Science.gov

Sample records for multiple foodborne pathogens

  1. Development of an oligonucleotide-based microarray to detect multiple foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni are considered important foodborne bacterial pathogens causing the most food-related human illnesses worldwide. Current methods for pathogen detection have limitations in effectively identifying multiple foodb...

  2. Development of an oligonucleotide-based microarray to detect multiple foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni are considered important human pathogens causing the most food-related human illnesses worldwide. Current methods for pathogen detection have limitations in effectively identifying multiple foodborne patho...

  3. The Evolution of Foodborne Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Ali, Galeb S.; Manning, Shannon D.

    Despite continuous advances in food safety and disease surveillance, control, and prevention, foodborne bacterial infections remain a major public health concern. Because foodborne pathogens are commonly exposed to multiple environmental stressors, such as low pH and antibiotics, most have evolved specific mechanisms to facilitate survival in adverse environments.

  4. Emerging foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emergence of new foodborne pathogens is due to a number of factors. An important factor is the globalization of the food supply with the possibility of the introduction of foodborne pathogens from other countries. Animal husbandry, food production, food processing, and food distribution system...

  5. Ultrasensitive detection and rapid identification of multiple foodborne pathogens with the naked eyes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Yali; Lin, Yankui; Liang, Tongwen; Chen, Zhihua; Li, Jinfeng; Yue, Zhenfeng; Lv, Jingzhang; Jiang, Qing; Yi, Changqing

    2015-09-15

    In this study, a novel approach for ultrasensitive detection and rapid high-throughput identification of a panel of common foodborne pathogens with the naked eyes is presented. As a proof-of-concept application, a multiple pathogen analysis array is fabricated through immobilizing three specific polyT-capture probes which can respectively recognize rfbE gene (Escherichia coli O157:H7), invA gene (Salmonella enterica), inlA gene (Listeria monocytogenes) on the plastic substrates. PCR has been developed for amplification and labeling target genes of rfbE, invA, inlA with biotin. The biotinated target DNA is then captured onto the surface of plastic strips through specific DNA hybridization. The succeeding staining of biotinated DNA duplexes with avidin-horseradish peroxidise (AV-HRP) and biotinated anti-HRP antibody greatly amplifies the detectable signal through the multiple cycle signal amplification strategy, and thus realizing ultrasensitive and specific detection of the above three pathogens in food samples with the naked eyes. Results showed approximately 5 copies target pathogenic DNA could be detected with the naked eyes. This simple but very efficient colorimetric assay also show excellent anti-interference capability and good stability, and can be readily applied to point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:25909338

  6. Proteomics of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagerquist, Clifton K.

    This chapter is intended to be a relatively brief overview of proteomic techniques currently in use for the identification and analysis of microorganisms with a special emphasis on foodborne pathogens. The chapter is organized as follows. First, proteomic techniques are introduced and discussed. Second, proteomic applications are presented specifically as they relate to the identification and qualitative/quantitative analysis of foodborne pathogens.

  7. Bacteriophage biocontrol of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Mustafa; Annapure, Uday S

    2016-03-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect bacterial cells. Phages are categorized based on the type of their life cycle, the lytic cycle cause lysis of the bacterium with the release of multiple phage particles where as in lysogenic phase the phage DNA is incorporated into the bacterial genome. Lysogeny does not result in lysis of the host. Lytic phages have several potential applications in the food industry as biocontrol agents, biopreservatives and as tools for detecting pathogens. They have also been proposed as alternatives to antibiotics in animal health. Two unique features of phage relevant for food safety are that they are harmless to mammalian cells and high host specificity, keeping the natural microbiota undisturbed. However, the recent approval of bacteriophages as food additives has opened the discussion about 'edible viruses'. This article reviews in detail the application of phages for the control of foodborne pathogens in a process known as "biocontrol". PMID:27570260

  8. OVERVIEW OF FOODBORNE PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, an estimated 76 million cases of foodborne illness resulting in 325,000 hospitalizations and ~5,000 deaths occur annually. Of these the etiology or known cause is recognized for 14 million or ~20% of cases. In other words, the cause is unknown for 80% of these events. Viruse...

  9. Proteomics of foodborne bacterial pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter focuses on recent research on foodborne bacterial pathogens that use mass spectrometry-based proteomic techniques as well as protein microarrays. Mass spectrometry ionization techniques (e.g. electrospray ionization and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization), analyzers (e.g. ion ...

  10. Development of a DNA macroarray for simultaneous detection of multiple foodborne pathogenic bacteria in fresh chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Kupradit, Chanida; Rodtong, Sureelak; Ketudat-Cairns, Mariena

    2013-12-01

    A DNA macroarray was developed to provide the ability to detect multiple foodborne pathogens in fresh chicken meat. Probes targeted to the 16S rRNA and genus- and species-specific genes, including fimY, ipaH, prfA, and uspA, were selected for the specific detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli, respectively. The combination of target gene amplification by PCR and a DNA macroarray in our system was able to distinguish all target bacteria from pure cultures with a detection sensitivity of 10⁵ c.f.u. ml⁻¹. The DNA macroarray was also applied to 10 fresh chicken meat samples. The assay validation demonstrated that by combining the enrichment steps for the target bacteria and the DNA macroarray, all 4 target bacteria could be detected simultaneously from the fresh chicken samples. The sensitivity of L. monocytogenes and Shigella boydii detection in the fresh chicken samples was at least 10 and 3 c.f.u. of the initial contamination in 25 g samples, respectively. The advantages of our developed protocol are high accuracy and time reduction when compared to conventional culture. The macroarray developed in our investigation was cost effective compared to modern oligonucleotide microarray techniques because there was no expensive equipment required for the detection of multiple foodborne pathogens. PMID:23754709

  11. Real Time Detection of Foodborne Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velusamy, V.; Arshak, K.; Korostynka, O.; Vaseashta, Ashok; Adley, C.

    Contamination of foods by harmful bacteria by natural events or malicious intent poses a serious threat to public health and safety. This review introduces current technologies in detecting pathogens in food and foodborne illnesses. Causes of foodborne diseases and trends impacting foodborne diseases such as globalization and changes in micro-organisms, human populations, lifestyles, and climates are addressed. In addition, a review of the limitations in detecting pathogens with conventional technologies is presented. Finally, a review of nanostructured and nanomaterials based sensing technologies by pathogen, detection limits, and advantages is described.

  12. Foodborne pathogen detection using hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogens can cause various diseases and even death when humans consume foods contaminated with microbial pathogens. Traditional culture-based direct plating methods are still the “gold standard” for presumptive-positive pathogen screening. Although considerable research has been devoted t...

  13. Advances in subtyping methods of foodborne disease pathogens.

    PubMed

    Boxrud, Dave

    2010-04-01

    Current subtyping methods for the detection of foodborne disease outbreaks have limitations that reduce their use by public health laboratories. Recent advances in subtyping of foodborne disease pathogens utilize techniques that identify nucleic acid polymorphisms. Recent methods of nucleic acid characterization such as microarrays and mass spectrometry (MS) may provide improvements such as increasing speed and data portability while decreasing labor compared to current methods. This article discusses multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, nucleic acid sequencing, whole genome sequencing, variable absent or present loci, microarrays and MS as potential subtyping methods to enhance our ability to detect foodborne disease outbreaks. PMID:20299203

  14. Intervention strategies for control of foodborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juneja, Vijay K.

    2004-03-01

    The increasing numbers of illnesses associated with foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, has renewed concerns about food safety because of consumer preferences for minimally processed foods that offer convenience in availability and preparation. Accordingly, the need for better control of foodborne pathogens has been paramount in recent years. Mechanical removal of microorganisms from food can be accomplished by centrifugation, filtration, trimming and washing. Cleaning and sanitation strategies can be used for minimizing the access of microorganisms in foods from various sources. Other strategies for control of foodborne pathogens include established physical microbiocidal treatments such as ionizing radiation and heating. Research has continued to demonstrate that food irradiation is a suitable process to control and possibly eliminate foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, from a number of raw and cooked meat and poultry products. Heat treatment is the most common method in use today for the inactivation of microorganisms. Microorganisms can also be destroyed by nonthermal treatments, such as application of high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric fields, oscillating magnetic fields or a combination of physical processes such as heat-irradiation, or heat-high hydrostatic pressure, etc. Each of the non-thermal technologies has specific applications in terms of the types of food that can be processed. Both conventional and newly developed physical treatments can be used in combination for controlling foodborne pathogens and enhancing the safety and shelf life of foods. Recent research has focused on combining traditional preservation factors with emerging intervention technologies. However, many key issues still need to be addressed for combination preservation factors or technologies to be useful in the food industry to meet public demands for foods with enhanced safety

  15. Modern approaches in probiotics research to control foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Bhunia, Arun K

    2012-01-01

    Foodborne illness is a serious public health concern. There are over 200 known microbial, chemical, and physical agents that are known to cause foodborne illness. Efforts are made for improved detection, control and prevention of foodborne pathogen in food, and pathogen associated diseases in the host. Several commonly used approaches to control foodborne pathogens include antibiotics, natural antimicrobials, bacteriophages, bacteriocins, ionizing radiations, and heat. In addition, probiotics offer a potential intervention strategy for the prevention and control of foodborne infections. This review focuses on the use of probiotics and bioengineered probiotics to control foodborne pathogens, their antimicrobial actions, and their delivery strategies. Although probiotics have been demonstrated to be effective in antagonizing foodborne pathogens, challenges exist in the characterization and elucidation of underlying molecular mechanisms of action and in the development of potential delivery strategies that could maintain the viability and functionality of the probiotic in the target organ. PMID:23034117

  16. Application of bacteriophages for detection of foodborne pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Schmelcher, Mathias; Loessner, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of food products presents a challenge for the food industry and poses a high risk for the consumer. Despite increasing awareness and improved hygiene measures, foodborne pathogens remain a threat for public health, and novel methods for detection of these organisms are needed. Bacteriophages represent ideal tools for diagnostic assays because of their high target cell specificity, inherent signal-amplifying properties, easy and inexpensive production, and robustness. Every stage of the phage lytic multiplication cycle, from the initial recognition of the host cell to the final lysis event, may be harnessed in several ways for the purpose of bacterial detection. Besides intact phage particles, phage-derived affinity molecules such as cell wall binding domains and receptor binding proteins can serve for this purpose. This review provides an overview of existing phage-based technologies for detection of foodborne pathogens, and highlights the most recent developments in this field, with particular emphasis on phage-based biosensors. PMID:24533229

  17. An antibody microarray, in multiwell plate format, for multiplex screening of foodborne pathogenic bacteria and biomolecules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intoxication and infection caused by foodborne pathogens are important problems in the United States, and screening tests for multiple pathogen detection have been developed because food producers are known reservoirs of multiple pathogens. We developed a 96-well microplate, multiplex antibody micr...

  18. Listeria monocytogenes, a food-borne pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Farber, J M; Peterkin, P I

    1991-01-01

    The gram-positive bacterium Listeria monocytogenes is an ubiquitous, intracellular pathogen which has been implicated within the past decade as the causative organism in several outbreaks of foodborne disease. Listeriosis, with a mortality rate of about 24%, is found mainly among pregnant women, their fetuses, and immunocompromised persons, with symptoms of abortion, neonatal death, septicemia, and meningitis. Epidemiological investigations can make use of strain-typing procedures such as DNA restriction enzyme analysis or electrophoretic enzyme typing. The organism has a multifactorial virulence system, with the thiol-activated hemolysin, listeriolysin O, being identified as playing a crucial role in the organism's ability to multiply within host phagocytic cells and to spread from cell to cell. The organism occurs widely in food, with the highest incidences being found in meat, poultry, and seafood products. Improved methods for detecting and enumerating the organism in foodstuffs are now available, including those based on the use of monoclonal antibodies, DNA probes, or the polymerase chain reaction. As knowledge of the molecular and applied biology of L. monocytogenes increases, progress can be made in the prevention and control of human infection. PMID:1943998

  19. DIETARY STRATEGIES TO REDUCE FOODBORNE PATHOGENS IN PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine can carry foodborne pathogenic bacteria that cause human illness, most notably Salmonella. Slaughter facilities in the U.S. and EU reduce the horizontal and vertical spread of pathogens on carcasses and finished products. However, we can enhance the effectiveness of the post-slaughter treatm...

  20. YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA: AN IMPORTANT HUMAN FOODBORNE PATHOGEN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a Gram-negative microbe of public health importance and is under national FoodNet surveillance in the United States. The majority of human yersiniosis cases are foodborne. Consumption of dairy products (milk, ice cream), water, vegetables (tofu), and pork have been linke...

  1. AOTF hyperspectral microscope imaging for foodborne pathogenic bacteria detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method, which provides both spatial and spectral information, can be effective for foodborne pathogen detection. The acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-based HMI method can be used to characterize spectral properties of biofilms formed by Salmonella enteritidi...

  2. Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging for Detecting a Foodborne Pathogen: Campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper is concerned with the development of a hyperspectral reflectance imaging technique for detecting and identifying one of the most common foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter. Direct plating using agars is an effective tool for laboratory tests and analyses of microorganisms. The morphology (...

  3. Hyperspectral imaging using RGB color for foodborne pathogen detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the latest development of a color vision technique for detecting colonies of foodborne pathogens grown on agar plates with a hyperspectral image classification model that was developed using full hyperspectral data. The hyperspectral classification model depended on reflectance sp...

  4. Human microbiome versus food-borne pathogens: friend or foe.

    PubMed

    Josephs-Spaulding, Jonathan; Beeler, Erik; Singh, Om V

    2016-06-01

    As food safety advances, there is a great need to maintain, distribute, and provide high-quality food to a much broader consumer base. There is also an ever-growing "arms race" between pathogens and humans as food manufacturers. The human microbiome is a collective organ of microbes that have found community niches while associating with their host and other microorganisms. Humans play an important role in modifying the environment of these organisms through their life choices, especially through individual diet. The composition of an individual's diet influences the digestive system-an ecosystem with the greatest number and largest diversity of organisms currently known. Organisms living on and within food have the potential to be either friends or foes to the consumer. Maintenance of this system can have multiple benefits, but lack of maintenance can lead to a host of chronic and preventable diseases. Overall, this dynamic system is influenced by intense competition from food-borne pathogens, lifestyle, overall diet, and presiding host-associated microbiota. PMID:27102132

  5. AOTF hyperspectral microscopic imaging for foodborne pathogenic bacteria detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Bosoon; Lee, Sangdae; Yoon, Seung-Chul; Sundaram, Jaya; Windham, William R.; Hinton, Arthur, Jr.; Lawrence, Kurt C.

    2011-06-01

    Hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method which provides both spatial and spectral information can be effective for foodborne pathogen detection. The AOTF-based hyperspectral microscope imaging method can be used to characterize spectral properties of biofilm formed by Salmonella enteritidis as well as Escherichia coli. The intensity of spectral imagery and the pattern of spectral distribution varied with system parameters (integration time and gain) of HMI system. The preliminary results demonstrated determination of optimum parameter values of HMI system and the integration time must be no more than 250 ms for quality image acquisition from biofilm formed by S. enteritidis. Among the contiguous spectral imagery between 450 and 800 nm, the intensity of spectral images at 498, 522, 550 and 594 nm were distinctive for biofilm; whereas, the intensity of spectral images at 546 nm was distinctive for E. coli. For more accurate comparison of intensity from spectral images, a calibration protocol, using neutral density filters and multiple exposures, need to be developed to standardize image acquisition. For the identification or classification of unknown food pathogen samples, ground truth regions-of-interest pixels need to be selected for "spectrally pure fingerprints" for the Salmonella and E. coli species.

  6. A New Protocol to Detect Multiple Foodborne Pathogens with PCR Dipstick DNA Chromatography after a Six-Hour Enrichment Culture in a Broad-Range Food Pathogen Enrichment Broth

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Masahiro; Natori, Tatsuya; Kubota-Hayashi, Sayoko; Miyata, Machiko; Ohkusu, Kiyofumi; Kurazono, Hisao; Makino, Souichi; Ezaki, Takayuki

    2013-01-01

    A quick foodborne pathogen screening method after six-hour enrichment culture with a broad-range food pathogen enrichment broth is described. Pathogenic factors of Salmonella enterica, Shigella spp., enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli are amplified with a cocktail primer and rapid polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which finishes amplification in 30 min. The PCR amplicon was differentiated with a dipstick DNA chromatography assay in 5–10 min. Starting from a four- to six-hour enrichment culture, this assay was finished within 45 min. Detection sensitivity of this protocol was less than 2.5 CFU/25 g for S. enterica and 3.3 CFU/25 g for enterohemorrhagic E. coli in spiked ground meat experiments. PMID:24364031

  7. Rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hoorfar, J

    2011-11-01

    As food safety management further develops, microbiological testing will continue to play an important role in assessing whether Food Safety Objectives are achieved. However, traditional microbiological culture-based methods are limited, particularly in their ability to provide timely data. The present review discusses the reasons for the increasing interest in rapid methods, current developments in the field, the research needs, and the future trends. The advent of biotechnology has introduced new technologies that led to the emergence of rapid diagnostic methods and altered food testing practices. Rapid methods are comprised of many different detection technologies, including specialized enzyme substrates, antibodies and DNA, ranging from simple differential plating media to the use of sophisticated instruments. The use of non-invasive sampling techniques for live animals especially came into focus with the 1990s outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy that was linked to the human outbreak of Creutzfeldt Jakob's Disease. Serology is still an important tool in preventing foodborne pathogens to enter the human food supply through meat and milk from animals. One of the primary uses of rapid methods is for fast screening of large number of samples, where most of them are expected to be test-negative, leading to faster product release for sale. This has been the main strength of rapid methods such as real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Enrichment PCR, where a primary culture broth is tested in PCR, is the most common approach in rapid testing. Recent reports show that it is possible both to enrich a sample and enumerate by pathogen-specific real-time PCR, if the enrichment time is short. This can be especially useful in situations where food producers ask for the level of pathogen in a contaminated product. Another key issue is automation, where the key drivers are miniaturization and multiple testing, which mean that not only one instrument is flexible

  8. An integrated microfluidic biosensor for the rapid screening of foodborne pathogens by surface plasmon resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zordan, Michael D.; Grafton, Meggie M. G.; Leary, James F.

    2011-03-01

    The rapid detection of foodborne pathogens is of vital importance to keep the food supply rid of contamination. Previously we have demonstrated the design of a hybrid optical device that performs real-time surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and epi-fluorescence imaging. Additionally we have developed a biosensor array chip that is able to specifically detect the presence of two known pathogens. This biosensor detects the presence of the pathogen strains by the selective capture of whole pathogens by peptide ligands functionalized to the spots of the array. We have incorporated this biosensor array into a self contained PDMS microfluidic chip. The enclosure of the biosensor array by a PDMS microfluidic chip allows for a sample to be screened for many strains of pathogens simultaneously in a safe one time use biochip. This disposable optical biochip is inserted into with the hybrid SPR/epi-fluorescence imaging device to form an integrated system for the detection of foodborne pathogens. Using this integrated system, we can selectively detect the presence of E. coli 0157:H7 or S. enterica in a simultaneously in real-time. Additionally, we have modeled the mechanical properties of the microfluidic biochip in order to manipulate the flow conditions to achieve optimal pathogen capture by the biosensor array. We have developed an integrated system that is able to screen a sample for multiple foodborne pathogens simultaneously in a safe, rapid and label-free manner.

  9. Detection of foodborne pathogens using microarray technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assays based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are now accepted methods for rapidly confirming the presence or absence of specific pathogens in foods and other types of samples. Conventional PCR requires the use of agarose gel electrophoresis to detect the PCR product; whereas, real-time PCR c...

  10. Phage inactivation of foodborne pathogens on cooked and raw meat.

    PubMed

    Bigwood, T; Hudson, J A; Billington, C; Carey-Smith, G V; Heinemann, J A

    2008-04-01

    Phages infecting Salmonella Typhimurium PT160 and Campylobacter jejuni were added at a low or high (10 or 10(4)) multiplicity of infection (MOI) to either low or high (<100 or 10(4)cm(-2)) densities of host bacteria inoculated onto raw and cooked beef, and incubated at 5 and 24 degrees C to simulate refrigerated and room temperature storage. Counts of host bacteria were made throughout the incubation period, with phages being counted at the first and last sampling times. Host inactivation was variable and depended on the incubation conditions and food type. Significant host inactivations of the order of 2-3 log(10)cm(-2) at 5 degrees C and >5.9 log(10)cm(-2) at 24 degrees C were achieved compared to phage-free controls using the Salmonella phage under optimal conditions (high host cell density and MOI). These results alongside those already published indicate that phages may be useful in the control for foodborne pathogens. PMID:18206783

  11. Radiation inactivation of foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood products.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christopher H; Rajkowski, Kathleen T

    2011-04-01

    Foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood is, unfortunately, a regular occurrence in the United States. Ionizing (gamma) radiation can effectively inactivate microorganisms and extend the shelf life of seafood. In this study, the ability of gamma irradiation to inactivate foodborne pathogens surface inoculated onto frozen seafood (scallops, lobster meat, blue crab, swordfish, octopus, and squid) was investigated. The radiation D(10)-values (the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log unit of a microorganism) for Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella inoculated onto seafood samples that were then frozen and irradiated in the frozen state (-20°C) were 0.43 to 0.66, 0.48 to 0.71, and 0.47 to 0.70 kGy, respectively. In contrast, the radiation D(10)-value for the same pathogens suspended on frozen pork were 1.26, 0.98, and 1.18 kGy for L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and Salmonella, respectively. The radiation dose needed to inactivate these foodborne pathogens on frozen seafood is significantly lower than that for frozen meat or frozen vegetables. PMID:21477481

  12. Cronobacter (Enterobacter sakazakii): an opportunistic foodborne pathogen.

    PubMed

    Healy, Brendan; Cooney, Shane; O'Brien, Stephen; Iversen, Carol; Whyte, Paul; Nally, Jarlath; Callanan, John J; Fanning, Séamus

    2010-04-01

    Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii) are a recently described genus that is comprised of six genomospecies. The classification of these organisms was revised based on a detailed polyphasic taxonomic study. Cronobacter spp. are regarded as ubiquitous organisms having been isolated from a wide variety of foods. These bacteria are opportunistic pathogens and are linked with life-threatening infections in neonates. Clinical symptoms of Cronobacter infection include necrotizing enterocolitis, bacteremia, and meningitis, with case fatality rates of 50-80% being reported. Contaminated powdered infant formula has been epidemiologically linked with infections. Recently, infections among immunocompromised adults, mainly the elderly, have also been reported. A high tolerance to osmotic stress and elevated temperatures contribute to the survival of Cronobacter spp. in dried foods such as powdered infant formula. Controlling the organism in the production environment, thereby reducing dissemination, necessitates the provision of suitable diagnostic tools. Studies demonstrated that a high degree of variability exists amongst the phenotypic-based methods used to identify Cronobacter spp. However, advances in molecular detection and subtyping techniques have significantly improved the identification and characterization of Cronobacter spp. The dose required to induce infection has yet to be determined. In vitro virulence studies have shown that Cronobacter spp. may survive in macrophage cells and efficiently attach to and invade epithelial cell lines. The production of exopolysaccharide may contribute to the formation of biofilm and active efflux pumps promote resistance to antimicrobial agents such as bile salts and disinfectants. A holistic approach combining techniques such as comparative genome analysis, proteomics, and in vivo challenges could help unravel the complex interactions between this pathogen and its host. These data would help identify those properties in

  13. High-Throughput Biosensors for Multiplexed Food-Borne Pathogen Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehring, Andrew G.; Tu, Shu-I.

    2011-07-01

    Incidental contamination of foods by pathogenic bacteria and/or their toxins is a serious threat to public health and the global economy. The presence of food-borne pathogens and toxins must be rapidly determined at various stages of food production, processing, and distribution. Producers, processors, regulators, retailers, and public health professionals need simple and cost-effective methods to detect different species or serotypes of bacteria and associated toxins in large numbers of food samples. This review addresses the desire to replace traditional microbiological plate culture with more timely and less cumbersome rapid, biosensor-based methods. Emphasis focuses on high-throughput, multiplexed techniques that allow for simultaneous testing of numerous samples, in rapid succession, for multiple food-borne analytes (primarily pathogenic bacteria and/or toxins).

  14. THERMAL INACTIVATION OF FOODBORNE PATHOGENS AND THE USDA PATHOGEN MODELING PROGRAM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of heat to inactivate foodborne pathogens is a critical control point and the most common means of assuring the microbiological safety of processed foods. A key to optimization of the heating step is defining the target pathogens' heat resistance. Sufficient evidence exists to document tha...

  15. Innovative applications of bacteriophages in rapid detection and identification of foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relative to traditional microbiological approaches, biosensors are a rapid method for foodborne bacterial pathogen detection. Biosensors function by detecting the interaction of the target pathogen, or pathogen derived molecule, with a biological recognition component which must have sufficient aff...

  16. Gamma radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, D.W.; Boyd, G.

    1994-12-31

    Several factors have been identified that may affect the responses of foodborne pathogens to ionizing radiation. Among these are the temperature and atmosphere during the process of irradiation; the medium in which the pathogen is suspended; and the genus, species, serovar, and physiological state of the organism. In addition to these factors, variations in {open_quotes}apparent{close_quotes} radiation sensitivity of bacteria may occur because of the incubation conditions and media used to estimate the number of surviving colony-forming units. Both incubation temperature and culture media frequently affect the ability of injured bacteria to recover. Because there are so many possible variables, it is often difficult to compare data on the radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens from different studies. The objectives of the studies reported here were to compare the radiation sensitivities of Bacillus cereus on beef, beef gravy, chicken, pork, and turkey; and of Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus aureus on beef, pork, lamb, turkey breast, and turkey leg meats. Examples of the effects of serovar, irradiation temperature, growth phase, and atmosphere during irradiation were also examined.

  17. Survival of foodborne pathogens in natural cracked olive brines.

    PubMed

    Medina, Eduardo; Romero-Gil, Verónica; Garrido-Fernández, Antonio; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2016-10-01

    This work reports the survival (challenge tests) of foodborne pathogen species (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica) in Aloreña de Málaga table olive brines. The inhibitions were fit using a log-linear model with tail implemented in GInaFIT excel software. The olive brine had a considerable inhibitory effect on the pathogens. The residual (final) populations (Fp) after 24 h was below detection limit (<1.30 log10 cfu/mL) for all species assayed. The maximum death rate (kmax) was 9.98, 51.37, 38.35 and 53.01 h(-1), while the time for 4 log10 reductions (4Dr) was 0.96, 0.36, 0.36 and 0.24 h for E. coli, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes and S. enterica, respectively. Brine dilutions increased Fp and 4Dr, while decreased kmax. A cluster analysis showed that E. coli had an overall quite different behaviour being the most resistant species, but the others bacteria behaved similarly, especially S. aureus and S. enterica. Partial Least Squares regression showed that the most influential phenols on microbial survival were EDA (dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid), HyEDA (EDA linked to hydroxytyrosol), hydroxytyrosol 4-glucoside, tyrosol, and oleoside 11-methyl ester. Results confirm the adverse habitats of table olives for foodborne pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:27375250

  18. Thermal inactivation of foodborne pathogens and the USDA pathogen modeling program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of heat to inactivate foodborne pathogens is a critical control point and the most common means for assuring the microbiological safety of processed foods. A key to optimization of the heating step is defining the target pathogens’ heat resistance. Sufficient evidence exists to document th...

  19. Detection and characterization of foodborne pathogenic bacteria with hyperspectral microscope imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid detection and identification of pathogenic microorganisms naturally occurring during food processing are important in developing intervention and verification strategies. In the poultry industry, contamination of poultry meat with foodborne pathogens (especially, Salmonella and Campylobacter) ...

  20. Foodborne Illness Acquired in the United States—Major Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Robert M.; Angulo, Frederick J.; Tauxe, Robert V.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Roy, Sharon L.; Jones, Jeffery L.; Griffin, Patricia M.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of foodborne illness can be used to direct food safety policy and interventions. We used data from active and passive surveillance and other sources to estimate that each year 31 major pathogens acquired in the United States caused 9.4 million episodes of foodborne illness (90% credible interval [CrI] 6.6–12.7 million), 55,961 hospitalizations (90% CrI 39,534–75,741), and 1,351 deaths (90% CrI 712–2,268). Most (58%) illnesses were caused by norovirus, followed by nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. (11%), Clostridium perfringens (10%), and Campylobacter spp. (9%). Leading causes of hospitalization were nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. (35%), norovirus (26%), Campylobacter spp. (15%), and Toxoplasma gondii (8%). Leading causes of death were nontyphoidal Salmonella spp. (28%), T. gondii (24%), Listeria monocytogenes (19%), and norovirus (11%). These estimates cannot be compared with prior (1999) estimates to assess trends because different methods were used. Additional data and more refined methods can improve future estimates. PMID:21192848

  1. Kynetic resazurin assay (KRA) for bacterial quantification of foodborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, Yaxal; Mandel, Arkady; Lilge, Lothar

    2012-03-01

    Fast detection of bacterial concentrations is important for the food industry and for healthcare. Early detection of infections and appropriate treatment is essential since, the delay of treatments for bacterial infections tends to be associated with higher mortality rates. In the food industry and in healthcare, standard procedures require the count of colony-forming units in order to quantify bacterial concentrations, however, this method is time consuming and reports require three days to be completed. An alternative is metabolic-colorimetric assays which provide time efficient in vitro bacterial concentrations. A colorimetric assay based on Resazurin was developed as a time kinetic assay (KRA) suitable for bacterial concentration measurements. An optimization was performed by finding excitation and emission wavelengths for fluorescent acquisition. A comparison of two non-related bacteria, foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes, was performed in 96 well plates. A metabolic and clonogenic dependence was established for fluorescent kinetic signals.

  2. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. PMID:25628612

  3. Rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens: principles, applications, advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Law, Jodi Woan-Fei; Ab Mutalib, Nurul-Syakima; Chan, Kok-Gan; Lee, Learn-Han

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of foodborne diseases has increased over the years and resulted in major public health problem globally. Foodborne pathogens can be found in various foods and it is important to detect foodborne pathogens to provide safe food supply and to prevent foodborne diseases. The conventional methods used to detect foodborne pathogen are time consuming and laborious. Hence, a variety of methods have been developed for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens as it is required in many food analyses. Rapid detection methods can be categorized into nucleic acid-based, biosensor-based and immunological-based methods. This review emphasizes on the principles and application of recent rapid methods for the detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens. Detection methods included are simple polymerase chain reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, real-time PCR, nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and oligonucleotide DNA microarray which classified as nucleic acid-based methods; optical, electrochemical and mass-based biosensors which classified as biosensor-based methods; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and lateral flow immunoassay which classified as immunological-based methods. In general, rapid detection methods are generally time-efficient, sensitive, specific and labor-saving. The developments of rapid detection methods are vital in prevention and treatment of foodborne diseases. PMID:25628612

  4. Biofilm-associated persistence of food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bridier, A; Sanchez-Vizuete, P; Guilbaud, M; Piard, J-C; Naïtali, M; Briandet, R

    2015-02-01

    Microbial life abounds on surfaces in both natural and industrial environments, one of which is the food industry. A solid substrate, water and some nutrients are sufficient to allow the construction of a microbial fortress, a so-called biofilm. Survival strategies developed by these surface-associated ecosystems are beginning to be deciphered in the context of rudimentary laboratory biofilms. Gelatinous organic matrices consisting of complex mixtures of self-produced biopolymers ensure the cohesion of these biological structures and contribute to their resistance and persistence. Moreover, far from being just simple three-dimensional assemblies of identical cells, biofilms are composed of heterogeneous sub-populations with distinctive behaviours that contribute to their global ecological success. In the clinical field, biofilm-associated infections (BAI) are known to trigger chronic infections that require dedicated therapies. A similar belief emerging in the food industry, where biofilm tolerance to environmental stresses, including cleaning and disinfection/sanitation, can result in the persistence of bacterial pathogens and the recurrent cross-contamination of food products. The present review focuses on the principal mechanisms involved in the formation of biofilms of food-borne pathogens, where biofilm behaviour is driven by its three-dimensional heterogeneity and by species interactions within these biostructures, and we look at some emergent control strategies. PMID:25500382

  5. Most Common Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins on Fresh Produce: A Review of Recent Outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Yeni, F; Yavaş, S; Alpas, H; Soyer, Y

    2016-07-01

    Every year millions of people are affected and thousands of them die due to infections and intoxication as a result of foodborne outbreaks, which also cause billions of dollars' worth of damage, public health problems, and agricultural product loss. A considerable portion of these outbreaks is related to fresh produce and caused by foodborne pathogens on fresh produce and mycotoxins. Escherichia coli O104:H4 outbreak, occurred in Germany in 2011, has attracted a great attention on foodborne outbreaks caused by contaminated fresh produce, and especially the vulnerability and gaps in the early warning and notification networks in the surveillance systems in all around the world. In the frame of this paper, we reviewed the most common foodborne pathogens on fresh produce, traceback investigations of the outbreaks caused by these pathogens, and lastly international early warning and notification systems, including PulseNet International and Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, aiming to detect foodborne outbreaks. PMID:26583913

  6. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts on foodborne bacterial pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial foodborne diseases are caused by consumption of foods contaminated with bacteria and/or their toxins. In this study, we evaluated antibacterial properties of twelve different extracts including turmeric, lemon and different kinds of teas against four major pathogenic foodborne bacteria inc...

  7. Prospects for biocontrol of foodborne pathogens on leafy greens with Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Ec) and other pathogenic bacteria have been associated with consumption of leafy vegetables. In addition to food safety procedures during production, processing and handling, other controls of foodborne bacteria such as physical, cultural, chemical an...

  8. The Continuous Challenge of Characterizing the Foodborne Pathogen Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Woodward, Joshua John; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2016-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen commonly isolated from food processing environments and food products. This organism can multiply at refrigeration temperatures, form biofilms on different materials and under various conditions, resist a range of environmental stresses, and contaminate food products by cross-contamination. L. monocytogenes is recognized as the causative agent of listeriosis, a serious disease that affects mainly individuals from high-risk groups, such as pregnant women, newborns, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. Listeriosis can be considered a disease that has emerged along with changing eating habits and large-scale industrial food processing. This disease causes losses of billions of dollars every year with recalls of contaminated foods and patient medical treatment expenses. In addition to the immune status of the host and the infecting dose, the virulence potential of each strain is crucial for the development of disease symptoms. While many isolates are naturally virulent, other isolates are avirulent and unable to cause disease; this may vary according to the presence of molecular determinants associated with virulence. In the last decade, the characterization of genetic profiles through the use of molecular methods has helped track and demonstrate the genetic diversity among L. monocytogenes isolates obtained from various sources. The purposes of this review were to summarize the main methods used for isolation, identification, and typing of L. monocytogenes and also describe its most relevant virulence characteristics. PMID:27120361

  9. Phage isolated from animal feces effectively reduce foodborne pathogens in the gut of cattle and swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food animals can harbour foodborne pathogens (e.g., enterohemorrhagic E. coli and Salmonella spp.) in their gut that can be spread to humans via contaminated meat products or water and crops contaminated with pathogens by farm run-off. If the pathogen load can be reduced on the farm, then the effec...

  10. Prevalence and characterization of foodborne pathogens from Australian dairy farm environments.

    PubMed

    McAuley, Catherine M; McMillan, Kate; Moore, Sean C; Fegan, Narelle; Fox, Edward M

    2014-12-01

    The ability of foodborne pathogens to gain entry into food supply systems remains an ongoing concern. In dairy products, raw milk acts as a major vehicle for this transfer; however, the sources of pathogenic bacteria that contaminate raw milk are often not clear, and environmental sources of contamination or the animals themselves may contribute to the transfer. This survey examined the occurrence of 9 foodborne pathogens in raw milk and environments of 7 dairy farms (3 bovine, 3 caprine, and 1 ovine farm) in summer and autumn, in Victoria, Australia. A total of 120 samples were taken from sampling points common to dairy farms, including pasture, soil, feed, water sources, animal feces, raw milk, and milk filters. The prevalence of the Bacillus cereus group, Campylobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Cronobacter, Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli, Listeria, Salmonella, coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS), and Yersinia enterocolitica across the farms was investigated. The 2 most prevalent bacteria, which were detected on all farms, were the B. cereus group, isolated from 41% of samples, followed by Cl. perfringens, which was isolated from 38% of samples. The highest occurrence of any pathogen was the B. cereus group in soil, present in 93% of samples tested. Fecal samples showed the highest diversity of pathogens, containing 7 of the 9 pathogens tested. Salmonella was isolated from 1 bovine farm, although it was found in multiple samples on both visits. Out of the 14 occurrences where any pathogen was detected in milk filters, only 5 (36%) of the corresponding raw milk samples collected at the same time were positive for the same pathogen. All of the CPS were Staphylococcus aureus, and were found in raw milk or milk filter samples from 6 of the 7 farms, but not in other sample types. Pathogenic Listeria species were detected on 3 of the 7 farms, and included 4 L. ivanovii-positive samples, and 1 L. monocytogenes-positive water sample. Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli

  11. Essential oils from herbs against foodborne pathogens in chicken sausage.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Probst, Isabella Silva; Murbach Teles Andrade, Bruna Fernanda; Bérgamo Alves, Fernanda Cristina; Albano, Mariana; Mores Rall, Vera Lucia; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of chicken meat and its products, especially sausage, have increased in recent years. However, this product is susceptible to microbial contamination during manufacturing, which compromises its shelf life. The flavoring and preservative activities of essential oils (EO) have been recognized and the application of these antimicrobial agents as natural active compounds in food preservation has shown promise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare EO on Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis strains in artificially inoculated samples of fresh chicken sausage. First, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EO in vitro was determined. The sausage was prepared and kept at ± 4°C; then, the inoculation of individual bacteria was carried out. EO were added at 0.3%, 1.0% and 1.5%v/w. After 0, 5, and 24 hours, the most probable number method (MPN) was performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to view the damage caused by these EO on bacterial morphology and/or structure. Only the 1.5% concentration was effective in reducing L. monocytogenes. 0.3% of O. vulgare EO was able to reduce the MPN/g of Salmonella Enteritidis (2 log) after 5 hours trials. O. basilicum EO showed no effect on Salmonella after 5 hours, but decreased by 2 log after 24 hours. O. vulgare EO at 1% gave a greater reduction of S. Enteritidis at 5 hours, increasing or maintaining this effect after 24 hours. The results confirmed the potential benefits of use EO in control of foodborne pathogens. PMID:25492235

  12. Development of a multi-pathogen enrichment broth for simultaneous growth of five common foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Tang, Junni; Bhunia, Arun K; Tang, Cheng; Wang, Changting; Shi, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to formulate a multi-pathogen enrichment broth which could support the simultaneous growth of five common foodborne pathogens (Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7). The formulated broth SSSLE was composed of potassium tellurite, bile salt, lithium chloride, and sodium chloride as growth-inhibitors; glucose, esculin, mannitol and sodium pyruvate as growth-promoters. Compared with the respective specific selective enrichment broths, the individual growth pattern of each target pathogen in SSSLE was equal, or even better, except in the case of S. flexneri. In mixed-culture experiments, the gram-negative bacteria showed higher growth capabilities than the gram-positive bacteria after 8-h enrichment; however, the cell numbers after 24-h enrichment indicated that SSSLE could support the concurrent growth of five target pathogens irrespective of whether pathogens were inoculated initially at equal or unequal levels. For natural food samples under the high background flora, the final cell numbers enriched in SSSLE for five targets were enough to be detected by multiplex PCR. In conclusion, SSSLE was capable of supporting the growth of five target pathogens concurrently. The new broth formulated in this study has the potential of saving time, efforts and costs in multi-pathogen enrichment procedures. PMID:26782652

  13. Comparative Proteomic Approaches to Understanding the Responses of Food-borne Pathogens to Environmental Factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of how food-borne bacterial pathogens respond to environmental stress conditions enhances the ability to control these pathogens. A popular method for understanding bacterial stress responses is through the measurement of global gene expression under various growth conditions, commo...

  14. Phage-based biocontrol strategies to reduce foodborne pathogens in foods

    PubMed Central

    Bisha, Bledar

    2011-01-01

    There has been much recent interest in the use of phages as biocontrol agents of foodborne pathogens in animals used for food production, and in the food products themselves. This interest seems to be driven by consumers' request for more natural foods, as well as the fact that foodborne outbreaks continue to occur, globally, in many foods, some of which (such as fresh produce), lack adequate methods to control any pathogenic contamination present. Also, the many successes with respect to regulatory approval of phage based products destined for use in foods is leading to an increase in the number of phage products that are commercially available. At present, these products are directed against three main foodborne pathogens including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp and Listeria monocytogenes. In the future, it is likely that new phage products will be targeted against emerging foodborne pathogens. Here, we review the current literature and status of phage based strategies aimed at reducing the presence of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in food and the food production environment. PMID:22164346

  15. Novel method to identify probiotic isolates against enteric foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide, primarily caused by consumption of contaminated poultry products. One potential strategy to reduce Campylobacter colonization in poultry is by the use of oral probiotics, but this produces variable results, possibly due to destructio...

  16. Cronobacter sakazakii: stress survival and virulence potential in an opportunistic foodborne pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Feeney, Audrey; Kropp, Kai A; O’Connor, Roxana; Sleator, Roy D

    2014-01-01

    A characteristic feature of the opportunistic foodborne pathogen Cronobacter sakazakii is its ability to survive in extremely arid environments, such as powdered infant formula, making it a dangerous opportunistic pathogen of individuals of all age groups, especially infants and neonates. Herein, we provide a brief overview of the pathogen; clinical manifestations, environmental reservoirs and our current understanding of stress response mechanisms and virulence factors which allow it to cause disease. PMID:25562731

  17. Biocontrol and Rapid Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages and Endolysins.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jaewoo; Kim, You-Tae; Ryu, Sangryeol; Lee, Ju-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages have been suggested as natural food preservatives as well as rapid detection materials for food-borne pathogens in various foods. Since Listeria monocytogenes-targeting phage cocktail (ListShield) was approved for applications in foods, numerous phages have been screened and experimentally characterized for phage applications in foods. A single phage and phage cocktail treatments to various foods contaminated with food-borne pathogens including E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Vibrio spp. revealed that they have great potential to control various food-borne pathogens and may be alternative for conventional food preservatives. In addition, phage-derived endolysins with high host specificity and host lysis activities may be preferred to food applications rather than phages. For rapid detection of food-borne pathogens, cell-wall binding domains (CBDs) from endolysins have been suggested due to their high host-specific binding. Fluorescence-tagged CBDs have been successfully evaluated and suggested to be alternative materials of expensive antibodies for various detection applications. Most recently, reporter phage systems have been developed and tested to confirm their usability and accuracy for specific detection. These systems revealed some advantages like rapid detection of only viable pathogenic cells without interference by food components in a very short reaction time, suggesting that these systems may be suitable for monitoring of pathogens in foods. Consequently, phage is the next-generation biocontrol agent as well as rapid detection tool to confirm and even identify the food-borne pathogens present in various foods. PMID:27092128

  18. Biocontrol and Rapid Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens Using Bacteriophages and Endolysins

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jaewoo; Kim, You-Tae; Ryu, Sangryeol; Lee, Ju-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages have been suggested as natural food preservatives as well as rapid detection materials for food-borne pathogens in various foods. Since Listeria monocytogenes-targeting phage cocktail (ListShield) was approved for applications in foods, numerous phages have been screened and experimentally characterized for phage applications in foods. A single phage and phage cocktail treatments to various foods contaminated with food-borne pathogens including E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Cronobacter sakazakii, and Vibrio spp. revealed that they have great potential to control various food-borne pathogens and may be alternative for conventional food preservatives. In addition, phage-derived endolysins with high host specificity and host lysis activities may be preferred to food applications rather than phages. For rapid detection of food-borne pathogens, cell-wall binding domains (CBDs) from endolysins have been suggested due to their high host-specific binding. Fluorescence-tagged CBDs have been successfully evaluated and suggested to be alternative materials of expensive antibodies for various detection applications. Most recently, reporter phage systems have been developed and tested to confirm their usability and accuracy for specific detection. These systems revealed some advantages like rapid detection of only viable pathogenic cells without interference by food components in a very short reaction time, suggesting that these systems may be suitable for monitoring of pathogens in foods. Consequently, phage is the next-generation biocontrol agent as well as rapid detection tool to confirm and even identify the food-borne pathogens present in various foods. PMID:27092128

  19. Assessment of oligogalacturonide from citrus pectin as a potential antibacterial agent against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Chang; Li, Hui-chin; Wu, Po-Hua; Huang, Ping-Hsiu; Wang, Yuh-Tai

    2014-08-01

    Foodborne diseases are an important public health problem in the world. The bacterial resistance against presently used antibiotics is becoming a public health issue; hence, the discovery of new antimicrobial agents from natural sources attracts a lot of attention. Antibacterial activities of oligogalacturonide from commercial microbial pectic enzyme (CPE) treated citrus pectin, which exhibits antioxidant and antitumor activities, against 4 foodborne pathogens including Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed. Pectin hydrolysates from CPE hydrolysis exhibited antibacterial activities. However, no antibacterial activity of pectin was observed. Citrus oligogalacturonide from 24-h hydrolysis exhibited bactericidal effect against all selected foodborne pathogens and displayed minimal inhibitory concentration at 37.5 μg/mL for P. aeruginosa, L. monocytogenes, and S. Typhimurium, and at 150.0 μg/mL for S. aureus. PMID:25048440

  20. Fully automated and colorimetric foodborne pathogen detection on an integrated centrifugal microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Jun; Park, Byung Hyun; Choi, Goro; Seo, Ji Hyun; Jung, Jae Hwan; Choi, Jong Seob; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2016-05-21

    This work describes fully automated and colorimetric foodborne pathogen detection on an integrated centrifugal microfluidic device, which is called a lab-on-a-disc. All the processes for molecular diagnostics including DNA extraction and purification, DNA amplification and amplicon detection were integrated on a single disc. Silica microbeads incorporated in the disc enabled extraction and purification of bacterial genomic DNA from bacteria-contaminated milk samples. We targeted four kinds of foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Listeria monocytogenes) and performed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) to amplify the specific genes of the targets. Colorimetric detection mediated by a metal indicator confirmed the results of the LAMP reactions with the colour change of the LAMP mixtures from purple to sky blue. The whole process was conducted in an automated manner using the lab-on-a-disc and a miniaturized rotary instrument equipped with three heating blocks. We demonstrated that a milk sample contaminated with foodborne pathogens can be automatically analysed on the centrifugal disc even at the 10 bacterial cell level in 65 min. The simplicity and portability of the proposed microdevice would provide an advanced platform for point-of-care diagnostics of foodborne pathogens, where prompt confirmation of food quality is needed. PMID:27112702

  1. FDA Bioinformatics Tool for Microbial Genomics Research on Molecular Characterization of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens Using Microarrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Advances in microbial genomics and bioinformatics are offering greater insights into the emergence and spread of foodborne pathogens in outbreak scenarios. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed the genomics tool ArrayTrackTM, which provides extensive functionalities to man...

  2. Inactivation of foodborne pathogens on frankfurters using ultraviolet light and GRAS antimicrobials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is an occasional contaminant of ready-to-eat meats such as frankfurters and sausages and is responsible for foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls of the subsequently adulterated food products. Salmonellae and Staphylococus aureus are prevalent among pathogens which cause foo...

  3. Ecological concepts to reduce colonization of cattle by food-borne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annually, food-borne pathogenic bacteria sicken millions across North America. Many of these illnesses are caused by consumption of animal-produced foods, especially those from cattle. Post slaughter intervention strategies effectively reduce bacterial contamination levels that reach consumers fro...

  4. Potential of predatory bacteria as biocontrol agents for foodborne and plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella are responsible for frequent occurrences of illnesses and mortality in humans and produce losses. Pre-harvest yield losses and post-harvest decay on minimally processed produce (fruits, vegetables...

  5. Study on the mechanism of antibacterial action of magnesium oxide nanoparticles against foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO nanoparticles, with average size of 20 nm) have strong antibacterial activities against several important foodborne pathogens. Resazurin (a redox sensitive dye) microplate assay was used for measuring growth inhibition of bacteria treated with MgO nanoparticles. Th...

  6. Inactivation of foodborne pathogens on frankfurters using ultraviolet light (254 nm) and GRAS antimicrobials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is an occasional contaminant of ready-to-eat meats such as frankfurters and sausages and is responsible for foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls of the subsequently adulterated food products. Salmonella and Staphylococus aureus are prevalent among pathogens which cause food...

  7. Hyperspectral image reconstruction using RGB color for foodborne pathogen detection on agar plates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the latest development of a color vision technique for detecting colonies of foodborne pathogens grown on agar plates with a hyperspectral image classification model that was developed using full hyperspectral data. The hyperspectral classification model depended on reflectance sp...

  8. Edible Apple Film Wraps Containing Plant Antimicrobials Inactivate Foodborne Pathogens on Meat and Poultry Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of an effort to discover new ways to improve microbial food safety, we evaluated apple-based edible films containing plant antimicrobial compounds for their activity against pathogenic foodborne bacteria on meat and poultry products. Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 (107 CFU/...

  9. Hyperspectral microscope imaging methods to classify gram-positive and gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An acousto-optic tunable filter-based hyperspectral microscope imaging method has potential for identification of foodborne pathogenic bacteria from microcolony rapidly with a single cell level. We have successfully developed the method to acquire quality hyperspectral microscopic images from variou...

  10. Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter Hyperspectral Microscope Imaging Method for Characterizing Spectra from Foodborne Pathogens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method, which provides both spatial and spectral characteristics of samples, can be effective for foodborne pathogen detection. The acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-based HMI method can be used to characterize spectral properties of biofilms formed by Salmon...

  11. Classification of gram-positive and gram-negative foodborne pathogenic bacteria with hyperspectral microscope imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical method with hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) has potential for identification of foodborne pathogenic bacteria from microcolonies rapidly with a cell level. A HMI system that provides both spatial and spectral information could be an effective tool for analyzing spectral characteristic...

  12. Niche marketing production practices for beef cattle in the United States and prevalence of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Fox, J Trent; Reinstein, Shelby; Jacob, Megan E; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-10-01

    Niche-marketed food products are rapidly gaining market share in today's society. Consumers are willing to pay premium prices for food perceived to be safer, healthier, more nutritious, and better tasting than conventional food. This review outlines typical production practices for niche-market beef production systems in the United States and compares prevalence estimates of foodborne pathogens in animals and produce from conventional and niche-market production systems. The two main niches for food animal production are organic and natural productions. Organic and natural beef productions are becoming increasingly popular and there is high consumer demand. Two major differences between conventional beef production systems and niche-market production systems (natural and organic) are in the use of antimicrobials and growth-promoting hormones. The impacts of these production systems on foodborne pathogens in beef cattle are variable and often data are nonexistent. Studies directly comparing conventional and niche-market production systems for dairy, swine, poultry, and produce have observed that the prevalence of foodborne pathogens was seldom statistically different between production systems, but when differences were observed, prevalence was typically greater for the niche-market production systems than the conventional production system. The published literature suggests that the perception of niche-marketed food products being safer and healthier for consumers with regard to foodborne pathogens may not be justified. PMID:18681794

  13. Rapid multiplex detection of 10 foodborne pathogens with an up-converting phosphor technology-based 10-channel lateral flow assay

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Haoran; Zhang, Pingping; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Xiaochen; Wang, Xinrui; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Chengbin; Zhou, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The rapid high-throughput detection of foodborne pathogens is essential in controlling food safety. In this study, a 10-channel up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow (TC-UPT-LF) assay was established for the rapid and simultaneous detection of 10 epidemic foodborne pathogens. Ten different single-target UPT-LF strips were developed and integrated into one TC-UPT-LF disc with optimization. Without enrichment the TC-UPT-LF assay had a detection sensitivity of 104 CFU mL−1 or 105 CFU mL−1 for each pathogen, and after sample enrichment it was 10 CFU/0.6 mg. The assay also showed good linearity, allowing quantitative detection, with a linear fitting coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.916–0.998. The 10 detection channels did not cross-react, so multiple targets could be specifically detected. When 279 real food samples were tested, the assay was highly consistent (100%) with culture-based methods. The results for 110 food samples artificially contaminated with single or multiple targets showed a high detection rate (≥80%) for most target bacteria. Overall, the TC-UPT-LF assay allows the rapid, quantitative, and simultaneous detection of 10 kinds of foodborne pathogens within 20 min, and is especially suitable for the rapid detection and surveillance of foodborne pathogens in food and water. PMID:26884128

  14. Rapid multiplex detection of 10 foodborne pathogens with an up-converting phosphor technology-based 10-channel lateral flow assay.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Wang, Haoran; Zhang, Pingping; Sun, Chongyun; Wang, Xiaochen; Wang, Xinrui; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Chengbin; Zhou, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The rapid high-throughput detection of foodborne pathogens is essential in controlling food safety. In this study, a 10-channel up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow (TC-UPT-LF) assay was established for the rapid and simultaneous detection of 10 epidemic foodborne pathogens. Ten different single-target UPT-LF strips were developed and integrated into one TC-UPT-LF disc with optimization. Without enrichment the TC-UPT-LF assay had a detection sensitivity of 10(4) CFU mL(-1) or 10(5) CFU mL(-1) for each pathogen, and after sample enrichment it was 10 CFU/0.6 mg. The assay also showed good linearity, allowing quantitative detection, with a linear fitting coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.916-0.998. The 10 detection channels did not cross-react, so multiple targets could be specifically detected. When 279 real food samples were tested, the assay was highly consistent (100%) with culture-based methods. The results for 110 food samples artificially contaminated with single or multiple targets showed a high detection rate (≥ 80%) for most target bacteria. Overall, the TC-UPT-LF assay allows the rapid, quantitative, and simultaneous detection of 10 kinds of foodborne pathogens within 20 min, and is especially suitable for the rapid detection and surveillance of foodborne pathogens in food and water. PMID:26884128

  15. Campylobacter spp. as a Foodborne Pathogen: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joana; Leite, Daniela; Fernandes, Mariana; Mena, Cristina; Gibbs, Paul Anthony; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter is well recognized as the leading cause of bacterial foodborne diarrheal disease worldwide. Symptoms can range from mild to serious infections of the children and the elderly and permanent neurological symptoms. The organism is a cytochrome oxidase positive, microaerophilic, curved Gram-negative rod exhibiting corkscrew motility and is carried in the intestine of many wild and domestic animals, particularly avian species including poultry. Intestinal colonization results in healthy animals as carriers. In contrast with the most recent published reviews that cover specific aspects of Campylobacter/campylobacteriosis, this broad review aims at elucidating and discussing the (i) genus Campylobacter, growth and survival characteristics; (ii) detection, isolation and confirmation of Campylobacter; (iii) campylobacteriosis and presence of virulence factors; and (iv) colonization of poultry and control strategies. PMID:21991264

  16. Application of oligonucleotide array technology for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria of foodborne infections.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bang-Xing; Jiang, Li-Fang; Hu, Yu-Shan; Fang, Dan-Yun; Guo, Hui-Yu

    2004-09-01

    A rapid and accurate method for detection for common pathogenic bacteria in foodborne infections was established by using oligonucleotide array technology. Nylon membrane was used as the array support. A mutation region of the 23S rRNA gene was selected as the discrimination target from 14 species (genera) of bacteria causing foodborne infections and two unrelated bacterial species. A pair of universal primers was designed for PCR amplification of the 23S rRNA gene. Twenty-one species (genera)-specific oligonucleotide detection probes were synthesized and spotted onto the nylon membranes. The 23S rRNA gene amplification products of 14 species of pathogenic bacteria were hybridized to the oligonucleotide array. Hybridization results were analyzed with digoxigenin-linked enzyme reaction. Results indicated that nine species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Proteus vulgaris, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium botulinum) showed high sensitivity and specificity for the oligonucleotide array. Two other species (Salmonella enterica and Yersinia enterocolitica) gave weak cross-reaction with E. coli, but the reaction did not affect their detection. After redesigning the probes, positive hybridization results were obtained with Staphylococcus aureus, but not with Clostridium perfringens and Streptococcus pyogenes. The oligonucleotide array can also be applied to samples collected in clinical settings of foodborne infections. The superiority of oligonucleotide array over other tests lies on its rapidity, accuracy and efficiency in the diagnosis, treatment and control of foodborne infections. PMID:15279944

  17. Nano-particle enhanced impedimetric biosensor for detedtion of foodborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G.; Om, A. S.; Mun, J. H.

