrality Assessment (MCA) is a methodology of mapping centrality in cities that applies knowledge of complex network analysis to networks of urban streets and intersections. This methodology emerged from research initiated some six years ago at Polytechnic of Milan, Italy, and now continuing at University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, through a close partnership and collaboration between scholars in urban planning and design and in the physics of complex networks. After six years and many publications, it is probably time for us to make a point on what has been achieved and what remains to be achieved in the future. As most of the whole research has already been published, we forward the reader to those publications for more detailed information. The scope of this paper is to provide the overall sense of this experience so far and a road-map to its main results.

  11. Developing Multiple Diverse Potential Designs for Heat Transfer Utilizing Graph Based Evolutionary Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    David J. Muth Jr.

    2006-09-01

    This paper examines the use of graph based evolutionary algorithms (GBEAs) to find multiple acceptable solutions for heat transfer in engineering systems during the optimization process. GBEAs are a type of evolutionary algorithm (EA) in which a topology, or geography, is imposed on an evolving population of solutions. The rates at which solutions can spread within the population are controlled by the choice of topology. As in nature geography can be used to develop and sustain diversity within the solution population. Altering the choice of graph can create a more or less diverse population of potential solutions. The choice of graph can also affect the convergence rate for the EA and the number of mating events required for convergence. The engineering system examined in this paper is a biomass fueled cookstove used in developing nations for household cooking. In this cookstove wood is combusted in a small combustion chamber and the resulting hot gases are utilized to heat the stove’s cooking surface. The spatial temperature profile of the cooking surface is determined by a series of baffles that direct the flow of hot gases. The optimization goal is to find baffle configurations that provide an even temperature distribution on the cooking surface. Often in engineering, the goal of optimization is not to find the single optimum solution but rather to identify a number of good solutions that can be used as a starting point for detailed engineering design. Because of this a key aspect of evolutionary optimization is the diversity of the solutions found. The key conclusion in this paper is that GBEA’s can be used to create multiple good solutions needed to support engineering design.

  12. MRMaid, the web-based tool for designing multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions.

    PubMed

    Mead, Jennifer A; Bianco, Luca; Ottone, Vanessa; Barton, Chris; Kay, Richard G; Lilley, Kathryn S; Bond, Nicholas J; Bessant, Conrad

    2009-04-01

    Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of peptides uses tandem mass spectrometry to quantify selected proteins of interest, such as those previously identified in differential studies. Using this technique, the specificity of precursor to product transitions is harnessed for quantitative analysis of multiple proteins in a single sample. The design of transitions is critical for the success of MRM experiments, but predicting signal intensity of peptides and fragmentation patterns ab initio is challenging given existing methods. The tool presented here, MRMaid (pronounced "mermaid") offers a novel alternative for rapid design of MRM transitions for the proteomics researcher. The program uses a combination of knowledge of the properties of optimal MRM transitions taken from expert practitioners and literature with MS/MS evidence derived from interrogation of a database of peptide identifications and their associated mass spectra. The tool also predicts retention time using a published model, allowing ordering of transition candidates. By exploiting available knowledge and resources to generate the most reliable transitions, this approach negates the need for theoretical prediction of fragmentation and the need to undertake prior "discovery" MS studies. MRMaid is a modular tool built around the Genome Annotating Proteomic Pipeline framework, providing a web-based solution with both descriptive and graphical visualizations of transitions. Predicted transition candidates are ranked based on a novel transition scoring system, and users may filter the results by selecting optional stringency criteria, such as omitting frequently modified residues, constraining the length of peptides, or omitting missed cleavages. Comparison with published transitions showed that MRMaid successfully predicted the peptide and product ion pairs in the majority of cases with appropriate retention time estimates. As the data content of the Genome Annotating Proteomic Pipeline repository increases

  13. Concurrent airline fleet allocation and aircraft design with profit modeling for multiple airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindaraju, Parithi

    A "System of Systems" (SoS) approach is particularly beneficial in analyzing complex large scale systems comprised of numerous independent systems -- each capable of independent operations in their own right -- that when brought in conjunction offer capabilities and performance beyond the constituents of the individual systems. The variable resource allocation problem is a type of SoS problem, which includes the allocation of "yet-to-be-designed" systems in addition to existing resources and systems. The methodology presented here expands upon earlier work that demonstrated a decomposition approach that sought to simultaneously design a new aircraft and allocate this new aircraft along with existing aircraft in an effort to meet passenger demand at minimum fleet level operating cost for a single airline. The result of this describes important characteristics of the new aircraft. The ticket price model developed and implemented here enables analysis of the system using profit maximization studies instead of cost minimization. A multiobjective problem formulation has been implemented to determine characteristics of a new aircraft that maximizes the profit of multiple airlines to recognize the fact that aircraft manufacturers sell their aircraft to multiple customers and seldom design aircraft customized to a single airline's operations. The route network characteristics of two simple airlines serve as the example problem for the initial studies. The resulting problem formulation is a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem, which is typically difficult to solve. A sequential decomposition strategy is applied as a solution methodology by segregating the allocation (integer programming) and aircraft design (non-linear programming) subspaces. After solving a simple problem considering two airlines, the decomposition approach is then applied to two larger airline route networks representing actual airline operations in the year 2005. The decomposition strategy serves

  14. Optimizing clinical trial design for multiple system atrophy: lessons from the rifampicin study.

    PubMed

    Singer, Wolfgang; Low, Phillip A

    2015-02-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by autonomic failure and parkinsonism/ataxia; no treatment exists to slow disease progression. A number of factors have prevented or compromised trials targeting disease modification. A major hurdle has been uncertainty about the number of patients needed to achieve adequate power. Information based on natural history studies suggested such numbers to be so large that only international multi-center models seemed feasible. When designing the rifampicin trial in MSA we sought to identify and apply strategies that would improve power and reduce the number needed to treat to allow for an oligocenter approach. Strategies included: (1) inclusion/exclusion criteria designed to enroll patients with relatively early, actively progressing disease; (2) minimizing dropouts; (3) pre-defined interim analysis; and (4) approaches to reduce scoring variability. The model allowed for the number needed to treat to be only 50 patients per treatment arm. Ten selected sites managed to reach the recruitment goal within 12 months. The dropout rate was less than 10%, and the goal of enrolling patients with actively progressing disease was accomplished as reflected by the progression rate in the placebo group. Data from this unfortunately negative trial can now be effectively used to more realistically power future trials. A number of ways to further improve trial design and feasibility have been identified and include rigorous site selection and training, designated primary site investigators, improved error trapping, early site visits, remedial training, and future biomarkers for earlier diagnosis and tracking of disease progression. PMID:25763826

  15. Treatment of Comorbid Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Anxiety in Children : A Multiple Baseline Design Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Matthew A.; Ollendick, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study evaluated a 10-week psychosocial treatment designed specifically for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and a comorbid anxiety disorder. Method: Using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design, the authors treated 8 children ages 8-12 with ADHD, combined type, and at least 1 of 3 major anxiety…

  16. Theory vs. Bricks and Mortar--Forming, Norming, Storming, and Performing: The CEFPI Multiple Learning and Multiple Intelligence Design Charrette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbie, Philip; Pickett, Fran

    2009-01-01

    A charrette (pronounced shuh-ret) is a collaborative planning process that harnesses the talents and energies of all interested parties to create a shared vision and a feasible plan for implementation. The charrette consists of an intense period of design activity where variables are clarified, reasonable limits established and collective…

  17. Two-Stage Path Planning Approach for Designing Multiple Spacecraft Reconfiguration Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoude, Georges S.; How, Jonathan P.; Garcia, Ian M.

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a two-stage approach for designing optimal reconfiguration maneuvers for multiple spacecraft. These maneuvers involve well-coordinated and highly-coupled motions of the entire fleet of spacecraft while satisfying an arbitrary number of constraints. This problem is particularly difficult because of the nonlinearity of the attitude dynamics, the non-convexity of some of the constraints, and the coupling between the positions and attitudes of all spacecraft. As a result, the trajectory design must be solved as a single 6N DOF problem instead of N separate 6 DOF problems. The first stage of the solution approach quickly provides a feasible initial solution by solving a simplified version without differential constraints using a bi-directional Rapidly-exploring Random Tree (RRT) planner. A transition algorithm then augments this guess with feasible dynamics that are propagated from the beginning to the end of the trajectory. The resulting output is a feasible initial guess to the complete optimal control problem that is discretized in the second stage using a Gauss pseudospectral method (GPM) and solved using an off-the-shelf nonlinear solver. This paper also places emphasis on the importance of the initialization step in pseudospectral methods in order to decrease their computation times and enable the solution of a more complex class of problems. Several examples are presented and discussed.

  18. Barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well-based solar-cell structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohaidat, Jihad M.; Shum, Kai; Wang, W. B.; Alfano, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    The barrier potential design criteria in multiple-quantum-well (MQW)-based solar-cell structures is reported for the purpose of achieving maximum efficiency. The time-dependent short-circuit current density at the collector side of various MQW solar-cell structures under resonant condition was numerically calculated using the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The energy efficiency of solar cells based on the InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As and GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW structues were compared when carriers are excited at a particular solar-energy band. Using InAs/Ga(y)In(1-y)As MQW structures it is found that a maximum energy efficiency can be achieved if the structure is designed with barrier potential of about 450 meV. The efficiency is found to decline linearly as the barrier potential increases for GaAs/Al(x)Ga(1-x)As MQW-structure-based solar cells.

  19. On the Design, Development, and Analysis of Optimized Matrix-Vector Multiplication Routines for Coprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Kabir, Khairul; Haidar, Azzam; Tomov, Stanimire; Dongarra, Jack J

    2015-01-01

    The manycore paradigm shift, and the resulting change in modern computer architectures, has made the development of optimal numerical routines extremely challenging. In this work, we target the development of numerical algorithms and implementations for Xeon Phi coprocessor architecture designs. In particular, we examine and optimize the general and symmetric matrix-vector multiplication routines (gemv/symv), which are some of the most heavily used linear algebra kernels in many important engineering and physics applications. We describe a successful approach on how to address the challenges for this problem, starting with our algorithm design, performance analysis and programing model and moving to kernel optimization. Our goal, by targeting low-level and easy to understand fundamental kernels, is to develop new optimization strategies that can be effective elsewhere for use on manycore coprocessors, and to show significant performance improvements compared to existing state-of-the-art implementations. Therefore, in addition to the new optimization strategies, analysis, and optimal performance results, we finally present the significance of using these routines/strategies to accelerate higher-level numerical algorithms for the eigenvalue problem (EVP) and the singular value decomposition (SVD) that by themselves are foundational for many important applications.

  20. Designing an Electronic Patient Management System for Multiple Sclerosis: Building a Next Generation Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Raimar; Haase, Rocco; Eisele, Judith Christina; Thomas, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Background Technologies like electronic health records or telemedicine devices support the rapid mediation of health information and clinical data independent of time and location between patients and their physicians as well as among health care professionals. Today, every part of the treatment process from diagnosis, treatment selection, and application to patient education and long-term care may be enhanced by a quality-assured implementation of health information technology (HIT) that also takes data security standards and concerns into account. In order to increase the level of effectively realized benefits of eHealth services, a user-driven needs assessment should ensure the inclusion of health care professional perspectives into the process of technology development as we did in the development process of the Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System 3D. After analyzing the use of information technology by patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, we focused on the needs of neurological health care professionals and their handling of health information technology. Objective Therefore, we researched the status quo of eHealth adoption in neurological practices and clinics as well as health care professional opinions about potential benefits and requirements of eHealth services in the field of multiple sclerosis. Methods We conducted a paper-and-pencil–based mail survey in 2013 by sending our questionnaire to 600 randomly chosen neurological practices in Germany. The questionnaire consisted of 24 items covering characteristics of participating neurological practices (4 items), the current use of network technology and the Internet in such neurological practices (5 items), physicians’ attitudes toward the general and MS-related usefulness of eHealth systems (8 items) and toward the clinical documentation via electronic health records (4 items), and physicians’ knowledge about the Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System (3 items). Results From 600 mailed

  1. Design and noniterative learning of multiple pattern storage in a modified Hopfield net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Chia-Lun J.

    2003-08-01

    A Hopfield net is a feed-back neural network (FBNN) consisting of one layer of binary neurons. Its main function is its ability to associatively store multiple binary patterns (or accurate binary patterns) in its connection matrix, and to associatively recall on any of these stored patterns by a nosie affected triggering pattern applied to the input. If the noise of this input pattern falls within a certain range, (called the domain of convergence or the domain of attraction in the terminology of nonlinear system analysis), of a certain accurately stored pattern, then that accurate pattern will be recalled and will appear permanently in the output of the FBNN even when the triggering input pattern is removed. This being so is due to the self-sustained feedback action and the domain of convergence properties existing in the FBNN. However, if the stored patterns and the noisy, triggering patterns violate some PLI (positive, linear, independency) condition, then it is impossible for the FBNN to learn the mapping relations of these accurate patterns to be triggered by the triggering patterns with the designated noisy range. In this case we have to design a "UNIVERSAL" two-layered feed-back neural network that will accomplish this learning task. This paper dervies from the principle of the NONITERATIVE LEARNING, the design of a universal, parallel-cascaded two-layered perceptron (PCTLP), and the reconnection of it to form a universal FBNN, (which may be called the generalized Hopfield net,) that will accomplish this associative-storage and associative-recall learning task.

  2. Modeling of Beams’ Multiple-Contact Mode with an Application in the Design of a High-g Threshold Microaccelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kai; Chen, Wenyuan; Zhang, Weiping

    2011-01-01

    Beam’s multiple-contact mode, characterized by multiple and discrete contact regions, non-uniform stoppers’ heights, irregular contact sequence, seesaw-like effect, indirect interaction between different stoppers, and complex coupling relationship between loads and deformation is studied. A novel analysis method and a novel high speed calculation model are developed for multiple-contact mode under mechanical load and electrostatic load, without limitations on stopper height and distribution, providing the beam has stepped or curved shape. Accurate values of deflection, contact load, contact region and so on are obtained directly, with a subsequent validation by CoventorWare. A new concept design of high-g threshold microaccelerometer based on multiple-contact mode is presented, featuring multiple acceleration thresholds of one sensitive component and consequently small sensor size. PMID:22163897

  3. Monitoring intraurban spatial patterns of multiple combustion air pollutants in New York City: design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Matte, Thomas D; Ross, Zev; Kheirbek, Iyad; Eisl, Holger; Johnson, Sarah; Gorczynski, John E; Kass, Daniel; Markowitz, Steven; Pezeshki, Grant; Clougherty, Jane E

    2013-01-01

    Routine air monitoring provides data to assess urban scale temporal variation in pollution concentrations in relation to regulatory standards, but is not well suited to characterizing intraurban spatial variation in pollutant concentrations from local sources. To address these limitations and inform local control strategies, New York City developed a program to track spatial patterns of multiple air pollutants in each season of the year. Monitor locations include 150 distributed street-level sites chosen to represent a range of traffic, land-use and other characteristics. Integrated samples are collected at each distributed site for one 2-week session each season and in every 2-week period at five reference locations to track city-wide temporal variation. Pollutants sampled include PM(2.5) and constituents, nitrogen oxides, black carbon, ozone (summer only) and sulfur dioxide (winter only). During the first full year of monitoring more than 95% of designed samples were completed. Agreement between colocated samples was good (absolute mean % difference 3.2-8.9%). Street-level pollutant concentrations spanned a much greater range than did concentrations at regulatory monitors, especially for oxides of nitrogen and sulfur dioxide. Monitoring to characterize intraurban spatial gradients in ambient pollution usefully complements regulatory monitoring data to inform local air quality management. PMID:23321861

  4. Precoder design for indoor visible light communications with multiple RGB LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qian; Lang, Tian; Bo, Feng; Chen, Gang; Hua, Yingbo

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of precoder design for an optical intensity modulation (IM) system with multiple redgreen- blue (RGB) light emitting diodes (LEDs) as transmitters and imaging lens with color filters as receivers. The purpose of using a precoder is to optimally allocate power for each LED based on the current channel condition to minimize the detection error rate. To achieve the goal, an non-convex optimization problem due to a nonconvex constraint is formulated first taking into account several crucial lighting constraints, such as flicker-free, color rendering index (CRI), and luminous efficacy rate (LER) as well as the average optical intensity constraint and non-negative transmitter-side signal constraint. By manipulations we transform the problem into a semi-definite programming (SDP) and by approximation we relaxed the non-convex constraint into a convex one. The resulting convex problem is iteratively solved by CVX, an add-in to MATLAB, which jointly optimizes the precoder and DC-biases driving each LED. We assume that M-PAM signal constellation is used as input to the precoder and an MMSE receiver is applied to recover the input signals in this paper, while our method is not restrict to the specific choice.

  5. A multiple chamber, semicontinuous, crop carbon dioxide exchange system: design, calibration, and data interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van Iersel, M. W.; Bugbee, B.

    2000-01-01

    Long-term, whole crop CO2 exchange measurements can be used to study factors affecting crop growth. These factors include daily carbon gain, cumulative carbon gain, and carbon use efficiency, which cannot be determined from short-term measurements. We describe a system that measures semicontinuously crop CO2 exchange in 10 chambers over a period of weeks or months. Exchange of CO2 in every chamber can be measured at 5 min intervals. The system was designed to be placed inside a growth chamber, with additional environmental control provided by the individual gas exchange chambers. The system was calibrated by generating CO2 from NaHCO3 inside the chambers, which indicated that accuracy of the measurements was good (102% and 98% recovery for two separate photosynthesis systems). Since the systems measure net photosynthesis (P-net, positive) and dark respiration(R-dark, negative), the data can be used to estimate gross photosynthesis, daily carbon gain, cumulative carbon gain, and carbon use efficiency. Continuous whole-crop measurements are a valuable tool that complements leaf photosynthesis measurements. Multiple chambers allow for replication and comparison among several environmental or cultural treatments that may affect crop growth. Example data from a 2 week study with petunia (Petunia x hybrida Hort. Vilm.-Andr.) are presented to illustrate some of the capabilities of this system.

  6. Design and Control of an Embedded Vision Guided Robotic Fish with Multiple Control Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; Tan, Min; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and control issues of a self-propelled robotic fish with multiple artificial control surfaces and an embedded vision system. By virtue of the hybrid propulsion capability in the body plus the caudal fin and the complementary maneuverability in accessory fins, a synthesized propulsion scheme including a caudal fin, a pair of pectoral fins, and a pelvic fin is proposed. To achieve flexible yet stable motions in aquatic environments, a central pattern generator- (CPG-) based control method is employed. Meanwhile, a monocular underwater vision serves as sensory feedback that modifies the control parameters. The integration of the CPG-based motion control and the visual processing in an embedded microcontroller allows the robotic fish to navigate online. Aquatic tests demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed mechatronic design and swimming control methods. Particularly, a pelvic fin actuated sideward swimming gait was first implemented. It is also found that the speeds and maneuverability of the robotic fish with coordinated control surfaces were largely superior to that of the swimming robot propelled by a single control surface. PMID:24688413

  7. Design and control of an embedded vision guided robotic fish with multiple control surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junzhi; Wang, Kai; Tan, Min; Zhang, Jianwei

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and control issues of a self-propelled robotic fish with multiple artificial control surfaces and an embedded vision system. By virtue of the hybrid propulsion capability in the body plus the caudal fin and the complementary maneuverability in accessory fins, a synthesized propulsion scheme including a caudal fin, a pair of pectoral fins, and a pelvic fin is proposed. To achieve flexible yet stable motions in aquatic environments, a central pattern generator- (CPG-) based control method is employed. Meanwhile, a monocular underwater vision serves as sensory feedback that modifies the control parameters. The integration of the CPG-based motion control and the visual processing in an embedded microcontroller allows the robotic fish to navigate online. Aquatic tests demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed mechatronic design and swimming control methods. Particularly, a pelvic fin actuated sideward swimming gait was first implemented. It is also found that the speeds and maneuverability of the robotic fish with coordinated control surfaces were largely superior to that of the swimming robot propelled by a single control surface. PMID:24688413

  8. Design of the unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe System (MEPS) for Mars observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The unmanned Multiple Exploratory Probe System (MEPS) is designed for Mars observations in preparation for manned missions to the planet early in the 21st century. MEPS will test vehicle systems, provide important data about the Martian surface and atmosphere, and assist the planning of manned missions. This mission will be a precursor to the manned missions. MEPS will consist of six primary systems. A Command Information Center (CIC) will be employed as an onboard mission control, communications link, and observation post. The Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) will be used to provide the thrust for Earth-Mars transit following vehicle construction near the Space Station. A polar lander/Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) will be deployed during transit to achieve a polar orbit about Mars. A secondary propulsion will be used to place MEPS into orbit about Mars; this system and the aerobrake will circularize the orbit. Following orbit circulation, a satellite will be deployed to observe the Martian surface and atmosphere and to study the space environment. Polar and equatorial lander systems will land on Mars with rovers to collect surface and atmospheric samples while on-board laboratories will provide initial sample study. Two solid rocket booster/payload vehicles will launch samples into a low Mars orbit. The OTV will rendezvous with each payload capsule and then transfer the samples to Earth for hands-on observation.

  9. Imagery Rescripting for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Multiple-Baseline Single-Case Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Willson, Rob; Veale, David; Freeston, Mark

    2016-03-01

    Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) often experience negative distorted images of their appearance, and research suggests these may be linked to memories of adverse events such as bullying or teasing. This study evaluates imagery rescripting (ImR) as an intervention for BDD. In this article, we present a multiple-baseline single-case experimental design testing imagery rescripting as a brief, stand-alone intervention, with six individuals with BDD that related to aversive memories. The impact of the intervention was assessed by self-reported daily measures of symptom severity (preoccupation with appearance, appearance-related checking behaviors, appearance-related distress, and strength of belief that their main problem is their appearance) and standardized clinician ratings of BDD severity (Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale modified for BDD). Four out of six of the participants responded positively to the intervention, with clinically meaningful improvement in symptomatology. Overall response was rapid; improvements began within the first week post-ImR intervention. From a small sample it is cautiously concluded that imagery rescripting may show promise as a module in cognitive-behavioral therapy for BDD, and is worthy of further investigation. PMID:26956656

  10. Design of an image encryption scheme based on a multiple chaotic map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiao-Jun

    2013-07-01

    In order to solve the problem that chaos is degenerated in limited computer precision and Cat map is the small key space, this paper presents a chaotic map based on topological conjugacy and the chaotic characteristics are proved by Devaney definition. In order to produce a large key space, a Cat map named block Cat map is also designed for permutation process based on multiple-dimensional chaotic maps. The image encryption algorithm is based on permutation-substitution, and each key is controlled by different chaotic maps. The entropy analysis, differential analysis, weak-keys analysis, statistical analysis, cipher random analysis, and cipher sensibility analysis depending on key and plaintext are introduced to test the security of the new image encryption scheme. Through the comparison to the proposed scheme with AES, DES and Logistic encryption methods, we come to the conclusion that the image encryption method solves the problem of low precision of one dimensional chaotic function and has higher speed and higher security.

  11. Mechanism Design for Eliciting Probabilistic Estimates from Multiple Suppliers with Unknown Costs and Limited Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Rogers, Alex; Gerding, Enrico H.; Jennings, Nicholas R.

    This paper reports on the design of a novel two-stage mechanism, based on strictly proper scoring rules, that allows a centre to acquire a costly probabilistic estimate of some unknown parameter, by eliciting and fusing estimates from multiple suppliers. Each of these suppliers is capable of producing a probabilistic estimate of any precision, up to a privately known maximum, and by fusing several low precision estimates together the centre is able to obtain a single estimate with a specified minimum precision. Specifically, in the mechanism's first stage M from N agents are pre-selected by eliciting their privately known costs. In the second stage, these M agents are sequentially approached in a random order and their private maximum precision is elicited. A payment rule, based on a strictly proper scoring rule, then incentivises them to make and truthfully report an estimate of this maximum precision, which the centre fuses with others until it achieves its specified precision. We formally prove that the mechanism is incentive compatible regarding the costs, maximum precisions and estimates, and that it is individually rational. We present empirical results showing that our mechanism describes a family of possible ways to perform the pre-selection in the first stage, and formally prove that there is one that dominates all others.

  12. Space station definitions, design, and development. Task 5: Multiple arm telerobot coordination and control: Manipulator design methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoughton, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    A proposed methodology applicable to the design of manipulator systems is described. The current design process is especially weak in the preliminary design phase, since there is no accepted measure to be used in trading off different options available for the various subsystems. The design process described uses Cartesian End-Effector Impedance as a measure of performance for the system. Having this measure of performance, it is shown how it may be used to determine the trade-offs necessary to the preliminary design phase. The design process involves three main parts: (1) determination of desired system performance in terms of End-Effector Impedance; (2) trade-off design options to achieve this desired performance; and (3) verification of system performance through laboratory testing. The design process is developed using numerous examples and experiments to demonstrate the feasability of this approach to manipulator design.

  13. HoloTrap: Interactive hologram design for multiple dynamic optical trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pleguezuelos, E.; Carnicer, A.; Andilla, J.; Martín-Badosa, E.; Montes-Usategui, M.

    2007-06-01

    This work presents an application that generates real-time holograms to be displayed on a holographic optical tweezers setup; a technique that allows the manipulation of particles in the range from micrometres to nanometres. The software is written in Java, and uses random binary masks to generate the holograms. It allows customization of several parameters that are dependent on the experimental setup, such as the specific characteristics of the device displaying the hologram, or the presence of aberrations. We evaluate the software's performance and conclude that real-time interaction is achieved. We give our experimental results from manipulating 5 μm microspheres using the program. Program summaryTitle of program: HoloTrap Catalogue identifier:ADZB_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZB_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: General computer Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: Windows, Linux Programming language used: Java Memory required to execute with typical data: up to 34 MB including the Java Virtual Machine No. of bits in a word: 8 bits No. of processors used: 1 Has the code been vectorized or parallelized?: No No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 471 145 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 141 457 Distribution format: tar.gz Nature of physical problem: To calculate and display holograms for generating multiple and dynamic optical tweezers to be reconfigured interactively. Method of solution: Fast random binary mask for the simultaneous codification of multiple phase functions into a phase modulation device. Typical running time: Up to 10 frames per second Unusual features of the program: None References: The method for calculating holograms can be found in [M. Montes-Usategui, E. Pleguezuelos, J. Andilla

  14. Control and design of multiple unmanned air vehicles for persistent surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Nikhil

    Control of multiple autonomous aircraft for search and exploration, is a topic of current research interest for applications such as weather monitoring, geographical surveys, search and rescue, tactical reconnaissance, and extra-terrestrial exploration, and the need to distribute sensing is driven by considerations of efficiency, reliability, cost and scalability. Hence, this problem has been extensively studied in the fields of controls and artificial intelligence. The task of persistent surveillance is different from a coverage/exploration problem, in that all areas need to be continuously searched, minimizing the time between visitations to each region in the target space. This distinction does not allow a straightforward application of most exploration techniques to the problem, although ideas from these methods can still be used. The use of aerial vehicles is motivated by their ability to cover larger spaces and their relative insensitivity to terrain. However, the dynamics of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) adds complexity to the control problem. Most of the work in the literature decouples the vehicle dynamics and control policies, but their interaction is particularly interesting for a surveillance mission. Stochastic environments and UAV failures further enrich the problem by requiring the control policies to be robust, and this aspect is particularly important for hardware implementations. For a persistent mission, it becomes imperative to consider the range/endurance constraints of the vehicles. The coupling of the control policy with the endurance constraints of the vehicles is an aspect that has not been sufficiently explored. Design of UAVs for desirable mission performance is also an issue of considerable significance. The use of a single monolithic optimization for such a problem has practical limitations, and decomposition-based design is a potential alternative. In this research high-level control policies are devised, that are scalable, reliable

  15. Design-Build-Write: Increasing the Impact of English for Specific Purposes Learning and Teaching in Aeronautical Engineering Education through Multiple Intelligences Task Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatzl, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an English for Specific Purposes (ESP) task developed for teaching aeronautical engineering students. The task Design-Build-Write rests on the assumption that engineering students are skilled at mathematical reasoning, problem solving, drawing and constructing. In Gardner's 1983 Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory, these…

  16. Improving design and operation of multiple-hearth and fluid bed sludge incinerators. Final report, June 1984-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of the investigation is to document improvements in design, operation, and maintenance of multiple-hearth and fluid-bed furnace incineration for combustion of sludge in municipal wastewater-treatment plants. The information contained in the report is intended to supplement and qualify information available from incinerator manufacturers and published literature. The report addresses incinerator and support systems design deficiencies and solutions, operation and maintenance problems and solutions, fuel efficient operation, upgrading of existing incinerators, administration, and personnel training.

  17. 21 CFR 320.27 - Guidelines on the design of a multiple-dose in vivo bioavailability study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Guidelines on the design of a multiple-dose in vivo bioavailability study. 320.27 Section 320.27 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND...

  18. 21 CFR 320.27 - Guidelines on the design of a multiple-dose in vivo bioavailability study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Guidelines on the design of a multiple-dose in vivo bioavailability study. 320.27 Section 320.27 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND...

  19. A Standard Setting Method Designed for Complex Performance Assessments with Multiple Performance Categories: Categorical Assignments of Student Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plake, Barbara S.; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    This paper reports on a standard-setting method designed for complex performance assessments with multiple performance categories. The method studied, the Analytical Judgment Method, involves panelists' making analytical classification decisions for each of the test's components individually. It also allows for discussion and reconsideration of…

  20. CARRS Surveillance study: design and methods to assess burdens from multiple perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cardio-metabolic diseases (CMDs) are a growing public health problem, but data on incidence, trends, and costs in developing countries is scarce. Comprehensive and standardised surveillance for non-communicable diseases was recommended at the United Nations High-level meeting in 2011. Aims: To develop a model surveillance system for CMDs and risk factors that could be adopted for continued assessment of burdens from multiple perspectives in South-Asian countries. Methods Design: Hybrid model with two cross-sectional serial surveys three years apart to monitor trend, with a three-year prospective follow-up of the first cohort. Sites: Three urban settings (Chennai and New Delhi in India; Karachi in Pakistan), 4000 participants in each site stratified by gender and age. Sampling methodology: Multi-stage cluster random sampling; followed by within-household participant selection through a combination of Health Information National Trends Study (HINTS) and Kish methods. Culturally-appropriate and methodologically-relevant data collection instruments were developed to gather information on CMDs and their risk factors; quality of life, health-care utilisation and costs, along with objective measures of anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters. The cohort follow-up is designed as a pilot study to understand the feasibility of estimating incidence of risk factors, disease events, morbidity, and mortality. Results The overall participant response rate in the first cross-sectional survey was 94.1% (Chennai 92.4%, n = 4943; Delhi 95.7%, n = 4425; Karachi 94.3%, n = 4016). 51.8% of the participants were females, 61.6% < 45years, 27.5% 45–60years and 10.9% >60 years. Discussion This surveillance model will generate data on prevalence and trends; help study the complex life-course patterns of CMDs, and provide a platform for developing and testing interventions and tools for prevention and control of CMDs in South-Asia. It will also help

  1. An Examination of the Decision-Making Process Used by Designers in Multiple Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefaniak, Jill E.; Tracey, Monica W.