    2007-03-01

    Recent outbreaks of foodborne illness have been increased the need for rapid and sensitive methods for detection of these pathogens. Conventional methods for pathogens detection and identification involve prolonged multiple enrichment steps. Even though some immunological rapid assays are available, these assays still need enrichment steps result in delayed detection. Biosensors have shown great potential for rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. They are capable of direct monitoring the antigen-antibody reactions in real time. Among the biosensors, impedimetric biosensors have been widely adapted as an analysis tool for the study of various biological binding reactions because of their high sensitivity and reagentless operation. In this study a nanoparticle-enhanced impedimetric biosensor for Salmonella enteritidis detection was developed which detected impedance changes caused by the attachment of the cells to the anti-Salmonella antibodies immobilized on interdigitated gold electrodes. Successive immobilization of neutravidin followed by anti-Salmonella antibodies was performed to the sensing area to create a biological detection surface. To enhance the impedance responses generated by antigen-antibody reactions, anti-Salmonella antibody conjugated nanoparticles were introduced on the sensing area. Using a portable impedance analyzer, the impedance across the interdigital electrodes was measured after the series of antigen-antibody bindings. Bacteria cells present in solution attached to capture antibodies and became tethered to the sensor surface. Attached bacteria cells changed the dielectric constant of the media between the electrodes thereby causing a change in measured impedance. Optimum input frequency was determined by analyzing frequency characteristics of the biosensor over ranges of applied frequencies from 10 Hz to 400 Hz. At 100 Hz of input frequency, the biosensor was most sensitive to the changes of the bacteria concentration and this frequency

  18. Detection of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria using Bacteriophage Tail Spike Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poshtiban, Somayyeh

    Foodborne infections are worldwide health problem with tremendous social and financial impacts. Efforts are focused on developing accurate and reliable technologies for detection of food contaminations in early stages preferably on-site. This thesis focuses on interfacing engineering and biology by combining phage receptor binding proteins (RBPs) with engineered platforms including microresonator-based biosensors, magnetic particles and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to develop bacterial detection sensors. We used phage RBPs as target specific bioreceptors to develop an enhanced microresonator array for bacterial detection. These resonator beams are optimized to feature a high natural frequency while offer large surface area for capture of bacteria. Theoretical analysis indicates a high mass sensitivity with a threshold for the detection of a single bacterial cell. We used phage RBPs as target specific bioreceptors, and successfully demonstrated the application of these phage RBB-immobilized arrays for specific detection of C. jejuni cells. We also developed a RBP-derivatized magnetic pre-enrichment method as an upstream sample preparation method to improve sensitivity and specificity of PCR for detection of bacterial cells in various food samples. The combination of RBP-based magnetic separation and real-time PCR allowed the detection of small number of bacteria in artificially contaminated food samples without any need for time consuming pre-enrichment step through culturing. We also looked into integration of the RBP-based magnetic separation with PCR onto a single microfluidic lab-on-a-chip to reduce the overall turnaround time.

  19. Use of Extract of Citrus sinensis as an antimicrobial agent for foodborne zoonotic pathogens and spoilage bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne pathogens remain global health problems despite concerted efforts to control the transmission of these microorganisms through food. The resurgence of drug resistant bacteria has renewed interest in developing and testing new sources of antimicrobial agents to control foodborne illness. Thi...

  20. Antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne pathogens in organic or natural production systems: an overview.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Megan E; Fox, James Trent; Reinstein, Shelby L; Nagaraja, T G

    2008-12-01

    Organic and natural food production systems are increasing in popularity, at least partially because consumers perceive that these niche markets provide healthier and safer food products. One major difference between these niche markets and conventional production systems is the use of antimicrobials. Because antimicrobial agents exert selective pressures for antimicrobial resistance, relating antimicrobial susceptibility of foodborne bacteria to niche market production systems is of interest. Other differences between production systems might also influence the susceptibility of foodborne pathogens. The objective of this review is to compare the impact of food animal production systems on the antimicrobial susceptibility of common foodborne bacterial pathogens. Studies comparing the susceptibility of such pathogens were diverse in terms of geographic location, procedures, species of bacteria, and antimicrobials evaluated; thus, it was difficult to draw conclusions. The literature is highly variable in terms of production type and practices and susceptibility associations, although few studies have compared truly organic and conventional practices. When statistical associations were found between production type and minimum inhibitory concentrations or percentage of isolates resistant for a particular pathogen, the isolates from conventionally reared animals/products were more commonly resistant than the comparison group (organic, antibiotic free, etc.). Therefore, further studies are needed to better assess public health consequences of antimicrobial resistance and food animal production systems, specifically organic or natural versus conventional. PMID:18847380

  1. Recent advances in bacteriophage based biosensors for food-borne pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit; Poshtiban, Somayyeh; Evoy, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are a major health concern that can have severe impact on society and can add tremendous financial burden to our health care systems. Rapid early detection of food contamination is therefore relevant for the containment of food-borne pathogens. Conventional pathogen detection methods, such as microbiological and biochemical identification are time-consuming and laborious, while immunological or nucleic acid-based techniques require extensive sample preparation and are not amenable to miniaturization for on-site detection. Biosensors have shown tremendous promise to overcome these limitations and are being aggressively studied to provide rapid, reliable and sensitive detection platforms for such applications. Novel biological recognition elements are studied to improve the selectivity and facilitate integration on the transduction platform for sensitive detection. Bacteriophages are one such unique biological entity that show excellent host selectivity and have been actively used as recognition probes for pathogen detection. This review summarizes the extensive literature search on the application of bacteriophages (and recently their receptor binding proteins) as probes for sensitive and selective detection of foodborne pathogens, and critically outlines their advantages and disadvantages over other recognition elements. PMID:23364199

  2. Recent Advances in Bacteriophage Based Biosensors for Food-Borne Pathogen Detection

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Amit; Poshtiban, Somayyeh; Evoy, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are a major health concern that can have severe impact on society and can add tremendous financial burden to our health care systems. Rapid early detection of food contamination is therefore relevant for the containment of food-borne pathogens. Conventional pathogen detection methods, such as microbiological and biochemical identification are time-consuming and laborious, while immunological or nucleic acid-based techniques require extensive sample preparation and are not amenable to miniaturization for on-site detection. Biosensors have shown tremendous promise to overcome these limitations and are being aggressively studied to provide rapid, reliable and sensitive detection platforms for such applications. Novel biological recognition elements are studied to improve the selectivity and facilitate integration on the transduction platform for sensitive detection. Bacteriophages are one such unique biological entity that show excellent host selectivity and have been actively used as recognition probes for pathogen detection. This review summarizes the extensive literature search on the application of bacteriophages (and recently their receptor binding proteins) as probes for sensitive and selective detection of foodborne pathogens, and critically outlines their advantages and disadvantages over other recognition elements. PMID:23364199

  3. Statistics of sampling for microbiological testing of foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the many recent advances in protocols for testing for pathogens in foods, a number of challenges still exist. For example, the microbiological safety of food cannot be completely ensured by testing because microorganisms are not evenly distributed throughout the food. Therefore, since it i...

  4. Post-genome Analysis of the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Emily J.; Gundogdu, Ozan; Wren, Brendan

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is part of the genus Campylobacter that lies within the epsilon proteobacteria subclass of bacteria. The nearest family in phylogenetic terms is the Helicobacteraceae which includes the Helicobacter and Wolinella genuses. Campylobacter species are Gram-negative, curved rod shaped or spiral and are motile (via polar flagella).

  5. Rapid detection, characterization, and enrumeration of food-borne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, there has been much research activity on the development of methodologies that are rapid, accurate, and ultrasensitive for detecting pathogenic microorganisms in food. Rapid methods include immunological systems such as the lateral flow assays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays...

  6. Antimicrobial effects of marine algal extracts and cyanobacterial pure compounds against five foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Dominic; Vu, Khanh Dang; Vansach, Tifanie; Horgen, F David; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-05-15

    The marine environment is a proven source of structurally complex and biologically active compounds. In this study, the antimicrobial effects of a small collection of marine-derived extracts and isolates, were evaluated against 5 foodborne pathogens using a broth dilution assay. Results demonstrated that algal extracts from Padina and Ulva species and cyanobacterial compounds antillatoxin B, laxaphycins A, B and B3, isomalyngamide A, and malyngamides C, I and J showed antimicrobial activity against Gram positive foodborne pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) at low concentrations (⩽ 500 μg/ml). None of the algal extracts or cyanobacterial isolates had antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium). PMID:26775951

  7. Multiplexed detection of foodborne pathogens based on magnetic particles.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Delfina; Liébana, Susana; Pividori, María Isabel

    2015-09-25

    This paper addresses the novel approaches for the multiplex detection of food poisoning bacteria, paying closer attention to three of the most common pathogens involved in food outbreaks: Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes. End-point and real-time PCR, classical immunological techniques, biosensors, microarrays and microfluidic platforms, as well as commercial kits for multiplex detection of food pathogens will be reviewed, with special focus on the role of magnetic particles in these approaches. Although the immunomagnetic separation for capturing single bacteria from contaminating microflora and interfering food components has demonstrated to improve the performance on these approaches, the integration of magnetic particles for multiplex detection of bacteria is still in a preliminary stage and requires further studies. PMID:25858812

  8. Quantitative risk assessment: an emerging tool for emerging foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Lammerding, A. M.; Paoli, G. M.

    1997-01-01

    New challenges to the safety of the food supply require new strategies for evaluating and managing food safety risks. Changes in pathogens, food preparation, distribution, and consumption, and population immunity have the potential to adversely affect human health. Risk assessment offers a framework for predicting the impact of changes and trends on the provision of safe food. Risk assessment models facilitate the evaluation of active or passive changes in how foods are produced, processed, distributed, and consumed. PMID:9366601

  9. Protozoan Cysts Act as a Survival Niche and Protective Shelter for Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lambrecht, Ellen; Baré, Julie; Chavatte, Natascha; Bert, Wim; Sabbe, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The production of cysts, an integral part of the life cycle of many free-living protozoa, allows these organisms to survive adverse environmental conditions. Given the prevalence of free-living protozoa in food-related environments, it is hypothesized that these organisms play an important yet currently underinvestigated role in the epidemiology of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Intracystic bacterial survival is highly relevant, as this would allow bacteria to survive the stringent cleaning and disinfection measures applied in food-related environments. The present study shows that strains of widespread and important foodborne bacteria (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes) survive inside cysts of the ubiquitous amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii, even when exposed to either antibiotic treatment (100 μg/ml gentamicin) or highly acidic conditions (pH 0.2) and resume active growth in broth media following excystment. Strain- and species-specific differences in survival periods were observed, with Salmonella enterica surviving up to 3 weeks inside amoebal cysts. Up to 53% of the cysts were infected with pathogenic bacteria, which were located in the cyst cytosol. Our study suggests that the role of free-living protozoa and especially their cysts in the persistence and epidemiology of foodborne bacterial pathogens in food-related environments may be much more important than hitherto assumed. PMID:26070667

  10. Protozoan Cysts Act as a Survival Niche and Protective Shelter for Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lambrecht, Ellen; Baré, Julie; Chavatte, Natascha; Bert, Wim; Sabbe, Koen; Houf, Kurt

    2015-08-15

    The production of cysts, an integral part of the life cycle of many free-living protozoa, allows these organisms to survive adverse environmental conditions. Given the prevalence of free-living protozoa in food-related environments, it is hypothesized that these organisms play an important yet currently underinvestigated role in the epidemiology of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Intracystic bacterial survival is highly relevant, as this would allow bacteria to survive the stringent cleaning and disinfection measures applied in food-related environments. The present study shows that strains of widespread and important foodborne bacteria (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Listeria monocytogenes) survive inside cysts of the ubiquitous amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii, even when exposed to either antibiotic treatment (100 μg/ml gentamicin) or highly acidic conditions (pH 0.2) and resume active growth in broth media following excystment. Strain- and species-specific differences in survival periods were observed, with Salmonella enterica surviving up to 3 weeks inside amoebal cysts. Up to 53% of the cysts were infected with pathogenic bacteria, which were located in the cyst cytosol. Our study suggests that the role of free-living protozoa and especially their cysts in the persistence and epidemiology of foodborne bacterial pathogens in food-related environments may be much more important than hitherto assumed. PMID:26070667

  11. Development of a magnetic nanoparticles microarray for simultaneous and simple detection of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Li, Song; Liu, Hongna; Deng, Yan; Lin, Lin; He, Nongyue

    2013-07-01

    Foodborne diseases are a widespread and growing public health problem affecting both developed and developing countries, microbiologically contaminated food and water are the major causes of diarrhoeal diseases. Methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microarrays are rapid and sensitive enough to detect very small quantities of microorganisms, however, the requirement for expensive equipments limits their application. In the present paper, we describe a method based on multiplex PCR and magnetic nanoparticles labelling for simultaneous detection of four major foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Vibrio cholera and Campylobacter jejuni. The process utilizes an oligonucleotide array onto which 5' biotinylated single strand PCR products were hybridized and visualized with streptavidin-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SA-MNPs), the signal from which could be detected by the naked eye, microscope or CCD camera. By employing SA-MNPs as visible labels, the microarray unambiguously distinguished all 4 pathogens with detection sensitivity up to 316 CFU/mL. Due to its high sensitivity, specificity and simple detection procedure, the magnetic bead assay provides a powerful tool for the detection and identification of foodborne pathogens in a modestly equipped laboratory. PMID:23909141

  12. Estimates of Foodborne Illness–Related Hospitalizations and Deaths in Canada for 30 Specified Pathogens and Unspecified Agents

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Regan; Flockhart, Logan; Pintar, Katarina; Fazil, Aamir; Nesbitt, Andrea; Marshall, Barbara; Tataryn, Joanne; Pollari, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Foodborne illness estimates help to set food safety priorities and create public health policies. The Public Health Agency of Canada estimates that 4 million episodes of foodborne illness occur each year in Canada due to 30 known pathogens and unspecified agents. The main objective of this study was to estimate the number of domestically acquired foodborne illness–related hospitalizations and deaths. Using the estimates of foodborne illness for Canada along with data from the Canadian Hospitalization Morbidity Database (for years 2000–2010) and relevant international literature, the number of hospitalizations and deaths for 30 pathogens and unspecified agents were calculated. Analysis accounted for under-reporting and underdiagnosis. Estimates of the proportion foodborne and the proportion travel-related were incorporated for each pathogen. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to account for uncertainty generating mean estimates and 90% probability intervals. It is estimated that each year there are 4000 hospitalizations (range 3200–4800) and 105 (range 75–139) deaths associated with domestically acquired foodborne illness related to 30 known pathogens and 7600 (range 5900–9650) hospitalizations and 133 (range 77–192) deaths associated with unspecified agents, for a total estimate of 11,600 (range 9250–14,150) hospitalizations and 238 (range 155–323) deaths associated with domestically acquired foodborne illness in Canada. Key pathogens associated with these hospitalizations or deaths include norovirus, nontyphoidal Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp., VTEC O157 and Listeria monocytogenes. This is the first time Canada has established pathogen-specific estimates of domestically acquired foodborne illness–related hospitalizations and deaths. This information illustrates the substantial burden of foodborne illness in Canada. PMID:26259128

  13. Capture and concentration of viral and bacterial foodborne pathogens using apolipoprotein H.

    PubMed

    Almand, Erin A; Goulter, Rebecca M; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2016-09-01

    The need for improved pathogen separation and concentration methods to reduce time-to-detection for foodborne pathogens is well recognized. Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is an acute phase human plasma protein that has been previously shown to interact with viruses, lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and bacterial proteins. The purpose of this study was to determine if ApoH was capable of binding and efficiently capturing two representative human norovirus strains (GI.1 and GII.4), a cultivable surrogate, and four bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus). Experiments were carried out using an ApoH-conjugated magnetic bead-based capture followed by pathogen detection using nucleic acid amplification. For all three viruses studied, >10% capture efficiency (<1 Log10 loss in RT-qPCR amplifiable units) was observed. The same capture efficiencies were observed for the bacterial pathogens tested, with the exception of E. coli O157:H7 (approximately 1% capture efficiency, or 2 Log10 loss in CFU equivalents). The efficiency of the capture steps did not vary as a consequence of input target concentration or in the presence of an abundance of background microflora. A complementary plate-based capture assay showed that ApoH bound to a variety of human norovirus virus-like particles. ApoH has the potential to be a broadly reactive ligand for separating and concentrating representative foodborne pathogens, both bacteria and viruses. PMID:27439140

  14. Socioeconomic Status and Foodborne Pathogens in Connecticut, USA, 2000-2011(1).

    PubMed

    Whitney, Bridget M; Mainero, Christina; Humes, Elizabeth; Hurd, Sharon; Niccolai, Linda; Hadler, James L

    2015-09-01

    Foodborne pathogens cause >9 million illnesses annually. Food safety efforts address the entire food chain, but an essential strategy for preventing foodborne disease is educating consumers and food preparers. To better understand the epidemiology of foodborne disease and to direct prevention efforts, we examined incidence of Salmonella infection, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection, and hemolytic uremic syndrome by census tract-level socioeconomic status (SES) in the Connecticut Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network site for 2000-2011. Addresses of case-patients were geocoded to census tracts and linked to census tract-level SES data. Higher census tract-level SES was associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, regardless of serotype; hemolytic uremic syndrome; salmonellosis in persons ≥5 years of age; and some Salmonella serotypes. A reverse association was found for salmonellosis in children <5 years of age and for 1 Salmonella serotype. These findings will inform education and prevention efforts as well as further research. PMID:26291087

  15. Antimicrobial resistance of major foodborne pathogens from major meat products.

    PubMed

    Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vagelis; Sakkas, Hercules; Leveidiotou, Stamatina; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2011-01-01

    The bacterial contamination of raw and processed meat products with resistant pathogens was studied. The raw samples included sheep (40), goat (40), pork (120), beef (80), and chicken (19) meat, and the processed samples included turkey filets (33), salami (8), readymade mincemeat (16), stuffing (22), and roast-beef (50). The samples were collected from retail shops in Northwestern Greece over a period of 3 years. The isolated pathogens were evaluated for susceptibilities to 19 antimicrobial agents used in humans. Out of 428 samples, 157 strains of Escherichia coli, 25 of Yersinia enterocolitica, 57 of Staphylococcus aureus, 57 of Enterococcus spp., 4 of Salmonella spp., and 3 of Campylobacter jejuni were isolated. Among the isolates 14.6% of the E. coli, 10.5% of S. aureus, 4% of Y. enterocolitica, 25% of Salmonella spp., and 42.1% of Enterococcus spp. were susceptible to antibiotics. E. coli from chicken exhibited high rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin (62.5%) followed by lamb/goat (10.9%), pork (15.7%), and beef (27.9%) meat. Resistance to nitrofurantoin dominated in the lamb/goat isolates (60%). Resistance to tetracycline predominated in pork (68.2%) and chicken (62.5%), and resistance to aminoglycosides dominated in lamb/goat meat isolates. S. aureus resistance to clindamycin predominated in lamb/goat isolates (50%), whereas resistance to ciprofloxacin predominated in the pork strains, but no resistance to methicillin was observed. Of the enterococci isolates 21.1% were resistant to vancomycin. High resistance to ampicillin (96%) was observed in Y. enterocolitica and all of the C. jejuni isolates were resistant to ampicillin, cephalothin, and cefuroxime. These results indicate that meat can be a source of resistant bacteria, which could potentially be spread to the community through the food chain. PMID:21039131

  16. Surface plasmon resonance biosensors for detection of foodborne pathogens and toxins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homola, Jiří; Hegnerová, Kateřina; Vala, Milan

    2009-02-01

    In the last decade surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors have made great strides both in terms of technology and its applications. SPR biosensors have become a central tool for study of molecular interactions and have been widely used for detection of chemical and biological analytes. Food analysis belongs to major areas of potential applications of SPR biosensors. Therefore, numerous SPR biosensors for detection of analytes implicated in food safety (e.g. pathogens, toxins, drug residues, vitamins, hormones, chemical contaminants, and allergens) have been developed. This paper reviews recent developments in the field of SPR biosensors for food safety, in particular, for detection of foodborne pathogens and toxins.

  17. The response of foodborne pathogens to osmotic and desiccation stresses in the food chain.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Catherine M; Gianotti, Andrea; Gruzdev, Nadia; Holah, John; Knøchel, Susanne; Lehner, Angelika; Margas, Edyta; Esser, Stephan Schmitz; Sela Saldinger, Shlomo; Tresse, Odile

    2016-03-16

    In combination with other strategies, hyperosmolarity and desiccation are frequently used by the food processing industry as a means to prevent bacterial proliferation, and particularly that of foodborne pathogens, in food products. However, it is increasingly observed that bacteria, including human pathogens, encode mechanisms to survive and withstand these stresses. This review provides an overview of the mechanisms employed by Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin producing E. coli, Cronobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter spp. to tolerate osmotic and desiccation stresses and identifies gaps in knowledge which need to be addressed to ensure the safety of low water activity and desiccated food products. PMID:26803272

  18. Recovery Estimation of Dried Foodborne Pathogens Is Directly Related to Rehydration Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Lang, Emilie; Zoz, Fiona; Iaconelli, Cyril; Guyot, Stéphane; Alvarez-Martin, Pablo; Beney, Laurent; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Gervais, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Drying is a common process which is used to preserve food products and technological microorganisms, but which is deleterious for the cells. The aim of this study is to differentiate the effects of drying alone from the effects of the successive and necessary rehydration. Rehydration of dried bacteria is a critical step already studied in starter culture but not for different kinetics and not for pathogens. In the present study, the influence of rehydration kinetics was investigated for three foodborne pathogens involved in neonatal diseases caused by the consumption of rehydrated milk powder: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Senftenberg and Cronobacter sakazakii. Bacteria were dried in controlled relative humidity atmospheres and then rehydrated using different methods. Our results showed that the survival of the three pathogens was strongly related to rehydration kinetics. Consequently, rehydration is an important step to consider during food safety assessment or during studies of dried foodborne pathogens. Also, it has to be considered with more attention in consumers' homes during the preparation of food, like powdered infant formula, to avoid pathogens recovery. PMID:27494169

  19. Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens Associated with the Risk of Gastroenteritis in the State of Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Weam, Banjar; Abraham, Mariama; Doiphode, Sanjay; Peters, Kenlyn; Ibrahim, Emad; Sultan, Ali; Mohammed, Hussni O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk of gastroenteritis associated with bacterial foodborne pathogens and identify associated factors in a highly diverse population. Material and methods A series of case-control studies were carried out to address the stated objective. The study population consisted of individuals who were admitted to the Hamad Medical Corporation hospitals and stool analysis indicated positive findings to Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, or Salmonella spp. between the period of August 2009 and December 2012. Cases were defined based on positive stool analysis to any of the previously mentioned organisms. Control group was similar to case group but negative in stool analysis to the particular pathogen under study. Association between demographic characteristics and likelihood of pathogen infection were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 423 individuals diagnosed with these bacterial pathogens were randomly enrolled in the study. The majority of cases were infected by E.coli. Age was significantly associated with E.coli and Salmonella spp. Conclusion E.coli infection is common among young children. The risk of Salmonella increases with age. Campylobacter may affect any age. Further investigation of interaction between foodborne pathogen infection and environmental factors is necessary PMID:27103902

  20. An overview of foodborne pathogen detection: in the perspective of biosensors.

    PubMed

    Velusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Arshak, Khalil; Korostynska, Olga; Oliwa, Kamila; Adley, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Food safety is a global health goal and the foodborne diseases take a major crisis on health. Therefore, detection of microbial pathogens in food is the solution to the prevention and recognition of problems related to health and safety. For this reason, a comprehensive literature survey has been carried out aiming to give an overview in the field of foodborne pathogen detection. Conventional and standard bacterial detection methods such as culture and colony counting methods, immunology-based methods and polymerase chain reaction based methods, may take up to several hours or even a few days to yield an answer. Obviously this is inadequate, and recently many researchers are focusing towards the progress of rapid methods. Although new technologies like biosensors show potential approaches, further research and development is essential before biosensors become a real and reliable choice. New bio-molecular techniques for food pathogen detection are being developed to improve the biosensor characteristics such as sensitivity and selectivity, also which is rapid, reliable, effective and suitable for in situ analysis. This paper not only offers an overview in the area of microbial pathogen detection but it also describes the conventional methods, analytical techniques and recent developments in food pathogen detection, identification and quantification, with an emphasis on biosensors. PMID:20006978

  1. Centrifugal loop-mediated isothermal amplification microdevice for rapid, multiplex and colorimetric foodborne pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Jun; Park, Byung Hyun; Jung, Jae Hwan; Choi, Goro; Lee, Doh C; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2016-01-15

    We present a centrifugal microfluidic device which enables multiplex foodborne pathogen identification by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and colorimetric detection using Eriochrome Black T (EBT). Five identical structures were designed in the centrifugal microfluidic system to perform the genetic analysis of 25 pathogen samples in a high-throughput manner. The sequential loading and aliquoting of the LAMP cocktail, the primer mixtures, and the DNA sample solutions were accomplished by the optimized zigzag-shaped microchannels and RPM control. We targeted three kinds of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) and detected the amplicons of the LAMP reaction by the EBT-mediated colorimetric method. For the limit-of-detection (LOD) test, we carried out the LAMP reaction on a chip with serially diluted DNA templates of E. coli O157:H7, and could observe the color change with 380 copies. The used primer sets in the LAMP reaction were specific only to the genomic DNA of E. coli O157:H7, enabling the on-chip selective, sensitive, and high-throughput pathogen identification with the naked eyes. The entire process was completed in 60min. Since the proposed microsystem does not require any bulky and expensive instrumentation for end-point detection, our microdevice would be adequate for point-of-care (POC) testing with high simplicity and high speed, providing an advanced genetic analysis microsystem for foodborne pathogen detection. PMID:26322592

  2. Recovery Estimation of Dried Foodborne Pathogens Is Directly Related to Rehydration Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Emilie; Zoz, Fiona; Iaconelli, Cyril; Guyot, Stéphane; Alvarez-Martin, Pablo; Beney, Laurent; Perrier-Cornet, Jean-Marie; Gervais, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Drying is a common process which is used to preserve food products and technological microorganisms, but which is deleterious for the cells. The aim of this study is to differentiate the effects of drying alone from the effects of the successive and necessary rehydration. Rehydration of dried bacteria is a critical step already studied in starter culture but not for different kinetics and not for pathogens. In the present study, the influence of rehydration kinetics was investigated for three foodborne pathogens involved in neonatal diseases caused by the consumption of rehydrated milk powder: Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Senftenberg and Cronobacter sakazakii. Bacteria were dried in controlled relative humidity atmospheres and then rehydrated using different methods. Our results showed that the survival of the three pathogens was strongly related to rehydration kinetics. Consequently, rehydration is an important step to consider during food safety assessment or during studies of dried foodborne pathogens. Also, it has to be considered with more attention in consumers’ homes during the preparation of food, like powdered infant formula, to avoid pathogens recovery. PMID:27494169

  3. Regulation of oxidative stress resistance in Campylobacter jejuni, a microaerophilic foodborne pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Chul; Oh, Euna; Kim, Jinyong; Jeon, Byeonghwa

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is one of the leading bacterial causes of human gastroenteritis. Due to the increasing rates of human campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is considered as a serious public health concern worldwide. C. jejuni is a microaerophilic, fastidious bacterium. C. jejuni must overcome a wide range of stress conditions during foodborne transmission to humans, such as food preservation and processing conditions, and even in infection of the gastrointestinal tracts of humans. Particularly, this microaerophilic foodborne pathogen must survive in the atmospheric conditions prior to the initiation of infection. C. jejuni possesses unique regulatory mechanisms for oxidative stress resistance. Lacking OxyR and SoxRS that are highly conserved in other Gram-negative foodborne pathogens, C. jejuni modulates the expression of genes involved in oxidative stress resistance mainly via the peroxide resistance regulator and Campylobacter oxidative stress regulator. Based on recent findings of ours and others, in this review, we described how C. jejuni regulates the expression of oxidative stress defense. PMID:26284041

  4. Genomic Epidemiology: Whole-Genome-Sequencing-Powered Surveillance and Outbreak Investigation of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiangyu; den Bakker, Henk C; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2016-01-01

    As we are approaching the twentieth anniversary of PulseNet, a network of public health and regulatory laboratories that has changed the landscape of foodborne illness surveillance through molecular subtyping, public health microbiology is undergoing another transformation brought about by so-called next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies that have made whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of foodborne bacterial pathogens a realistic and superior alternative to traditional subtyping methods. Routine, real-time, and widespread application of WGS in food safety and public health is on the horizon. Technological, operational, and policy challenges are still present and being addressed by an international and multidisciplinary community of researchers, public health practitioners, and other stakeholders. PMID:26772415

  5. Molecular Detection of Foodborne Pathogens: A Rapid and Accurate Answer to Food Safety.

    PubMed

    Mangal, Manisha; Bansal, Sangita; Sharma, Satish K; Gupta, Ram K

    2016-07-01

    Food safety is a global health concern. For the prevention and recognition of problems related to health and safety, detection of foodborne pathogen is of utmost importance at all levels of food production chain. For several decades, a lot of research has been targeted at the development of rapid methodology as reducing the time needed to complete pathogen detection tests has been the primary goal of food microbiologists. With the result, food microbiology laboratories now have a wide array of detection methods and automated technologies such as enzyme immunoassay, polymerase chain reaction, and microarrays, which can cut test times considerably. Nucleic acid amplification strategies and advances in amplicon detection methodologies have been the key factors in the progress of molecular microbiology. A comprehensive literature survey has been carried out to give an overview in the field of foodborne pathogen detection. In this paper, we describe the conventional methods, as well as recent developments in food pathogen detection, identification, and quantification, with a major emphasis on molecular detection methods. PMID:25830555

  6. Role of Flies as Vectors of Foodborne Pathogens in Rural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate flies as a vector for foodborne pathogens. For this purpose, several flies were collected from different sites from rural areas. These flies were then analyzed for the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus coagulase positive, and Listeria monocytogenes. Another aim of this study was to evaluate some virulence factors of the collected pathogens: susceptibility to some antibiotics and the presence of enterotoxigenic S. aureus. The results showed that flies in the presence of animals demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence of the studied pathogens than those collected in the kitchens, and kitchens situated in the closest proximity to the animal husbandry had a higher count than the kitchens in private houses. Enterobacteriaceae was the indicator organism with the highest microbial counts followed by E. coli and S. aureus. Listeria monocytogenes was not detected from any of the collected flies. The antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the bacteria carried by the flies possessed multiantibiotic resistance profiles, and enterotoxin A was produced by 17.9% of the confirmed S. aureus isolates. These results demonstrate that flies can transmit foodborne pathogens and their associated toxin and resistance and the areas of higher risk are those in closer proximity to animal production sites. PMID:23984181

  7. Bacterial Quality and Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Edible Offal from Slaughterhouses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Min Chan; Seo, Kwang Won; Bae, Dong Hwa; Lee, Young Ju

    2016-01-01

    Edible offal meats have recently received significant attention worldwide. However, studies evaluating the microbial quality of diverse edible offal and specifically investigating contamination by pathogens that cause foodborne illnesses are rare. Our study was conducted to investigate the microbiological quality of six kinds of edible offal produced from 11 pigs and 8 cattle slaughterhouses in the Republic of Korea and the prevalence of pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in these products. The values for aerobic plate counts, coliform counts, and E. coli counts in red offal were 1.00 to 6.70, 0 (below 10 CFU) to 4.78, and 0 to 4.00 log CFU/g, respectively. For green offal, the values were 3.00 to 7.00, 1.48 to 6.30, and 0 to 6.00 log CFU/g, respectively. The most frequently detected foodborne pathogen was Salmonella (23.8% prevalence in pig offal and 7.1% prevalence in cattle offal), followed by C. perfringens (11.1 and 7.1%, respectively) and S. aureus (12.7 and 2.4%, respectively). None of the offal samples tested positive for E. coli O157:H7. Considering the microbial quality of offal from Korean slaughterhouses and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens in this material, more refined hygienic standards such as a hazard analysis critical control point system for processing, packing, and transporting edible offal are necessary for preventing further contamination. PMID:26735045

  8. Fully integrated lab-on-a-disc for nucleic acid analysis of food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae-Hyeong; Park, Juhee; Kim, Chi-Ju; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2014-04-15

    This paper describes a micro total analysis system for molecular analysis of Salmonella, a major food-borne pathogen. We developed a centrifugal microfluidic device, which integrated the three main steps of pathogen detection, DNA extraction, isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), and detection, onto a single disc. A single laser diode was utilized for wireless control of valve actuation, cell lysis, and noncontact heating in the isothermal amplification step, thereby yielding a compact and miniaturized system. To achieve high detection sensitivity, rare cells in large volumes of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and milk samples were enriched before loading onto the disc by using antibody-coated magnetic beads. The entire procedure, from DNA extraction through to detection, was completed within 30 min in a fully automated fashion. The final detection was carried out using lateral flow strips by direct visual observation; detection limit was 10 cfu/mL and 10(2) cfu/mL in PBS and milk, respectively. Our device allows rapid molecular diagnostic analysis and does not require specially trained personnel or expensive equipment. Thus, we expect that it would have an array of potential applications, including in the detection of food-borne pathogens, environmental monitoring, and molecular diagnostics in resource-limited settings. PMID:24635032

  9. Parametric distributions of underdiagnosis parameters used to estimate annual burden of illness for five foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ebel, Eric D; Williams, Michael S; Schlosser, Wayne D

    2012-04-01

    Estimates of the burden of bacterial foodborne illness are used in applications ranging from determining economic losses due to a particular pathogenic organism to improving our understanding of the effects of antimicrobial resistance or changes in pathogen serotype. Estimates of the total number of illnesses can be derived by multiplying the number of observed illnesses, as reported by a specific active surveillance system, by an underdiagnosis factor that describes the relationship between observed and unobserved cases. The underdiagnosis factor can be a fixed value, but recent research efforts have focused on characterizing the inherent uncertainty in the surveillance system with a computer simulation. Although the inclusion of uncertainty is beneficial, re-creating the simulation results for every application can be burdensome. An alternative approach is to describe the underdiagnosis factor and its uncertainty with a parametric distribution. The use of such a distribution simplifies analyses by providing a closed-form definition of the underdiagnosis factor and allows this factor to be easily incorporated into Bayesian models. In this article, we propose and estimate parametric distributions for the underdiagnosis multipliers developed for the FoodNet surveillance systems in the United States. Distributions are provided for the five foodborne pathogens deemed most relevant to meat and poultry. PMID:22488071

  10. Rapid analysis of foodborne pathogens by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Atanu; Shende, Chetan; Huang, Hermes; Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank

    2012-05-01

    Foodborne diseases resulting from Campylobacter, Escherichia, Listeria, Salmonella, Shigella and Vibrio species affect as many as 76 million persons in the United States each year, resulting in 325,000 hospitalizations and 5,000 deaths. The challenge to preventing distribution and consumption of contaminated foods lies in the fact that just a few bacterial cells can rapidly multiply to millions, reaching infectious doses within a few days. Unfortunately, current methods used to detect these few cells rely on lengthy growth enrichment steps that take a similar amount of time (1 to 4 days). Consequently, there is a critical need for an analyzer that can rapidly extract and detect foodborne pathogens in 1-2 hours (not days), at 100 colony forming units per gram of food, and with a specificity that differentiates from indigenous microflora, so that false alarms are eliminated. In an effort to meet this need, we have been developing a sample system that extracts such pathogens from food, selectively binds these pathogens, and produces surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS). Here we present preliminary SERS measurements of Listeria and Salmonella.

  11. Comparative Resistance of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens to Non-thermal Technologies for Food Preservation.

    PubMed

    Cebrián, Guillermo; Mañas, Pilar; Condón, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to manosonication (MS), pulsed electric fields (PEFs), high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), and UV-light (UV) is reviewed and compared. The influence of different factors on the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to these technologies is also compared and discussed. Only results obtained under harmonized experimental conditions have been considered. This has allowed us to establish meaningful comparisons and draw significant conclusions. Among the six microorganisms here considered, Staphyloccocus aureus is the most resistant foodborne pathogen to MS and HHP and Listeria monocytogenes to UV. The target microorganism of PEF would change depending on the treatment medium pH. Thus, L. monocytogenes is the most PEF resistant microorganism at neutral pH but Gram-negatives (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter jejuni) would display a similar or even higher resistance at acidic pH. It should be noted that, in acidic products, the baroresistance of some E. coli strains would be comparable to that of S. aureus. The factors affecting the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens, as well as the magnitude of the effect, varied depending on the technology considered. Inter- and intra-specific differences in microbial resistance to PEF and HHP are much greater than to MS and UV. Similarly, both the pH and aw of the treatment medium highly condition microbial resistance to PEF and HHP but no to MS or UV. Growth phase also drastically affected bacterial HHP resistance. Regarding UV, the optical properties of the medium are, by far, the most influential factor affecting its lethal efficacy. Finally, increasing treatment temperature leads to a significant increase in lethality of the four technologies, what opens the possibility of the development of combined processes including heat. The appearance of sublethally damaged cells following PEF and HHP treatments could also be

  12. Comparative Resistance of Bacterial Foodborne Pathogens to Non-thermal Technologies for Food Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Cebrián, Guillermo; Mañas, Pilar; Condón, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to manosonication (MS), pulsed electric fields (PEFs), high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), and UV-light (UV) is reviewed and compared. The influence of different factors on the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens to these technologies is also compared and discussed. Only results obtained under harmonized experimental conditions have been considered. This has allowed us to establish meaningful comparisons and draw significant conclusions. Among the six microorganisms here considered, Staphyloccocus aureus is the most resistant foodborne pathogen to MS and HHP and Listeria monocytogenes to UV. The target microorganism of PEF would change depending on the treatment medium pH. Thus, L. monocytogenes is the most PEF resistant microorganism at neutral pH but Gram-negatives (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Campylobacter jejuni) would display a similar or even higher resistance at acidic pH. It should be noted that, in acidic products, the baroresistance of some E. coli strains would be comparable to that of S. aureus. The factors affecting the resistance of bacterial foodborne pathogens, as well as the magnitude of the effect, varied depending on the technology considered. Inter- and intra-specific differences in microbial resistance to PEF and HHP are much greater than to MS and UV. Similarly, both the pH and aw of the treatment medium highly condition microbial resistance to PEF and HHP but no to MS or UV. Growth phase also drastically affected bacterial HHP resistance. Regarding UV, the optical properties of the medium are, by far, the most influential factor affecting its lethal efficacy. Finally, increasing treatment temperature leads to a significant increase in lethality of the four technologies, what opens the possibility of the development of combined processes including heat. The appearance of sublethally damaged cells following PEF and HHP treatments could also be

  13. [Investigation of pathogenic phenotypes and virulence determinants of food-borne Salmonella enterica strains in Caenorhabditis elegans animal model].

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Deniz; Şen, Ece

    2015-10-01

    between 3.4 and 7.3 days. The significance of the differences between TD50 values of the positive control and experimental groups was analysed by using Student's t test. Ten of the isolates (31.25%), of which six belonged to Infantis and four to the Enteritidis serotypes were non-pathogenic, and the rest 22 isolates including Infantis, Kentucky and Telaviv serovars (67.75%) were found to be pathogenic for the C.elegans animal system (p< 0.05). Twenty of the isolates (90.9%) which were determined as pathogens showed multiple drug resistance and three of them possessed 1-3 plasmids, sizes between 1.2 - 42.4 kb. The overall results underlined wide distribution of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica strains and provided a practical alternative for studies aiming determination of pathogenic potential of environmental and food-borne strains through new experimental animal infection model. In this study, C.elegans was utilized for the first time to determine the profiles of pathogenicity of food-borne Salmonella serotypes in Turkey. PMID:26649409

  14. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese. PMID:26540146

  15. New Trends in Impedimetric Biosensors for the Detection of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yixian; Ye, Zunzhong; Ying, Yibin

    2012-01-01

    The development of a rapid, sensitive, specific method for the foodborne pathogenic bacteria detection is of great importance to ensure food safety and security. In recent years impedimetric biosensors which integrate biological recognition technology and impedance have gained widespread application in the field of bacteria detection. This paper presents an overview on the progress and application of impedimetric biosensors for detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria, particularly the new trends in the past few years, including the new specific bio-recognition elements such as bacteriophage and lectin, the use of nanomaterials and microfluidics techniques. The applications of these new materials or techniques have provided unprecedented opportunities for the development of high-performance impedance bacteria biosensors. The significant developments of impedimetric biosensors for bacteria detection in the last five years have been reviewed according to the classification of with or without specific bio-recognition element. In addition, some microfluidics systems, which were used in the construction of impedimetric biosensors to improve analytical performance, are introduced in this review. PMID:22737018

  16. Pressed Paper-Based Dipstick for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens with Multistep Reactions.

    PubMed

    Park, Juhwan; Shin, Joong Ho; Park, Je-Kyun

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a pressed paper-based dipstick that enables detection of foodborne pathogens with multistep reactions by exploiting the delayed fluid flow and channel partition formation on nitrocellulose (NC) membrane. Fluid behaviors are easily modified by controlling the amount of pressure and the position of pressed region on the NC membrane. Detection region of the dipstick is optimized by controlling flow rate and delayed time based on Darcy's law. All the reagents required for assay are dried on the NC membrane and they are sequentially rehydrated at the prepartitioned regions when the device is dipped into sample solution. In this manner, multistep reactions can be facilitated by one-step dipping of the dipstick into the sample solution. As a proof of concept, we performed detection of two fatal foodborne pathogens (e.g., Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium) with signal enhancement. In addition, we expanded the utilization of channel partitions by developing a pressed paper-based dipstick into dual detection format. PMID:26977712

  17. Radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens in meat byproducts with different packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Hae In; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Nam, Ki Chang; Kwon, Joong Ho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine radiation sensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in edible meat byproducts. Seven beef byproducts (heart, liver, lung, lumen, omasum, large intestine, and small intestine) and four pork byproducts (heart, large intestine, liver, and small intestine) were used. Electron beam irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of pathogenic microorganisms in meat byproducts and no viable cells were detected in both aerobically- and vacuum-packaged samples irradiated at 4 kGy. Meat byproducts packed under vacuum had higher D10 value than the ones packed aerobically. No significant difference was observed between the D10 values of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes inoculated in either aerobically or vacuum packaged samples. These results suggest that low-dose electron beam irradiation can significantly decrease microbial numbers and reduce the risk of meat byproduct contamination by the foodborne pathogens.

  18. Commercially Available Rapid Methods for Detection of Selected Food-borne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Wladir B; Dudley, Edward G; Doores, Stephanie; Cutter, Catherine N

    2016-07-01

    Generally, the enumeration and isolation of food-borne pathogens is performed using culture-dependent methods. These methods are sensitive, inexpensive, and provide both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the microorganisms present in a sample, but these are time-consuming. For this reason, researchers are developing new techniques that allow detection of food pathogens in shorter period of time. This review identifies commercially available methods for rapid detection and quantification of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in food samples. Three categories are discussed: immunologically based methods, nucleic acid-based assays, and biosensors. This review describes the basic mechanism and capabilities of each method, discusses the difficulties of choosing the most convenient method, and provides an overview of the future challenges for the technology for rapid detection of microorganisms. PMID:25749054

  19. Biopreservative methods to control the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut lettuce.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, M; Abadias, M; Colás-Medà, P; Usall, J; Viñas, I

    2015-12-01

    Fruits and vegetables can become contaminated by foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes, and it has been demonstrated that current industrial sanitizing treatments do not eliminate the pathogens when present. Chemical control is widely used, but biological control appears to be a better solution, mainly using the native microbiota present on fresh produce. The first objective of this study was to isolate native microbiota from whole and fresh-cut produce and to determine whether these bacteria were antagonistic toward foodborne pathogens. A total of 112 putative antagonist isolates were screened for their ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella enterica on lettuce disks. Five different genera reduced S. enterica growth more than 1-log unit at 20°C at the end of 3 days. When tested against L. monocytogenes 230/3, only Pseudomonas sp. strain M309 (M309) was able to reduce pathogen counts by more than 1-log unit. Therefore, M309 strain was selected to be tested on lettuce disks at 10°C against S. enterica, E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. M309 strain was only able to reduce S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7 populations. The second objective was to test different biopreservative methods including M309 strain, Pseudomonas graminis CPA-7 (CPA-7), bacteriophages (Listex P100 and Salmonelex) and nisin at conditions simulating commercial applications against Salmonella and L. monocytogenes on fresh-cut lettuce. The addition of the biopreservative agents did not result in a significant reduction of Salmonella population. However, CPA-7 strain together with nisin reduced L. monocytogenes numbers after 6 days of storage at 10°C. The cocktail of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes was not markedly inactivated by their respective bacteriophage solutions. This study highlighted the potential of biocontrol, but the combination with other technologies may be required to improve their application on fresh-cut lettuce. PMID

  20. Viable but nonculturable state of foodborne pathogens in grapefruit juice: a study of laboratory.

    PubMed

    Nicolò, Marco Sebastiano; Gioffrè, Angela; Carnazza, Santina; Platania, Giuseppe; Silvestro, Isabella Di; Guglielmino, Salvatore Pietro Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Several foodborne human pathogens, when exposed to harsh conditions, enter viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state; however, still open is the question whether VBNC pathogens could be a risk for public health, because, potentially, they can resuscitate. Moreover, cultural methods for food safety control were not able to detect VBNC forms of foodborne bacteria. Particularly, it has not been established whether food chemophysical characteristics can induce VBNC state in contaminating pathogen bacterial populations, especially in food, such as salads and fresh fruit juices, not subjected to any decontamination treatment. In this preliminary study, we intentionally contaminated grapefruit juice to determine whether pathogen bacteria could enter VNBC state. In fact, grapefruit juice contains natural antimicrobial compounds, has an average pH of about 3 and low content in carbohydrates. Such characteristics make grapefruit juice a harsh environment for microbial survival. For this purpose, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644, and Shigella flexneri ATCC 12022, at two different inoculum sizes, have been used. Viability by the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability kit and culturability by plate counts assay were monitored, whereas "resuscitation" of nonculturable populations was attempted by inoculation in nutrient-rich media. The data showed that L. monocytogenes lost both culturability and viability and did not resuscitate within 24 h independently on inoculum size, whereas E. coli O157:H7 was able to resuscitate after 24 h but did not after 48 h. Salmonella Typhimurium and S. flexneri, depending on inoculum size, lost culturability but maintained viability and were able to resuscitate; moreover, S. flexneri was still able to form colonies after 48 h at high inoculum size. In conclusion, entry into VBNC state differs on the species, depending, in turn, on inoculum size and time of incubation

  1. Reducing foodborne pathogen persistence and transmission in animal production environments: Challenges and Opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preharvest strategies to reduce zoonotic pathogens in food animals are important components of the farm-to-table food safety continuum. The problem is complex; there are multiple pathogens of concern, multiple animal species under different production and management systems, and a variety of source...

  2. [The study of influence of stresses on virulence genes expression in foodborne pathogens Campylobacter jejuni].

    PubMed

    Efimochkina, N R; Bykova, I B; Markova, Yu M; Korotkevich, Yu V; Sheveleva, S A

    2016-01-01

    The study of the responses to cold exposure in Campylobacterjejuni (C. jejuni)--one of the most common foodborne pathogens is important for elucidating the mechanisms of acquisition of products contaminated with campylobacter, hazardous properties. These data are also necessary to create effective systems of microbiological controls at all stages of production and storage of food. 5 pairs of oligonucleotide primers were selected for detecting of genes cadF, cdtB, ciaB, flaA, iamA, encoding the main factors of pathogenicity of foodborne pathogens Campylobacter jejuni--adhesion and invasion of epithelial cells, production of CDT-toxin and mobility. To quantify the expression levels of target genes of C. jejuni a comparative method of determining the amount of amplification products of genes encoding pathogenicity factors of Campylobacter spp. has been developed using real-time PCR with intercalating dyes. To calculate and quantify gene expression the mathematical models have been obtained that allow extrapolation of threshold cycles of amplification to the initial number of copies of RNA/DNA in the tested samples. It has been established that exposure of C. jejuni at low temperatures +4 degrees C did not lead to increased levels of expression of genes cdtB and ciaB. However, in the populations of C. jejuni subjected to freezing, followed by incubation at optimum for the pathogen temperature of +42 degrees C, the increase in expression of mRNA encoding protein subunit B of CDT-toxin and antigenic marker of invasion took place. The number of copies of RNA in C. jejuni after stress exposure increased by 1.14-2.6 lg in comparison with intact cultures. CdtB and ciaB gene expression in C. jejuni can serve as an indicator of cell response to stress and helps to restore the functions of the bacterial cells after the termination of cold exposure and return of the pathogen in conditions favourable to the realization of its pathogenic potential. PMID:27228703

  3. The Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system: a web-based resource to aid food safety, regulatory science, and investigations of foodborne pathogens and disease.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, G; Hari, K; Jain, R; Mammel, M K; Kothary, M H; Franco, A A; Grim, C J; Jarvis, K G; Sathyamoorthy, V; Hu, L; Datta, A R; Patel, I R; Jackson, S A; Gangiredla, J; Kotewicz, M L; LeClerc, J E; Wekell, M; McCardell, B A; Solomotis, M D; Tall, B D

    2013-06-01

    Investigation of foodborne diseases requires the capture and analysis of time-sensitive information on microbial pathogens that is derived from multiple analytical methods and sources. The web-based Pathogen-annotated Tracking Resource Network (PATRN) system (www.patrn.net) was developed to address the data aggregation, analysis, and communication needs important to the global food safety community for the investigation of foodborne disease. PATRN incorporates a standard vocabulary for describing isolate metadata and provides a representational schema for a prototypic data exchange standard using a novel data loading wizard for aggregation of assay and attribution information. PATRN currently houses expert-curated, high-quality "foundational datasets" consisting of published experimental results from conventional assays and next generation analysis platforms for isolates of Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio and Cronobacter species. A suite of computational tools for data mining, clustering, and graphical representation is available. Within PATRN, the public curated data repository is complemented by a secure private workspace for user-driven analyses, and for sharing data among collaborators. To demonstrate the data curation, loading wizard features, and analytical capabilities of PATRN, three use-case scenarios are presented. Use-case scenario one is a comparison of the distribution and prevalence of plasmid-encoded virulence factor genes among 249 Cronobacter strains with similar attributes to that of nine Cronobacter isolates from recent cases obtained between March and October, 2010-2011. To highlight PATRN's data management and trend finding tools, analysis of datasets, stored in PATRN as part of an ongoing surveillance project to identify the predominant molecular serogroups among Cronobacter sakazakii isolates observed in the USA is shown. Use-case scenario two demonstrates the secure workspace available for private

  4. Microbial Assessment and Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Natural Cheeses in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Enkhtuya, Budbazar; Kusumoto, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The production and consumption of domestic natural cheese in Japan is increasing year by year. More than ninety percent of domestic natural cheese is produced in Hokkaido region of Japan, while information on its quality and safety related to foodborne pathogens is limited. To assess the microbiological safety of domestic natural cheese, a total of 126 natural cheese samples produced in Hokkaido were collected from December, 2012, to July, 2013. In addition to standard plate count (SPC) and coliform counts, the prevalence study of three pathogens (Listeria monocytogenes, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp.) was performed on each sample. Real-time PCR and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer methods were employed for identification of presumptive pathogens. Coliform was detected in 25 samples (19.8%) with a minimum of 25 cfu/g and a maximum of more than 3.0 × 106 cfu/g. Salmonella spp. and L. monocytogenes were not isolated from any of the samples. Only one sample (0.80%) showed positive PCR amplification for ipaH gene suggesting possible contamination of enteroinvasive E. coli or Shigella in this product. Overall results indicate that natural cheeses produced in Hokkaido region were satisfactory microbiological quality according to existing international standards. PMID:24490148

  5. Simultaneous, specific and real-time detection of biothreat and frequently encountered food-borne pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Woubit, Abdela Salah; Yehualaeshet, Teshome; Habtemariam, Tsegaye; Samuel, Temesgen

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial genera Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Yersinia and Francisella include important food safety and biothreat agents causing food-related and other human illnesses worldwide. We aimed to develop rapid methods with the capability to simultaneously and differentially detect all six pathogens in one run. Our initial experiments to use previously reported sets of primers revealed non-specificity of some of the sequences when tested against a broader array of pathogens, or proved not optimal for simultaneous detection parameters. By extensive mining of the whole genome and protein databases of diverse closely and distantly related bacterial species and strains, we have identified unique genome regions, which we utilized to develop a detection platform. Twelve of the specific genomic targets we have identified to design the primers in F. tularensis ssp. tularensis, F. tularensis ssp. novicida, S. dysentriae, S. typhimurium, V. cholera, Y. pestis, and Y. pseudotuberculosis contained either hypothetical or putative proteins, the functions of which have not been clearly defined. Corresponding primer sets were designed from the target regions for use in real-time PCR assays to detect specific biothreat pathogens at species or strain levels. The primer sets were first tested by in-silico PCR against whole genome sequences of different species, sub-species, or strains and then by in vitro PCR against genomic DNA preparations from 23 strains representing six biothreat agents (E.coli O157:H7 strain EDL 933, Shigella dysentriae, Salmonella typhi, Francisella tularensis ssp. tularensis, Vibrio cholera, and Yersinia pestis) and six foodborne pathogens (Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella saintpaul, Shigella sonnei, Francisella novicida, Vibrio parahemolytica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis). Each pathogen was specifically identifiable at the genus and species levels. Sensitivity assays performed using purified DNA showed the lowest detection limit of 640 fg

  6. Antibacterial activity of three medicinal Thai plants against Campylobacter jejuni and other foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dholvitayakhun, Achara; Cushnie, T P Tim; Trachoo, Nathanon

    2012-01-01

    Leaves of Adenanthera pavonina, Moringa oleifera and Annona squamosa are used in traditional Thai medicine to treat dysentery and other diseases. This study investigated the antibacterial activity of these plants against six species of foodborne pathogen. Methods and solvents employed to extract active constituents were optimised using the disc diffusion assay. Phytochemical analysis of the optimised extracts was performed by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined by broth microdilution. A. pavonina contained flavonoids, terpines and tannins, and was the most active extract against Campylobacter jejuni, inhibiting growth at 62.5-125 µg mL(-1). The A. squamosa extract contained flavonoids, terpines, tannins and alkaloids, and had the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activity, inhibiting Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and C. jejuni between 62.5 and 500 µg mL(-1). MBCs were 2- to 4-fold higher than MICs against C. jejuni and B. cereus, suggesting the extracts are bactericidal against these species. Negligible activity was detected from M. oleifera. The data presented here show that A. pavonina and A. squamosa could potentially be used in modern applications aimed at the treatment or prevention of foodborne diseases. PMID:21878033

  7. Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens in Retail Prepacked Ready-to-Eat Mixed Ingredient Salads.