    2014-01-01

    Design-thinking is an inductive and participatory process in which designers are required to manage constraints, generate solutions, and follow project timelines in order to complete project goals. The researchers used this exploration study to look at how designers in various disciplinary fields approach design projects. Designers were asked to…

  2. Transitioning from Additive to Multiplicative Thinking: A Design and Teaching Experiment with Third through Fifth Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickwedde, James

    2011-01-01

    The maturation of multiplicative thinking is key to student progress in middle school as rational number, ratio, and proportion concepts are encountered. But many students arrive from the intermediate grades and falter in developing this essential disposition. Elementary students have historically learned multiplication and division as operation…

  3. Learning Physics Teaching through Collaborative Design of Conceptual Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Increasing student engagement through Electronic Response Systems (clickers) has been widely researched. Its success largely depends on the quality of multiple-choice questions used by instructors. This paper describes a pilot project that focused on the implementation of online collaborative multiple-choice question repository, PeerWise, in a…

  4. Design and Delivery of Multiple Server-Side Computer Languages Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shouhong; Wang, Hai

    2011-01-01

    Given the emergence of service-oriented architecture, IS students need to be knowledgeable of multiple server-side computer programming languages to be able to meet the needs of the job market. This paper outlines the pedagogy of an innovative course of multiple server-side computer languages for the undergraduate IS majors. The paper discusses…

  5. Time-of-flight diffractometer with multiple pulse overlap - an example for the application of modern tools for instrument design

    SciTech Connect

    Stuhr, U.; Bauer, G.S.; Wagner, W.

    1997-09-01

    A Time-of-Flight Diffractometer with high pulse rates, allowing multiple frame overlap, is a completely novel design of an instrument dedicated for high resolution strain-field mapping. We elaborated a detailed concept of this instrument applying analytical calculations and Monte Carlo computer simulations. Having established the instrument concept, the computer simulations will now be extended to optimize the total performance of the instrument. To illustrate the necessity and possibilities of applying modem tools for instrument design, we describe, as an example, the different steps towards the development of the detailed design of this instrument, which we intend to build at the Swiss spallation. source SINQ in the near future.

  6. DS-OPTIMAL DESIGNS FOR STUDYING COMBINATIONS OF CHEMICALS USING MULTIPLE FIXED-RATIO RAY EXPERIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    Detecting and characterizing interactions among chemicals is an important environmental issue. Traditional factorial designs become infeasible as the number of compounds under study increases. Ray designs, which reduce the amount of experimental effort, can be...

  7. Development of a multiple-parameter nonlinear perturbation procedure for transonic turbomachinery flows: Preliminary application to design/optimization problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahara, S. S.; Elliott, J. P.; Spreiter, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to continue the development of perturbation procedures and associated computational codes for rapidly determining approximations to nonlinear flow solutions, with the purpose of establishing a method for minimizing computational requirements associated with parametric design studies of transonic flows in turbomachines. The results reported here concern the extension of the previously developed successful method for single parameter perturbations to simultaneous multiple-parameter perturbations, and the preliminary application of the multiple-parameter procedure in combination with an optimization method to blade design/optimization problem. In order to provide as severe a test as possible of the method, attention is focused in particular on transonic flows which are highly supercritical. Flows past both isolated blades and compressor cascades, involving simultaneous changes in both flow and geometric parameters, are considered. Comparisons with the corresponding exact nonlinear solutions display remarkable accuracy and range of validity, in direct correspondence with previous results for single-parameter perturbations.

  8. An experimental 20/30 GHz communications satellite conceptual design employing multiple-beam paraboloid reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A. M., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental 20/30 GHz communications satellite conceptual design is described which employs multiple-beam paraboloid reflector antennas coupled to a TDMA transponder. It is shown that the satellite employs solid state GaAs FET power amplifiers and low noise amplifiers while signal processing and switching takes place on-board the spacecraft. The proposed areas to be served by this satellite would be the continental U.S. plus Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, as well as southern Canada and Mexico City. Finally, attention is given to the earth stations which are designed to be low cost.

  9. Multiple-Shift Schooling: Design and Operation for Cost-Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark

    Drawing on the experiences in a wide range of countries, this book highlights the advantages and problems of multiple-shift educational systems. Practical suggestions are offered for more effective operation of schools caught in the conflict between extending access and minimizing unit costs and maintaining educational quality. Following an…

  10. Learner Preferences for Varying Screen Densities Using Realistic Stimulus Materials with Single and Multiple Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Gary R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of learner preferences for text densities on computer screen displays highlights two studies of college students that compared preferences for multiple or single screen presentations with high-, medium-, or low-density screens from an actual course using computer-assisted instruction. Results are analyzed, and further research needs are…

  11. SOUND SURVEY DESIGNS CAN FACILITATE INTEGRATING STREAM MONITORING DATA ACROSS MULTIPLE PROGRAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple agencies in the Pacific Northwest monitor the condition of stream networks or their watersheds. Some agencies use a stream "network" perspective to report on the fraction or length of the network that either meets or violates particular criteria. Other agencies use a "wa...

  12. Multiple Choice Questions Can Be Designed or Revised to Challenge Learners' Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tractenberg, Rochelle E.; Gushta, Matthew M.; Mulroney, Susan E.; Weissinger, Peggy A.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple choice (MC) questions from a graduate physiology course were evaluated by cognitive-psychology (but not physiology) experts, and analyzed statistically, in order to test the independence of content expertise and cognitive complexity ratings of MC items. Integration of higher order thinking into MC exams is important, but widely known to…

  13. Joint QTL linkage mapping for multiple-cross mating design sharing one common parent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nested association mapping (NAM) is a novel genetic mating design that combines the advantages of linkage analysis and association mapping. This design provides opportunities to study the inheritance of complex traits, but also requires more advanced statistical methods. In this paper, we present th...

  14. Analyzing Regression-Discontinuity Designs with Multiple Assignment Variables: A Comparative Study of Four Estimation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Vivian C.; Steiner, Peter M.; Cook, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    In a traditional regression-discontinuity design (RDD), units are assigned to treatment on the basis of a cutoff score and a continuous assignment variable. The treatment effect is measured at a single cutoff location along the assignment variable. This article introduces the multivariate regression-discontinuity design (MRDD), where multiple…

  15. Design and use of multiple blade slurry sawing in a production atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynah, F. P., Jr.; Ross, J. B.

    1982-01-01

    The technique and uses of the multiple blade slurry (MBS) saw are considered. Multiple bands of steel are arranged in a frame and the frame is reciprocated with the steel bands to a workpiece, while simultaneously applying abrasive at the point of contact. The blades wear slots in the workpiece and progress through the piece resulting in several parts of wafers. The transition to MBA from diamond slicing is justified by savings resulting from minimized kerf losses, minimized subsurface damage, and improved surface quality off the saw. This allows wafering much closer to finished thickness specifications. The current state of the art MBS technology must be significantly improved if the low cost solar array (LSA) goals are to be attained. It is concluded that although MBS will never be the answer to every wafering requirement, the economical production of wafers to LSA project specifications will be achieved.

  16. Design of a multiple kernel learning algorithm for LS-SVM by convex programming.

    PubMed

    Jian, Ling; Xia, Zhonghang; Liang, Xijun; Gao, Chuanhou

    2011-06-01

    As a kernel based method, the performance of least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) depends on the selection of the kernel as well as the regularization parameter (Duan, Keerthi, & Poo, 2003). Cross-validation is efficient in selecting a single kernel and the regularization parameter; however, it suffers from heavy computational cost and is not flexible to deal with multiple kernels. In this paper, we address the issue of multiple kernel learning for LS-SVM by formulating it as semidefinite programming (SDP). Furthermore, we show that the regularization parameter can be optimized in a unified framework with the kernel, which leads to an automatic process for model selection. Extensive experimental validations are performed and analyzed. PMID:21441012

  17. Experimental design and multiple response optimization. Using the desirability function in analytical methods development.

    PubMed

    Candioti, Luciana Vera; De Zan, María M; Cámara, María S; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2014-06-01

    A review about the application of response surface methodology (RSM) when several responses have to be simultaneously optimized in the field of analytical methods development is presented. Several critical issues like response transformation, multiple response optimization and modeling with least squares and artificial neural networks are discussed. Most recent analytical applications are presented in the context of analytLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, ArgentinaLaboratorio de Control de Calidad de Medicamentos (LCCM), Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, C.C. 242, S3000ZAA Santa Fe, Argentinaical methods development, especially in multiple response optimization procedures using the desirability function. PMID:24767454

  18. Design and performance of beam test electronics for the PHENIX Multiplicity Vertex Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Bryan, W.L.; Emery, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The system architecture and test results of the custom circuits and beam test system for the Multiplicity-Vertex Detector (MVD) for the PHENIX detector collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are presented in this paper. The final detector per-channel signal processing chain will consist of a preamplifier-gain stage, a current-mode summed multiplicity discriminator, a 64-deep analog memory (simultaneous read-write), a post-memory analog correlator, and a 10-bit 5 {mu}s ADC. The Heap Manager provides all timing control, data buffering, and data formatting for a single 256-channel multi-chip module (MCM). Each chip set is partitioned into 32-channel sets. Beam test (16-cell deep memory) performance for the various blocks will be presented as well as the ionizing radiation damage performance of the 1.2 {mu} n-well CMOS process used for preamplifier fabrication.

  19. FireProt: Energy- and Evolution-Based Computational Design of Thermostable Multiple-Point Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Sebestova, Eva; Bendl, Jaroslav; Khare, Sagar; Chaloupkova, Radka; Prokop, Zbynek; Brezovsky, Jan; Baker, David; Damborsky, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in increasing proteins’ stability to enhance their utility as biocatalysts, therapeutics, diagnostics and nanomaterials. Directed evolution is a powerful, but experimentally strenuous approach. Computational methods offer attractive alternatives. However, due to the limited reliability of predictions and potentially antagonistic effects of substitutions, only single-point mutations are usually predicted in silico, experimentally verified and then recombined in multiple-point mutants. Thus, substantial screening is still required. Here we present FireProt, a robust computational strategy for predicting highly stable multiple-point mutants that combines energy- and evolution-based approaches with smart filtering to identify additive stabilizing mutations. FireProt’s reliability and applicability was demonstrated by validating its predictions against 656 mutations from the ProTherm database. We demonstrate that thermostability of the model enzymes haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase LinA can be substantially increased (ΔT m = 24°C and 21°C) by constructing and characterizing only a handful of multiple-point mutants. FireProt can be applied to any protein for which a tertiary structure and homologous sequences are available, and will facilitate the rapid development of robust proteins for biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:26529612

  20. FireProt: Energy- and Evolution-Based Computational Design of Thermostable Multiple-Point Mutants.

    PubMed

    Bednar, David; Beerens, Koen; Sebestova, Eva; Bendl, Jaroslav; Khare, Sagar; Chaloupkova, Radka; Prokop, Zbynek; Brezovsky, Jan; Baker, David; Damborsky, Jiri

    2015-11-01

    There is great interest in increasing proteins' stability to enhance their utility as biocatalysts, therapeutics, diagnostics and nanomaterials. Directed evolution is a powerful, but experimentally strenuous approach. Computational methods offer attractive alternatives. However, due to the limited reliability of predictions and potentially antagonistic effects of substitutions, only single-point mutations are usually predicted in silico, experimentally verified and then recombined in multiple-point mutants. Thus, substantial screening is still required. Here we present FireProt, a robust computational strategy for predicting highly stable multiple-point mutants that combines energy- and evolution-based approaches with smart filtering to identify additive stabilizing mutations. FireProt's reliability and applicability was demonstrated by validating its predictions against 656 mutations from the ProTherm database. We demonstrate that thermostability of the model enzymes haloalkane dehalogenase DhaA and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase LinA can be substantially increased (ΔTm = 24°C and 21°C) by constructing and characterizing only a handful of multiple-point mutants. FireProt can be applied to any protein for which a tertiary structure and homologous sequences are available, and will facilitate the rapid development of robust proteins for biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:26529612

  1. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Low-Thrust Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.; Ghosh, Alexander R.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of low-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys, the bodies at which those flybys are performed, and in some cases the final destination. In addition, a time-history of control variables must be chosen that defines the trajectory. There are often many thousands, if not millions, of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on a hypothetical mission to the main asteroid belt.

  2. Optically driven Archimedes micro-screws for micropump applications: multiple blade design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldeck, Patrice L.; Lin, Chih-Lang; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Chin-Te; Chung, Tien-Tung; Bouriau, Michel; Vitrant, Guy

    2011-10-01

    We study the rotation of photo-driven Archimedes screw with multiple blades. The micron-sized Archimedes screws are readily made by the two-photon polymerization technique. Free-floating screws that are trapped by optical tweezers align in the laser irradiation direction, and rotate spontaneously. In this study we demonstrate that the rotation speeds of two-blade-screws is twice the rotation speed of one-blade-screw. However, more complex 3-blade-screws rotate slower than 2-blade-screws due to their limited geometry resolution at this micron scale.

  3. Design and Integration of an All-Magnetic Attitude Control System for FASTSAT-HSV01's Multiple Pointing Objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeKock, Brandon; Sanders, Devon; Vanzwieten, Tannen; Capo-Lugo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The FASTSAT-HSV01 spacecraft is a microsatellite with magnetic torque rods as it sole attitude control actuator. FASTSAT s multiple payloads and mission functions require the Attitude Control System (ACS) to maintain Local Vertical Local Horizontal (LVLH)-referenced attitudes without spin-stabilization, while the pointing errors for some attitudes be significantly smaller than the previous best-demonstrated for this type of control system. The mission requires the ACS to hold multiple stable, unstable, and non-equilibrium attitudes, as well as eject a 3U CubeSat from an onboard P-POD and recover from the ensuing tumble. This paper describes the Attitude Control System, the reasons for design choices, how the ACS integrates with the rest of the spacecraft, and gives recommendations for potential future applications of the work.

  4. Designing Websites for Displaying Large Data Sets and Images on Multiple Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A.; Wolf, V. G.; Garron, J.; Kirschner, M.

    2012-12-01

    The desire to build websites to analyze and display ever increasing amounts of scientific data and images pushes for web site designs which utilize large displays, and to use the display area as efficiently as possible. Yet, scientists and users of their data are increasingly wishing to access these websites in the field and on mobile devices. This results in the need to develop websites that can support a wide range of devices and screen sizes, and to optimally use whatever display area is available. Historically, designers have addressed this issue by building two websites; one for mobile devices, and one for desktop environments, resulting in increased cost, duplicity of work, and longer development times. Recent advancements in web design technology and techniques have evolved which allow for the development of a single website that dynamically adjusts to the type of device being used to browse the website (smartphone, tablet, desktop). In addition they provide the opportunity to truly optimize whatever display area is available. HTML5 and CSS3 give web designers media query statements which allow design style sheets to be aware of the size of the display being used, and to format web content differently based upon the queried response. Web elements can be rendered in a different size, position, or even removed from the display entirely, based upon the size of the display area. Using HTML5/CSS3 media queries in this manner is referred to as "Responsive Web Design" (RWD). RWD in combination with technologies such as LESS and Twitter Bootstrap allow the web designer to build web sites which not only dynamically respond to the browser display size being used, but to do so in very controlled and intelligent ways, ensuring that good layout and graphic design principles are followed while doing so. At the University of Alaska Fairbanks, the Alaska Satellite Facility SAR Data Center (ASF) recently redesigned their popular Vertex application and converted it from a

  5. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design Using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of high-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys and the bodies at which those flybys are performed. For some missions, such as surveys of small bodies, the mission designer also contributes to target selection. In addition, real-valued decision variables, such as launch epoch, flight times, maneuver and flyby epochs, and flyby altitudes must be chosen. There are often many thousands of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the impulsive mission design problem as a multiobjective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on several real-world problems.

  6. A new test of memory for multiple sclerosis I: format development and stimuli design.

    PubMed

    Camp, S J; Thompson, A J; Langdon, D W

    2001-08-01

    Memory tests were often developed for healthy populations. The accuracy of these measures is reduced when administered to patients with neurological diseases, who may experience physical and/or cognitive symptoms. Also, methodological factors, for example, spanning the ability spectrum, and content/format artefacts, may contribute to a decline in test precision. The aim of this study was to develop a new test of memory, which addresses these issues. The new memory test comprises assessments of recall, paired association, and recognition, at a Task Familiarisation stage and two difficulty levels, for both the verbal and spatial modalities. It was administered to 85 healthy individuals and 100 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). All patients were able to attempt each task of the new assessment and there was no influence of visual integrity or manual dexterity on memory test performance, supporting the applicability of the tasks to patients with multiple sclerosis. Both the standardisation and validation samples demonstrated a wide range of scores on each section of the new test suggesting that the measure spanned an acceptably broad range of abilities. It seems probable, therefore, that the new assessment offers a more exact measure of verbal and spatial recall, paired association, and recognition memory. PMID:11548986

  7. Multiple case studies of STEM teachers' orientations to science teaching through engineering design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, Madeline

    The following master's thesis is composed of two manuscripts describing STEM teachers' orientations to science teaching through engineering within the context of the Science Learning through Engineering Design (SLED) partnership. The framework guiding both studies was science teaching orientations, a component of pedagogical content knowledge. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews, multi-day classroom observations, pre- and post-observation interviews, implementation plans, and written reflections. Data sources were analyzed to generate two orientations to science teaching through engineering design for each participant. The first manuscript illustrates a single case study conducted with a sixth grade STEM teacher. Results of this study revealed a detailed picture of the teacher's goals, practices, assessments, and general views when teaching science through engineering design. Common themes across the teacher's instruction were used to characterize her orientations to science teaching through engineering design. Overall, the teacher's orientations showed a shift in her practice from didactic to student-centered methods of teaching as a result of integrating engineering design-based curriculum. The second manuscript describes a comparative case study of two sixth grade SLED participants. Results of this study revealed more complex and diverse relationships between the teachers' orientations to teaching science through engineering design and their instruction. Participants' orientations served as filters for instruction, guided by their divergent purposes for science teaching. Furthermore, their orientations and resulting implementation were developed from knowledge gained in teacher education, implying that teacher educators and researchers can use this framework to learn more about how teachers' knowledge is used to integrate engineering and science practices in the K-12 classroom.

  8. Design and fabrication of electrostatic microcolumn in multiple electron-beam lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Zhidong; Wen, Ye; Traverso, Luis; Datta, Anurup; Chen, Chen; Xu, Xianfan; Pan, Liang

    2016-03-01

    Microcolumns are widely used for parallel electron-beam lithography because of their compactness and the ability to achieve high spatial resolution. A design of an electrostatic microcolumn for our recent nanoscale photoemission sources is presented. We proposed a compact column structure (as short as several microns in length) for the ease of microcolumn fabrication and lithography operation. We numerically studied the influence of several design parameters on the optical performance such as microcolumn diameter, electrode thickness, beam current, working voltages, and working distance. We also examined the effect of fringing field between adjacent microcolumns during parallel lithography operations. The microcolumns were also fabricated to show the possibility.

  9. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob A.; Vavrina, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary design of high-thrust interplanetary missions is a highly complex process. The mission designer must choose discrete parameters such as the number of flybys and the bodies at which those flybys are performed. For some missions, such as surveys of small bodies, the mission designer also contributes to target selection. In addition, real-valued decision variables, such as launch epoch, flight times, maneuver and flyby epochs, and flyby altitudes must be chosen. There are often many thousands of possible trajectories to be evaluated. The customer who commissions a trajectory design is not usually interested in a point solution, but rather the exploration of the trade space of trajectories between several different objective functions. This can be a very expensive process in terms of the number of human analyst hours required. An automated approach is therefore very desirable. This work presents such an approach by posing the impulsive mission design problem as a multi-objective hybrid optimal control problem. The method is demonstrated on several real-world problems. Two assumptions are frequently made to simplify the modeling of an interplanetary high-thrust trajectory during the preliminary design phase. The first assumption is that because the available thrust is high, any maneuvers performed by the spacecraft can be modeled as discrete changes in velocity. This assumption removes the need to integrate the equations of motion governing the motion of a spacecraft under thrust and allows the change in velocity to be modeled as an impulse and the expenditure of propellant to be modeled using the time-independent solution to Tsiolkovsky's rocket equation [1]. The second assumption is that the spacecraft moves primarily under the influence of the central body, i.e. the sun, and all other perturbing forces may be neglected in preliminary design. The path of the spacecraft may then be modeled as a series of conic sections. When a spacecraft performs a close

  10. Design and analysis of rotor systems with multiple trailing edge flaps and resonant actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun-Sik

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop piezoelectric resonant actuation systems and new active control methods utilizing the multiple trailing-edge flaps' configuration for rotorcraft vibration suppression and blade loads control. An aeroelastic model is developed for a composite rotor blade with multiple trailing-edge flaps. The rotor blade airloads are calculated using quasi-steady blade element aerodynamics with a free wake model for rotor inflow. A compressible unsteady aerodynamics model is employed to accurately predict the incremental trailing edge flap airloads. Both the finite wing effect and actuator saturation for trailing-edge flaps are also included in an aeroelastic analysis. For a composite articulated rotor, a new active blade loads control method is developed and tested numerically. The concept involves straightening the blade by introducing dual trailing edge flaps. The objective function, which includes vibratory hub loads, bending moment harmonics and active flap control inputs, is minimized by an integrated optimal control/optimization process. A numerical simulation is performed for the steady-state forward flight of an advance ratio of 0.35. It is demonstrated that through straightening the rotor blade, which mimics the behavior of a rigid blade, both the bending moments and vibratory hub loads can be significantly reduced by 32% and 57%, respectively. An active vibration control method is developed and analyzed for a hingeless rotor. The concept involves deflecting each individual trailing-edge flap using a compact resonant actuation system. Each resonant actuation system could yield high authority, while operating at a single frequency. Parametric studies are conducted to explore the finite wing effect of trailing-edge flaps and actuator saturation. A numerical simulation has been performed for the steady-state forward flight (mu = 0.15 ˜ 0.35). It is demonstrated that multiple trailing-edge flap configuration with the resonant actuation

  11. Multiple Pathways to Learning: An Examination of Universal Design and Online Strategic Learning in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Maryruth Wilks

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of universally designed (UD) instruction on strategic learning in an online, interactive learning environment (ILE). The research focused on the premise that the customizable, media-based framework of UD instruction might influence diverse online learning strategies. This study…

  12. Multiple Information Failure: A Case of Different Investments in Form and Content in Graphic Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Carolyn; Taffe, Simone; Miceli, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers a sequence of failures in the design of information. It focuses on the Safe and Sustainable Indoor Cleaning study (SASI Clean), a 2007 government-funded study into cleaning practices in Australian childcare centers. Empowerment through participation was integral to the study, childcare workers being seen as collaborators in…

  13. Orientations to Professional Development Design and Implementation: Understanding Their Relationship to PD Outcomes across Multiple Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marra, Rose M.; Arbaugh, Fran; Lannin, John; Abell, Sandra; Ehlert, Mark; Smith, Rena; Merle-Johnson, Dominike; Rogers, Meredith Park

    2011-01-01

    Given the large investment in teacher professional development (PD), further understanding of the factors that impact PD success is needed. In a previous study, the authors established a framework for categorizing PD projects using the notion of orientations. A PD orientation is comprised of project characteristics that drive the PD design and…

  14. Designing the Professional Writing Major: A Rationale for Multiplicity versus Specialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Randy M.

    Reform of undergraduate education is sweeping the United States and the design of the writing major at Millikin University (Decatur, Illinois), is an example of this movement. The writing major was in need of reform because, in addition to the English major core of literature surveys, Shakespeare, and a course in the history of grammar and the…

  15. Multiple Measures of Juvenile Drug Court Effectiveness: Results of a Quasi-Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Nancy; Webb, Vincent J.

    2004-01-01

    Prior studies of juvenile drug courts have been constrained by small samples, inadequate comparison groups, or limited outcome measures. The authors report on a 3-year evaluation that examines the impact of juvenile drug court participation on recidivism and drug use. A quasi-experimental design is used to compare juveniles assigned to drug court…

  16. WV R-EMAP STUDY: MULTIPLE-OBJECTIVE SAMPLING DESIGN FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    A multi-objective sampling design has been implemented through Regional Monitoring and Assessment Program (R-EMAP) support of a cooperative agreement with the state of West Virginia. Goals of the project include: 1) development and testing of a temperature-adjusted fish IBI for t...

  17. Linear regulator design for stochastic systems by a multiple time scales method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teneketzis, D.; Sandell, N. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A hierarchically-structured, suboptimal controller for a linear stochastic system composed of fast and slow subsystems is considered. The controller is optimal in the limit as the separation of time scales of the subsystems becomes infinite. The methodology is illustrated by design of a controller to suppress the phugoid and short period modes of the longitudinal dynamics of the F-8 aircraft.

  18. Analyzing Regression-Discontinuity Designs with Multiple Assignment Variables: A Comparative Study of Four Estimation Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Vivian C.; Steiner, Peter M.; Cook, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    In a traditional regression-discontinuity design (RDD), units are assigned to treatment and comparison conditions solely on the basis of a single cutoff score on a continuous assignment variable. The discontinuity in the functional form of the outcome at the cutoff represents the treatment effect, or the average treatment effect at the cutoff.…

  19. A novel laser doppler linear encoder using multiple-reflection optical design for high-resolution linear actuator.

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, D.

    1998-07-16

    A novel laser Doppler linear encoder system (LDLE) has been developed at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. A self-aligning 3-D multiple-reflection optical design was used for the laser Doppler displacement meter (LDDM) to extend the encoder system resolution. The encoder is compact [about 70 mm(H) x 100 mm(W) x 250 mm(L)] and it has sub-Angstrom resolution, 100 mm/sec measuring speed, and 300 mm measuring range. Because the new device affords higher resolution, as compared with commercial laser interferometer systems, and yet cost less, it will have good potential for use in scientific and industrial applications.

  20. Designing efficient parallel algorithms on mesh-connected computers with multiple broadcasting

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.C.; Chen, W.T. ); Chen, G.H. ); Sheu, J.P. )

    1990-04-01

    Semigroup and prefix computations on two-dimensional mesh-connected computers with multiple broadcasting (2-MCCMB's) are studied in this paper. Previously, only square 2-MCCMB's with N processing elements were considered or semigroup computations of N data items, and O(N{sup 1/6}) time was required. It is found that square machines are not the best form for semigroup computations, and an O(N{sup 1/8}) time algorithm is thus derived on an N{sup 5/8} {times} N{sup 3/8} rectangular 2-MCCMB. This time complexity can be further reduced to O(N{sup 1/9}) if fewer PE's are used. Following the same way, parallel algorithms for prefix computations are also derived with the same time complexities.

  1. Monitor design with multiple self-loops for maximally permissive supervisors.

    PubMed

    Chen, YuFeng; Li, ZhiWu; Barkaoui, Kamel; Uzam, Murat

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we improve the previous work by considering that a control place can have multiple self-loops. Then, two integer linear programming problems (ILPPs) are formulated. Based on the first ILPP, an iterative deadlock control policy is developed, where a control place is computed at each iteration to implement as many marking/transition separation instances (MTSIs) as possible. The second ILPP can find a set of control places to implement all MTSIs and the objective function is used to minimize the number of control places. It is a non-iterative deadlock control strategy since we need to solve the ILPP only once. Both ILPPs can make all legal markings reachable in the controlled system, i.e., the obtained supervisor is behaviorally optimal. Finally, we provide examples to illustrate the proposed approaches. PMID:26857517

  2. Seq4SNPs: new software for retrieval of multiple, accurately annotated DNA sequences, ready formatted for SNP assay design

    PubMed Central

    Field, Helen I; Scollen, Serena A; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Morrison, Jonathan; Dunning, Alison M; Easton, Douglas F; Pharoah, Paul DP

    2009-01-01

    Background In moderate-throughput SNP genotyping there was a gap in the workflow, between choosing a set of SNPs and submitting their sequences to proprietary assay design software, which was not met by existing software. Retrieval and formatting of sequences flanking each SNP, prior to assay design, becomes rate-limiting for more than about ten SNPs, especially if annotated for repetitive regions and adjacent variations. We routinely process up to 50 SNPs at once. Implementation We created Seq4SNPs, a web-based, walk-away software that can process one to several hundred SNPs given rs numbers as input. It outputs a file of fully annotated sequences formatted for one of three proprietary design softwares: TaqMan's Primer-By-Design FileBuilder, Sequenom's iPLEX or SNPstream's Autoprimer, as well as unannotated fasta sequences. We found genotyping assays to be inhibited by repetitive sequences or the presence of additional variations flanking the SNP under test, and in multiplexes, repetitive sequence flanking one SNP adversely affects multiple assays. Assay design software programs avoid such regions if the input sequences are appropriately annotated, so we used Seq4SNPs to provide suitably annotated input sequences, and improved our genotyping success rate. Adjacent SNPs can also be avoided, by annotating sequences used as input for primer design. Conclusion The accuracy of annotation by Seq4SNPs is significantly better than manual annotation (P < 1e-5). Using Seq4SNPs to incorporate all annotation for additional SNPs and repetitive elements into sequences, for genotyping assay designer software, minimizes assay failure at the design stage, reducing the cost of genotyping. Seq4SNPs provides a rapid route for replacement of poor test SNP sequences. We routinely use this software for assay sequence preparation. Seq4SNPs is available as a service at and , currently for human SNPs, but easily extended to include any species in dbSNP. PMID:19523221

  3. Design Studies for a Multiple Application Thermal Reactor for Irradiation Experiments (MATRIX)

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, Michael A.; Gougar, Hans D.; Ryskamp, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a high power density test reactor specializing in fuel and materials irradiation. For more than 45 years, the ATR has provided irradiations of materials and fuels testing along with radioisotope production. Should unforeseen circumstances lead to the decommissioning of ATR, the U.S. Government would be left without a large-scale materials irradiation capability to meet the needs of its nuclear energy and naval reactor missions. In anticipation of this possibility, work was performed under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) program to investigate test reactor concepts that could satisfy the current missions of the ATR along with an expanded set of secondary missions. A survey was conducted in order to catalogue the anticipated needs of potential customers. Then, concepts were evaluated to fill the role for this reactor, dubbed the Multi-Application Thermal Reactor Irradiation eXperiments (MATRIX). The baseline MATRIX design is expected to be capable of longer cycle lengths than ATR given a particular batch scheme. The volume of test space in In-Pile-Tubes (IPTs) is larger in MATRIX than in ATR with comparable magnitude of neutron flux. Furthermore, MATRIX has more locations of greater volume having high fast neutron flux than ATR. From the analyses performed in this work, it appears that the lead MATRIX design can be designed to meet the anticipated needs of the ATR replacement reactor. However, this design is quite immature, and therefore any requirements currently met must be re-evaluated as the design is developed further.