    PubMed

    Söderqvist, Karin; Thisted Lambertz, Susanne; Vågsholm, Ivar; Boqvist, Sofia

    2016-06-01

    Prepacked ready-to-eat mixed ingredient salads (RTE salads) are readily available whole meals that include a variety of ingredients such as raw vegetables, cooked meat, and pasta. As part of a trend toward healthy convenience foods, RTE salads have become an increasingly popular product among consumers. However, data on the incidence of foodborne pathogens in RTE salads are scarce. In this study, the microbiological safety of 141 RTE salads containing chicken, ham, or smoked salmon was investigated. Salad samples were collected at retail and analyzed using standard methods for Listeria monocytogenes, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella, and Campylobacter spp.L. monocytogenes was isolated from two (1.4%) of the RTE salad samples. Seven (5.0%) of the samples were positive for the ail gene (present in all human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates) and three (2.1%) of the samples were positive for the Shiga toxin genes stx1 and/or stx2. However, no strains of pathogenic Y.enterocolitica or STEC were isolated. Thus, pathogens were found or suspected in almost 1 of 10 RTE salads investigated, and pathogenic bacteria probably are present in various RTE salads from retail premises in Sweden. Because RTE salads are intended to be consumed without heat treatment, control of the ingredients and production hygiene is essential to maintain consumer safety. The recommended maximum storage temperature for RTE salads varies among countries but can be up to 8°C (e.g., in Sweden). Even during a short shelf life (3 to 5 days), storage at 8°C can enable growth of psychrotrophs such as L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica. The maximum storage temperature should therefore be reduced. PMID:27296602

  8. Modeling optimal process conditions for UV-heat inactivation of foodborne pathogens in liquid foods.

    PubMed

    Gayán, Elisa; Serrano, María Jesús; Álvarez, Ignacio; Condón, Santiago

    2016-12-01

    The combination of ultraviolet radiation and heat (UV-H treatment) has been demonstrated as a promising strategy to overcome the limited UV germicidal effect in fruit juices. Nonetheless, there are so far no data regarding the efficacy of the combined process for the inactivation of bacterial foodborne pathogens in other liquid foods with different pH and composition. In this investigation, the optimum UV-H processing conditions for the inactivation of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and S. aureus in chicken and vegetable broth, in addition to juices, were determined. From these data models that accurately predict the most advantageous UV-H treatment temperature and the expected synergistic lethal effect from UV and heat resistance data separately were constructed. Equations demonstrated that the optimum UV-H treatment temperature mostly depended on heat resistance, whereas the maximum synergistic lethal effect also was affected by the UV resistance of the microorganism of concern in a particular food. PMID:27554141

  9. Potential for bio-control of food-borne pathogens with Bacteriovorax spp. and implications for food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacteriovorax spp. (Bvx) are delta proteobacteria adapted to marine ecosystems where salinity concentration range from 1-3%. Due to their predation of Gram-negative bacteria, Bvx may have great potential for biocontrol of food-borne pathogens on fruits and leafy greens. The goal of this research was...

  10. The use of Flagella and Motility for plant colonization and fitness by different strains of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role of flagella and motility in the attachment of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to various surfaces is mixed with some systems requiring flagella for an interaction and others needing only motility for cells to get to the surface. In nature this bacterium is a saprophyte and co...

  11. Learning about Foodborne Pathogens: Evaluation of Student Perceptions of Group Project Work in a Food Microbiology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of students in an active learning group work exercise in an introductory food microbiology course involving the study of foodborne pathogens. Small groups were required to access, analyze, and present information regarding a single food poisoning bacterium. The presentations contained features and…

  12. Ralstonia insidiosa serves as bridges in biofilm formation by foodborne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces in fresh produce processing facilities might play a role in foodborne outbreaks by providing protective microniches for pathogenic bacteria. Our previous study showed that a strain of Ralstonia insidiosa isolated from a fresh produce processing plant could enhan...

  13. Top-down proteomic identification of protein biomarkers of food-borne pathogens using MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter describes a step-by-step protocol and discussion of top-down proteomic identification of protein biomarkers of food-borne pathogens using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS/MS) and web-based software developed in the Pro...

  14. Draft genome sequence of Pantoea agglomerans R190, a producer of antibiotics against phytopathogens and foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeong-A; Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Byoung-Young; Heu, Sunggi

    2014-10-20

    Pantoea agglomerans R190, isolated from an apple orchard, showed antibacterial activity against various spoilage bacteria, including Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, and foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli O157:H7. Here, we report the genome sequence of P. agglomerans R190. This report will raise the value of P. agglomerans as an agent for biocontrol of disease. PMID:25087741

  15. Immunological biosensing of foodborne pathogenic bacteria using electrochemical and light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) detection platforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that contaminated foods account for 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3000 deaths per year in the United States alone. Of these cases,9.4 million have been attributed to 31 major foodborne pathogens. Microbial culture-bas...

  16. [Development of molecular detection of food-borne pathogenic bacteria using miniaturized microfluidic devices].

    PubMed

    Iván, Kristóf; Maráz, Anna

    2015-12-20

    Detection and identification of food-borne pathogenic bacteria are key points for the assurance of microbiological food safety. Traditional culture-based methods are more and more replaced by or supplemented with nucleic acid based molecular techniques, targeting specific (preferably virulence) genes in the genomes. Internationally validated DNA amplification - most frequently real-time polymerase chain reaction - methods are applied by the food microbiological testing laboratories for routine analysis, which will result not only in shortening the time for results but they also improve the performance characteristics (e.g. sensitivity, specificity) of the methods. Beside numerous advantages of the polymerase chain reaction based techniques for routine microbiological analysis certain drawbacks have to be mentioned, such as the high cost of the equipment and reagents, as well as the risk of contamination of the laboratory environment by the polymerase chain reaction amplicons, which require construction of an isolated laboratory system. Lab-on-a-chip systems can integrate most of these laboratory processes within a miniaturized device that delivers the same specificity and reliability as the standard protocols. The benefits of miniaturized devices are: simple - often automated - use, small overall size, portability, sterility due to single use possibility. These miniaturized rapid diagnostic tests are being researched and developed at the best research centers around the globe implementing various sample preparation and molecular DNA amplification methods on-chip. In parallel, the aim of the authors' research is to develop microfluidic Lab-on-a-chip devices for the detection and identification of food-borne pathogenic bacteria. PMID:26654545

  17. Four-year monitoring of foodborne pathogens in raw milk sold by vending machines in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Bonilauri, Paolo; Serraino, Andrea; Peli, Angelo; Amatiste, Simonetta; Arrigoni, Norma; Bianchi, Manila; Bilei, Stefano; Cascone, Giuseppe; Comin, Damiano; Daminelli, Paolo; Decastelli, Lucia; Fustini, Mattia; Mion, Renzo; Petruzzelli, Annalisa; Rosmini, Roberto; Rugna, Gianluca; Tamba, Marco; Tonucci, Franco; Bolzoni, Giuseppe

    2013-11-01

    Prevalence data were collected from official microbiological records monitoring four selected foodborne pathogens (Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter jejuni) in raw milk sold by self-service vending machines in seven Italian regions (60,907 samples from 1,239 vending machines) from 2008 to 2011. Data from samples analyzed by both culture-based and real-time PCR methods were collected in one region. One hundred raw milk consumers in four regions were interviewed while purchasing raw milk from vending machines. One hundred seventy-eight of 60,907 samples were positive for one of the four foodborne pathogens investigated: 18 samples were positive for Salmonella, 83 for L. monocytogenes, 24 for E. coli O157:H7, and 53 for C. jejuni in the seven regions investigated. No significant differences in prevalence were found among regions, but a significant increase in C. jejuni prevalence was observed over the years of the study. A comparison of the two analysis methods revealed that real-time PCR was 2.71 to 9.40 times more sensitive than the culture-based method. Data on consumer habits revealed that some behaviors may enhance the risk of infection linked to raw milk consumption: 37% of consumers did not boil milk before consumption, 93% never used an insulated bag to transport raw milk home, and raw milk was consumed by children younger than 5 years of age. These results emphasize that end-product controls alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate level of consumer protection. The beta distribution of positive samples in this study and the data on raw milk consumer habits will be useful for the development of a national quantitative risk assessment of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157, and C. jejuni infection associated with raw milk consumption. PMID:24215694

  18. [Investigation of antitumorigenic effects of food-borne non-pathogenic and pathogenic Salmonella enterica strains on MEF, DU145 and HeLa cell lines].

    PubMed

    Altıntaş Kazar, Gamze; Şen, Ece

    2016-07-01

    Basic applications in cancer therapy may fail to eradicate cancer cells completely, they can show toxic affects to healthy cells and development of resistance to antitumor agents may increase tendency to metastasis. Bacterial therapies have the advantage of specific targetting of tumors by selective toxicity, responsiveness to external signals, self-propelling capacity, and the sense of microenvironment. The most interest on the bacterial cancer therapy is about Salmonella spp. with a special emphasis of S.Typhimurium. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumorigenic effects of food-borne non-pathogenic and pathogenic Salmonella enterica strains on different cell cultures. Non-pathogenic Salmonella Enteriditis (A17) and pathogenic Salmonella Telaviv (A22) strains isolated from chicken carcasses which were put on the market in Edirne province (located at Thrace region of Turkey), and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 strain were used in the study. ATCC-derived MEF (mouse embryonic fibroblasts), DU145 (human prostate cancer cells), and HeLa (human cervical cancer cells) cell lines were cocultivated with Salmonella strains of MOI (Multiplicity of infection; number of bacteria:number of cell) of 1000:1, 100:1, 10:1, 1:1, 0.1:1. The cell viability was measured by colorimetric MTT cytotoxicity assay, the percentage of apoptosis was assessed by Tali® Apoptosis Assay-Annexin V Alexa Fluor® 488 kit (Invitrogen, Molecular Probes, Life Technologies, USA), and the caspase-3 activity was determined by colorimetric protease ApoTarget™ kit (Invitrogen, BioSource International, USA). It was shown that non-pathogenic S.Enteriditis (A17) decreased cell viability approximately to 70%, wheras patogenic S.Telaviv (A22) and standart S.Typhimurium ATCC 14028 strains reduced cell viability approximately to 80%. Adversely, it was also observed that pathogenic S.Telaviv (A22) strain induces apoptosis more effectively than non-pathogenic S.Enteriditis (A17) and S

  19. Intra- and inter-species interactions within biofilms of important foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Giaouris, Efstathios; Heir, Even; Desvaux, Mickaël; Hébraud, Michel; Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig; Doulgeraki, Agapi; Nychas, George-John; Kačániová, Miroslava; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Ölmez, Hülya; Simões, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A community-based sessile life style is the normal mode of growth and survival for many bacterial species. Under such conditions, cell-to-cell interactions are inevitable and ultimately lead to the establishment of dense, complex and highly structured biofilm populations encapsulated in a self-produced extracellular matrix and capable of coordinated and collective behavior. Remarkably, in food processing environments, a variety of different bacteria may attach to surfaces, survive, grow, and form biofilms. Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus are important bacterial pathogens commonly implicated in outbreaks of foodborne diseases, while all are known to be able to create biofilms on both abiotic and biotic surfaces. Particularly challenging is the attempt to understand the complexity of inter-bacterial interactions that can be encountered in such unwanted consortia, such as competitive and cooperative ones, together with their impact on the final outcome of these communities (e.g., maturation, physiology, antimicrobial resistance, virulence, dispersal). In this review, up-to-date data on both the intra- and inter-species interactions encountered in biofilms of these pathogens are presented. A better understanding of these interactions, both at molecular and biophysical levels, could lead to novel intervention strategies for controlling pathogenic biofilm formation in food processing environments and thus improve food safety. PMID:26347727

  20. Intra- and inter-species interactions within biofilms of important foodborne bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Giaouris, Efstathios; Heir, Even; Desvaux, Mickaël; Hébraud, Michel; Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig; Doulgeraki, Agapi; Nychas, George-John; Kačániová, Miroslava; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Ölmez, Hülya; Simões, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A community-based sessile life style is the normal mode of growth and survival for many bacterial species. Under such conditions, cell-to-cell interactions are inevitable and ultimately lead to the establishment of dense, complex and highly structured biofilm populations encapsulated in a self-produced extracellular matrix and capable of coordinated and collective behavior. Remarkably, in food processing environments, a variety of different bacteria may attach to surfaces, survive, grow, and form biofilms. Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus are important bacterial pathogens commonly implicated in outbreaks of foodborne diseases, while all are known to be able to create biofilms on both abiotic and biotic surfaces. Particularly challenging is the attempt to understand the complexity of inter-bacterial interactions that can be encountered in such unwanted consortia, such as competitive and cooperative ones, together with their impact on the final outcome of these communities (e.g., maturation, physiology, antimicrobial resistance, virulence, dispersal). In this review, up-to-date data on both the intra- and inter-species interactions encountered in biofilms of these pathogens are presented. A better understanding of these interactions, both at molecular and biophysical levels, could lead to novel intervention strategies for controlling pathogenic biofilm formation in food processing environments and thus improve food safety. PMID:26347727

  1. Biosensors and bio-based methods for the separation and detection of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Arun K

    2008-01-01

    The safety of our food supply is always a major concern to consumers, food producers, and regulatory agencies. A safer food supply improves consumer confidence and brings economic stability. The safety of foods from farm-to-fork through the supply chain continuum must be established to protect consumers from debilitating, sometimes fatal episodes of pathogen outbreaks. The implementation of preventive strategies like hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) assures safety but its full utility will not be realized unless supportive tools are fully developed. Rapid, sensitive, and accurate detection methods are such essential tools that, when integrated with HACCP, will improve safety of products. Traditional microbiological methods are powerful, error-proof, and dependable but these lengthy, cumbersome methods are often ineffective because they are not compatible with the speed at which the products are manufactured and the short shelf life of products. Automation in detection methods is highly desirable, but is not achievable with traditional methods. Therefore, biosensor-based tools offer the most promising solutions and address some of the modern-day needs for fast and sensitive detection of pathogens in real time or near real time. The application of several biosensor tools belonging to the categories of optical, electrochemical, and mass-based tools for detection of foodborne pathogens is reviewed in this chapter. Ironically, geometric growth in biosensor technology is fueled by the imminent threat of bioterrorism through food, water, and air and by the funding through various governmental agencies. PMID:18291303

  2. Segmented continuous-flow multiplex polymerase chain reaction microfluidics for high-throughput and rapid foodborne pathogen detection.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bowen; Zhang, Chunsun; Xing, Da

    2014-05-15

    High-throughput and rapid identification of multiple foodborne bacterial pathogens is vital in global public health and food industry. To fulfill this need, we propose a segmented continuous-flow multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SCF-MPCR) on a spiral-channel microfluidic device. The device consists of a disposable polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary microchannel coiled on three isothermal blocks. Within the channel, n segmented flow regimes are sequentially generated, and m-plex PCR is individually performed in each regime when each mixture is driven to pass three temperature zones, thus providing a rapid analysis throughput of m×n. To characterize the performance of the microfluidic device, continuous-flow multiplex PCR in a single segmented flow has been evaluated by investigating the effect of key reaction parameters, including annealing temperatures, flow rates, polymerase concentration and amount of input DNA. With the optimized parameters, the genomic DNAs from Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus could be amplified simultaneously in 19min, and the limit of detection was low, down to 10(2) copiesμL(-1). As proof of principle, the spiral-channel SCF-MPCR was applied to sequentially amplify four different bacterial pathogens from banana, milk, and sausage, displaying a throughput of 4×3 with no detectable cross-contamination. PMID:24793853

  3. Effects of climate change on the persistence and dispersal of foodborne bacterial pathogens in the outdoor environment: A review.

    PubMed

    Hellberg, Rosalee S; Chu, Eric

    2016-08-01

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), warming of the climate system is unequivocal. Over the coming century, warming trends such as increased duration and frequency of heat waves and hot extremes are expected in some areas, as well as increased intensity of some storm systems. Climate-induced trends will impact the persistence and dispersal of foodborne pathogens in myriad ways, especially for environmentally ubiquitous and/or zoonotic microorganisms. Animal hosts of foodborne pathogens are also expected to be impacted by climate change through the introduction of increased physiological stress and, in some cases, altered geographic ranges and seasonality. This review article examines the effects of climatic factors, such as temperature, rainfall, drought and wind, on the environmental dispersal and persistence of bacterial foodborne pathogens, namely, Bacillus cereus, Brucella, Campylobacter, Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio and Yersinia enterocolitica. These relationships are then used to predict how future climatic changes will impact the activity of these microorganisms in the outdoor environment and associated food safety issues. The development of predictive models that quantify these complex relationships will also be discussed, as well as the potential impacts of climate change on transmission of foodborne disease from animal hosts. PMID:25612827

  4. Genomic paradigms for food-borne enteric pathogen analysis at the USFDA: case studies highlighting method utility, integration and resolution.

    PubMed

    Elkins, C A; Kotewicz, M L; Jackson, S A; Lacher, D W; Abu-Ali, G S; Patel, I R

    2013-01-01

    Modern risk control and food safety practices involving food-borne bacterial pathogens are benefiting from new genomic technologies for rapid, yet highly specific, strain characterisations. Within the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN), optical genome mapping and DNA microarray genotyping have been used for several years to quickly assess genomic architecture and gene content, respectively, for outbreak strain subtyping and to enhance retrospective trace-back analyses. The application and relative utility of each method varies with outbreak scenario and the suspect pathogen, with comparative analytical power enhanced by database scale and depth. Integration of these two technologies allows high-resolution scrutiny of the genomic landscapes of enteric food-borne pathogens with notable examples including Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella enterica serovars from a variety of food commodities. Moreover, the recent application of whole genome sequencing technologies to food-borne pathogen outbreaks and surveillance has enhanced resolution to the single nucleotide scale. This new wealth of sequence data will support more refined next-generation custom microarray designs, targeted re-sequencing and "genomic signature recognition" approaches involving a combination of genes and single nucleotide polymorphism detection to distil strain-specific fingerprinting to a minimised scale. This paper examines the utility of microarrays and optical mapping in analysing outbreaks, reviews best practices and the limits of these technologies for pathogen differentiation, and it considers future integration with whole genome sequencing efforts. PMID:23199033

  5. Applying fluorescence microscopy to the investigation of the behavior of foodborne pathogens on produce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandl, Maria T.

    2009-05-01

    In the past decade, the development of new tools to better visualize microbes at the cellular scale has spurred a renaissance in the application of microscopy to the study of bacteria in their natural environment. This renewed interest in microscopy may be largely attributable to the advent of the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and to the discovery of the green fluorescent protein. This article provides information about the use of fluorescence microscopy combined with fluorescent labels such as GFP, DsRed, and DNA stains, with immunofluorescence, and with digital image analysis, to examine the behavior of bacteria and other microbes on plant surfaces. Some of the advantages and pitfalls of these methods will be described using practical examples derived from studies of the ecology of foodborne pathogens, namely Salmonella enterica and E. coli O157:H7, on fresh fruit and vegetables. Confocal microscopy has been a powerful approach to uncover some of the factors involved in the association of produce with epidemics caused by these human pathogens and their interaction with other microbes in their nonhost environment.

  6. Establishment and Application of a Visual DNA Microarray for the Detection of Food-borne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongjin

    2016-01-01

    The accurate detection and identification of food-borne pathogenic microorganisms is critical for food safety nowadays. In the present work, a visual DNA microarray was established and applied to detect pathogens commonly found in food, including Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in food samples. Multiplex PCR (mPCR) was employed to simultaneously amplify specific gene fragments, fimY for Salmonella, ipaH for Shigella, iap for L. monocytogenes and ECs2841 for E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Biotinylated PCR amplicons annealed to the microarray probes were then reacted with a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3'-indolylphosphate, p-toluidine salt (NBT/BCIP); the positive results were easily visualized as blue dots formatted on the microarray surface. The performance of a DNA microarray was tested against 14 representative collection strains and mock-contamination food samples. The combination of mPCR and a visual micro-plate chip specifically and sensitively detected Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in standard strains and food matrices with a sensitivity of ∼10(2) CFU/mL of bacterial culture. Thus, the developed method is advantageous because of its high throughput, cost-effectiveness and ease of use. PMID:26860568

  7. An assessment of the human health impact of seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using disability adjusted life years.

    PubMed

    Scallan, E; Hoekstra, R M; Mahon, B E; Jones, T F; Griffin, P M

    2015-10-01

    We explored the overall impact of foodborne disease caused by seven leading foodborne pathogens in the United States using the disability adjusted life year (DALY). We defined health states for each pathogen (acute illness and sequelae) and estimated the average annual incidence of each health state using data from public health surveillance and previously published estimates from studies in the United States, Canada and Europe. These pathogens caused about 112 000 DALYs annually due to foodborne illnesses acquired in the United States. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (32 900) and Toxoplasma (32 700) caused the most DALYs, followed by Campylobacter (22 500), norovirus (9900), Listeria monocytogenes (8800), Clostridium perfringens (4000), and Escherichia coli O157 (1200). These estimates can be used to prioritize food safety interventions. Future estimates of the burden of foodborne disease in DALYs would be improved by addressing important data gaps and by the development and validation of US-specific disability weights for foodborne diseases. PMID:25633631

  8. Complete genome sequence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strain FORC_008, a foodborne pathogen from a flounder fish in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suyeon; Chung, Han Young; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lim, Jong Gyu; Kim, Se Keun; Ku, Hye-Jin; Kim, You-Tae; Kim, Heebal; Ryu, Sangryeol; Lee, Ju-Hoon; Choi, Sang Ho

    2016-07-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative, motile, nonspore-forming pathogen that causes foodborne illness associated with the consumption of contaminated seafoods. Although many cases of foodborne outbreaks caused by V. parahaemolyticus have been reported, the genomes of only five strains have been completely sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics. In order to characterize overall virulence factors and pathogenesis of V. parahaemolyticus associated with foodborne outbreak in South Korea, a new strain FORC_008 was isolated from flounder fish and its genome was completely sequenced. The genomic analysis revealed that the genome of FORC_008 consists of two circular DNA chromosomes of 3266 132 bp (chromosome I) and 1772 036 bp (chromosome II) with a GC content of 45.36% and 45.53%, respectively. The entire genome contains 4494 predicted open reading frames, 129 tRNAs and 31 rRNA genes. While the strain FORC_008 does not have genes encoding thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), its genome encodes many other virulence factors including hemolysins, pathogenesis-associated secretion systems and iron acquisition systems, suggesting that it may be a potential pathogen. This report provides an extended understanding on V. parahaemolyticus in genomic level and would be helpful for rapid detection, epidemiological investigation and prevention of foodborne outbreak in South Korea. PMID:27170457

  9. Using lytic bacteriophages to eliminate or significantly reduce contamination of food by foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Bacteriophages (also called 'phages') are viruses that kill bacteria. They are arguably the oldest (3 billion years old, by some estimates) and most ubiquitous (total number estimated to be 10(30) -10(32) ) known organisms on Earth. Phages play a key role in maintaining microbial balance in every ecosystem where bacteria exist, and they are part of the normal microflora of all fresh, unprocessed foods. Interest in various practical applications of bacteriophages has been gaining momentum recently, with perhaps the most attention focused on using them to improve food safety. That approach, called 'phage biocontrol', typically includes three main types of applications: (i) using phages to treat domesticated livestock in order to reduce their intestinal colonization with, and shedding of, specific bacterial pathogens; (ii) treatments for decontaminating inanimate surfaces in food-processing facilities and other food establishments, so that foods processed on those surfaces are not cross-contaminated with the targeted pathogens; and (iii) post-harvest treatments involving direct applications of phages onto the harvested foods. This mini-review primarily focuses on the last type of intervention, which has been gaining the most momentum recently. Indeed, the results of recent studies dealing with improving food safety, and several recent regulatory approvals of various commercial phage preparations developed for post-harvest food safety applications, strongly support the idea that lytic phages may provide a safe, environmentally-friendly, and effective approach for significantly reducing contamination of various foods with foodborne bacterial pathogens. However, some important technical and nontechnical problems may need to be addressed before phage biocontrol protocols can become an integral part of routine food safety intervention strategies implemented by food industries in the USA. PMID:23670852

  10. Edible apple film wraps containing plant antimicrobials inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Ravishankar, Sadhana; Zhu, Libin; Olsen, Carl W; McHugh, Tara H; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-10-01

    Apple-based edible films containing plant antimicrobials were evaluated for their activity against pathogenic bacteria on meat and poultry products. Salmonella enterica or E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) CFU/g) cultures were surface inoculated on chicken breasts and Listeria monocytogenes (10(6) CFU/g) on ham. The inoculated products were then wrapped with edible films containing 3 concentrations (0.5%, 1.5%, and 3%) of cinnamaldehyde or carvacrol. Following incubation at either 23 or 4 degrees C for 72 h, samples were stomached in buffered peptone water, diluted, and plated for enumeration of survivors. The antimicrobial films exhibited concentration-dependent activities against the pathogens tested. At 23 degrees C on chicken breasts, films with 3% antimicrobials showed the highest reductions (4.3 to 6.8 log CFU/g) of both S. enterica and E. coli O157:H7. Films with 1.5% and 0.5% antimicrobials showed 2.4 to 4.3 and 1.6 to 2.8 log reductions, respectively. At 4 degrees C, carvacrol exhibited greater activity than did cinnamaldehyde. Films with 3%, 1.5%, and 0.5% carvacrol reduced the bacterial populations by about 3, 1.6 to 3, and 0.8 to 1 logs, respectively. Films with 3% and 1.5% cinnamaldehyde induced 1.2 to 2.8 and 1.2 to 1.3 log reductions, respectively. For L. monocytogenes on ham, carvacrol films induced greater reductions than did cinnamaldehyde films at all concentrations tested. In general, the reduction of L. monocytogenes on ham at 23 degrees C was greater than at 4 degrees C. Added antimicrobials had minor effects on physical properties of the films. The results suggest that the food industry and consumers could use these films as wrappings to control surface contamination by foodborne pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:19799671

  11. Variations in the radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens associated with complex ready-to-eat food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommers, Christopher H.; Boyd, Glenn

    2006-07-01

    Foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are occasionally associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) sandwiches and other "heat and eat" multi-component RTE products. Ionizing radiation can inactivate foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry, fruits and vegetables, seafood, and RTE meat products. However, less data are available on the ability of low-dose ionizing radiation, doses under 5 kGy typically used for pasteurization purposes, to inactivate pathogenic bacteria on complex multi-component food products. In this study, the efficacy of ionizing radiation to inactivate Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Yersinia enterocolitica on RTE foods including a "frankfurter on a roll", a "beef cheeseburger on a bun" and a "vegetarian cheeseburger on a bun" was investigated. The average D-10 values, the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log 10 of pathogen, by bacterium species, were 0.61, 0.54, 0.47, 0.36 and 0.15 kGy for Salmonella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Y. enterocolitica, respectively when inoculated onto the three product types. These results indicate that irradiation may be an effective means for inactivating common foodborne pathogens including Salmonella spp, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Y. enterocolitica in complex RTE food products such as 'heat and eat" sandwich products.

  12. [The Advances in the Contamination and Detection of Foodborne Pathogen Noroviruses in Fresh Produce].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yajing; Liu, Xianjin

    2015-11-01

    This article reviewed the researches proceeding on the contamination and detection of the foodborne pathogen noroviruses (NoVs) in fresh produce, which involved the NoVs contaminations in fresh produce, the special attachment of NoVs in fresh produce, the NoVs outbreaks associated with fresh produce and the NoVs detection in fresh produce. There had been an increase in reported infectious disease risks associated with the consumptions of fresh produce for recent 30 years. Because the NoVs, as a primary cause of viral gastroenteritis thoughout the world, were highly contagious, had a low infectious dose, and were persistent in the environment. And also the methods for NoVs detection in food had significantly developed over the last 15 years. Currently NoVs were the most common pathogen accounting for 40% of outbreaks associated with fresh produce (i. e., fruits and vegetables). Data from outbreaks investigations verified fresh produce as the high risk food products for NoVs. The fresh produce were typically eaten raw with no thermal processing, can be contaminated at any step during production and processing from faecally polluted water and fertilizers, the poor hygiene practices by food handlers and the cross-contamination. The attachment of NoVs to the fresh produce was due to the physio-chemical factors of virus protein coat, the special attachment to different fresh produce, and the possibility for internalization of NoVs. It might provide answers to why those high risk foods were more frequently implicated (i. e., lettuce and raspberries). According to the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with fresh produce from EU countries and the USA, the outbreaks in EU countries were mainly associated with NoVs contaminated raspberries and lettuce, while in USA which were associated with NoVs contaminated lettuce. Unfortunately, there were no NoVs detection methods for fresh produce or the data of foodborne NoVs outbreaks which were associated with

  13. Inhibitory Effects of Gallic Acid Isolated from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk on Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Lines and Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Rattanata, Narintorn; Klaynongsruang, Sompong; Daduang, Sakda; Tavichakorntrakool, Ratree; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Lekphrom, Ratsami; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Daduang, Jureerut

    2016-01-01

    Gallic acid was isolated from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk and the structure s identified based on spectroscopic analysis and comparison with authentic compound. In this study we compared the ability of natural gallic acid (nGA) and commercial gallic acid (cGA) to inhibit the proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (M213, M214) and foodborne pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella spp. and Plesiomonas shigelloides). Both nGA and cGA had the same inhibitory effects on cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. In addition, nGA inhibited growth of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in the same manner as cGA. Our results suggest that nGA from Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk is a potential anticancer and antibacterial compound. However, in vivo studies are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms involved. PMID:27039769

  14. Gallic acid conjugated with gold nanoparticles: antibacterial activity and mechanism of action on foodborne pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rattanata, Narintorn; Klaynongsruang, Sompong; Leelayuwat, Chanvit; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Lulitanond, Aroonlug; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Chio-Srichan, Sirinart; Soontaranon, Siriwat; Rugmai, Supagorn; Daduang, Jureerut

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens, including Plesiomonas shigelloides and Shigella flexneri B, are the major cause of diarrheal endemics worldwide. Antibiotic drug resistance is increasing. Therefore, bioactive compounds with antibacterial activity, such as gallic acid (GA), are needed. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are used as drug delivery agents. This study aimed to conjugate and characterize AuNP–GA and to evaluate the antibacterial activity. AuNP was conjugated with GA, and the core–shell structures were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial activity of AuNP–GA against P. shigelloides and S. flexneri B was evaluated by well diffusion method. AuNP–GA bactericidal mechanism was elucidated by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic analysis. The results of small-angle X-ray scattering showed that AuNP–GA conjugation was successful. Antibacterial activity of GA against both bacteria was improved by conjugation with AuNP because the minimum inhibitory concentration value of AuNP–GA was significantly decreased (P<0.0001) compared to that of GA. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed that AuNP–GA resulted in alterations of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids at the bacterial cell membrane. Our findings show that AuNP–GA has potential for further application in biomedical sciences. PMID:27555764

  15. Essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria in minced meat.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Rall, Vera Lucia Mores; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique; Ushimaru, Priscila Ikeda; da Silva Probst, Isabella; Fernandes, Ary

    2009-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils of oregano, thyme, basil, marjoram, lemongrass, ginger, and clove was investigated in vitro by agar dilution method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative strains (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Enteritidis). MIC(90%) values were tested against bacterial strains inoculated experimentally in irradiated minced meat and against natural microbiota (aerobic or facultative, mesophilic, and psychrotrophic bacteria) found in minced meat samples. MIC(90%) values ranged from 0.05%v/v (lemongrass oil) to 0.46%v/v (marjoram oil) to Gram-positive bacteria and from 0.10%v/v (clove oil) to 0.56%v/v (ginger oil) to Gram-negative strains. However, the MIC(90%) assessed on minced meat inoculated experimentally with foodborne pathogen strains and against natural microbiota of meat did not show the same effectiveness, and 1.3 and 1.0 were the highest log CFU/g reduction values obtained against tested microorganisms. PMID:19580445

  16. UV-Heat Treatments for the Control of Foodborne Microbial Pathogens in Chicken Broth.

    PubMed

    Gouma, M; Gayán, E; Raso, J; Condón, S; Álvarez, I

    2015-01-01

    This investigation established the process criteria for using UV-C light and mild heat (UV-H treatment) to inactivate 5-Log10 cycles (performance criterion) of common foodborne pathogen populations, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, when inoculated in chicken broth. To define the target microorganism and the proper UV-H treatment conditions (including UV dose, treatment time, and temperature) that would achieve the stated performance criterion, mathematical equations based on Geeraerd's model were developed for each microorganism. For the sake of comparison, inactivation equations for heat treatments were also performed on the same chicken broth and for the same microorganisms. L. monocytogenes was the most UV-H resistant microorganism at all temperatures, requiring a UV dose between 6.10 J/mL (5.6 min) and 2.26 J/mL (2.09 min) to achieve 5-Log10 reductions. In comparison with UV treatments at room temperatures, the combination of UV and mild heat allowed both the UV dose and treatment time to be reduced by 30% and 63% at 55 °C and 60 °C, respectively. Compared to heat treatments, the UV-H process reduced the heating time for 5-Log10 reductions of all the investigated microorganisms in chicken broth from 20-fold to 2-fold when the operating temperature varied from 53 to 60 °C. PMID:26539493

  17. Detection of Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Feeds from Farms to Retail Markets.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Jeon, Su Been; Ok, Hyun Ee; Jung, Hyelee; Choi, Changsun; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2016-01-01

    Contamination by foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins was examined in 475 eggs and 20 feed samples collected from three egg layer farms, three egg-processing units, and five retail markets in Korea. Microbial contamination with Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, and Arcobacter species was examined by bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The contamination levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone in eggs and chicken feeds were simultaneously analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after the post-derivatization. While E. coli was isolated from 9.1% of eggs, Salmonella species were not isolated. Arcobacter species were detected in 0.8% of eggs collected from egg layers by PCR only. While aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone were found in 100%, 100%, and 85% of chicken feeds, their contamination levels were below the maximum acceptable levels (1.86, 2.24, and 147.53 μg/kg, respectively). However, no eggs were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxins, or zearalenone. Therefore, the risk of contamination by mycotoxins and microbes in eggs and chicken feeds is considered negligible and unlikely to pose a threat to human health. PMID:27621686

  18. UV-Heat Treatments for the Control of Foodborne Microbial Pathogens in Chicken Broth

    PubMed Central

    Gouma, M.; Gayán, E.; Raso, J.; Condón, S.; Álvarez, I.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation established the process criteria for using UV-C light and mild heat (UV-H treatment) to inactivate 5-Log10 cycles (performance criterion) of common foodborne pathogen populations, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, when inoculated in chicken broth. To define the target microorganism and the proper UV-H treatment conditions (including UV dose, treatment time, and temperature) that would achieve the stated performance criterion, mathematical equations based on Geeraerd's model were developed for each microorganism. For the sake of comparison, inactivation equations for heat treatments were also performed on the same chicken broth and for the same microorganisms. L. monocytogenes was the most UV-H resistant microorganism at all temperatures, requiring a UV dose between 6.10 J/mL (5.6 min) and 2.26 J/mL (2.09 min) to achieve 5-Log10 reductions. In comparison with UV treatments at room temperatures, the combination of UV and mild heat allowed both the UV dose and treatment time to be reduced by 30% and 63% at 55°C and 60°C, respectively. Compared to heat treatments, the UV-H process reduced the heating time for 5-Log10 reductions of all the investigated microorganisms in chicken broth from 20-fold to 2-fold when the operating temperature varied from 53 to 60°C. PMID:26539493

  19. New antimicrobial peptides against foodborne pathogens: From in silico design to experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Gianna; Balestrieri, Marco; Proroga, Yolande T R; Falcigno, Lucia; Facchiano, Angelo; Riccio, Alessia; Capuano, Federico; Marrone, Raffaele; Neglia, Gianluca; Anastasio, Aniello

    2016-11-15

    Recently there has been growing interest in the discovery of new antimicrobial agents to increase safety and shelf-life of food products. Here, we developed an innovative approach by introducing the concept that mitochondrial targeting peptides (MTP) can interact and disrupt bacterial membranes, acting as antimicrobial agents. As proof-of-principle, we used a multidisciplinary strategy by combining in silico predictions, docking simulations and antimicrobial assays, to identify two peptides, MTP1 and MTP2, which were structurally and functionally characterized. Both compounds appeared effective against Listeria monocytogenes, one of the most important foodborne pathogens. Specifically, a significant bactericidal activity was evidenced with EC50 values of 16.8±1.2μM for MTP1 and 109±7.0μM for MTP2. Finally, NMR structure determinations suggested that MTP1 would be oriented into the membrane bilayer, while the molecular shape of MTP2 could indicate porin-mediated antimicrobial mechanisms, as predicted using molecular docking analysis. Therefore, MTPs represent alternative sources to design new potential bio-preservatives. PMID:27283665

  20. Contamination of knives and graters by bacterial foodborne pathogens during slicing and grating of produce.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Liao, Jean; Cannon, Jennifer L; Ortega, Ynes R

    2015-12-01

    Poor hygiene and improper food preparation practices in consumers' homes have previously been demonstrated as contributing to foodborne diseases. To address potential cross-contamination by kitchen utensils in the home, a series of studies was conducted to determine the extent to which the use of a knife or grater on fresh produce would lead to the utensil's contamination with Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella enterica. When shredding inoculated carrots (ca. 5.3 log CFU/carrot), all graters became contaminated and the number of E. coli O157:H7 present on the utensil was significantly greater than Salmonella (p < 0.05). Contamination of knives after slicing inoculated produce (4.9-5.4 log CFU/produce item) could only be detected by enrichment culture. After slicing tomatoes, honeydew melons, strawberries, cucumbers, and cantaloupes, the average prevalence of knife contamination by the two pathogens was 43%, 17%, 15%, 7%, and 3%, respectively. No significant increase in the incidence or level of contamination occurred on the utensils when residues were present (p > 0.05); however, subsequent contamination of 7 produce items processed with the contaminated utensils did occur. These results highlight the necessity of proper sanitization of these utensils when used in preparation of raw produce. PMID:26338127

  1. Detection of Foodborne Pathogens and Mycotoxins in Eggs and Chicken Feeds from Farms to Retail Markets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minhwa; Seo, Dong Joo; Jeon, Su Been; Ok, Hyun Ee; Jung, Hyelee; Choi, Changsun; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2016-01-01

    Contamination by foodborne pathogens and mycotoxins was examined in 475 eggs and 20 feed samples collected from three egg layer farms, three egg-processing units, and five retail markets in Korea. Microbial contamination with Salmonella species, Escherichia coli, and Arcobacter species was examined by bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The contamination levels of aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone in eggs and chicken feeds were simultaneously analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection after the post-derivatization. While E. coli was isolated from 9.1% of eggs, Salmonella species were not isolated. Arcobacter species were detected in 0.8% of eggs collected from egg layers by PCR only. While aflatoxins, ochratoxins, and zearalenone were found in 100%, 100%, and 85% of chicken feeds, their contamination levels were below the maximum acceptable levels (1.86, 2.24, and 147.53 μg/kg, respectively). However, no eggs were contaminated with aflatoxins, ochratoxins, or zearalenone. Therefore, the risk of contamination by mycotoxins and microbes in eggs and chicken feeds is considered negligible and unlikely to pose a threat to human health. PMID:27621686

  2. The Impact of Carvacrol on Ammonia and Biogenic Amine Production by Common Foodborne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Özogul, Fatih; Kaçar, Çiğdem; Kuley, Esmeray

    2015-12-01

    The impact of carvacrol at different levels (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1%) on ammonia (AMN) and biogenic amines (BAs) production by 8 common foodborne pathogens (FBPs) (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Salmonella Paratyphi A) was studied using a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method. Significant differences among bacteria (P < 0.05) in AMN and BA production were observed using a tyrosine decarboxylase broth. Tyramine, dopamine, agmatine, spermine, and putrescine were the main amines produced by the bacteria. Tyramine production by P. aeruginosa was the highest (967 mg/L), whereas K. pneumoniae was the poorest tyramine producer (6.42 mg/L). AMN and BA production varied significantly depending on carvacrol levels and the specific bacterial strains. Tyramine production for all bacterial strains was significantly suppressed by addition of carvacrol at levels of 0.5% and 1%, but not 0.1%. Consequently, the effect of carvacrol on BA and AMN formation by FBP was dependent on bacterial strain as well as carvacrol level. PMID:26580308

  3. Gallic acid conjugated with gold nanoparticles: antibacterial activity and mechanism of action on foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rattanata, Narintorn; Klaynongsruang, Sompong; Leelayuwat, Chanvit; Limpaiboon, Temduang; Lulitanond, Aroonlug; Boonsiri, Patcharee; Chio-Srichan, Sirinart; Soontaranon, Siriwat; Rugmai, Supagorn; Daduang, Jureerut

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne pathogens, including Plesiomonas shigelloides and Shigella flexneri B, are the major cause of diarrheal endemics worldwide. Antibiotic drug resistance is increasing. Therefore, bioactive compounds with antibacterial activity, such as gallic acid (GA), are needed. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are used as drug delivery agents. This study aimed to conjugate and characterize AuNP-GA and to evaluate the antibacterial activity. AuNP was conjugated with GA, and the core-shell structures were characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial activity of AuNP-GA against P. shigelloides and S. flexneri B was evaluated by well diffusion method. AuNP-GA bactericidal mechanism was elucidated by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic analysis. The results of small-angle X-ray scattering showed that AuNP-GA conjugation was successful. Antibacterial activity of GA against both bacteria was improved by conjugation with AuNP because the minimum inhibitory concentration value of AuNP-GA was significantly decreased (P<0.0001) compared to that of GA. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed that AuNP-GA resulted in alterations of lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids at the bacterial cell membrane. Our findings show that AuNP-GA has potential for further application in biomedical sciences. PMID:27555764

  4. Hyperspectral image reconstruction using RGB color for foodborne pathogen detection on agar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seung-Chul; Shin, Tae-Sung; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports the latest development of a color vision technique for detecting colonies of foodborne pathogens grown on agar plates with a hyperspectral image classification model that was developed using full hyperspectral data. The hyperspectral classification model depended on reflectance spectra measured in the visible and near-infrared spectral range from 400 and 1,000 nm (473 narrow spectral bands). Multivariate regression methods were used to estimate and predict hyperspectral data from RGB color values. The six representative non-O157 Shiga-toxin producing Eschetichia coli (STEC) serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) were grown on Rainbow agar plates. A line-scan pushbroom hyperspectral image sensor was used to scan 36 agar plates grown with pure STEC colonies at each plate. The 36 hyperspectral images of the agar plates were divided in half to create training and test sets. The mean Rsquared value for hyperspectral image estimation was about 0.98 in the spectral range between 400 and 700 nm for linear, quadratic and cubic polynomial regression models and the detection accuracy of the hyperspectral image classification model with the principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbors for the test set was up to 92% (99% with the original hyperspectral images). Thus, the results of the study suggested that color-based detection may be viable as a multispectral imaging solution without much loss of prediction accuracy compared to hyperspectral imaging.

  5. Synergistic effects of ethanol and UV radiation to reduce levels of selected foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Ha, Sang-Do

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatments would produce synergistic disinfection effects on food products during food processing compared with single treatments. We investigated the bactericidal effects of a commercial chemical disinfectant (ethanol) and of UV radiation on Bacillus cereus F4810/72, Cronobacter sakazakii KCTC 2949, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 35556, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, and Salmonella enterica Typhimurium NO/NA in vitro. Various concentrations of ethanol (10, 30, 40, and 50%) were tested with various exposure doses of UV radiation (6, 96, 216, 360, and 504 mWs/cm(2)) with a UV lamp. The combined ethanol-UV treatments resulted in greater reductions in bacterial counts than did either treatment alone. The synergistic effect values for B. cereus, C. sakazakii, S. aureus, S. enterica Typhimurium NO/NA, and E. coli were 0.40 to 1.52, 0.52 to 1.74, 0.20 to 2.32, 0.07 to 1.14, and 0.02 to 1.75 log CFU/ml, respectively. The results of this study suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combining ethanol and UV treatments against foodborne pathogens in vitro. PMID:20202345

  6. An introduction to on-farm strategies to control foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illnesses affect more than 48 million Americans each year. The economic impact of these foodborne illnesses caused by bacteria associated with food animals ranges from $10 to 40 billion (USD) per year, and effects across the EU are similar in scale. Because of the large drain on the GDP,...

  7. Radiation inactivation of some food-borne pathogens in fish as influenced by fat levels.

    PubMed

    Kamat, A; Thomas, P

    1998-04-01

    The influence of low (0.39-1.1%), medium (4.25%) and high (7.1-32.5%) fat levels in fish on radiation inactivation of four food-borne pathogens was investigated. Cells of Listeria monocytogenes 036, Yersinia enterocolitica F5692, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhimurium at logarithmic phase were inoculated in 10% fish homogenates and subjected to gamma irradiation at ice temperature (0-1 degree C) with doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.8 kGy. The radiation survival curves of L. monocytogenes and B. cereus were characterized by shoulders, while a tailing effect was depicted by cells of Y. enterocolitica and B. cereus. The D10 values in kGy calculated on the exponential part of the curve ranged from 0.2 to 0.3, 0.15 to 0.25, 0.1 to 0.15 and 0.09 to 0.1 for L. monocytogenes 036, B. cereus, Salm. typhimurium and Y. enterocolitica F5692, respectively. This order (D10) of radiation resistance of each organism was not affected by the fat content of the fish. Inoculated pack studies carried out separately with each pathogen in fatty (Indian sardine, 7.1%) and lean (Golden anchovy, 0.39%) fish showed no difference in their survival after exposure to 1 kGy and 3 kGy doses, which corroborated the above observation. The practical significance of these results in the application of the technology is discussed. PMID:9633646

  8. Inactivation of foodborne pathogens in ground beef by cooking with highly controlled radio frequency energy.

    PubMed

    Schlisselberg, Dov B; Kler, Edna; Kalily, Emmanuel; Kisluk, Guy; Karniel, Ohad; Yaron, Sima

    2013-01-01

    treatment of RF or convection was applied. This 2-step treatment proved to be efficient with 4.5 log CFU/g reduction for both RF and convection. In conclusion, here we show that combination of RF with convection cooking resulted in similar or even better effects on selected foodborne pathogens compared to convection only, while the time required for safe cooking is cut down by up to 86%. The equal or better results in the levels of all investigated pathogens using RF with convection compared with convection only suggest that this technology looks promising and safe for ground beef cooking. PMID:23290228

  9. Antibacterial Activity and Action Mechanism of the Essential Oil from Enteromorpha linza L. against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness and disease caused by foodborne pathogenic bacteria is continuing to increase day by day and it has become an important topic of concern among various food industries. Many types of synthetic antibacterial agents have been used in food processing and food preservation; however, they are not safe and have resulted in various health-related issues. Therefore, in the present study, essential oil from an edible seaweed, Enteromorpha linza (AEO), was evaluated for its antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogens, along with the mechanism of its antibacterial action. AEO at 25 mg/disc was highly active against Bacillus cereus (12.3-12.7 mm inhibition zone) and Staphylococcus aureus (12.7-13.3 mm inhibition zone). The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of AEO ranged from 12.5-25 mg/mL. Further investigation of the mechanism of action of AEO revealed its strong impairing effect on the viability of bacterial cells and membrane permeability, as indicated by a significant increase in leakage of 260 nm absorbing materials and K⁺ ions from the cell membrane and loss of high salt tolerance. Taken together, these data suggest that AEO has the potential for use as an effective antibacterial agent that functions by impairing cell membrane permeability via morphological alternations, resulting in cellular lysis and cell death. PMID:27007365

  10. Growth inhibition of foodborne pathogens and food spoilage organisms by select raw honeys.

    PubMed

    Mundo, Melissa A; Padilla-Zakour, Olga I; Worobo, Randy W

    2004-12-01

    Twenty-seven honey samples from different floral sources and geographical locations were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of seven food spoilage organisms (Alcaligenes faecalis, Aspergillus niger, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Geotrichum candidum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Penicillium expansum, Pseudomonas fluorescens) and five foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica Ser. Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) using an overlay inhibition assay. They were also tested for specific activity against S. aureus 9144 and B. stearothermophilus using the equivalent percent phenol test--a well diffusion assay corresponding to a dilute phenol standard curve. Honey inhibited bacterial growth due to high sugar concentration (reduced water activity), hydrogen peroxide generation, and proteinaceous compounds present in the honey. Some antibacterial activity was due to other unidentified components. The ability of honey to inhibit the growth of microorganisms varies widely, and could not be attributed to a specific floral source or demographic region produced in this study. Antibacterially active samples in this study included Montana buckwheat, tarweed, manuka, melaleuca, and saw palmetto. Furthermore, the bacteria were not uniformly affected by honey. Varying sensitivities to the antimicrobial properties were observed with four strains of S. aureus thus emphasizing the variability in the antibacterial effect of honey samples. Mold growth was not inhibited by any of the honeys tested. B. stearothermophilus, a heat-resistant spoilage bacteria, was shown to be highly sensitive to honey in both the overlay and well diffusion assays; other sensitive bacteria included A. faecalis and L. acidophilus. Non-peroxide antibacterial activity was observed in both assays; the highest instance was observed in the specific activity assay against B. stearothermophilus. Further research could indicate whether

  11. Photodynamic Inactivation Mediated by Erythrosine and its Derivatives on Foodborne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Yassunaka, Natália Norika; Freitas, Camila Fabiano de; Rabello, Bruno Ribeiro; Santos, Patrícia Regina; Caetano, Wilker; Hioka, Noboru; Nakamura, Tania Ueda; Abreu Filho, Benício Alves de; Graton Mikcha, Jane Martha

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) mediated by erythrosine (ERY) and its ester derivatives erythrosine methyl ester (ERYMET) and erythrosine butyl ester (ERYBUT) on foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. We evaluated Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium ATCC 14028, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The toxicity of all of the compounds was assessed in VERO cells. PDI mediated by ERY and its derivatives combined with a light-emitting diode was performed at different concentrations and exposure times. S. aureus was more photosensitive than Gram-negative bacteria to ERY, ERYMET, and ERYBUT. The ERY-mediated PDI of S. aureus induced a significant reduction of 4.0 log CFU/ml at a light dose of 40 J/cm(2). ERYMET and ERYBUT at lower light doses than ERY completely eradicated S. aureus. When photoirradiated with ERY at light doses of 156 and 234 J/cm(2), A. hydrophila was completely eradicated. ERYBUT was more efficient in the PDI of A. hydrophila than ERYMET, even at 1 x 10(-5) M and lower light doses. Salmonella Typhimurium, E. coli, and P. aeruginosa required higher concentrations of photosensitizers to reduce cell survival. ERYBUT and ERY may be promising photosensitizing agents against A. hydrophila and S. aureus. They were effective at reducing bacterial counts at nontoxic concentrations. The photoinactivation rate of the evaluated bacteria decreased in the following order: S. aureus > A. hydrophila > E. coli > S. Typhimurium > P. aeruginosa. PMID:25925153

  12. Landscape and Meteorological Factors Affecting Prevalence of Three Food-Borne Pathogens in Fruit and Vegetable Farms

    PubMed Central

    Strawn, Laura K.; Fortes, Esther D.; Bihn, Elizabeth A.; Nightingale, Kendra K.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.; Worobo, Randy W.; Wiedmann, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Produce-related outbreaks have been traced back to the preharvest environment. A longitudinal study was conducted on five farms in New York State to characterize the prevalence, persistence, and diversity of food-borne pathogens in fresh produce fields and to determine landscape and meteorological factors that predict their presence. Produce fields were sampled four times per year for 2 years. A total of 588 samples were analyzed for Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). The prevalence measures of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella, and STEC were 15.0, 4.6, and 2.7%, respectively. L. monocytogenes and Salmonella were detected more frequently in water samples, while STEC was detected with equal frequency across all sample types (soil, water, feces, and drag swabs). L. monocytogenes sigB gene allelic types 57, 58, and 61 and Salmonella enterica serovar Cerro were repeatedly isolated from water samples. Soil available water storage (AWS), temperature, and proximity to three land cover classes (water, roads and urban development, and pasture/hay grass) influenced the likelihood of detecting L. monocytogenes. Drainage class, AWS, and precipitation were identified as important factors in Salmonella detection. This information was used in a geographic information system framework to hypothesize locations of environmental reservoirs where the prevalence of food-borne pathogens may be elevated. The map indicated that not all croplands are equally likely to contain environmental reservoirs of L. monocytogenes. These findings advance recommendations to minimize the risk of preharvest contamination by enhancing models of the environmental constraints on the survival and persistence of food-borne pathogens in fields. PMID:23144137

  13. Effect of sanitizer combined with steam heating on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in a biofilm on stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Ban, Ga-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The combined effect of chemical sanitizers including sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, iodophor, and benzalkonium chloride with steam heating on the inactivation of biofilms formed by Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel was investigated. Six day old biofilms, comprised of a mixture of three strains each of three foodborne pathogens, were produced on stainless steel coupons at 25 °C and treated with each sanitizer alone (for 5, 15, and 30 s), steam alone (for 5, 10, and 20 s), and the combination. There was a synergistic effect of sanitizer and steam on the viability of biofilm cells of the three pathogens as evidenced by plating counts and imaging. The combination treatment achieved an additional 0.01 to 2.78 log reduction compared to the sum of each individual treatment. The most effective combination for reducing levels of biofilm cells was the combination of steam and iodophor; steam for 20 s and merely 20 ppm iodophor for 30 s reduced cell numbers to below the detection limit (<1.48 log CFU/coupon). These results suggest that the combination treatment of sanitizer with steam can be applied to control foodborne pathogens biofilm cells in food processing facilities as a potential intervention. PMID:26742615

  14. Enhanced antimicrobial effect of organic acid washing against foodborne pathogens on broccoli by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jun-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-18

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of vacuum impregnation applied to the washing process for removal of Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes from broccoli surfaces. Broccoli was inoculated with the two foodborne pathogens and treated with simple dipping washing or with vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 5, 10, 20, or 30 min. There were two methods of vacuum impregnation: continuous and intermittent. After 30 min of 101.3 kPa (=14.7 psi, simple dipping), 61.3 kPa (=8.9 psi), and 21.3 kPa (=3.1 psi) of continuous vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.5, 1.7, and 2.3 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. After 30 min of 101.3, 61.3, and 21.3 kPa of intermittent vacuum impregnation treatment, there were 1.5, 2.3, and 3.7 log 10 CFU/g reductions of S. Typhimurium and 1.6, 2.1, and 3.2 log 10 CFU/g reductions of L. monocytogenes, respectively. Scanning electron photomicrographs showed that bacteria tend to attach to or become entrapped in protective sites after simple wash processing (dipping). However, most bacteria were washed out of protective sites after intermittent treatment. Direct treatment of cell suspensions with vacuum impregnation showed that it had no inactivation capacity in itself since there were no significant differences (P ≥ 0.05) between the reduction rates of non- and vacuum impregnation treatment. These results demonstrate that the increased antimicrobial effect of vacuum impregnation can be attributed to increased accessibility of sanitizer and an enhanced washing effect in protected sites on produce. Color, texture and titratable acidity values of broccoli treated with intermittent vacuum impregnation in 2% malic acid for 30 min were not significantly (P ≥ 0.05) different from those of untreated samples even though a storage interval was needed for titratable acidity values to be reduced to levels comparable to those of

  15. Effect of gamma irradiation on the expressed proteins in the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudeau, Karine; Dang Vu, Khanh; Shareck, François; Lacroix, Monique

    2012-08-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method with UV detection was developed to analyze protein composition of the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial samples containing 109 CFU/ml, obtained after two cycles of incubations of 24 h, were gamma irradiated at different doses of 1.2, 3.5 and 2.9 kGy to respectively create damage cells, to kill cells and to provoke viable but non cultivable cells (VBNC). It was observed that an irradiation at a sensitive dose of 1.2 kGy caused a significantly increase in the protein with molecular weight (MW) of 17.7 kDa (from 0.61% to 1.2%). This treatment also caused decreases in the expressed proteins with the MWs of 16.3 kDa (from 6.2% to 5.3%) and of 23.4 kDa (from 4.0% to 2.30%). Irradiation at a VBCN dose of 2.9 kGy caused increases in expressed proteins with the MWs of 17.7 kDa (from 0.61% to 3.43%), 18.7 kDa (from 1.04% to 4.30%), 19.5 kDa (from 0.71% to 2.30%), 21.1 kDa (from 1.20% to 3.80%). Moreover, this treatment (2.9 kGy) also caused significantly decreases (P≤0.05) in the expressed proteins with the MW of 30.7 kDa (from 8.6% to 5.15%), 36.3 kDa (from 3.1% to 2.7%) and 40.5 kDa (from 11.3% to 8.5%). Finally, for the irradiation at a lethal dose of 3.5 kGy, it can be found that the expressed proteins with the MW of 17.7 kDa, 18.7 kDa and 19.5 kDa were increased less than that of expressed proteins at the VCNC dose (2.9 kGy) and these might be the very important proteins which are responsible for the survival of the S. aureus. Further, there were also the decreases in expressed proteins with the MW of 30.7 kDa, 36.3 kDa and 75.1 kDa at this dose of treatment (3.5 kGy) which can be expected that these proteins are seriously affected at high dose of γ-irradiation treatment.