  4. Feasibility study design and methods for Project GEMS: Guidelines for Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Brynn C; Learmonth, Yvonne C; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Bohri, Maria; Motl, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    The Guidelines for Exercise in Multiple Sclerosis (GEMS) program is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) examining the feasibility and efficacy of a home-based exercise training program based on recent physical activity guidelines and principles of behavior change for improving symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). The primary aim is to assess program feasibility in the four domains of process (e.g., recruitment, retention, and adherence), resources (e.g., communication, staff requirements, and monetary costs), management (e.g., time and accuracy in data collection/entry, and reporting of adverse events) and scientific outcomes (e.g., safety, burden, participant feedback and efficacy/outcomes). The trial will recruit individuals with mild-to-moderate MS-related disability across the United States who will be randomized into intervention or waitlist control conditions. All participants will complete home-based assessments (including wearing an accelerometer for 7 days and completion of a questionnaire booklet) prior to and upon completion of the 4-month program. Participants in the intervention will receive a 4-month home-based exercise program emphasizing aerobic and resistance training. Participants will be provided with exercise equipment, a DVD, a manual and a log-book. The exercise program will be supplemented with periodic newsletters in the mail highlighting principles of behavior change, and video-chats with an exercise specialist to provide motivation and social accountability. This trial serves to inform development of Phase II and III RCTs which can determine the actual efficacy and effectiveness of home-based exercise based on the MS-specific physical activity guidelines for improving symptoms and HRQOL. PMID:26655434

  5. Wide-field imaging design for a multiple-capillary DNA-sequencing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nay, Lyle M.; Sinclair, Robert; Swerdlow, Harold

    1997-05-01

    A laser-induced fluorescence detection system compatible with a capillary electrophoresis array was developed. The design incorporates fiber-optic excitation and a detection system including a diffraction grating and a CCD camera. The system employs no moving parts and is capable of producing data comparable to commercially available systems. It is based on a spectrally-resolved four-dye sequencing scheme. The conceptual design was proven, however, refinements must be made to optimize performance for high-throughput capillary-array DNA sequencing. Automated sample preparation and loading in combination with a refillable separation- matrix capillary-array system could prove to be an invaluable tool for completion of the Human Genome Project.

  6. Design of artificial genetic regulatory networks with multiple delayed adaptive responses*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Inoue, Masayo

    2016-06-01

    Genetic regulatory networks with adaptive responses are widely studied in biology. Usually, models consisting only of a few nodes have been considered. They present one input receptor for activation and one output node where the adaptive response is computed. In this work, we design genetic regulatory networks with many receptors and many output nodes able to produce delayed adaptive responses. This design is performed by using an evolutionary algorithm of mutations and selections that minimizes an error function defined by the adaptive response in signal shapes. We present several examples of network constructions with a predefined required set of adaptive delayed responses. We show that an output node can have different kinds of responses as a function of the activated receptor. Additionally, complex network structures are presented since processing nodes can be involved in several input-output pathways.

  7. A simulation-optimisation approach for designing water distribution networks under multiple objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundmann, Jens; Pham Van, Tinh; Müller, Ruben; Schütze, Niels

    2014-05-01

    Especially in arid and semi-arid regions, water distribution networks are of major importance for an integrated water resources management in order to convey water over long distances from sources to consumers. However, to design a network optimally is still a challenge which requires an appropriate determination of: (1) pipe/pump/tank characteristics - decision variables (2) cost/network reliability - objective functions including (3) a given set of constraints. Thereby, objective functions are contradicting, which means that by minimising costs network reliability is decreasing resulting in a higher risk of network failures. For solving this multi-objective design problem, a simulation-optimisation approach is developed. The approach couples a hydraulic network model (Epanet) with an optimiser, namely the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMAES). The simulation-optimisation model is applied on international published benchmark cases for single and multi-objective optimisation and simultaneous optimisation of above mentioned decision variables as well as network layout. Results are encouraging. The proposed model performs with similar or better results, which means smaller costs and higher network reliability. Subsequently, the new model is applied for an optimal design and operation of a water distribution system to supply the coastal arid region of Al-Batinah (North of Oman) with water for agricultural production.

  8. Robust stability analysis and design under consideration of multiple feedback loops of the tryptophan regulatory network of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Baese, A; Theis, F; Emmett, M R

    2010-01-01

    The tryptophan system present in Escherichia coli represents an important regulatory unit described by multiple feedback loops. The role of these feedback loops is crucial for the analysis of the dynamical behavior of the tryptophan synthesis. We analyze the robust stability of this system which models the dynamics of both fast state, such as transcription and synthesis of free operator, and slow state, such as translation and tryptophan synthesis under consideration of nonlinear uncertainties. In addition, we analyze the role of these feedback loops as key design components of this regulatory unit responsible for its physiological performance. The range of allowed parameter perturbations and the conditions that ensure the existence of asymptotically stable equilibria of the perturbed system are determined. We also analyze two important alternate regulatory designs for the tryptophan synthesis pathway and derive the stability conditions. PMID:20865501

  9. Effects of pesticides on songbird productivity in conjunction with pecan cultivation in southern Georgia: A multiple-exposure experimental design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patnode, K.A.; White, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    A prototypic experimental design was used to assess sublethal effects of multiple and varied organophosphates and carbamates on reproduction in birds. The design allowed for classification of pesticide exposure according to toxicity of applied compounds and type and frequency of applications. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of nests, eggs, and nestlings were determined for northern mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos), brown thrashers (Toxostoma rufum), and northern cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) nesting along edges of pecan orchards and row crops in southern Georgia [USA]. Egg and nestling DSRs for all species combined varied inversely (P 0.05) among three exposure levels. Brain cholinesterase activities were age-dependent and substantiated adult, but not nestling, exposure. Results suggest that increasing exposure to pesticides may reduce songbird productivity.

  10. Relevancies of multiple-interaction events and signal-to-noise ratio for Anger-logic based PET detector designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hao

    2015-10-01

    A fundamental challenge for PET block detector designs is to deploy finer crystal elements while limiting the number of readout channels. The standard Anger-logic scheme including light sharing (an 8 by 8 crystal array coupled to a 2×2 photodetector array with an optical diffuser, multiplexing ratio: 16:1) has been widely used to address such a challenge. Our work proposes a generalized model to study the impacts of two critical parameters on spatial resolution performance of a PET block detector: multiple interaction events and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The study consists of the following three parts: (1) studying light output profile and multiple interactions of 511 keV photons within crystal arrays of different crystal widths (from 4 mm down to 1 mm, constant height: 20 mm); (2) applying the Anger-logic positioning algorithm to investigate positioning/decoding uncertainties (i.e., "block effect") in terms of peak-to-valley ratio (PVR), with light sharing, multiple interactions and photodetector SNR taken into account; and (3) studying the dependency of spatial resolution on SNR in the context of modulation transfer function (MTF). The proposed model can be used to guide the development and evaluation of a standard Anger-logic based PET block detector including: (1) selecting/optimizing the configuration of crystal elements for a given photodetector SNR; and (2) predicting to what extent additional electronic multiplexing may be implemented to further reduce the number of readout channels.

  11. A Simple Tool for the Design and Analysis of Multiple-Reflector Antennas in a Multi-Disciplinary Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Daniel S.; Cwik, Tom; Fu, Chuigang; Imbriale, William A.; Jamnejad, Vahraz; Springer, Paul L.; Borgioli, Andrea

    2000-01-01

    The process of designing and analyzing a multiple-reflector system has traditionally been time-intensive, requiring large amounts of both computational and human time. At many frequencies, a discrete approximation of the radiation integral may be used to model the system. The code which implements this physical optics (PO) algorithm was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. It analyzes systems of antennas in pairs, and for each pair, the analysis can be computationally time-consuming. Additionally, the antennas must be described using a local coordinate system for each antenna, which makes it difficult to integrate the design into a multi-disciplinary framework in which there is traditionally one global coordinate system, even before considering deforming the antenna as prescribed by external structural and/or thermal factors. Finally, setting up the code to correctly analyze all the antenna pairs in the system can take a fair amount of time, and introduces possible human error. The use of parallel computing to reduce the computational time required for the analysis of a given pair of antennas has been previously discussed. This paper focuses on the other problems mentioned above. It will present a methodology and examples of use of an automated tool that performs the analysis of a complete multiple-reflector system in an integrated multi-disciplinary environment (including CAD modeling, and structural and thermal analysis) at the click of a button. This tool, named MOD Tool (Millimeter-wave Optics Design Tool), has been designed and implemented as a distributed tool, with a client that runs almost identically on Unix, Mac, and Windows platforms, and a server that runs primarily on a Unix workstation and can interact with parallel supercomputers with simple instruction from the user interacting with the client.

  12. Multiple tail models including inverse measures for structural design under uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramu, Palaniappan

    Sampling-based reliability estimation with expensive computer models may be computationally prohibitive due to a large number of required simulations. One way to alleviate the computational expense is to extrapolate reliability estimates from observed levels to unobserved levels. Classical tail modeling techniques provide a class of models to enable this extrapolation using asymptotic theory by approximating the tail region of the cumulative distribution function (CDF). This work proposes three alternate tail extrapolation techniques including inverse measures that can complement classical tail modeling. The proposed approach, multiple tail models, applies the two classical and three alternate extrapolation techniques simultaneously to estimate inverse measures at the extrapolation regions and use the median as the best estimate. It is observed that the range of the five estimates can be used as a good approximation of the error associated with the median estimate. Accuracy and computational efficiency are competing factors in selecting sample size. Yet, as our numerical studies reveal, the accuracy lost to the reduction of computational power is very small in the proposed method. The method is demonstrated on standard statistical distributions and complex engineering examples.

  13. Multi-Objective Hybrid Optimal Control for Multiple-Flyby Interplanetary Mission Design Using Chemical Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englander, Jacob; Vavrina, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The customer (scientist or project manager) most often does not want just one point solution to the mission design problem Instead, an exploration of a multi-objective trade space is required. For a typical main-belt asteroid mission the customer might wish to see the trade-space of: Launch date vs. Flight time vs. Deliverable mass, while varying the destination asteroid, planetary flybys, launch year, etcetera. To address this question we use a multi-objective discrete outer-loop which defines many single objective real-valued inner-loop problems.

  14. Check-Standard Testing Across Multiple Transonic Wind Tunnels with the Modern Design of Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the result of an analysis of wind tunnel data acquired in support of the Facility Analysis Verification & Operational Reliability (FAVOR) project. The analysis uses methods referred to collectively at Langley Research Center as the Modern Design of Experiments (MDOE). These methods quantify the total variance in a sample of wind tunnel data and partition it into explained and unexplained components. The unexplained component is further partitioned in random and systematic components. This analysis was performed on data acquired in similar wind tunnel tests executed in four different U.S. transonic facilities. The measurement environment of each facility was quantified and compared.

  15. Design of artificial genetic regulatory networks with multiple delayed adaptive responses*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Inoue, Masayo

    2016-06-01

    Genetic regulatory networks with adaptive responses are widely studied in biology. Usually, models consisting only of a few nodes have been considered. They present one input receptor for activation and one output node where the adaptive response is computed. In this work, we design genetic regulatory networks with many receptors and many output nodes able to produce delayed adaptive responses. This design is performed by using an evolutionary algorithm of mutations and selections that minimizes an error function defined by the adaptive response in signal shapes. We present several examples of network constructions with a predefined required set of adaptive delayed responses. We show that an output node can have different kinds of responses as a function of the activated receptor. Additionally, complex network structures are presented since processing nodes can be involved in several input-output pathways. Supplementary material in the form of one nets file available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjb/e2016-70172-9

  16. Design a light pattern of multiple concentric circles for LED fishing lamps using Fourier series and an energy mapping method.

    PubMed

    Shen, S C; Li, J S; Huang, M C

    2014-06-01

    Fourier series and an energy mapping method were used in this study to design a lens that produces a light pattern of multiple concentric circles (LPMCC) for a light-emitting diode (LED) fishing lamp. Fourier series were used to represent the light intensity distribution curve (LIDC) of the LPMCC light pattern. Energy mapping involves performing angular energy mapping based on the LIDCs of an LED light source and LPMCC to design a freeform lens. Type I and Type II LPMCC lenses were designed according to the phototaxis behavior of fish to create a LPMCC light pattern of interleaving light-dark zones that attracts fish shoals to stay in an area for a long period. The experimental results indicated that, in comparing the LIDCs of the Type I and II lenses with the respective simulation values, the normalized cross-correlation (NCC) value reached 96%. According to a 24-hour observation of the phototaxis of Poecilia reticulata to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed light pattern to attract fish, when a fish shoal was habituated to a light source that emitted constant illumination light, it gradually moved away from the intense light zone and hovered around the junction of the light and dark zones. In the future, the design used in this study can be applied to LED fishing lamps to replace traditional fishing lamps. PMID:24921540

  17. Multiple approaches to valuation of conservation design and low-impact development features in residential subdivisions.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Troy; Tyndall, John C; Thompson, Janette; Kliebenstein, James; Colletti, Joe P

    2012-08-15

    Residents, developers and civic officials are often faced with difficult decisions about appropriate land uses in and around metropolitan boundaries. Urban expansion brings with it the potential for negative environmental impacts, but there are alternatives, such as conservation subdivision design (CSD) or low-impact development (LID), which offer the possibility of mitigating some of these effects at the development site. Many urban planning jurisdictions across the Midwest do not currently have any examples of these designs and lack information to identify public support or barriers to use of these methods. This is a case study examining consumer value for conservation and low-impact design features in one housing market by using four different valuation techniques to estimate residents' willingness to pay for CSD and LID features in residential subdivisions. A contingent valuation survey of 1804 residents in Ames, IA assessed familiarity with and perceptions of subdivision development and used an ordered value approach to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. A majority of residents were not familiar with CSD or LID practices. Residents indicated a willingness to pay for most CSD and LID features with the exception of clustered housing. Gender, age, income, familiarity with LID practices, perceptions of attractiveness of features and the perceived effect of CSD and LID features on ease of future home sales were important factors influencing residents' willingness to pay. A hypothetical referendum measured willingness to pay for tax-funded conservation land purchases and estimated that a property tax of around $50 would be the maximum increase that would pass. Twenty-seven survey respondents participated in a subsequent series of experimental real estate negotiations that used an experimental auction mechanism to estimate willingness to pay for CSD and LID features. Participants indicated that clustered housing (with interspersed preserved forest

  18. Design criteria for a multiple input land use system. [digital image processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingsley, F. C.; Bryant, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    A design is presented that proposes the use of digital image processing techniques to interface existing geocoded data sets and information management systems with thematic maps and remote sensed imagery. The basic premise is that geocoded data sets can be referenced to a raster scan that is equivalent to a grid cell data set, and that images taken of thematic maps or from remote sensing platforms can be converted to a raster scan. A major advantage of the raster format is that x, y coordinates are implicitly recognized by their position in the scan, and z values can be treated as Boolean layers in a three-dimensional data space. Such a system permits the rapid incorporation of data sets, rapid comparison of data sets, and adaptation to variable scales by resampling the raster scans.

  19. A central refrigeration system to support multiple environmental test chambers: Design, development, and evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, R.G.; Miller, K.M.; Shipley, K.L.

    1990-11-01

    A pilot plant project was undertaken to develop a central refrigeration compressor station capable of providing the necessary cooling to a network of nine independently-controlled environmental test chambers operating at temperatures of {minus}85{degree}F to 350{degree}F. Design features of the central two-stage (cascade) vapor compression refrigeration system are described. Computer control of the central refrigeration station is a major contribution to the improved efficiency of the overall system. A second computer-control system was developed to perform the task of environmental chamber control, test management, and chamber performance monitoring. Data on performance of the Climatic Central Refrigeration System (CCRS) are presented. 7 refs., 18 figs.

  20. Electrical engineering and nontechnical design variables of multiple inductive loop systems for auditoriums.

    PubMed

    Alterovitz, Gil

    2004-01-01

    This research analyzed both engineering and nontechnical issues involved in the use of Induction Loop Amplification (ILA) devices in auditoriums or large gathering places for hard-of-hearing individuals. A variety of parameters need to be taken into account to determine an optimal shape/configuration for the ILA device. In many cases, an optimal configuration is different from those proposed for classroom use (Ross, 1969; Hodgson, 1986; Clevenger, 1992). Experimental results were obtained for a double-loop configuration in such a setting (a university gymnasium/auditorium in this case). The results demonstrate that a double-loop configuration is a viable possibility for auditorium use. Several variables using this configuration were examined, and experimentation was done. Various implications, including consequent nontechnical issues specific to this application, are discussed as well. Technical and nontechnical aspects of the ILA configuration need to be examined together when designing an optimal system. PMID:15304441

  1. A Sequential Phase 2b Trial Design for Evaluating Vaccine Efficacy and Immune Correlates for Multiple HIV Vaccine Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Peter B.; Grove, Douglas; Gabriel, Erin; Huang, Ying; Gray, Glenda; Hammer, Scott M.; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Kublin, James; Corey, Lawrence; Self, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Five preventative HIV vaccine efficacy trials have been conducted over the last 12 years, all of which evaluated vaccine efficacy (VE) to prevent HIV infection for a single vaccine regimen versus placebo. Now that one of these trials has supported partial VE of a prime-boost vaccine regimen, there is interest in conducting efficacy trials that simultaneously evaluate multiple prime-boost vaccine regimens against a shared placebo group in the same geographic region, for accelerating the pace of vaccine development. This article proposes such a design, which has main objectives (1) to evaluate VE of each regimen versus placebo against HIV exposures occurring near the time of the immunizations; (2) to evaluate durability of VE for each vaccine regimen showing reliable evidence for positive VE; (3) to expeditiously evaluate the immune correlates of protection if any vaccine regimen shows reliable evidence for positive VE; and (4) to compare VE among the vaccine regimens. The design uses sequential monitoring for the events of vaccine harm, non-efficacy, and high efficacy, selected to weed out poor vaccines as rapidly as possible while guarding against prematurely weeding out a vaccine that does not confer efficacy until most of the immunizations are received. The evaluation of the design shows that testing multiple vaccine regimens is important for providing a well-powered assessment of the correlation of vaccine-induced immune responses with HIV infection, and is critically important for providing a reasonably powered assessment of the value of identified correlates as surrogate endpoints for HIV infection. PMID:23181167

  2. Needs of Accurate Prompt and Delayed γ-spectrum and Multiplicity for Nuclear Reactor Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimpault, G.; Bernard, D.; Blanchet, D.; Vaglio-Gaudard, C.; Ravaux, S.; Santamarina, A.

    The local energy photon deposit must be accounted accurately for Gen-IV fast reactors, advanced light-water nuclear reactors (Gen-III+) and the new experimental Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). The γ energy accounts for about 10% of the total energy released in the core of a thermal or fast reactor. The γ-energy release is much greater in the core of the reactor than in its structural sub-assemblies (such as reflector, control rod followers, dummy sub-assemblies). However, because of the propagation of γ from the core regions to the neighboring fuel-free assemblies, the contribution of γ energy to the total heating can be dominant. For reasons related to their performance, power reactors require a 7.5% (1σ) uncertainty for the energy deposition in non-fuelled zones. For the JHR material-testing reactor, a 5% (1 s) uncertainty is required in experimental positions. In order to verify the adequacy of the calculation of γ-heating, TLD and γ-fission chambers were used to derive the experimental heating values. Experimental programs were and are still conducted in different Cadarache facilities such as MASURCA (for SFR), MINERVE and EOLE (for JHR and Gen-III+ reactors). The comparison of calculated and measured γ-heating values shows an underestimation in all experimental programs indicating that for the most γ-production data from 239Pu in current nuclear-data libraries is highly suspicious.The first evaluation priority is for prompt γ-multiplicity for U and Pu fission but similar values for otheractinides such as Pu and U are also required. The nuclear data library JEFF3.1.1 contains most of the photon production data. However, there are some nuclei for which there are missing or erroneous data which need to be completed or modified. A review of the data available shows a lack of measurements for conducting serious evaluation efforts. New measurements are needed to guide new evaluation efforts which benefit from consolidated modeling techniques.

  3. Design and synthesis of an amphiphilic graft hydrogel having a hydrophobic domain formed by multiple interactions.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Kyohei; Kimoto, Atsushi; Watanabe, Junji

    2016-11-01

    A novel hydrogel having hydrophobic oligo segments and hydrophilic poly(acrylamidoglycolic acid) (PAGA) as pH responsive polymer segments was designed and synthesized to be used as a soft biomaterial. Poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) as the side chain, for which the degrees of polymerization were 9, 19, and 49, and the composition ratios were 1, 5, and 10mol%, was used as the oligo segment in the hydrogel. The swelling ratio of the hydrogel was investigated under various changes in conditions such as pH, temperature, and hydrogen bonding upon urea addition. Under pH2-11 conditions, the graft gel reversibly swelled and shrank due to the effect of PAGA main chain. The interior morphology and skin layer of the hydrogel was observed by a scanning electron microscope. The hydrogel composed of PAGA as the hydrophilic polymer backbone had a sponge-like structure, with a pore size of approximately 100μm. On the other hand, upon increasing the ratio of trimethylene carbonate (TMC) units in the hydrogel, the pores became smaller or disappeared. Moreover, thickness of the skin layer significantly increased with the swelling ratio depended on the incorporation ratios of the PTMC macromonomer. Molecular incorporation in the hydrogel was evaluated using a dye as a model drug molecule. These features would play an important role in drug loading. Increasing the ratio of TMC units favored the adsorption of the dye and activation of the incorporation behavior. PMID:27523997

  4. An optical spectrograph design for a new-generation multiple object Doppler instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Ge, Jian

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes an optical spectrograph design for the W.M. Keck Exoplanet Tracker (ET) multi-object Doppler radial velocity instrument. The Keck ET is currently installed at the Sloan 2.5m telescope (Ge et al. this proceedings), and is capable of simultaneously monitoring 60 stars with high precision for a planet survey. The spectrograph consists of an entrance slit, collimator optics, a Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) grating, camera optics and a 4kx4k CCD camera, and provides a spectral resolution of R =5000, with a 180 mm diameter collimated beam. The collimator and camera optics (300 mm largest diameter) are made of two standard optical grade glasses: BK7 and F2, respectively. The spectrograph is transmissive and optimized for delivering high throughput and high image quality over the entire operation bandwidth: 500-590 nm. The f/4 input beams from the Keck ET interferometer are converted to f/1.5 beams on the detector by this spectrograph, and form 60 stellar fringe spectra.

  5. New Design for Rapid Prototyping of Digital Master Casts for Multiple Dental Implant Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Luis; Jiménez, Mariano; Espinosa, María del Mar; Domínguez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Aim This study proposes the replacement of all the physical devices used in the manufacturing of conventional prostheses through the use of digital tools, such as 3D scanners, CAD design software, 3D implants files, rapid prototyping machines or reverse engineering software, in order to develop laboratory work models from which to finish coatings for dental prostheses. Different types of dental prosthetic structures are used, which were adjusted by a non-rotatory threaded fixing system. Method From a digital process, the relative positions of dental implants, soft tissue and adjacent teeth of edentulous or partially edentulous patients has been captured, and a maser working model which accurately replicates data relating to the patients oral cavity has been through treatment of three-dimensional digital data. Results Compared with the conventional master cast, the results show a significant cost savings in attachments, as well as an increase in the quality of reproduction and accuracy of the master cast, with the consequent reduction in the number of patient consultation visits. The combination of software and hardware three-dimensional tools allows the optimization of the planning of dental implant-supported rehabilitations protocol, improving the predictability of clinical treatments and the production cost savings of master casts for restorations upon implants. PMID:26696528

  6. Oligonucleotides Designed to Inhibit TLR9 Block Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 Infection at Multiple Steps

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Monica M.; Gauger, Joshua J. L.; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is an important human pathogen which requires activation of nuclear factor–kappa B (NFκB) during its replication cycle. The persistent nature of HSV-1 infection, and the emergence of drug-resistant strains, highlights the importance of research to develop new antiviral agents. Toll-like receptors (TLR) play a prominent role during the early antiviral response by recognizing viral nucleic acid and gene products, activating NFκB, and stimulating the production of inflammatory cytokines. We demonstrate a significant effect on HSV-1 replication in ARPE-19 and Vero cells when oligonucleotides designed to inhibit TLR9 are added 2 hours prior to infection. A greater than 90% reduction in the yield of infectious virus was achieved at oligonucleotide concentrations of 10 to 20 micromolar. TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotides prevented expression of essential immediate early herpes gene products as determined by immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blotting. TLR9 oligonucleotides also interfered with viral attachment and entry. A TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotide containing five adjacent guanosine residues (G-ODN) exhibited virucidal activity and inhibited HSV-1 replication when added post-infection. The antiviral effect of the TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotides did not depend on the presence of TLR9 protein, suggesting a mechanism of inhibition that is not TLR9 specific. TLR9 inhibitory oligonucleotides also reduced NFκB activity in nuclear extracts. Studies using these TLR inhibitors in the context of viral infection should be interpreted with caution. PMID:24995383

  7. Design and evaluation of multiple level data staging for Blue Gene systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Isaila, F.; Blas, J. G.; Carretero, J.; Latham, R.; Ross, R.

    2011-06-01

    Parallel applications currently suffer from a significant imbalance between computational power and available I/O bandwidth. Additionally, the hierarchical organization of current Petascale systems contributes to an increase of the I/O subsystem latency. In these hierarchies, file access involves pipelining data through several networks with incremental latencies and higher probability of congestion. Future Exascale systems are likely to share this trait. This paper presents a scalable parallel I/O software system designed to transparently hide the latency of file system accesses to applications on these platforms. Our solution takes advantage of the hierarchy of networks involved in file accesses, to maximize the degree of overlap between computation, file I/O-related communication, and file system access. We describe and evaluate a two-level hierarchy for Blue Gene systems consisting of client-side and I/O node-side caching. Our file cache management modules coordinate the data staging between application and storage through the Blue Gene networks. The experimental results demonstrate that our architecture achieves significant performance improvements through a high degree of overlap between computation, communication, and file I/O.

  8. Multiple-site replacement analogs of glucagon. A molecular basis for antagonist design.

    PubMed

    Unson, C G; Wu, C R; Fitzpatrick, K J; Merrifield, R B

    1994-04-29

    Extensive structure activity analysis has allowed us to identify specific residues in the glucagon sequence that are responsible for either receptor recognition or signal transduction. For instance, we have demonstrated that aspartic acid 9 and histidine 1 are essential for activation, and that an ionic interaction between the negative carboxylate and the protonated imidazole may contribute to the activation reaction at the molecular level. In the absence of the carboxylic group at position 9, aspartic 21 or aspartic 15 might furnish distal electrostatic effects to maintain partial agonism. Further investigation established that each of the 4 serine residues in the hormone play distinct roles. Serine 8 provides an important determinant of binding. Whereas neither serines 2, 11, nor 16 are required for receptor recognition. We have shown that serine 16 is essential for signal transduction and thus have identified it to be the third residue in glucagon to participate in a putative catalytic triad together with aspartic 9 and histidine 1, in the transduction of the glucagon response. In this work, we utilized insights into the functional significance of particular residues in the peptide appropriated from our structure-function assignments, as the basis of a molecular approach for the design of active-site directed antagonists of glucagon. The importance as well as the accuracy of our findings are confirmed by the synthesis of a series of improved glucagon antagonists based on replacements at positions 1, 9, 11, 16, and 21. The inhibition index, (I/A)50, of our best antagonist des-His1-[Nle9-Ala11-Ala16]glucagon amide, has been improved 10-fold over the previous best glucagon inhibitor. PMID:8175663

  9. Design and Room-Temperature Operation of GaAs/AlGaAs Multiple Quantum Well Nanowire Lasers.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Dhruv; Jiang, Nian; Yuan, Xiaoming; Mokkapati, Sudha; Guo, Yanan; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-08-10

    We present the design and room-temperature lasing characteristics of single nanowires containing coaxial GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) active regions. The TE01 mode, which has a doughnut-shaped intensity profile and is polarized predominantly in-plane to the MQWs, is predicted to lase in these nanowire heterostructures and is thus chosen for the cavity design. Through gain and loss calculations, we determine the nanowire dimensions required to minimize loss for the TE01 mode and determine the optimal thickness and number of QWs for minimizing the threshold sheet carrier density. In particular, we show that there is a limit to the minimum and maximum number of QWs that are required for room-temperature lasing. Based on our design, we grew nanowires of a suitable diameter containing eight uniform coaxial GaAs/AlGaAs MQWs. Lasing was observed at room temperature from optically pumped single nanowires and was verified to be from TE01 mode by polarization measurements. The GaAs MQW nanowire lasers have a threshold fluence that is a factor of 2 lower than that previously demonstrated for room-temperature GaAs nanowire lasers. PMID:27459233

  10. The design of the multiple resonance microcavity by reflection phase manipulation of non-QWS DBR for OLED chromaticity enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nien-Po; Chou, Meng-Hsian; Wang, Chao-Chen; Hsieh, Cheng-Jung; Chan, Yu-Cheng; Kuo, Shu-Jin

    2009-08-01

    There have been many researches regarding to the organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with microcavity structures, in order to enhance its output optical properties such as chromaticity and intensity. In the applications to the white-light OLED (WOLED) and full color displays, the difficulty remains in the design of the optical length of the microcavity for proper resonance. A typical microcavity structure consists of the dielectric quarter wave stacks (QWS) as a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) and the metal cathode to form a pair of mirrors. The organic and other material layers between the mirrors plays the role of the cavity. It can only have one major resonance peak in the perpendicular view angle and degrade the broad spectrum nature of the WOLED. Our study proposes the use of non-QWS mirror using thicker and higher-order (greater integral multiple of the quarter wavelength) of the dielectric layers. We can have the multiple resonance peak wavelengths to meet the WOLED requirement by introducing the reflection phase change of the dielectric stack mirror at certain wavelengths. The proposed microcavity structure yields a desired shift to the white point in CIE chromaticity for a typical green OLED. One of the potential applications of the microcavity with non-QWS mirror can be to make the WOLED even closer to the CIE white point without worrying the doping process variation, which is a typical problem in the WOLED. It greatly enhances the usability of the WOLED in various applications.

  11. A Collaboratively Designed Child Mental Health Service Model: Multiple Family Groups for Urban Children with Conduct Difficulties

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Mary McKernan; Gopalan, Geetha; Franco, Lydia; Assael, Kara Dean; Chacko, Anil; Jackson, Jerrold; Fuss, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary outcomes associated with an experimental, longitudinal study of a Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery approach set within thirteen urban outpatient clinics serving children and their families living in inner-city, primarily African American and Latino communities. Specifically, this paper focuses on parent reports of child oppositional behavior and parenting stress over time. MFG is a flexible, protocol-driven approach designed to address the most common reason for referral to outpatient child mental health clinics, childhood behavioral difficulties. The MFG also aims to enhance family-level engagement and retention in ongoing care. Further, the service delivery model was collaboratively developed with intensive input from parents rearing children with conduct difficulties, parent advocates, community-based child mental health providers and services research staff in order to ultimately expand the number of effective service models that can be situated within “real world,” urban child mental health settings. PMID:22194642

  12. After Action Report:Idaho National Laboratory (INL) 2014 Multiple Facility Beyond Design Basis (BDBE) Evaluated Drill October 21, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    V. Scott Barnes

    2014-12-01

    On October 21, 2014, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), in coordination with local jurisdictions, and Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office (DOE ID) conducted an evaluated drill to demonstrate the ability to implement the requirements of DOE O 151.1C, “Comprehensive Emergency Management System” when responding to a beyond design basis event (BDBE) scenario as outlined in the Office of Health, Safety, and Security Operating Experience Level 1 letter (OE-1: 2013-01). The INL contractor, Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA), in coordination with CH2M-WG Idaho, LLC (CWI), and Idaho Treatment Group LLC (ITG), successfully demonstrated appropriate response measures to mitigate a BDBE event that would impact multiple facilities across the INL while protecting the health and safety of personnel, the environment, and property. Offsite response organizations participated to demonstrate appropriate response measures.

  13. Acoustic telemetry and network analysis reveal the space use of multiple reef predators and enhance marine protected area design.