  16. Analysis of a food-borne fungal pathogen outbreak: virulence and genome of a Mucor circinelloides isolate from yogurt.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Chan; Billmyre, R Blake; Li, Alicia; Carson, Sandra; Sykes, Sean M; Huh, Eun Young; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Ko, Dennis C; Cuomo, Christina A; Heitman, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Food-borne pathogens are ongoing problems, and new pathogens are emerging. The impact of fungi, however, is largely underestimated. Recently, commercial yogurts contaminated with Mucor circinelloides were sold, and >200 consumers became ill with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Mucoralean fungi cause the fatal fungal infection mucormycosis, whose incidence has been continuously increasing. In this study, we isolated an M. circinelloides strain from a yogurt container, and multilocus sequence typing identified the strain as Mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides. M. circinelloides f. circinelloides is the most virulent M. circinelloides subspecies and is commonly associated with human infections, whereas M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus and M. circinelloides f. griseocyanus are less common causes of infection. Whole-genome analysis of the yogurt isolate confirmed it as being close to the M. circinelloides f. circinelloides subgroup, with a higher percentage of divergence with the M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus subgroup. In mating assays, the yogurt isolate formed sexual zygospores with the (-) M. circinelloides f. circinelloides tester strain, which is congruent with its sex locus encoding SexP, the (+) mating type sex determinant. The yogurt isolate was virulent in murine and wax moth larva host systems. In a murine gastromucormycosis model, Mucor was recovered from fecal samples of infected mice for up to 10 days, indicating that Mucor can survive transit through the GI tract. In interactions with human immune cells, M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus induced proinflammatory cytokines but M. circinelloides f. circinelloides did not, which may explain the different levels of virulence in mammalian hosts. This study demonstrates that M. circinelloides can spoil food products and cause gastrointestinal illness in consumers and may pose a particular risk to immunocompromised patients. Importance: The U.S. FDA reported that yogurt products were contaminated with M

  17. Inactivation of foodborne pathogens on crawfish tail meat using cryogenic freezing and gamma radiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including crawfish. Cryogenic freezing and gamma radiation are two technologies which can be used to improve the microbiological safety and shelf-life of foods. In the U.S. the majority of non-c...

  18. The design of a microfluidic biochip for the rapid, multiplexed detection of foodborne pathogens by surface plasmon resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zordan, Michael D.; Grafton, Meggie M. G.; Park, Kinam; Leary, James F.

    2010-02-01

    The rapid detection of foodborne pathogens is increasingly important due to the rising occurrence of contaminated food supplies. We have previously demonstrated the design of a hybrid optical device that has the capability to perform realtime surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and epi-fluorescence imaging. We now present the design of a microfluidic biochip consisting of a two-dimensional array of functionalized gold spots. The spots on the array have been functionalized with capture peptides that specifically bind E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella enterica. This array is enclosed by a PDMS microfluidic flow cell. A magnetically pre-concentrated sample is injected into the biochip, and whole pathogens will bind to the capture array. The previously constructed optical device is being used to detect the presence and identity of captured pathogens using SPR imaging. This detection occurs in a label-free manner, and does not require the culture of bacterial samples. Molecular imaging can also be performed using the epi-fluorescence capabilities of the device to determine pathogen state, or to validate the identity of the captured pathogens using fluorescently labeled antibodies. We demonstrate the real-time screening of a sample for the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica. Additionally the mechanical properties of the microfluidic flow cell will be assessed. The effect of these properties on pathogen capture will be examined.

  19. Phylogenetic identification of bacterial MazF toxin protein motifs among probiotic strains and foodborne pathogens and potential implications of engineered probiotic intervention in food

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are commonly found in bacteria and Archaea, and it is the most common mechanism involved in bacterial programmed cell death or apoptosis. Recently, MazF, the toxin component of the toxin-antitoxin module, has been categorized as an endoribonuclease, or it may have a function similar to that of a RNA interference enzyme. Results In this paper, with comparative data and phylogenetic analyses, we are able to identify several potential MazF-conserved motifs in limited subsets of foodborne pathogens and probiotic strains and further provide a molecular basis for the development of engineered/synthetic probiotic strains for the mitigation of foodborne illnesses. Our findings also show that some probiotic strains, as fit as many bacterial foodborne pathogens, can be genetically categorized into three major groups based on phylogenetic analysis of MazF. In each group, potential functional motifs are conserved in phylogenetically distant species, including foodborne pathogens and probiotic strains. Conclusion These data provide important knowledge for the identification and computational prediction of functional motifs related to programmed cell death. Potential implications of these findings include the use of engineered probiotic interventions in food or use of a natural probiotic cocktail with specificity for controlling targeted foodborne pathogens. PMID:23186337

  20. Purification and Characterization of a Rabbit Serum Factor That Kills Listeria Species and Other Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kothary, Mahendra H; Franco, Augusto A; Tall, Ben D; Gopinath, Gopal R; Datta, Atin R

    2016-08-01

    In an in-vitro assay, rabbit serum, but not human serum, killed Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen. The aim of our study was to purify and partially characterize this killing factor. Listericidin was purified from rabbit serum by a single-step ion-exchange chromatography with DEAE-Sephadex A-50 and its antimicrobial activity was assessed by a microdilution method. Listericidin is a protein with a molecular weight of 9 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.1. It kills L. monocytogenes at 4°C, 25°C, and 37°C, and its activity is resistant to heat (boiling) and acidic conditions (pH <2). Listericidin's activity is inhibited by sodium chloride and various growth media, is sensitive to proteolytic enzymes and is enhanced by calcium chloride, and is neutralized by monoclonal antibodies to human complement C3a. However, the listericidin reacts weakly with these antibodies in an ELISA. The first 33 N-terminal residues of listericidin (SVQLTEKRMDKVGQYTNKELRKXXEDGMRDNPM) have homology to various complement C3a components. Listericidin also kills other Listeria spp., Vibrio spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia spp., Cronobacter spp., and Bacillus spp. The listericidin peptide purified in a single-step chromatography is pH and heat stable, and has a broad antimicrobial spectrum against major foodborne pathogens in addition to L. monocytogenes. PMID:27455064

  1. Gut physiology mediates a trade-off between adaptation to malnutrition and susceptibility to food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vijendravarma, Roshan K; Narasimha, Sunitha; Chakrabarti, Sveta; Babin, Aurelie; Kolly, Sylvain; Lemaitre, Bruno; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2015-10-01

    The animal gut plays a central role in tackling two common ecological challenges, nutrient shortage and food-borne parasites, the former by efficient digestion and nutrient absorption, the latter by acting as an immune organ and a barrier. It remains unknown whether these functions can be independently optimised by evolution, or whether they interfere with each other. We report that Drosophila melanogaster populations adapted during 160 generations of experimental evolution to chronic larval malnutrition became more susceptible to intestinal infection with the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas entomophila. However, they do not show suppressed immune response or higher bacterial loads. Rather, their increased susceptibility to P. entomophila is largely mediated by an elevated predisposition to loss of intestinal barrier integrity upon infection. These results may reflect a trade-off between the efficiency of nutrient extraction from poor food and the protective function of the gut, in particular its tolerance to pathogen-induced damage. PMID:26249109

  2. Use of Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing Technology To Detect Foodborne Pathogens within the Microbiome of the Beef Production Chain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiang; Noyes, Noelle R.; Doster, Enrique; Martin, Jennifer N.; Linke, Lyndsey M.; Magnuson, Roberta J.; Yang, Hua; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale R.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Ruiz, Jaime; Boucher, Christina; Morley, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogenic bacteria are a global public health and economic challenge. The diversity of microorganisms (pathogenic and nonpathogenic) that exists within the food and meat industries complicates efforts to understand pathogen ecology. Further, little is known about the interaction of pathogens within the microbiome throughout the meat production chain. Here, a metagenomic approach and shotgun sequencing technology were used as tools to detect pathogenic bacteria in environmental samples collected from the same groups of cattle at different longitudinal processing steps of the beef production chain: cattle entry to feedlot, exit from feedlot, cattle transport trucks, abattoir holding pens, and the end of the fabrication system. The log read counts classified as pathogens per million reads for Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp. (C. botulinum and C. perfringens), and Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni, C. coli, and C. fetus) decreased over subsequential processing steps. Furthermore, the normalized read counts for S. enterica, E. coli, and C. botulinum were greater in the final product than at the feedlots, indicating that the proportion of these bacteria increased (the effect on absolute numbers was unknown) within the remaining microbiome. From an ecological perspective, data indicated that shotgun metagenomics can be used to evaluate not only the microbiome but also shifts in pathogen populations during beef production. Nonetheless, there were several challenges in this analysis approach, one of the main ones being the identification of the specific pathogen from which the sequence reads originated, which makes this approach impractical for use in pathogen identification for regulatory and confirmation purposes. PMID:26873315

  3. Use of Metagenomic Shotgun Sequencing Technology To Detect Foodborne Pathogens within the Microbiome of the Beef Production Chain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang; Noyes, Noelle R; Doster, Enrique; Martin, Jennifer N; Linke, Lyndsey M; Magnuson, Roberta J; Yang, Hua; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Woerner, Dale R; Jones, Kenneth L; Ruiz, Jaime; Boucher, Christina; Morley, Paul S; Belk, Keith E

    2016-04-01

    Foodborne illnesses associated with pathogenic bacteria are a global public health and economic challenge. The diversity of microorganisms (pathogenic and nonpathogenic) that exists within the food and meat industries complicates efforts to understand pathogen ecology. Further, little is known about the interaction of pathogens within the microbiome throughout the meat production chain. Here, a metagenomic approach and shotgun sequencing technology were used as tools to detect pathogenic bacteria in environmental samples collected from the same groups of cattle at different longitudinal processing steps of the beef production chain: cattle entry to feedlot, exit from feedlot, cattle transport trucks, abattoir holding pens, and the end of the fabrication system. The log read counts classified as pathogens per million reads for Salmonella enterica,Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium spp. (C. botulinum and C. perfringens), and Campylobacter spp. (C. jejuni,C. coli, and C. fetus) decreased over subsequential processing steps. Furthermore, the normalized read counts for S. enterica,E. coli, and C. botulinumwere greater in the final product than at the feedlots, indicating that the proportion of these bacteria increased (the effect on absolute numbers was unknown) within the remaining microbiome. From an ecological perspective, data indicated that shotgun metagenomics can be used to evaluate not only the microbiome but also shifts in pathogen populations during beef production. Nonetheless, there were several challenges in this analysis approach, one of the main ones being the identification of the specific pathogen from which the sequence reads originated, which makes this approach impractical for use in pathogen identification for regulatory and confirmation purposes. PMID:26873315

  4. High-throughput detection of food-borne pathogenic bacteria using oligonucleotide microarray with quantum dots as fluorescent labels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Aihua; Qiu, Zhigang; Jin, Min; Shen, Zhiqiang; Chen, Zhaoli; Wang, Xinwei; Li, Jun-Wen

    2014-08-18

    Bacterial pathogens are mostly responsible for food-borne diseases, and there is still substantial room for improvement in the effective detection of these organisms. In the present study, we explored a new method to detect target pathogens easily and rapidly with high sensitivity and specificity. This method uses an oligonucleotide microarray combined with quantum dots as fluorescent labels. Oligonucleotide probes targeting the 16SrRNA gene were synthesized to create an oligonucleotide microarray. The PCR products labeled with biotin were subsequently hybridized using an oligonucleotide microarray. Following incubation with CdSe/ZnS quantum dots coated with streptavidin, fluorescent signals were detected with a PerkinElmer Gx Microarray Scanner. The results clearly showed specific hybridization profiles corresponding to the bacterial species assessed. Two hundred and sixteen strains of food-borne bacterial pathogens, including standard strains and isolated strains from food samples, were used to test the specificity, stability, and sensitivity of the microarray system. We found that the oligonucleotide microarray combined with quantum dots used as fluorescent labels can successfully discriminate the bacterial organisms at the genera or species level, with high specificity and stability as well as a sensitivity of 10 colony forming units (CFU)/mL of pure culture. We further tested 105 mock-contaminated food samples and achieved consistent results as those obtained from traditional biochemical methods. Together, these results indicate that the quantum dot-based oligonucleotide microarray has the potential to be a powerful tool in the detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria in foods. PMID:24927399

  5. Impact of changing consumer lifestyles on the emergence/reemergence of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. E.

    1997-01-01

    Foodborne illness of microbial origin is the most serious food safety problem in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports that 79% of outbreaks between 1987 and 1992 were bacterial; improper holding temperature and poor personal hygiene of food handlers contributed most to disease incidence. Some microbes have demonstrated resistance to standard methods of preparation and storage of foods. Nonetheless, food safety and public health officials attribute a rise in incidence of foodborne illness to changes in demographics and consumer lifestyles that affect the way food is prepared and stored. Food editors report that fewer than 50% of consumers are concerned about food safety. An American Meat Institute (1996) study details lifestyle changes affecting food behavior, including an increasing number of women in the workforce, limited commitment to food preparation, and a greater number of single heads of households. Consumers appear to be more interested in convenience and saving time than in proper food handling and preparation. PMID:9366599

  6. Antagonistic Characteristics Against Food-borne Pathogenic Bacteria of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria Isolated from Feces of Healthy Thai Infants

    PubMed Central

    Uraipan, Supansa; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food-borne pathogens are among the most significant problems in maintaining the health of people. Many probiotics have been widely reported to alleviate and protect against gastrointestinal infections through antibacterial secretion. However, the majority of them cannot always play antagonistic roles under gut conditions. Probiotic bacteria of human origin must possess other protective mechanisms to survive, out-compete intestinal flora and to successfully establish in their new host at a significant level. Objectives: Probiotic characteristics of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria isolated from the feces of Thai infants were primarily investigated in terms of gastric acid and bile resistances, antibacterial activity and mucin adhesion ability. Antagonistic interaction through secretion of antibacterial compounds and competitive exclusion against food-borne pathogens were also evaluated. Materials and Methods: Culturable LAB and bifidobacteria were isolated from feces of Thai infants. Their ability to withstand gastric acid and bile were then evaluated. Acid and bile salt tolerant LAB and bifidobacteria were identified. They were then further assessed according to their antagonistic interactions through antibacterial secretion, mucin adhesion and competitive mucin adhesion against various food-borne pathogenic bacteria. Results: Gastric acid and bile tolerant LAB and bifidobacteria isolated from healthy infant feces were identified and selected according to their antagonistic interaction against various food-borne pathogenic bacteria. These antagonistic probiotics included four strains of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, two strains of L. casei, five strains of L. plantarum, two strains of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and three strains of B. bifidum. All strains of the selected LAB inhibited all pathogenic bacteria tested through antibacterial secretion, while bifidobacteria showed high level of competitive exclusion against the pathogenic

  7. Assessment of a regulatory sanitization process in Egyptian dairy plants in regard to the adherence of some food-borne pathogens and their biofilms.

    PubMed

    Bayoumi, Mohamed A; Kamal, Rania M; Abd El Aal, Salah F; Awad, Esmat I

    2012-09-01

    Food-borne pathogens may develop certain strategies that enable them to defy harsh conditions such as chemical sanitization. Biofilm formation represents a prominent one among those adopted strategies, by which food-borne pathogens protect themselves against external threats. Thus, bacterial biofilm is considered as a major hazard for safe food production. This study was designed to investigate the adherence and the biofilm formation ability of some food-borne pathogens on stainless steel and polypropylene surfaces using chip assay, and to validate regular sanitizing process (sodium hypochlorite 250 mg/L) for effective elimination of those pathogens. Sixteen pathogenic bacterial strains, previously isolated from raw milk and dairy products at Zagazig city, Egypt (9 Staphylococcus aureus, 4 Cronobacter sakazakii and 3 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium), were chosen for this study. Strains showed different patterns of adherence and biofilm formation on tested surfaces with minor significance between surfaces. The ability of sodium hypochlorite to completely eradicate either adhered or biofilm-embedded pathogens varied significantly depending on the strain and type of surface used. Whilst, sodium hypochlorite reduced tested pathogens counts per cm² of produced biofilms, but it was not able to entirely eliminate neither them nor adherent Cronobacter sakazakii to stainless steel surface. This study revealed that biofilm is considered as a sustainable source of contamination of dairy products with these pathogens, and also emphasized the need of paying more attention to the cleaning and sanitizing processes of food contact surfaces. PMID:22884171

  8. Antibiofilm formation and anti-adhesive property of three mediterranean essential oils against a foodborne pathogen Salmonella strain.

    PubMed

    Miladi, Hanene; Mili, Donia; Ben Slama, Rihab; Zouari, Sami; Ammar, Emna; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2016-04-01

    Plant extracts, and their essential oils (EOs) are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. Our aim was to determine the bioactive compound in three mediterranean essential oils belonging to Lamiaceae family, Satureja montana L., Thymus vulgaris L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L., and to assess their antimicrobial, antibiofilm and anti-adhesive potentials against a foodborne pathogen Salmonella strain. The antibacterial activity of EOs and its biofilm inhibition potencies were investigated on 2 reference strains Salmonella typhimurium and 12 Salmonella spp. isolated from food. Biofilm inhibition were assessed using the 2, 3-bis [2-methyloxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay. The analytical data indicated that various monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic monoterpenes constitute the major components of the oils, but their concentrations varied greatly among the oils examined. Our results showed that S. montana L. and T. vulgaris L. essential oils possess remarkable anti biofilm, anti-adhesive and bactericidal properties, compared to R. officinalis EO. There is an indication that Rosmary EO might inhibit biofilm formation at higher concentrations. Therefore, the witer savory and thyme EOs represent a source of natural compounds that exhibit potentials for use in food systems to prevent the growth of foodborne bacteria and extend the shelf life of the processed food. PMID:26802522

  9. Ecological and dietary impactors of foodborne pathogen prevalence and methods to reduce colonization in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogenic bacteria can live asymptomatically within and on cattle, which can support pathogen entry into the food chain, but also can be transmitted directly to humans via animal or fecal contact. Strategies that act against pathogenic bacteria incidence and populations within live cattle represen...

  10. Validation of a high-throughput immunobead array technique for multiplex detection of three foodborne pathogens in chicken products.

    PubMed

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Makornwattana, Manlika; Grant, Irene R; Elliott, Christopher T; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2016-05-01

    This study rigorously evaluated a previously developed immunobead array method to simultaneously detect three important foodborne pathogens, Campylobacter jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp., for its actual application in routine food testing. Due to the limitation of the detection limit of the developed method, an enrichment step was included in this study by using Campylobacter Enrichment Broth for C. jejuni and Universal Pre-enrichment Broth for L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp.. The findings showed that the immunobead array method was capable of detecting as low as 1CFU of the pathogens spiked in the culture media after being cultured for 24h for all three pathogens. The immunobead array method was further evaluated for its pathogen detection capabilities in ready-to-eat (RTE) and ready-to-cook (RTC) chicken samples and proven to be able to detect as low as 1CFU of the pathogens spiked in the food samples after being cultured for 24h in the case of Salmonella spp., and L. monocytogenes and 48 h in the case of C. jejuni. The method was subsequently validated with three types of chicken products (RTE, n=30; RTC, n=20; raw chicken, n=20) and was found to give the same results as the conventional plating method. Our findings demonstrated that the previously developed immunobead array method could be used for actual food testing with minimal enrichment period of only 52 h, whereas the conventional ISO protocols for the same pathogens take 90-144 h. The immunobead array was therefore an inexpensive, rapid and simple method for the food testing. PMID:26950032

  11. From multiple pathogenicity islands to a unique organized pathogenicity archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Bouyioukos, Costas; Reverchon, Sylvie; Képès, François

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity islands are sets of successive genes in a genome that determine the virulence of a bacterium. In a growing number of studies, bacterial virulence appears to be determined by multiple islands scattered along the genome. This is the case in a family of seven plant pathogens and a human pathogen that, under KdgR regulation, massively secrete enzymes such as pectinases that degrade plant cell wall. Here we show that their multiple pathogenicity islands form together a coherently organized, single “archipelago” at the genome scale. Furthermore, in half of the species, most genes encoding secreted pectinases are expressed from the same DNA strand (transcriptional co-orientation). This genome architecture favors DNA conformations that are conducive to genes spatial co-localization, sometimes complemented by co-orientation. As proteins tend to be synthetized close to their encoding genes in bacteria, we propose that this architecture would favor the efficient funneling of pectinases at convergent points within the cell. The underlying functional hypothesis is that this convergent funneling of the full blend of pectinases constitutes a crucial strategy for successful degradation of the plant cell wall. Altogether, our work provides a new approach to describe and predict, at the genome scale, the full virulence complement. PMID:27302835

  12. From multiple pathogenicity islands to a unique organized pathogenicity archipelago.

    PubMed

    Bouyioukos, Costas; Reverchon, Sylvie; Képès, François

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenicity islands are sets of successive genes in a genome that determine the virulence of a bacterium. In a growing number of studies, bacterial virulence appears to be determined by multiple islands scattered along the genome. This is the case in a family of seven plant pathogens and a human pathogen that, under KdgR regulation, massively secrete enzymes such as pectinases that degrade plant cell wall. Here we show that their multiple pathogenicity islands form together a coherently organized, single "archipelago" at the genome scale. Furthermore, in half of the species, most genes encoding secreted pectinases are expressed from the same DNA strand (transcriptional co-orientation). This genome architecture favors DNA conformations that are conducive to genes spatial co-localization, sometimes complemented by co-orientation. As proteins tend to be synthetized close to their encoding genes in bacteria, we propose that this architecture would favor the efficient funneling of pectinases at convergent points within the cell. The underlying functional hypothesis is that this convergent funneling of the full blend of pectinases constitutes a crucial strategy for successful degradation of the plant cell wall. Altogether, our work provides a new approach to describe and predict, at the genome scale, the full virulence complement. PMID:27302835

  13. The antibiotic activity and mechanisms of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) bagasse extract against food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yi; Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2015-10-15

    Sugarcane bagasse contains natural compositions that can significantly inhibit food-borne pathogens growth. In the present study, the phenolic content in sugarcane bagasse was detected as higher than 4 mg/g dry bagasse, with 470 mg quercetin/g polyphenol. The sugarcane bagasse extract showed bacteriostatic activity against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salomonella typhimurium. Additionally, the sugarcane bagasse extract can increase the electric conductivity of bacterial cell suspensions causing cellular leaking of electrolytes. Results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis suggested the antibacterial mechanism was probably due to the damaged cellular proteins by sugarcane bagasse extract. The results of scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that the sugarcane bagasse extract might change cell morphology and internal structure. PMID:25952848

  14. Lactobacillus fermentum isolated from human colonic mucosal biopsy inhibits the growth and adhesion of enteric and foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Varma, Parvathi; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Menon, Krishna K; Biswas, Raja

    2010-01-01

    A number of Lactobacillus species are used as probiotic strains in order to benefit health. We have isolated L. fermentum from human colonic mucosal biopsy samples that possess antimicrobial activities against entroinvasive and foodborne pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella paratyphi A, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio sp. In addition to lactic acid, L. fermentum secretes antimicrobial proteinacious compound(s) that was found to be active even at neutral pH (pH 7.0). The compound was sensitive to heat treatment and trypsin digestion. Lactobacillus fermentum inhibited the adhesion of enteropathogens to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Isolated cell surface associated proteins (SAPs) from L. fermentum were sufficient for the adhesion exclusions of enteropathogenic E. coli. Our results indicate that L. fermentum produces antimicrobial compounds and SAPs to inhibit the growth and adhesion of enteropathogens, respectively. PMID:21535608

  15. Bactericidal activities of health-promoting,food-derived powders against the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli,listeria monocytogenes, salmonella enterica,and staphylococcus aureus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the relative bactericidal activities of 10 presumed health-promoting food-based powders (nutraceuticals) and for comparison, several selected known components of such powders against the following foodborne pathogens: Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes...

  16. Application of high throughout sequencing to measure performance of commonly used selective cultivation methods for the food-borne pathogen campylobacter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter is an important food-borne human pathogen which has traditionally been studied using a variety of selective cultivation methods. Here we use next-generation sequencing to ask: 1) How selective are commonly-used Campylobacter cultivation methods relative to the initial community being ...

  17. Antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) and Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) extracts against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mahfuzul Hoque, M D; Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Juneja, Vijay K; Kawamoto, S

    2007-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against 21 strains of foodborne pathogens were determined--Listeria monocytogenes (five strains), Staphylococcus aureus (four strains), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (six strains), Salmonella Enteritidis (four strains), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Bacillus cereus, and five food spoilage bacteria: Pseudomonas aeroginosa, P. putida, Alcaligenes faecalis, and Aeromonas hydrophila (two strains). Guava and neem extracts showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria except for V. parahaemolyticus, P. aeroginosa, and A. hydrophila. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethanol extracts of guava showed the highest inhibition for L. monocytogenes JCM 7676 (0.1 mg/mL), S. aureus JCM 2151 (0.1 mg/mL), S. aureus JCM 2179 (0.1 mg/mL), and V. parahaemolyticus IFO 12711 (0.1 mg/mL) and the lowest inhibition for Alcaligenes faecalis IFO 12669, Aeromonas hydrophila NFRI 8282 (4.0 mg/mL), and A. hydrophila NFRI 8283 (4.0 mg/mL). The MIC of chloroform extracts of neem showed similar inhibition for L. monocytogenes ATCC 43256 (4.0 mg/mL) and L. monocytogenes ATCC 49594 (5.0 mg/mL). However, ethanol extracts of neem showed higher inhibition for S. aureus JCM 2151 (4.5 mg/mL) and S. aureus IFO 13276 (4.5 mg/mL) and the lower inhibition for other microorganisms (6.5 mg/mL). No significant effects of temperature and pH were found on guava and neem extracts against cocktails of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. The results of the present study suggest that guava and neem extracts possess compounds containing antibacterial properties that can potentially be useful to control foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms. PMID:18041957

  18. Fundamental Characteristics of Deep-UV Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Application To Control Foodborne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Soo-Ji; Kim, Do-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Low-pressure mercury UV (LP-UV) lamps have long been used for bacterial inactivation, but due to certain disadvantages, such as the possibility of mercury leakage, deep-UV-C light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) for disinfection have recently been of great interest as an alternative. Therefore, in this study, we examined the basic spectral properties of DUV-LEDs and the effects of UV-C irradiation for inactivating foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes, on solid media, as well as in water. As the temperature increased, DUV-LED light intensity decreased slightly, whereas LP-UV lamps showed increasing intensity until they reached a peak at around 30°C. As the irradiation dosage and temperature increased, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium experienced 5- to 6-log-unit reductions. L. monocytogenes was reduced by over 5 log units at a dose of 1.67 mJ/cm2. At 90% relative humidity (RH), only E. coli O157:H7 experienced inactivation significantly greater than at 30 and 60% RH. In a water treatment study involving a continuous system, 6.38-, 5.81-, and 3.47-log-unit reductions were achieved in E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes, respectively, at 0.5 liter per minute (LPM) and 200 mW output power. The results of this study suggest that the use of DUV-LEDs may compensate for the drawbacks of using LP-UV lamps to inactivate foodborne pathogens. PMID:26162872

  19. Fundamental Characteristics of Deep-UV Light-Emitting Diodes and Their Application To Control Foodborne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Soo-Ji; Kim, Do-Kyun; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Low-pressure mercury UV (LP-UV) lamps have long been used for bacterial inactivation, but due to certain disadvantages, such as the possibility of mercury leakage, deep-UV-C light-emitting diodes (DUV-LEDs) for disinfection have recently been of great interest as an alternative. Therefore, in this study, we examined the basic spectral properties of DUV-LEDs and the effects of UV-C irradiation for inactivating foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes, on solid media, as well as in water. As the temperature increased, DUV-LED light intensity decreased slightly, whereas LP-UV lamps showed increasing intensity until they reached a peak at around 30°C. As the irradiation dosage and temperature increased, E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium experienced 5- to 6-log-unit reductions. L. monocytogenes was reduced by over 5 log units at a dose of 1.67 mJ/cm(2). At 90% relative humidity (RH), only E. coli O157:H7 experienced inactivation significantly greater than at 30 and 60% RH. In a water treatment study involving a continuous system, 6.38-, 5.81-, and 3.47-log-unit reductions were achieved in E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes, respectively, at 0.5 liter per minute (LPM) and 200 mW output power. The results of this study suggest that the use of DUV-LEDs may compensate for the drawbacks of using LP-UV lamps to inactivate foodborne pathogens. PMID:26162872

  20. Novel genomic tools for specific and real-time detection of biothreat and frequently encountered foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Woubit, Abdela; Yehualaeshet, Teshome; Habtemariam, Tsegaye; Samuel, Temesgen

    2012-04-01

    The bacterial genera Escherichia, Salmonella, Shigella, Vibrio, Yersinia, and Francisella include important food safety and biothreat agents. By extensive mining of the whole genome and protein databases of diverse, closely and distantly related bacterial species and strains, we have identified novel genome regions, which we utilized to develop a rapid detection platform for these pathogens. The specific genomic targets we have identified to design the primers in Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis, F. tularensis subsp. novicida, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Vibrio cholerae, Yersinia pestis, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis contained either known genes or putative proteins. Primer sets were designed from the target regions for use in real-time PCR assays to detect specific biothreat pathogens at species or strain levels. The primer sets were first tested by in silico PCR against whole-genome sequences of different species, subspecies, or strains and then by in vitro PCR against genomic DNA preparations from 23 strains representing six biothreat agents (Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL 933, Shigella dysenteriae, S. enterica serovar Typhi, F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, V. cholerae, and Y. pestis) and six foodborne pathogens (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Shigella sonnei, F. tularensis subsp. novicida, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Y. pseudotuberculosis). Each pathogen was specifically identifiable at the genus and species levels. Sensitivity assays performed with purified DNA showed the lowest detection limit of 128 fg of DNA/μl for F. tularensis subsp. tularensis. A preliminary test to detect Shigella organisms in a milk matrix also enabled the detection of 6 to 60 CFU/ml. These new tools could ultimately be used to develop platforms to simultaneously detect these pathogens. PMID:22488053

  1. Rapid, sensitive, and simultaneous detection of three foodborne pathogens using magnetic nanobead-based immunoseparation and quantum dot-based multiplex immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Li, Yanbin; Wang, Andrew; Slavik, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Losses caused by foodborne diseases are enormous in terms of human life, illness, medical costs, and food product recalls. Rapid detection of multiple bacterial pathogens in foods is extremely important to ensure food safety. The objective of this research was to develop a multiplex immunoassay by integrating magnetic nanobeads (MNBs) for immunoseparation with quantum dots (QDs) as fluorescent labels for rapid, sensitive, and simultaneous detection of three major pathogenic bacteria, Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes, in food products. In this research, both streptavidin-conjugated MNBs (30- and 150-nm diameter) and QDs (530-, 580-, and 620-nm emission wavelength) were separately coated with biotinylated anti-Salmonella, anti-E. coli, and anti-Listeria antibodies. The immuno-MNBs were mixed with a food sample to capture the three target bacteria. After being magnetically separated from the sample, the MNB-cell conjugates were mixed with the immuno-QDs to form the MNB-cell-QD complexes, and unattached QDs were removed. The fluorescence intensity of the MNB-cell-QD complexes was measured at wavelengths of 530, 580, and 620 nm to determine the populations of Salmonella Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. This multiplex immunoassay simultaneously detected Salmonella Typhimurium, E. coli O157:H7, and L. monocytogenes at levels as low as 20 to 50 CFU/ml in food samples in less than 2 h without enrichment. The change in fluorescence intensity was linearly correlated (R(2) > 0.96) with the logarithmic value of bacterial level in the range of 10 to 10(3) CFU/ml. More than 85% of the three target pathogens could be simultaneously separated from food samples. The multiplex immunoassay could be expanded to detect more target pathogens, depending on the availability of specific antibodies and QDs with different emission wavelengths. PMID:22186043

  2. Advances in genomic- and proteomic-based methods to study food-borne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, a number of “omics” technologies, including genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and others are being utilized to enhance the understanding of the complexities of pathogen behavior at the molecular level and for the development of improved pathogen detection and typing systems. Gene...

  3. Prebiotics in food animals: A potential to reduce foodborne pathogens and disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animals can be seriously impacted by bacterial pathogens that affect their growth efficiency and overall health, as well as food safety of animal-derived products. Some pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, can be a shared problem for both human and animal health and can be found in many animal ...

  4. Prebiotics in food animals, a potential to reduce foodborne pathogens and disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animals can be seriously impacted by bacterial pathogens that affect their growth efficiency and overall health, as well as food safety of animal-derived products. Some pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, can be a shared problem for both human and animal health and can be found in many animal ...

  5. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble arrowroot (Puerariae radix) tea extracts on foodborne pathogens in ground beef and mushroom soup.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Fung, D Y C

    2004-09-01

    Antimicrobial activity of water-soluble arrowroot tea extract was evaluated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica Serotype Enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in ground beef and mushroom soup. The concentrations of arrowroot tea used were 0, 3, and 6% (wt/wt) for ground beef and 0, 1, 5, and 10% (wt/vol) for mushroom soup. Samples without tea extract were considered controls. Each sample was stored for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 days at 7 degrees C for ground beef and for 0, 1, 3, and 5 days at 35 degrees C for mushroom soup. On each sampling time, proper dilutions were spread plated on each pathogen-specific agar. Viable cell counts of each pathogen were performed after incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 to 48 h. For ground beef, Salmonella Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes were slightly suppressed by approximately 1.5 log, compared with the control, on day 7 at 3 and 6% arrowroot tea treatment. For mushroom soup, all test pathogens were suppressed by 6.5, 4.7, 3.4, and 4.3 log at 5% and 6.0, 4.7, 5.0, and 4.3 log at 10% against E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Enteritidis, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. Mushroom soup with 1% arrowroot tea also showed 2.3- and 2.7-log growth suppression of Salmonella Enteritidis and S. aureus, respectively, compared with the control on day 5. This study showed that the use of arrowroot tea would effectively inhibit the microbial growth of both gram-negative and gram-positive foodborne pathogens in various foods, especially liquid foods. PMID:15453588

  6. Combination treatment of chlorine dioxide gas and aerosolized sanitizer for inactivating foodborne pathogens on spinach leaves and tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Hyun; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2015-08-17

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas and aerosolized sanitizer, when applied alone or in combination, on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto spinach leaves and tomato surfaces. Spinach leaves and tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of three strains each of the three foodborne pathogens. ClO2 gas (5 or 10 ppmv) and aerosolized peracetic acid (PAA) (80 ppm) were applied alone or in combination for 20 min. Exposure to 10 ppmv of ClO2 gas for 20 min resulted in 3.4, 3.3, and 3.4 log reductions of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes on spinach leaves, respectively. Treatment with 80 ppm of aerosolized PAA for 20 min caused 2.3, 1.9, and 0.8 log reductions of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. Combined treatment of ClO2 gas (10 ppmv) and aerosolized PAA (80 ppm) for 20 min caused 5.4, 5.1, and 4.1 log reductions of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes on tomatoes experienced similar reduction patterns to those on spinach leaves. As treatment time increased, most combinations of ClO2 gas and aerosolized PAA showed additive effects in the inactivation of the three pathogens. Combined treatment of ClO2 gas and aerosolized PAA produced injured cells of three pathogens on spinach leaves while generally did not produce injured cells of these pathogens on tomatoes. Combined treatment of ClO2 gas (10 ppmv) and aerosolized PAA (80 ppm) did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the color and texture of samples during 7 days of storage. PMID:26001524

  7. Food-borne pathogens of animal origin-diagnosis, prevention, control and their zoonotic significance: a review.

    PubMed

    Dhama, K; Rajagunalan, S; Chakraborty, S; Verma, A K; Kumar, A; Tiwari, R; Kapoor, S

    2013-10-15

    The term food borne diseases or food-borne illnesses or more commonly food poisoning are used to denote gastrointestinal complications that occur following recent consumption of a particular food or drink. Millions of people suffer worldwide every year and the situation is quiet grave in developing nations creating social and economic strain. The food borne pathogens include various bacteria viz., Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus, Arcobacter, Clostridium perfringens, Cl. botulinum and Bacillus cereus and helminths viz., Taenia. They also include protozoa viz., Trichinella, Sarcocystis, Toxoplasma gondii and Cryptosporidium parvum. The zoonotic potential and the ability to elaborate toxins by many of the microbes causing fatal intoxication are sufficient to understand the seriousness of the situation. The viral agents being host specific their transmission to humans through food of animal origin is not yet confirmed although these animal viruses are similar to that of viruses infecting human. Food-borne bacteria; protozoa and helminthes have complex distribution pattern in the environment and inside the host system. This along with complexity of the maintenance chain and life cycle (of parasites) has made it difficult for epidemiologist and diagnostician to undertake any immediate safety measures against them. Serological and molecular diagnostic tests viz. ELISA, Latex agglutination test, Lateral flow assays, Immunomagnetic separation assays, molecular assays viz. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), multiplex PCR, immuno-PCR, Realtime PCR, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR, DNA microarrays and probes are widely used. Along with these LAMP assays, Capillary Electrophoresis-Single Strand Confirmation polymorphism (CE-SSCP); Flow cytometry, FISH, Biosensors, Direct epifluorescent filter technique, nanotechnology based methods and sophisticated tools (ultrasonography, magnetic resonance

  8. Low-fouling surface plasmon resonance biosensor for multi-step detection of foodborne bacterial pathogens in complex food samples.

    PubMed

    Vaisocherová-Lísalová, Hana; Víšová, Ivana; Ermini, Maria Laura; Špringer, Tomáš; Song, Xue Chadtová; Mrázek, Jan; Lamačová, Josefína; Scott Lynn, N; Šedivák, Petr; Homola, Jiří

    2016-06-15

    Recent outbreaks of foodborne illnesses have shown that foodborne bacterial pathogens present a significant threat to public health, resulting in an increased need for technologies capable of fast and reliable screening of food commodities. The optimal method of pathogen detection in foods should: (i) be rapid, specific, and sensitive; (ii) require minimum sample preparation; and (iii) be robust and cost-effective, thus enabling use in the field. Here we report the use of a SPR biosensor based on ultra-low fouling and functionalizable poly(carboxybetaine acrylamide) (pCBAA) brushes for the rapid and sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens in crude food samples utilizing a three-step detection assay. We studied both the surface resistance to fouling and the functional capabilities of these brushes with respect to each step of the assay, namely: (I) incubation of the sensor with crude food samples, resulting in the capture of bacteria by antibodies immobilized to the pCBAA coating, (II) binding of secondary biotinylated antibody (Ab2) to previously captured bacteria, and (III) binding of streptavidin-coated gold nanoparticles to the biotinylated Ab2 in order to enhance the sensor response. We also investigated the effects of the brush thickness on the biorecognition capabilities of the gold-grafted functionalized pCBAA coatings. We demonstrate that pCBAA-compared to standard low-fouling OEG-based alkanethiolate self-assemabled monolayers-exhibits superior surface resistance regarding both fouling from complex food samples as well as the non-specific binding of S-AuNPs. We further demonstrate that a SPR biosensor based on a pCBAA brush with a thickness as low as 20 nm was capable of detecting E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella sp. in complex hamburger and cucumber samples with extraordinary sensitivity and specificity. The limits of detection for the two bacteria in cucumber and hamburger extracts were determined to be 57 CFU/mL and 17 CFU/mL for E. coli and 7.4 × 10

  9. Detection of food-borne pathogens by nanoparticle technology coupled to a low-cost cell reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noiseux, Isabelle; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Gallant, Pascal; Bourqui, Pascal; Cao, Honghe; Vernon, Marci; Johnson, Roger; Chen, Shu; Mermut, Ozzy

    2010-02-01

    The detection, identification and quantification of pathogenic microorganisms at low cost are of great interest to the agro-food industry. We have developed a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific method for detection of food-borne pathogens based on use of nanoparticles alongside a low cost fluorescence cell reader for the bioassay. The nanoparticles are coupled with antibodies that allow specific recognition of the targeted Listeria in either a liquid or food matrix. The bioconjugated nanoparticles (FNP) contain thousands of dye molecules enabling significant amplification of the fluorescent signal emitted from each bacterium. The developed fluorescence Cell Reader is an LED-based reader coupled with suitable optics and a camera that acquires high resolution images. The dedicated algorithm allowed the counting of each individual nanoparticles-fluorescent bacterial cells thus enabling highly sensitive reading. The system allows, within 1 hour, the recovery and counting of 104 to 108 cfu/mL of Listeria in pure culture. However, neither the Cell Reader nor the algorithm can differentiate between the FNPs specifically-bound to the target and the residual unbound FNPs limiting sensitivity of the system. Since FNPs are too small to be washed in the bioassay, a dual tagging approach was implemented to allow online optical separation of the fluorescent background caused by free FNPs.

  10. The adaptive response of bacterial food-borne pathogens in the environment, host and food: Implications for food safety.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; Broussolle, Véronique; Colin, Pierre; Nguyen-The, Christophe; Prieto, Miguel

    2015-11-20

    Bacteria are constantly faced to stress situations in their ecological niches, the food and the host gastrointestinal tract. The capacity to detect and respond to surrounding changes is crucial for bacterial pathogens to survive or grow in changing environments. To this purpose, cells have evolved various sophisticated networks designed to protect against stressors or repair damage caused by them. Challenges can occur during production of foods when subjected to processing, and after food ingestion when confronted with host defensive barriers. Some pathogenic bacteria have shown the capacity to develop stable resistance against extreme conditions within a defined genomic context and a limited number of generations. On the other hand, bacteria can also respond to adverse conditions in a transient manner, through the so-called stress tolerance responses. Bacterial stress tolerance responses include both structural and physiological modifications in the cell and are mediated by complex genetic regulatory machinery. Major aspects in the adaptive response are the sensing mechanisms, the characterization of cell defensive systems, such as the operation of regulatory proteins (e.g. RpoS), the induction of homeostatic and repair systems, the synthesis of shock response proteins, and the modifications of cell membranes, particularly in their fatty acid composition and physical properties. This article reviews certain strategies used by food-borne bacteria to respond to particular stresses (acid, cold stress, extreme pressure) in a permanent or transient manner and discusses the implications that such adaptive responses pose for food safety. PMID:26116419

  11. Tracking Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria in Raw and Ready-to-Eat Food Illegally Sold at the Eastern EU Border.

    PubMed

    Ciolacu, Luminita; Stessl, Beatrix; Bolocan, Andrei Sorin; Oniciuc, Elena Alexandra; Wagner, Martin; Rychli, Kathrin; Nicolau, Anca Ioana

    2016-03-01

    Food illegally brought into the European Union, mainly in the personal luggage of travelers, represents a potential threat to consumers' health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of five pathogens in food brought into the European Union by Moldavian citizens as personal goods and illegally sold in Romania in the vicinity of the border. The occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes was 7.5% and 8%, while Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella spp. were absent in all samples. L. monocytogenes sequence type 2, 9, 121, and 155, highly prevalent among foodstuffs worldwide, was also present among isolates from ready-to-eat food illegally sold in Romania, even at the same date of sampling, indicating cross-contamination during food handling. S. aureus spa types t449, t304, and t524 were most often isolated from raw-milk cheeses contaminated with 10(3)-10(5) colony-forming units per gram, evidencing a contamination at herd level or unhygienic conditions during processing. S. aureus t011 and t3625, both included in the livestock-associated CC398, were isolated from pork lard and poultry meat. This study shows that cross-border trade from nonmember states represents a neglected route of transmission of foodborne pathogens into the European Union that could lead to sporadic or family-associated cases of disease. PMID:26741503

  12. Multiplex sorting of foodborne pathogens by on-chip free-flow magnetophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ngamsom, Bongkot; Esfahani, Mohammad M N; Phurimsak, Chayakom; Lopez-Martinez, Maria J; Raymond, Jean-Claude; Broyer, Patrick; Patel, Pradip; Pamme, Nicole

    2016-04-28

    This study reports multiplex sorting of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli 0157, from broth cultures and from pathogen-spiked skinned chicken breast enrichment broths by employing microfluidic free-flow magnetophoresis. Magnetic beads of different sizes and magnetite content, namely Dynabeads anti-salmonella and Hyglos-Streptavidin beads together with the corresponding pathogen-specific biotinylated recombinant phages, were utilised as affinity solid phases for the capture and concentration of viable S. typhimurium and E. coli 0157. Following optimisation, the protocol was used to demonstrate continuous magnetophoretic sorting of the two pathogen-bound magnetic bead populations from mixed cultures and from pathogen-spiked chicken pre-enrichment broths under the influence of a Halbach magnet array. For example, in the latter case, a pure population of S. typhimurium-bound Dynabeads (72% recovery) was sorted from a 100 μL mixture containing E. coli 0157-bound Hyglos beads (67% recovery) within 1.2 min in the presence of 0.1% Tween 20. This proof-of-principle study demonstrates how more than one pathogen type can be simultaneously isolated/enriched from a single food pre-enrichment broth (e.g. Universal food enrichment broth). PMID:27046212

  13. Recent Advancements in Nanobioassays and Nanobiosensors for Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Park, Bosoon

    2016-06-01

    Bacterial pathogens are one of the leading causes of food safety incidents and product recalls worldwide. Timely detection and identification of microbial contamination in agricultural and food products is crucial for disease prevention and outbreak investigation. In efforts to improve and/or replace time-consuming and laborious "gold standards" for pathogen detection, numerous alternative rapid methods have been proposed in the past 15 years, with a trend toward incorporating nanotechnology and nanomaterials in food pathogen detection. This article is a review of the use of nanotechnology in various detection and sample preparation techniques and advancements in nanotechnology applications in food matrices. Some practical considerations in nanobioassay design are discussed, and the gaps between research status quo and market demands are identified. PMID:27296612

  14. In-situ fluorescent immunomagnetic multiplex detection of foodborne pathogens in very low numbers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Il-Hoon; Mauer, Lisa; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2014-07-15

    Consumption of foods contaminated with pathogenic bacteria is a major public health concern. Foods contain microorganisms, the overwhelming majority of which are nonpathogenic, some are responsible for food spoilage, and some cause serious illness leading to death or a variety of diseases in humans. The key challenge in food safety is to rapidly screen foods to determine the presence of pathogens so that appropriate intervention protocols can be pursued. A simple fluorometric immunological method in combination with a magnetic concentration step was developed for rapid detection of target bacteria with high sensitivity and specificity in less than 2h without enumeration. The method constitutes performing an in-situ immunoassay on a magnetic bead through the formation of a sandwich complex of the target bacteria and the probe (detection antibody-denatured BSA labelled with fluorophores) followed by the release of fluorophores by means of enzymatic digestion with proteinase K. The limit of detection (LOD) was <5 CFU/mL of the tested pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes) in buffer. When the pathogens were inoculated in foods (spinach, chicken, and milk), the LOD was under 5 CFU/mL for E. coli O157:H7, S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes. Furthermore, the method was highly specific in detecting the target pathogens in a multiplex format. The developed in-situ fluorescent immunomagnetic sensor approach offers distinct advantages because it is rapid, highly sensitive, and easy to use and could therefore be potentially used as a pathogen screening tool. PMID:24583684

  15. Antimicrobial potential for the combination of bovine lactoferrin or its hydrolysate with lactoferrin-resistant probiotics against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, P-W; Jheng, T T; Shyu, C-L; Mao, F C

    2013-03-01

    Previous reports have shown that several probiotic strains can resist the antibacterial activity of bovine lactoferrin (bLf), but the results are inconsistent. Moreover, a portion of orally administered apo-bLf is digested in vivo by pepsin to yield bLf hydrolysate, which produces stronger antibacterial activity than that observed with apo-bLf. However, whether bLf hydrolysate affects the growth of probiotic strains is unclear. Therefore, various probiotic strains in Taiwan were collected and evaluated for activity against apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate in vitro. Thirteen probiotic strains were evaluated, and the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Lactobacillus salivarius ATCC 11741, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, Bifidobacterium longum ATCC 15707, and Bifidobacterium lactis BCRC 17394 were inhibited by both apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate. The growth of 8 strains were not affected by apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, including L. rhamnosus ATCC 7469, Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 23272, Lactobacillus fermentum ATCC 11739, Lactobacillus coryniformis ATCC 25602, L. acidophilus BCRC 14065, Bifidobacterium infantis ATCC 15697, Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, and Pediococcus acidilactici ATCC 8081. However, apo-bLf and its hydrolysate inhibited the growth of foodborne pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Moreover, the supernatants produced by L. fermentum, B. lactis, and B. longum inhibited the growth of most pathogens. Importantly, a combination of apo-bLf or bLf hydrolysate with the supernatants of cultures of the organisms described above showed synergistic or partially synergistic effects against the growth of most of the selected pathogens. In conclusion, several probiotic strains are resistant to apo-bLf and bLf hydrolysate, warranting clinical studies to evaluate the antimicrobial potential for the combination of apo-bLf or its hydrolysate with specific probiotics. PMID:23332852

  16. Use of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains as a Bio-Control Strategy against Food-Borne Pathogenic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Arena, Mattia Pia; Silvain, Amandine; Normanno, Giovanni; Grieco, Francesco; Drider, Djamel; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    . This study emphasizes the tempting use of the tested L. plantarum strains and/or their CFS as antimicrobial agents against food-borne pathogens. PMID:27148172

  17. Use of Lactobacillus plantarum Strains as a Bio-Control Strategy against Food-Borne Pathogenic Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Arena, Mattia Pia; Silvain, Amandine; Normanno, Giovanni; Grieco, Francesco; Drider, Djamel; Spano, Giuseppe; Fiocco, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    . This study emphasizes the tempting use of the tested L. plantarum strains and/or their CFS as antimicrobial agents against food-borne pathogens. PMID:27148172

  18. Incorporation of essential oils and nanoparticles in pullulan films to control foodborne pathogens on meat and poultry products.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Khalaf, Hassan H; Sharoba, Ashraf M; El-Tanahi, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2014-04-01

    The incorporation of essential oils and nanotechnology into edible films has the potential to improve the microbiological safety of foods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan films containing essential oils and nanoparticles against 4 foodborne pathogens. Initial experiments using plate overlay assays demonstrated that 2% oregano essential oil was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were not inhibited. Two percent rosemary essential oil was active against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium, when compared with 1%. Zinc oxide nanoparticles at 110 nm were active against S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and S. Typhimurium, when compared with 100 or 130 nm. Conversely, 100 nm silver (Ag) nanoparticles were more active against S. aureus than L. monocytogenes. Using the results from these experiments, the compounds exhibiting the greatest activity were incorporated into pullulan films and found to inhibit all or some of the 4 pathogens in plate overlay assays. In challenge studies, pullulan films containing the compounds effectively inhibited the pathogens associated with vacuum packaged meat and poultry products stored at 4 °C for up to 3 wk, as compared to control films. Additionally, the structure and cross-section of the films were evaluated using electron microscopy. The results from this study demonstrate that edible films made from pullulan and incorporated with essential oils or nanoparticles may improve the safety of refrigerated, fresh or further processed meat and poultry products. PMID:24621108

  19. Bactericidal Mechanism of Bio-oil Obtained from Fast Pyrolysis of Pinus densiflora Against Two Foodborne Pathogens, Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Hwang, Hyewon; Choi, Joon Weon; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    Foodborne bacteria are the leading cause of food spoilage and other related diseases. In the present study, the antibacterial activity of bio-oil (BO) manufactured by fast pyrolysis of pinewood sawdust (Pinus densiflora Siebold and Zucc.) against two disease-causing foodborne pathogens (Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes) was evaluated. BO at a concentration of 1000 μg/disc was highly active against both B. cereus (10.0-10.6 mm-inhibition zone) and L. monocytogenes (10.6-12.0-mm inhibition zone). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration values of BO were 500 and 1000 μg/mL, respectively, for both pathogens. At the MIC concentration, BO exhibited an inhibitory effect on the viability of the bacterial pathogens. The mechanism of action of BO revealed its strong impairing effect on the membrane integrity of bacterial cells, which was confirmed by a marked release of 260-nm absorbing material, leakage of electrolytes and K(+) ions, and reduced capacity for osmoregulation under high salt concentration. Scanning electron microscopy clearly showed morphological alteration of the cell membrane due to the effect of BO. Overall, the results of this study suggest that BO exerts effective antibacterial potential against foodborne pathogens and can therefore potentially be used in food processing and preservation. PMID:25928035

  20. Antibacterial activities of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles against foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antibacterial activities of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NP) alone or in combination with other antimicrobials (nisin and ZnO NP) against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Stanley were investigated. The results show that MgO NP have strong bactericidal activity against the pathogens, achievin...

  1. Using antimicrobial cultures, bacteriocins, and bacteriophages to reduce carriage of foodborne pathogens in cattle and swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intestinal microbial ecosystem is a dense and diverse population that can be utilized to reduce pathogenic bacterial populations that affect animal production efficiency and the safety of food products. Strategies that capture and utilize this complex natural resource have been developed that r...

  2. Recent Advancements in Nanobioassays and Nanobiosensors for Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria Detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacterial pathogens are one of the leading causes of food safety incidents and product recalls worldwide. Timely detection and identification of microbial contamination in agricultural and food products is crucial for disease prevention and outbreak investigation. Current gold standards are specific...

  3. Transfer of foodborne pathogenic bacteria to non-inoculated beef fillets through meat mincing machine.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulou, O S; Chorianopoulos, N G; Gkana, E N; Grounta, A V; Koutsoumanis, K P; Nychas, G-J E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the transfer of pathogens population to non-inoculated beef fillets through meat mincing machine. In this regard, cocktails of mixed strain cultures of each Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were used for the inoculation of beef fillets. Three different initial inoculum sizes (3, 5, or 7 log CFU/g) were tested. The inoculated beef fillets passed through meat mincing machine and then, six non-inoculated beef fillets passed in sequence through the same mincing machine without sanitation. The population of each pathogen was measured. It was evident that, all non-inoculated beef fillets were contaminated through mincing with all pathogens, regardless the inoculum levels used. This observation can be used to cover knowledge gaps in risk assessments since indicates the potential of pathogen contamination and provides significant insights for the risk estimation related to cross-contamination, aiming thus to food safety enhancement. PMID:22119672

  4. Interactions between food-borne pathogens and protozoa isolated from lettuce and spinach.

    PubMed

    Gourabathini, Poornima; Brandl, Maria T; Redding, Katherine S; Gunderson, John H; Berk, Sharon G

    2008-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella enterica was recently shown to increase when the bacteria were sequestered in expelled food vacuoles (vesicles) of Tetrahymena. Because fresh produce is increasingly linked to outbreaks of enteric illness, the present investigation aimed to determine the prevalence of protozoa on spinach and lettuce and to examine their interactions with S. enterica, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Glaucoma sp., Colpoda steinii, and Acanthamoeba palestinensis were cultured from store-bought spinach and lettuce and used in our study. A strain of Tetrahymena pyriformis previously isolated from spinach and a soil-borne Tetrahymena sp. were also used. Washed protozoa were allowed to graze on green fluorescent protein- or red fluorescent protein-labeled enteric pathogens. Significant differences in interactions among the various protist-enteric pathogen combinations were observed. Vesicles were produced by Glaucoma with all of the bacterial strains, although L. monocytogenes resulted in the smallest number per ciliate. Vesicle production was observed also during grazing of Tetrahymena on E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica but not during grazing on L. monocytogenes, in vitro and on leaves. All vesicles contained intact fluorescing bacteria. In contrast, C. steinii and the amoeba did not produce vesicles from any of the enteric pathogens, nor were pathogens trapped within their cysts. Studies of the fate of E. coli O157:H7 in expelled vesicles revealed that by 4 h after addition of spinach extract, the bacteria multiplied and escaped the vesicles. The presence of protozoa on leafy vegetables and their sequestration of enteric bacteria in vesicles indicate that they may play an important role in the ecology of human pathogens on produce. PMID:18310421

  5. Isolation and characterization of the emerging foodborn pathogen Arcobacter from human stool.

    PubMed

    Houf, Kurt; Stephan, Roger

    2007-02-01

    At present, isolation of arcobacters from human specimens is performed by slightly of not modified Campylobacter, Yersinia or Leptospira isolation techniques, and knowledge if arcobacters are part of the human commensal flora is lacking. Therefore, an Arcobacter selective isolation procedure was validated for the examination of human fecal specimens, and the presence and characteristics of Arcobacter in feces of asymptomatic humans was examined in order to assess the clinical relevance of arcobacters in diarrheal stool. With this method, Arcobacter was isolated from seven of 500 (1.4%) stool samples of healthy people with Arcobacter cryaerophilus as the only species present. Seven A. cryaerophilus genotypes were detected and only one genotype was found per person. Neither A. butzleri nor A. skirrowii were isolated, therefore the presence of those latter species in clinical samples requires further attention. Though the pathogenic role and potential virulence factors of arcobacters have to be further examined, the current status of arcobacters as emerging pathogens remains justified. PMID:17097175

  6. Impact of plant derivatives on the growth of foodborne pathogens and the functionality of probiotics.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, Rabin; Ibrahim, Salam A

    2012-07-01

    Numerous studies have been published on the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of various plant components. However, there is relatively little information on the impact of such components on the enhancement of probiotics and production of antimicrobial compounds from these probiotics. Hence, this paper focuses on the influence of plant-derived components against pathogens, enhancement of cell viability and functionality of probiotics, and potential applications of such components in food safety and human health. PMID:22622837

  7. The Key Events Dose-Response Framework: Its Potential for Application to Foodborne Pathogenic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    BUCHANAN, ROBERT L.; HAVELAAR, ARIE H.; SMITH, MARY ALICE; WHITING, RICHARD C.; JULIEN, ELIZABETH

    2009-01-01

    The Key Events Dose-Response Framework (KEDRF) is an analytical approach that facilitates the use of currently available data to gain insight regarding dose-response relationships. The use of the KEDRF also helps identify critical knowledge gaps that once filled, will reduce reliance on assumptions. The present study considers how the KEDRF might be applied to pathogenic microorganisms, using fetal listeriosis resulting from maternal ingestion of food contaminated with L. monocytogenes as an initial example. Major biological events along the pathway between food ingestion and the endpoint of concern are systematically considered with regard to dose (i.e., number of organisms), pathogen factors (e.g., virulence), and protective host mechanisms (e.g., immune response or other homeostatic mechanisms). It is concluded that the KEDRF provides a useful structure for systematically evaluating the complex array of host and pathogen factors that influence the dose-response relationship. In particular, the KEDRF supports efforts to specify and quantify the sources of variability, a prerequisite to strengthening the scientific basis for food safety decision making. PMID:19690997

  8. Screening of commercial and pecan shell-extracted liquid smoke agents as natural antimicrobials against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Babu, D; Crandall, Philip G; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-06-01

    Liquid smoke extracts have traditionally been used as flavoring agents, are known to possess antioxidant properties, and serve as natural alternatives to conventional antimicrobials. The antimicrobial efficacies of commercial liquid smoke samples may vary depending on their source and composition and the methods used to extract and concentrate the smoke. We investigated the MICs of eight commercial liquid smoke samples against Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli . The commercial liquid smoke samples purchased were supplied by the manufacturer as water-based or concentrated extracts of smoke from different wood sources. The MICs of the commercial smokes to inhibit the growth of foodborne pathogens ranged from 0.5 to 6.0% for E. coli, 0.5 to 8.0% for Salmonella, and 0.38 to 6% for S. aureus. The MIC for each liquid smoke sample was similar in its effect on both E. coli and Salmonella. Solvent-extracted antimicrobials prepared using pecan shells displayed significant differences between their inhibitory concentrations depending on the type of solvent used for extraction. The results indicated that the liquid smoke samples tested in this study could serve as effective natural antimicrobials and that their inhibitory effects depended more on the solvents used for extraction than the wood source. PMID:22691487

  9. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha spicata Essential Oil against Common Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from the leaf of Mentha spicata plant against common food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Chemical composition of the essential oil was identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by broth microdilution method and agar disk diffusion assay. According to the result of GC-MS analysis, 18 components were identified, accounting for 99.89% of the whole essential oil. The main components were carvone (78.76%), limonene (11.50%), β-bourbonene (11.23%), cis-dihydrocarveol (1.43%), trans-caryophyllene (1.04%), menthone (1.01%), menthol (1%), and terpinen-4-ol (0.99). The essential oil exhibited moderate level of antibacterial activity against all test microorganisms. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to M. spicata essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive of the microorganisms to the antibacterial activity of M. spicata essential oil (inhibition zone = 22 mm and MIC and MBC = 2.5 µL/mL). Based on our results, the essential oil of M. spicata plant collected from Kermanshah province, west of Iran, has a potential to be applied as antibacterial agent. PMID:26351584

  10. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  11. Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food-borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mith, Hasika; Duré, Rémi; Delcenserie, Véronique; Zhiri, Abdesselam; Daube, Georges; Clinquart, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of 15 commercial essential oils and their main components in order to pre-select candidates for potential application in highly perishable food preservation. The antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7) and food spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were tested using paper disk diffusion method, followed by determination of minimum inhibitory (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) concentrations. Most of the tested essential oils exhibited antimicrobial activity against all tested bacteria, except galangal oil. The essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, and thyme showed strong antimicrobial activities with MIC ≥ 0.125 μL/mL and MBC ≥ 0.25 μL/mL. Among tested bacteria, P. fluorescens was the most resistant to selected essential oils with MICs and MBCs of 1 μL/mL. The results suggest that the activity of the essential oils of cinnamon, oregano, thyme, and clove can be attributed to the existence mostly of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol, which appear to possess similar activities against all the tested bacteria. These materials could be served as an important natural alternative to prevent bacterial growth in food products. PMID:25473498

  12. Chemical Composition and In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Mentha spicata Essential Oil against Common Food-Borne Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate chemical composition and antibacterial activity of essential oil from the leaf of Mentha spicata plant against common food-borne pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7). Chemical composition of the essential oil was identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer detector (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was evaluated by broth microdilution method and agar disk diffusion assay. According to the result of GC-MS analysis, 18 components were identified, accounting for 99.89% of the whole essential oil. The main components were carvone (78.76%), limonene (11.50%), β-bourbonene (11.23%), cis-dihydrocarveol (1.43%), trans-caryophyllene (1.04%), menthone (1.01%), menthol (1%), and terpinen-4-ol (0.99). The essential oil exhibited moderate level of antibacterial activity against all test microorganisms. In general, Gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to M. spicata essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. L. monocytogenes was the most sensitive of the microorganisms to the antibacterial activity of M. spicata essential oil (inhibition zone = 22 mm and MIC and MBC = 2.5 µL/mL). Based on our results, the essential oil of M. spicata plant collected from Kermanshah province, west of Iran, has a potential to be applied as antibacterial agent. PMID:26351584

  13. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil from green huajiao (Zanthoxylum schinifolium) against selected foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Diao, Wen-Rui; Hu, Qing-Ping; Feng, Sai-Sai; Li, Wei-Qin; Xu, Jian-Guo

    2013-06-26

    Green huajiao, which is the ripe pericarp of the fruit of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Sieb. et Zucc, is widely consumed in Asia as a spice. In this work, the chemical composition of the essential oil from green huajiao was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry (MS), and the majority of components were identified. Linalool (28.2%), limonene (13.2%), and sabinene (12.1%) were found to be the major components. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the essential oil were evaluated against selected bacteria, including food-borne pathogens. The results showed that the sensitivities to the essential oil were different for different bacteria tested, and the susceptibility of Gram-positive bacteria tested was observed to be greater than that of Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil was particularly strong against Staphylococcus epidermidis , with MIC and MBC values of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. A postcontact effect assay also confirmed the essential oil had a significant effect on the growth rate of surviving S. epidermidis . The antibacterial activity of the essential oil from green huajiao may be due to the increase in permeability of cell membranes, and the leakage of intracellular constituents, on the basis of the cell constituents' release assay and electron microscopy observations. PMID:23758080

  14. Synergistic effects of sodium hypochlorite and ultraviolet radiation in reducing the levels of selected foodborne pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Ha, Sang-Do

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined treatment would produce synergistic effects to facilitate the sterilization of food products during production relative to single treatment. To assess this hypothesis, we investigated the bactericidal effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and a commercial chemical disinfectant, sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), on Bacillus cereus F4810/72, Cronobacter sakazakii KCTC 2949, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 35556, Escherichia coli ATCC 10536, and Salmonella Typhimurium novobiocin/nalidixic acid in vitro. Various concentrations of NaClO (20, 60, 100, and 200 ppm NaClO) were tested along with exposure to UV radiation at various doses (6, 96, 216, 360, and 504 mW s/cm(2)). The combined NaClO/UV treatments resulted in greater reductions in bacterial counts than either treatment alone. The synergy values against B. cereus, C. sakazakii, S. aureus, Salmonella Typhimurium, and E. coli were 0.25-1.17, 0.33-1.97, 0.42-1.72, 0.02-1.44, and 0.01-0.85 log(10) CFU/mL, respectively. The results of this study suggest that a significant synergistic benefit results from combined NaClO/UV processing against food-borne pathogenic bacteria in vitro. PMID:21204702

  15. A microfluidic-based hybrid SPR/molecular imaging biosensor for the multiplexed detection of foodborne pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zordan, Michael D.; Grafton, Meggie M. G.; Acharya, Ghanashyam; Reece, Lisa M.; Aronson, Arthur I.; Park, Kinam; Leary, James F.

    2009-02-01

    It is important to screen our food supply for pathogen contaminations. Current methods to screen for bacterial contamination involve using costly reagents such as antibodies or PCR reagents or time-costly growth in cultures. There is need for portable, real-time, multiplex pathogen detection technology that can predict the safety of food where it is produced or distributed. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging is a sensitive, label-free method that can detect the binding of an analyte to a surface due to changes in refractive index that occur upon binding. It can be used for label-free detection of the presence of potential pathogens. Simultaneous fluorescence molecular imaging on the other side of the biochip can be used to ascertain pathogen status or functional state which may affect its potential danger to humans or animals. We are designing and testing hybrid microfluidic biochips to detect multiple pathogens using a combination of SPRI and fluorescence imaging. The device consists of an array of gold spots, each functionalized with a peptide targeting a specific pathogen. This peptide biosensor array is enclosed by a PDMS microfluidic flow chamber that delivers a magnetically concentrated sample to be tested. An SPR image is taken from the bottom of the biochip. Image analysis is used to quantify the amount of pathogen (both live and dead) bound to each spot. Since PDMS is very transmissive to visible light, an epi-fluorescence image is taken from the top of the biochip. Fluorescence imaging determines the live:dead ratio of each pathogen using an inexpensive SYTO 9(R)-Propidium Iodide assay. The volume of sample that the biochip can analyze is small, so possible pathogens are pre-concentrated using immunomagnetic separation. Functionalized magnetic particles are bound to pathogens present in the sample, and a magnet is used to separate them from the bulk fluid.

  16. Analysis of a Food-Borne Fungal Pathogen Outbreak: Virulence and Genome of a Mucor circinelloides Isolate from Yogurt

    PubMed Central

    Billmyre, R. Blake; Li, Alicia; Carson, Sandra; Sykes, Sean M.; Huh, Eun Young; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Ko, Dennis C.; Cuomo, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Food-borne pathogens are ongoing problems, and new pathogens are emerging. The impact of fungi, however, is largely underestimated. Recently, commercial yogurts contaminated with Mucor circinelloides were sold, and >200 consumers became ill with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Mucoralean fungi cause the fatal fungal infection mucormycosis, whose incidence has been continuously increasing. In this study, we isolated an M. circinelloides strain from a yogurt container, and multilocus sequence typing identified the strain as Mucor circinelloides f. circinelloides. M. circinelloides f. circinelloides is the most virulent M. circinelloides subspecies and is commonly associated with human infections, whereas M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus and M. circinelloides f. griseocyanus are less common causes of infection. Whole-genome analysis of the yogurt isolate confirmed it as being close to the M. circinelloides f. circinelloides subgroup, with a higher percentage of divergence with the M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus subgroup. In mating assays, the yogurt isolate formed sexual zygospores with the (−) M. circinelloides f. circinelloides tester strain, which is congruent with its sex locus encoding SexP, the (+) mating type sex determinant. The yogurt isolate was virulent in murine and wax moth larva host systems. In a murine gastromucormycosis model, Mucor was recovered from fecal samples of infected mice for up to 10 days, indicating that Mucor can survive transit through the GI tract. In interactions with human immune cells, M. circinelloides f. lusitanicus induced proinflammatory cytokines but M. circinelloides f. circinelloides did not, which may explain the different levels of virulence in mammalian hosts. This study demonstrates that M. circinelloides can spoil food products and cause gastrointestinal illness in consumers and may pose a particular risk to immunocompromised patients. PMID:25006230

  17. Antagonistic effect of Pseudomonas graminis CPA-7 against foodborne pathogens in fresh-cut apples under simulated commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Isabel; Viñas, Inmaculada; Usall, Josep; Anguera, Marina; Altisent, Rosa; Abadias, Maribel

    2013-04-01

    Recently, we reported that the application of the strain CPA-7 of Pseudomonas graminis, previously isolated from apple, could reduce the population of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed (MP) apples and peaches under laboratory conditions. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to find an antioxidant treatment and a packaging atmosphere condition to improve CPA-7 efficacy in reducing a cocktail of four Salmonella and five Listeria monocytogenes strains on MP apples under simulated commercial processing. The effect of CPA-7 application on apple quality and its survival to simulated gastric stress were also evaluated. Ascorbic acid (2%, w/v) and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (1%, w/v) as antioxidant treatments reduced Salmonella, L. monocytogenes and CPA-7 recovery, meanwhile no reduction was observed with NatureSeal(®) AS1 (NS, 6%, w/v). The antagonistic strain was effective on NS-treated apple wedges stored at 10 °C with or without modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Then, in a semi-commercial assay, efficacy of CPA-7 inoculated at 10(5) and 10(7) cfu mL(-1) against Salmonella and L. monocytogenes strains on MP apples with NS and MAP and stored at 5 and 10 °C was evaluated. Although high CPA-7 concentrations/populations avoided Salmonella growth at 10 °C and lowered L. monocytogenes population increases were observed at both temperatures, the effect was not instantaneous. No effect on apple quality was detected and CPA-7 did not survived to simulated gastric stress throughout storage. Therefore, CPA-7 could avoid pathogens growth on MP apples during storage when use as part of a hurdle technology in combination with disinfection techniques, low storage temperature and MAP. PMID:23200645

  18. Incorporation of nisin Z and lauric arginate into pullulan films to inhibit foodborne pathogens associated with fresh and ready-to-eat muscle foods.

    PubMed

    Pattanayaiying, Rinrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-08-17

    A combination of food grade compounds with edible films, used to inhibit foodborne pathogens associated with fresh or further processed muscle foods, is receiving considerable attention. In this study, pullulan films containing lauric arginate (LAE) and nisin Z (produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis I8-7-3 and isolated from catfish gut), alone or in combination, were investigated for controlling foodborne pathogens on fresh and further processed muscle foods after long-term refrigerated storage. Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis on raw turkey breast slices wrapped with a film containing LAE or the combination of LAE with nisin Z were reduced throughout the experiment, 2.5 to 4.5 log10 CFU/cm(2) and 3.5 to 5.1 log10 CFU/cm(2), respectively. Film containing a combination of LAE with nisin Z reduced Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes Scott A inoculated onto ham surfaces by approximately 5.53 and 5.62 log10 CFU/cm(2), respectively during refrigerated storage. Escherichia coli O157:H7, O111, and O26 also were reduced by >4 log 10CFU/cm(2) on raw beef slices after treatment with the combination film and refrigerated storage. The results obtained from this study indicate the LAE- and LAE-nisin Z-containing pullulan films displayed excellent inhibition against foodborne pathogens on fresh and further processed muscle foods. PMID:26001063

  19. Sampling and Homogenization Strategies Significantly Influence the Detection of Foodborne Pathogens in Meat

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Alexander; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Appel, Bernd; Dieckmann, Ralf; Al Dahouk, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Efficient preparation of food samples, comprising sampling and homogenization, for microbiological testing is an essential, yet largely neglected, component of foodstuff control. Salmonella enterica spiked chicken breasts were used as a surface contamination model whereas salami and meat paste acted as models of inner-matrix contamination. A systematic comparison of different homogenization approaches, namely, stomaching, sonication, and milling by FastPrep-24 or SpeedMill, revealed that for surface contamination a broad range of sample pretreatment steps is applicable and loss of culturability due to the homogenization procedure is marginal. In contrast, for inner-matrix contamination long treatments up to 8 min are required and only FastPrep-24 as a large-volume milling device produced consistently good recovery rates. In addition, sampling of different regions of the spiked sausages showed that pathogens are not necessarily homogenously distributed throughout the entire matrix. Instead, in meat paste the core region contained considerably more pathogens compared to the rim, whereas in the salamis the distribution was more even with an increased concentration within the intermediate region of the sausages. Our results indicate that sampling and homogenization as integral parts of food microbiology and monitoring deserve more attention to further improve food safety. PMID:26539462

  20. Detection of food-borne pathogens with DNA arrays on disk.

    PubMed

    Arnandis-Chover, T; Morais, S; Tortajada-Genaro, L A; Puchades, R; Maquieira, Á; Berganza, J; Olabarria, G

    2012-11-15

    A DNA oligonucleotide array for duplex pathogen detection on a DVD platform is developed. The assay involves hybridization of PCR products and optical detection using compact disc technology. Different DNA array constructions for attachment of synthetic oligonucleotides on to DVD surface are evaluated, finding that streptavidin-biotin coupling method yielded the highest sensitivity in combination with enzymatic signal amplification. Issues of importance for the DNA array construction such immobilized probes design, PCR product labeling strategy and composition of the hybridization buffer were addressed. The methodology was proved scoring single nucleotide polymorphisms with high selectivity. The assay capability was also demonstrated by the identification of two pathogenic microorganisms in powder milk samples. In fifty minutes, the DVD-array system identifies Salmonella spp. and Cronobacter spp. (previously named Enterobacter sakazakii) precise and simultaneously with a sensitivity of 10(0) and 10(2) cfu/mL, respectively, in infant milk. Results were in good agreement with those obtained by quantitative real-time PCR. PMID:23158341

  1. Sampling and Homogenization Strategies Significantly Influence the Detection of Foodborne Pathogens in Meat.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Alexander; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Appel, Bernd; Dieckmann, Ralf; Al Dahouk, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Efficient preparation of food samples, comprising sampling and homogenization, for microbiological testing is an essential, yet largely neglected, component of foodstuff control. Salmonella enterica spiked chicken breasts were used as a surface contamination model whereas salami and meat paste acted as models of inner-matrix contamination. A systematic comparison of different homogenization approaches, namely, stomaching, sonication, and milling by FastPrep-24 or SpeedMill, revealed that for surface contamination a broad range of sample pretreatment steps is applicable and loss of culturability due to the homogenization procedure is marginal. In contrast, for inner-matrix contamination long treatments up to 8 min are required and only FastPrep-24 as a large-volume milling device produced consistently good recovery rates. In addition, sampling of different regions of the spiked sausages showed that pathogens are not necessarily homogenously distributed throughout the entire matrix. Instead, in meat paste the core region contained considerably more pathogens compared to the rim, whereas in the salamis the distribution was more even with an increased concentration within the intermediate region of the sausages. Our results indicate that sampling and homogenization as integral parts of food microbiology and monitoring deserve more attention to further improve food safety. PMID:26539462

  2. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Silver Nanoparticles against Foodborne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Rajeshkumar, S.; Malarkodi, C.

    2014-01-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Planomicrobium sp. and to explore the antibacterial activity against food borne pathogenic bacteria Bacillus subtilis, (3053) Klebsiella planticola (2727) Klebsiella pneumoniae (MAA) Serratia nematodiphila (CAA) and Escherichia coli. In the current studies, 1 mM of silver nitrate was added into 100 mL of Planomicrobium sp. culture supernatant. The bioreduction of pure AgNO3 was characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive analysis (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by the presence of an absorption peak at 400 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometry. The morphology and size of the silver nanoparticles was monitored by TEM and SEM. Crystal structure was obtained by carrying out X-ray diffraction studies and it showed face centered cubic (FCC) structure. The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles was compared based on diameter of inhibition zone in well method. Bacterial sensitivity to nanoparticles a key factor in manufacture the suitable for long life application in food packaging and food safety. Food safety is a worldwide health goal and the food borne diseases get a main disaster on health. Therefore, controlling of bacterial pathogens in food is credit of harms associated to health and safety. PMID:25313307

  3. The sensitivity of bacterial foodborne pathogens to Croton blanchetianus Baill essential oil

    PubMed Central

    do Amarante Melo, Geiseanny Fernandes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira; Garino, Felício; Medeiros, Rosália Severo; Madruga, Marta Suely; Neto, Vicente Queiroga

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill, popularly known as “marmeleiro”, in inhibiting the growth and survival of pathogenic microorganisms in food by determining their survival in vitro and by observing the behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into a food model (meat cubes) that was stored at refrigeration temperature (7 ± 1 °C) for 4 days. The results indicated a bactericidal effect against Aeromonas hydrophila and Listeria monocytogenes and bacteriostatic action against Salmonella Enteritidis. A bacteriostatic effect on meat contaminated with L. monocytogenes was found for all concentrations of essential oils tested. These results showed that essential oil from the leaves of C. blanchetianus Baill represents an alternative source of potentially natural antimicrobial agents that may be used as a food preservative. PMID:24688510

  4. Low incidence of foodborne pathogens of concern in raw milk utilized for farmstead cheese production.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Dennis J; Groves, Errol; Donnelly, Catherine W

    2008-08-01

    Overall milk quality and prevalence of four target pathogens in raw milk destined for farmstead cheesemaking was examined. Raw milk samples were collected weekly from June to September 2006 from 11 farmstead cheese operations manufacturing raw milk cheese from cow's, goat's, and sheep's milk. Samples were screened for Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 both quantitatively (direct plating) and qualitatively (PCR). Overall, 96.8% of samples had standard plate counts of < 100,000 CFU/ml, 42.7% of which were < 1,000 CFU/ml. Although no federal standards exist for coliforms in raw milk, 61% of samples tested conformed to pasteurized milk standards under the U.S. Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) at < 10 CFU/ml. All cow and sheep milk samples and 93.8% of goat milk samples were within the limits dictated by the PMO for somatic cell counts. Of the 11 farms, 8 (73%) produced samples that were positive for S. aureus, which was detected in 34.6% (46 of 133) of milk samples. L. monocytogenes was isolated from three milk samples (2.3%), two of which were from the same farm. E. coli O157:H7 was recovered from one sample of goat's milk for an overall incidence of 0.75%. Salmonella was not recovered from any of the 133 samples. The findings of this study suggest that most raw milk intended for farmstead cheesemaking is of high microbiological quality with a low incidence of pathogens. These data will help inform risk assessments associated with the microbiological safety of farmstead cheeses, particularly those manufactured from raw milk. PMID:18724751

  5. Distribution of Yersinia pestis pIP1202-like Multidrug Resistance Plasmids Among Foodborne Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotic resistance in Yersinia pestis is rare and constitutes a significant threat given that antibiotics are used for both plague treatment and for prevention of human-to-human transmission. For this reason, the discovery of a multiple antimicrobial resistant (MDR) isolate of Y. pestis (strain I...

  6. Role of Pathogens in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Libbey, Jane E.; Cusick, Matthew F.; Fujinami, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Although the etiology of MS is unknown, genetic and environmental factors play a role. Infectious pathogens are the likely environmental factors involved in the development of MS. Pathogens associated with the development or exacerbation of MS include bacteria, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae, the Staphylococcus aureus-produced enterotoxins that function as superantigens, viruses of the herpes virus (Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus 6) and human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families and the protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii. Evidence, from studies with humans and animal models, supporting the association of these various pathogens with the development and/or exacerbation of MS will be discussed along with the potential mechanisms including molecular mimicry, epitope spreading and bystander activation. In contrast, infection with certain parasites such as helminthes (Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercolaris, Enterobius vermicularis) appears to protect against the development or exacerbation of MS. Evidence supporting the ability of parasitic infections to protect against disease will be discussed along with a brief summary of a recent Phase I clinical trial testing the ability of Trichuris suis ova treatment to improve the clinical course of MS. A complex interaction between the CNS (including the blood-brain barrier), multiple infections with various infectious agents (occurring in the periphery or within the CNS), and the immune response to those various infections may have to be deciphered before the etiology of MS can be fully understood. PMID:24266364

  7. Role of pathogens in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Libbey, Jane E; Cusick, Matthew F; Fujinami, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Although the etiology of MS is unknown, genetic and environmental factors play a role. Infectious pathogens are the likely environmental factors involved in the development of MS. Pathogens associated with the development or exacerbation of MS include bacteria, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae, the Staphylococcus aureus-produced enterotoxins that function as superantigens, viruses of the herpes virus (Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus 6) and human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families and the protozoa Acanthamoeba castellanii. Evidence, from studies with humans and animal models, supporting the association of these various pathogens with the development and/or exacerbation of MS will be discussed along with the potential mechanisms including molecular mimicry, epitope spreading and bystander activation. In contrast, infection with certain parasites such as helminthes (Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, Hymenolepis nana, Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Strongyloides stercolaris, Enterobius vermicularis) appears to protect against the development or exacerbation of MS. Evidence supporting the ability of parasitic infections to protect against disease will be discussed along with a brief summary of a recent Phase I clinical trial testing the ability of Trichuris suis ova treatment to improve the clinical course of MS. A complex interaction between the CNS (including the blood-brain barrier), multiple infections with various infectious agents (occurring in the periphery or within the CNS), and the immune response to those various infections may have to be deciphered before the etiology of MS can be fully understood. PMID:24266364

  8. Rapid Sample Processing for Detection of Food-Borne Pathogens via Cross-Flow Microfiltration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuan; Ximenes, Eduardo; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Vibbert, Hunter B.; Foster, Kirk; Jones, Jim; Liu, Xingya; Bhunia, Arun K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports an approach to enable rapid concentration and recovery of bacterial cells from aqueous chicken homogenates as a preanalytical step of detection. This approach includes biochemical pretreatment and prefiltration of food samples and development of an automated cell concentration instrument based on cross-flow microfiltration. A polysulfone hollow-fiber membrane module having a nominal pore size of 0.2 μm constitutes the core of the cell concentration instrument. The aqueous chicken homogenate samples were circulated within the cross-flow system achieving 500- to 1,000-fold concentration of inoculated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and naturally occurring microbiota with 70% recovery of viable cells as determined by plate counting and quantitative PCR (qPCR) within 35 to 45 min. These steps enabled 10 CFU/ml microorganisms in chicken homogenates or 102 CFU/g chicken to be quantified. Cleaning and sterilizing the instrument and membrane module by stepwise hydraulic and chemical cleaning (sodium hydroxide and ethanol) enabled reuse of the membrane 15 times before replacement. This approach begins to address the critical need for the food industry for detecting food pathogens within 6 h or less. PMID:24014538

  9. Perceptions, practices, and consequences associated with foodborne pathogens and the feeding of raw meat to dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Jennifer; Joffe, Daniel; Kauffman, Michael; Zhang, Yifan; LeJeune, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the impact of feeding raw meat to dogs on the fecal prevalence of several enteric bacterial zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 1/42 (2.6%) raw meat-fed dogs. Salmonella enterica was isolated from 2/40 (5%) of the raw meat feeds, 6/42 (14%) raw meat-fed dog feces, none of the dogs that did not receive raw meat (P = 0.001), 4/38 (10.5%) of the vacuum cleaner waste samples from households where raw meat was fed, and 2/44 (4.5%) of vacuum cleaner waste samples from households where raw meat was not fed to dogs (P = 0.41). Responses to a questionnaire probing practices and beliefs regarding raw meat feeding that was administered to dog owners demonstrated that dog owners may either not be aware or refuse to acknowledge the risks associated with raw meat-feeding; thus, they may neglect to conduct adequate intervention strategies to prevent zoonoses among themselves and their families. PMID:19721784

  10. Effect of atmospheric pressure plasma jet on the foodborne pathogens attached to commercial food containers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jayasena, Dinesh D; Yong, Hae In; Alahakoon, Amali U; Park, Sanghoo; Park, Jooyoung; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial biofilms are associated with numerous infections and problems in the health care and food industries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of an atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) jet on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium biofilm formation on collagen casing (CC), polypropylene (PP) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which are widely used food container materials. The samples were treated separately with the APP jet at a 50-W input power for 5 and 10 min, and nitrogen (6 l per minute) gas combined with oxygen (10 standard cubic centimeters per minute) was used to produce the APP. The APP jet reduced the number of bacterial cells in a time-dependent manner. All pathogens attached to CC, PP, and PET were reduced by 3-4 log CFU/cm(2) by the 10-min APP treatment. The developed APP jet was effectively reduced biofilms on CC, PP, and PET. PMID:26604423

  11. Effect of Iranian Ziziphus honey on growth of some foodborne pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Ekhtelat, Maryam; Ravaji, Karim; Parvari, Masood

    2016-01-01

    Background: Honey has previously been shown to have wound healing and antimicrobial properties, but this is dependent on the type of honey, geographical location, and flower from which the final product is derived. We tested the antimicrobial activity of a natural honey originating from the Ziziphus spina-christi tree, against selected strains of bacteria. Ziziphus honey among more than a 100 verities of honey is known to have the greatest value of energy and minerals in it. Materials and Methods: The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Ziziphus honey in 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% dilutions (v/v) against Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Viable count enumeration of the sample was investigated after 0, 24, 72, and 120 h postinoculation with any of the bacteria using pour-plate method. Results: The findings indicate that Ziziphus honey was effective against these pathogenic bacteria. In a comparative trial, antibacterial activity of Ziziphus honey was higher after 120 h incubation for each four bacteria in most dilutions. The microbial count showed 3-7.5 log reduction comparing with control after 120 h. Conclusions: Therefore, it is recommended using Ziziphus honey as a natural preservative and antibacterial agent. Also, it could potentially be used as therapeutic agents against bacterial infection particularly to the tested microorganisms. PMID:27003970

  12. Physical and antimicrobial properties of anise oil loaded nanoemulsions on the survival of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Özvural, Emin Burçin; Zhao, Qin; Huang, Qingrong; Chikindas, Michael; Gölükçü, Muharrem

    2016-07-15

    The purpose of this research was to investigate antimicrobial effects of nano emulsions of anise oil (AO) on the survival of common food borne pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Series of emulsions containing different level of anise oil as potential antimicrobial delivery systems were prepared. Antimicrobial activities of bulk anise oil and its emulsions (coarse and nano) was tested by the minimum inhibitory concentration and time kill assay. Our results showed that bulk anise oil reduced the population of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes by 1.48 and 0.47 log cfu/ml respectively after 6 h of contact time. However, under the same condition anise oil nanoemulsion (AO75) reduced E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes count by 2.51 and 1.64 log cfu/ml, respectively. Physicochemical and microbial analyses indicated that both nano and coarse emulsions of anise oil showed better and long-term physicochemical stability and antimicrobial activity compared to bulk anise oil. PMID:26948596

  13. Real-Time PCR Methods for Detection of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens in Meat and Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Marta; Hansen, Flemming; Cook, Nigel; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David

    As a consequence of the potential hazards posed by the presence of microbial pathogens, microbiological quality control programmes are being increasingly applied throughout the meat production chain in order to minimize the risk of infection for the consumer. Classical microbiological methods to detect the presence of microorganisms, involving enrichment and isolation of presumptive colonies of bacteria on solid media, and final confirmation by biochemical and/or serological identification, although remaining the approach of choice in routine analytical laboratories, can be laborious and time consuming. The adoption of molecular techniques in microbial diagnostics has become a promising alternative approach, as they possess inherent advantages such as shorter time to results, excellent detection limits, specificity and potential for automation. Several molecular detection techniques have been devised in the last two decades, such as nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) (Cook, 2003; Rodriguez-Lazaro, Hernandez, D’Agostino, & Cook, 2006) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Notomi et al., 2000), but the one which has undergone the most extensive development as a practical food analytical tool is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Hoorfar & Cook, 2003; Malorny, Tassios, et al., 2003).

  14. Prevalence of ten putative virulence genes in the emerging foodborne pathogen Arcobacter isolated from food products.

    PubMed

    Girbau, Cecilia; Guerra, Cristian; Martínez-Malaxetxebarria, Irati; Alonso, Rodrigo; Fernández-Astorga, Aurora

    2015-12-01

    Arcobacter spp. are considered to be emerging food- and waterborne pathogens for both humans and animals. However, their virulence mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study the presence of ten virulence genes (cadF, ciaB, cj1349, hecA, hecB, mviN, pldA, irgA, tlyA and iroE) was assessed in a set of 47 strains of Arcobacter butzleri, 10 of Arcobacter cryaerophilus and 1 Arcobacter skirrowii strain recovered from different food products (pork, chicken, beef, milk, clams and mussels). Overall, the genes cadF, ciaB, cj1349, mviN, pldA and tlyA were detected in all A. butzleri and A. skirrowii strains. Lower detection rates were observed for irgA, iroE, hecA and hecB. The genes hecB and iroE were detected neither in A. cryaerophilus nor in A. skirrowii. The genes hecA and irgA were not detected in A. skirrowii. It was noteworthy that the genes hecA and hecB were significantly (P < 0.05) highly detected in A. butzleri strains isolated from clams compared with strains isolated from milk and chicken. Therefore, our findings underline clams as a source of A. butzleri strains with high prevalence of putative virulence genes. This could be hazardous to human health, especially because these bivalves are usually consumed raw or undercooked. PMID:26338128

  15. Characterization of illegal food items and identification of foodborne pathogens brought into the European Union via two major German airports.

    PubMed

    Beutlich, Janine; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Appel, Bernd; Nöckler, Karsten; Helmuth, Reiner; Jöst, Kristine; Ludwig, Marie-Luise; Hanke, Christine; Bechtold, Dirk; Mayer-Scholl, Anne

    2015-09-16

    Foods of animal origin brought illegally from third party countries into the European Community pose a risk for the introduction of diseases. This can lead to animal disease outbreaks with significant economic and social costs and subsequent severe trade restrictions. Further, disease outbreaks in humans due to illegally imported foods of animal origin have been described, yet, there are very few studies examining the potential human health impact. Passenger baggage is the most likely route by which illegal products enter a country. Therefore, the volume and geographic origin of foods of animal origin introduced illegally into Germany via the Frankfurt International Airport and Berlin-Schönefeld Airport by passenger luggage were characterized. Further, the occurrence of foodborne zoonotic bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp., Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) and Brucella spp. and the microbial quality of the foods were analysed by total bacterial count. Between 2012 and 2013, a total of 663 food items were seized from 296 passengers arriving in Germany from 35 different departure countries. The majority of confiscates (51%) originated from Turkey and Russia. A selection of 474 samples was subjected to microbiological analyses. Twenty-three food products tested positive for at least one of the pathogens analysed. The majority of the contaminated foods were meat (33%) or meat products (42%), and milk products (21%). Considering that only a small fraction of arriving passengers is subjected to airport custom controls and only a small number of confiscated foods could be analysed during this study, further investigations are needed to understand the public health risks posed by illegally introduced food items. PMID:25454792

  16. Rapid immuno-analytical system physically integrated with lens-free CMOS image sensor for food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin-Woo; Kim, Jee-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Mook; Lee, Won-Ho; Lee, Do-Young; Paek, Se-Hwan

    2014-02-15

    To realize an inexpensive, pocket-sized immunosensor system, a rapid test devise based on cross-flow immuno-chromatography was physically combined with a lens-free CMOS image sensor (CIS), which was then applied to the detection of the food-borne pathogen, Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium). Two CISs, each retaining 1.3 mega pixel array, were mounted on a printed circuit board to fabricate a disposable sensing module, being connectable with a signal detection system. For the bacterial analysis, a cellulose membrane-based immunosensing platform, ELISA-on-a-chip (EOC), was employed, being integrated with the CIS module, and the antigen-antibody reaction sites were aligned with the respective sensor. In such sensor construction, the chemiluminescent signals produced from the EOC are transferred directly into the sensors and are converted to electric signals on the detector. The EOC-CIS integrated sensor was capable of detecting a traceable amount of the bacterium (4.22 × 10(3)CFU/mL), nearly comparable to that adopting a sophisticated detector such as cooled-charge-coupled device, while having greatly reduced dimensions and cost. Upon coupling with immuno-magnetic separation, the sensor showed an additional 67-fold enhancement in the detection limit. Furthermore, a real sample test was carried out for fish muscles inoculated with a sample of 3.3CFU S. typhimurium per 10 g, which was able to be detected earlier than 6h after the onset of pre-enrichment by culture. PMID:24090753

  17. Novel Drug Targets for Food-Borne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni: An Integrated Subtractive Genomics and Comparative Metabolic Pathway Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehla, Kusum

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Campylobacters are a major global health burden and a cause of food-borne diarrheal illness and economic loss worldwide. In developing countries, Campylobacter infections are frequent in children under age two and may be associated with mortality. In developed countries, they are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea in early adulthood. In the United States, antibiotic resistance against Campylobacter is notably increased from 13% in 1997 to nearly 25% in 2011. Novel drug targets are urgently needed but remain a daunting task to accomplish. We suggest that omics-guided drug discovery is timely and worth considering in this context. The present study employed an integrated subtractive genomics and comparative metabolic pathway analysis approach. We identified 16 unique pathways from Campylobacter when compared against H. sapiens with 326 non-redundant proteins; 115 of these were found to be essential in the Database of Essential Genes. Sixty-six proteins among these were non-homologous to the human proteome. Six membrane proteins, of which four are transporters, have been proposed as potential vaccine candidates. Screening of 66 essential non-homologous proteins against DrugBank resulted in identification of 34 proteins with drug-ability potential, many of which play critical roles in bacterial growth and survival. Out of these, eight proteins had approved drug targets available in DrugBank, the majority serving crucial roles in cell wall synthesis and energy metabolism and therefore having the potential to be utilized as drug targets. We conclude by underscoring that screening against these proteins with inhibitors may aid in future discovery of novel therapeutics against campylobacteriosis in ways that will be pathogen specific, and thus have minimal toxic effect on host. Omics-guided drug discovery and bioinformatics analyses offer the broad potential for veritable advances in global health relevant novel therapeutics. PMID:26061459

  18. The Use of Flagella and Motility for Plant Colonization and Fitness by Different Strains of the Foodborne Pathogen Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Gorski, Lisa; Duhé, Jessica M.; Flaherty, Denise

    2009-01-01

    The role of flagella and motility in the attachment of the foodborne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to various surfaces is mixed with some systems requiring flagella for an interaction and others needing only motility for cells to get to the surface. In nature this bacterium is a saprophyte and contaminated produce is an avenue for infection. Previous studies have documented the ability of this organism to attach to and colonize plant tissue. Motility mutants were generated in three wild type strains of L. monocytogenes by deleting either flaA, the gene encoding flagellin, or motAB, genes encoding part of the flagellar motor, and tested for both the ability to colonize sprouts and for the fitness of that colonization. The motAB mutants were not affected in the colonization of alfalfa, radish, and broccoli sprouts; however, some of the flaA mutants showed reduced colonization ability. The best colonizing wild type strain was reduced in colonization on all three sprout types as a result of a flaA deletion. A mutant in another background was only affected on alfalfa. The third, a poor alfalfa colonizer was not affected in colonization ability by any of the deletions. Fitness of colonization was measured in experiments of competition between mixtures of mutant and parent strains on sprouts. Here the flaA and motAB mutants of the three strain backgrounds were impaired in fitness of colonization of alfalfa and radish sprouts, and one strain background showed reduced fitness of both mutant types on broccoli sprouts. Together these data indicate a role for flagella for some strains to physically colonize some plants, while the fitness of that colonization is positively affected by motility in almost all cases. PMID:19357783

  19. Novel Drug Targets for Food-Borne Pathogen Campylobacter jejuni: An Integrated Subtractive Genomics and Comparative Metabolic Pathway Study.

    PubMed

    Mehla, Kusum; Ramana, Jayashree

    2015-07-01

    Campylobacters are a major global health burden and a cause of food-borne diarrheal illness and economic loss worldwide. In developing countries, Campylobacter infections are frequent in children under age two and may be associated with mortality. In developed countries, they are a common cause of bacterial diarrhea in early adulthood. In the United States, antibiotic resistance against Campylobacter is notably increased from 13% in 1997 to nearly 25% in 2011. Novel drug targets are urgently needed but remain a daunting task to accomplish. We suggest that omics-guided drug discovery is timely and worth considering in this context. The present study employed an integrated subtractive genomics and comparative metabolic pathway analysis approach. We identified 16 unique pathways from Campylobacter when compared against H. sapiens with 326 non-redundant proteins; 115 of these were found to be essential in the Database of Essential Genes. Sixty-six proteins among these were non-homologous to the human proteome. Six membrane proteins, of which four are transporters, have been proposed as potential vaccine candidates. Screening of 66 essential non-homologous proteins against DrugBank resulted in identification of 34 proteins with drug-ability potential, many of which play critical roles in bacterial growth and survival. Out of these, eight proteins had approved drug targets available in DrugBank, the majority serving crucial roles in cell wall synthesis and energy metabolism and therefore having the potential to be utilized as drug targets. We conclude by underscoring that screening against these proteins with inhibitors may aid in future discovery of novel therapeutics against campylobacteriosis in ways that will be pathogen specific, and thus have minimal toxic effect on host. Omics-guided drug discovery and bioinformatics analyses offer the broad potential for veritable advances in global health relevant novel therapeutics. PMID:26061459

  20. Decreased competiveness of the foodborne pathogen, Campylobacter jejuni, co-culture with the hyper-ammonia anaerobe, Clostridium aminophilum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are a leading bacterial cause of human foodborne illness. When co-cultured in anaerobic Bolton broth with the hyper-ammonia-producing bacterium, Clostridium aminophilum, ammonia accumulation was greater (P 1...

  1. Effectiveness of Broad-Spectrum Chemical Produce Sanitizers against Foodborne Pathogens as In Vitro Planktonic Cells and on the Surface of Whole Cantaloupes and Watermelons.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Amanda; Shaw, Angela; Dzubak, John; Mendonca, Aubrey; Wilson, Lester; Nair, Ajay

    2016-04-01

    Over the past few years, foodborne disease outbreaks linked to enteric pathogens present on cantaloupe and watermelon surfaces have raised concerns in the melon industry. This research evaluated the effectiveness of commercially available produce sanitizers against selected foodborne pathogens, both in cell suspensions and on the outer rind surface of melons. The sanitizers (65 and 200 ppm of chlorine, 5 and 35% hydrogen peroxide, 5 and 50 ppm of liquid chlorine dioxide, various hydrogen peroxide-acid combinations, 0.78 and 2.5% organic acids, and 300 ppm of quaternary ammonium) were tested against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145). The cell suspension study revealed the ability of all tested sanitizers to reduce all selected pathogens by 0.6 to 9.6 log CFU/ml in vitro. In the melon study, significant differences in pathogen reduction were observed between sanitizers but not between melon types. The most effective sanitizers were quaternary ammonium and hydrogen peroxide-acid combinations, with 1.0- to 2.2-log CFU/g and 1.3- to 2.8-log CFU/g reductions, respectively, for all pathogens. The other sanitizers were less effective in killing the pathogens, with reductions ranging from 0.0 to 2.8 log CFU/g depending on pathogen and sanitizer. This study provides guidance to the melon industry on the best produce sanitizers for use in implementing a broad-spectrum pathogen intervention strategy. PMID:27052854

  2. Foodborne Parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and foodborne parasitic diseases, though not as widespread as bacterial and viral infections, are common on all continents and in most ecosystems, including arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Certain foodborne ...

  3. Analyzing indicator microorganisms, antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli, and regrowth potential of foodborne pathogens in various organic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cortney; Heringa, Spencer; Kim, Jinkyung; Jiang, Xiuping

    2013-06-01

    This study analyzed various organic fertilizers for indicator microorganisms, pathogens, and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli, and evaluated the growth potential of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in fertilizers. A microbiological survey was conducted on 103 organic fertilizers from across the United States. Moisture content ranged from approximately 1% to 86.4%, and the average pH was 7.77. The total aerobic mesophiles ranged from approximately 3 to 9 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g. Enterobacteriaceae populations were in the range of <1 to approximately 7 log CFU/g, while coliform levels varied from <1 to approximately 6 log CFU/g. Thirty samples (29%) were positive for E. coli, with levels reaching approximately 6 log CFU/g. There were no confirmed positives for E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, or Listeria monocytogenes. The majority of E. coli isolates (n=73), confirmed by glutamate decarboxylase (gad) PCR, were from group B1 (48%) and group A (32%). Resistance to 16 antibiotics was examined for 73 E. coli isolates, with 11 isolates having resistance to at least one antibiotic, 5 isolates to ≥ 2 antibiotics, and 2 isolates to ≥ 10 antibiotics. In the presence of high levels of background aerobic mesophiles, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 grew approximately 1 log CFU/g within 1 day of incubation in plant-based compost and fish emulsion-based compost, respectively. With low levels of background aerobic mesophiles, Salmonella grew approximately 2.6, 3.0, 3.0, and 3.2 log CFU/g in blood, bone, and feather meals and the mixed-source fertilizer, respectively, whereas E. coli O157:H7 grew approximately 4.6, 4.0, 4.0, and 4.8 log CFU/g, respectively. Our results revealed that the microbiological quality of organic fertilizers varies greatly, with some fertilizers containing antibiotic resistant E. coli and a few supporting the growth of foodborne pathogens after reintroduction into the fertilizer. PMID:23614803

  4. Risk-based control of food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica in the Italian fermented sausages Cacciatore and Felino.

    PubMed

    Mataragas, M; Bellio, A; Rovetto, F; Astegiano, S; Decastelli, L; Cocolin, L

    2015-05-01

    Fermentation is the most important killing step during production of fermented meats to eliminate food-borne pathogens. The objective was to evaluate whether the food-borne pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica may survive during the production of two Italian fermented sausages. Sausage batter was inoculated with five strains of L. monocytogenes or S. enterica (ca. 10(5)-10(6) cfu/g) and their kinetic behavior was monitored during production. Both pathogens survived relatively well (in Cacciatore L. monocytogenes and S. enterica inactivation was ca. 0.38±0.23 and 1.10±0.24 log cfu/g, respectively; in Felino was ca. 0.39±0.25 and 1.62±0.38 log cfu/g, respectively) due to the conditions prevailing during production (slow dehydration rate, small reduction of water activity and fermentation temperature mainly below 20 °C during the first 48 h of fermentation). Quantitative analysis of data originating from challenge tests provide critical information on which combinations of the process parameters would potentially lead to better control of the pathogens. PMID:25612557

  5. Fecal Shedding of Zoonotic Food-Borne Pathogens by Wild Rodents in a Major Agricultural Region of the Central California Coast

    PubMed Central

    Kilonzo, Christopher; Li, Xunde; Vivas, Eduardo J.; Jay-Russell, Michele T.; Fernandez, Kristine L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of food-borne illness associated with the consumption of produce have increased concern over wildlife reservoirs of food-borne pathogens. Wild rodents are ubiquitous, and those living close to agricultural farms may pose a food safety risk should they shed zoonotic microorganisms in their feces near or on agricultural commodities. Fecal samples from wild rodents trapped on 13 agricultural farms (9 produce, 3 cow-calf operations, and 1 beef cattle feedlot) in Monterey and San Benito Counties, CA, were screened to determine the prevalence and risk factors for shedding of several food-borne pathogens. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were the most abundant rodent species trapped (72.5%). Cryptosporidium species (26.0%) and Giardia species (24.2%) were the predominant isolates from rodent feces, followed by Salmonella enterica serovars (2.9%) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (0.2%). Rodent trap success was significantly associated with detection of Salmonella in rodent feces, while farm type was associated with fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium and Giardia. Seasonal shedding patterns were evident, with rodents trapped during the spring and summer months being significantly less likely to be shedding Cryptosporidium oocysts than those trapped during autumn. Higher rodent species diversity tended to correlate with lower fecal microbial prevalence, and most spatiotemporal pathogen clusters involved deer mice. Rodents in the study area posed a minimal risk as environmental reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7, but they may play a role in environmental dissemination of Salmonella and protozoa. Rodent control efforts that potentially reduce biodiversity may increase pathogen shedding, possibly through promotion of intraspecific microbial transmission. PMID:23934490

  6. Occurrence of foodborne pathogens and characterization of Staphylococcus aureus in cheese produced on farm-dairies.

    PubMed

    Rosengren, Asa; Fabricius, Ane; Guss, Bengt; Sylvén, Susanne; Lindqvist, Roland

    2010-12-15

    The objective of this study was to address knowledge gaps identified in an earlier risk assessment of Staphylococcus aureus and raw milk cheese. A survey of fresh and short-time ripened cheeses produced on farm-dairies in Sweden was conducted to investigate the occurrence and levels of S. aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, to characterize S. aureus isolates with special emphasis on enterotoxin genes, antibiotic resistance, bio-typing and genetic variation, and to collect information related to production practices. In general, the hygienic quality of farm-dairy cheeses appeared to be of an acceptable microbiological quality, e.g. L. monocytogenes and staphylococcal enterotoxin were not detected in cheese samples. However, E. coli and enterotoxigenic S. aureus were frequently found in raw milk cheeses and sometimes at levels that are of concern, especially in fresh cheese. Interestingly, levels in raw milk fresh cheese were significantly lower when starter cultures were used. Up to five S. aureus colonies per cheese, if possible, were characterized and about 70% of isolates carried one or more enterotoxin genes, most common were sec and sea. The Ovine biotype (73%) was most common among isolates from goat milk cheese and the Human biotype (60%) from cow milk cheese. Of all isolates, 39% showed decreased susceptibility to penicillin, but the proportion of isolates from cows' cheese (66%) compared to isolates from goats' cheese (27%) was significantly higher. S. aureus isolates with different properties were detected in cheese from the same farm and, sometimes even the same cheese. Isolates with the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE)-pattern were detected on geographically distant dairies. This indicates that multiple sources and routes of contamination are important. To improve the safety of these products efforts to raise awareness of the importance of hygiene barriers and raw milk quality as well as improved process control can be

  7. Systemic Analysis of Foodborne Disease Outbreak in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Kyung; Kwak, No-Seong; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2016-02-01

    This study systemically analyzed data on the prevalence of foodborne pathogens and foodborne disease outbreaks to identify the priorities of foodborne infection risk management in Korea. Multiple correspondence analysis was applied to three variables: origin of food source, phase of food supply chain, and 12 pathogens using 358 cases from 76 original papers and official reports published in 1998-2012. In addition, correspondence analysis of two variables--place and pathogen--was conducted based on epidemiological data of 2357 foodborne outbreaks in 2002-2011 provided by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety. The results of this study revealed three distinct areas of food monitoring: (1) livestock-derived raw food contaminated with Campylobacter spp., pathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes; (2) multi-ingredient and ready-to-eat food related to Staphylococcus aureus; and (3) water associated with norovirus. Our findings emphasize the need to track the sources and contamination pathways of foodborne pathogens for more effective risk management. PMID:26863429

  8. Detection of Biological Pathogens Using Multiple Wireless Magnetoelastic Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wen

    A number of recent, high-profile incidences of food-borne illness spreading through the food supply and the use of anthrax by terrorists after the September 11, 2001 attacks have demonstrated the need for new technologies that can rapidly detect the presence of biological pathogens. A bevy of biosensors show excellent detection sensitivity and specificity. However, false positive and false negative signals remain one of the primary reasons that many of these newly developed biosensors have not found application in the marketplace. The research described in this dissertation focuses on developing a free-standing magnetoelastic based bio-sensing system using a pulse method. This method allows fast detection, eliminates the bias magnetic field that is necessary in current methods, makes the system more simply and suitable for in-field detection. This system has two pairs of transformer coils, where a measurement sensor and a control sensor can be put in each pair of coils. The control sensor is used to compensate for environmental variables. The effect of pulse power on the performance of the magnetoelastic sensors in the pulse system is studied. The system is found to have excellent stability, good detection repeatability when used with multiple sensors. This research has investigated and demonstrated a multiple sensors approach. Because it will involve the simultaneous measurement of many sensors, it will significantly reduce problems encountered with false positive indications. The positioning and interference of sensors are investigated. By adding a multi-channel structure to the pulse detection system, the effect of sensor interference is minimized. The result of the repeatability test shows that the standard deviation when measuring three 1 mm magnetoelastic sensors is around 500 Hz, which is smaller than the minimum requirement for actual spores/bacteria detection. Magnetoelastic sensors immobilized with JRB7 phages and E2 phages have been used to specifically

  9. The beta-defensin gallinacin-6 is expressed in the chicken digestive tract and has antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Albert; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Kalkhove, Stefanie I C; Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, Johanna L M; Romijn, Roland A; Haagsman, Henk P

    2007-03-01

    Food-borne pathogens are responsible for most cases of food poisoning in developed countries and are often associated with poultry products, including chicken. Little is known about the role of beta-defensins in the chicken digestive tract and their efficacy. In this study, the expression of chicken beta-defensin gallinacin-6 (Gal-6) and its antimicrobial activity against food-borne pathogens were investigated. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed high expression of Gal-6 mRNA in the esophagus and crop, moderate expression in the glandular stomach, and low expression throughout the intestinal tract. Putative transcription factor binding sites for nuclear factor kappa beta, activator protein 1, and nuclear factor interleukin-6 were found in the Gal-6 gene upstream region, which suggests a possible inducible nature of the Gal-6 gene. In colony-counting assays, strong bactericidal and fungicidal activity was observed, including bactericidal activity against food-borne pathogens Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli. Treatment with 16 mug/ml synthetic Gal-6 resulted in a 3 log unit reduction in Clostridium perfringens survival within 60 min, indicating fast killing kinetics. Transmission electron microscopy examination of synthetic-Gal-6-treated Clostridium perfringens cells showed dose-dependent changes in morphology after 30 min, including intracellular granulation, cytoplasm retraction, irregular septum formation in dividing cells, and cell lysis. The high expression in the proximal digestive tract and broad antimicrobial activity suggest that chicken beta-defensin gallinacin-6 plays an important role in chicken innate host defense. PMID:17194828

  10. Least Wanted Foodborne Pathogens

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause of diarrhea in the United States. Poor hygiene causes Norovirus to be easily passed from person to person and from infected individuals to food items. Sources: Any food contaminated by someone who ...