    PubMed

    Lea, James S E; Humphries, Nicolas E; von Brandis, Rainer G; Clarke, Christopher R; Sims, David W

    2016-07-13

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are commonly employed to protect ecosystems from threats like overfishing. Ideally, MPA design should incorporate movement data from multiple target species to ensure sufficient habitat is protected. We used long-term acoustic telemetry and network analysis to determine the fine-scale space use of five shark and one turtle species at a remote atoll in the Seychelles, Indian Ocean, and evaluate the efficacy of a proposed MPA. Results revealed strong, species-specific habitat use in both sharks and turtles, with corresponding variation in MPA use. Defining the MPA's boundary from the edge of the reef flat at low tide instead of the beach at high tide (the current best in Seychelles) significantly increased the MPA's coverage of predator movements by an average of 34%. Informed by these results, the larger MPA was adopted by the Seychelles government, demonstrating how telemetry data can improve shark spatial conservation by affecting policy directly. PMID:27412274

  14. Design Research on Mathematics Education: Investigating the Progress of Indonesian Fifth Grade Students' Learning on Multiplication of Fractions with Natural Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanty, Nenden Octavarulia; Hartono, Yusuf; Putri, Ratu Ilma Indra; de Haan, Dede

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the progress of students' learning on multiplication fractions with natural numbers through the five activity levels based on Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) approach proposed by Streefland. Design research was chosen to achieve this research goal. In design research, the Hypothetical Learning Trajectory…

  15. Incorporating 3D-printing technology in the design of head-caps and electrode drives for recording neurons in multiple brain regions

    PubMed Central

    DeLucca, Michael V.; Haufler, Darrell; Paré, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in recording and computing hardware have enabled laboratories to record the electrical activity of multiple brain regions simultaneously. Lagging behind these technical advances, however, are the methods needed to rapidly produce microdrives and head-caps that can flexibly accommodate different recording configurations. Indeed, most available designs target single or adjacent brain regions, and, if multiple sites are targeted, specially constructed head-caps are used. Here, we present a novel design style, for both microdrives and head-caps, which takes advantage of three-dimensional printing technology. This design facilitates targeting of multiple brain regions in various configurations. Moreover, the parts are easily fabricated in large quantities, with only minor hand-tooling and finishing required. PMID:25652930

  16. Incorporating 3D-printing technology in the design of head-caps and electrode drives for recording neurons in multiple brain regions.

    PubMed

    Headley, Drew B; DeLucca, Michael V; Haufler, Darrell; Paré, Denis

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in recording and computing hardware have enabled laboratories to record the electrical activity of multiple brain regions simultaneously. Lagging behind these technical advances, however, are the methods needed to rapidly produce microdrives and head-caps that can flexibly accommodate different recording configurations. Indeed, most available designs target single or adjacent brain regions, and, if multiple sites are targeted, specially constructed head-caps are used. Here, we present a novel design style, for both microdrives and head-caps, which takes advantage of three-dimensional printing technology. This design facilitates targeting of multiple brain regions in various configurations. Moreover, the parts are easily fabricated in large quantities, with only minor hand-tooling and finishing required. PMID:25652930

  17. Evaluation of multiple hydraulic models in generating design/near-real time flood inundation extents under various geophysical settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.; Rajib, M. A.; Jafarzadegan, K.; Merwade, V.

    2015-12-01

    Application of land surface/hydrologic models within an operational flood forecasting system can provide probable time of occurrence and magnitude of streamflow at specific locations along a stream. Creating time-varying spatial extent of flood inundation and depth requires the use of a hydraulic or hydrodynamic model. Models differ in representing river geometry and surface roughness which can lead to different output depending on the particular model being used. The result from a single hydraulic model provides just one possible realization of the flood extent without capturing the uncertainty associated with the input or the model parameters. The objective of this study is to compare multiple hydraulic models toward generating ensemble flood inundation extents. Specifically, relative performances of four hydraulic models, including AutoRoute, HEC-RAS, HEC-RAS 2D, and LISFLOOD are evaluated under different geophysical conditions in several locations across the United States. By using streamflow output from the same hydrologic model (SWAT in this case), hydraulic simulations are conducted for three configurations: (i) hindcasting mode by using past observed weather data at daily time scale in which models are being calibrated against USGS streamflow observations, (ii) validation mode using near real-time weather data at sub-daily time scale, and (iii) design mode with extreme streamflow data having specific return periods. Model generated inundation maps for observed flood events both from hindcasting and validation modes are compared with remotely sensed images, whereas the design mode outcomes are compared with corresponding FEMA generated flood hazard maps. The comparisons presented here will give insights on probable model-specific nature of biases and their relative advantages/disadvantages as components of an operational flood forecasting system.

  18. On Visually Evoked Potentials in EEG Induced by Multiple Pseudorandom Binary Sequences for Brain Computer Interface Design.

    PubMed

    Nezamfar, H; Orhan, U; Erdogmus, D; Hild, K E; Purwar, S; Oken, B; Fried-Oken, M

    2011-01-01

    Visually evoked potentials have attracted great attention in the last two decades for the purpose of brain computer interface design. Visually evoked P300 response is a major signal of interest that has been widely studied. Steady state visual evoked potentials that occur in response to periodically flickering visual stimuli have been primarily investigated as an alternative. There also exists some work on the use of an m-sequence and its shifted versions to induce responses that are primarily in the visual cortex but are not periodic. In this paper, we study the use of multiple m-sequences for intent discrimination in the brain interface, as opposed to a single m-sequence whose shifted versions are to be discriminated from each other. Specifically we used four different m-sequences of length 31. Our main goal is to study if the bit presentation rate of the m-sequences have an impact on classification accuracy and speed. In this initial study, where we compared two basic classifier schemes using EEG data acquired with 15Hz and 30Hz bit presentation rates, our results are mixed; while on one subject, we got promising results indicating bit presentation rate could be increased without decrease in classification accuracy; thus leading to a faster decision-rate in the brain interface, on our second subject, this conclusion is not supported. Further detailed experimental studies as well as signal processing methodology design, especially for information fusion across EEG channels, will be conducted to investigate this question further. PMID:24008765

  19. Design and performance of a sensor system for detection of multiple chemicals using an external cavity quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Cannon, Bret D.; Schiffern, John T.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the performance of a sensor system designed for simultaneous detection of multiple chemicals with both broad and narrow absorption features. The sensor system consists of a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL), multi-pass Herriott cell, and custom low-noise electronics. The ECQCL features a fast wavelength tuning rate of 2265 cm-1/s (15660 nm/s) over the range of 1150-1270 cm-1 (7.87-8.70 μm), which permits detection of molecules with broad absorption features and dynamic concentrations, while the 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution of the ECQCL system allows measurement of small molecules with atmospherically broadened absorption lines. High-speed amplitude modulation and low-noise electronics are used to improve the ECQCL performance for direct absorption measurements. We demonstrate simultaneous detection of Freon-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane), ammonia (NH3), and nitrous oxide (N2O) at low-ppb concentrations in field measurements of atmospheric chemical releases from a point source.

  20. Design and Performance of a Sensor System for Detection of Multiple Chemicals Using an External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Cannon, Bret D.; Schiffern, John T.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2010-01-23

    We describe the performance of a sensor system designed for simultaneous detection of multiple chemicals with both broad and narrow absorption features. The sensor system consists of a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL), multi-pass Herriott cell, and custom low-noise electronics. The ECQCL features a rapid wavelength tuning rate of 2265 cm 1/s (15660 nm/s) over its tuning range of 1150-1270 cm 1 (7.87-8.70 μm), which permits detection of molecules with broad absorption features and dynamic concentrations, while the 0.2 cm-1 spectral resolution of the ECQCL system allows measurement of small molecules with atmospherically broadened absorption lines. High-speed amplitude modulation and low-noise electronics are used to improve the ECQCL performance for direct absorption measurements. We demonstrate simultaneous detection of Freon-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane), ammonia (NH3), and nitrous oxide (N2O) at low-ppb concentrations in field measurements of atmospheric chemical releases from a point source.

  1. Design of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system through bio-inspired metaheuristic optimization considering multiple types of feedstocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trueba, Isidoro

    fossil fuels to biofuels. In many ways biomass is a unique renewable resource. It can be stored and transported relatively easily in contrast to renewable options such as wind and solar, which create intermittent electrical power that requires immediate consumption and a connection to the grid. This thesis presents two different models for the design optimization of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system through bio-inspired metaheuristic optimization considering multiple types of feedstocks. This work compares the performance and solutions obtained by two types of metaheuristic approaches; genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization. Compared to rigorous mathematical optimization methods or iterative algorithms, metaheuristics do not guarantee that a global optimal solution can be found on some class of problems. Problems with similar characteristics to the one presented in this thesis have been previously solved using linear programming, integer programming and mixed integer programming methods. However, depending on the type of problem, these mathematical or complete methods might need exponential computation time in the worst-case. This often leads to computation times too high for practical purposes. Therefore, this thesis develops two types of metaheuristic approaches for the design optimization of a biomass-to-biorefinery logistics system considering multiple types of feedstocks and shows that metaheuristics are highly suitable to solve hard combinatorial optimization problems such as the one addressed in this research work.

  2. Design and Screening of a Glial Cell-Specific, Cell Penetrating Peptide for Therapeutic Applications in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Heffernan, Corey; Sumer, Huseyin; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Manuelpillai, Ursula; Verma, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by demyelination through glial cell loss. Current and proposed therapeutic strategies to arrest demyelination and/or promote further remyelination include: (i) modulation of the host immune system; and/or (ii) transplantation of myelinating/stem or progenitor cells to the circulation or sites of injury. However, significant drawbacks are inherent with both approaches. Cell penetrating peptides (CPP) are short amino acid sequences with an intrinsic ability to translocate across plasma membranes, and theoretically represent an attractive vector for delivery of therapeutic peptides or nanoparticles to glia to promote cell survival or remyelination. The CPPs described to date are commonly non-selective in the cell types they transduce, limiting their therapeutic application in vivo. Here, we describe a theoretical framework for design of a novel CPP sequence that selectively transduces human glial cells (excluding non-glial cell types), and conduct preliminary screens of purified, recombinant CPPs with immature and matured human oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, and two non-glial cell types. A candidate peptide, termed TD2.2, consistently transduced glial cells, was significantly more effective at transducing immature oligodendrocytes than matured progeny, and was virtually incapable of transducing two non-glial cell types: (i) human neural cells and (ii) human dermal fibroblasts. Time-lapse confocal microscopy confirms trafficking of TD2.2 (fused to EGFP) to mature oligodendrocytes 3–6 hours after protein application in vitro. We propose selectivity of TD2.2 for glial cells represents a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of glial-related disease, such as MS. PMID:23049807

  3. MRPrimerW: a tool for rapid design of valid high-quality primers for multiple target qPCR experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyerin; Kang, NaNa; An, KyuHyeon; Koo, JaeHyung; Kim, Min-Soo

    2016-07-01

    Design of high-quality primers for multiple target sequences is essential for qPCR experiments, but is challenging due to the need to consider both homology tests on off-target sequences and the same stringent filtering constraints on the primers. Existing web servers for primer design have major drawbacks, including requiring the use of BLAST-like tools for homology tests, lack of support for ranking of primers, TaqMan probes and simultaneous design of primers against multiple targets. Due to the large-scale computational overhead, the few web servers supporting homology tests use heuristic approaches or perform homology tests within a limited scope. Here, we describe the MRPrimerW, which performs complete homology testing, supports batch design of primers for multi-target qPCR experiments, supports design of TaqMan probes and ranks the resulting primers to return the top-1 best primers to the user. To ensure high accuracy, we adopted the core algorithm of a previously reported MapReduce-based method, MRPrimer, but completely redesigned it to allow users to receive query results quickly in a web interface, without requiring a MapReduce cluster or a long computation. MRPrimerW provides primer design services and a complete set of 341 963 135 in silico validated primers covering 99% of human and mouse genes. Free access: http://MRPrimerW.com. PMID:27154272

  4. MRPrimerW: a tool for rapid design of valid high-quality primers for multiple target qPCR experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyerin; Kang, NaNa; An, KyuHyeon; Koo, JaeHyung; Kim, Min-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Design of high-quality primers for multiple target sequences is essential for qPCR experiments, but is challenging due to the need to consider both homology tests on off-target sequences and the same stringent filtering constraints on the primers. Existing web servers for primer design have major drawbacks, including requiring the use of BLAST-like tools for homology tests, lack of support for ranking of primers, TaqMan probes and simultaneous design of primers against multiple targets. Due to the large-scale computational overhead, the few web servers supporting homology tests use heuristic approaches or perform homology tests within a limited scope. Here, we describe the MRPrimerW, which performs complete homology testing, supports batch design of primers for multi-target qPCR experiments, supports design of TaqMan probes and ranks the resulting primers to return the top-1 best primers to the user. To ensure high accuracy, we adopted the core algorithm of a previously reported MapReduce-based method, MRPrimer, but completely redesigned it to allow users to receive query results quickly in a web interface, without requiring a MapReduce cluster or a long computation. MRPrimerW provides primer design services and a complete set of 341 963 135 in silico validated primers covering 99% of human and mouse genes. Free access: http://MRPrimerW.com. PMID:27154272

  5. Game Design and Learning: A Conjectural Analysis of How Massively Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) Foster Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickey, Michele D.

    2007-01-01

    During the past two decades, the popularity of computer and video games has prompted games to become a source of study for educational researchers and instructional designers investigating how various aspects of game design might be appropriated, borrowed, and re-purposed for the design of educational materials. The purpose of this paper is to…

  6. Multiple Assessments for Multiple Intelligences. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellanca, James; Chapman, Carolyn; Swartz, Elizabeth

    This book is designed to align assessment with instructional practices that promote the development of the multiple intelligences outlined by Howard Gardner. To facilitate the use of multiple assessments for the multiple intelligences, the information in this book is transferable to the classroom. The book explains how a teacher can design…

  7. Designing for Multiple Stakeholder Interests within the Humanitarian Market: The Case of Off-Grid Energy Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Brita Fladvad; Rodrigues Santos, Ana Laura

    2013-01-01

    A "humanitarian market" for off-grid renewable energy technologies for displaced populations in remote areas has emerged. Within this market, there are multiple stakeholder agendas. End-user needs and sustainable development goals are currently not considered through the customer-enterprise relationship and the applied product and…

  8. Mental subtraction and multiplication recruit both phonological and visuospatial resources: evidence from a symmetric dual-task design.

    PubMed

    Cavdaroglu, Seda; Knops, A

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies pointed out a selective interaction between different working memory subsystems (i.e., phonological and visuospatial) and arithmetic operations (i.e., multiplication and subtraction). This was interpreted to support the idea that multiplication and subtraction predominantly rely on a phonologically or spatially organized number code, respectively. Here, we investigated this idea in two groups (multiplication and subtraction group) using a dual-task paradigm. Going beyond previous studies, we carefully controlled and balanced the difficulty of both working memory and calculation tasks within and across participants. This allowed us to test the reciprocal impact of calculations on working memory. We observed no selective interaction between different working memory subsystems and arithmetic operations. Instead, both types of arithmetic operations were impaired by both types of concurrent working memory tasks. Likewise, both types of working memory tasks were impaired by both types of concurrent arithmetic. Our findings suggest that multiplication and subtraction depend on both phonological and visuospatial codes and highlight the importance of balancing task demands within and between participants in the context of dual-task studies. PMID:25952478

  9. Growth control and design principles of self-assembled quantum dot multiple layer structures for photodetector applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asano, Tetsuya

    Self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs) formed by lattice-mismatch strain-driven epitaxy are currently the most advanced nanostructure-based platform for high performance optoelectronic applications such as lasers and photodetectors. While the QD lasers have realized the best performance in terms of threshold current and temperature stability, the performance of QD photodetectors (QDIPs) has not surpassed that of quantum well (QW) photodetectors. This is because the requirement of maximal photon absorption for photodetectors poses the challenge of forming an appropriately-doped large number of uniform multiple SAQD (MQD) layers with acceptable structural defect (dislocation etc.) density. This dissertation addresses this challenge and, through a combination of innovative approach to control of defects in MQD growth and judicious placement of SAQDs in a resonant cavity, shows that SAQD based quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) can be made competitive with their quantum well counterparts. Specifically, the following major elements were accomplished: (i) the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of dislocation-free and uniform InAs/InAlGaAs/GaAs MQD strained structures up to 20-period, (ii) temperature-dependent photo- and dark-current based analysis of the electron density distribution inside the MQD structures for various doping schemes, (iii) deep level transient spectroscopy based identification of growth procedure dependent deleterious deep traps in SAQD structures and their reduction, and (iv) the use of an appropriately designed resonant cavity (RC) and judicious placement of the SAQD layers for maximal enhancement of photon absorption to realize over an order of magnitude enhancement in QDIP detectivity. The lattermost demonstration indicates that implementation of the growth approach and resonant cavity strategy developed here while utilizing the currently demonstrated MIR and LWIR QDIPs with detectivities > 10 10 cmHz1/2/W at ˜ 77 K will enable RC

  10. A univariate analysis of variance design for multiple-choice feeding-preference experiments: A hypothetical example with fruit-eating birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrinaga, Asier R.

    2010-01-01

    I consider statistical problems in the analysis of multiple-choice food-preference experiments, and propose a univariate analysis of variance design for experiments of this type. I present an example experimental design, for a hypothetical comparison of fruit colour preferences between two frugivorous bird species. In each fictitious trial, four trays each containing a known weight of artificial fruits (red, blue, black, or green) are introduced into the cage, while four equivalent trays are left outside the cage, to control for tray weight loss due to other factors (notably desiccation). The proposed univariate approach allows data from such designs to be analysed with adequate power and no major violations of statistical assumptions. Nevertheless, there is no single "best" approach for experiments of this type: the best analysis in each case will depend on the particular aims and nature of the experiments.

  11. System and method for design and optimization of grid connected photovoltaic power plant with multiple photovoltaic module technologies

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Bex George; Elasser, Ahmed; Bollapragada, Srinivas; Galbraith, Anthony William; Agamy, Mohammed; Garifullin, Maxim Valeryevich

    2016-03-29

    A system and method of using one or more DC-DC/DC-AC converters and/or alternative devices allows strings of multiple module technologies to coexist within the same PV power plant. A computing (optimization) framework estimates the percentage allocation of PV power plant capacity to selected PV module technologies. The framework and its supporting components considers irradiation, temperature, spectral profiles, cost and other practical constraints to achieve the lowest levelized cost of electricity, maximum output and minimum system cost. The system and method can function using any device enabling distributed maximum power point tracking at the module, string or combiner level.

  12. Automated microbial metabolism laboratory. [design of advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into test chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design and rationale of an advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into each of four test chambers are outlined. The feasibility for multiple addition tests was established and various details of the methodology were studied. The four chamber battery of tests include: (1) determination of the effect of various atmospheric gases and selection of that gas which produces an optimum response; (2) determination of the effect of incubation temperature and selection of the optimum temperature for performing Martian biochemical tests; (3) sterile soil is dosed with a battery of C-14 labeled substrates and subjected to experimental temperature range; and (4) determination of the possible inhibitory effects of water on Martian organisms is performed initially by dosing with 0.01 ml and 0.5 ml of medium, respectively. A series of specifically labeled substrates are then added to obtain patterns in metabolic 14CO2 (C-14)O2 evolution.

  13. Design of Spiking Central Pattern Generators for Multiple Locomotion Gaits in Hexapod Robots by Christiansen Grammar Evolution.

    PubMed

    Espinal, Andres; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Carpio, Martin; Guerra-Hernandez, Erick I; Ornelas-Rodriguez, Manuel; Sotelo-Figueroa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method to design Spiking Central Pattern Generators (SCPGs) to achieve locomotion at different frequencies on legged robots. It is validated through embedding its designs into a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and implemented on a real hexapod robot. The SCPGs are automatically designed by means of a Christiansen Grammar Evolution (CGE)-based methodology. The CGE performs a solution for the configuration (synaptic weights and connections) for each neuron in the SCPG. This is carried out through the indirect representation of candidate solutions that evolve to replicate a specific spike train according to a locomotion pattern (gait) by measuring the similarity between the spike trains and the SPIKE distance to lead the search to a correct configuration. By using this evolutionary approach, several SCPG design specifications can be explicitly added into the SPIKE distance-based fitness function, such as looking for Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) with minimal connectivity or a Central Pattern Generator (CPG) able to generate different locomotion gaits only by changing the initial input stimuli. The SCPG designs have been successfully implemented on a Spartan 6 FPGA board and a real time validation on a 12 Degrees Of Freedom (DOFs) hexapod robot is presented. PMID:27516737

  14. Design of Spiking Central Pattern Generators for Multiple Locomotion Gaits in Hexapod Robots by Christiansen Grammar Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Espinal, Andres; Rostro-Gonzalez, Horacio; Carpio, Martin; Guerra-Hernandez, Erick I.; Ornelas-Rodriguez, Manuel; Sotelo-Figueroa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a method to design Spiking Central Pattern Generators (SCPGs) to achieve locomotion at different frequencies on legged robots. It is validated through embedding its designs into a Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and implemented on a real hexapod robot. The SCPGs are automatically designed by means of a Christiansen Grammar Evolution (CGE)-based methodology. The CGE performs a solution for the configuration (synaptic weights and connections) for each neuron in the SCPG. This is carried out through the indirect representation of candidate solutions that evolve to replicate a specific spike train according to a locomotion pattern (gait) by measuring the similarity between the spike trains and the SPIKE distance to lead the search to a correct configuration. By using this evolutionary approach, several SCPG design specifications can be explicitly added into the SPIKE distance-based fitness function, such as looking for Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) with minimal connectivity or a Central Pattern Generator (CPG) able to generate different locomotion gaits only by changing the initial input stimuli. The SCPG designs have been successfully implemented on a Spartan 6 FPGA board and a real time validation on a 12 Degrees Of Freedom (DOFs) hexapod robot is presented. PMID:27516737

  15. Design and performance testing of an avalanche photodiode receiver with multiplication gain control algorithm for intersatellite laser communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaonan; Tong, Shoufeng; Dong, Yan; Song, Yansong; Hao, Shicong; Lu, Jing

    2016-06-01

    An avalanche photodiode (APD) receiver for intersatellite laser communication links is proposed and its performance is experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed system, a series of analog circuits are used not only to adjust the temperature and control the bias voltage but also to monitor the current and recover the clock from the communication data. In addition, the temperature compensation and multiplication gain control algorithm are embedded in the microcontroller to improve the performance of the receiver. As shown in the experiment, with the change of communication rate from 10 to 2000 Mbps, the detection sensitivity of the APD receiver varies from -47 to -34 dBm. Moreover, due to the existence of the multiplication gain control algorithm, the dynamic range of the APD receiver is effectively improved, while the dynamic range at 10, 100, and 1000 Mbps is 38.7, 37.7, and 32.8 dB, respectively. As a result, the experimental results agree well with the theoretical predictions, and the receiver will improve the flexibility of the intersatellite links without increasing the cost.

  16. A versatile bacterial expression vector designed for single-step cloning of multiple DNA fragments using homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Mats A; Gowda, Naveen Kumar Chandappa; Andréasson, Claes

    2014-06-01

    Production of recombinant proteins is the starting point for biochemical and biophysical analyses and requires methodology to efficiently proceed from gene sequence to purified protein. While optimized strategies for the efficient cloning of single-gene fragments for bacterial expression is available, efficient multiple DNA fragment cloning still presents a challenge. To facilitate this step, we have developed an efficient cloning strategy based on yeast homologous recombination cloning (YHRC) into the new pET-based bacterial expression vector pSUMO-YHRC. The vector supports cloning for untagged expression as well as fusions to His6-SUMO or His6 tags. We demonstrate that YHRC from single PCR products of 6 independent genes into the vector results in virtually no background. Importantly, in a quantitative assay for functional expression we find that single-step YHRC of 7 DNA fragments can be performed with very high cloning efficiencies. The method and reagents described in this paper significantly simplifies the construction of expression plasmids from multiple DNA fragments, including complex gene fusions, chimeric genes and polycistronic constructs. PMID:24631626

  17. An efficient and robust design optimisation of multi-state flow network for multiple commodities using generalised reliability evaluation algorithm and edge reduction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Po Ting

    2015-10-01

    The network of delivering commodities has been an important design problem in our daily lives and many transportation applications. The reliability of delivering commodities from a source node to a sink node in the network is maximised to find the optimal routing. However, the design problem is not simple due to randomly distributed attributes in each path, multiple commodities with variable path capacities and the allowable time constraints for delivery. This paper presents the design optimisation of the multi-state flow network (MSFN) for multiple commodities. We propose an efficient and robust approach to evaluate the system reliability in the MSFN with respect to randomly distributed path attributes and to find the optimal routing subject to the allowable time constraints. The delivery rates of the path segments are evaluated and the minimal-speed arcs are eliminated to reduce the complexity of the MSFN. Accordingly, the correct optimal routing is found and the worst-case reliability is evaluated. The reliability of the optimal routing is at least higher than worst-case measure. Three benchmark examples are utilised to demonstrate the proposed method. The comparisons between the original and the reduced networks show that the proposed method is very efficient.

  18. Demonstration of the Highest Deuterium-Tritium Areal Density Using Multiple-Picket Cryogenic Designs on OMEGA

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, V. N.; Sangster, T. C.; Boehly, T. R.; Hu, S. X.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Marshall, F. J.; McCrory, R. L.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Radha, P. B.; Seka, W.; Skupsky, S.; Stoeckl, C.; Casey, D. T; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2010-04-23

    The performance of triple-picket deuterium-tritium cryogenic target designs on the OMEGA Laser System [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] is reported. These designs facilitate control of shock heating in low-adiabat inertial confinement fusion targets. Areal densities up to 300 mg/cm{sup 2} (the highest ever measured in cryogenic deuterium-tritium implosions) are inferred in the experiments with an implosion velocity {approx}3x10{sup 7} cm/s driven at peak laser intensities of 8x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Extension of these designs to ignition on the National Ignition Facility [J. A. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)] is presented.

  19. Robust design of multiple trailing edge flaps for helicopter vibration reduction: A multi-objective bat algorithm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallick, Rajnish; Ganguli, Ranjan; Seetharama Bhat, M.

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to determine an optimal trailing edge flap configuration and flap location to achieve minimum hub vibration levels and flap actuation power simultaneously. An aeroelastic analysis of a soft in-plane four-bladed rotor is performed in conjunction with optimal control. A second-order polynomial response surface based on an orthogonal array (OA) with 3-level design describes both the objectives adequately. Two new orthogonal arrays called MGB2P-OA and MGB4P-OA are proposed to generate nonlinear response surfaces with all interaction terms for two and four parameters, respectively. A multi-objective bat algorithm (MOBA) approach is used to obtain the optimal design point for the mutually conflicting objectives. MOBA is a recently developed nature-inspired metaheuristic optimization algorithm that is based on the echolocation behaviour of bats. It is found that MOBA inspired Pareto optimal trailing edge flap design reduces vibration levels by 73% and flap actuation power by 27% in comparison with the baseline design.

  20. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) in the Academic Library: A Methodology for Mapping Multiple Means of Representation in Library Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Katy Kavanagh; Hoover, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Librarians designed a biology tutorial not only to address an assignment, but also to make tutorials more accessible to students with various learning styles. The Science Librarian created the content by using aspects of the Information Literacy Standards for Science and Technology/Engineering, an informal survey of biology faculty, and…

  1. Design challenges and guidelines for free-space optical communication links using orbital-angular-momentum multiplexing of multiple beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willner, Alan E.; Xie, Guodong; Li, Long; Ren, Yongxiong; Yan, Yan; Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Wang, Zhe; Liu, Cong; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Nima; Ashrafi, Solyman; Tur, Moshe; Molisch, Andreas F.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, recent studies on the potential challenges for an orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing system were reviewed. The design guideline for a practical OAM multiplexing system were investigated in term of (i) the power loss due to the beam divergence and limited-size receiver, and (ii) the channel crosstalk due to the misalignment between the transmitter and receiver.

  2. Comparison of the Psychometric Properties of Several Computer-Based Test Designs for Credentialing Exams with Multiple Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jodoin, Michael G.; Zenisky, April; Hambleton, Ronald K.

    2006-01-01

    Many credentialing agencies today are either administering their examinations by computer or are likely to be doing so in the coming years. Unfortunately, although several promising computer-based test designs are available, little is known about how well they function in examination settings. The goal of this study was to compare fixed-length…

  3. In Silico Design and Experimental Validation of siRNAs Targeting Conserved Regions of Multiple Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    ElHefnawi, Mahmoud; Kim, TaeKyu; Kamar, Mona A.; Min, Saehong; Hassan, Nafisa M.; El-Ahwany, Eman; Kim, Heeyoung; Zada, Suher; Amer, Marwa; Windisch, Marc P.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism that mediates the sequence-specific degradation of targeted RNA and thus provides a tremendous opportunity for development of oligonucleotide-based drugs. Here, we report on the design and validation of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting highly conserved regions of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome. To aim for therapeutic applications by optimizing the RNAi efficacy and reducing potential side effects, we considered different factors such as target RNA variations, thermodynamics and accessibility of the siRNA and target RNA, and off-target effects. This aim was achieved using an in silico design and selection protocol complemented by an automated MysiRNA-Designer pipeline. The protocol included the design and filtration of siRNAs targeting highly conserved and accessible regions within the HCV internal ribosome entry site, and adjacent core sequences of the viral genome with high-ranking efficacy scores. Off-target analysis excluded siRNAs with potential binding to human mRNAs. Under this strict selection process, two siRNAs (HCV353 and HCV258) were selected based on their predicted high specificity and potency. These siRNAs were tested for antiviral efficacy in HCV genotype 1 and 2 replicon cell lines. Both in silico-designed siRNAs efficiently inhibited HCV RNA replication, even at low concentrations and for short exposure times (24h); they also exceeded the antiviral potencies of reference siRNAs targeting HCV. Furthermore, HCV353 and HCV258 siRNAs also inhibited replication of patient-derived HCV genotype 4 isolates in infected Huh-7 cells. Prolonged treatment of HCV replicon cells with HCV353 did not result in the appearance of escape mutant viruses. Taken together, these results reveal the accuracy and strength of our integrated siRNA design and selection protocols. These protocols could be used to design highly potent and specific RNAi-based therapeutic oligonucleotide

  4. Bioactive glass nanoparticles designed for multiple deliveries of lithium ions and drugs: Curative and restorative bone treatment.