  11. A rapid method for the detection of foodborne pathogens by extraction of a trace amount of DNA from raw milk based on label-free amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles and polymerase chain reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method based on amino-modified silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (ASMNPs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to rapidly and sensitively detect foodborne pathogens in raw milk. After optimizing parameters such as pH, temperature, and time, a trace amount of genomic DNA of pathogen...

  12. Chronic sequelae of foodborne disease.

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the past decade the complexity of foodborne pathogens, as well as their adaptability and ability to cause acute illness, and in some cases chronic (secondary) complications, have been newly appreciated. This overview examines long-term consequences of foodborne infections and intoxications to emphasize the need for more research and education. PMID:9366595

  13. Emerging foodborne diseases.

    PubMed

    Altekruse, S F; Cohen, M L; Swerdlow, D L

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiology of foodborne diseases is rapidly changing. Recently described pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and the epidemic strain of Salmonella serotype Typhimurium Definitive Type 104 (which is resistant to at least five antimicrobial drugs), have become important public health problems. Well-recognized pathogens, such as Salmonella serotype Enteritidis, have increased in prevalence or become associated with new vehicles. Emergence in foodborne diseases is driven by the same forces as emergence in other infectious diseases: changes in demographic characteristics, human behavior, industry, and technology; the shift toward a global economy; microbial adaptation; and the breakdown in the public health infrastructure. Addressing emerging foodborne diseases will require more sensitive and rapid surveillance, enhanced methods of laboratory identification and subtyping, and effective prevention and control. PMID:9284372

  14. Molecular Epidemiology, Gastrointestinal Ecology and Development of Antibiotic Alternative Interventions for Commensal Human Food-Borne Bacterial Pathogens in Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Clostridium perfringens, the three leading causes of human bacterial food-borne illness, are commonly associated with normal poultry gastrointestinal flora. Our research unit correlated rep-PCR analysis to serological typing of Salmonella spp. and source-tra...

  15. Rapid Identification of Food-borne Pathogens by Top-Down Proteomics Using MALDI-TOF/TOF Mass Spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid identification of bacterial microorganisms is particularly relevant to efforts to monitor the safety and security of domestically grown and imported foods. Mass spectrometry (MS) is increasingly utilized to identify and characterize bacterial microorganisms and in particular food-borne pathog...

  16. Evaluation of different buffered peptone water (BPW) based enrichment broths for detection of Gram-negative foodborne pathogens from various food matrices.

    PubMed

    Margot, H; Zwietering, M H; Joosten, H; O'Mahony, Emer; Stephan, R

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of changing the composition of the pre-enrichment medium buffered peptone water (BPW) on the growth of stressed and unstressed Gram-negative foodborne pathogens in a one-broth enrichment strategy. BPW supplemented with an available iron source and sodium pyruvate, along with low levels of 8-hydroxyquinoline and sodium deoxycholate (BPW-S) improved the recovery of desiccated Cronobacter spp. from powdered infant formula. Growth of Salmonella and STEC was comparable in all BPW variants tested for different food matrices. In products with high levels of Gram-negative background flora (e.g. sprouts), the target organisms could not be reliably detected by PCR in any of the BPW variants tested unless the initial level exceeded 10(3) cfu/10 g of sprouts. Based on these results we suggest BPW-S for a one-broth enrichment strategy of stressed Gram-negative foodborne pathogens from dry products. However, a one-broth enrichment strategy based on BPW variants tested in this evaluation is not recommended for produce with a high level of Gram-negative background flora due to very high detection limits. PMID:26267889

  17. Incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food--Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. sites, 2006-2013.

    PubMed

    Crim, Stacy M; Iwamoto, Martha; Huang, Jennifer Y; Griffin, Patricia M; Gilliss, Debra; Cronquist, Alicia B; Cartter, Matthew; Tobin-D'Angelo, Melissa; Blythe, David; Smith, Kirk; Lathrop, Sarah; Zansky, Shelley; Cieslak, Paul R; Dunn, John; Holt, Kristin G; Lance, Susan; Tauxe, Robert; Henao, Olga L

    2014-04-18

    Foodborne disease continues to be an important problem in the United States. Most illnesses are preventable. To evaluate progress toward prevention, the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) monitors the incidence of laboratory-confirmed infections caused by nine pathogens transmitted commonly through food in 10 U.S. sites, covering approximately 15% of the U.S. population. This report summarizes preliminary 2013 data and describes trends since 2006. In 2013, a total of 19,056 infections, 4,200 hospitalizations, and 80 deaths were reported. For most infections, incidence was well above national Healthy People 2020 incidence targets and highest among children aged <5 years. Compared with 2010-2012, the estimated incidence of infection in 2013 was lower for Salmonella, higher for Vibrio, and unchanged overall.† Since 2006-2008, the overall incidence has not changed significantly. More needs to be done. Reducing these infections requires actions targeted to sources and pathogens, such as continued use of Salmonella poultry performance standards and actions mandated by the Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA). FoodNet provides federal and state public health and regulatory agencies as well as the food industry with important information needed to determine if regulations, guidelines, and safety practices applied across the farm-to-table continuum are working. PMID:24739341

  18. Application of DNA Aptamers and Quantum Dots to Lateral Flow Test Strips for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens with Improved Sensitivity versus Colloidal Gold

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John G.

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary studies aimed at improving the sensitivity of foodborne pathogen detection via lateral flow (LF) test strips by use of high affinity DNA aptamers for capture and reporter functions when coupled to red-emitting quantum dots (Qdot 655) are reported. A variety of DNA aptamers developed against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica were paired in capture and reporter combinations to determine which yielded the strongest detection of their cognate bacteria using a colloidal gold screening system. Several promising sandwich combinations were identified for each of the three bacterial LF strip systems. The best E. coli aptamer-LF system was further studied and yielded a visible limit of detection (LOD) of ~3,000 E. coli 8739 and ~6,000 E. coli O157:H7 in buffer. These LODs were reduced to ~300–600 bacterial cells per test respectively by switching to a Qdot 655 aptamer-LF system. Novel aspects of these assays such as the use of high levels of detergents to avoid quantum dot agglutination and enhance migration in analytical membranes, identification of optimal analytical membrane types, UV-immobilization of capture aptamers, and novel dual biotin/digoxigenin-end labeled aptamer streptavidin-colloidal gold or -Qdot 655 conjugates plus anti-digoxigenin antibody control lines are also discussed. In general, this work provides proof-of-principle for highly sensitive aptamer-Qdot LF strip assays for rapid foodborne pathogen detection. PMID:25437803

  19. Application of DNA Aptamers and Quantum Dots to Lateral Flow Test Strips for Detection of Foodborne Pathogens with Improved Sensitivity versus Colloidal Gold.

    PubMed

    Bruno, John G

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary studies aimed at improving the sensitivity of foodborne pathogen detection via lateral flow (LF) test strips by use of high affinity DNA aptamers for capture and reporter functions when coupled to red-emitting quantum dots (Qdot 655) are reported. A variety of DNA aptamers developed against Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella enterica were paired in capture and reporter combinations to determine which yielded the strongest detection of their cognate bacteria using a colloidal gold screening system. Several promising sandwich combinations were identified for each of the three bacterial LF strip systems. The best E. coli aptamer-LF system was further studied and yielded a visible limit of detection (LOD) of ~3,000 E. coli 8739 and ~6,000 E. coli O157:H7 in buffer. These LODs were reduced to ~300-600 bacterial cells per test respectively by switching to a Qdot 655 aptamer-LF system. Novel aspects of these assays such as the use of high levels of detergents to avoid quantum dot agglutination and enhance migration in analytical membranes, identification of optimal analytical membrane types, UV-immobilization of capture aptamers, and novel dual biotin/digoxigenin-end labeled aptamer streptavidin-colloidal gold or -Qdot 655 conjugates plus anti-digoxigenin antibody control lines are also discussed. In general, this work provides proof-of-principle for highly sensitive aptamer-Qdot LF strip assays for rapid foodborne pathogen detection. PMID:25437803

  20. Development of 23 individual TaqMan® real-time PCR assays for identifying common foodborne pathogens using a single set of amplification conditions.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, Paola; Pisani, Laura Francesca; Lecchi, Cristina; Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Martino, Pieranna; Bonastre, Armand Sanchez; Karus, Avo; Balzaretti, Claudia; Castiglioni, Bianca

    2014-10-01

    Most of the acute intestinal diseases are caused by foodborne pathogens with infants and elderly people being at major risk. The aim of this study was to develop a procedure to simultaneously detect 20 foodborne pathogens in complex alimentary matrices such as milk, cheese and meat. The list of targets include, among the others, Listeria spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli spp., Campylobacter spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The accuracy of detection was determined by using ATCC strains as positive and negative controls. The achieved sensitivity of each of assays was 1 pg of genomic DNA, which was equivalent to ∼1 cfu. The working ranges of the TaqMan(®) Real-time PCR assays, when used quantitatively on cheese and meat samples inoculated with serial dilution of Listeria spp., Listeria monocytogenes, S. aureus, Salmonella enterica, Shigella boydii, E. coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Enterobacter sakazakii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 10(8) cfu/g to 10(4) cfu/g. No matrix interferences were observed. PMID:24929880

  1. A microarray approach for simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens in food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pathogen detection microarray was developed for simultaneous detection of the four most prominent foodborne pathogens including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes and Campylobacter jejuni. The approach utilized 14 species-specific gene targets to design a variety...

  2. In vitro assessment of the antimicrobial potentials of Lactobacillus helveticus strains isolated from traditional cheese in Sinkiang China against food-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xin; Evivie, Smith Etareri; Muhammad, Zafarullah; Luo, Guang-Wen; Liang, Hong-Zhang; Wang, Na-Na; Huo, Gui-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Lactobacillus helveticus, an obligatory hetero-fermentative LAB, is Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) and is gaining popularity for application in dairy products. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) play a remarkable role in inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria in food products, without disturbing the sensory attributes of the food. In this study, the screening of the antimicrobial potential of Lactobacillus helveticus KLDS 1.8701 against four food-borne pathogens including Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43889 in vitro was inspected using the Oxford cup method and mixed culture inhibition assays. The organic acid production and antimicrobial potential of the cell-free supernatants (CFS) have been evaluated via different treatments and analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis results revealed that KLDS 1.8701 exhibited the highest antimicrobial potential compared to other antimicrobial strains. The antimicrobial activity of KLDS 1.8701 resulted from the organic acids in the culture and CFS. From the study, it was found that carbon sources, as well as organic acid production, accelerate the antimicrobial activity of KLDS 1.8701 and the fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were considered the best for improving the proliferation of KLDS 1.8701 and supporting its antimicrobial action. Results of the mixed culture inhibition assays showed that part of the antimicrobial activity resulted from the inhibitory action of the bacteria itself in culture, and this action required cellular contact between the food-borne pathogens and KLDS 1.8701. Conversely, the results of the antimicrobial spectrum assay revealed that some Lactobacilli remained unaffected by KLDS 1.8701. KLDS 1.8701 might also be favorable for use as a supplementary starter in fermented dairy productions. Furthermore, KLDS 1.8701 could survive well under GI tract conditions

  3. Expert elicitation as a means to attribute 28 enteric pathogens to foodborne, waterborne, animal contact, and person-to-person transmission routes in Canada.

    PubMed

    Butler, Ainslie J; Thomas, M Kate; Pintar, Katarina D M

    2015-04-01

    Enteric illness contributes to a significant burden of illness in Canada and globally. Understanding its sources is a critical step in identifying and preventing health risks. Expert elicitation is a powerful tool, used previously, to obtain information about enteric illness source attribution where information is difficult or expensive to obtain. Thirty-one experts estimated transmission of 28 pathogens via major transmission routes (foodborne, waterborne, animal contact, person-to-person, and other) at the point of consumption. The elicitation consisted of a (snowball) recruitment phase; administration of a pre-survey to collect background information, an introductory webinar, an elicitation survey, a 1-day discussion, survey readministration, and a feedback exercise, and surveys were administered online. Experts were prompted to quantify changes in contamination at the point of entry into the kitchen versus point of consumption. Estimates were combined via triangular probability distributions, and medians and 90% credible-interval estimates were produced. Transmission was attributed primarily to food for Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Trichinella spp., all three Vibrio spp. categories explored, and Yersinia enterocolitica. Multisource pathogens (e.g., transmitted commonly through both water and food) such as Campylobacter spp., four Escherichia coli categories, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus were also estimated as mostly foodborne. Water was the primary pathway for Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp., and person-to-person transmission dominated for six enteric viruses and Shigella spp. Consideration of the point of attribution highlighted the importance of food handling and cross-contamination in the transmission pathway. This study provides source attribution estimates of enteric illness for Canada, considering all possible transmission routes. Further research is necessary to improve our

  4. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 5. Sources of contamination and pathogen excretion from infected persons.

    PubMed

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A; Michaels, Barry S

    2008-12-01

    In this article, the fifth in a series reviewing the role of food workers in foodborne outbreaks, background information on the routes of infection for food workers is considered. Contamination most frequently occurs via the fecal-oral route, when pathogens are present in the feces of ill, convalescent, or otherwise colonized persons. It is difficult for managers of food operations to identify food workers who may be excreting pathogens, even when these workers report their illnesses, because workers can shed pathogens during the prodrome phase of illness or can be long-term excretors or asymptomatic carriers. Some convalescing individuals excreted Salmonella for 102 days. Exclusion policies based on stool testing have been evaluated but currently are not considered effective for reducing the risk of enteric disease. A worker may exhibit obvious signs of illness, such as vomiting, but even if the ill worker immediately leaves the work environment, residual vomitus can contaminate food, contact surfaces, and fellow workers unless the clean-up process is meticulous. Skin infections and nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal staphylococcal or streptococcal secretions also have been linked frequently to worker-associated outbreaks. Dermatitis, rashes, and painful hand lesions may cause workers to reduce or avoid hand washing. Regardless of the origin of the contamination, pathogens are most likely to be transmitted through the hands touching a variety of surfaces, highlighting the need for effective hand hygiene and the use of barriers throughout the work shift. PMID:19244919

  5. Multilocus genetic characterization of two ant vectors (Group II "Dirty 22" species) known to contaminate food and food products and spread foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Irshad M; Anderson, Mickey; Oi, David H; Simpson, Steven; Kerdahi, Khalil

    2012-08-01

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration utilizes the presence of filth and extraneous materials as one of the criteria for implementing regulatory actions and assessing adulteration of food products of public health importance. Twenty-two prevalent pest species (also known as the ''Dirty 22'' species) have been considered by this agency as possible vehicles for the spread of foodborne diseases, and the presence of these species is considered an indicator of unsanitary conditions in food processing and storage facilities. In a previous study, we further categorized the Dirty 22 species into four groups: group I includes four cockroach species, group II includes two ant species, group III includes 12 fly species, and group IV includes four rodent species. Here, we describe the development of three nested PCR primer sets and multilocus genetic characterization by amplifying the small subunit rRNA, elongation factor 1-alpha, and wingless (WNT-1) genes of group II Dirty 22 ant species Monomorium pharaonis and Solenopsis molesta. These novel group II Dirty 22 species-specific nested PCR primer sets can be used when the specimens cannot be identified using conventional microscopic methods. These newly developed assays will provide correct identification of group II Dirty 22 ant species, and the information can be used in the control of foodborne pathogens. PMID:22856568

  6. Foodborne pathogens recovered from ready-to-eat foods from roadside cafeterias and retail outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: public health implications.

    PubMed

    Nyenje, Mirriam E; Odjadjare, Collins E; Tanih, Nicoline F; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24). Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%), Enterobacter spp. (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (12%), Klebsiella oxytoca (8%), Proteus mirabilis (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.2%) and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%). Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of foodborne pathogens from hygienic and unhygienic cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections. PMID:23066386

  7. Foodborne Pathogens Recovered from Ready-to-Eat Foods from Roadside Cafeterias and Retail Outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Public Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Nyenje, Mirriam E.; Odjadjare, Collins E.; Tanih, Nicoline F.; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24). Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%), Enterobacter spp. (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (12%), Klebsiella oxytoca (8%), Proteus mirabilis (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.2%) and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%). Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of foodborne pathogens from hygienic and unhygienic cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections. PMID:23066386

  8. Foodborne Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... people in the U.S. get sick from contaminated food. Common culprits include bacteria, parasites and viruses. Symptoms ... are the most common cause of foodborne illness. Foods may have some bacteria on them when you ...

  9. Foodborne Illnesses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some parasites and chemicals also cause foodborne illnesses. Bacteria Bacteria are tiny organisms that can cause infections of the GI tract. Not all bacteria are harmful to humans. Some harmful bacteria may ...

  10. Chemical composition and inhibitory parameters of essential oil and extracts of Nandina domestica Thunb. to control food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bajpai, Vivek K; Rahman, Atiqur; Kang, Sun Chul

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the chemical composition of the essential oil isolated from the floral parts of Nandina domestica Thunb. by hydrodistillation, and to test the efficacy of essential oil and various organic extracts against a panel of food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis ATCC6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19166, Staphylococcus aureus KCTC1916, S. aureus ATCC6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa KCTC2004, Salmonella typhimurium KCTC2515, Salmonella enteridis KCCM12021, Escherichia coli 0157-Human, E. coli ATCC8739, E. coli 057:H7 ATCC43888 and Enterobacter aerognes KCTC2190. The chemical composition of essential oil was analysed by GC-MS. It was determined that 79 compounds, which represented 87.06% of total oil, were present in the oil. The oil contained mainly 1-indolizino carbazole (19.65%), 2-pentanone (16.4%), mono phenol (12.1%), aziridine (9.01%), methylcarbinol (4.6%), ethanone (3.3%), furfural (2.96%), 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (1.29%) and 2(5H)-furanone (1.32%). The oil (1000 ppm/disc), and various organic extracts of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol (1500 ppm/disc) exhibited promising antibacterial effect as a diameter of zones of inhibition (9-18 and 7-13 mm) and MIC values (62.5 to 1000 and 250 to 2000 microg/ml), respectively against the tested bacteria. Also the oil had strong detrimental effect on the viable count of the tested bacteria. These results indicate the potential efficacy of plant-based natural products such as essential oil and organic extracts of N. domestica to control food-borne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria. PMID:18541324

  11. Efficacy of UV-C irradiation for inactivation of food-borne pathogens on sliced cheese packaged with different types and thicknesses of plastic films.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jae-Won; Back, Kyeong-Hwan; Kim, Yoon-Hee; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    In this study, the efficacy of using UV-C light to inactivate sliced cheese inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes and, packaged with 0.07 mm films of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polyvinylchloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) was investigated. The results show that compared with PET and PVC, PP and PE films showed significantly reduced levels of the three pathogens compared to inoculated but non-treated controls. Therefore, PP and PE films of different thicknesses (0.07 mm, 0.10 mm, and 0.13 mm) were then evaluated for pathogen reduction of inoculated sliced cheese samples. Compared with 0.10 and 0.13 mm, 0.07 mm thick PP and PE films did not show statistically significant reductions compared to non-packaged treated samples. Moreover, there were no statistically significant differences between the efficacy of PP and PE films. These results suggest that adjusted PP or PE film packaging in conjunction with UV-C radiation can be applied to control foodborne pathogens in the dairy industry. PMID:27052716

  12. Efficacy of Instant Hand Sanitizers against Foodborne Pathogens Compared with Hand Washing with Soap and Water in Food Preparation Settings: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Foddai, Antonio C G; Grant, Irene R; Dean, Moira

    2016-06-01

    Hands can be a vector for transmitting pathogenic microorganisms to foodstuffs and drinks, and to the mouths of susceptible hosts. Hand washing is the primary barrier to prevent transmission of enteric pathogens via cross-contamination from infected persons. Conventional hand washing involves the use of water, soap, and friction to remove dirt and microorganisms. The availability of hand sanitizing products for use when water and soap are unavailable has increased in recent years. The aim of this systematic review was to collate scientific information on the efficacy of hand sanitizers compared with washing hands with soap and water for the removal of foodborne pathogens from the hands of food handlers. An extensive literature search was carried out using three electronic databases: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed. Twenty-eight scientific publications were ultimately included in the review. Analysis of this literature revealed various limitations in the scientific information owing to the absence of a standardized protocol for evaluating the efficacy of hand products and variation in experimental conditions. However, despite conflicting results, scientific evidence seems to support the historical skepticism about the use of waterless hand sanitizers in food preparation settings. Water and soap appear to be more effective than waterless products for removal of soil and microorganisms from hands. Alcohol-based products achieve rapid and effective inactivation of various bacteria, but their efficacy is generally lower against nonenveloped viruses. The presence of food debris significantly affects the microbial inactivation rate of hand sanitizers. PMID:27296611

  13. Effect of storage temperature on survival and growth of foodborne pathogens on whole, damaged, and internally inoculated jalapeños (Capsicum annuum var. annuum).

    PubMed

    Huff, Karleigh; Boyer, Renee; Denbow, Cynthia; O'Keefe, Sean; Williams, Robert

    2012-02-01

    There is a lack of general knowledge regarding the behavior of foodborne pathogenic bacteria associated with jalapeño peppers. The survival and growth behaviors of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Salmonella enterica on the interior and exterior of jalapeño peppers were determined under different storage conditions. Jalapeños were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, or S. enterica on the intact external surface, injured external surface, or intact internal cavity of jalapeño peppers and held at 7 or 12°C for a period of 14 days. Populations of each pathogen were determined at 0, 1, 2, 5, 7 10, and 14 days throughout storage. The uninjured, intact external surface of jalapeño peppers did not support growth of the pathogens tested under both storage conditions, with the exception of L. monocytogenes at 12°C. Populations of E. coli and S. enterica declined on the external injured surface of peppers at 7°C, but populations of L. monocytogenes remained consistent throughout the length of storage. At 12°C, L. monocytogenes and S. enterica populations increased throughout storage, and E. coli populations remained unchanged on injured surfaces. The uninjured internal cavity of the jalapeño supported growth of all pathogens at 12°C. Overall, L. monocytogenes was the microorganism most capable of growth and survival in association with jalapeño peppers for the scenarios tested. Results emphasize the importance of jalapeño pepper quality and proper storage conditions in preventing or reducing pathogen survival and growth. PMID:22289602

  14. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  15. Anti-adherence potential of Enterococcus durans cells and its cell-free supernatant on plastic and stainless steel against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Amel, Ait Meddour; Farida, Bendali; Djamila, Sadoun

    2015-07-01

    It is demonstrated that numerous bacteria are able to attach to surfaces of equipment used for food handling or processing. In this study, a strain of Enterococcus durans, originally isolated from a milking machine surface, was firstly studied for its biofilm formation potential on plastic and stainless steel supports. The strain was found to be a biofilm producer either at 25, 30 or 37 °C on polystyrene microtitre plates, with a best adherence level observed at 25 °C. En. durans showed a strong adhesion to stainless steel AISI-304. Antibacterial and anti-adherence activities of En. durans were tested against four foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Listeria innocua CLIP 74915) which were shown as biofilm producers on both plastic and stainless steel. En. durans cells and cell-free culture supernatant showed a significant (P < 0.05) inhibition potential of the pathogens either on solid media or in broth co-cultures. Characterization of the antibacterial substances indicated their proteinaceous nature which assigned them most probably to bacteriocins group. PMID:25466409

  16. Multiple system atrophy: pathogenic mechanisms and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Jellinger, Kurt A; Wenning, Gregor K

    2016-06-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a unique proteinopathy that differs from other α-synucleinopathies since the pathological process resulting from accumulation of aberrant α-synuclein (αSyn) involves the oligodendroglia rather than neurons, although both pathologies affect multiple parts of the brain, spinal cord, autonomic and peripheral nervous system. Both the etiology and pathogenesis of MSA are unknown, although animal models have provided insight into the basic molecular changes of this disorder. Accumulation of aberrant αSyn in oligodendroglial cells and preceded by relocation of p25α protein from myelin to oligodendroglia results in the formation of insoluble glial cytoplasmic inclusions that cause cell dysfunction and demise. These changes are associated with proteasomal, mitochondrial and lipid transport dysfunction, oxidative stress, reduced trophic transport, neuroinflammation and other noxious factors. Their complex interaction induces dysfunction of the oligodendroglial-myelin-axon-neuron complex, resulting in the system-specific pattern of neurodegeneration characterizing MSA as a synucleinopathy with oligodendroglio-neuronopathy. Propagation of modified toxic αSyn species from neurons to oligodendroglia by "prion-like" transfer and its spreading associated with neuronal pathways result in a multi-system involvement. No reliable biomarkers are currently available for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of MSA. Multidisciplinary research to elucidate the genetic and molecular background of the deleterious cycle of noxious processes, to develop reliable diagnostic biomarkers and to deliver targets for effective treatment of this hitherto incurable disorder is urgently needed. PMID:27098666

  17. Multiplex detection of nine food-borne pathogens by mPCR and capillary electrophoresis after using a universal pre-enrichment medium

    PubMed Central

    Villamizar-Rodríguez, Germán; Fernández, Javier; Marín, Laura; Muñiz, Juan; González, Isabel; Lombó, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Routine microbiological quality analyses in food samples require, in some cases, an initial incubation in pre-enrichment medium. This is necessary in order to ensure that small amounts of pathogenic strains are going to be detected. In this work, a universal pre-enrichment medium has been developed for the simultaneous growth of Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter jejuni, Clostridium perfringens, Cronobacter sakazakii, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae family (38 species, 27 genera), Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. (two species, 13 strains). Growth confirmation for all these species was achieved in all cases, with excellent enrichments. This was confirmed by plating on the corresponding selective agar media for each bacterium. This GVUM universal pre-enrichment medium could be useful in food microbiological analyses, where different pathogenic bacteria must be detected after a pre-enrichment step. Following, a mPCR reaction for detection of all these pathogens was developed, after designing a set of nine oligonucleotide pairs from specific genetic targets on gDNA from each of these bacteria, covering all available strains already sequenced in GenBank for each pathogen type. The detection limits have been 1 Genome Equivalent (GE), with the exception of the Fam. Enterobacteriaceae (5 GEs). We obtained amplification for all targets (from 70 to 251 bp, depending on the bacteria type), showing the capability of this method to detect the most important industrial and sanitary food-borne pathogens from a universal pre-enrichment medium. This method includes an initial pre-enrichment step (18 h), followed by a mPCR (2 h) and a capillary electrophoresis (30 min); avoiding the tedious and long lasting growing on solid media required in traditional analysis (1–4 days, depending on the specific pathogen and verification procedure). An external testing of this method was conducted in order to compare classical and mPCR methods. This evaluation was

  18. Linking multiple pathogenic pathways in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Bou Khalil, Rami; Khoury, Elie; Koussa, Salam

    2016-06-22

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder presenting as progressive cognitive decline with dementia that does not, to this day, benefit from any disease-modifying drug. Multiple etiologic pathways have been explored and demonstrate promising solutions. For example, iron ion chelators, such as deferoxamine, are a potential therapeutic solution around which future studies are being directed. Another promising domain is related to thrombin inhibitors. In this minireview, a common pathophysiological pathway is suggested for the pathogenesis of AD to prove that all these mechanisms converge onto the same cascade of neuroinflammatory events. This common pathway is initiated by the presence of vascular risk factors that induce brain tissue hypoxia, which leads to endothelial cell activation. However, the ensuing hypoxia stimulates the production and release of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory proteins. Furthermore, the endothelial activation may become excessive and dysfunctional in predisposed individuals, leading to thrombin activation and iron ion decompartmentalization. The oxidative stress that results from these modifications in the neurovascular unit will eventually lead to neuronal and glial cell death, ultimately leading to the development of AD. Hence, future research in this field should focus on conducting trials with combinations of potentially efficient treatments, such as the combination of intranasal deferoxamine and direct thrombin inhibitors. PMID:27354962

  19. Rapid Identification of the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spp. by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Neumann, Jennifer; Bahn, Peter; Reckinger, Sabine; Nöckler, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Human trichinellosis occurs through consumption of raw or inadequately processed meat or meat products containing larvae of the parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Currently, nine species and three genotypes are recognized, of which T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis have the highest public health relevance. To date, the differentiation of the larvae to the species and genotype level is based primarily on molecular methods, which can be relatively time consuming and labor intensive. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reference spectra database using Trichinella strains of all known species and genotypes was created. A formicacid/acetonitrile protein extraction was carried out after pooling 10 larvae of each Trichinella species and genotype. Each sample was spotted 9 times using α-cyano 4-hydoxy cinnamic acid matrix and a MicroFlex LT mass spectrometer was used to acquire 3 spectra (m/z 2000 to 20000 Da) from each spot resulting in 27 spectra/species or genotype. Following the spectra quality assessment, Biotyper software was used to create a main spectra library (MSP) representing nine species and three genotypes of Trichinella. The evaluation of the spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS revealed a classification which was comparable to the results obtained by molecular methods. Also, each Trichinella species utilized in this study was distinct and distinguishable with a high confidence level. Further, different conservation methods such as freezing and conservation in alcohol and the host species origin of the isolated larvae did not have a significant influence on the generated spectra. Therefore, the described MALDI-TOF MS can successfully be implemented for both genus and species level identification and represents a major step forward in the use of this technique in foodborne parasitology. PMID:26999436

  20. Rapid Identification of the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spp. by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Neumann, Jennifer; Bahn, Peter; Reckinger, Sabine; Nöckler, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Human trichinellosis occurs through consumption of raw or inadequately processed meat or meat products containing larvae of the parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Currently, nine species and three genotypes are recognized, of which T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis have the highest public health relevance. To date, the differentiation of the larvae to the species and genotype level is based primarily on molecular methods, which can be relatively time consuming and labor intensive. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reference spectra database using Trichinella strains of all known species and genotypes was created. A formicacid/acetonitrile protein extraction was carried out after pooling 10 larvae of each Trichinella species and genotype. Each sample was spotted 9 times using α-cyano 4-hydoxy cinnamic acid matrix and a MicroFlex LT mass spectrometer was used to acquire 3 spectra (m/z 2000 to 20000 Da) from each spot resulting in 27 spectra/species or genotype. Following the spectra quality assessment, Biotyper software was used to create a main spectra library (MSP) representing nine species and three genotypes of Trichinella. The evaluation of the spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS revealed a classification which was comparable to the results obtained by molecular methods. Also, each Trichinella species utilized in this study was distinct and distinguishable with a high confidence level. Further, different conservation methods such as freezing and conservation in alcohol and the host species origin of the isolated larvae did not have a significant influence on the generated spectra. Therefore, the described MALDI-TOF MS can successfully be implemented for both genus and species level identification and represents a major step forward in the use of this technique in foodborne parasitology. PMID:26999436

  1. Intervention technologies for food safety on minimally processed produce:Perspectives on food-borne and plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Produce contamination associated with enteric pathogens such Escherichia coli O157:H7, salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella and others are significant challenges to food safety. This is due to the illnesses and economic impacts resulting from the outbreaks. Innovative technologies for i...

  2. Transfer of foodborne pathogens during mechanical slicing and their inactivation by levulinic acid-based sanitizer on slicers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dong; Zhao, Tong; Doyle, Michael P

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the degree of cross-contamination between deli foods and slicers by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, and their inactivation by levulinic acid (LA) plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on slicers. The transfer rate of pathogens at 5 locations on the contaminated slicers (scenario I) and on food slices (scenario II) was determined. The antimicrobial efficacy of the LA + SDS sanitizers applied either as a liquid or as foam at three concentrations (0.5% LA + 0.05% SDS, 1% LA + 0.1% SDS, and 2% LA + 0.5% SDS) was determined for decontamination of the pathogens on the slicers at 21 °C. After slicing 10 slices, the pathogens recovered from slicer blades were significantly (P < 0.05) less than the recovery from some other contact locations (scenario I). With an initial inoculum at approximately 8.5 log CFU/blade, the populations of the pathogens transferred from blades to slices decreased logarithmically (R(2) > 0.9, scenario II). Contaminated slicer surfaces sprayed with 1% LA plus 0.1% SDS as a foam (45-55 psi) reduced within 1 min 6.0 to 8.0 log CFU/blade of the pathogens. Results revealed that cross-contamination can occur between deli foods and slicers. Also, LA-based sanitizer applied as foam can be a useful treatment to remove microbial contamination on the slicers. PMID:24290650

  3. Multiple sample flow through immunomagnetic separator for concentrating pathogenic bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotariu, Ovidiu; Ogden, Iain D.; MacRae, Marion; Udrea, Laura Elena; Strachan, Norval J. C.

    2005-06-01

    The standard method of immunomagnetic separation for isolating pathogenic bacteria from food and environmental matrices processes 1 ml volumes. Pathogens present at low levels (<0.5 pathogenic bacteria/g) will not be consistently detected by this method. Here a multiple sample flow through immunomagnetic separator has been designed and tested to process large volume samples (50 to 250 ml). Preliminary results show >97% recovery of polydisperse magnetic particles (diameter range 1 to 8 µm) containing 29-33% w/w Fe3O4 content. Between 70 and 130 times more of the pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli O157 is recovered from PBS compared with the standard 1 ml method. Also, the recovery of E. coli O157 from beef mince homogenates, after a 4 h incubation at 42 °C, is between 80 and 180 times higher than the standard 1 ml method.

  4. Lactic acid as a potential decontaminant of selected foodborne pathogenic bacteria in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis de Man).

    PubMed

    Shirazinejad, Alireza; Ismail, Noryati; Bhat, Rajeev

    2010-12-01

    Fresh raw shrimps were dipped for 10, 20, and 30 min at room temperature (25°C ± 1°C) in lactic acid (LA; 1.5%, 3.0%, v/v) to evaluate their antipathogenic effects against Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella entreitidis, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated at a level of 10(5) CFU/g. Significant reductions in the population of all these pathogenic bacteria were recorded after dipping treatments, which were correlated to the corresponding LA concentrations and treatment time. With respect to the microbial quality, 3.0% LA treatment for 10 min was acceptable in reducing the pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, sensory evaluation results revealed a 10-min dip in 3.0% LA to be more acceptable organoleptically compared with 20 and 30 min of treatments. Results of the present study are envisaged to be useful for commercial applications for effective decontamination of shrimp. PMID:21034165

  5. Broad and efficient control of major foodborne pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli by mixtures of plant-produced colicins.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Steve; Stephan, Anett; Hahn, Simone; Bortesi, Luisa; Jarczowski, Franziska; Bettmann, Ulrike; Paschke, Anne-Katrin; Tusé, Daniel; Stahl, Chad H; Giritch, Anatoli; Gleba, Yuri

    2015-10-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one of the leading causes of bacterial enteric infections worldwide, causing ∼100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalizations, and 90 deaths annually in the United States alone. These illnesses have been linked to consumption of contaminated animal products and vegetables. Currently, other than thermal inactivation, there are no effective methods to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in food. Colicins are nonantibiotic antimicrobial proteins, produced by E. coli strains that kill or inhibit the growth of other E. coli strains. Several colicins are highly effective against key EHEC strains. Here we demonstrate very high levels of colicin expression (up to 3 g/kg of fresh biomass) in tobacco and edible plants (spinach and leafy beets) at costs that will allow commercialization. Among the colicins examined, plant-expressed colicin M had the broadest antimicrobial activity against EHEC and complemented the potency of other colicins. A mixture of colicin M and colicin E7 showed very high activity against all major EHEC strains, as defined by the US Department of Agriculture/Food and Drug Administration. Treatments with low (less than 10 mg colicins per L) concentrations reduced the pathogenic bacterial load in broth culture by 2 to over 6 logs depending on the strain. In experiments using meats spiked with E. coli O157:H7, colicins efficiently reduced the population of the pathogen by at least 2 logs. Plant-produced colicins could be effectively used for the broad control of pathogenic E. coli in both plant- and animal-based food products and, in the United States, colicins could be approved using the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory approval pathway. PMID:26351689

  6. Bioprotection of ready-to-eat probiotic artichokes processed with Lactobacillus paracasei LMGP22043 against foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Francesca; Lonigro, Stella Lisa; Di Biase, Mariaelena; de Candia, Silvia; Callegari, Maria Luisa; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2013-11-01

    The survival of 3 pathogens Listeria monocytogenes ATCC19115, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica ATCC13311, and Escherichia coli ATCC8739 was evaluated over time in ready-to-eat (RTE) artichoke products processed or not with the probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei LMGP22043. Both probiotic and standard products (final pH about 4.0; aw = 0.98) dressed with oil and packaged in modified atmosphere were inoculated with pathogens at a level of about 3 log CFU/g and stored at 4 ºC for 45 d. Pathogens decreased in the probiotic product in 2 descent phases, without shoulder and/or tailing as observed by fitting the models available in the GInaFit software to the experimental data. S. enterica subsp. enterica was completely inactivated after 14 and 28 d in probiotic and standard products, respectively; E. coli was inhibited in the probiotic food at day 4 (count pathogens during storage with probiotic benefits. PMID:24245894

  7. Broad and efficient control of major foodborne pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli by mixtures of plant-produced colicins

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Steve; Stephan, Anett; Hahn, Simone; Bortesi, Luisa; Jarczowski, Franziska; Bettmann, Ulrike; Paschke, Anne-Katrin; Tusé, Daniel; Stahl, Chad H.; Giritch, Anatoli; Gleba, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is one of the leading causes of bacterial enteric infections worldwide, causing ∼100,000 illnesses, 3,000 hospitalizations, and 90 deaths annually in the United States alone. These illnesses have been linked to consumption of contaminated animal products and vegetables. Currently, other than thermal inactivation, there are no effective methods to eliminate pathogenic bacteria in food. Colicins are nonantibiotic antimicrobial proteins, produced by E. coli strains that kill or inhibit the growth of other E. coli strains. Several colicins are highly effective against key EHEC strains. Here we demonstrate very high levels of colicin expression (up to 3 g/kg of fresh biomass) in tobacco and edible plants (spinach and leafy beets) at costs that will allow commercialization. Among the colicins examined, plant-expressed colicin M had the broadest antimicrobial activity against EHEC and complemented the potency of other colicins. A mixture of colicin M and colicin E7 showed very high activity against all major EHEC strains, as defined by the US Department of Agriculture/Food and Drug Administration. Treatments with low (less than 10 mg colicins per L) concentrations reduced the pathogenic bacterial load in broth culture by 2 to over 6 logs depending on the strain. In experiments using meats spiked with E. coli O157:H7, colicins efficiently reduced the population of the pathogen by at least 2 logs. Plant-produced colicins could be effectively used for the broad control of pathogenic E. coli in both plant- and animal-based food products and, in the United States, colicins could be approved using the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) regulatory approval pathway. PMID:26351689

  8. Cytokine responses in birds challenged with the human food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni implies a Th17 response

    PubMed Central

    Reid, William D. K.; Close, Andrew J.; Humphrey, Suzanne; Chaloner, Gemma; Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Rothwell, Lisa; Kaiser, Pete; Williams, Nicola J.; Humphrey, Tom J.; Wigley, Paul; Rushton, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Development of process orientated understanding of cytokine interactions within the gastrointestinal tract during an immune response to pathogens requires experimentation and statistical modelling. The immune response against pathogen challenge depends on the specific threat to the host. Here, we show that broiler chickens mount a breed-dependent immune response to Campylobacter jejuni infection in the caeca by analysing experimental data using frequentist and Bayesian structural equation models (SEM). SEM provides a framework by which cytokine interdependencies, based on prior knowledge, can be tested. In both breeds important cytokines including pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β, , IL-4, IL-17A, interferon (IFN)-γ and anti-inflammatory IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β4 were expressed post-challenge. The SEM revealed a putative regulatory pathway illustrating a T helper (Th)17 response and regulation of IL-10, which is breed-dependent. The prominence of the Th17 pathway indicates the cytokine response aims to limit the invasion or colonization of an extracellular bacterial pathogen but the time-dependent nature of the response differs between breeds. PMID:27069644

  9. Automated analysis of food-borne pathogens using a novel microbial cell culture, sensing and classification system.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Kun; Li, Yinglei; Ford, William; Land, Walker; Schaffer, J David; Congdon, Robert; Zhang, Jing; Sadik, Omowunmi

    2016-02-21

    We hereby report the design and implementation of an Autonomous Microbial Cell Culture and Classification (AMC(3)) system for rapid detection of food pathogens. Traditional food testing methods require multistep procedures and long incubation period, and are thus prone to human error. AMC(3) introduces a "one click approach" to the detection and classification of pathogenic bacteria. Once the cultured materials are prepared, all operations are automatic. AMC(3) is an integrated sensor array platform in a microbial fuel cell system composed of a multi-potentiostat, an automated data collection system (Python program, Yocto Maxi-coupler electromechanical relay module) and a powerful classification program. The classification scheme consists of Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), Support Vector Machines (SVM) and General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) oracle-based system. Differential Pulse Voltammetry (DPV) is performed on standard samples or unknown samples. Then, using preset feature extractions and quality control, accepted data are analyzed by the intelligent classification system. In a typical use, thirty-two extracted features were analyzed to correctly classify the following pathogens: Escherichia coli ATCC#25922, Escherichia coli ATCC#11775, and Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC#12228. 85.4% accuracy range was recorded for unknown samples, and within a shorter time period than the industry standard of 24 hours. PMID:26818563

  10. Inactivation kinetics of foodborne pathogens by UV-C radiation and its subsequent growth in fresh-cut kailan-hybrid broccoli.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Huertas, Juan-Pablo; Navarro-Rico, Javier; Gómez, Perla A; Artés, Francisco; Palop, Alfredo; Artés-Hernández, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    The inactivation of Escherichia coli, S. Enteritidis and Listeria monocytogenes after UV-C radiation with 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 and 15 kJ UV-C m(-2) on fresh-cut kailan-hybrid broccoli was explored. Inactivation did not follow linear kinetics. Hence, it was modelled by using the Weibull distribution function, obtaining adjusted R(2) values higher than 94%, indicative of the accuracy of the model to the experimental data. The UV-C doses needed to reduce 1 log cycle the E. coli, S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes counts were 1.07, 0.02 and 9.26 kJ m(-2), respectively, being S. Enteritidis the most sensitive microorganism to UV-C radiation while L. monocytogenes was the most resistant. According to experimental data, UV-C doses higher than 2.5 kJ m(-2) did not achieve great microbial reductions. No differences in the growth behaviour of these microorganisms was observed in the treated samples stored under air conditions at 5, 10 and 15 °C, compared to the control. Conclusively, low UV-C doses are effective to reduce E. coli, S. Enteritidis and L. monocytogenes populations in fresh-cut kailan-hybrid broccoli keeping such counts stable during shelf life at 5-10 °C. The current study provides inactivation models for these foodborne pathogens that can be used in microbial risk assessment. PMID:25475295

  11. Efficacy of plant essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria associated with ready-to-eat vegetables: antimicrobial and sensory screening.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Jorge; Rodriguez, Gabriel; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Bourke, Paula

    2008-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils (EOs) against foodborne pathogens and key spoilage bacteria pertinent to ready-to-eat vegetables and to screen the selected EOs for sensory acceptability. The EOs basil, caraway, fennel, lemon balm, marjoram, nutmeg, oregano, parsley, rosemary, sage, and thyme were evaluated. The bacteria evaluated were Listeria spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus spp., Bacillus cereus, Salmonella, Enterobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas spp. Quantitative antimicrobial analyses were performed using an absorbance-based microplate assay. Efficacy was compared using MIC, the half maximum inhibitory concentration, and the increase in lag phase. Generally, gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to EOs than were gram-negative bacteria, and Listeria monocytogenes strains were among the most sensitive. Of the spoilage organisms, Pseudomonas spp. were the most resistant. Oregano and thyme EOs had the highest activity against all the tested bacteria. Marjoram and basil EOs had selectively high activity against B. cereus, Enterobacter aerogenes, E. coli, and Salmonella, and lemon balm and sage EOs had adequate activity against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. Within bacterial species, EO efficacy was dependent on strain and in some cases the origin of the strain. On a carrot model product, basil, lemon balm, marjoram, oregano, and thyme EOs were deemed organoleptically acceptable, but only oregano and marjoram EOs were deemed acceptable for lettuce. Selected EOs may be useful as natural and safe additives for promoting the safety and quality of ready-to-eat vegetables. PMID:18810868

  12. A transferable plasticity region in Campylobacter coli allows isolates of an otherwise non-glycolytic food-borne pathogen to catabolize glucose.

    PubMed

    Vorwerk, Hanne; Huber, Claudia; Mohr, Juliane; Bunk, Boyke; Bhuju, Sabin; Wensel, Olga; Spröer, Cathrin; Fruth, Angelika; Flieger, Antje; Schmidt-Hohagen, Kerstin; Schomburg, Dietmar; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Hofreuter, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Thermophilic Campylobacter species colonize the intestine of agricultural and domestic animals commensally but cause severe gastroenteritis in humans. In contrast to other enteropathogenic bacteria, Campylobacter has been considered to be non-glycolytic, a metabolic property originally used for their taxonomic classification. Contrary to this dogma, we demonstrate that several Campylobacter coli strains are able to utilize glucose as a growth substrate. Isotopologue profiling experiments with (13) C-labeled glucose suggested that these strains catabolize glucose via the pentose phosphate and Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathways and use glucose efficiently for de novo synthesis of amino acids and cell surface carbohydrates. Whole genome sequencing of glycolytic C. coli isolates identified a genomic island located within a ribosomal RNA gene cluster that encodes for all ED pathway enzymes and a glucose permease. We could show in vitro that a non-glycolytic C. coli strain could acquire glycolytic activity through natural transformation with chromosomal DNA of C. coli and C. jejuni subsp. doylei strains possessing the ED pathway encoding plasticity region. These results reveal for the first time the ability of a Campylobacter species to catabolize glucose and provide new insights into how genetic macrodiversity through intra- and interspecies gene transfer expand the metabolic capacity of this food-borne pathogen. PMID:26259566

  13. Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis CBMDC3f with antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive foodborne pathogenic bacteria: UV-MALDI-TOF MS analysis of its bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Torres, M J; Petroselli, G; Daz, M; Erra-Balsells, R; Audisio, M C

    2015-06-01

    In this work a new Bacillus sp. strain, isolated from honey, was characterized phylogenetically. Its antibacterial activity against three relevant foodborne pathogenic bacteria was studied; the main bioactive metabolites were analyzed using ultraviolet matrix assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI MS). Bacillus CBMDC3f was phylogenetically characterized as Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis after rRNA analysis of the 16S subunit and the gyrA gene (access codes Genbank JX120508 and JX120516, respectively). Its antibacterial potential was evaluated against Listeria monocytogenes (9 strains), B. cereus (3 strains) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC29213. Its cell suspension and cell-free supernatant (CFS) exerted significant anti-Listeria and anti-S. aureus activities, while the lipopeptides fraction (LF) also showed anti-B. cereus effect. The UV-MALDI-MS analysis revealed surfactin, iturin and fengycin in the CFS, whereas surfactin predominated in the LF. The CFS from CBMDC3f contained surfactin, iturin and fengycin with four, two and four homologues per family, respectively, whereas four surfactin, one iturin and one fengycin homologues were identified in the LF. For some surfactin homologues, their UV-MALDI-TOF/TOF (MS/MS; Laser Induced Decomposition method, LID) spectra were also obtained. Mass spectrometry analysis contributed with relevant information about the type of lipopeptides that Bacillus strains can synthesize. From our results, surfactin would be the main metabolite responsible for the antibacterial effect. PMID:25820813

  14. Effectiveness of inactivation of foodborne pathogens during simulated home pan frying of steak, hamburger or meat strips.

    PubMed

    Lahou, Evy; Wang, Xiang; De Boeck, Elien; Verguldt, Elien; Geeraerd, Annemie; Devlieghere, Frank; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-08-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of simulated home pan frying of raw meat and meat preparations of different animal species on the thermal inactivation of pathogens, the heat resistance (D-value) of three strains of Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes and two strains of generic E. coli was validated in BHI and adjusted BHI (i.e. pH5.6 and 1.5% NaCl) at 60°C. The D-values were obtained of the linear phase of the survivor curves created in GInaFiT, a freeware tool to fit models to experimental data. The obtained D-values corresponded to those previously published in literature and confirmed L. monocytogenes to be the most heat resistant pathogen among them. Heat treatment in adjusted BHI significantly increased heat-resistance of E. coli O157:H7 and generic E. coli. Subsequently, the thermal inactivation of L. monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., C. jejuni and E. coli O157:H7 was evaluated using a standardized procedure simulating commonly used home pan frying of various types of meat including steaks or filets, hamburgers and meat strips from various animal species such as pork, beef, chicken, lamb and some turkey, horse, kangaroo and crocodile meat. Corresponding F70-values were calculated based upon measured core time/temperature profiles. It was noted that a core temperature of 70 °C was not always achieved and, moreover, a heat treatment equivalent to 2 min at 70 °C was also not always obtained. This was in particular noted in hamburgers although the meat was visually judged well done. On several occasions, residual survivors of the initial inoculated (4 logCFU/g) food borne pathogens could be recovered either by enumeration (limit of detection 1 logCFU/g) or by the presence/absence testing per 25 g. Pan frying of hamburgers yielded the highest number of surviving pathogenic bacteria (46%), followed by well-done filets and steaks (13%) and meat strips (12%). Taking only steaks (beef, horse, kangaroo, crocodile and

  15. Assessment of the effect of a Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium culture supernatant on the single-cell lag time of foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Lianou, Alexandra; Nychas, George-John E

    2015-12-23

    The objective of this study was the in vitro evaluation of the effect of a cell-free microbial supernatant, produced by a luxS-positive Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium strain, on the single-cell growth kinetic behavior of two strains of S. enterica (serotypes Enteritidis and Typhimurium) and a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain. The single-cell lag time (λ) of the pathogens was estimated in the absence and presence (20% v/v) of microbial supernatant based on optical density measurements. As demonstrated by the obtained results, the tested microbial supernatant had a strain-specific effect on the single-cell λ and its variability. Although the mean λ values were similar in the absence and presence of microbial supernatant in the case of Salmonella Enteritidis, a significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction and increase in the mean value of this parameter in the presence of microbial supernatant were observed for Salmonella Typhimurium and St. aureus, respectively. With regard to the effect of the tested microbial supernatant on the single-cell variability of λ, similar λ distributions were obtained in its absence and presence for S. Enteritidis, while considerable differences were noted for the other two tested organisms; the coefficient of variation of λ in the absence and presence of microbial supernatant was 41.6 and 69.8% for S. Typhimurium, respectively, with the corresponding values for St. aureus being 74.0 and 56.9%. As demonstrated by the results of bioassays, the tested microbial supernatant exhibited autoinducer-2 activity, indicating a potential association of such quorum sensing compounds with the observed effects. Although preliminary in nature, the collected data provide a good basis for future research on the role of quorum sensing in the single-cell growth behavior of foodborne pathogens. PMID:26433459

  16. Lactobacillus plantarum LB95 impairs the virulence potential of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens in HT-29 and Vero cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Virna; Silva, Ana Carla; Cabrita, Paula; Peres, Cidália; Malcata, Xavier; Brito, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella enterica and verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are amongst the most important agents responsible for food outbreaks occurring worldwide. In this work, two Lactobacillus spp. strains (LABs), Lactobacillus plantarum (LB95) and Lactobacillus paraplantarum (LB13), previously isolated from spontaneously fermenting olive brines, and two reference probiotic strains, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, were investigated for their ability to attenuate the virulence of the aforementioned pathogens using animal cell culture assays. In competitive exclusion assays, the relative percentages of adhesion and invasion of S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis were significantly reduced when the human HT-29 cell line was previously exposed to LB95. The relative percentage of invasion by Listeria monocytogenes was significantly reduced when HT-29 cells were previously exposed to LB95. In the cytotoxicity assays, the cell-free supernatant of the co-culture (CFSC)of VTEC with LB95 accounted for the lowest value obtained amongst the co-cultures of VTEC with LABs, and was significantly lower than the value obtained with the co-culture of VTEC with the two probiotic reference strains. The cytotoxicity of CFSC of VTEC with both LB95 and LB13 exhibited values not significantly different from the cell-free supernatant of the nonpathogenic E. coli B strain. Our results suggested that LB95 may be able to attenuate the virulence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative food-borne pathogens; together with other reported features of these strains, our data reveal their possible use in probiotic foods due to their interesting potential in preventing enteric infections in humans. PMID:26506821

  17. TrpA1 Regulates Defecation of Food-Borne Pathogens under the Control of the Duox Pathway.

    PubMed

    Du, Eun Jo; Ahn, Tae Jung; Kwon, Ilmin; Lee, Ji Hye; Park, Jeong-Ho; Park, Sun Hwa; Kang, Tong Mook; Cho, Hana; Kim, Tae Jin; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Jun, Youngsoo; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Young Sik; Kwon, Jae Young; Kang, KyeongJin

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen expulsion from the gut is an important defense strategy against infection, but little is known about how interaction between the intestinal microbiome and host immunity modulates defecation. In Drosophila melanogaster, dual oxidase (Duox) kills pathogenic microbes by generating the microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in response to bacterially excreted uracil. The physiological function of enzymatically generated HOCl in the gut is, however, unknown aside from its anti-microbial activity. Drosophila TRPA1 is an evolutionarily conserved receptor for reactive chemicals like HOCl, but a role for this molecule in mediating responses to gut microbial content has not been described. Here we identify a molecular mechanism through which bacteria-produced uracil facilitates pathogen-clearing defecation. Ingestion of uracil increases defecation frequency, requiring the Duox pathway and TrpA1. The TrpA1(A) transcript spliced with exon10b (TrpA1(A)10b) that is present in a subset of midgut enteroendocrine cells (EECs) is critical for uracil-dependent defecation. TRPA1(A)10b heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes is an excellent HOCl receptor characterized with elevated sensitivity and fast activation kinetics of macroscopic HOCl-evoked currents compared to those of the alternative TRPA1(A)10a isoform. Consistent with TrpA1's role in defecation, uracil-excreting Erwinia carotovora showed higher persistence in TrpA1-deficient guts. Taken together, our results propose that the uracil/Duox pathway promotes bacteria expulsion from the gut through the HOCl-sensitive receptor, TRPA1(A)10b, thereby minimizing the chances that bacteria adapt to survive host defense systems. PMID:26726767

  18. TrpA1 Regulates Defecation of Food-Borne Pathogens under the Control of the Duox Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong-Ho; Park, Sun Hwa; Kang, Tong Mook; Cho, Hana; Kim, Tae Jin; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Jun, Youngsoo; Lee, Hee Jae; Lee, Young Sik; Kwon, Jae Young; Kang, KyeongJin

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen expulsion from the gut is an important defense strategy against infection, but little is known about how interaction between the intestinal microbiome and host immunity modulates defecation. In Drosophila melanogaster, dual oxidase (Duox) kills pathogenic microbes by generating the microbicidal reactive oxygen species (ROS), hypochlorous acid (HOCl) in response to bacterially excreted uracil. The physiological function of enzymatically generated HOCl in the gut is, however, unknown aside from its anti-microbial activity. Drosophila TRPA1 is an evolutionarily conserved receptor for reactive chemicals like HOCl, but a role for this molecule in mediating responses to gut microbial content has not been described. Here we identify a molecular mechanism through which bacteria-produced uracil facilitates pathogen-clearing defecation. Ingestion of uracil increases defecation frequency, requiring the Duox pathway and TrpA1. The TrpA1(A) transcript spliced with exon10b (TrpA1(A)10b) that is present in a subset of midgut enteroendocrine cells (EECs) is critical for uracil-dependent defecation. TRPA1(A)10b heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes is an excellent HOCl receptor characterized with elevated sensitivity and fast activation kinetics of macroscopic HOCl-evoked currents compared to those of the alternative TRPA1(A)10a isoform. Consistent with TrpA1’s role in defecation, uracil-excreting Erwinia carotovora showed higher persistence in TrpA1-deficient guts. Taken together, our results propose that the uracil/Duox pathway promotes bacteria expulsion from the gut through the HOCl-sensitive receptor, TRPA1(A)10b, thereby minimizing the chances that bacteria adapt to survive host defense systems. PMID:26726767

  19. Low dietary iron intake restrains the intestinal inflammatory response and pathology of enteric infection by food-borne bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kortman, Guus A M; Mulder, Michelle L M; Richters, Thijs J W; Shanmugam, Nanda K N; Trebicka, Estela; Boekhorst, Jos; Timmerman, Harro M; Roelofs, Rian; Wiegerinck, Erwin T; Laarakkers, Coby M; Swinkels, Dorine W; Bolhuis, Albert; Cherayil, Bobby J; Tjalsma, Harold

    2015-09-01

    Orally administrated iron is suspected to increase susceptibility to enteric infections among children in infection endemic regions. Here we investigated the effect of dietary iron on the pathology and local immune responses in intestinal infection models. Mice were held on iron-deficient, normal iron, or high iron diets and after 2 weeks they were orally challenged with the pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. Microbiome analysis by pyrosequencing revealed profound iron- and infection-induced shifts in microbiota composition. Fecal levels of the innate defensive molecules and markers of inflammation lipocalin-2 and calprotectin were not influenced by dietary iron intervention alone, but were markedly lower in mice on the iron-deficient diet after infection. Next, mice on the iron-deficient diet tended to gain more weight and to have a lower grade of colon pathology. Furthermore, survival of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was prolonged after iron deprivation. Together, these data show that iron limitation restricts disease pathology upon bacterial infection. However, our data also showed decreased intestinal inflammatory responses of mice fed on high iron diets. Thus additionally, our study indicates that the effects of iron on processes at the intestinal host-pathogen interface may highly depend on host iron status, immune status, and gut microbiota composition. PMID:26046550

  20. Helicobacter pullorum Isolated from Fresh Chicken Meat: Antibiotic Resistance and Genomic Traits of an Emerging Foodborne Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Vítor; Santos, Andrea; Correia, Cristina Belo; Saraiva, Margarida; Ménard, Armelle; Vieira, Luís; Sampaio, Daniel A.; Pinheiro, Miguel; Gomes, João Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Meat and meat products are important sources of human intestinal infections. We report the isolation of Helicobacter pullorum strains from chicken meat. Bacteria were isolated from 4 of the 17 analyzed fresh chicken meat samples, using a membrane filter method. MIC determination revealed that the four strains showed acquired resistance to ciprofloxacin; one was also resistant to erythromycin, and another one was resistant to tetracycline. Whole-genome sequencing of the four strains and comparative genomics revealed important genetic traits within the H. pullorum species, such as 18 highly polymorphic genes (including a putative new cytotoxin gene), plasmids, prophages, and a complete type VI secretion system (T6SS). The T6SS was found in three out of the four isolates, suggesting that it may play a role in H. pullorum pathogenicity and diversity. This study suggests that the emerging pathogen H. pullorum can be transmitted to humans by chicken meat consumption/contact and constitutes an important contribution toward a better knowledge of the genetic diversity within the H. pullorum species. In addition, some genetic traits found in the four strains provide relevant clues to how this species may promote adaptation and virulence. PMID:26386065

  1. Tea and soybean extracts in combination with milk fermentation inhibit growth and enterocyte adherence of selected foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Danyue; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the antibacterial and anti-adhesive properties of pure plant extracts (PPEs) of green tea (GT), black tea (BT) and soybean individually or in combination with milk. Fermented phenolic enriched-milk (fPEM) was prepared by combining PPEs with milk and fermented with lactic acid bacteria. Antimicrobial activity of extracts was evaluated by broth-dilution and agar diffusion assay. Anti-adhesive property of extracts was evaluated in Caco-2 cell model. Results from antibacterial tests showed that PPEs exhibited a dose-dependent growth inhibitory effect. Tea extracts were more effective in inhibiting Gram-positive bacteria while soybean extract exhibited similar effects against all pathogens tested. For fPEM, although total phenolic contents decreased compared with those in PPEs, growth inhibitory effect of fPEM containing tea extracts was greatly enhanced. All extracts showed significant inhibition against pathogen adhesion to Caco-2 cells. In particular, adhesion inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes was >89% when fPEM extracts were applied. PMID:25766833

  2. Parallel bacterial evolution within multiple patients identifies candidate pathogenicity genes

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Tami D.; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Aingaran, Mythili; Potter-Bynoe, Gail; Roux, Damien; Davis, Michael R.; Skurnik, David; Leiby, Nicholas; LiPuma, John J.; Goldberg, Joanna B.; McAdam, Alexander J.; Priebe, Gregory P.; Kishony, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens evolve during the infection of their human hosts1-8, but separating adaptive and neutral mutations remains challenging9-11. Here, we identify bacterial genes under adaptive evolution by tracking recurrent patterns of mutations in the same pathogenic strain during the infection of multiple patients. We conducted a retrospective study of a Burkholderia dolosa outbreak among people with cystic fibrosis, sequencing the genomes of 112 isolates collected from 14 individuals over 16 years. We find that 17 bacterial genes acquired non-synonymous mutations in multiple individuals, which indicates parallel adaptive evolution. Mutations in these genes illuminate the genetic basis of important pathogenic phenotypes, including antibiotic resistance and bacterial membrane composition, and implicate oxygen-dependent gene regulation as paramount in lung infections. Several genes have not been previously implicated in pathogenesis, suggesting new therapeutic targets. The identification of parallel molecular evolution suggests key selection forces acting on pathogens within humans and can help predict and prepare for their future evolutionary course. PMID:22081229

  3. Foodborne illness and microbial agents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illnesses result from the consumption of food containing microbial agents such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or food contaminated by poisonous chemicals or bio-toxins. Pathogen proliferation is due to nutrient composition of foods, which are capable of supporting the growth of microorgan...

  4. A microbiological assay to estimate the antimicrobial activity of parenteral tildipirosin against foodborne pathogens and commensals in the colon of beef cattle and pigs.

    PubMed

    Rose, M; Pridmore, A; Shaw, A; Wilhelm, C; Menge, M; Kilp, S; Röpke, R; Nürnberger, M

    2016-06-01

    Tildipirosin (TIP) is a novel 16-membered-ring macrolide authorized for the treatment of bovine and swine respiratory disease. The pH dependency of macrolide antimicrobial activity is well known. Considering that the pH in the colon contents of growing beef cattle and pigs is usually below pH 7.0, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of TIP against foodborne bacterial pathogens such as Campylobacter (C.) coli, C. jejuni and Salmonella enterica and commensal species including Enterococcus (E.) faecalis, E. faecium and Escherichia coli were determined under standard (pH 7.3 ± 1) or neutral as well as slightly acidic conditions. A decrease in pH from 7.3 to 6.7 resulted in an increase in MICs of TIP. Except for the MICs > 256 μg/mL observed in the resistant subpopulation of the C. coli and the Enterococcus species, the MIC ranges increased from 2-8 μg/mL to 64-> 256 μg/mL for Salmonella enterica and E. coli, from 8-16 μg/mL to 32-128 μg/mL for the two Campylobacter species, and from 4-32 μg/mL to 128-> 256 μg/mL for both Enterococcus species. To estimate the antimicrobial activity of TIP in the colon contents of livestock during recommended usage of the parenterally administered TIP (Zuprevo(®) ), and to compare this with the increased MICs at the slightly acidic colonic pH, we developed and validated a microbiological assay for TIP and used this to test incurred faecal samples collected from cattle and pigs. Microbiological activity of luminal TIP was determined in aqueous supernatants from diluted faeces, using standard curves produced from TIP-spiked faecal supernatants. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for TIP was 1 μg/mL (ppm). In a cattle study (n = 14), 3 of 28 faecal samples collected 24 and 48 h post-treatment were found to contain TIP above the LOQ (concentrations of 1.3-1.8 ppm). In another cattle study (n = 12) with faecal samples collected at 8, 24 and 48 h post-treatment, TIP concentrations were above the LOQ in 4

  5. Multiple Infections of Rodents with Zoonotic Pathogens in Austria

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Sabrina; Essbauer, Sandra S.; Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Poppert, Sven; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Klempa, Boris; Henning, Klaus; Schares, Gereon; Groschup, Martin H.; Spitzenberger, Friederike; Richter, Dania; Heckel, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Rodents are important reservoirs for a large number of zoonotic pathogens. We examined the occurrence of 11 viral, bacterial, and parasitic agents in rodent populations in Austria, including three different hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox virus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia spp., Rickettsia spp., Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Toxoplasma gondii. In 2008, 110 rodents of four species (40 Clethrionomys glareolus, 29 Apodemus flavicollis, 26 Apodemus sylvaticus, and 15 Microtus arvalis) were trapped at two rural sites in Lower Austria. Chest cavity fluid and samples of lung, spleen, kidney, liver, brain, and ear pinna skin were collected. We screened selected tissue samples for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, Leptospira, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Bartonella spp., C. burnetii, and T. gondii by RT-PCR/PCR and detected nucleic acids of Tula hantavirus, Leptospira spp., Borrelia afzelii, Rickettsia spp., and different Bartonella species. Serological investigations were performed for hantaviruses, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, orthopox viruses, and Rickettsia spp. Here, Dobrava-Belgrade hantavirus-, Tula hantavirus-, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus-, orthopox virus-, and rickettsia-specific antibodies were demonstrated. Puumala hantavirus, C. burnetii, and T. gondii were neither detected by RT-PCR/PCR nor by serological methods. In addition, multiple infections with up to three pathogens were shown in nine animals of three rodent species from different trapping sites. In conclusion, these results show that rodents in Austria may host multiple zoonotic pathogens. Our observation raises important questions regarding the interactions of different pathogens in the host, the countermeasures of the host's immune system, the impact of the host–pathogen interaction on the fitness of the host, and the spread of infectious agents among wild rodents and from those to other animals or humans. PMID

  6. Contribution of the stereospecific methionine sulphoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB to oxidative and nitrosative stress resistance in the food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Atack, John M; Kelly, David J

    2008-08-01

    The microaerophilic food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is exposed to highly variable oxygen concentrations during its life cycle and employs a variety of protection mechanisms to resist oxidative stress. However, not all of the enzymes that mediate such protection have yet been identified. Two genes in strain NCTC 11168, Cj0637c and Cj1112c, are predicted to encode unrelated methionine sulphoxide reductases, which may repair oxidized methionine residues in proteins and thus contribute to oxidative stress defence. Cj0637 and Cj1112 were overexpressed, purified and shown by a coupled thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase-NADPH assay to catalyse the stereospecific reduction of the S and R diastereoisomers, respectively, of the model compound methyl p-tolyl sulphoxide. Cj0637 is thus identified as MsrA and Cj1112 as MsrB. The contribution of these enzymes to oxidative and nitrosative stress resistance in C. jejuni was assessed by phenotypic analysis of a set of isogenic msrA, msrB and msrA/B insertion mutants. As RT-PCR data suggested a polar effect on Cj1111c in the msrB mutant, an msrB/msrB(+) merodiploid complementation strain was also constructed. The msrA/B strain was severely growth inhibited under standard microaerobic conditions, whereas the msrA and msrB strains grew normally. Agar plate disc diffusion assays showed that all mutants displayed increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxide, superoxide, and nitrosative and disulphide stress, but quantitative cell viability assays showed that the msrA/B double mutant was markedly more sensitive to both oxidative and nitrosative stress. All of the stress-sensitivity phenotypes observed for the msrB mutant were restored to wild-type in the msrB/msrB(+) merodiploid. It is concluded that MsrA and MsrB make a significant contribution to the protection of C. jejuni against oxidative and nitrosative stress. PMID:18667555

  7. Rapid separation and concentration of food-borne pathogens in food samples prior to quantification by viable-cell counting and real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Hiroshi; Katsube, Kazunori; Hata, Yukiko; Kishi, Ryoko; Fujiwara, Satomi

    2007-01-01

    Buoyant density gradient centrifugation has been used to separate bacteria from complex food matrices, as well as to remove compounds that inhibit rapid detection methods, such as PCR, and to prevent false-positive results due to DNA originating from dead cells. Applying a principle of buoyant density gradient centrifugation, we developed a method for rapid separation and concentration following filtration and low- and high-speed centrifugation, as well as flotation and sedimentation buoyant density centrifugation, for 12 food-borne pathogens (Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio cholerae O139, Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3K6, Vibrio vulnificus, Providencia alcalifaciens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium perfringens) in 13 different food homogenates. This method can be used prior to real-time quantitative PCR (RTi-qPCR) and viable-cell counting. Using this combined method, the target organisms in the food samples theoretically could be concentrated 250-fold and detected at cell concentrations as low as 10(1) to 10(3) CFU/g using the RTi-qPCR assay, and amounts as small as 10(0) to 10(1) CFU/g could be isolated using plate counting. The combined separation and concentration methods and RTi-qPCR confirmed within 3 h the presence of 10(1) to 10(2) CFU/g of Salmonella and C. jejuni directly in naturally contaminated chicken and the presence of S. aureus directly in remaining food items in a poisoning outbreak. These results illustrated the feasibility of using these assays for rapid inspection of bacterial food contamination during a real-world outbreak. PMID:17056684

  8. Antifungal effect of eugenol and carvacrol against foodborne pathogens Aspergillus carbonarius and Penicillium roqueforti in improving safety of fresh-cut watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Šimović, Mirela; Delaš, Frane; Gradvol, Vedran; Kocevski, Dragana; Pavlović, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    Background: Essential oil components eugenol and carvacrol (ranging between 100 and 200 ppm for carvacrol and between 250 and 750 ppm for eugenol) were tested for antifungal activity against foodborne pathogenic fungal species Aspergillus carbonarius A1102 and Penicillium roqueforti PTFKK29 in in vitro and in situ conditions. Materials and Methods: In vitro antifungal activity of eugenol and carvacrol was evaluated by macrobroth method, while watermelon Citrullus lanatus L. Sorento slices were used for antifungal assays in situ. Results: Selected components, eugenol and carvacrol showed significant inhibitory effect against tested fungi (A. carbonarius A1102 and P. roqueforti PTFKK29) in yeast extract sucrose broth, as well as in in situ conditions. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of eugenol against A. carbonarius A1102 determined by macrobroth method was 2000 ppm, while against P. roqueforti PTFKK29 determined MIC was 1000 ppm. Carvacrol inhibited growth of A. carbonarius A1102 at minimal concentration of 500 ppm, while against P. roqueforti PTFKK29, MIC was 250 ppm. The assays in real food system watermelon slices for eugenol and carvacrol show that the inhibitory effect against both selected fungal species was concentration dependent. Furthermore, our results showed that antifungal effect of carvacrol as well as eugenol applied on watermelon slices in all concentrations was a result of effective synergy between an active antifungal compound and lower incubation temperature (15°C) in inhibition of A. carbonarius A1102. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the use of eugenol and carvacrol is promising natural alternative to the use of food chemical preservatives, in order to improve safety and quality of fresh-cut and ready-to-eat fruits. PMID:26401354

  9. Co-Selection of Resistance to Antibiotics, Biocides and Heavy Metals, and Its Relevance to Foodborne Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Wales, Andrew D.; Davies, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in recent years regarding co-selection for antibiotic resistance among bacteria exposed to biocides used as disinfectants, antiseptics and preservatives, and to heavy metals (particularly copper and zinc) used as growth promoters and therapeutic agents for some livestock species. There is indeed experimental and observational evidence that exposure to these non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents can induce or select for bacterial adaptations that result in decreased susceptibility to one or more antibiotics. This may occur via cellular mechanisms that are protective across multiple classes of antimicrobial agents or by selection of genetic determinants for resistance to non-antibiotic agents that are linked to genes for antibiotic resistance. There may also be relevant effects of these antimicrobial agents on bacterial community structure and via non-specific mechanisms such as mobilization of genetic elements or mutagenesis. Notably, some co-selective adaptations have adverse effects on fitness in the absence of a continued selective pressure. The present review examines the evidence for the significance of these phenomena, particularly in respect of bacterial zoonotic agents that commonly occur in livestock and that may be transmitted, directly or via the food chain, to human populations. PMID:27025641

  10. Co-Selection of Resistance to Antibiotics, Biocides and Heavy Metals, and Its Relevance to Foodborne Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Wales, Andrew D; Davies, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    Concerns have been raised in recent years regarding co-selection for antibiotic resistance among bacteria exposed to biocides used as disinfectants, antiseptics and preservatives, and to heavy metals (particularly copper and zinc) used as growth promoters and therapeutic agents for some livestock species. There is indeed experimental and observational evidence that exposure to these non-antibiotic antimicrobial agents can induce or select for bacterial adaptations that result in decreased susceptibility to one or more antibiotics. This may occur via cellular mechanisms that are protective across multiple classes of antimicrobial agents or by selection of genetic determinants for resistance to non-antibiotic agents that are linked to genes for antibiotic resistance. There may also be relevant effects of these antimicrobial agents on bacterial community structure and via non-specific mechanisms such as mobilization of genetic elements or mutagenesis. Notably, some co-selective adaptations have adverse effects on fitness in the absence of a continued selective pressure. The present review examines the evidence for the significance of these phenomena, particularly in respect of bacterial zoonotic agents that commonly occur in livestock and that may be transmitted, directly or via the food chain, to human populations. PMID:27025641

  11. Foodborne Protozoans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of the human pathogens Cryptosporidium and Giardia can be grouped into general morphology by microscopy, chemical and immunofluorescent staining methods aiding microscopy, and biochemical and molecular tests. Microscopic observations can be made using brightfield with or without spec...

  12. Future perspectives, applications and challenges of genomic epidemiology studies for food-borne pathogens: A case study of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) of the O157:H7 serotype

    PubMed Central

    Eppinger, Mark; Cebula, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The shiga-toxin (Stx)-producing human pathogen Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 is a highly pathogenic subgroup of Stx-producing E. coli (STEC) with food-borne etiology and bovine reservoir. Each year in the U. S., approximately 100,000 patients are infected with enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) of the O157:H7 serotype. This food-borne pathogen is a global public health threat responsible for widespread outbreaks of human disease. Since its initial discovery in 1982, O157:H7 has rapidly become the dominant EHEC serotype in North America. Hospitalization rates among patients as high as 50% have been reported for severe outbreaks of human disease. Symptoms of disease can rapidly deteriorate and progress to life-threatening complications such as Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS), the leading cause of kidney failure in children, or Hemorrhagic Colitis. In depth understanding of the genomic diversity that exists among currently circulating EHEC populations has broad applications for improved molecular-guided biosurveillance, outbreak preparedness, diagnostic risk assessment, and development of alternative toxin-suppressing therapeutics. PMID:25483335

  13. Nonpeptidic mimics of host defense proteins as antimicrobial agents for E. coli O104:H4, campylobacter spp. and other foodborne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Foodborne illness is a serious public health problem. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial diarrheal illness in the United States, causing more disease than Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. combined. The CDC estima...

  14. Foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

  15. Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance Genes in Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) Salmonella enterica Isolated from Animals and Humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) foodborne bacteria are a concern in animal and human health. Identification of resistance genes in foodborne pathogens is necessary to determine similarities of resistance mechanisms in animal, food and human clinical isolates. This information will help us ...

  16. Multiple pathogenic proteins implicated in neuronopathic Gaucher disease mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, You-hai; Xu, Kui; Sun, Ying; Liou, Benjamin; Quinn, Brian; Li, Rong-hua; Xue, Ling; Zhang, Wujuan; Setchell, Kenneth D.R.; Witte, David; Grabowski, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Gaucher disease, a prevalent lysosomal storage disease (LSD), is caused by insufficient activity of acid β-glucosidase (GCase) and the resultant glucosylceramide (GC)/glucosylsphingosine (GS) accumulation in visceral organs (Type 1) and the central nervous system (Types 2 and 3). Recent clinical and genetic studies implicate a pathogenic link between Gaucher and neurodegenerative diseases. The aggregation and inclusion bodies of α-synuclein with ubiquitin are present in the brains of Gaucher disease patients and mouse models. Indirect evidence of β-amyloid pathology promoting α-synuclein fibrillation supports these pathogenic proteins as a common feature in neurodegenerative diseases. Here, multiple proteins are implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic neuronopathic Gaucher disease (nGD). Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses showed significant amounts of β-amyloid and amyloid precursor protein (APP) aggregates in the cortex, hippocampus, stratum and substantia nigra of the nGD mice. APP aggregates were in neuronal cells and colocalized with α-synuclein signals. A majority of APP co-localized with the mitochondrial markers TOM40 and Cox IV; a small portion co-localized with the autophagy proteins, P62/LC3, and the lysosomal marker, LAMP1. In cultured wild-type brain cortical neural cells, the GCase-irreversible inhibitor, conduritol B epoxide (CBE), reproduced the APP/α-synuclein aggregation and the accumulation of GC/GS. Ultrastructural studies showed numerous larger-sized and electron-dense mitochondria in nGD cerebral cortical neural cells. Significant reductions of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate production and oxygen consumption (28–40%) were detected in nGD brains and in CBE-treated neural cells. These studies implicate defective GCase function and GC/GS accumulation as risk factors for mitochondrial dysfunction and the multi-proteinopathies (α-synuclein-, APP- and Aβ-aggregates) in nGD. PMID:24599400

  17. Development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism protocol for rapid detection and differentiation of four cockroach vectors (group I "Dirty 22" species) responsible for food contamination and spreading of foodborne pathogens: public health importance.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Irshad M; Anderson, Mickey; Khristova, Marina; Tang, Kevin; Sulaiman, Nikhat; Phifer, Edwin; Simpson, Steven; Kerdahi, Khalil

    2011-11-01

    Assessing the adulteration of food products and the presence of filth and extraneous materials is one of the measures that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) utilizes in implementing regulatory actions of public health importance. To date, 22 common pest species (also known as the "Dirty 22" species) have been regarded by this agency as the spreaders of foodborne diseases. We have further categorized the Dirty 22 species into four groups: I has four cockroach species, II has two ant species, III has 12 fly species, and IV has four rodent species. The presence of any Dirty 22 species is also considered an indicator of unsanitary conditions in food processing and storage facilities. In this study, we describe the development of a two-step nested PCR protocol to amplify the small subunit ribosomal gene of group I Dirty 22 species that include four cockroach species: Blattella germanica, Blatta orientalis, Periplaneta americana, and Supella longipalpa, along with the development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for rapid detection and differentiation of these violative species. This method will be utilized when the specimen cannot be identified with conventional microscopic taxonomic methods, especially when only small body parts are separated and recovered from food samples for analysis or when these body parts are in a decomposed state. This new PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism will provide correct identification of group I Dirty 22 species; this information can then be used in regulation and prevention of foodborne pathogens. PMID:22054189

  18. Comparison of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure to inactivate foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses cause the majority of cases of foodborne illness in the United States. The lack of culturability of some foodborne viruses requires the use of alternate models, like non-pathogenic surrogates or bacteriophage, for inactivation studies. High pressure technology is currently being implemented ...

  19. Integrated Dataset of Screening Hits against Multiple Neglected Disease Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Nwaka, Solomon; Besson, Dominique; Ramirez, Bernadette; Maes, Louis; Matheeussen, An; Bickle, Quentin; Mansour, Nuha R.; Yousif, Fouad; Townson, Simon; Gokool, Suzanne; Cho-Ngwa, Fidelis; Samje, Moses; Misra-Bhattacharya, Shailja; Murthy, P. K.; Fakorede, Foluke; Paris, Jean-Marc; Yeates, Clive; Ridley, Robert; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Geary, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    New chemical entities are desperately needed that overcome the limitations of existing drugs for neglected diseases. Screening a diverse library of 10,000 drug-like compounds against 7 neglected disease pathogens resulted in an integrated dataset of 744 hits. We discuss the prioritization of these hits for each pathogen and the strong correlation observed between compounds active against more than two pathogens and mammalian cell toxicity. Our work suggests that the efficiency of early drug discovery for neglected diseases can be enhanced through a collaborative, multi-pathogen approach. PMID:22247786

  20. Novel methods for detection of foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enteric viruses such as norovirus are the number one cause of foodborne illness. Bivalve shellfish such as oysters efficiently bioconcentrate and retain theses pathogens, making raw shellfish consumption a significant risk factor for acquisition of these viruses. Recent ARS research indicates...

  1. Emerging foodborne and agriculture-related viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viruses rapidly evolve and can emerge in unpredictable ways. Mechanisms by which food-borne viruses may enter human populations and become pathogens is discussed. It is known the majority of viruses emerge from zoonotic animal reservoirs, often by adapting and infecting intermediate hosts, such as ...

  2. Foodborne Disease Epidemiologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2005-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 76 million cases of foodborne illness occur in the U.S. each year; 5,000 are fatal. Most of these illnesses are caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and parasites and the remaining are poisonings triggered by harmful toxins or chemicals. To Jack Guzewich, a foodborne disease…

  3. Emerging Foodborne Trematodiasis

    PubMed Central

    Utzinger, Jürg

    2005-01-01

    Foodborne trematodiasis is an emerging public health problem, particularly in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region. We summarize the complex life cycle of foodborne trematodes and discuss its contextual determinants. Currently, 601.0, 293.8, 91.1, and 79.8 million people are at risk for infection with Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus spp., Fasciola spp., and Opisthorchis spp., respectively. The relationship between diseases caused by trematodes and proximity of human habitation to suitable freshwater bodies is examined. Residents living near freshwater bodies have a 2.15-fold higher risk (95% confidence interval 1.38–3.36) for infections than persons living farther from the water. Exponential growth of aquaculture may be the most important risk factor for the emergence of foodborne trematodiasis. This is supported by reviewing aquaculture development in countries endemic for foodborne trematodiasis over the past 10–50 years. Future and sustainable control of foodborne trematodiasis is discussed. PMID:16318688

  4. Effects of Irradiation Dose and O2 and CO2 Concentrations in Packages on Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria and Quality of Ready-to-Cook Seasoned Ground Beef Product (Meatball) during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Gunes, Gurbuz; Yilmaz, Neriman; Ozturk, Aylin

    2012-01-01

    Combined effects of gamma irradiation and concentrations of O2 (0, 5, 21%) and CO2 (0, 50%) on survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enteritidis, Listeria monocytogenes, lipid oxidation, and color changes in ready-to-cook seasoned ground beef (meatball) during refrigerated storage were investigated. Ground beef seasoned with mixed spices was packaged in varying O2 and CO2 levels and irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy. Irradiation (4 kGy) caused about 6 Log inactivation of the inoculated pathogens. Inactivation of Salmonella was 0.9- and 0.4-Log lower in 0 and 5% O2, respectively, compared to 21% O2. Irradiation at 2 and 4 kGy increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in meatballs by 0.12 and 0.28 mg malondialdehyde kg−1, respectively, compared to control. In reduced-O2 packages, radiation-induced oxidation was lower, and the initial color of an irradiated sample was maintained. Packaging with 0% + 50% CO2 or 5% O2 + 50% CO2 maintained the oxidative and the color quality of irradiated meatballs during 14-day refrigerated storage. MAP with 5%O2 + 50% CO2 combined with irradiation up to 4 kGy is suggested for refrigerated meatballs to reduce the foodborne pathogen risk and to maintain the quality. PMID:22566763

  5. REAL-TIME PCR ASSAY DEVELOPMENT FOR MULTIPLE MAIZE PATHOGENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This talk presents updates on the development of real-time PCR assays for two seedborne pathogens of maize, Pantoea (Erwinia) stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's bacterial wilt, and Stenocarpella (Diplodia) maydis, the causal agent of Diplodia ear rot. We developed primers and a real-time PCR p...

  6. Multiple Pathogen Detection Using Biosensors: Advancements and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Advancements in biosensor research have considerably impacted clinical diagnostics for human health. Efforts in capitalizing on the sensitivity of biosensors for food pathogen detection are evident in the food safety/security research community. For practical application with foods that normally h...

  7. IFITMs restrict the replication of multiple pathogenic viruses

    PubMed Central

    Perreira, Jill M.; Chin, Christopher R.; Feeley, Eric M.; Brass, Abraham L.

    2014-01-01

    The IFITM family of proteins inhibit a growing number of pathogenic viruses, among them influenza A virus, dengue virus, hepatitis C virus, and Ebola virus. This review covers recent developments in our understanding of the IFITM’s molecular determinants, potential mechanisms of action, and impact on pathogenesis. PMID:24076421

  8. Food-borne diseases - the challenges of 20 years ago still persist while new ones continue to emerge.

    PubMed

    Newell, Diane G; Koopmans, Marion; Verhoef, Linda; Duizer, Erwin; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Sprong, Hein; Opsteegh, Marieke; Langelaar, Merel; Threfall, John; Scheutz, Flemming; van der Giessen, Joke; Kruse, Hilde

    2010-05-30

    The burden of diseases caused by food-borne pathogens remains largely unknown. Importantly data indicating trends in food-borne infectious intestinal disease is limited to a few industrialised countries, and even fewer pathogens. It has been predicted that the importance of diarrhoeal disease, mainly due to contaminated food and water, as a cause of death will decline worldwide. Evidence for such a downward trend is limited. This prediction presumes that improvements in the production and retail of microbiologically safe food will be sustained in the developed world and, moreover, will be rolled out to those countries of the developing world increasingly producing food for a global market. In this review evidence is presented to indicate that the microbiological safety of food remains a dynamic situation heavily influenced by multiple factors along the food chain from farm to fork. Sustaining food safety standards will depend on constant vigilance maintained by monitoring and surveillance but, with the rising importance of other food-related issues, such as food security, obesity and climate change, competition for resources in the future to enable this may be fierce. In addition the pathogen populations relevant to food safety are not static. Food is an excellent vehicle by which many pathogens (bacteria, viruses/prions and parasites) can reach an appropriate colonisation site in a new host. Although food production practices change, the well-recognised food-borne pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli, seem able to evolve to exploit novel opportunities, for example fresh produce, and even generate new public health challenges, for example antimicrobial resistance. In addition, previously unknown food-borne pathogens, many of which are zoonotic, are constantly emerging. Current understanding of the trends in food-borne diseases for bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens has been reviewed. The bacterial pathogens are exemplified by those well

  9. Survival of foodborne pathogens at different relative humidities and temperatures and the effect of sanitizers on apples with different surface conditions.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun-Qi; Bae, Young-Min; Lee, Sun-Young

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the effects of factors such as relative humidity (RH) and temperature on pathogen survival on apples with different surface conditions. Apples with different surface conditions (unblemished, bruised, or cut) were inoculated with three pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus) and stored at different RH levels (RH 100, 85, or 68%) at 4 °C or 15 °C for 2 days. S. aureus survived most readily on apple surfaces; it had no significant reduction on any of the apple surfaces for any of the three RH levels after 2 days of storage. The reduction levels of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium on unblemished and bruised apple surfaces were higher at RH of 85% and 68% than at RH of 100% at 15 °C; and reduction levels were approximately 3 log(10) CFU/apple at 4 °C in RH of 68%. No significant reduction in any of the three pathogens on cut apple surfaces was observed for any RH level. The effectiveness of chemical sanitizers (chlorine sanitizer and 2% lactic acid) in reducing pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and S. aureus) on apple surfaces (unblemished, bruised, or cut) was also evaluated. Treatment with chlorine sanitizer and 2% lactic acid for 5 min significantly reduced pathogen levels on unblemished and bruised apple surfaces but not on cut apple surfaces. In conclusion, the surface conditions of the apple significantly affected pathogen survival and the effectiveness of sanitizing methods. PMID:23628610

  10. Allspice, cinnamon, and clove bud plant essential oils in edible apple films inactivate the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant essential oils (EOs) are rich sources of volatile terpenoids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds have the potential to inactivate pathogenic bacteria in the vapor phase. Edible films made from fruits or vegetables containing EOs can be used commercially to protect food against contaminati...

  11. Allspice, garlic, and oregano plant essential oils in tomato films inactive the foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible films containing plant essential oils are gaining importance as potential antibacterial formulations to extend product shelf-life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. An evaluation of both antimicrobial and physicochemical properties of edible films is important for applicati...

  12. Allspice, garlic and oregano plant essential oils in tomato films inactivate the foodborne pathogens, Escherichia coli O157:h7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible films containing plant essential oils arc gaining importance as potential antibacterial formulations to extend product shelf life and reduce risk of pathogen growth on food surfaces. An evaluation of both antimicrobial and physicochemical properties of edible films is important for applicatio...

  13. Comparative genomics of multiple strains of Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis, a potential model pathogen of both Monocots and Dicots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comparative genomics of closely related pathogens that differ in host range can provide insights into mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions and host adaptation. Sequencing multiple strains of the same pathogen further reveals information concerning pathogen diversity and the molecular basis of vi...

  14. Component costs of foodborne illness: a scoping review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Governments require high-quality scientific evidence to prioritize resource allocation and the cost-of-illness (COI) methodology is one technique used to estimate the economic burden of a disease. However, variable cost inventories make it difficult to interpret and compare costs across multiple studies. Methods A scoping review was conducted to identify the component costs and the respective data sources used for estimating the cost of foodborne illnesses in a population. This review was accomplished by: (1) identifying the research question and relevant literature, (2) selecting the literature, (3) charting, collating, and summarizing the results. All pertinent data were extracted at the level of detail reported in a study, and the component cost and source data were subsequently grouped into themes. Results Eighty-four studies were identified that described the cost of foodborne illness in humans. Most studies (80%) were published in the last two decades (1992–2012) in North America and Europe. The 10 most frequently estimated costs were due to illnesses caused by bacterial foodborne pathogens, with non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. being the most commonly studied. Forty studies described both individual (direct and indirect) and societal level costs. The direct individual level component costs most often included were hospital services, physician personnel, and drug costs. The most commonly reported indirect individual level component cost was productivity losses due to sick leave from work. Prior estimates published in the literature were the most commonly used source of component cost data. Data sources were not provided or specifically linked to component costs in several studies. Conclusions The results illustrated a highly variable depth and breadth of individual and societal level component costs, and a wide range of data sources being used. This scoping review can be used as evidence that there is a lack of standardization in cost inventories in

  15. BACTERIAL FOODBORNE INFECTIONS AFTER HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Boyle, Nicole; Podczervinski, Sara; Jordan, Kim; Stednick, Zach; Butler-Wu, Susan; McMillen, Kerry; Pergam, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diarrhea, abdominal pain and fever are common among patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), but such symptoms are also typical with foodborne infections. The burden of disease caused by foodborne infections in patients undergoing HCT is unknown. We sought to describe bacterial foodborne infection incidence post-transplant within a single-center population of HCT recipients. Methods All HCT recipients transplanted from 2001 through 2011 at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, WA were followed for one year post-transplant. Data were collected retrospectively using center databases, which include information from transplant, on-site examinations, outside records, and collected laboratory data. Patients were considered to have a bacterial foodborne infection if Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli 0157:H7, Salmonella species, Shigella species, Vibrio species or Yersinia species were isolated in culture within one-year post-transplant. Non-foodborne infections with these agents and patients with preexisting bacterial foodborne infection (within 30 days of transplant) were excluded from analyses. Results A total of 12/4069 (0.3%) patients developed a bacterial foodborne infection within one year post-transplant. Patients with infections had a median age at transplant of 50.5 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 35–57), and the majority were adults ≥18 years of age (9/12 [75%]), male gender (8/12 [67%]) and post-allogeneic transplant (8/12 [67%]). Infectious episodes occurred at an incidence rate of 1.0 per 100,000 patient-days (95% CI: 0.5–1.7) and at a median of 50.5 days after transplant (IQR: 26–58.5). The most frequent pathogen detected was Campylobacter jejuni/coli (5/12 [42%]) followed by Yersinia (3/12 [25%]), while Salmonella (2/12 [17%]) and Listeria (2/12 [17%]) showed equal frequencies; no cases of Shigella, Vibrio, or E. coli 0157:H7 were detected. Most patients were diagnosed via stool

  16. Discovery of novel biopreservation agents with inhibitory effects on growth of food-borne pathogens and their application to seafood products.

    PubMed

    Chahad, Ouissal Bourouni; El Bour, Monia; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Barros-Velàzquez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Selection of protective cultures is relevant in order to biopreserve and improve the functional safety of food products, mainly through inhibition of spoilage and/or pathogenic bacteria. Accordingly, the present study investigated potential applications of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the biopreservation of fish and shellfish products. For this purpose, a collection of 84 LAB strains isolated from sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) was identified and characterized for their inhibitory activities against the most relevant seafood-spoilage and pathogenic bacteria potentially present in commercial products. The bioactive strains belonged to the genus Enterococcus and exhibited inhibition against Carnobacterium sp, Bacillus sp, Listeria monocytogenes, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio anguillarum. Treatment of cell-free extracts of the LAB strains with proteases revealed the proteinaceous nature of the inhibition. Interestingly, the cell-free extracts containing bacteriocins remained 100% active after treatment up to 100 °C for 30 min or 121 °C for 15 min. Molecular analysis led to identification of the bacteriocins investigated, including enterocins A, B, L50 and P. All of these proteins demonstrated remarkable anti-Listeria activity and were found to be heat-resistant small class IIa bacteriocins. The results presented in this work open the way for potential applications of these LAB strains to the biopreservation of minimally-processed seafood products. PMID:22041547

  17. Food-Borne Trematodiases

    PubMed Central

    Keiser, Jennifer; Utzinger, Jürg

    2009-01-01

    Summary: An estimated 750 million people are at risk of infections with food-borne trematodes, which comprise liver flukes (Clonorchis sinensis, Fasciola gigantica, Fasciola hepatica, Opisthorchis felineus, and Opisthorchis viverrini), lung flukes (Paragonimus spp.), and intestinal flukes (e.g., Echinostoma spp., Fasciolopsis buski, and the heterophyids). Food-borne trematodiases pose a significant public health and economic problem, yet these diseases are often neglected. In this review, we summarize the taxonomy, morphology, and life cycle of food-borne trematodes. Estimates of the at-risk population and number of infections, geographic distribution, history, and ecological features of the major food-borne trematodes are reviewed. We summarize clinical manifestations, patterns of infection, and current means of diagnosis, treatment, and other control options. The changing epidemiological pattern and the rapid growth of aquaculture and food distribution networks are highlighted, as these developments might be associated with an elevated risk of transmission of food-borne trematodiases. Current research needs are emphasized. PMID:19597009

  18. Multiple introductions from multiple sources: invasion patterns for an important Eucalyptus leaf pathogen.

    PubMed

    Taole, Matsepo; Bihon, Wubetu; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J; Burgess, Treena I

    2015-09-01

    Many population studies on invasive plant pathogens are undertaken without knowing the center of origin of the pathogen. Most leaf pathogens of Eucalyptus originate in Australia and consequently with indigenous populations available, and it is possible to study the pathways of invasion. Teratosphaeria suttonii is a commonly occurring leaf pathogen of Eucalyptus species, naturally distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of eastern Australia where it is regarded as a minor pathogen infecting older leaves; however, repeated infections, especially in exotic plantations, can result in severe defoliation and tree deaths. Nine polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to assess the genetic structure of 11 populations of T. suttonii of which four where from within its native range in eastern Australia and the remaining seven from exotic Eucalyptus plantations. Indigenous populations exhibited high allele and haplotype diversity, predominantly clonal reproduction, high population differentiation, and low gene flow. The diversity of the invasive populations varied widely, but in general, the younger the plantation industry in a country or region, the lower the diversity of T. suttonii. Historical gene flow was from Australia, and while self-recruitment was dominant in all populations, there was evidence for contemporary gene flow, with South Africa being the most common source and Uruguay the most common sink population. This points distinctly to human activities underlying long-distance spread of this pathogen, and it highlights lessons to be learned regarding quarantine. PMID:26445668

  19. The impact of socioeconomic status on foodborne illness in high-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Newman, K L; Leon, J S; Rebolledo, P A; Scallan, E

    2015-09-01

    Foodborne illness is a major cause of morbidity and loss of productivity in developed nations. Although low socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with negative health outcomes, its impact on foodborne illness is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review to examine the association between SES and laboratory-confirmed illness caused by eight important foodborne pathogens. We completed this systematic review using PubMed for all papers published between 1 January 1980 and 1 January 2013 that measured the association between foodborne illness and SES in highly developed countries and identified 16 studies covering four pathogens. The effect of SES varied across pathogens: the majority of identified studies for Campylobacter, salmonellosis, and E. coli infection showed an association between high SES and illness. The single study of listeriosis showed illness was associated with low SES. A reporting bias by SES could not be excluded. SES should be considered when targeting consumer-level public health interventions for foodborne pathogens. PMID:25600652

  20. The impact of socioeconomic status on foodborne illness in high income countries: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Newman, K. L.; Leon, J. S.; Rebolledo, P. A.; Scallan, E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Foodborne illness is a major cause of morbidity and loss of productivity in developed nations. Though low socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with negative health outcomes, its impact on foodborne illness is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review to examine the association between SES and laboratory-confirmed illness caused by eight important foodborne pathogens. We completed this systematic review using PubMed for all papers published between 1 January 1980 and 1 January 2013 that measured the association between foodborne illness and SES in highly developed countries and identified 16 studies covering 4 pathogens. The effect of SES varied across pathogens: the majority of identified studies for Campylobacter, salmonellosis, and E. coli infection showed an association between high SES and illness. The single study of listeriosis showed illness was associated with low SES. A reporting bias by SES could not be excluded. SES should be considered when targeting consumer level public health interventions for foodborne pathogens. PMID:25600652

  1. Microbiological pathogens: Live poultry considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry products continue to be implicated as the predominate source of food-borne pathogens worldwide. Most food-borne pathogen contamination from poultry originates from ante mortem poultry infections. This book section will address several potential areas of concern regarding the microbial ecolog...

  2. Linking multiple pathogenic pathways in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Bou Khalil, Rami; Khoury, Elie; Koussa, Salam

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder presenting as progressive cognitive decline with dementia that does not, to this day, benefit from any disease-modifying drug. Multiple etiologic pathways have been explored and demonstrate promising solutions. For example, iron ion chelators, such as deferoxamine, are a potential therapeutic solution around which future studies are being directed. Another promising domain is related to thrombin inhibitors. In this minireview, a common pathophysiological pathway is suggested for the pathogenesis of AD to prove that all these mechanisms converge onto the same cascade of neuroinflammatory events. This common pathway is initiated by the presence of vascular risk factors that induce brain tissue hypoxia, which leads to endothelial cell activation. However, the ensuing hypoxia stimulates the production and release of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory proteins. Furthermore, the endothelial activation may become excessive and dysfunctional in predisposed individuals, leading to thrombin activation and iron ion decompartmentalization. The oxidative stress that results from these modifications in the neurovascular unit will eventually lead to neuronal and glial cell death, ultimately leading to the development of AD. Hence, future research in this field should focus on conducting trials with combinations of potentially efficient treatments, such as the combination of intranasal deferoxamine and direct thrombin inhibitors. PMID:27354962

  3. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus cereus FORC_005, a food-borne pathogen from the soy sauce braised fish-cake with quail-egg.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Hye Rim; Chung, Han Young; Lim, Jong Gyu; Kim, Suyeon; Kim, Se Keun; Ku, Hye-Jin; Kim, Heebal; Ryu, Sangryeol; Choi, Sang Ho; Lee, Ju-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Due to abundant contamination in various foods, the pathogenesis of Bacillus cereus has been widely studied in physiological and molecular level. B. cereus FORC_005 was isolated from a Korean side dish, soy sauce braised fish-cake with quail-egg in South Korea. While 21 complete genome sequences of B. cereus has been announced to date, this strain was completely sequenced, analyzed, and compared with other complete genome sequences of B. cereus to elucidate the distinct pathogenic features of a strain isolated in South Korea. The genomic DNA containing a circular chromosome consists of 5,349,617-bp with a GC content of 35.29 %. It was predicted to have 5170 open reading frames, 106 tRNA genes, and 42 rRNA genes. Among the predicted ORFs, 3892 ORFs were annotated to encode functional proteins (75.28 %) and 1278 ORFs were predicted to encode hypothetical proteins (748 conserved and 530 non-conserved hypothetical proteins). This genome information of B. cereus FORC_005 would extend our understanding of its pathogenesis in genomic level for efficient control of its contamination in foods and further food poisoning. PMID:26566422

  4. Growth and membrane fluidity of food-borne pathogen Listeria monocytogenes in the presence of weak acid preservatives and hydrochloric acid

    PubMed Central

    Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Berberi, Anita; Siapi, Eleni; Arkoudi-Vafea, Angeliki; Giannopoulou, Lydia; Mastronicolis, Sofia K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses a major issue in microbial food safety, the elucidation of correlations between acid stress and changes in membrane fluidity of the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. In order to assess the possible role that membrane fluidity changes play in L. monocytogenes tolerance to antimicrobial acids (acetic, lactic, hydrochloric acid at low pH or benzoic acid at neutral pH), the growth of the bacterium and the gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature point (Tm) of cellular lipids of each adapted culture was measured and compared with unexposed cells. The Tm of extracted lipids was measured by differential scanning calorimetry. A trend of increasing Tm values but not of equal extent was observed upon acid tolerance for all samples and this increase is not directly proportional to each acid antibacterial action. The smallest increase in Tm value was observed in the presence of lactic acid, which presented the highest antibacterial action. In the presence of acids with high antibacterial action such as acetic, hydrochloric acid or low antibacterial action such as benzoic acid, increased Tm values were measured. The Tm changes of lipids were also correlated with our previous data about fatty acid changes to acid adaptation. The results imply that the fatty acid changes are not the sole adaptation mechanism for decreased membrane fluidity (increased Tm). Therefore, this study indicates the importance of conducting an in-depth structural study on how acids commonly used in food systems affect the composition of individual cellular membrane lipid molecules. PMID:23785360

  5. Prevention of bacterial foodborne disease using nanobiotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Billington, Craig; Hudson, J Andrew; D’Sa, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Foodborne disease is an important source of expense, morbidity, and mortality for society. Detection and control constitute significant components of the overall management of foodborne bacterial pathogens, and this review focuses on the use of nanosized biological entities and molecules to achieve these goals. There is an emphasis on the use of organisms called bacteriophages (phages: viruses that infect bacteria), which are increasingly being used in pathogen detection and biocontrol applications. Detection of pathogens in foods by conventional techniques is time-consuming and expensive, although it can also be sensitive and accurate. Nanobiotechnology is being used to decrease detection times and cost through the development of biosensors, exploiting specific cell-recognition properties of antibodies and phage proteins. Although sensitivity per test can be excellent (eg, the detection of one cell), the very small volumes tested mean that sensitivity per sample is less compelling. An ideal detection method needs to be inexpensive, sensitive, and accurate, but no approach yet achieves all three. For nanobiotechnology to displace existing methods (culture-based, antibody-based rapid methods, or those that detect amplified nucleic acid) it will need to focus on improving sensitivity. Although manufactured nonbiological nanoparticles have been used to kill bacterial cells, nanosized organisms called phages are increasingly finding favor in food safety applications. Phages are amenable to protein and nucleic acid labeling, and can be very specific, and the typical large “burst size” resulting from phage amplification can be harnessed to produce a rapid increase in signal to facilitate detection. There are now several commercially available phages for pathogen control, and many reports in the literature demonstrate efficacy against a number of foodborne pathogens on diverse foods. As a method for control of pathogens, nanobiotechnology is therefore flourishing

  6. Using UVC Light-Emitting Diodes at Wavelengths of 266 to 279 Nanometers To Inactivate Foodborne Pathogens and Pasteurize Sliced Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo-Ji; Kim, Do-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    UVC light is a widely used sterilization technology. However, UV lamps have several limitations, including low activity at refrigeration temperatures, a long warm-up time, and risk of mercury exposure. UV-type lamps only emit light at 254 nm, so as an alternative, UV light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) which can produce the desired wavelengths have been developed. In this study, we validated the inactivation efficacy of UV-LEDs by wavelength and compared the results to those of conventional UV lamps. Selective media inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes were irradiated using UV-LEDs at 266, 270, 275, and 279 nm in the UVC spectrum at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.7 mJ/cm2, respectively. The radiation intensity of the UV-LEDs was about 4 μW/cm2, and UV lamps were covered with polypropylene films to adjust the light intensity similar to those of UV-LEDs. In addition, we applied UV-LED to sliced cheese at doses of 1, 2, and 3 mJ/cm2. Our results showed that inactivation rates after UV-LED treatment were significantly different (P < 0.05) from those of UV lamps at a similar intensity. On microbiological media, UV-LED treatments at 266 and 270 nm showed significantly different (P < 0.05) inactivation effects than other wavelength modules. For sliced cheeses, 4- to 5-log reductions occurred after treatment at 3 mJ/cm2 for all three pathogens, with negligible generation of injured cells. PMID:26386061

  7. Using UVC Light-Emitting Diodes at Wavelengths of 266 to 279 Nanometers To Inactivate Foodborne Pathogens and Pasteurize Sliced Cheese.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Ji; Kim, Do-Kyun; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    UVC light is a widely used sterilization technology. However, UV lamps have several limitations, including low activity at refrigeration temperatures, a long warm-up time, and risk of mercury exposure. UV-type lamps only emit light at 254 nm, so as an alternative, UV light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) which can produce the desired wavelengths have been developed. In this study, we validated the inactivation efficacy of UV-LEDs by wavelength and compared the results to those of conventional UV lamps. Selective media inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes were irradiated using UV-LEDs at 266, 270, 275, and 279 nm in the UVC spectrum at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 0.7 mJ/cm(2), respectively. The radiation intensity of the UV-LEDs was about 4 μW/cm(2), and UV lamps were covered with polypropylene films to adjust the light intensity similar to those of UV-LEDs. In addition, we applied UV-LED to sliced cheese at doses of 1, 2, and 3 mJ/cm(2). Our results showed that inactivation rates after UV-LED treatment were significantly different (P < 0.05) from those of UV lamps at a similar intensity. On microbiological media, UV-LED treatments at 266 and 270 nm showed significantly different (P < 0.05) inactivation effects than other wavelength modules. For sliced cheeses, 4- to 5-log reductions occurred after treatment at 3 mJ/cm(2) for all three pathogens, with negligible generation of injured cells. PMID:26386061

  8. Selection tool for foodborne norovirus outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Verhoef, Linda P B; Kroneman, Annelies; van Duynhoven, Yvonne; Boshuizen, Hendriek; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Koopmans, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Detection of pathogens in the food chain is limited mainly to bacteria, and the globalization of the food industry enables international viral foodborne outbreaks to occur. Outbreaks from 2002 through 2006 recorded in a European norovirus surveillance database were investigated for virologic and epidemiologic indicators of food relatedness. The resulting validated multivariate logistic regression model comparing foodborne (n = 224) and person-to-person (n = 654) outbreaks was used to create a practical web-based tool that can be limited to epidemiologic parameters for nongenotyping countries. Non-genogroup-II.4 outbreaks, higher numbers of cases, and outbreaks in restaurants or households characterized (sensitivity = 0.80, specificity = 0.86) foodborne outbreaks and reduced the percentage of outbreaks requiring source-tracing to 31%. The selection tool enabled prospectively focused follow-up. Use of this tool is likely to improve data quality and strain typing in current surveillance systems, which is necessary for identification of potential international foodborne outbreaks. PMID:19116046

  9. Eggs and Foodborne Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Table eggs and eggshells may be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, although the only significant threat to human health related to eggs in recent history has been from the bacterium Salmonella. Salmonella is currently the leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the U.S. with 16 ...

  10. Food-Borne Noroviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Noroviruses have emerged as the number one cause of food-borne illness in the United States. In this book chapter, the current molecular classification criteria are described as well as the current information regarding the molecular biology of the virus and its putative gene functions. Identifica...

  11. Measures in feed and water to reduce pathogen incidence in animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States there is a population of 300 million individuals with an estimated 76 million illnesses each year. The two primary pathogenic bacteria responsible for these illnesses are due to foodborne illness. Clearly, effective control programs must involve multiple intervention strategie...

  12. Evaluation and control of the risk of foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria present in Awa-Uirou, a sticky rice cake containing sweet red bean paste.