    PubMed

    El-Kady, Abeer M; Farag, Mohammad M; El-Rashedi, Ahlam M I

    2016-08-25

    Lithium modified bioactive glass nanoparticles were prepared for multiple deliveries of lithium ions and drugs. The particle size, structure and thermal behavior of nanoparticles were analyzed using TEM, FTIR and DSC respectively. The porosity% and specific surface area of glass nanoparticles were about 68.6% and 224.92 (m(2)/g), respectively. The in vitro bioactivity evaluation in SBF revealed that glass nanoparticles were capable of inducing apatite layer over their surfaces. This could be considered as a good indicator for their future abilities to regenerate bone tissue in vivo. Also, lithium ions were released from glass nanoparticles via diffusion controlled process which could activate Wnt signaling pathway and enhance osteogenesis. As a final point, the possibility of utilizing the glass nanoparticles as a controlled delivery device for vancomycin or 5-FU was verified. Fitting vancomycin or 5-FU release profiles to various mathematical models pointed out that both drugs were released by a diffusion-controlled mode. PMID:27155253

  5. Optimal design of ethanol supply chains considering carbon trading effects and multiple technologies for side-product exploitation.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, R A; Giarola, S; Bezzo, F

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes a spatially explicit mixed integer linear programming modelling framework representing the dynamic evolution of a bioethanol supply chain (SC) under increasing biofuel demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission savings over time. Key features of the proposed framework comprise: (i) the incorporation of available set-aside rural surfaces for energy crop cultivation; (ii) the acknowledgement ofan economic value to the overall GHG emissions through the introduction of an Emission Trading System. Multiple technological options are assessed to exploit the co-product Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles either as animal fodder (standard usage) or as fuel for heat and power generation or as raw material for biogas production (and hence heat and power). Bioethanol production in Northern Italy is chosen as a demonstrative case study. PMID:24350473

  6. Design of oral agents for the management of multiple sclerosis: benefit and risk assessment for dimethyl fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Jacqueline Ann; Boster, Aaron Lee; Imitola, Jaime; O’Connell, Colleen; Racke, Michael Karl

    2014-01-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is the most recent oral disease-modifying therapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and is indicated for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Prior to approval for use in MS, DMF and its active metabolite, monomethyl fumarate, had been used for decades as two of the fumaric acid esters in Fumaderm®, a medication used in Europe for the treatment of psoriasis. The unique mechanism of action of DMF remains under evaluation; however, it has been shown to act through multiple pathways leading to shifts away from the Th1 proinflammatory response to the less inflammatory Th2 response. Preliminary data suggest that DMF may induce neuroprotective effects in central nervous system white matter, although further studies are needed to demonstrate these effects on inflammatory demyelination. The DMF Phase III clinical trials demonstrated its efficacy with regard to a reduction in the annualized relapse rate and reductions in new or enlarging T2 lesions and numbers of gadolinium-enhancing lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. DMF has a well-defined safety profile, given the experience with its use in the treatment of psoriasis, and more recently from the DMF clinical trials program and post-marketing era for treatment of MS. The safety profile and oral mode of administration of DMF place it as an attractive first-line therapy option for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS. Long-term observational studies will be needed to determine the effects of DMF on progression of disability in MS. PMID:25045248

  7. Mechanical design implementation and mathematical considerations for ultra precise diamond turning of multiple freeform mirrors on a common substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartung, Johannes; Beier, Matthias; Peschel, Thomas; Gebhardt, Andreas; Risse, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    For optical systems consisting of metal (in general freeform) mirrors there exist several diamond turning fabrication approaches. These are distuingished by the effort in manufacturing and integration of the later system. The more work one puts into the manufacturing stage the less complicated is the alignment and integration afterwards. For example the most degrees of freedom have to be aligned in integration phase if every mirror of the system is fabricated as a single optical component. For a three mirror anastigmat with three freeform mirrors the degrees of freedom sum up to 18. Therefore the mirror fabrication itself is more or less easy, but the integration is very difficult. There are three major parts in the design and manufacturing process chain to be considered for tackling this integration problem. At the first position in the process chain there is the optical design occuring. At this stage a negotiation between manufacturing and design could improve manufacturability because of more possible integration approaches. The second stage is the mechanical design. Here the appropriate manufacturing approach is already chosen, but may be revisited due to incompatiblities with, e.g., stress specifications. The third level is the manufacturing stage. Here are different clamping approaches and fabrication methods possible. The current article will focus on an approach ("snap-together") where two mirrors are fabricated on one substrate and therefore a reduction of the number of degrees of freedom to be aligned are reduced to six. This improves the amount of time needed for the system integration significantly in contrast to a single mirror fabrication.

  8. The future costs of nuclear power using multiple expert elicitations: effects of RD&D and elicitation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Anadón, Laura; Nemet, Gregory; Verdolini, Elena

    2013-09-01

    Characterization of the anticipated performance of energy technologies to inform policy decisions increasingly relies on expert elicitation. Knowledge about how elicitation design factors impact the probabilistic estimates emerging from these studies is, however, scarce. We focus on nuclear power, a large-scale low-carbon power option, for which future cost estimates are important for the design of energy policies and climate change mitigation efforts. We use data from three elicitations in the USA and in Europe and assess the role of government research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) investments on expected nuclear costs in 2030. We show that controlling for expert, technology, and design characteristics increases experts’ implied public RD&D elasticity of expected costs by 25%. Public sector and industry experts’ cost expectations are 14% and 32% higher, respectively than academics. US experts are more optimistic than their EU counterparts, with median expected costs 22% lower. On average, a doubling of public RD&D is expected to result in an 8% cost reduction, but the uncertainty is large. The difference between the 90th and 10th percentile estimates is on average 58% of the experts’ median estimates. Public RD&D investments do not affect uncertainty ranges, but US experts are less confident about costs than Europeans.

  9. Testing Nelder-Mead based repulsion algorithms for multiple roots of nonlinear systems via a two-level factorial design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Ramadas, Gisela C V; Rocha, Ana Maria A C; Fernandes, Edite M G P

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenging task of computing multiple roots of a system of nonlinear equations. A repulsion algorithm that invokes the Nelder-Mead (N-M) local search method and uses a penalty-type merit function based on the error function, known as 'erf', is presented. In the N-M algorithm context, different strategies are proposed to enhance the quality of the solutions and improve the overall efficiency. The main goal of this paper is to use a two-level factorial design of experiments to analyze the statistical significance of the observed differences in selected performance criteria produced when testing different strategies in the N-M based repulsion algorithm. The main goal of this paper is to use a two-level factorial design of experiments to analyze the statistical significance of the observed differences in selected performance criteria produced when testing different strategies in the N-M based repulsion algorithm. PMID:25875591

  10. Computer-aided design for the generation of test transactions and test data bases and for the benchmarking of parallel, multiple-backend data base systems. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fenton, G.P.

    1986-06-01

    The multi-backend data-base system (MBDS) is a research effort conducted jointly by the Naval Postgraduate School and Ohio State University with the sponsorship of the STARS foundation. The MBDS is designed to overcome the capacity growth and performance gain problems of the traditional data-base systems and the single-backend data-base systems. To verify the capacity growth and performance claims, a benchmarking methodology was formulated in the Naval Postgraduate thesis, A Performance Measurement Methodology for Software Multiple-Backend Database Systems by James R. Vincent. This thesis presents the implementation of the methodology in the form of a computer-aided design system for the generation of test data-bases and test-transaction mixes for benchmarking MBDS.

  11. Testing Nelder-Mead Based Repulsion Algorithms for Multiple Roots of Nonlinear Systems via a Two-Level Factorial Design of Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Edite M. G. P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenging task of computing multiple roots of a system of nonlinear equations. A repulsion algorithm that invokes the Nelder-Mead (N-M) local search method and uses a penalty-type merit function based on the error function, known as ‘erf’, is presented. In the N-M algorithm context, different strategies are proposed to enhance the quality of the solutions and improve the overall efficiency. The main goal of this paper is to use a two-level factorial design of experiments to analyze the statistical significance of the observed differences in selected performance criteria produced when testing different strategies in the N-M based repulsion algorithm. The main goal of this paper is to use a two-level factorial design of experiments to analyze the statistical significance of the observed differences in selected performance criteria produced when testing different strategies in the N-M based repulsion algorithm. PMID:25875591

  12. Design and in vitro performance testing of multiple air classifier technology in a new disposable inhaler concept (Twincer) for high powder doses.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Anne H; Hagedoorn, Paul; Westerman, Elsbeth M; Le Brun, Paul P H; Heijerman, Harry G M; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2006-06-01

    Dry powder inhalation of antibiotics in cystic fibrosis (CF) therapy may be a valuable alternative for wet nebulisation, because it saves time and it improves lung deposition. In this study, it is shown that the use of multiple air classifier technology enables effective dispersion of large amounts of micronised powder (up to 25mg). X(50)-values of the aerosol from laser diffraction analysis obtained with the Twincer disposable inhaler concept (containing multiple air classifier technology) are practically the same as that for the pure drug in the range of dose weights between 0 and 25mg. Only for the highest dose weights, a minor fraction (5-7.5%) of small agglomerates (5-15microm) is released from the inhaler. Moreover, the size distribution of the aerosol is practically the same at 1 and 4kPa. Cascade impactor results confirm the good performance of the multiple classifier concept. Unprocessed micronised particles or soft spherical agglomerates can be used, and special particle engineering processes are not necessary. Only a minor fraction of coarse sweeper crystals in the formulation is desired to reduce the total inhaler losses for colistin sulfomethate to less than 5-6% at 4kPa. The classifiers can be designed to retain these crystals with more than 95% efficiency. PMID:16650739

  13. Interactive effects of xenobiotic, abiotic and biotic stressors on Daphnia pulex--results from a multiple stressor experiment with a fractional multifactorial design.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Christian; Seeland, Anne; Oehlmann, Jörg; Müller, Ruth

    2013-08-15

    Pollutant effects on aquatic key species are confounded by multiple abiotic and biotic stressors. To better discriminate and understand the intrinsic and environmental correlates of changing aquatic ecosystems, we untangle in present study how the effects of a low-dosed fungicide on daphnids (via different exposure routes) becomes modified by increasing temperature and the presence of a predator. Using a fractional multifactorial test design, the individual growth, reproduction and population growth rate of Daphnia pulex were investigated under exposure to the fungicide pyrimethanil at an environmental relevant concentration--either directly (via the water phase), indirectly (via food), dually (via water and food) or for multiple generations (fungicide treated source population)--at three temperatures and in presence/absence of the predator kairomones of Chaoborus flavicans. Our results clearly illustrate that multiple stress factors can modify the response of an aquatic key species to pollutants. The environmentally relevant exposure of the contaminant via food or the medium is of same importance. Nevertheless, temperature and the presence of a predator are the dominant factors controlling the reproduction of D. pulex. We conclude that sublethal pyrimethanil pollution can disturb the zooplankton community at suboptimal temperature conditions, but the effects will become masked by low temperatures or if chaoborid larvae are present. PMID:23727598

  14. Design and Evaluation of a Virtual Quadrant Receiver for 4-ary Pulse Position Modulation/Optical Code Division Multiple Access (4-ary PPM/O-CDMA)

    SciTech Connect

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2006-12-29

    M-ary pulse position modulation (M-ary PPM) is an alternative to on-off-keying (OOK) that transmits multiple bits as a single symbol occupying a frame of M slots. PPM does not require thresholding as in OOK signaling, instead performing a comparison test among all slots in a frame to make the slot decision. Combining PPM with optical code division multiple access (PPM/O-CDMA) adds the benefit of supporting multiple concurrent, asynchronous bursty PPM users. While the advantages of PPM/O-CDMA are well known, implementing a receiver that performs comparison test can be difficult. This paper describes the design of a novel array receiver for M-ary PPM/O-CDMA (M = 4) where the received signal is mapped onto an xy-plane whose quadrants define the PPM slot decision by means of an associated control law. The receiver does not require buffering or nonlinear operations. In this paper we describe a planar lightwave circuit (PLCs) implementation of the receiver. We give detailed numerical simulations that test the concept and investigate the effects of multi-access interference (MAI) and optical beat interference (OBI) on the slot decisions. These simulations provide guidelines for subsequent experimental measurements that will be described.

  15. Conceptual design of a thermalhydraulic loop for multiple test geometries at supercritical conditions named Supercritical Phenomena Experimental Test Apparatus (SPETA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adenariwo, Adepoju

    The efficiency of nuclear reactors can be improved by increasing the operating pressure of current nuclear reactors. Current CANDU-type nuclear reactors use heavy water as coolant at an outlet pressure of up to 11.5 MPa. Conceptual SuperCritical Water Reactors (SCWRs) will operate at a higher coolant outlet pressure of 25 MPa. Supercritical water technology has been used in advanced coal plants and its application proves promising to be employed in nuclear reactors. To better understand how supercritical water technology can be applied in nuclear power plants, supercritical water loops are used to study the heat transfer phenomena as it applies to CANDU-type reactors. A conceptual design of a loop known as the Supercritical Phenomena Experimental Apparatus (SPETA) has been done. This loop has been designed to fit in a 9 m by 2 m by 2.8 m enclosure that will be installed at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology Energy Research Laboratory. The loop include components to safely start up and shut down various test sections, produce a heat source to the test section, and to remove reject heat. It is expected that loop will be able to investigate the behaviour of supercritical water in various geometries including bare tubes, annulus tubes, and multi-element-type bundles. The experimental geometries are designed to match the fluid properties of Canadian SCWR fuel channel designs so that they are representative of a practical application of supercritical water technology in nuclear plants. This loop will investigate various test section orientations which are the horizontal, vertical, and inclined to investigate buoyancy effects. Frictional pressure drop effects and satisfactory methods of estimating hydraulic resistances in supercritical fluid shall also be estimated with the loop. Operating limits for SPETA have been established to be able to capture the important heat transfer phenomena at supercritical conditions. Heat balance and flow calculations have

  16. Design of C18 Organic Phases with Multiple Embedded Polar Groups for Ultraversatile Applications with Ultrahigh Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Mallik, Abul K; Qiu, Hongdeng; Oishi, Tomohiro; Kuwahara, Yutaka; Takafuji, Makoto; Ihara, Hirotaka

    2015-07-01

    For the first time, we synthesized multiple embedded polar groups (EPGs) containing linear C18 organic phases. The new materials were characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT), solid-state (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP/MAS) NMR, suspended-state (1)H NMR, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). (29)Si CP/MAS NMR was carried out to investigate the degree of cross-linking of the silane and silane functionality of the modified silica. Solid-state (13)C CP/MAS NMR and suspended-state (1)H NMR spectroscopy indicated a higher alkyl chain order for the phase containing four EPGs than for the phase with three EPGs. To correlate the NMR results with temperature-dependent chromatographic studies, standard reference materials (SRM 869b and SRM 1647e), a column selectivity test mixture for liquid chromatography was employed. A single EPG containing the C18 phase was also prepared in a similar manner to be used as a reference column especially for the separation of basic and polar compounds in reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), respectively. Detailed chromatographic characterization of the new phases was performed in terms of their surface coverage, hydrophobic selectivity, shape selectivity, hydrogen bonding capacity, and ion-exchange capacity at pH 2.7 and 7.6 for RPLC as well as their hydrophilicity, the selectivity for hydrophilic-hydrophobic substituents, the selectivity for the region and configurational differences in hydrophilic substituents, the evaluation of electrostatic interactions, and the evaluation of the acidic-basic nature for HILIC-mode separation. Furthermore, peak shapes for the basic analytes propranolol and amitriptyline were studied as a function of the number of EPGs on the C18 phases in the RPLC. The chromatographic performance of multiple EPGs containing C18 HILIC phases is illustrated

  17. Multiple target drug cocktail design for attacking the core network markers of four cancers using ligand-based and structure-based virtual screening methods

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Computer-aided drug design has a long history of being applied to discover new molecules to treat various cancers, but it has always been focused on single targets. The development of systems biology has let scientists reveal more hidden mechanisms of cancers, but attempts to apply systems biology to cancer therapies remain at preliminary stages. Our lab has successfully developed various systems biology models for several cancers. Based on these achievements, we present the first attempt to combine multiple-target therapy with systems biology. Methods In our previous study, we identified 28 significant proteins--i.e., common core network markers--of four types of cancers as house-keeping proteins of these cancers. In this study, we ranked these proteins by summing their carcinogenesis relevance values (CRVs) across the four cancers, and then performed docking and pharmacophore modeling to do virtual screening on the NCI database for anti-cancer drugs. We also performed pathway analysis on these proteins using Panther and MetaCore to reveal more mechanisms of these cancer house-keeping proteins. Results We designed several approaches to discover targets for multiple-target cocktail therapies. In the first one, we identified the top 20 drugs for each of the 28 cancer house-keeping proteins, and analyzed the docking pose to further understand the interaction mechanisms of these drugs. After screening for duplicates, we found that 13 of these drugs could target 11 proteins simultaneously. In the second approach, we chose the top 5 proteins with the highest summed CRVs and used them as the drug targets. We built a pharmacophore and applied it to do virtual screening against the Life-Chemical library for anti-cancer drugs. Based on these results, wet-lab bio-scientists could freely investigate combinations of these drugs for multiple-target therapy for cancers, in contrast to the traditional single target therapy. Conclusions Combination of systems biology

  18. Design and evaluation of polymeric coated minitablets as multiple unit gastroretentive floating drug delivery systems for furosemide.

    PubMed

    Meka, Lingam; Kesavan, Bhaskar; Kalamata, Venkatasimhadri Naidu; Eaga, Chandra Mohan; Bandari, Suresh; Vobalaboina, Venkateswarlu; Yamsani, Madhusudan Rao

    2009-06-01

    A gastro retentive floating drug delivery system with multiple-unit minitablets based on gas formation technique was developed for furosemide. The system consists of core units (solid dispersion of furosemide:povidone and other excipients), prepared by direct compression process, which are coated with two successive layers, one of which is an effervescent (sodium bicarbonate) layer and other one an outer polymeric layer of polymethacrylates. The formulations were evaluated for pharmacopoeial quality control tests and all the physical parameters evaluated were within the acceptable limits. Only the system using Eudragit RL30D and combination of them as polymeric layer could float within acceptable time. The time to float decreased as amount of the effervescent agent increased and, when the coating level of polymeric layer decreased. The drug release was controlled and linear with the square root of time. By increasing coating level of polymeric layer decreased the drug release. The rapid floating and the controlled release properties were achieved in this present study. The stability samples showed no significant change in dissolution profiles (f(2) = 81). The in vivo gastric residence time was examined by radiograms and it was observed that the units remained in the stomach for about 6 h. PMID:19009598

  19. A sampling design and model for estimating abundance of Nile crocodiles while accounting for heterogeneity of detectability of multiple observers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shirley, Matthew H.; Dorazio, Robert M.; Abassery, Ekramy; Elhady, Amr A.; Mekki, Mohammed S.; Asran, Hosni H.

    2012-01-01

    As part of the development of a management program for Nile crocodiles in Lake Nasser, Egypt, we used a dependent double-observer sampling protocol with multiple observers to compute estimates of population size. To analyze the data, we developed a hierarchical model that allowed us to assess variation in detection probabilities among observers and survey dates, as well as account for variation in crocodile abundance among sites and habitats. We conducted surveys from July 2008-June 2009 in 15 areas of Lake Nasser that were representative of 3 main habitat categories. During these surveys, we sampled 1,086 km of lake shore wherein we detected 386 crocodiles. Analysis of the data revealed significant variability in both inter- and intra-observer detection probabilities. Our raw encounter rate was 0.355 crocodiles/km. When we accounted for observer effects and habitat, we estimated a surface population abundance of 2,581 (2,239-2,987, 95% credible intervals) crocodiles in Lake Nasser. Our results underscore the importance of well-trained, experienced monitoring personnel in order to decrease heterogeneity in intra-observer detection probability and to better detect changes in the population based on survey indices. This study will assist the Egyptian government establish a monitoring program as an integral part of future crocodile harvest activities in Lake Nasser

  20. The design, implementation and acceptability of an integrated intervention to address multiple behavioral and psychosocial risk factors among pregnant African American women

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Kathy S; Blake, Susan M; Milligan, Renee A; Sharps, Phyllis W; White, Davene B; Rodan, Margaret F; Rossi, Maryann; Murray, Kennan B

    2008-01-01

    Background African American women are at increased risk for poor pregnancy outcomes compared to other racial-ethnic groups. Single or multiple psychosocial and behavioral factors may contribute to this risk. Most interventions focus on singular risks. This paper describes the design, implementation, challenges faced, and acceptability of a behavioral counseling intervention for low income, pregnant African American women which integrated multiple targeted risks into a multi-component format. Methods Six academic institutions in Washington, DC collaborated in the development of a community-wide, primary care research study, DC-HOPE, to improve pregnancy outcomes. Cigarette smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, depression and intimate partner violence were the four risks targeted because of their adverse impact on pregnancy. Evidence-based models for addressing each risk were adapted and integrated into a multiple risk behavior intervention format. Pregnant women attending six urban prenatal clinics were screened for eligibility and risks and randomized to intervention or usual care. The 10-session intervention was delivered in conjunction with prenatal and postpartum care visits. Descriptive statistics on risk factor distributions, intervention attendance and length (i.e., with < 4 sessions considered minimal adherence) for all enrolled women (n = 1,044), and perceptions of study participation from a sub-sample of those enrolled (n = 152) are reported. Results Forty-eight percent of women screened were eligible based on presence of targeted risks, 76% of those eligible were enrolled, and 79% of those enrolled were retained postpartum. Most women reported a single risk factor (61%); 39% had multiple risks. Eighty-four percent of intervention women attended at least one session (60% attended ≥ 4 sessions) without disruption of clinic scheduling. Specific risk factor content was delivered as prescribed in 80% or more of the sessions; 78% of sessions were

  1. Rational Design of a Structural Framework with Potential Use to Develop Chemical Reagents That Target and Modulate Multiple Facets of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sanghyun; Zheng, Xueyun; Krishnamoorthy, Janarthanan; Savelieff, Masha G.; Park, Hyun Min; Brender, Jeffrey R.; Kim, Jin Hoon; Derrick, Jeffrey S.; Kochi, Akiko; Lee, Hyuck Jin; Kim, Cheal; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Bowers, Michael T.; Lim, Mi Hee

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by multiple, intertwined pathological features, including amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation, metal ion dyshomeostasis, and oxidative stress. We report a novel compound (ML) prototype of a rationally designed molecule obtained by integrating structural elements for Aβ aggregation control, metal chelation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulation, and antioxidant activity within a single molecule. Chemical, biochemical, ion mobility mass spectrometric, and NMR studies indicate that the compound ML targets metal-free and metal-bound Aβ (metal–Aβ) species, suppresses Aβ aggregation in vitro, and diminishes toxicity induced by Aβ and metal-treated Aβ in living cells. Comparison of ML to its structural moieties (i.e., 4-(dimethylamino)phenol (DAP) and (8-aminoquinolin-2-yl)methanol (1)) for reactivity with Aβ and metal–Aβ suggests the synergy of incorporating structural components for both metal chelation and Aβ interaction. Moreover, ML is water-soluble and potentially brain permeable, as well as regulates the formation and presence of free radicals. Overall, we demonstrate that a rational structure-based design strategy can generate a small molecule that can target and modulate multiple factors, providing a new tool to uncover and address AD complexity. PMID:24397771

  2. Data Base Design with GIS in Ecosystem Based Multiple Use Forest Management in Artvin, Turkey: A Case Study in Balcı Forest Management Planning Unit.

    PubMed

    Yolasığmaz, Hacı Ahmet; Keleş, Sedat

    2009-01-01

    In Turkey, the understanding of planning focused on timber production has given its place on Multiple Use Management (MUM). Because the whole infrastructure of forestry with inventory system leading the way depends on timber production, some cases of bottle neck are expected during the transition period. Database design, probably the most important stage during the transition to MUM, together with the digital basic maps making up the basis of this infrastructure constitute the main point of this article. Firstly, the forest management philosophy of Turkey in the past was shortly touched upon in the article. Ecosystem Based Multiple Use Forest Management (EBMUFM) approaches was briefly introduced. The second stage of the process of EBMUFM, database design was described by examining the classical planning infrastructure and the coverage to be produced and consumed were suggested in the form of lists. At the application stage, two different geographical databases were established with GIS in Balcı Planning Unit of the years 1984 and 2006. Following that the related basic maps are produced. Timely diversity of the planning unit of 20 years is put forward comparatively with regard to the stand parameters such as tree types, age class, development stage, canopy closure, mixture, volume and increment. PMID:22573978

  3. Designing an evaluation for a multiple-strategy community intervention: the North Coast Stay on Your Feet program.

    PubMed

    van Beurden, E; Kempton, A; Sladden, T; Garner, E

    1998-02-01

    Evaluation of the North Coast Stay on Your Feet falls prevention program is described as a case study of a comprehensive evaluation design for multi-strategic community interventions. Qualitative and quantitative methods were used to evaluate the program at formative, process and outcome levels. Formative evaluation used literature review, focus groups, mail-out and telephone survey methods to gather evidence from publications, older people, health workers, local business, media and government bodies. It included an analysis of demographic and hospital databases and identified incidence, causal pathways, knowledge, attitudes, behaviour, consequences and effectiveness of potential strategies. Process evaluation employed auditing, monitoring and telephone surveys to maintain an inventory of intervention activities and to track the reach of the program. Outcome evaluation involved a longitudinal study of intervention and control cohorts, surveyed before, during and after the intervention by telephone to monitor changes in knowledge, attitudes, risk and falls incidence. The survey instrument was designed for both formative and outcome evaluation, and analysis reflected the research design by incorporating repeat measures and adjusting for bias and confounding. Outcome validity was cross-checked via hospital admission rates. A novel, integrated framework for presenting inputs, activities and outcomes from all stages of the program is described. This framework facilitated feedback to stakeholders and enabled subsequent rapid adjustment of the intervention. Rigorous evaluation combined with clear presentation of findings helped to engender intersectoral support and obtain funding grants for extended implementation and evaluation. It also helped Stay on Your Feet to become a model for other falls prevention programs within Australia and internationally. PMID:9599862

  4. A mathematical model for the design of distributed layout by considering production planning and system reconfiguration over multiple time periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafigh, Farhad; Defersha, Fantahun M.; Moussa, Soha Eid

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new mathematical model that integrates layout configuration and production planning in the design of dynamic distributed layouts. The model incorporates a number of important manufacturing attributes such as demand fluctuation, system reconfiguration, lot splitting, work load balancing, alternative routings, machine capability and tooling requirements. In addition, the model allows several cost elements to be optimized in an integrated manner. These costs are associated with material handling, machine relocation, setup, inventory carrying, in-house production and subcontracting needs. Numerical examples of different sizes are presented to illustrate the nature of the developed model and shed light on several managerial insights.

  5. Th/U-233 multi-recycle in pressurized water reactors : feasibility study of multiple homogeneous and heterogeneous assembly designs.

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, D.; Taiwo, T. A.; Kim, T. K.; Mohamed, A.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-10-01

    The use of thorium in current or advanced light water reactors (LWRs) has been of interest in recent years. These interests have been associated with the need to increase nuclear fuel resources and the perceived non-proliferation advantages of the utilization of thorium in the fuel cycle. Various options have been considered for the use of thorium in the LWR fuel cycle. The possibility for thorium utilization in a multi-recycle system has also been considered in past literature, primarily because of the potential for near breeders with Th/U-233 in the thermal energy range. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential of Th/U-233 fuel multi-recycle in current LWRs, focusing on pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Approaches for sustainable multi-recycle without the need for external fissile material makeup have been investigated. The intent is to obtain a design that allows existing PWRs to be used with minimal modifications.

  6. Design and analysis of a multiple-output transmitter based on DDS architecture for modern wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votis, Constantinos; Christofilakis, Vasilis; Raptis, Vasilis; Tatsis, Giorgos; Chronopoulos, Spyridon K.; Kostarakis, Panos

    2010-01-01

    Multiple—output transmitter implementation based on Direct Digital Synthesis (DDS) architecture is presented and investigated. A particular number of identical and independent units compose the proposed device. DDS technology is applied on the first stage of these units and provides amplitude, phase and frequency adjustments on the corresponding output signals. Quadrature mixers are driven by DDS's outputs and corresponding amplification and filtering circuits are also used to prepare the radiofrequency signals in the outputs of the proposed device. Design issues of analog circuitry and digital control logic are also described. Phase, amplitude and frequency accuracy that DDS technology provides are further discussed. Experimental results indicate that the proposed transmitter architecture can provide independent RF signals for wireless applications.

  7. Detection of multiple strains of rabies virus RNA using primers designed to target Mexican vampire bat variants.

    PubMed

    Loza-Rubio, E; Rojas-Anaya, E; Banda-Ruíz, V M; Nadin-Davis, S A; Cortez-García, B

    2005-10-01

    A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), that uses primers specifically designed to amplify a portion of the N gene of vampire bat strains of rabies that circulate in Mexico, but also recognizing most of the rabies variants circulating in endemic areas, was established. This standardized PCR assay was able to detect viral RNA in tenfold serial dilutions up to a 10(7) dilution using stock virus at an original titre of 10(7.5) LD50. The assay was highly specific for rabies virus. Forty different rabies isolates recovered from different species and geographical regions in the country were diagnosed as positive and negative by the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). These same samples were re-examined by both PCR and the mouse inoculation test (MIT). Compared with MIT the PCR exhibited an epidemiological sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 91% while its positive predictive value was 96%. PMID:16181515

  8. Detection of multiple strains of rabies virus RNA using primers designed to target Mexican vampire bat variants.

    PubMed Central

    Loza-Rubio, E.; Rojas-Anaya, E.; Banda-Ruíz, V. M.; Nadin-Davis, S. A.; Cortez-García, B.

    2005-01-01

    A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), that uses primers specifically designed to amplify a portion of the N gene of vampire bat strains of rabies that circulate in Mexico, but also recognizing most of the rabies variants circulating in endemic areas, was established. This standardized PCR assay was able to detect viral RNA in tenfold serial dilutions up to a 10(7) dilution using stock virus at an original titre of 10(7.5) LD50. The assay was highly specific for rabies virus. Forty different rabies isolates recovered from different species and geographical regions in the country were diagnosed as positive and negative by the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). These same samples were re-examined by both PCR and the mouse inoculation test (MIT). Compared with MIT the PCR exhibited an epidemiological sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 91% while its positive predictive value was 96%. PMID:16181515

  9. A design study for the use of a multiple aperture deployable antenna for soil moisture remote sensing satellite applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foldes, P.

    1986-01-01

    The instrumentation problems associated with the measurement of soil moisture with a meaningful spatial and temperature resolution at a global scale are addressed. For this goal only medium term available affordable technology will be considered. The study while limited in scope, will utilize a large scale antenna structure, which is being developed presently as an experimental model. The interface constraints presented by a singel Space Transportation System (STS) flight will be assumed. Methodology consists of the following steps: review of science requirements; analyze effects of these requirements; present basic system engineering considerations and trade-offs related to orbit parameters, number of spacecraft and their lifetime, observation angles, beamwidth, crossover and swath, coverage percentage, beam quality and resolution, instrument quantities, and integration time; bracket the key system characteristics and develop an electromagnetic design of the antenna-passive radiometer system. Several aperture division combinations and feed array concepts are investigated to achieve maximum feasible performacne within the stated STS constraints.

  10. Design of a communications system for multiple telemetry data channels operating simultaneously with a coherent turn-around ranging channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien M.; Hinedi, Sami M.; Gevargiz, John M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a simple technique to design a phase-modulated residual carrier communications link for optimum performance. The emphasis is on two data channels which are operated simultaneously with a ranging signal. The data channels employ PCM/PM and PCM/PSK/PM modulation schemes for high and low data rate channels, respectively. The technique proposed here selects the optimum (1) subcarrier frequency to minimize the interference between the two data channels, and (2) modulation indices for optimum balance of power between the two telemetry data channels and the coherent turn around ranging channel. The selected set of optimum modulation indices will allow for the specified bit error rate (BER) degradations in the two data channels. Although this technique is proposed to optimize the performance degradation for two data channels, generalizations can be made for more than two data channels.

  11. Light-trap design using multiple reflections and solid-angle attenuation - Application to a spaceborne electron spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrero, Federico A.

    1992-01-01

    The design and performance of a new light trap for a spaceborne electron spectrometer are described. The light trap has a measured photon-rejection ratio of 2 x 10 exp -11, allowing only one in 5 x 10 exp 10 incident photons to reach the sensitive area of the instrument. This rejection is more than sufficient because the ambient UV in earth orbit requires a rejection no better than 10 exp -8 to maintain the photon interference to less than 10 count/s. The light trap uses triple reflections to keep most of the light passing through the entrance slit away from the sensitive area of the spectrometer. It is shown that the average reflectance of all the internal surfaces must be less than 0.006, which is consistent with the data on the black coating applied to all surfaces. The analysis makes it possible to compare the photon contributions of each of the internal reflecting areas and to estimate the effective scattering width of the metallic electrode edge.

  12. Where do the Field Plots Belong? A Multiple-Constraint Sampling Design for the BigFoot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, R. E.; Cohen, W. B.; Kirschbaum, A. A.; Gower, S. T.

    2002-12-01

    A key component of a MODIS validation project is effective characterization of biophysical measures on the ground. Fine-grain ecological field measurements must be placed strategically to capture variability at the scale of the MODIS imagery. Here we describe the BigFoot project's revised sampling scheme, designed to simultaneously meet three important goals: capture landscape variability, avoid spatial autocorrelation between field plots, and minimize time and expense of field sampling. A stochastic process places plots in clumped constellations to reduce field sampling costs, while minimizing spatial autocorrelation. This stochastic process is repeated, creating several hundred realizations of plot constellations. Each constellation is scored and ranked according to its ability to match landscape variability in several Landsat-based spectral indices, and its ability to minimize field sampling costs. We show how this approach has recently been used to place sample plots at the BigFoot project's two newest study areas, one in a desert system and one in a tundra system. We also contrast this sampling approach to that already used at the four prior BigFoot project sites.

  13. Joint Power and Multiple Access Control for Wireless Mesh Network with Rose Projection Method

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Meiqin; Shang, Lili; Xin, Yalin; Liu, Xiaohua; Wei, Xinjiang

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the utility maximization problem for the downlink of the multi-interface multichannel wireless mesh network with orthogonal frequency division multiple access. A cross-layer joint power and multiple access control algorithm are proposed. Rosen projection matrix is combined with Solodov projection techniques to build a three-memory gradient Rosen projection method, which is applied to solve this optimization problem. The convergence analysis is given and simulations show that the proposed solution achieves significant throughput compared with existing approaches. PMID:24883384

  14. Design of block backstepping controllers for a class of perturbed multiple inputs and state-delayed systems in semi-strict-feedback form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yan-Si; Cheng, Chih-Chiang

    2016-04-01

    Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, an adaptive block backstepping control scheme is proposed in this paper for a class of multi-input systems with mismatched multiple state-delayed perturbations to solve regulation problems. The traditional backstepping control method is modified so that it can be directly applied to systems in block semi-strict-feedback form. The terms in the dynamic equations which do not satisfy the block strict-feedback form are accumulated in the last design step and are suppressed effectively by the adaptive gains, so that the property of asymptotic stability is achieved. Adaptive mechanisms are employed in each of the virtual input controllers as well as the robust controller, hence the least upper bounds of perturbations are not required to be known in advance. A numerical example and a practical application are also given for demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed control scheme.

  15. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  16. Designing Allosteric Regulators of Thrombin. Exosite 2 Features Multiple Sub-Sites That Can Be Targeted By Sulfated Small Molecules for Inducing Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Preetpal Singh; Abdel Aziz, May H.; Sarkar, Aurijit; Mehta, Akul Y.; Zhou, Qibing; Desai, Umesh R.

    2013-01-01

    We recently designed a group of novel exosite 2-directed, sulfated, small, allosteric inhibitors of thrombin. To develop more potent inhibitors, monosulfated benzofuran tri- and tetrameric homologs of the parent designed dimers were synthesized in 7–8 steps and found to exhibit a wide range of potencies. Among these, trimer 9a was found to be nearly 10-fold more potent than the first generation molecules. Michaelis-Menten studies indicated an allosteric mechanism of inhibition. Competitive studies using a hirudin peptide (exosite 1 ligand) and, unfractionated heparin, heparin octasaccharide and γ′-fibrinogen peptide (exosite 2 ligands), demonstrated exosite 2 recognition in a manner different from the parent dimers. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of 12 Arg/Lys residues of exosite 2 revealed a defect in 9a potency for Arg233Ala thrombin only confirming the major difference in site of recognition between the two structurally related sulfated benzofurans. The results suggest that multiple avenues are available within exosite 2 for inducing thrombin inhibition. PMID:23718540

  17. Enhancing the Ability of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis to Serve as a More Rigorous Model of Multiple Sclerosis through Refinement of the Experimental Design

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Mitchell R; Gallagher, Ryan J; Marquis, Janet G; LeVine, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Advancing the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) likely will lead to new and better therapeutics. Although important information about the disease process has been obtained from research on pathologic specimens, peripheral blood lymphocytes and MRI studies, the elucidation of detailed mechanisms has progressed largely through investigations using animal models of MS. In addition, animal models serve as an important tool for the testing of putative interventions. The most commonly studied model of MS is experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This model can be induced in a variety of species and by various means, but there has been concern that the model may not accurately reflect the disease process, and more importantly, it may give rise to erroneous findings when it is used to test possible therapeutics. Several reasons have been given to explain the shortcomings of this model as a useful testing platform, but one idea provides a framework for improving the value of this model, and thus, it deserves careful consideration. In particular, the idea asserts that EAE studies are inadequately designed to enable appropriate evaluation of putative therapeutics. Here we discuss problem areas within EAE study designs and provide suggestions for their improvement. This paper is principally directed at investigators new to the field of EAE, although experienced investigators may find useful suggestions herein. PMID:19389303

  18. Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Richard; Cross, Nigel; Durling, David; Nelson, Harold; Owen, Charles; Valtonen, Anna; Boling, Elizabeth; Gibbons, Andrew; Visscher-Voerman, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of design were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Richard Buchanan, Nigel Cross, David Durling, Harold Nelson, Charles Owen, and Anna Valtonen. Scholars…

  19. Evaluation of an electronic diary for improvement of adherence to interferon beta-1b in patients with multiple sclerosis: design and baseline results of an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, incurable, demyelinating disease that requires long-term treatment. Rates of non-adherence to prescribed therapy of up to 50% have been reported for chronic diseases. Strategies to improve treatment adherence are therefore of the utmost importance. This study will evaluate the effect of using electronic and paper diaries on treatment adherence to interferon beta-1b in patients with a first clinical isolated syndrome (CIS) or relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Here we report on the study design and results of baseline assessments. Methods Patients were recruited into a prospective national multicenter cohort study for an observational period of 2 years. At the start of the study, patients opted to use a digital (DiD) or paper diary (PD) to document self-administered injections of interferon beta-1b. Adherence to treatment will be assessed on the dropout rate at the end of the observation period and on the regularity of injections every other day at 6-month intervals. Patient-related health outcomes will also be evaluated. Results 700 patients with a mean age of 38.3 (SD 10.3) years and a mean duration of disease since diagnosis of 3.6 (SD 5.9) years were enrolled. 383 patients opted for the digital diary, 192 of which included an injection reminder. Significantly more male than female patients opted for the DiD. Only gender was identified as a factor influencing the decision for DiD or PD. Based on rating scales, a significantly higher proportion of women had depressive comorbidities at baseline. Conclusions Demographic characteristics of the two cohorts were similar at baseline. More women chose a paper diary, and more had depression at baseline. These imbalances will be addressed in the analysis of the study as possible confounders influencing long-term treatment adherence in the digital and paper diary cohorts. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00902135. PMID:24011220

  20. Implementing the ten steps to successful breastfeeding in multiple hospitals serving low-wealth patients in the US: innovative research design and baseline findings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding are maternity practices proven to support successful achievement of exclusive breastfeeding. They also are the basis for the WHO/UNICEF Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). This study explores implementation of these steps in hospitals that serve predominantly low wealth populations. Methods A quasi-experimental design with mixed methods for data collection and analysis was included within an intervention project. We compared the impact of a modified Ten Steps implementation approach to a control group. The intervention was carried out in hospitals where: 1) BFHI designation was not necessarily under consideration, and 2) the majority of the patient population was low wealth, i.e., eligible for Medicaid. Hospitals in the research aspect of this project were systematically assigned to one of two groups: Initial Intervention or Initial Control/Later Intervention. This paper includes analyses from the baseline data collection, which consisted of an eSurvey (i.e., Carolina B-KAP), Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care survey tool (mPINC), the BFHI Self-Appraisal, key informant interviews, breastfeeding data, and formatted feedback discussion. Results Comparability was ensured by statistical and non-parametric tests of baseline characteristics of the two groups. Additional findings of interest included: 1) a universal lack of consistent breastfeeding records and statistics for regular monitoring/review, 2) widespread misinterpretation of associated terminology, 3) health care providers’ reported practices not necessarily reflective of their knowledge and attitudes, and 4) specific steps were found to be associated with hospital breastfeeding rates. A comprehensive set of facilitators and obstacles to initiation of the Ten Steps emerged, and hospital-specific practice change challenges were identified. Discussion This is one of the first studies to examine introduction of the Ten Steps in multiple

  1. Clinical Utility of an Observation and Response Chart With Human Factors Design Characteristics and a Track and Trigger System: Study Protocol for a Two-Phase Multisite Multiple-Methods Design

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, Sharon; Perry, Lin; Duffield, Christine; Iedema, Rick; Gallagher, Robyn; Fry, Margaret; Roche, Michael; Allen, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical deterioration of adult patients in acute medical-surgical wards continues to occur, despite a range of systems and processes designed to minimize this risk. In Australia, a standardized template for adult observation charts using human factors design principles and decision-support characteristics was developed to improve the detection of and response to abnormal vital signs. Objective To describe the study protocol for the clinical testing of these observation and response charts (ORCs). Methods We propose a two-phase multisite multiple-methods design to test the initial clinical utility of the charts in 10 hospitals of differing types and sizes across state jurisdictions in Australia. Data collection in the first phase includes user surveys, observations and field notes by project officers, handover de-briefs (short interviews with small groups of staff), and an audit of ORC documentation completion compared to the site’s existing observation chart. For the second phase, data will be collected using a retrospective audit of observation documentation from the previous hospital observation chart, prospective audit of observation documentation following implementation of the selected ORC, user focus groups, observational field notes, and patient outcome data from routinely collected organizational data sources. Results Site selection and preparation, project officer training, chart selection and implementation, participant recruitment, and data collection has been completed and the analysis of these results are in progress. Conclusions This detailed description of these study methods and data collection approaches will enable a comprehensive assessment of the clinical utility of these newly developed track and trigger charts and will be useful for clinicians and researchers when planning and implementing similar studies. Potential methodological limitations are also noted. PMID:25116446

  2. The role of economic evaluation in the decision-making process of family physicians: design and methods of a qualitative embedded multiple-case study

    PubMed Central

    Lessard, Chantale; Contandriopoulos, André-Pierre; Beaulieu, Marie-Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Background A considerable amount of resource allocation decisions take place daily at the point of the clinical encounter; especially in primary care, where 80 percent of health problems are managed. Ignoring economic evaluation evidence in individual clinical decision-making may have a broad impact on the efficiency of health services. To date, almost all studies on the use of economic evaluation in decision-making used a quantitative approach, and few investigated decision-making at the clinical level. An important question is whether economic evaluations affect clinical practice. The project is an intervention research study designed to understand the role of economic evaluation in the decision-making process of family physicians (FPs). The contributions of the project will be from the perspective of Pierre Bourdieu's sociological theory. Methods/design A qualitative research strategy is proposed. We will conduct an embedded multiple-case study design. Ten case studies will be performed. The FPs will be the unit of analysis. The sampling strategies will be directed towards theoretical generalization. The 10 selected cases will be intended to reflect a diversity of FPs. There will be two embedded units of analysis: FPs (micro-level of analysis) and field of family medicine (macro-level of analysis). The division of the determinants of practice/behaviour into two groups, corresponding to the macro-structural level and the micro-individual level, is the basis for Bourdieu's mode of analysis. The sources of data collection for the micro-level analysis will be 10 life history interviews with FPs, documents and observational evidence. The sources of data collection for the macro-level analysis will be documents and 9 open-ended, focused interviews with key informants from medical associations and academic institutions. The analytic induction approach to data analysis will be used. A list of codes will be generated based on both the original framework and new themes

  3. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  4. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called multiple pregnancy . If more than one egg is released during the menstrual cycle and each ... fraternal twins (or more). When a single fertilized egg splits, it results in multiple identical embryos. This ...

  5. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  6. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  7. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Condensed from Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Multiple Sclerosis? An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, ...

  8. Model-based, goal-oriented, individualised drug therapy. Linkage of population modelling, new 'multiple model' dosage design, bayesian feedback and individualised target goals.

    PubMed

    Jelliffe, R W; Schumitzky, A; Bayard, D; Milman, M; Van Guilder, M; Wang, X; Jiang, F; Barbaut, X; Maire, P

    1998-01-01

    This article examines the use of population pharmacokinetic models to store experiences about drugs in patients and to apply that experience to the care of new patients. Population models are the Bayesian prior. For truly individualised therapy, it is necessary first to select a specific target goal, such as a desired serum or peripheral compartment concentration, and then to develop the dosage regimen individualised to best hit that target in that patient. One must monitor the behaviour of the drug by measuring serum concentrations or other responses, hopefully obtained at optimally chosen times, not only to see the raw results, but to also make an individualised (Bayesian posterior) model of how the drug is behaving in that patient. Only then can one see the relationship between the dose and the absorption, distribution, effect and elimination of the drug, and the patient's clinical sensitivity to it; one must always look at the patient. Only by looking at both the patient and the model can it be judged whether the target goal was correct or needs to be changed. The adjusted dosage regimen is again developed to hit that target most precisely starting with the very next dose, not just for some future steady state. Nonparametric population models have discrete, not continuous, parameter distributions. These lead naturally into the multiple model method of dosage design, specifically to hit a desired target with the greatest possible precision for whatever past experience and present data are available on that drug--a new feature for this goal-oriented, model-based, individualised drug therapy. As clinical versions of this new approach become available from several centers, it should lead to further improvements in patient care, especially for bacterial and viral infections, cardiovascular therapy, and cancer and transplant situations. PMID:9474473

  9. Investigating 6th graders' use of a tablet-based app supporting synchronous use of multiple tools designed to promote collaborative knowledge building in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Carrie-Anne

    At this pivotal moment in time, when the proliferation of mobile technologies in our daily lives is influencing the relatively fast integration of these technologies into classrooms, there is little known about the process of student learning, and the role of collaboration, with app-based learning environments on mobile devices. To address this gap, this dissertation, comprised of three manuscripts, investigated three pairs of sixth grade students' synchronous collaborative use of a tablet-based science app called WeInvestigate . The first paper illustrated the methodological decisions necessary to conduct the study of student synchronous and face-to-face collaboration and knowledge building within the complex WeInvestigate and classroom learning environments. The second paper provided the theory of collaboration that guided the design of supports in WeInvestigate, and described its subsequent development. The third paper detailed the interactions between pairs of students as they engaged collaboratively in model construction and explanation tasks using WeInvestigate, hypothesizing connections between these interactions and the designed supports for collaboration. Together, these manuscripts provide encouraging evidence regarding the potential of teaching and learning with WeInvestigate. Findings demonstrated that the students in this study learned science through WeInvestigate , and were supported by the app - particularly the collabrification - to engage in collaborative modeling of phenomena. The findings also highlight the potential of the multiple methods used in this study to understand students' face-to-face and technology-based interactions within the "messy" context of an app-based learning environment and a traditional K-12 classroom. However, as the third manuscript most clearly illustrates, there are still a number of modifications to be made to the WeInvestigate technology before it can be optimally used in classrooms to support students' collaborative

  10. Multiple-Choice Exams and Guessing: Results from a One-Year Study of General Chemistry Tests Designed to Discourage Guessing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice exams, while widely used, are necessarily imprecise due to the contribution of the final student score due to guessing. This past year at the United States Naval Academy the construction and grading scheme for the department-wide general chemistry multiple-choice exams were revised with the goal of decreasing the contribution of…

  11. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  12. Un Marco Abierto: Un Manual de Matematicas y Ciencas Utilizando Inteligencias Multiples Disenado para Estudiantes Bilingues de Educacion General y Especial (An Open Framework: A Math and Science Manual Utilizing Multiple Intelligences Designed for Bilingual Students in General and Special Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Bilingual Education.

    This manual incorporates a Multiple Intelligences perspective into its presentation of themes and lesson ideas for Spanish-English bilingual elementary school students in grades 4-8 and is designed for both gifted and special education uses. Each unit includes practice activities, semantic maps to illustrate and help organize ideas as well as…

  13. Breaking through 1D layout limitations and regaining 2D design freedom Part I: 2D layout decomposition and stitching techniques for hybrid optical and self-aligned multiple patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyi; Zhou, Jun; Chen, Yijian

    2015-03-01

    To break through 1-D IC layout limitations, we develop computationally efficient 2-D layout decomposition and stitching techniques which combine the optical and self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) processes. A polynomial time algorithm is developed to decompose the target layout into two components, each containing one or multiple sets of unidirectional features that can be formed by a SAMP+cut/block process. With no need of connecting vias, the final 2-D features are formed by directly stitching two components together. This novel patterning scheme is considered as a hybrid approach as the SAMP processes offer the capability of density scaling while the stitching process creates 2-D design freedom as well as the multiple-CD/pitch capability. Its technical advantages include significant reduction of via steps and avoiding the interdigitating types of multiple patterning (for density multiplication) to improve the processing yield. The developed decomposition and synthesis algorithms are tested using 2-D layouts from NCSU open cell library. Statistical and computational characteristics of these public layout data are investigated and discussed.

  14. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management. PMID:20159661

  15. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the ... and your body, leading to the symptoms of MS. They can include Visual disturbances Muscle weakness Trouble ...

  16. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... myeloma most commonly causes a low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  17. Multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marc S; Podar, Klaus; Breitkreutz, Iris; Richardson, Paul G; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2009-07-25

    Multiple myeloma is characterised by clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells, and mounting evidence indicates that the bone marrow microenvironment of tumour cells has a pivotal role in myeloma pathogenesis. This knowledge has already expanded treatment options for patients with multiple myeloma. Prototypic drugs thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide have each been approved for the treatment of this disease by targeting both multiple myeloma cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Although benefit was first shown in relapsed and refractory disease, improved overall response, duration of response, and progression-free and overall survival can be achieved when these drugs are part of first-line regimens. This treatment framework promises to improve outcome not only for patients with multiple myeloma, but also with other haematological malignancies and solid tumours. PMID:19541364

  18. Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, S.A.; Jiwa, Theresa I.

    1991-01-01

    Successful management of patients with multiple sclerosis depends upon the involvement of the family physician. All contacts with either a multiple sclerosis clinic or a neurologist should be made at the instigation of the family practitioner. Constant contact with the family physician ensures that the individual receives proper care. While specialty care is needed for many of the symptoms, psychosocial problems are dealt with best by the individual's own family physician. PMID:21229090

  19. A Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Instructional Design Factors on Student Success in E-Learning: Multiple-Regression versus Neural Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cebeci, Halil Ibrahim; Yazgan, Harun Resit; Geyik, Abdulkadir

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between the student performance and instructional design. The research was conducted at the E-Learning School at a university in Turkey. A list of design factors that had potential influence on student success was created through a review of the literature and interviews with relevant experts. From this, the…

  20. [Multiple meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs. PMID:27234913

  1. Therapeutic Horseback Riding Outcomes of Parent-Identified Goals for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An ABA′ Multiple Case Design Examining Dosing and Generalization to the Home and Community

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Joanne M.; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B.; D’Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6–8 years of age participated, and counts of target behaviors were collected in each setting and phase of the study. Compared to Baseline, 70 % of the target behaviors were better during Intervention and improvement was retained in 63 % of the behaviors during Withdrawal. Increased doses of therapeutic riding were significant for magnitude of change, and the effect of the therapeutic riding sessions generalized to home and community. PMID:24091469

  2. Therapeutic horseback riding outcomes of parent-identified goals for children with autism spectrum disorder: an ABA' multiple case design examining dosing and generalization to the home and community.

    PubMed

    Holm, Margo B; Baird, Joanne M; Kim, Young Joo; Rajora, Kuwar B; D'Silva, Delma; Podolinsky, Lin; Mazefsky, Carla; Minshew, Nancy

    2014-04-01

    We examined whether different doses of therapeutic riding influenced parent-nominated target behaviors of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (a) during the session (b) at home, and (c) in the community. We used a single subject multiple Baseline, multiple case design, with dosing of 1, 3, and 5 times/week. Three boys with ASD, 6-8 years of age participated, and counts of target behaviors were collected in each setting and phase of the study. Compared to Baseline, 70% of the target behaviors were better during Intervention and improvement was retained in 63% of the behaviors during Withdrawal. Increased doses of therapeutic riding were significant for magnitude of change, and the effect of the therapeutic riding sessions generalized to home and community. PMID:24091469

  3. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  4. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The author has been prompted to write this article about finger multiplication for a number of reasons. Firstly there are a number of related articles in past issues of "Mathematics Teaching" ("MT") which have connections to this algorithm. Secondly, very few of his primary teaching students and professional colleagues appear to be aware of the…

  5. Design of gas targets for the production of medically used radionuclides with the help of Monte-Carlo simulation of small angle multiple scattering of charged particles.

    PubMed

    Helmeke, H J; Hundeshagen, H

    1995-08-01

    Due to scattering of protons or deuterons in the target gas the radius of beams increases with increasing penetration depth of the particles. The increase depends on the kind of beam particle, the energy, the target gas and its temperature and pressure. A Monte-Carlo program was developed for stimulation of multiple scattering. The initial beam has a particle distribution of variable sinusoidal shape behind the entrance window and may be cut off by the simulation of a collimator. The beam distribution is calculated for up to 14 planes representing energy values of the particles due to a predefined range from one plane to the next. The energy loss is calculated with the help of an integrated Bethe-Bloch routine. The distribution of the particles within the plane may be rearranged into profiles and transferred to a spreadsheet for further manipulation and graphical printout. Simulations are carried out for radionuclide production routes, commonly used for position emission tomography (PET). PMID:7633390

  6. Design of an HF-Band RFID System with Multiple Readers and Passive Tags for Indoor Mobile Robot Self-Localization.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jian; Takahashi, Yasutake

    2016-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has already been explored for efficient self-localization of indoor mobile robots. A mobile robot equipped with RFID readers detects passive RFID tags installed on the floor in order to locate itself. The Monte-Carlo localization (MCL) method enables the localization of a mobile robot equipped with an RFID system with reasonable accuracy, sufficient robustness and low computational cost. The arrangements of RFID readers and tags and the size of antennas are important design parameters for realizing accurate and robust self-localization using a low-cost RFID system. The design of a likelihood model of RFID tag detection is also crucial for the accurate self-localization. This paper presents a novel design and arrangement of RFID readers and tags for indoor mobile robot self-localization. First, by considering small-sized and large-sized antennas of an RFID reader, we show how the design of the likelihood model affects the accuracy of self-localization. We also design a novel likelihood model by taking into consideration the characteristics of the communication range of an RFID system with a large antenna. Second, we propose a novel arrangement of RFID tags with eight RFID readers, which results in the RFID system configuration requiring much fewer readers and tags while retaining reasonable accuracy of self-localization. We verify the performances of MCL-based self-localization realized using the high-frequency (HF)-band RFID system with eight RFID readers and a lower density of RFID tags installed on the floor based on MCL in simulated and real environments. The results of simulations and real environment experiments demonstrate that our proposed low-cost HF-band RFID system realizes accurate and robust self-localization of an indoor mobile robot. PMID:27483279

  7. Aero-acoustic design and test of a multiple splitter exhaust noise suppressor for a 0.914m diameter lift fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    A lift fan exhaust suppression system to meet future VTOL aircraft noise goals was designed and tested. The test vehicle was a 1.3 pressure ratio, 36 inch (91.44 cm) diameter lift fan with two chord rotor to stator spacing. A two splitter fan exhaust suppression system thirty inches (76.2 cm) long achieved 10 PNdB exhaust suppression in the aft quadrant compared to a design value of 20 PNdB. It was found that a broadband noise floor limited the realizable suppression. An analytical investigation of broadband noise generated by flow over the treatment surfaces provided very good agreement with the measured suppression levels and noise floor sound power levels. A fan thrust decrement of 22% was measured for the fully suppressed configuration of which 11.1% was attributed to the exhaust suppression hardware.

  8. Examining the interrelationships among students' personological characteristics, attitudes toward the Unified Modeling Language, self-efficacy, and multiple intelligences with respect to student achievement in a software design methods course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart-Iles, Gail Marie

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the interrelationships among student's demographics, attitudes toward the Unified Modeling Language (UML), general self-efficacy, and multiple intelligence (MI) profiles, and the use of UML to develop software. The dependent measures were course grades and course project scores. The study was grounded in problem solving theory, self-efficacy theory, and multiple intelligence theory. The sample was an intact class of 18 students who took the junior-level Software Design Methods course, CSE 3421, at Florida Institute of Technology in the Spring 2008 semester. The course incorporated instruction in UML with Java. Attitudes were measured by a researcher-modified instrument derived from the Computer Laboratory Survey by Newby and Fisher, and self-efficacy was measured by the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale developed by Schwarzer and Jerusalem. MI profiles, which were the proportion of Gardner's eight intelligences, were determined from Shearer's Multiple Intelligence Developmental Assessment Scales. Results from a hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that only the collective set of MI profiles was significant, but none of the individual intelligences were significant. The study's findings supported what one would expect to find relative to problem solving theory, but were contradictory to self-efficacy theory. The findings also supported Gardner's concept that multiple intelligences must be considered as an integral unit and the importance of not focusing on an individual intelligence. The findings imply that self-efficacy is not a major consideration for a software design methods class that requires a transition to problem solving strategy and suggest that the instructor was instrumental in fostering positive attitudes toward UML. Recommendations for practice include (1) teachers should not be concerned with focusing on a single intelligence simply because they believe one intelligence might be more aligned to a

  9. The Multiple Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J. M.; Ulich, B. L.; Shannon, R. R.; Carleton, N. P.; Geary, J. C.; Latham, D. W.; Angel, J. R. P.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Low, F. J.; Weymann, R. J.

    The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), located on top of Mount Hopkins (2600 m) in Arizona, consists of six main telescope systems, each of which is a classical Cassegrain with a 1.8 m diameter parabolic primary with focal ratio f/2.7, and a hyperbolic secondary producing a final f/31.6 for each of the individual telescopes. The most significant departures of the MMT from conventional optical telescope technology are (1) the use of light-weight 'egg-crate' mirrors, which reduced the telescope weight, (2) the use of an alt-azimuth mount, which simplifies the gravitational effects on the structure, (3) the use of a ball-bearing support rather than hydrostatic bearings, resulting in cost savings and less maintenance, (4) the use of spur gear drives rather than worm gears, and (5) the use of multiple coaligned light collectors rather than a single monolithic mirror. Early multiple objective telescopes are discussed, and the early history of the MMT project is given. The design and performance of the telescope are explained, and MMT instrumentation (spectrograph, optical design, detector, infrared photometer, SAO CCD camera) is given. Astronomical research with the telescope is discussed, along with plans for future multiple objective telescopes.

  10. Optimal design of monitoring networks for multiple groundwater quality parameters using a Kalman filter: application to the Irapuato-Valle aquifer.

    PubMed

    Júnez-Ferreira, H E; Herrera, G S; González-Hita, L; Cardona, A; Mora-Rodríguez, J

    2016-01-01

    A new method for the optimal design of groundwater quality monitoring networks is introduced in this paper. Various indicator parameters were considered simultaneously and tested for the Irapuato-Valle aquifer in Mexico. The steps followed in the design were (1) establishment of the monitoring network objectives, (2) definition of a groundwater quality conceptual model for the study area, (3) selection of the parameters to be sampled, and (4) selection of a monitoring network by choosing the well positions that minimize the estimate error variance of the selected indicator parameters. Equal weight for each parameter was given to most of the aquifer positions and a higher weight to priority zones. The objective for the monitoring network in the specific application was to obtain a general reconnaissance of the water quality, including water types, water origin, and first indications of contamination. Water quality indicator parameters were chosen in accordance with this objective, and for the selection of the optimal monitoring sites, it was sought to obtain a low-uncertainty estimate of these parameters for the entire aquifer and with more certainty in priority zones. The optimal monitoring network was selected using a combination of geostatistical methods, a Kalman filter and a heuristic optimization method. Results show that when monitoring the 69 locations with higher priority order (the optimal monitoring network), the joint average standard error in the study area for all the groundwater quality parameters was approximately 90 % of the obtained with the 140 available sampling locations (the set of pilot wells). This demonstrates that an optimal design can help to reduce monitoring costs, by avoiding redundancy in data acquisition. PMID:26681183

  11. Design and development of a wireless sensor network to monitor snow depth in multiple catchments in the American River basin, California: hardware selection and sensor placement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerkez, B.; Rice, R.; Glaser, S. D.; Bales, R. C.; Saksa, P. C.

    2010-12-01

    A 100-node wireless sensor network (WSN) was designed for the purpose of monitoring snow depth in two watersheds, spanning 3 km2 in the American River basin, in the central Sierra Nevada of California. The network will be deployed as a prototype project that will become a core element of a larger water information system for the Sierra Nevada. The site conditions range from mid-elevation forested areas to sub-alpine terrain with light forest cover. Extreme temperature and humidity fluctuations, along with heavy rain and snowfall events, create particularly challenging conditions for wireless communications. We show how statistics gathered from a previously deployed 60-node WSN, located in the Southern Sierra Critical Zone Observatory, were used to inform design. We adapted robust network hardware, manufactured by Dust Networks for highly demanding industrial monitoring, and added linear amplifiers to the radios to improve transmission distances. We also designed a custom data-logging board to interface the WSN hardware with snow-depth sensors. Due to the large distance between sensing locations, and complexity of terrain, we analyzed network statistics to select the location of repeater nodes, to create a redundant and reliable mesh. This optimized network topology will maximize transmission distances, while ensuring power-efficient network operations throughout harsh winter conditions. At least 30 of the 100 nodes will actively sense snow depth, while the remainder will act as sensor-ready repeaters in the mesh. Data from a previously conducted snow survey was used to create a Gaussian Process model of snow depth; variance estimates produced by this model were used to suggest near-optimal locations for snow-depth sensors to measure the variability across a 1 km2 grid. We compare the locations selected by the sensor placement algorithm to those made through expert opinion, and offer explanations for differences resulting from each approach.

  12. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a clonal plasma cell malignancy that accounts for slightly more than 10% of all hematologic cancers. In this paper, we present a historically focused review of the disease, from the description of the first case in 1844 to the present. The evolution of drug therapy and stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of myeloma, as well as the development of new agents, is discussed. We also provide an update on current concepts of diagnosis and therapy, with an emphasis on how treatments have emerged from a historical perspective after certain important discoveries and the results of experimental studies. PMID:18332230

  13. Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Files, Daniel Kane; Jausurawong, Tani; Katrajian, Ruba; Danoff, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, debilitating disease that can have devastating effects. Presentation varies widely in symptoms, pace, and progression. In addition to a thorough history and physical examination, diagnostic tools required to diagnose MS and exclude other diagnoses include MRI, evoked potential testing, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Although the disease is not curable presently, quality of life can be improved by minimizing the frequency and severity of disease burden. Disease modification, symptom management, preservation of function, and treatment of psychosocial issues are paramount to enhance the quality of life for the patient affected with MS. PMID:25979578

  14. A platform analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach for multiple UHPLC-UV and UHPLC-MS methods development for protein analysis.

    PubMed

    Kochling, Jianmei; Wu, Wei; Hua, Yimin; Guan, Qian; Castaneda-Merced, Juan

    2016-06-01

    A platform analytical quality by design approach for methods development is presented in this paper. This approach is not limited just to method development following the same logical Analytical quality by design (AQbD) process, it is also exploited across a range of applications in methods development with commonality in equipment and procedures. As demonstrated by the development process of 3 methods, the systematic approach strategy offers a thorough understanding of the method scientific strength. The knowledge gained from the UHPLC-UV peptide mapping method can be easily transferred to the UHPLC-MS oxidation method and the UHPLC-UV C-terminal heterogeneity methods of the same protein. In addition, the platform AQbD method development strategy ensures method robustness is built in during development. In early phases, a good method can generate reliable data for product development allowing confident decision making. Methods generated following the AQbD approach have great potential for avoiding extensive post-approval analytical method change. While in the commercial phase, high quality data ensures timely data release, reduced regulatory risk, and lowered lab operational cost. Moreover, large, reliable database and knowledge gained during AQbD method development provide strong justifications during regulatory filling for the selection of important parameters or parameter change needs for method validation, and help to justify for removal of unnecessary tests used for product specifications. PMID:27017571

  15. The ALICE forward multiplicity detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbrandsen, K.; Bearden, I.; Bertelsen, P. H.; Christensen, C. H.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Alice Collaboration

    2006-08-01

    The ALICE experiment is designed to study the properties of hadron and nucleus collisions in a new energy regime at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. A fundamental observable in such collisions is the multiplicity distribution of charged particles. A forward multiplicity detector has been designed to extend the charged particle multiplicity coverage of the ALICE experiment to pseudorapidities of -3.4<η<-1.7 and 1.7<η<5.0. This detector consists of five rings, each containing 10240 Si strips, divided into sectors comprised of Si sensors bonded and glued to hybrid PC boards equipped with radiation hard preamplifiers. The output of these preamplifiers is multiplexed into custom-made fast ADC chips located directly behind the Si sensors on the detector frame. These ADCs are read out, via optical fibers, to a data acquisition farm of commodity PCs. The design and characteristics of the ALICE Forward Multiplicity Detector will be discussed.

  16. [Multiple apheresis].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained. PMID:17521944

  17. Photovoltaic multiplicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queisser, Hans J.

    1997-04-01

    A multicell solar energy converter, produced in 1959/60 at the Shockley Transistor Corporation, is reviewed. The feasibility of this device, one of the first involving principles of Si integrated circuits, was demonstrated in anticipation of large-area Si sheets, to be pulled from Si/Pb binary melts. Secondly, the generation of multiple carrier pairs by absorption of merely one photon is discussed. Experiments on high-quality Si solar cells demonstrated this effect, which relies on inverse Auger generation. In principle, much higher maximal conversion efficiencies would be possible; novel criteria for materials optimization result. The new challenge of the inverse band structure problem arises. Finally, multistage optical transitions via deep centers in solar cells are briefly appraised.

  18. Determining high-quality critical body residues for multiple species and chemicals by applying improved experimental design and data interpretation concepts.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Stephan A; Hermens, Joop L M; Sinnige, Theo L; Mayer, Philipp; Gilbert, Dorothea; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2015-02-01

    Ecotoxicological effect data are generally expressed as effective concentrations in the external exposure medium and do thus not account for differences in chemical uptake, bioavailability, and metabolism, which can introduce substantial data variation. The Critical Body Residue (CBR) concept provides clear advantages, because it links effects directly to the internal exposure. Using CBRs instead of external concentrations should therefore reduce variability. For compounds that act via narcosis even a constant CBR has been proposed. Despite the expected uniformity, CBR values for these compounds still show large variability, possibly due to biased and inconsistent experimental testing. In the present study we tested whether variation in CBR data can be substantially reduced when using an improved experimental design and avoiding confounding factors. The aim was to develop and apply a well-defined test protocol for accurately and precisely measuring CBR data, involving improved (passive) dosing, sampling, and processing of organisms. The chemicals 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,3,4-trichloroaniline, 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroaniline, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, pentylbenzene, pyrene, and bromophos-methyl were tested on Lumbriculus variegatus (California blackworm), Hyalella azteca (scud), and Poecilia reticulata (guppy), which yielded a high-quality database of 348 individual CBR values. Medians of CBR values ranged from 2.1 to 16.1 mmol/kg wet weight (ww) within all combinations of chemicals and species, except for the insecticide bromophos-methyl, for which the median was 1.3 mmol/kg ww. The new database thus covers about one log unit, which is considerably less than in existing databases. Medians differed maximally by a factor of 8.4 between the 7 chemicals but within one species, and by a factor of 2.6 between the three species but for individual chemicals. Accounting for the chemicals' internal distribution to different partitioning domains and

  19. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of tripalmitin with capric acid in organic solvent medium: Analysis of the effect of experimental conditions through factorial design and analysis of multiple responses.

    PubMed

    Foresti, María Laura; Ferreira, María Luján

    2010-05-01

    The acidolysis of tripalmitin with capric acid catalyzed by an immobilized form of a 1,3-positionally selective lipase (Rhizomucor miehei) showed to be effective for the synthesis of structured lipids of the MLL and MLM type. The effects that reaction parameters such as substrate molar ratio (N), biocatalyst load (E), and reaction temperature (T) have on selected responses variables (i.e. total conversion of tripalmitin, selectivity and yield of the desired structured lipid, hydrolysis yield, and acyl migration importance), were evaluated by use of an experimental factorial design of three factors and three levels with two central points and with a confidence level of 95%. The range of each parameter was selected as follows: N=3-9, E=5-15wt%, T=50-70°C. The statistical analysis of results was addressed by use of both simple linear models and more complicated quadratic models using specific commercial software. The results obtained showed that a proper selection of reaction conditions is needed in order to maximize not only the yield of the desired structured lipid, but also to minimize the generation of hydrolysis and acyl migration by-products. PMID:25919616

  20. An Overview of the Challenges in Designing, Integrating, and Delivering BARD: A Public Chemical-Biology Resource and Query Portal for Multiple Organizations, Locations, and Disciplines.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Andrea; Bittker, Joshua A; Lahr, David L; Brudz, Steve; Chatwin, Simon; Oprea, Tudor I; Waller, Anna; Yang, Jeremy J; Southall, Noel; Guha, Rajarshi; Schürer, Stephan C; Vempati, Uma D; Southern, Mark R; Dawson, Eric S; Clemons, Paul A; Chung, Thomas D Y

    2014-06-01

    Recent industry-academic partnerships involve collaboration among disciplines, locations, and organizations using publicly funded "open-access" and proprietary commercial data sources. These require the effective integration of chemical and biological information from diverse data sources, which presents key informatics, personnel, and organizational challenges. The BioAssay Research Database (BARD) was conceived to address these challenges and serve as a community-wide resource and intuitive web portal for public-sector chemical-biology data. Its initial focus is to enable scientists to more effectively use the National Institutes of Health Roadmap Molecular Libraries Program (MLP) data generated from the 3-year pilot and 6-year production phases of the Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN), which is currently in its final year. BARD evolves the current data standards through structured assay and result annotations that leverage BioAssay Ontology and other industry-standard ontologies, and a core hierarchy of assay definition terms and data standards defined specifically for small-molecule assay data. We initially focused on migrating the highest-value MLP data into BARD and bringing it up to this new standard. We review the technical and organizational challenges overcome by the interdisciplinary BARD team, veterans of public- and private-sector data-integration projects, who are collaborating to describe (functional specifications), design (technical specifications), and implement this next-generation software solution. PMID:24441647

  1. An overview of the challenges in designing, integrating, and delivering BARD: a public chemical biology resource and query portal across multiple organizations, locations, and disciplines

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Andrea; Bittker, Joshua; Lahr, David; Brudz, Steve; Chatwin, Simon; Oprea, Tudor I.; Waller, Anna; Yang, Jeremy; Southall, Noel; Guha, Rajarshi; Schurer, Stephan; Vempati, Uma; Southern, Mark R.; Dawson, Eric S.; Clemons, Paul A.; Chung, Thomas D.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Recent industry-academic partnerships involve collaboration across disciplines, locations, and organizations using publicly funded “open-access” and proprietary commercial data sources. These require effective integration of chemical and biological information from diverse data sources, presenting key informatics, personnel, and organizational challenges. BARD (BioAssay Research Database) was conceived to address these challenges and to serve as a community-wide resource and intuitive web portal for public-sector chemical biology data. Its initial focus is to enable scientists to more effectively use the NIH Roadmap Molecular Libraries Program (MLP) data generated from 3-year pilot and 6-year production phases of the Molecular Libraries Probe Production Centers Network (MLPCN), currently in its final year. BARD evolves the current data standards through structured assay and result annotations that leverage the BioAssay Ontology (BAO) and other industry-standard ontologies, and a core hierarchy of assay definition terms and data standards defined specifically for small-molecule assay data. We have initially focused on migrating the highest-value MLP data into BARD and bringing it up to this new standard. We review the technical and organizational challenges overcome by the inter-disciplinary BARD team, veterans of public and private sector data-integration projects, collaborating to describe (functional specifications), design (technical specifications), and implement this next-generation software solution. PMID:24441647

  2. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  3. Multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Röllig, Christoph; Knop, Stefan; Bornhäuser, Martin

    2015-05-30

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant disease characterised by proliferation of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow and typically accompanied by the secretion of monoclonal immunoglobulins that are detectable in the serum or urine. Increased understanding of the microenvironmental interactions between malignant plasma cells and the bone marrow niche, and their role in disease progression and acquisition of therapy resistance, has helped the development of novel therapeutic drugs for use in combination with cytostatic therapy. Together with autologous stem cell transplantation and advances in supportive care, the use of novel drugs such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs has increased response rates and survival substantially in the past several years. Present clinical research focuses on the balance between treatment efficacy and quality of life, the optimum sequencing of treatment options, the question of long-term remission and potential cure by multimodal treatment, the pre-emptive treatment of high-risk smouldering myeloma, and the role of maintenance. Upcoming results of ongoing clinical trials, together with a pipeline of promising new treatments, raise the hope for continuous improvements in the prognosis of patients with myeloma in the future. PMID:25540889

  4. Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Massimo; Preziosa, Paolo; Rocca, Maria A

    2016-01-01

    Due to its sensitivity to the different multiple sclerosis (MS)-related abnormalities, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an established tool to diagnose MS and to monitor its evolution. MRI has been included in the diagnostic workup of patients with clinically isolated syndromes suggestive of MS, and ad hoc criteria have been proposed and are regularly updated. In patients with definite MS, the ability of conventional MRI techniques to explain patients' clinical status and progression of disability is still suboptimal. Several advanced MRI-based technologies have been applied to estimate overall MS burden in the different phases of the disease. Their use has allowed the heterogeneity of MS pathology in focal lesions, normal-appearing white matter and gray matter to be graded in vivo. Recently, additional features of MS pathology, including macrophage infiltration and abnormal iron deposition, have become quantifiable. All of this, combined with functional imaging techniques, is improving our understanding of the mechanisms associated with MS evolution. In the near future, the use of ultrahigh-field systems is likely to provide additional insight into disease pathophysiology. However, the utility of advanced MRI techniques in clinical trial monitoring and in assessing individual patients' response to treatment still needs to be assessed. PMID:27432676

  5. Multiple osteochondromas

    PubMed Central

    Bovée, Judith VMG

    2008-01-01

    Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is characterised by development of two or more cartilage capped bony outgrowths (osteochondromas) of the long bones. The prevalence is estimated at 1:50,000, and it seems to be higher in males (male-to-female ratio 1.5:1). Osteochondromas develop and increase in size in the first decade of life, ceasing to grow when the growth plates close at puberty. They are pedunculated or sessile (broad base) and can vary widely in size. The number of osteochondromas may vary significantly within and between families, the mean number of locations is 15–18. The majority are asymptomatic and located in bones that develop from cartilage, especially the long bones of the extremities, predominantly around the knee. The facial bones are not affected. Osteochondromas may cause pain, functional problems and deformities, especially of the forearm, that may be reason for surgical removal. The most important complication is malignant transformation of osteochondroma towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma, which is estimated to occur in 0.5–5%. MO is an autosomal dominant disorder and is genetically heterogeneous. In almost 90% of MO patients germline mutations in the tumour suppressor genes EXT1 or EXT2 are found. The EXT genes encode glycosyltransferases, catalyzing heparan sulphate polymerization. The diagnosis is based on radiological and clinical documentation, supplemented with, if available, histological evaluation of osteochondromas. If the exact mutation is known antenatal diagnosis is technically possible. MO should be distinguished from metachondromatosis, dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica and Ollier disease. Osteochondromas are benign lesions and do not affect life expectancy. Management includes removal of osteochondromas when they give complaints. Removed osteochondromas should be examined for malignant transformation towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma. Patients should be well instructed and regular follow-up for early detection

  6. Multiple System Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple System Atrophy Information Page Condensed from Multiple System Atrophy ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Multiple System Atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

  7. Cross-Layer Damage Assessment for Cyber Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Jia, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Shengzhi; Xiong, Xi; Jhi, Yoon-Chan; Bai, Kun; Li, Jason

    Damage assessment plays a very important role in securing enterprise networks and systems. Gaining good awareness about the effects and impact of cyber attack actions would enable security officers to make the right cyber defense decisions and take the right cyber defense actions. A good number of damage assessment techniques have been proposed in the literature, but they typically focus on a single abstraction level (of the software system in concern). As a result, existing damage assessment techniques and tools are still very limited in satisfying the needs of comprehensive damage assessment which should not result in any “blind spots”.

  8. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.; Schuler, Jason M.; Chandler, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that utilized multiple fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, for the design and assembly of a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, for the design and assembly of a portable four monitor hyper wall strip that could extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill that could be utilized on a next generation robot or rover, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and creation of a new outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory.

  9. Neutron multiplicity recordings during GLE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eduard, Vashenyuk; Leonid, Schur; Balabin, Yuri; Gvozdevsky, Boris

    A neutron multiplicity can give the information on a spectrum of primary solar protons and its variations during ground level enhancements (GLE). Such rare events are detected by ground based neutron monitors. With the help of the multiplicity recorder designed in PGI the variations of multiplicities during the GLE of December 13, 2006 on the neutron monitor in Barentsburg (Spitsbergen) have been studied. The neutron monitor in Barentsburg (18-NM-64) was put into operation on April, 2003. The recently developed data acquisition system is based on a PC equipped with two extension cards. One of them is ADLINK PCI-7233H, which is a high-speed 32-channel digital input card. The other is ADLINK PCI-8554, 12-channel counter/timer card. The specially written collecting program runs continuously. It captures the data registered by the two cards and stores the data to the hard disk. The PCI-7233H card registers pulses from all 18 channels of the neutron monitor and intervals between them. PCI-8554 card counts pulses from atmospheric pressure and temperature sensors. On the basis of this device the multiplicity recorder is realized to register the count rates on multiplicities (2-10). During the GLE on 13 December, 2006 significant increase of the count rates of multiplicities from 2 up to 5 was detected. The multiplicity spectrum changes are compared with the solar proton spectrum dynamics during event. The spectra of relativistic solar protons were derived by modeling technique from the worldwide neutron monitor network.

  10. Enhancing Learning through Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Pinar; Guneysu, Sibel; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a significant difference between multiple intelligence instruction (MII) and traditionally designed science instruction (TDSI) on fourth grade students' understanding of concepts associated with the "Diversity of Living Things" unit. Students' intelligence types were also examined. There were two…

  11. Multiple polymersomes for programmed release of multiple components.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Hyun; Shum, Ho Cheung; Kim, Jin Woong; Cho, Jun-Cheol; Weitz, David A

    2011-09-28

    Long-term storage and controlled release of multiple components while avoiding cross-contamination have potentially important applications for pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Polymersomes are very promising delivery vehicles but cannot be used to encapsulate multiple independent components and release them in a controlled manner. Here, we report a microfluidic approach to produce multiple polymersomes, or polymersomes-in-polymersome by design, enabling encapsulation and programmed release of multiple components. Monodisperse polymersomes are prepared from templates of double-emulsion drops, which in turn are injected as the innermost phase to form the second level of double-emulsion drops, producing double polymersomes. Using the same strategy, higher-order polymersomes are also prepared. In addition, incorporation of hydrophobic homopolymer into the different bilayers of the multiple polymersomes enables controlled and sequential dissociation of the different bilayer membranes in a programmed fashion. The high encapsulation efficiency of this microfluidic approach, as well as its programmability and the biocompatibility of the materials used to form the polymersomes, will provide new opportunities for practical delivery systems of multiple components. PMID:21838246

  12. Summary from Working Group on Multiple Beams and Funneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangler, T. P.

    1985-01-01

    The working group on Multiple Beams and Funneling discussed various topics related to multiple beams and funneling, including (1) design considerations for multiple-beam accelerators; (2) scaling of current, emittance, and brightness for multiple-beam systems; (3) funneling lines using either discrete components or a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) funneling structure; and (4) alternatives to funneling.

  13. Summary from working group on multiple beams and funneling

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1985-01-01

    The working group on Multiple Beams and Funneling discussed various topics related to multiple beams and funneling, including (1) design considerations for multiple-beam accelerators; (2) scaling of current, emittance, and brightness for multiple-beam systems; (3) funneling lines using either discrete components or a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) funneling structure; and (4) alternatives to funneling.

  14. Multiple-port valve

    DOEpatents

    Doody, Thomas J.

    1978-08-22

    A multiple-port valve assembly is designed to direct flow from a primary conduit into any one of a plurality of secondary conduits as well as to direct a reverse flow. The valve includes two mating hemispherical sockets that rotatably receive a spherical valve plug. The valve plug is attached to the primary conduit and includes diverging passageways from that conduit to a plurality of ports. Each of the ports is alignable wih one or more of a plurality of secondary conduits fitted into one of the hemispherical sockets. The other hemispherical socket includes a slot for the primary conduit such that the conduit's motion along that slot with rotation of the spherical plug about various axes will position the valve-plug ports in respect to the secondary conduits.

  15. Utilizing the Zero-One Linear Programming Constraints to Draw Multiple Sets of Matched Samples from a Non-Treatment Population as Control Groups for the Quasi-Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuan H.; Yang, Yu N.; Tompkins, Leroy J.; Modarresi, Shahpar

    2005-01-01

    The statistical technique, "Zero-One Linear Programming," that has successfully been used to create multiple tests with similar characteristics (e.g., item difficulties, test information and test specifications) in the area of educational measurement, was deemed to be a suitable method for creating multiple sets of matched samples to be used as…

  16. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that ranged multiple aspects and fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, a design and build for a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, a design for a portable four monitor hyper wall that can extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill for a next generation robot, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and implementation of a new weekly outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory. The objectives for the command center were to create a central computer controlled area for the still in production lunar regolith bin. It needed to be easy to use and the operating systems had to be Linux. The objectives for the hyper wall were to build a mobile transport of monitors that could potentially attach to one another. It needed to be light but sturdy, and have the ability to last. The objectives for the blast shield included a robust design that could withstand a small equipment malfunction, while also being convenient for use. The objectives for the nano-drill included the research and implementation of programming for vertical and horizontal movement. The hyper wall and blasts shield project were designed by me in the Pro/Engineer/Creo2 software. Each project required a meeting with the Swamp Works engineers and was declared successful.

  17. In Australia: Multiple Intelligences in Multiple Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vialle, Wilma

    1997-01-01

    In Australia, Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory has strongly influenced primary, preschool, and special education. A survey of 30 schools revealed that teachers use two basic approaches: teaching to, and teaching through, multiple intelligences. The first approach might develop children's music skills via playing an instrument. The second…

  18. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  19. Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    1992-01-01

    Optical-fiber digital communication network to support data-acquisition and control functions of electric-power-distribution networks. Optical-fiber links of communication network follow power-distribution routes. Since fiber crosses open power switches, communication network includes multiple interconnected loops with occasional spurs. At each intersection node is needed. Nodes of communication network include power-distribution substations and power-controlling units. In addition to serving data acquisition and control functions, each node acts as repeater, passing on messages to next node(s). Multiple-ring communication network operates on new AbNET protocol and features fiber-optic communication.

  20. Gasdynamic Multiple-Mirror Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beklemishev, Alexei; Anikeev, Andrei; Bagryansky, Peter; Burdakov, Alexander; Gavrilenko, Dmitrii; Ivanov, Alexander; Polosatkin, Sergei; Sinitsky, Stanislav

    2013-10-01

    The new linear device for confinement of fusion plasmas, GDMT, is being developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk. The facility will combine features of existing GOL-3 and GDT devices: the central GDT-like cell with sloshing NBI ions, and the multiple-mirror plugs for suppression of axial losses. Such combination became feasible due to recent discoveries. In particular, the requirement of flute-mode stability can be relaxed by using vortex confinement, achieved by plasma biasing through open field lines. This allows the use of potentially destabilizing multiple-mirror sections. Another key effect is the enhanced multiple-mirror confinement at low densities, which is due to collective rather than coulomb scattering of ions. Hence the multiple-mirror plugs can work at pressures compatible with magnetic confinement. These two main technologies are supplemented by axial injection of pulsed electron beams. Besides additional plasma heating (like in GOL-3), such injection can be used for induced collective scattering in the multiple-mirror plugs and for plasma biasing. The new device is designed to be superconducting and modular. It will be built in stages, with the first stage, GDMT-T, intended for PMI studies. The work was financially supported by Ministry of Education and Science RF.

  1. Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... alone. Multiple births are up in the United States. More women are having babies after age 30 ... support groups for parents of multiples can help. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's ...

  2. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... or cancerous (malignant) tumors or grow excessively without forming tumors. Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes are caused by ... This Article Generic Name Select Brand Names corticotropin H.P. ACTHAR GEL epinephrine ADRENALIN Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia ...

  3. What Is Multiple Myeloma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... other tissues. If someone has only a single plasma cell tumor, the disease is called an isolated (or solitary ) plasmacytoma . If someone has more than one plasmacytoma, they have multiple myeloma . Multiple myeloma is ...

  4. Challenges of Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parenting Multiples There are many psychological, social, and economic issues associated with multiple pregnancies. These issues should ... births can also be helpful during difficult times. ECONOMIC ISSUES • The health care cost for delivery and ...

  5. Multiple system atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000757.htm Multiple system atrophy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare condition that causes ...

  6. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    MedlinePlus

    Home - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area ... DIAGNOSED IN 2009 You Can Live Well with MS A healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management and ...

  7. Fatigue and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Fatigue - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area ... help* daily life for: positive-mom* The National MS Society is Here to Help Need More Information? ...

  8. MultipleColposcopyJCO

    Cancer.gov

    Performing multiple biopsies during a procedure known as colposcopy—visual inspection of the cervix—is more effective than performing only a single biopsy of the worst-appearing area for detecting cervical cancer precursors. This multiple biopsy approach

  9. Multiple sclerosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Your doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis. This disease affects the brain and spinal cord ( ... your doctor may prescribe medicine. Some people with multiple sclerosis need to use a urinary catheter . This is ...

  10. Multiple instrument distributed aperture sensor (MIDAS) testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Eric H.; de Leon, Erich; Dean, Peter; Deloumi, Jake; Duncan, Alan; Hoskins, Warren; Kendrick, Richard; Mason, James; Page, Jeff; Phenis, Adam; Pitman, Joe; Pope, Christine; Privari, Bela; Ratto, Doug; Romero, Enrique; Shu, Ker-Li; Sigler, Robert; Stubbs, David; Tapos, Francisc; Yee, Albert

    2005-08-01

    Lockheed Martin is developing an innovative and adaptable optical telescope comprised of an array of nine identical afocal sub-telescopes. Inherent in the array design is the ability to perform high-resolution broadband imaging, Fizeau Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) imaging, and single exposure multi-spectral and polarimetric imaging. Additionally, the sensor suite's modular design integrates multiple science packages for active and passive sensing from 0.4 to 14 microns. We describe the opto-mechanical design of our concept, the Multiple Instrument Distributed Aperture Sensor (MIDAS), and a selection of passive and active remote sensing missions it fulfills.

  11. Progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ontaneda, Daniel; Fox, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose to Review To highlight the pathological features and clinical aspects of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). To highlight results of clinical trial experience to date and review ongoing clinical trials and perspective new treatment options. Explain the challenges of clinical trial design in PMS. Recent Findings MS has been identified as a chronic immune mediated disease, and the progressive phase of the disease appears to have significant neurodegenerative mechanisms. The classification of the course of PMS has been re-organized into categories of active vs. inactive inflammatory disease and the presence vs. absence of gradual disease progression. This differentiation allows clearer conceptualization of PMS and possibly even more efficient recruitment of PMS subjects into clinical trials. Clinical trial experience to date in PMS has been negative with anti-inflammatory medications used in relapsing MS. Simvastatin was recently tested in a phase II trial and showed a 43% reduction on annualized atrophy progression in secondary progressive MS. Ongoing PMS trials are currently being conducted with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor ibudilast, S1P modulator siponimod, and anti-B-cell therapy ocrelizumab. Several efforts for development of outcome measures in PMS are ongoing. Summary PMS represents a significant challenge, as the pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood, no validated outcome metrics have been established, and clinical trial experience to date has been disappointing. Advances in the understanding of the disease and lessons learned in previous clinical trials are paving the way for successful development of disease modifying agents for this disease. PMID:25887766

  12. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  13. Design Assessment: "Consumer Reports" Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Todd R.

    2010-01-01

    Novices to the design process often struggle at first to understand the various stages of design. Learning to design is a process not easily mastered, and therefore requires multiple levels of exposure to the design process. It is helpful if teachers are able to implement various entry-level design assignments such as reverse-engineering…

  14. Comparative Reliabilities and Validities of Multiple Choice and Complex Multiple Choice Nursing Education Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryden, Russell E.; Frisbie, David A.

    The purpose of this study was to compare certain characteristics of multiple-choice (MC) and complex multiple-choice (CMC) achievement tests designed to measure knowledge in medical-surgical nursing. Each of 268 junior and senior nursing students from four midwestern schools responded to one of four test forms. MC items were developed by…

  15. Lambert's multiple reflection model revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Rothe, Hendrik

    2011-10-01

    In last years paper on the idea of Lambertian reflection we gave a partial translation of an almost lost chapter by Lambert on multiple reflection as a gimmick. The problem of multiple reflections is of special interest in scatterometric devices. The present paper is dedicated to a deeper discussion of the model proposed by J.H. Lambert or, better to say, a derivation using the matrix method of paraxial optics. Further some examples and special cases - especially the consequences for scatterometer design - are discussed. For easy handling it would be desirable to derive some simplified formulas describing the effective higher order refraction qualities of thick lenses, which might support the choice of lenses for certain applications.

  16. Managing Multiple Tasks in Complex, Dynamic Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freed, Michael; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Sketchy planners are designed to achieve goals in realistically complex, time-pressured, and uncertain task environments. However, the ability to manage multiple, potentially interacting tasks in such environments requires extensions to the functionality these systems typically provide. This paper identifies a number of factors affecting how interacting tasks should be prioritized, interrupted, and resumed, and then describes a sketchy planner called APEX that takes account of these factors when managing multiple tasks.

  17. Multiple-image radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernick, Miles N.; Wirjadi, Oliver; Chapman, Dean; Zhong, Zhong; Galatsanos, Nikolas P.; Yang, Yongyi; Brankov, Jovan G.; Oltulu, Oral; Anastasio, Mark A.; Muehleman, Carol

    2003-12-01

    Conventional radiography produces a single image of an object by measuring the attenuation of an x-ray beam passing through it. When imaging weakly absorbing tissues, x-ray attenuation may be a suboptimal signature of disease-related information. In this paper we describe a new phase-sensitive imaging method, called multiple-image radiography (MIR), which is an improvement on a prior technique called diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI). This paper elaborates on our initial presentation of the idea in Wernick et al (2002 Proc. Int. Symp. Biomed. Imaging pp 129-32). MIR simultaneously produces several images from a set of measurements made with a single x-ray beam. Specifically, MIR yields three images depicting separately the effects of refraction, ultra-small-angle scatter and attenuation by the object. All three images have good contrast, in part because they are virtually immune from degradation due to scatter at higher angles. MIR also yields a very comprehensive object description, consisting of the angular intensity spectrum of a transmitted x-ray beam at every image pixel, within a narrow angular range. Our experiments are based on data acquired using a synchrotron light source; however, in preparation for more practical implementations using conventional x-ray sources, we develop and evaluate algorithms designed for Poisson noise, which is characteristic of photon-limited imaging. The results suggest that MIR is capable of operating at low photon count levels, therefore the method shows promise for use with conventional x-ray sources. The results also show that, in addition to producing new types of object descriptions, MIR produces substantially more accurate images than its predecessor, DEI. MIR results are shown in the form of planar images of a phantom and a biological specimen. A preliminary demonstration of the use of MIR for computed tomography is also presented.

  18. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  19. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  20. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  1. Prediction in Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the concept of prediction via multiple regression (MR) and discusses the assumptions underlying multiple regression analyses. Also discusses shrinkage, cross-validation, and double cross-validation of prediction equations and describes how to calculate confidence intervals around individual predictions. (SLD)

  2. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... it is multiple myeloma . Stay on top of discoveries, trials, research and more. Click here to sign up for the MMRF Newsletter First name Last name E-mail address CLOSE News & Press Multiple Myeloma Knowledge Center Privacy Policy Donor Privacy Policy Terms of ...

  3. Uglification: Understanding Multiplication Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorwaldt, Louis E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Established methods of teaching multiplication (tables, flash cards, repetitive exercises) do not work well with adult underachievers. The properties and concepts of multiplication of whole numbers must be presented as observable, fun, and practical. Finger math methods may succeed where pencil and paper fail. (SK)

  4. Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... from alone. Multiple births are up in the United States. More women are having babies after age 30 and more are taking fertility drugs. Both boost the chance of carrying more than one baby. A family history of twins also makes multiples more likely. Years ...

  5. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  6. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  7. The Building Design Advisor

    SciTech Connect

    Papamichael, K.; LaPorta, J.; Chauvet, H.; Collins, D.; Trzcinski, T.; Thorpe, J.; Selkowitz, S.

    1996-03-01

    The Building Design Advisor (BDA) is a software environment that supports the integrated use of multiple analysis and visualization tools throughout the building design process, from the initial, schematic design phases to the detailed specification of building components and systems. Based on a comprehensive design theory, the BDA uses an object-oriented representation of the building and its context, and acts as a data manager and process controller to allow building designers to quickly navigate through the multitude of descriptive and performance parameters addressed by the analysis and visualization tools linked to the BDA. Through the Browser the user can edit the values of input parameters and select any number of input and/or output parameters for display in the Decision Desktop. The Desktop allows building designers to compare multiple design alternatives with respect to any number of parameters addressed by the tools linked to the BDA.

  8. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    sclerosis based on the Expanded Disability Status Scale and information about preceding relapses provides a tool for a reproducible, accurate and timely diagnosis that requires a very short confirmation period. If applied broadly, the definition has the potential to strengthen the design and improve comparability of clinical trials and observational studies in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. PMID:27401521

  9. Optimization of digital designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Sterling R. (Inventor); Miles, Lowell H. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An application specific integrated circuit is optimized by translating a first representation of its digital design to a second representation. The second representation includes multiple syntactic expressions that admit a representation of a higher-order function of base Boolean values. The syntactic expressions are manipulated to form a third representation of the digital design.

  10. Engineering Design Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammi, Matthew; Becker, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Engineering design thinking is "a complex cognitive process" including divergence-convergence, a systems perspective, ambiguity, and collaboration (Dym, Agogino, Eris, Frey, & Leifer, 2005, p. 104). Design is often complex, involving multiple levels of interacting components within a system that may be nested within or connected to other systems.…

  11. Navigation solution for a multiple satellite and multiple ground architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, Abraham M.

    This research presents the phased development of an algorithm to plan impulsive orbital maneuvers based on the relative motion between multiple satellites and multiple ground locations. The algorithm leverages the state transition matrix derived from the equations of motion and the equations of variation for the non-spherical Earth and air drag effects. The algorithm determines the impulsive maneuver to achieve the user-defined terminal conditions. The first phase solves for the first burn of an orbital transfer between user-defined altitudes. The optimum trajectory is determined and compared to the first burn in a Hohmann Transfer. The results are expanded to include varying the inclination and eccentricity of the initial orbit. The second phase solves for the minimum time trajectory resulting from a fixed fuel maneuver to transfer a satellite between user-defined altitudes. The results include the transfer time and transfer angle for the minimum time trajectory. The third phase places a satellite within a sphere, of user-defined radius, centered on a non-maneuvering satellite within a constrained time. The results are presented for prograde orbits. An empirical method to determine the optimum DeltaV is provided. The fourth phase places a satellite within the overlapping spheres, of user-defined radii, centered on multiple non-maneuvering satellites, within a constrained time. Empirical methods are presented to determine the separation distance and optimum DeltaV. The final phase culminates by delivering a satellite within the overlapping spheres, centered on multiple non-maneuvering satellites and ground locations, constrained by range and elevation angle, within a constrained time. An empirical model to calculate the optimum DeltaV is shown. All results illustrate mission design trade-offs including ballistic coefficient, orbit inclinations, eccentricity and orbit sizes.

  12. Standardized multiple output power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive program to develop a prototype model of a standardized multiple output power supply for use in space flight applications is described. The prototype unit was tested and evaluated to assure that the design would provide near optimum performance for the planned application. The prototype design used a dc-to-dc converter incorporating reqenerative current feedback with a time-ratio controlled duty cycle to achieve high efficiency over a wide variation of input voltage and output loads. The packaging concept uses a mainframe capable of accommodating up to four inverter/regulator modules with one common input filter and housekeeping module. Each inverter/regulator module provides a maximum of 100 watts or 10 amperes. Each module is adaptable to operate at any voltage between 4.0 volts and 108 volts. The prototype unit contains +5, + or - 15 and +28 volt modules.

  13. Multiple scattering tomography.

    PubMed

    Modregger, Peter; Kagias, Matias; Peter, Silvia; Abis, Matteo; Guzenko, Vitaliy A; David, Christian; Stampanoni, Marco

    2014-07-11

    Multiple scattering represents a challenge for numerous modern tomographic imaging techniques. In this Letter, we derive an appropriate line integral that allows for the tomographic reconstruction of angular resolved scattering distributions, even in the presence of multiple scattering. The line integral is applicable to a wide range of imaging techniques utilizing various kinds of probes. Here, we use x-ray grating interferometry to experimentally validate the framework and to demonstrate additional structural sensitivity, which exemplifies the impact of multiple scattering tomography. PMID:25062159

  14. Multiple myeloma and physical activity: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Lee; McCourt, Orla; Henrich, Malgorzata; Paton, Bruce; Yong, Kwee; Wardle, Jane; Fisher, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Multiple myeloma is the second most common haematological cancer. A growing body of literature is emerging that investigates the role physical activity plays in all stages of multiple myeloma (prevention and survivorship) and to date no attempt has been made to collate and understand this literature. Therefore, this scoping review aims to (1) outline what is already known about physical activity in all stages of multiple myeloma (2) map the literature on physical activity and multiple myeloma and (3) identify future directions for research. Design Scoping Review. Data Sources Searches were carried out in May 2015. Searchers were conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTdiscus and MEDLINE. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies To be included studies had to report original data, investigate physical activity per se or physical activity correlates and multiple myeloma or smouldering multiple myeloma. Results A total of 19 papers received full screening, 5 of these papers were excluded. This review identified three journal articles relating to the role of physical activity in the prevention of multiple myeloma, nine papers were identified in the treatment of multiple myeloma and two on smouldering multiple myeloma. Conclusions The search identified that the literature surrounding multiple myeloma and physical activity is very limited. We encourage those designing new cohort studies to allow for future assessment of associations between physical activity and onset of multiple myeloma and smouldering multiple myeloma, as well as the potential role that physical activity plays in the progression from smouldering multiple myeloma to multiple myeloma. Second, we encourage the design and investigation of gender and treatment-specific physical activity interventions in patients with multiple myeloma. Finally, we highlight the need for more randomised controlled trials to evaluate the impact of different types, frequencies and intensities of physical activity

  15. Taking multiple medicines safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000883.htm Taking multiple medicines safely To use the sharing features on this ... directed. Why you may Need More Than one Medicine You may take more than one medicine to ...

  16. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  17. Multiple Myeloma Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... is slightly more common in men than in women. It can often run in families. Multiple myeloma is also more common in blacks than in whites. Some studies suggest that workers in agriculture or petroleum-based industries may be ...

  18. Pomalidomide for Multiple Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a phase III trial that compared the combination of pomalidomide (Pomalyst®) and low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone alone in patients with multiple myeloma that has progressed despite other treatments.

  19. Multiple duty battery

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, F.S.; Hyland, A.L.

    1980-05-20

    A laminar battery capable of providing multiple currents and capacities at different voltages is described in which electrical access is provided to intermediate cells in the battery by conductive metal terminal layers incorporated in the structure of the battery.

  20. Multiple Turbo Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    A description is given of multiple turbo codes and a suitable decoder structure derived from an approximation to the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decision rule, which is substantially different from the decoder for two-code-based encoders.

  1. Familial multiple lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Dolph, J L; Demuth, R J; Miller, S H

    1980-10-01

    The literature on familial multiple lipomatosis is reviewed, and a striking case is described. The associated family history is outlined. Excisional biopsy is advocated when there is doubt in terms of diagnosis, pain, or functional impairment. PMID:7208678

  2. The Multiplicative Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between three critical elements, and the associated mathematical language, to assist students to make the critical transition from additive to multiplicative thinking are examined in this article by Chris Hurst.

  3. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN,M.T; PONCE,D; GRUNLOH,H.J; ELLIS,R.A; GROSNICKLE,W.H; HUMPHREY,R.L

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future.

  4. Multiple beam ptychography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, Robert; Bevis, Charles; Lopez-Rios, Raymond; Reichanadter, Jonathan; Gardner, Dennis F.; Porter, Christina; Shanblatt, Elisabeth; Tanksalvala, Michael; Mancini, Giulia F.; Murnane, Margaret; Kapteyn, Henry; Adams, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    We present an extension to ptychography that allows simultaneous deconvolution of multiple, spatially separate, illuminating probes. This enables an increased field of view and hence, an increase in imaging throughput, without increased exposure times. This technique can be used for any non-interfering probes: demonstrated with multiple wavelengths and orthogonal polarizations. The latter of which gives us spatially resolved polarization spectroscopy from a single scan.

  5. Quality in School Environments: A Multiple Case Study of the Diagnosis, Design and Management of Environmental Quality in Five Elementary Schools in the Baltimore City Public Schools from an Action Research Perspective. Volumes I and II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lackney, Jeffery A.

    Environmental factors are being increasingly recognized as playing a role in school effectiveness and educational outcomes. Volume 1 examines what is known concerning the diagnosis, design, and management of environmental quality in schools, and the perceived relationship between environmental quality and educational outcomes, as revealed in an…

  6. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, H.K. Jr.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means for separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means. 7 figs.

  7. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means or separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means.

  8. Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models

    PubMed Central

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  9. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.

    PubMed

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Carter, Randy L; Cullings, Harry M; Carroll, Raymond J

    2014-11-10

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  10. Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker

    1998-11-01

    This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.

  11. Advanced Multiple Processor Configuration Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clymer, S. J.

    This summary of a study on multiple processor configurations includes the objectives, background, approach, and results of research undertaken to provide the Air Force with a generalized model of computer processor combinations for use in the evaluation of proposed flight training simulator computational designs. An analysis of a real-time flight…

  12. Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Automated Functions, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    This final report describes the design, development, and testing of the Multiple Output Sensory Trainer (MOST), a computer-based system which enables the evaluation of students with visual impairments to determine the optimal combination of sensory adaptive aids to meet their needs. The system uses multimedia devices in conjunction with customized…

  13. Multiple-reflection conical microwave antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Conical-Gregorian antenna concept, using conical reflector, promises excellent rf performance and offers potential advantages in areas of mechanical and structural design, surface measurement, and in furlability. Multiple reflection scheme between one or more subreflectors and main reflector is utilized. Subreflector can be reduced to as little as 0.1 the diameter of main reflector.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: multiple sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions multiple sclerosis multiple sclerosis Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Multiple sclerosis is a condition characterized by areas of damage ( ...

  15. Design analysis of phosphor-free monolithic white light-emitting-diodes with InGaN/ InGaN multiple quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, Yu Kee; Zhang, Jing

    2015-05-01

    Phosphor-free monolithic white light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on InGaN/ InGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on ternary InGaN substrates are proposed and analyzed in this study. Simulation studies show that LED devices composed of multi-color-emitting InGaN/ InGaN quantum wells (QWs) employing ternary InGaN substrate with engineered active region exhibit stable white color illumination with large output power (˜ 170 mW) and high external quantum efficiency (EQE) (˜ 50%). The chromaticity coordinate for the investigated monolithic white LED devices are located at (0.30, 0.28) with correlated color temperature (CCT) of ˜ 8200 K at J = 50 A/cm2. A reference LED device without any nanostructure engineering exhibits green color emission shows that proper engineered structure is essential to achieve white color illumination. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that high-efficiency and cost-effective phosphor-free monolithic white LED is feasible by the use of InGaN/ InGaN MQWs on ternary InGaN substrate combined with nanostructure engineering, which would be of great impact for solid state lighting.

  16. Design analysis of phosphor-free monolithic white light-emitting-diodes with InGaN/ InGaN multiple quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ooi, Yu Kee Zhang, Jing

    2015-05-15

    Phosphor-free monolithic white light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on InGaN/ InGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) on ternary InGaN substrates are proposed and analyzed in this study. Simulation studies show that LED devices composed of multi-color-emitting InGaN/ InGaN quantum wells (QWs) employing ternary InGaN substrate with engineered active region exhibit stable white color illumination with large output power (∼ 170 mW) and high external quantum efficiency (EQE) (∼ 50%). The chromaticity coordinate for the investigated monolithic white LED devices are located at (0.30, 0.28) with correlated color temperature (CCT) of ∼ 8200 K at J = 50 A/cm{sup 2}. A reference LED device without any nanostructure engineering exhibits green color emission shows that proper engineered structure is essential to achieve white color illumination. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that high-efficiency and cost-effective phosphor-free monolithic white LED is feasible by the use of InGaN/ InGaN MQWs on ternary InGaN substrate combined with nanostructure engineering, which would be of great impact for solid state lighting.

  17. Multiple sclerosis and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bodiguel, E; Bensa, C; Brassat, D; Laplaud, D; Le Page, E; Ouallet, J-C; Zephir, H; De Seze, J

    2014-04-01

    The question of pregnancy in patients with multiple sclerosis is regularly raised due to the prevalence of the disease in middle age women. The multiple sclerosis think tank (Groupe de Réflexion sur la Sclérose en Plaques [GRESEP]) decided to develop recommendations on this issue, with consideration to both the impact of multiple sclerosis on pregnancy, and that of pregnancy on the disease. As with topics of previous works, the formal expert consensus method was used. The working group was composed of hospital-based and private practice neurologists. The reading group was composed of neurologists, anaesthetists and obstetricians. Each recommendation is presented with the relevant level of consensus. PMID:24684929

  18. Multiplicities of dihedral discriminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Daniel C.

    1992-04-01

    Given the discriminant {d_k} of a quadratic field k, the number of cyclic relative extensions N\\vert k of fixed odd prime degree p with dihedral absolute Galois group of order 2p, which share a common conductor f, is called the multiplicity of the dihedral discriminant {d_N} = {f^{2(p - 1)}}d_k^p . In this paper, general formulas for multiplicities of dihedral discriminants are derived by analyzing the p-rank of the ring class group mod f of k. For the special case p = 3,{d_k} = - 3 , an elementary proof is given additionally. The theory is illustrated by a discussion of all known discriminants of multiplicity ≥ 5 of totally real and complex cubic fields.

  19. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger; Esposito, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  20. Immunopathology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dendrou, Calliope A; Fugger, Lars; Friese, Manuel A

    2015-09-15

    Two decades of clinical experience with immunomodulatory treatments for multiple sclerosis point to distinct immunological pathways that drive disease relapses and progression. In light of this, we discuss our current understanding of multiple sclerosis immunopathology, evaluate long-standing hypotheses regarding the role of the immune system in the disease and delineate key questions that are still unanswered. Recent and anticipated advances in the field of immunology, and the increasing recognition of inflammation as an important component of neurodegeneration, are shaping our conceptualization of disease pathophysiology, and we explore the potential implications for improved healthcare provision to patients in the future. PMID:26250739

  1. Neutron multiplicity analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Scott L

    2010-01-01

    I describe the capabilities of the EXCOM (EXcel based COincidence and Multiplicity) calculation tool which is used to analyze experimental data or simulated neutron multiplicity data. The input to the program is the count-rate data (including the multiplicity distribution) for a measurement, the isotopic composition of the sample and relevant dates. The program carries out deadtime correction and background subtraction and then performs a number of analyses. These are: passive calibration curve, known alpha and multiplicity analysis. The latter is done with both the point model and with the weighted point model. In the current application EXCOM carries out the rapid analysis of Monte Carlo calculated quantities and allows the user to determine the magnitude of sample perturbations that lead to systematic errors. Neutron multiplicity counting is an assay method used in the analysis of plutonium for safeguards applications. It is widely used in nuclear material accountancy by international (IAEA) and national inspectors. The method uses the measurement of the correlations in a pulse train to extract information on the spontaneous fission rate in the presence of neutrons from ({alpha},n) reactions and induced fission. The measurement is relatively simple to perform and gives results very quickly ({le} 1 hour). By contrast, destructive analysis techniques are extremely costly and time consuming (several days). By improving the achievable accuracy of neutron multiplicity counting, a nondestructive analysis technique, it could be possible to reduce the use of destructive analysis measurements required in safeguards applications. The accuracy of a neutron multiplicity measurement can be affected by a number of variables such as density, isotopic composition, chemical composition and moisture in the material. In order to determine the magnitude of these effects on the measured plutonium mass a calculational tool, EXCOM, has been produced using VBA within Excel. This

  2. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  3. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  4. [Hypersomnia in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Schlüter, B; Aguigah, G; Andler, W

    1996-01-01

    A 13-year-old girl presented with hyersomnia and incontinence of urine. The clinical course was complicated by strabism, muscle weakness and coordination and balance disturbances. VEP recording were pathologic. Myelin basic protein in the cerebrospinal fluid was elevated. Nuclear resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple areas of demyelination. These findings supported the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. There was a marked disturbance of the sleep-waking-pattern during the acute phase of the illness. The hypnogram resembled the pattern of polysymptomatic narcolepsy. Regression of symptoms was noted with dexamethasone therapy. PMID:8676595

  5. Multiple pterygium syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, H; Chang, C H; Misra, R P; Peters, H A; Grijalva, N S; Opitz, J M

    1980-01-01

    We describe a sporadic case and four sibs from a consanguineous Nicaraguan family affected with the multiple pterygium syndrome. Clinical manifestations included normal intelligence; short stature; pterygia of neck, axillary, antecubital, popliteal, digital, and intercrural areas; multiple joint contractures with a crouched stance; a flat, sad, motionless facial appearance; and cleft palate. Males had small penis and scrotum and cryptorchidism; females had apparent aplasia of labia majora and small clitoris. Skeletal anomalies included fusion of cervical vertebrae, scoliosis, flexion contractures of fingers and "rocker-bottom" feet with vertical talus. This review documents genetic heterogeneity: Autosomal recessive inheritance in many cases, autosomal dominant determination in others, and sporadic occurrence. PMID:7468651

  6. Problems of multiple transfusions.

    PubMed

    GARDNER, F H

    1958-02-01

    The use of blood infusion in large amounts is increasing sharply. Increased knowledge of blood group antigens has alerted physicians to the possible hazards of hemolytic reactions to subgroups that must be eliminated by proper cross-matching techniques. Multiple transfusions of preserved blood often defeat their purpose in control of bleeding, for thrombocytopenia is enhanced. Careful selection of blood or preparations of plasma concentrates offer increased protection to the recipient.Plastic bag equipment increases the yield of viable platelets and keeps blood in usable condition for longer periods of storage. The use of multiple transfusions has complicated the selection of preserved blood to control pigment metabolism. PMID:13500210

  7. Characterization of on-body communication channel and energy efficient topology design for wireless body area networks.

    PubMed

    Reusens, Elisabeth; Joseph, Wout; Latré, Benoît; Braem, Bart; Vermeeren, Günter; Tanghe, Emmeric; Martens, Luc; Moerman, Ingrid; Blondia, Chris

    2009-11-01

    Wireless body area networks (WBANs) offer many promising new applications in the area of remote health monitoring. An important element in the development of a WBAN is the characterization of the physical layer of the network, including an estimation of the delay spread and the path loss between two nodes on the body. This paper discusses the propagation channel between two half-wavelength dipoles at 2.45 GHz, placed near a human body and presents an application for cross-layer design in order to optimize the energy consumption of different topologies. Propagation measurements are performed on real humans in a multipath environment, considering different parts of the body separately. In addition, path loss has been numerically investigated with an anatomically correct model of the human body in free space using a 3-D electromagnetic solver. Path loss parameters and time-domain channel characteristics are extracted from the measurement and simulation data. A semi-empirical path loss model is presented for an antenna height above the body of 5 mm and antenna separations from 5 cm up to 40 cm. A time-domain analysis is performed and models are presented for the mean excess delay and the delay spread. As a cross-layer application, the proposed path loss models are used to evaluate the energy efficiency of single-hop and multihop network topologies. PMID:19789118

  8. Managing Multiple Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePascale, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of how one might feel about the recent developments in teacher evaluation systems, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and adequate yearly progress (AYP), or student assessments for high-stakes promotion decisions, educators overwhelmingly agree that use of multiple measures is better than reliance on a single measure such as a large-scale,…

  9. Core Multiplication in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2010-01-01

    A dedicated, non-symbolic, system yielding imprecise representations of large quantities (approximate number system, or ANS) has been shown to support arithmetic calculations of addition and subtraction. In the present study, 5-7-year-old children without formal schooling in multiplication and division were given a task requiring a scalar…

  10. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Cancer.gov

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  11. Multiple brain abscesses.

    PubMed

    Burke, L P; Ho, S U; Cerullo, L J; Kim, K S; Harter, D H

    1981-12-01

    A young woman with 12 separate brain abscesses was treated medically after aspiration of one abscess for diagnostic bacteriological examination. She made an excellent recovery with only minimal residual neurological dysfunction. Surgical aspiration for detailed bacteriological studies followed by appropriate antimicrobial therapy is an effective way of treating multiple brain abscesses in the neurologically stable patient. PMID:7330768

  12. Multiple primary bronchogenic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yang, X; Ji, H; Paljarvi, L; Soimakallio, S

    1996-07-01

    Multiple primary bronchogenic carcinomas (MPBCa) are extremely rare. The differentiation of a MPBCa from a pulmonary metastasis due to an extrathoracic neoplasm is sometimes difficult. We reviewed 324 pathologically proved primary pulmonary carcinomas and found six cases of MPBCa (1.9%). We herewith present the series and discuss the diagnosis of MPBCa. PMID:21594435

  13. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  14. Multiple Cutaneous Reticulohistiocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Hemmady, Karishma D; Someshwar, Shylaja S; Jerajani, Hemangi R

    2016-01-01

    Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized in its full form by severe destructive arthritis, cutaneous nodules, and systemic manifestations. Cutaneous lesions may precede, accompany, or more commonly develop later than other features in this disease. We describe a case of multiple cutaneous reticulohistiocytoma without any systemic associations after thorough investigations. PMID:26955136

  15. Universality of particle multiplicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e(+)e(-) interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  16. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

  17. Familial multiple lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Toy, Brian R

    2003-10-01

    Familial multiple lipomatosis is a rare hereditary syndrome with a proposed autosomal-dominant inheritance. A case of an 89-year-old man with this disease is presented, along with his pedigree. Clinical features, genetic evidence, and treatment options are reviewed. PMID:14594582

  18. Familial multiple lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Mohar, N

    1980-01-01

    A family genealogy, comprising four cases of familial multiple lipomatosis, making their appearance one after the other in three generations is reported. Two cases with impressive clinical features are presented in detail. This report contributes to the opinion that the disease is transmitted by the autosomal dominant route of inheritance. PMID:6162336

  19. Multiple Intelligences Meet Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhawk, Jan

    1997-01-01

    In the five years since a Trappe, Maryland elementary school put Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory into practice, students' overall achievement and confidence have risen substantially. Specialists helped teachers develop standards for grading students' art work and oral presentations. To prepare students for state assessments, written…

  20. From Disjunction to Multiplicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Maxine

    1972-01-01

    A discussion in reaction to Bell's thesis (AA 511 929) of the reflection of, and influence on, culture in art. The author focuses on literature and argues that the function of literature is to provide multiple perspectives and to influence the reader, and that this it to the good. (Author/JB)

  1. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  2. Detection algorithm for multiple rice seeds images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, F.; Ying, Y. B.

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a digital image analysis algorithm for detection of multiple rice seeds images. The rice seeds used for this study involved a hybrid rice seed variety. Images of multiple rice seeds were acquired with a machine vision system for quality inspection of bulk rice seeds, which is designed to inspect rice seeds on a rotating disk with a CCD camera. Combining morphological operations and parallel processing gave improvements in accuracy, and a reduction in computation time. Using image features selected based on classification ability; a highly acceptable defects classification was achieved when the algorithm was implemented for all the samples to test the adaptability.

  3. Multiple Trajectories of Successful Aging of Older and Younger Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Jones, Bobby L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to apply group-based trajectory analysis to identify multiple successful aging trajectories by multiple indicators and to examine the factors related to successful aging among the elderly population in Taiwan. Design and Methods: Nation-representative longitudinal data collected from 1993 to 2007 and…

  4. ID Model Construction and Validation: A Multiple Intelligences Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracey, Monica W.; Richey, Rita C.

    2007-01-01

    This is a report of a developmental research study that aimed to construct and validate an instructional design (ID) model that incorporates the theory and practice of multiple intelligences (MI). The study consisted of three phases. In phase one, the theoretical foundations of multiple Intelligences and ID were examined to guide the development…

  5. Prospective Elementary Teachers Making Sense of Multidigit Multiplication: Leveraging Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitacre, Ian; Nickerson, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how collective activity related to multiplication evolved over several class sessions in an elementary mathematics content course that was designed to foster prospective elementary teachers' number-sense development. We document how the class drew on as-if-shared ideas to make sense of multidigit multiplication in terms of…

  6. Learning Multiplication Using Indonesian Traditional Game in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prahmana, Rully Charitas Indra; Zulkardi; Hartono, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Several previous researches showed that students had difficulty in understanding the basic concept of multiplication. Students are more likely to be introduced by using formula without involving the concept itself. This underlies the researcher to design a learning trajectory of learning multiplication using Permainan Tradisional Tepuk Bergambar…

  7. Usage of Multiple-Choice Examinations in Chemical Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommerfeld, Jude T.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses rationale for and use of multiple choice examinations in material balances, unit operations, reactor design, and process control courses. Describes computer scoring of student reaction to, and future plans for these examinations. (SK)

  8. Portable multiplicity counter

    DOEpatents

    Newell, Matthew R.; Jones, David Carl

    2009-09-01

    A portable multiplicity counter has signal input circuitry, processing circuitry and a user/computer interface disposed in a housing. The processing circuitry, which can comprise a microcontroller integrated circuit operably coupled to shift register circuitry implemented in a field programmable gate array, is configured to be operable via the user/computer interface to count input signal pluses receivable at said signal input circuitry and record time correlations thereof in a total counting mode, coincidence counting mode and/or a multiplicity counting mode. The user/computer interface can be for example an LCD display/keypad and/or a USB interface. The counter can include a battery pack for powering the counter and low/high voltage power supplies for biasing external detectors so that the counter can be configured as a hand-held device for counting neutron events.

  9. Multiple zeros of polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    For polynomials of higher degree, iterative numerical methods must be used. Four iterative methods are presented for approximating the zeros of a polynomial using a digital computer. Newton's method and Muller's method are two well known iterative methods which are presented. They extract the zeros of a polynomial by generating a sequence of approximations converging to each zero. However, both of these methods are very unstable when used on a polynomial which has multiple zeros. That is, either they fail to converge to some or all of the zeros, or they converge to very bad approximations of the polynomial's zeros. This material introduces two new methods, the greatest common divisor (G.C.D.) method and the repeated greatest common divisor (repeated G.C.D.) method, which are superior methods for numerically approximating the zeros of a polynomial having multiple zeros. These methods were programmed in FORTRAN 4 and comparisons in time and accuracy are given.

  10. Multiple muons in MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  11. Multiple Osteolytic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Several systemic diseases initially present with various oral manifestations. Investigation of these oral symptoms may at times lead to the diagnosis of grave underlying life-threatening conditions. We present one such case, where the patient manifested with gross enlargement of the mandible, along with lesions in the lower limbs. These lesions were the initial manifestation and on further investigations the patient was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. PMID:24516769

  12. Multiple Miniature Avionic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rye, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Dorneich, Michael C. (Inventor); Gannon, Aaron J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A display screen for displaying multiple sets of information is provided. In one embodiment, an aviation display screen includes a main window and a plurality of miniature windows. The main window is adapted to illustrate one set of information. Each miniature window is adapted to display a set of avionic information. The avionic display is further adapted to toggle a select set of avionic information in one of the miniature windows into the main window.

  13. Multiple linear regression.

    PubMed

    Eberly, Lynn E

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes multiple linear regression, a statistical approach used to describe the simultaneous associations of several variables with one continuous outcome. Important steps in using this approach include estimation and inference, variable selection in model building, and assessing model fit. The special cases of regression with interactions among the variables, polynomial regression, regressions with categorical (grouping) variables, and separate slopes models are also covered. Examples in microbiology are used throughout. PMID:18450050

  14. Universality of particle multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K. |

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  15. Multiple symmetric lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, M S; Lee, M H; Hur, K B

    1988-12-01

    Multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL) is an extremely uncommon disorder. In the medical literatures about 200 cases have been reported. MSL is not associated with other generalized lipomatous disorders, nor are these patient to be necessarily obese. The cause of MSL is unknown. The disorder usually occurs in middle-aged males and there is frequently a history of alcoholism. Some instances of familial occurrence have been reported, but the majority of cases are sporadic. Two cases of MSL are presented. PMID:3267365

  16. Familial multiple lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Rabbiosi, G; Borroni, G; Scuderi, N

    1977-01-01

    A clinical study was made of 14 cases of multiple symmetrical lipomata in two families. There were 7 female and 7 male patients. In one family the members affected were observed in four generations. The disease set in during the third or fourth decade of life. The lipomata ranged in size from that of a pea to that of a hen's egg. They were limited to the forearms and trunk were asymptomatic. PMID:71835

  17. Pregnancy and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Airas, Laura; Kaaja, Risto

    2012-01-01

    The relapse rate of multiple sclerosis (MS) is typically reduced during late pregnancy but increases in the postpartum period. The reasons for the increased postpartum activity are not entirely clear, but factors such as the abrupt decrease in oestrogen levels immediately after the delivery and the loss of the immunosuppressive state of pregnancy are likely of importance. There is a general view that MS does not affect the course or outcome of pregnancy.

  18. Multiple quantum coherence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Nathan A; Yurs, Lena A; Block, Stephen B; Pakoulev, Andrei V; Kornau, Kathryn M; Wright, John C

    2009-08-20

    Multiple quantum coherences provide a powerful approach for studies of complex systems because increasing the number of quantum states in a quantum mechanical superposition state increases the selectivity of a spectroscopic measurement. We show that frequency domain multiple quantum coherence multidimensional spectroscopy can create these superposition states using different frequency excitation pulses. The superposition state is created using two excitation frequencies to excite the symmetric and asymmetric stretch modes in a rhodium dicarbonyl chelate and the dynamic Stark effect to climb the vibrational ladders involving different overtone and combination band states. A monochromator resolves the free induction decay of different coherences comprising the superposition state. The three spectral dimensions provide the selectivity required to observe 19 different spectral features associated with fully coherent nonlinear processes involving up to 11 interactions with the excitation fields. The different features act as spectroscopic probes of the diagonal and off-diagonal parts of the molecular potential energy hypersurface. This approach can be considered as a coherent pump-probe spectroscopy where the pump is a series of excitation pulses that prepares a multiple quantum coherence and the probe is another series of pulses that creates the output coherence. PMID:19507812

  19. Multiple Core Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R.H.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Nuclei of galaxies often show complicated density structures and perplexing kinematic signatures. In the past we have reported numerical experiments indicating a natural tendency for galaxies to show nuclei offset with respect to nearby isophotes and for the nucleus to have a radial velocity different from the galaxy's systemic velocity. Other experiments show normal mode oscillations in galaxies with large amplitudes. These oscillations do not damp appreciably over a Hubble time. The common thread running through all these is that galaxies often show evidence of ringing, bouncing, or sloshing around in unexpected ways, even though they have not been disturbed by any external event. Recent observational evidence shows yet another phenomenon indicating the dynamical complexity of central regions of galaxies: multiple cores (M31, Markarian 315 and 463 for example). These systems can hardly be static. We noted long-lived multiple core systems in galaxies in numerical experiments some years ago, and we have more recently followed up with a series of experiments on multiple core galaxies, starting with two cores. The relevant parameters are the energy in the orbiting clumps, their relative.masses, the (local) strength of the potential well representing the parent galaxy, and the number of cores. We have studied the dependence of the merger rates and the nature of the final merger product on these parameters. Individual cores survive much longer in stronger background potentials. Cores can survive for a substantial fraction of a Hubble time if they travel on reasonable orbits.

  20. Design Of Robots For Outer Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roston, Gerald P.

    1990-01-01

    Report discusses design of robots for use in zero gravity and vacuum, with attention to differences between requirements imposed on designs by outer space and by terrestrial applications. Terrestrial robots designed for multiple purposes and for minimal cost. Outer-space robots designed specialized to one task where cost has relatively low priority. Design optimal in one environment unlikely optimal in another.