    PubMed

    Okahisa, Naoki; Inatsu, Yasuhiro; Juneja, Vijay K; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2008-06-01

    The risk of food poisoning and growth of spoilage bacteria in Awa-Uirou, a sticky rice cake containing sweet red bean paste, was evaluated. Toxin-producing bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus are the main causes of food poisoning linked to this kind of food. The water activity in this product is in the range suitable for growth of S. aureus, B. cereus, and B. subtilis. The viable count of S. aureus or B. cereus spore cocktail was significantly reduced to 2.3 log colony-forming units (CFU)/g after 70 minutes steaming treatment at 100 degrees C. However, the heat-resistant endospores of B. subtilis germinated during storage at 30 degrees C to cause appreciable syneresis of the starch gel matrix in 4 days. The addition of 0.5% glycine before steaming treatment was found to effectively suppress the growth of B. cereus but was not effective in controlling S. aureus throughout the 7 days incubation period at 30 degrees C. On the other hand, S. aureus and B. cereus could grow > 5.0 log CFU/g in an inoculated sample without glycine within 3 days when stored at 30 degrees C. Moreover, addition of 0.5% glycine before the steaming process did not have any significant effect on color, texture, or taste of sticky rice cake. Therefore, results of this study demonstrated that the addition of 0.5% glycine before the steaming process could inhibit B. cereus and B. subtilis multiplication in the steamed rice confection which in turn may help reduce the risk of food poisoning or quality loss. PMID:18564913

  13. Co-infection with Multiple Respiratory Pathogens Contributes to Increased Mortality Rates in Algerian Poultry Flocks.

    PubMed

    Sid, Hicham; Benachour, Karine; Rautenschlein, Silke

    2015-09-01

    Respiratory infections are a common cause for increased mortality rates in poultry worldwide. To improve intervention strategies, circulating pathogens have to be identified and further characterized. Because of the lack of diagnostic tools, it was not known what pathogens contribute to the high mortality rates in association with respiratory disease in Algeria. Our objective was to determine if primary pathogens including Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), avian influenza virus (AIV), infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV), known to be present in neighboring countries, can also be detected in Algerian chicken and turkey flocks. Results demonstrate the circulation of the investigated pathogens in Algerian poultry flocks as multi-infections. Phylogenetic characterization of the Algerian IBV strains confirmed the circulation of nephropathogenic viruses that are different from the strains isolated in neighboring countries. This could suggest the existence of a new IBV genotype in North Africa. Additionally, we detected for the first time an aMPV subtype B field strain and avian influenza virus. Interestingly, all viral pathogens were present in co-infections with MG, which could exacerbate clinical disease. Additional pathogens may be present and should be investigated in the future. Our results suggest that multiple respiratory infections may be responsible for high mortality in Algerian poultry flocks and very probably also in other regions of the world, which demonstrates the need for the establishment of more comprehensive control strategies. PMID:26478165

  14. Food-borne illnesses during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Carolyn; Erebara, Aida; Einarson, Adrienne

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT QUESTION After hearing about outbreaks of illness resulting from Listeria and Salmonella, many of my patients are wondering about the risks of food-borne illnesses during pregnancy and what they can do to reduce their chances of contracting them. ANSWER Although heating or cooking food is the best way to inactivate food-borne pathogens, improved standards and surveillance have reduced the prevalence of contaminated foods at grocery stores. Therefore, it is no longer necessary for pregnant women to avoid foods like deli meats and soft cheeses (associated with Listeria); soft-cooked eggs (associated with Salmonella); or sushi and sashimi. Regardless of whether seafood is raw or cooked, pregnant women should choose low mercury seafood (eg, salmon and shrimp) over higher mercury varieties (eg, fresh tuna). Pregnant women should ensure that their food is obtained from reputable establishments; stored, handled, and cooked properly; and consumed within a couple of days of purchasing. PMID:20393091

  15. Techniques for rapid detection and quantification of active foodborne Staphylococcus Enterotoxin(Abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is an important bacterial pathogen and causative agent of foodborne illnesses.Staphylococcal enterotoxins(SEs)produced by this organism act upon the gastrointestinal tract and generate a superantigen immune response in low concentrations. Recent S. aureus foodborne ...

  16. Effect of marinating chicken meat with lemon, green tea, and turmeric against foodborne bacterial pathogenss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne diseases affect millions of people each year. To reduce the incidence of bacterial foodborne pathogens more effective treatment methods are needed. In this study we evaluated the effect of marinating chicken breast fillets with extracts of lemon, green tea, and turmeric against Campylob...

  17. Incidence of foodborne pathogens in organic swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic products are often purchased, because it is believed that they are healthier and safer than conventional products. However, the management of public health risks associated with organic animal production is difficult, because high biosecurity levels often are not feasible. Although organic a...

  18. Arcobacter: An Opportunistic Human Foodborne Pathogen?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arcobacter are gram negative, motile, aerotolerant campylobacter-like microbes which grow at 30C. The 10 described Arcobacter species are but a fraction of the total taxa, which encompass bacteria exploiting diverse ecological niches, such as seawater, oil fields, and estuaries. This physiological r...

  19. Cross-Immunity and Community Structure of a Multiple-Strain Pathogen in the Tick Vector

    PubMed Central

    Jacquet, Maxime; Paillard, Lye; Rais, Olivier; Gern, Lise; Voordouw, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Many vector-borne pathogens consist of multiple strains that circulate in both the vertebrate host and the arthropod vector. Characterization of the community of pathogen strains in the arthropod vector is therefore important for understanding the epidemiology of mixed vector-borne infections. Borrelia afzelii and B. garinii are two species of tick-borne bacteria that cause Lyme disease in humans. These two sympatric pathogens use the same tick, Ixodes ricinus, but are adapted to different classes of vertebrate hosts. Both Borrelia species consist of multiple strains that are classified using the highly polymorphic ospC gene. Vertebrate cross-immunity against the OspC antigen is predicted to structure the community of multiple-strain Borrelia pathogens. Borrelia isolates were cultured from field-collected I. ricinus ticks over a period spanning 11 years. The Borrelia species of each isolate was identified using a reverse line blot (RLB) assay. Deep sequencing was used to characterize the ospC communities of 190 B. afzelii isolates and 193 B. garinii isolates. Infections with multiple ospC strains were common in ticks, but vertebrate cross-immunity did not influence the strain structure in the tick vector. The pattern of genetic variation at the ospC locus suggested that vertebrate cross-immunity exerts strong selection against intermediately divergent ospC alleles. Deep sequencing found that more than 50% of our isolates contained exotic ospC alleles derived from other Borrelia species. Two alternative explanations for these exotic ospC alleles are cryptic coinfections that were not detected by the RLB assay or horizontal transfer of the ospC gene between Borrelia species. PMID:26319876

  20. In-situ detection of multiple pathogenic bacteria on food surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Yating; Horikawa, Shin; Hu, Jiajia; Chen, I.-Hsuan; Hu, Jing; Barbaree, James M.; Chin, Bryan A.

    2015-05-01

    Real-time in-situ detection of pathogenic bacteria on fresh food surfaces was accomplished with phage-based magnetoelastic (ME) biosensors. The ME biosensor is constructed of a small rectangular strip of ME material that is coated with a biomolecular recognition element (phage, antibodies or proteins, etc.) that is specific to the target pathogen. This mass-sensitive ME biosensor is wirelessly actuated into mechanical resonance by an externally applied time-varying magnetic field. When the biosensor binds with target bacteria, the mass of the sensor increases, resulting in a decrease in the sensor's resonant frequency. In order to compensate for nonspecific binding, control biosensors without phage were used in this experiment. In previous research, the biosensors were measured one by one. However, the simultaneous measurement of multiple sensors was accomplished in this research, and promises to greatly shorten the analysis time for bacterial detection. Additionally, the use of multiple biosensors enables the possibility of simultaneous detection of different pathogenic bacteria. This paper presents results of experiments in which multiple phage-based ME biosensors were simultaneously monitored. The E2 phage and JRB7 phage from a landscape phage library served as the bio-recognition element that have the capability of binding specifically with Salmonella typhimurium and B. anthracis spores, respectively. Real-time in-situ detection of Salmonella typhimurium and B. anthracis spores on food surfaces are presented.

  1. Antimicrobial activities of natural antimicrobial compounds against susceptible and antibiotic-resistant pathogens in the absence and presence of food

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an effort to improve microbial food safety, we are studying the antimicrobial activities of different classes of natural compounds including plant essential oils, apple, grape, olive, and tea extracts, bioactive components, and seashell-derived chitosans against multiple foodborne pathogens in cu...

  2. Estimating the burden of foodborne diseases in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kumagai, Yuko; Gilmour, Stuart; Ota, Erika; Momose, Yoshika; Onishi, Toshiro; Bilano, Ver Luanni Feliciano; Kasuga, Fumiko; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the burden posed by foodborne diseases in Japan using methods developed by the World Health Organization’s Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG). Methods Expert consultation and statistics on food poisoning during 2011 were used to identify three common causes of foodborne disease in Japan: Campylobacter and Salmonella species and enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). We conducted systematic reviews of English and Japanese literature on the complications caused by these pathogens, by searching Embase, the Japan medical society abstract database and Medline. We estimated the annual incidence of acute gastroenteritis from reported surveillance data, based on estimated probabilities that an affected person would visit a physician and have gastroenteritis confirmed. We then calculated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) lost in 2011, using the incidence estimates along with disability weights derived from published studies. Findings In 2011, foodborne disease caused by Campylobacter species, Salmonella species and EHEC led to an estimated loss of 6099, 3145 and 463 DALYs in Japan, respectively. These estimated burdens are based on the pyramid reconstruction method; are largely due to morbidity rather than mortality; and are much higher than those indicated by routine surveillance data. Conclusion Routine surveillance data may indicate foodborne disease burdens that are much lower than the true values. Most of the burden posed by foodborne disease in Japan comes from secondary complications. The tools developed by FERG appear useful in estimating disease burdens and setting priorities in the field of food safety. PMID:26478611

  3. Hyperspectral microscopy to identify foodborne bacteria with optimum lighting source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral microscopy is an emerging technology for rapid detection of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Since scattering spectral signatures from hyperspectral microscopic images (HMI) vary with lighting sources, it is important to select optimal lights. The objective of this study is to compare t...

  4. AOTF hyperspectral microscope imaging for foodborne bacteria detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety is an important public health issue worldwide. Researchers have developed many different methods for detecting foodborne pathogens; however, most technologies currently being used have limitations, in terms of speed, sensitivity and selectivity, for practical use in the food industry. Ac...

  5. Comparison of hydrostatic and hydrodynamic pressure to inactivate foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HPP) and hydrodynamic pressure (HDP), in combination with chemical treatments, was evaluated for inactivation of foodborne viruses and non-pathogenic surrogates in a pork sausage product. Sausages were immersed in water, 100 ppm EDTA, or 2 percent lactoferrin...

  6. Microbiological pathogens: Live poultry considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food-borne illness is a significant worldwide public health problem. Salmonella is the predominate food-borne pathogen worldwide, and poultry and poultry products are, reportedly, a prevailing vehicle for salmonellosis. More recently, population-based active surveillance by investigators of the Fo...

  7. Multiple introductions of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses into Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Marinova-Petkova, Atanaska; Feeroz, Mohammed M; Rabiul Alam, SM; Kamrul Hasan, M; Akhtar, Sharmin; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Walker, David; McClenaghan, Laura; Rubrum, Adam; Franks, John; Seiler, Patrick; Jeevan, Trushar; McKenzie, Pamela; Krauss, Scott; Webby, Richard J; Webster, Robert G

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic H5N1 and low pathogenic H9N2 influenza viruses are endemic to poultry markets in Bangladesh and have cocirculated since 2008. H9N2 influenza viruses circulated constantly in the poultry markets, whereas highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses occurred sporadically, with peaks of activity in cooler months. Thirty highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses isolated from poultry were characterized by antigenic, molecular, and phylogenetic analyses. Highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza viruses from clades 2.2.2 and 2.3.2.1 were isolated from live bird markets only. Phylogenetic analysis of the 30 H5N1 isolates revealed multiple introductions of H5N1 influenza viruses in Bangladesh. There was no reassortment between the local H9N2 influenza viruses and H5N1 genotype, despite their prolonged cocirculation. However, we detected two reassortant H5N1 viruses, carrying the M gene from the Chinese H9N2 lineage, which briefly circulated in the Bangladesh poultry markets and then disappeared. On the other hand, interclade reassortment occurred within H5N1 lineages and played a role in the genesis of the currently dominant H5N1 viruses in Bangladesh. Few ‘human-like' mutations in H5N1 may account for the limited number of human cases. Antigenically, clade 2.3.2.1 H5N1 viruses in Bangladesh have evolved since their introduction and are currently mainly homogenous, and show evidence of recent antigenic drift. Although reassortants containing H9N2 genes were detected in live poultry markets in Bangladesh, these reassortants failed to supplant the dominant H5N1 lineage. PMID:26038508

  8. The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum. PMID:24311557

  9. Advances in T Helper 17 Cell Biology: Pathogenic Role and Potential Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Elisabetta; Battistini, Luca; Borsellino, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the T helper (Th) 17 lineage, involved in the protection against fungal and extracellular bacterial infections, has profoundly revolutionized our current understanding of T cell-mediated responses in autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Indeed, recent data demonstrate the pathogenic role of Th17 cells in autoimmune disorders. In particular, studies in MS and in its animal model (EAE, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis) have revealed a crucial role of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of autoimmune demyelinating diseases in both mice and humans. Over the past years, several important aspects concerning Th17 cells have been elucidated, such as the factors which promote or inhibit their differentiation and the effector cytokines which mediate their responses. The identification of the features endowing Th17 cells with high pathogenicity in MS is of particular interest, and discoveries in Th17 cell biology and function could lead to the design of new strategies aimed at modulating the immune response in MS. Here, we will discuss recent advances in this field, with particular focus on the mechanisms conferring pathogenicity in MS and their potential modulation. PMID:26770017

  10. The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum. PMID:24311557

  11. Foodborne anisakiasis and allergy.

    PubMed

    Baird, Fiona J; Gasser, Robin B; Jabbar, Abdul; Lopata, Andreas L

    2014-08-01

    Human anisakiasis, a disease caused by Anisakis spp. (Nematoda), is often associated with clinical signs that are similar to those associated with bacterial or viral gastroenteritis. With the globalisation of the seafood industry, the risk of humans acquiring anisakiasis in developed countries appears to be underestimated. The importance of this disease is not only in its initial manifestation, which can often become chronic if the immune response does not eliminate the worm, but, importantly, in its subsequent sensitisation of the human patient. This sensitisation to Anisakis-derived allergens can put the patient at risk of an allergic exacerbation upon secondary exposure. This article reviews some aspects of this food-borne disease and explains its link to chronic, allergic conditions in humans. PMID:24583228

  12. Multiple independent transmission cycles of a tick-borne pathogen within a local host community.

    PubMed

    Jacquot, Maude; Abrial, David; Gasqui, Patrick; Bord, Severine; Marsot, Maud; Masseglia, Sébastien; Pion, Angélique; Poux, Valérie; Zilliox, Laurence; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Bailly, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Many pathogens are maintained by multiple host species and involve multiple strains with potentially different phenotypic characteristics. Disentangling transmission patterns in such systems is often challenging, yet investigating how different host species contribute to transmission is crucial to properly assess and manage disease risk. We aim to reveal transmission cycles of bacteria within the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex, which include Lyme disease agents. We characterized Borrelia genotypes found in 488 infected Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected in the Sénart Forest located near Paris (France). These genotypes were compared to those observed in three sympatric species of small mammals and network analyses reveal four independent transmission cycles. Statistical modelling shows that two cycles involving chipmunks, an introduced species, and non-sampled host species such as birds, are responsible for the majority of tick infections. In contrast, the cycle involving native bank voles only accounts for a small proportion of infected ticks. Genotypes associated with the two primary transmission cycles were isolated from Lyme disease patients, confirming the epidemiological threat posed by these strains. Our work demonstrates that combining high-throughput sequence typing with networks tools and statistical modeling is a promising approach for characterizing transmission cycles of multi-host pathogens in complex ecological settings. PMID:27498685

  13. Multiple independent transmission cycles of a tick-borne pathogen within a local host community

    PubMed Central

    Jacquot, Maude; Abrial, David; Gasqui, Patrick; Bord, Severine; Marsot, Maud; Masseglia, Sébastien; Pion, Angélique; Poux, Valérie; Zilliox, Laurence; Chapuis, Jean-Louis; Vourc’h, Gwenaël; Bailly, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Many pathogens are maintained by multiple host species and involve multiple strains with potentially different phenotypic characteristics. Disentangling transmission patterns in such systems is often challenging, yet investigating how different host species contribute to transmission is crucial to properly assess and manage disease risk. We aim to reveal transmission cycles of bacteria within the Borrelia burgdorferi species complex, which include Lyme disease agents. We characterized Borrelia genotypes found in 488 infected Ixodes ricinus nymphs collected in the Sénart Forest located near Paris (France). These genotypes were compared to those observed in three sympatric species of small mammals and network analyses reveal four independent transmission cycles. Statistical modelling shows that two cycles involving chipmunks, an introduced species, and non-sampled host species such as birds, are responsible for the majority of tick infections. In contrast, the cycle involving native bank voles only accounts for a small proportion of infected ticks. Genotypes associated with the two primary transmission cycles were isolated from Lyme disease patients, confirming the epidemiological threat posed by these strains. Our work demonstrates that combining high-throughput sequence typing with networks tools and statistical modeling is a promising approach for characterizing transmission cycles of multi-host pathogens in complex ecological settings. PMID:27498685

  14. Characterization of foodborne Staphylococcus aureus isolates: association of toxin gene profile with genotype and food commodities in Shanghai, China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important clinical and foodborne pathogen. Zoonotic risk of transmission to humans highlights the need to understand the ecology of S. aureus in various foods. We characterized the genetic diversity and the distribution of 25 toxin genes in 142 foodborne Staphylococcus au...

  15. From ontology selection and semantic web to the integrated information system of food-borne diseases and food safety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the last three decades, the rapid explosion of information and resources on human food-borne diseases and food safety has provided the ability to rapidly determine and interpret the mechanisms of survival and pathogenesis of food-borne pathogens. However, several factors have hindered effective...

  16. [New foodborne infections].

    PubMed

    Rottman, Martin; Gaillard, Jean-Louis

    2003-05-15

    The last 20 years have witnessed a profound reshaping of the spectrum of foodborne infections in industrialized countries. Food products are overall very safe, but the industrial scale and standardisation of food production have spawned spectacular epidemics, bringing into the light previously little known microorganisms such as Listeria or Escherichia coli O157:H7, the causative agent of the "hamburger disease". The recent "mad cow disease" crisis is another illustration of a food industry gone astray under the pressure of underlying economic stakes. Through unprecedented efforts from the countries involved--epitomized in France by the creation of the Agence française de sécurité sannitaire des aliments in 1999--these diseases are about to be curtailed in their epidemic form. But new dangers emerge yet with Campylobacter infections, Norovirus gastroenteritis or the spread of multi-resistant bacteria. Issues mostly unknown to the general public that are likely to be strongly publicized in the future. PMID:12846023

  17. A large outbreak of salmonellosis associated with sandwiches contaminated with multiple bacterial pathogens purchased via an online shopping service.

    PubMed

    Wei, Sung-Hsi; Huang, Angela S; Liao, Ying-Shu; Liu, Yu-Lun; Chiou, Chien-Shun

    2014-03-01

    Food sold over the internet is an emerging business that also presents a concern with regard to food safety. A nationwide foodborne disease outbreak associated with sandwiches purchased from an online shop in July 2010 is reported. Consumers were telephone interviewed with a structured questionnaire and specimens were collected for etiological examination. A total of 886 consumers were successfully contacted and completed the questionnaires; 36.6% had become ill, with a median incubation period of 18 h (range, 6-66 h). The major symptoms included diarrhea (89.2%), abdominal pain (69.8%), fever (47.5%), headache (32.7%), and vomiting (17.3%). Microbiological laboratories isolated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Salmonella Virchow, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli from the contaminated sandwiches, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Virchow from the patients, and Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus from food handlers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping suggested a common origin of Salmonella bacteria recovered from the patients, food, and a food handler. Among the pathogens detected, the symptoms and incubation period indicated that Salmonella, likely of egg origin, was the probable causative agent of the outbreak. This outbreak illustrates the importance of meticulous hygiene practices during food preparation and temperature control during food shipment and the food safety challenges posed by online food-shopping services. PMID:24313786

  18. A Large Outbreak of Salmonellosis Associated with Sandwiches Contaminated with Multiple Bacterial Pathogens Purchased via an Online Shopping Service

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Sung-Hsi; Huang, Angela S.; Liao, Ying-Shu; Liu, Yu-Lun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Food sold over the internet is an emerging business that also presents a concern with regard to food safety. A nationwide foodborne disease outbreak associated with sandwiches purchased from an online shop in July 2010 is reported. Consumers were telephone interviewed with a structured questionnaire and specimens were collected for etiological examination. A total of 886 consumers were successfully contacted and completed the questionnaires; 36.6% had become ill, with a median incubation period of 18 h (range, 6–66 h). The major symptoms included diarrhea (89.2%), abdominal pain (69.8%), fever (47.5%), headache (32.7%), and vomiting (17.3%). Microbiological laboratories isolated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Salmonella Virchow, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli from the contaminated sandwiches, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Virchow from the patients, and Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus from food handlers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping suggested a common origin of Salmonella bacteria recovered from the patients, food, and a food handler. Among the pathogens detected, the symptoms and incubation period indicated that Salmonella, likely of egg origin, was the probable causative agent of the outbreak. This outbreak illustrates the importance of meticulous hygiene practices during food preparation and temperature control during food shipment and the food safety challenges posed by online food–shopping services. PMID:24313786

  19. Emerging foodborne diseases: an evolving public health challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Tauxe, R. V.

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiology of foodborne disease is changing. New pathogens have emerged, and some have spread worldwide. Many, including Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, and Yersinia enterocolitica, have reservoirs in healthy food animals, from which they spread to an increasing variety of foods. These pathogens cause millions of cases of sporadic illness and chronic complications, as well as large and challenging outbreaks over many states and nations. Improved surveillance that combines rapid subtyping methods, cluster identification, and collaborative epidemiologic investigation can identify and halt large, dispersed outbreaks. Outbreak investigations and case-control studies of sporadic cases can identify sources of infection and guide the development of specific prevention strategies. Better understanding of how pathogens persist in animal reservoirs is also critical to successful long-term prevention. In the past, the central challenge of foodborne disease lay in preventing the contamination of human food with sewage or animal manure. In the future, prevention of foodborne disease will increasingly depend on controlling contamination of feed and water consumed by the animals themselves. PMID:9366593

  20. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains. To evaluate the genetic diversity of Lymantria dispar nucleopolyhedrovirus (LdMNPV) at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates of...

  1. Evolution of host range in Coleosporium ipomoeae, a plant pathogen with multiple hosts.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Thomas M; Rausher, Mark D

    2016-05-10

    Plants and their pathogens coevolve locally. Previous investigations of one host-one pathogen systems have demonstrated that natural selection favors pathogen genotypes that are virulent on a broad range of host genotypes. In the present study, we examine a system consisting of one pathogen species that infects three host species in the morning glory genus Ipomoea. We show that many pathogen genotypes can infect two or three of the host species when tested on plants from nonlocal communities. By contrast, pathogen genotypes are highly host-specific, infecting only one host species, when tested on host species from the local community. This pattern indicates that within-community evolution narrows the host breadth of pathogen genotypes. Possible evolutionary mechanisms include direct selection for narrow host breadth due to costs of virulence and evolution of ipomoea resistance in the host species. PMID:27114547

  2. Association of targeted multiplex PCR with resequencing microarray for the detection of multiple respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hongwei; Zhu, Bingqing; Wang, Shulian; Mo, Haolian; Wang, Ji; Li, Jin; Zhang, Chen; Zeng, Huashu; Guan, Li; Shi, Weixian; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    A large number of viral and bacterial organisms are responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) which contributes to substantial burden on health management. A new resequencing microarray (RPM-IVDC1) associated with targeted multiplex PCR was recently developed and validated for multiple respiratory viruses detection and discrimination. In this study, we evaluated the capability of RPM-IVDC1 for simultaneous identification of multiple viral and bacterial organisms. The nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) of 110 consecutive CAP patients, aged from 1 month to 96 years old, were collected from five distinct general hospitals in Beijing during 1-year period. The samples were subjected to the RPM-IVDC1 established protocol as compared to a real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), which was used as standard. The results of virus detection were consistent with those previously described. A total of 37 of Streptococcus pneumoniae, 14 of Haemophilus influenzae, 10 of Mycoplasma pneumoniae, two of Klebsiella pneumoniae and one of Moraxella catarrhalis were detected by RPM-IVDC1. The sensitivities and specificities were compared with those of qRT-PCR for S. pneumoniae (100, 100%, respectively), H. influenzae (92.3, 97.9%, respectively), M. pneumoniae (69.2, 99.0%, respectively), K. pneumoniae (100, 100%, respectively), and M. catarrhalis (100, 100%, respectively). Additional 22 of Streptococcus spp., 24 of Haemophilus spp. and 16 of Neisseria spp. were identified. In addition, methicillin-resistant and carbapenemases allele were also found in nine of Staphylococcus spp. and one of K. pneumoniae, respectively. These results demonstrated the capability of RPM-IVDC1 for simultaneous detection of broad-spectrum respiratory pathogens in complex backgrounds and the advantage of accessing to the actual sequences, showing great potential use of epidemic outbreak investigation. The detection results should be carefully interpreted when introducing this technique in the clinical diagnostics. PMID

  3. High throughput screening strategies and technology platforms for detection of pathogens: An Introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Globally, foodborne pathogens are a major public health concern. In this chapter, we provide a broad description of the problem of food-borne diseases and current and future detection technologies for food safety assurance and prevention of foodborne illnesses. Current detection approaches include s...

  4. Effects of climate variability on bacterial pathogen decay in spinach bed macrocosms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: It is estimated that 47.8 million people contract foodborne pathogens each year. Understanding the risk of foodborne pathogens and their ability to survive on or near food crops is of great concern. Current pathogen decay rates are limited due to environmental variability. With a cha...

  5. Multiple host transfers, but only one successful lineage in a continent-spanning emergent pathogen.

    PubMed

    Hochachka, Wesley M; Dhondt, André A; Dobson, Andrew; Hawley, Dana M; Ley, David H; Lovette, Irby J

    2013-09-01

    Emergence of a new disease in a novel host is thought to be a rare outcome following frequent pathogen transfers between host species. However, few opportunities exist to examine whether disease emergence stems from a single successful pathogen transfer, and whether this successful lineage represents only one of several pathogen transfers between hosts. We examined the successful host transfer and subsequent evolution of the bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum, an emergent pathogen of house finches (Haemorhous (formerly Carpodacus) mexicanus). Our principal goals were to assess whether host transfer has been a repeated event between the original poultry hosts and house finches, whether only a single host transfer was ultimately responsible for the emergence of M. gallisepticum in these finches, and whether the spread of the pathogen from east to west across North America has resulted in spatial structuring in the pathogen. Using a phylogeny of M. gallisepticum based on 107 isolates from domestic poultry, house finches and other songbirds, we infer that the bacterium has repeatedly jumped between these two groups of hosts but with only a single lineage of M. gallisepticum persisting and evolving in house finches; bacterial evolution has produced monophyletic eastern and western North American subclades. PMID:23843387

  6. Identification of Foodborne Bacteria by High Energy Collision-Induced Dissociation of Their Protein Biomarkers by MALDI Tandem-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of methods for rapid identification of foodborne bacteria is an important area of analytical science and food safety. MALDI-TOF-MS has been utilized to rapidly identify pathogens including foodborne bacteria. Identification typically involves detection of high copy cytosolic proteins i...

  7. Performance and mechanism of standard nano-TiO2(P-25) in photocatalytic disinfection of foodborne microorganisms - salmonella typhimurium and listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper, effects of disinfection by nano-TiO2 were studied on the two typical foodborne microorganisms, Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella typhimurium and Gram-positive bacterium-Listeria monocytogenes, in meat products. The performance of nano-TiO2 against the foodborne pathogens was evaluate...

  8. Foodborne and waterborne parasites.

    PubMed

    Pozio, Edoardo

    2003-01-01

    More than 72 species of protozoan and helminth parasites can reach humans by food and water, and most of these infections are zoonoses. Some parasites show a cosmopolitan distribution, others a more restricted distribution due to their complex life cycles, which need the presence of one or more intermediate hosts. Of this large number of pathogens, only Toxoplasma gondii can be transmitted to humans by two different ways, i.e., by cysts present in infected meat and by oocysts contaminating food and water. Eleven helminthic species (Taenia saginata, Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, Trichinella spiralis, Tr. nativa, Tr. britovi, Tr. pseudospiralis, Tr. murrelli, Tr nelsoni, Tr. papuae and Tr. zimbabwensis) can grow in meat of different animal species and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw meat or meat products. Twenty trematode species, four cestode species and seven nematode species can infect humans through the consumption of raw sea- and/or fresh-water food (fishes, molluscs, frogs, tadpoles, camarons, crayfishes). Six species of Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Giardia duodenalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar can contaminate food and water. Among the helminths, seven trematode species, seven cestode species and five species of nematodes can reach humans by contaminated food and water. Diagnostic and detection methods that can be carried out routinely on food and water samples are available only for few parasites (Cryptosporidium sp., Giardia sp., Anisakidae, Trichinella sp., Taenia sp.), i.e., for parasites which represent a risk to human populations living in industrialised countries. The majority of food and waterborne infections of parasitic origin are related to poverty, low sanitation, and old food habits. PMID:15058817

  9. Antibiosis of vineyard ecosystem fungi against food-borne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Bartolomé, Begoña; Salazar, Óscar; Vicente, M Francisca; Bills, Gerald F

    2011-12-01

    Fermentation extracts from fungi isolated from vineyard ecosystems were tested for antimicrobial activities against a set of test microorganisms, including five food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus EP167, Acinetobacter baumannii (clinically isolated), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (CECT 5947) and Candida albicans MY1055) and two probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LCH17 and Lactobacillus brevis LCH23). A total of 182 fungi was grown in eight different media, and the fermentation extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity. A total of 71 fungi produced extracts active against at least one pathogenic microorganism, but not against any probiotic bacteria. The Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus EP167 was more susceptible to antimicrobial fungi broth extracts than Gram-negative bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Identification of active fungi based on internal transcribed spacer rRNA sequence analysis revealed that species in the orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales and Xylariales dominated. Differences in antimicrobial selectivity were observed among isolates from the same species. Some compounds present in the active extracts were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial metabolites produced by vineyard ecosystem fungi may potentially limit colonization and spoilage of food products by food-borne pathogens, with minimal effect on probiotic bacteria. PMID:22044674

  10. Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

    2014-08-15

    Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods. PMID:24846635

  11. Public health implications of Acanthamoeba and multiple potential opportunistic pathogens in roof-harvested rainwater tanks.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, K A; Ahmed, W; Palmer, A; Sidhu, J P S; Hodgers, L; Toze, S; Haas, C N

    2016-10-01

    A study of six potential opportunistic pathogens (Acanthamoeba spp., Legionella spp., Legionella longbeachae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare) and an accidental human pathogen (Legionella pneumophila) in 134 roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) tank samples was conducted using quantitative PCR (qPCR). All five opportunistic pathogens and accidental pathogen L. pneumophila were detected in rainwater tanks except Legionella longbeachae. Concentrations ranged up to 3.1×10(6) gene copies per L rainwater for Legionella spp., 9.6×10(5) gene copies per L for P. aeruginosa, 6.8×10(5) gene copies per L for M. intracellulare, 6.6×10(5) gene copies per L for Acanthamoeba spp., 1.1×10(5) gene copies per L for M. avium, and 9.8×10(3) gene copies per L for L. pneumophila. Among the organisms tested, Legionella spp. (99% tanks) were the most prevalent followed by M. intracellulare (78%). A survey of tank-owners provided data on rainwater end-uses. Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. were enumerated using culture-based methods, and assessed for correlations with opportunistic pathogens and L. pneumophila tested in this study. Opportunistic pathogens did not correlate well with FIB except E. coli vs. Legionella spp. (tau=0.151, P=0.009) and E. coli vs. M. intracellulare (tau=0.14, P=0.015). However, M. avium weakly correlated with both L. pneumophila (Kendall's tau=0.017, P=0.006) and M. intracellulare (tau=0.088, P=0.027), and Legionella spp. also weakly correlated with M. intracellulare (tau=0.128, P=0.028). The presence of these potential opportunistic pathogens in tank water may present health risks from both the potable and non-potable uses documented from the current survey data. PMID:27336236

  12. Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Fish Pathogens Using a Naked-Eye Readable DNA Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chin-I; Hung, Pei-Hsin; Wu, Chia-Che; Cheng, Ta Chih; Tsai, Jyh-Ming; Lin, King-Jung; Lin, Chung-Yen

    2012-01-01

    We coupled 16S rDNA PCR and DNA hybridization technology to construct a microarray for simultaneous detection and discrimination of eight fish pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Flavobacterium columnare, Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, Streptococcus iniae and Vibrio anguillarum) commonly encountered in aquaculture. The array comprised short oligonucleotide probes (30 mer) complementary to the polymorphic regions of 16S rRNA genes for the target pathogens. Targets annealed to the microarray probes were reacted with streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase and nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3′-indolylphosphate, p-toluidine salt (NBT/BCIP), resulting in blue spots that are easily visualized by the naked eye. Testing was performed against a total of 168 bacterial strains, i.e., 26 representative collection strains, 81 isolates of target fish pathogens, and 61 ecologically or phylogenetically related strains. The results showed that each probe consistently identified its corresponding target strain with 100% specificity. The detection limit of the microarray was estimated to be in the range of 1 pg for genomic DNA and 103 CFU/mL for pure pathogen cultures. These high specificity and sensitivity results demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA microarrays in the diagnostic detection of fish pathogens. PMID:22736973

  13. Simultaneous detection of multiple fish pathogens using a naked-eye readable DNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-I; Hung, Pei-Hsin; Wu, Chia-Che; Cheng, Ta Chih; Tsai, Jyh-Ming; Lin, King-Jung; Lin, Chung-Yen

    2012-01-01

    We coupled 16S rDNA PCR and DNA hybridization technology to construct a microarray for simultaneous detection and discrimination of eight fish pathogens (Aeromonas hydrophila, Edwardsiella tarda, Flavobacterium columnare, Lactococcus garvieae, Photobacterium damselae, Pseudomonas anguilliseptica, Streptococcus iniae and Vibrio anguillarum) commonly encountered in aquaculture. The array comprised short oligonucleotide probes (30 mer) complementary to the polymorphic regions of 16S rRNA genes for the target pathogens. Targets annealed to the microarray probes were reacted with streptavidin-conjugated alkaline phosphatase and nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3'-indolylphosphate, p-toluidine salt (NBT/BCIP), resulting in blue spots that are easily visualized by the naked eye. Testing was performed against a total of 168 bacterial strains, i.e., 26 representative collection strains, 81 isolates of target fish pathogens, and 61 ecologically or phylogenetically related strains. The results showed that each probe consistently identified its corresponding target strain with 100% specificity. The detection limit of the microarray was estimated to be in the range of 1 pg for genomic DNA and 10(3) CFU/mL for pure pathogen cultures. These high specificity and sensitivity results demonstrate the feasibility of using DNA microarrays in the diagnostic detection of fish pathogens. PMID:22736973

  14. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species

    PubMed Central

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Zapparata, Antonio; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Sukno, Serenella A.; Lane, Charles R.; Thon, Michael R.; Vannacci, Giovanni; Holub, Eric; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy

    2015-01-01

    Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry) is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l.) is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production. PMID:26086351

  15. Biocontrol of Pathogens in the Meat Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Catherine M.; Rivas, Lucia; McDonnell, Mary J.; Duffy, Geraldine

    Bacterial foodborne zoonotic diseases are of major concern, impacting public health and causing economic losses for the agricultural-food sector and the wider society. In the United States (US) alone foodborne illness from pathogens is responsible for 76 million cases of illnesses each year (Mead et al., 1999). Salmonella, Campylobacter jejuni and Enterohaemorraghic Escherichia coli (EHEC; predominately serotype O157:H7) and Listeria monocytogenes are the most predominant foodborne bacterial pathogens reported in the developed world (United States Department of Agriculture, 2001). The importance of meat and meat products as a vehicle of foodborne zoonotic pathogens cannot be underestimated (Center for Disease Control, 2006; Gillespie, O’Brien, Adak, Cheasty, & Willshaw, 2005; Mazick, Ethelberg, Nielsen, Molbak, & Lisby, 2006; Mead et al., 2006).

  16. The Occurrence and Prevention of Foodborne Disease in Vulnerable People

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In developed countries, such as the United Kingdom and the United States, between 15% and 20% of the population show greater susceptibility than the general population to foodborne disease. This proportion includes people with primary immunodeficiency, patients treated with radiation or with immunosuppressive drugs for cancer and diseases of the immune system, those with acquired immune-deficiency syndrome and diabetics, people suffering from liver or kidney disease or with excessive iron in the blood, pregnant women, infants, and the elderly. Malnutrition and use of antacids, particularly proton-pump inhibitors, also increase susceptibility. We review the occurrence of infection by foodborne pathogens in these groups of people and measures to prevent infection. The nature and use of low microbial diets to reduce the risk of foodborne disease in immunocompromised patients are very variable. Diets for vulnerable people in care should exclude higher-risk foods, and vulnerable people in the community should receive clear advice about food safety, in particular avoidance of higher-risk foods and substitution of safer, nutritious foods. PMID:21561383

  17. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Anselm Chi-Wai; Siao-Ping Ong, Nellie Dawn

    2011-08-31

    Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14%) episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets. PMID:22184532

  18. Food-borne bacteremic illnesses in febrile neutropenic children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anselm Chi-wai; Siao-ping Ong, Nellie Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Bacteremia following febrile neutropenia is a serious complication in children with malignancies. Preventive measures are currently targeted at antimicrobial prophylaxis, amelioration of drug-induced neutropenia, and nosocomial spread of pathogens, with little attention to community-acquired infections. A retrospective study was conducted at a pediatric oncology center during a 3-year period to identify probable cases of food-borne infections with bacteremia. Twenty-one bacteremic illnesses affecting 15 children receiving chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were reviewed. Three (14%) episodes were highly suspected of a food-borne origin: a 17-year-old boy with osteosarcoma contracted Sphingomonas paucimobilis septicemia after consuming nasi lemak bought from a street hawker; a 2-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed Chryseobacterium meningosepticum septicemia after a sushi dinner; a 2-year-old girl was diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Lactobacillus bacteremia suspected to be of probiotic origin. All of them were neutropenic at the time of the infections and the bacteremias were cleared with antibiotic treatment. Food-borne sepsis may be an important, but readily preventable, cause of bloodstream infections in pediatric oncology patients, especially in tropical countries with an abundance of culinary outlets. PMID:22184532

  19. Foodborne Intestinal Flukes in Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eun-Hee; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Rim, Han-Jong

    2009-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, a total of 59 species of foodborne intestinal flukes have been known to occur in humans. The largest group is the family Heterophyidae, which constitutes 22 species belonging to 9 genera (Centrocestus, Haplorchis, Heterophyes, Heterophyopsis, Metagonimus, Procerovum, Pygidiopsis, Stellantchasmus, and Stictodora). The next is the family Echinostomatidae, which includes 20 species in 8 genera (Artyfechinostomum, Acanthoparyphium, Echinochasmus, Echinoparyphium, Echinostoma, Episthmium, Euparyphium, and Hypoderaeum). The family Plagiorchiidae follows the next containing 5 species in 1 genus (Plagiorchis). The family Lecithodendriidae includes 3 species in 2 genera (Phaneropsolus and Prosthodendrium). In 9 other families, 1 species in 1 genus each is involved; Cathaemaciidae (Cathaemacia), Fasciolidae (Fasciolopsis), Gastrodiscidae (Gastrodiscoides), Gymnophallidae (Gymnophalloides), Microphallidae (Spelotrema), Neodiplostomidae (Neodiplostomum), Paramphistomatidae (Fischoederius), Psilostomidae (Psilorchis), and Strigeidae (Cotylurus). Various types of foods are sources of human infections. They include freshwater fish, brackish water fish, fresh water snails, brackish water snails (including the oyster), amphibians, terrestrial snakes, aquatic insects, and aquatic plants. The reservoir hosts include various species of mammals or birds.The host-parasite relationships have been studied in Metagonimus yokogawai, Echinostoma hortense, Fasciolopsis buski, Neodiplostomum seoulense, and Gymnophalloides seoi; however, the pathogenicity of each parasite species and host mucosal defense mechanisms are yet poorly understood. Clinical aspects of each parasite infection need more clarification. Differential diagnosis by fecal examination is difficult because of morphological similarity of eggs. Praziquantel is effective for most intestinal fluke infections. Continued efforts to understand epidemiological significance of intestinal fluke infections, with

  20. Whole Genome DNA Sequence Analysis of Salmonella subspecies enterica serotype Tennessee obtained from related peanut butter foodborne outbreaks.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mark R.; Brown, Eric; Keys, Chris; Strain, Errol; Luo, Yan; Muruvanda, Tim; Grim, Christopher; Jean-Gilles Beaubrun, Junia; Jarvis, Karen; Ewing, Laura; Gopinath, Gopal; Hanes, Darcy; Allard, Marc W.; Musser, Steven

    2016-01-01

    outbreaks. Using WGS can delimit contamination sources for foodborne illnesses across multiple outbreaks and reveal otherwise undetected DNA sequence differences essential to the tracing of bacterial pathogens as they emerge. PMID:27258142

  1. Foodborne Illnesses: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    Foodborne Illness-Causing Organisms in the U.S. WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW While the American food supply is among the safest in the ... deaths. The chart below includes foodborne disease-causing organisms that frequently cause illness in the United States. ...

  2. Origin and Proliferation of Multiple-Drug Resistance in Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsiao-Han; Cohen, Ted; Grad, Yonatan H.; Hanage, William P.; O'Brien, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Many studies report the high prevalence of multiply drug-resistant (MDR) strains. Because MDR infections are often significantly harder and more expensive to treat, they represent a growing public health threat. However, for different pathogens, different underlying mechanisms are traditionally used to explain these observations, and it is unclear whether each bacterial taxon has its own mechanism(s) for multidrug resistance or whether there are common mechanisms between distantly related pathogens. In this review, we provide a systematic overview of the causes of the excess of MDR infections and define testable predictions made by each hypothetical mechanism, including experimental, epidemiological, population genomic, and other tests of these hypotheses. Better understanding the cause(s) of the excess of MDR is the first step to rational design of more effective interventions to prevent the origin and/or proliferation of MDR. PMID:25652543

  3. Simultaneous detection of multiple lower genital tract pathogens by an impedimetric immunochip.

    PubMed

    Chiriacò, Maria Serena; Primiceri, Elisabetta; De Feo, Francesco; Montanaro, Alessandro; Monteduro, Anna Grazia; Tinelli, Andrea; Megha, Marcella; Carati, Davide; Maruccio, Giuseppe

    2016-05-15

    Lower genital tract infections caused by both sexually and not-sexually transmitted pathogens in women are a key public health priority worldwide, especially in developing countries. Since standard analyses are time-consuming, appropriate therapeutic intervention is often neglected or delayed. Lab-on-chips and biosensors open new perspectives and offer innovative tools to simplify the diagnosis by medical staff, especially in countries with inadequate resources. Here we report a biosensing platform based on Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) that allows multiplexed detection of Candida albicans, Streptococcus agalactiae and Chlamydia trachomatis with a single biochip, enabling a quick screening thanks to the presence of different immobilized antibodies, each specific for one of the different target pathogens. PMID:26686917

  4. Diagnostic Peptide Discovery: Prioritization of Pathogen Diagnostic Markers Using Multiple Features

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Santiago J.; Sartor, Paula A.; Leguizamón, María S.; Campetella, Oscar E.; Agüero, Fernán

    2012-01-01

    The availability of complete pathogen genomes has renewed interest in the development of diagnostics for infectious diseases. Synthetic peptide microarrays provide a rapid, high-throughput platform for immunological testing of potential B-cell epitopes. However, their current capacity prevent the experimental screening of complete “peptidomes”. Therefore, computational approaches for prediction and/or prioritization of diagnostically relevant peptides are required. In this work we describe a computational method to assess a defined set of molecular properties for each potential diagnostic target in a reference genome. Properties such as sub-cellular localization or expression level were evaluated for the whole protein. At a higher resolution (short peptides), we assessed a set of local properties, such as repetitive motifs, disorder (structured vs natively unstructured regions), trans-membrane spans, genetic polymorphisms (conserved vs. divergent regions), predicted B-cell epitopes, and sequence similarity against human proteins and other potential cross-reacting species (e.g. other pathogens endemic in overlapping geographical locations). A scoring function based on these different features was developed, and used to rank all peptides from a large eukaryotic pathogen proteome. We applied this method to the identification of candidate diagnostic peptides in the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We measured the performance of the method by analyzing the enrichment of validated antigens in the high-scoring top of the ranking. Based on this measure, our integrative method outperformed alternative prioritizations based on individual properties (such as B-cell epitope predictors alone). Using this method we ranked 10 million 12-mer overlapping peptides derived from the complete T. cruzi proteome. Experimental screening of 190 high-scoring peptides allowed the identification of 37 novel epitopes with diagnostic potential, while none

  5. Multiple Pathogens Including Potential New Species in Tick Vectors in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Ehounoud, Cyrille Bilé; Yao, Kouassi Patrick; Dahmani, Mustapha; Achi, Yaba Louise; Amanzougaghene, Nadia; Kacou N’Douba, Adèle; N’Guessan, Jean David; Raoult, Didier; Fenollar, Florence; Mediannikov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to assess the presence of different pathogens in ticks collected in two regions in Côte d’Ivoire. Methodology/Principal Findings Real-time PCR and standard PCR assays coupled to sequencing were used. Three hundred and seventy eight (378) ticks (170 Amblyomma variegatum, 161 Rhipicepalus microplus, 3 Rhipicephalus senegalensis, 27 Hyalomma truncatum, 16 Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, and 1 Hyalomma impressum) were identified and analyzed. We identified as pathogenic bacteria, Rickettsia africae in Am. variegatum (90%), Rh. microplus (10%) and Hyalomma spp. (9%), Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma spp. (23%), Rickettsia massiliae in Rh. senegalensis (33%) as well as Coxiella burnetii in 0.2%, Borrelia sp. in 0.2%, Anaplasma centrale in 0.2%, Anaplasma marginale in 0.5%, and Ehrlichia ruminantium in 0.5% of all ticks. Potential new species of Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Wolbachia were detected. Candidatus Borrelia africana and Candidatus Borrelia ivorensis (detected in three ticks) are phylogenetically distant from both the relapsing fever group and Lyme disease group borreliae; both were detected in Am. variegatum. Four new genotypes of bacteria from the Anaplasmataceae family were identified, namely Candidatus Anaplasma ivorensis (detected in three ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia urmitei (in nine ticks), Candidatus Ehrlichia rustica (in four ticks), and Candidatus Wolbachia ivorensis (in one tick). Conclusions/Significance For the first time, we demonstrate the presence of different pathogens such as R. aeschlimannii, C. burnetii, Borrelia sp., A. centrale, A. marginale, and E. ruminantium in ticks in Côte d’Ivoire as well as potential new species of unknown pathogenicity. PMID:26771308

  6. Diagnostic peptide discovery: prioritization of pathogen diagnostic markers using multiple features.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Santiago J; Sartor, Paula A; Leguizamón, María S; Campetella, Oscar E; Agüero, Fernán

    2012-01-01

    The availability of complete pathogen genomes has renewed interest in the development of diagnostics for infectious diseases. Synthetic peptide microarrays provide a rapid, high-throughput platform for immunological testing of potential B-cell epitopes. However, their current capacity prevent the experimental screening of complete "peptidomes". Therefore, computational approaches for prediction and/or prioritization of diagnostically relevant peptides are required. In this work we describe a computational method to assess a defined set of molecular properties for each potential diagnostic target in a reference genome. Properties such as sub-cellular localization or expression level were evaluated for the whole protein. At a higher resolution (short peptides), we assessed a set of local properties, such as repetitive motifs, disorder (structured vs natively unstructured regions), trans-membrane spans, genetic polymorphisms (conserved vs. divergent regions), predicted B-cell epitopes, and sequence similarity against human proteins and other potential cross-reacting species (e.g. other pathogens endemic in overlapping geographical locations). A scoring function based on these different features was developed, and used to rank all peptides from a large eukaryotic pathogen proteome. We applied this method to the identification of candidate diagnostic peptides in the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We measured the performance of the method by analyzing the enrichment of validated antigens in the high-scoring top of the ranking. Based on this measure, our integrative method outperformed alternative prioritizations based on individual properties (such as B-cell epitope predictors alone). Using this method we ranked [Formula: see text]10 million 12-mer overlapping peptides derived from the complete T. cruzi proteome. Experimental screening of 190 high-scoring peptides allowed the identification of 37 novel epitopes with diagnostic

  7. Evidence that multiple defects in murine DC-SIGN inhibit a functional interaction with pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gramberg, Thomas; Caminschi, Irina; Wegele, Anja; Hofmann, Heike; Pöhlmann, Stefan

    2006-02-20

    Certain viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites target dendritic cells through the interaction with the cellular attachment factor DC-SIGN, making this C-type lectin an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Studies on DC-SIGN function would be greatly aided by the establishment of a mouse model, however, it is unclear if the murine (m) homologue of human (h) DC-SIGN also binds to pathogens. Here, we investigated the interaction of mDC-SIGN, also termed CIRE, with the Ebolavirus glycoprotein (EBOV-GP), a ligand of hDC-SIGN. We found that mDC-SIGN neither binds EBOV-GP nor enhances infection by reporterviruses pseudotyped with EBOV-GP. Analysis of chimeras between mDC-SIGN and hDC-SIGN provided evidence that determinants in the carbohydrate recognition domain and in the neck domain of mDC-SIGN inhibit a functional interaction with EBOV-GP. Moreover, mDC-SIGN was found be monomeric, suggesting that lack of multimerization, which is believed to be required for efficient pathogen recognition by hDC-SIGN, might be one factor that prevents binding of mDC-SIGN to EBOV-GP. Our results suggest that mDC-SIGN on murine dendritic cells is not an adequate model for pathogen interactions with hDC-SIGN. PMID:16297949

  8. Customizable PCR-microplate array for differential identification of multiple pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Woubit, Abdela; Yehualaeshet, Teshome; Roberts, Sherrelle; Graham, Martha; Kim, Moonil; Samuel, Temesgen

    2014-01-01

    Customizable PCR-microplate arrays were developed for the rapid identification of Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis, Salmonella Typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Yersinia pestis, Vibrio cholerae Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Saintpaul, Francisella tularensis subsp. novicida, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Previously, we identified highly specific primers targeting each of the pathogens above. Here, we report the development of customizable PCR-microplate arrays for simultaneous identification of the pathogens using the primers. A mixed aliquot of genomic DNA from 38 different strains was used to validate three PCR-microplate array formats. Identical PCR conditions were used to run all the samples on the three formats. Results show specific amplifications on all the three custom plates. In a preliminary test to evaluate the sensitivity of these assays in laboratory-inoculated samples, detection limits as low as 9 cfu/g/ml S. Typhimurium were obtained from beef hot dog, and 78 cfu/ml from milk. Such microplate arrays could serve as valuable tools for initial identification or secondary confirmation of these pathogens. PMID:24215700

  9. Contamination of produce with human pathogens: sources and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with the presence of human pathogens have led to increased concern about the prevalence of pathogens in the environment and the vulnerability of fresh produce to contamination by these pathogens. As the FDA strives to mandate treatments to reduce pathogen...

  10. Migrations and Multiplications of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus in Pinus thumbergii in Relation to Their Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Son, Joung A; Moon, Yil-Sung

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms of pathogenicity and non-pathogenicity of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus isolated in South Korea, we used 4-year-old P. thunbergii seedlings and 20-cm long one-year-old stem cuttings of 5-year-old Pinus thunbergii, and studied distributions and multiplications of pine wood nematodes after inoculation. The distributions of B. xylophilus in the 20-cm pine stem cuttings were not significantly different from that of B. mucronatus. Conversely, the proliferation rate of B. xylophilus on mycelial mats of Botrytis cinerea was significantly different from that of B. mucronatus. The study using 4-year-old P. thunbergii seedlings also showed that B. mucronatus can migrate to distal portions of the pine seedlings the same as B. xylophilus, but the populations of B. xylophilus remaining in the pine seedlings were relatively larger than those of B. mucronatus. Therefore, we concluded that the pathogenicity of B. xylophilus could be strongly influenced by its ability to multiply. PMID:25288937

  11. Migrations and Multiplications of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus in Pinus thumbergii in Relation to Their Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Son, Joung A; Moon, Yil-Sung

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms of pathogenicity and non-pathogenicity of Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and B. mucronatus isolated in South Korea, we used 4-year-old P. thunbergii seedlings and 20-cm long one-year-old stem cuttings of 5-year-old Pinus thunbergii, and studied distributions and multiplications of pine wood nematodes after inoculation. The distributions of B. xylophilus in the 20-cm pine stem cuttings were not significantly different from that of B. mucronatus. Conversely, the proliferation rate of B. xylophilus on mycelial mats of Botrytis cinerea was significantly different from that of B. mucronatus. The study using 4-year-old P. thunbergii seedlings also showed that B. mucronatus can migrate to distal portions of the pine seedlings the same as B. xylophilus, but the populations of B. xylophilus remaining in the pine seedlings were relatively larger than those of B. mucronatus. Therefore, we concluded that the pathogenicity of B. xylophilus could be strongly influenced by its ability to multiply. PMID:25288937

  12. Non-protein coding RNA-based genosensor with quantum dots as electrochemical labels for attomolar detection of multiple pathogens.

    PubMed

    Vijian, Dinesh; Chinni, Suresh V; Yin, Lee Su; Lertanantawong, Benchaporn; Surareungchai, Werasak

    2016-03-15

    The ability of a diagnostic test to detect multiple pathogens simultaneously is useful to obtain meaningful information for clinical treatment and preventive measures. We report a highly sensitive and specific electrochemical biosensor assay for simultaneous detection of three gene targets using quantum dots (QDs). The targets are novel non-protein coding RNA (npcRNA) sequences of Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella sp. and Shigella sp., which cause diarrheal diseases. QDs (PbS, CdS, ZnS) were synthesized and functionalized with DNA probes that were specific to each pathogen. Electrochemical detection of QDs was performed using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The QDs gave distinct peaks at 0.5 V (PbS), 0.75 V (CdS) and 1.1 V (ZnS). There was no interference in signal response when all three QDs were mixed and detected simultaneously. The detection limits of single and multiplex assays with linear targets and PCR products were in the attomolar ranges. The high assay sensitivity, in combination with specific npcRNA sequences as novel diagnostic targets, makes it a viable tool for detecting pathogens from food, environment and clinical samples. PMID:26513287

  13. Enhanced inactivation of food-borne pathogens in ready-to-eat sliced ham by near-infrared heating combined with UV-C irradiation and mechanism of the synergistic bactericidal action.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jae-Won; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was, first, to investigate the effect of the simultaneous application of near-infrared (NIR) heating and UV irradiation on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced ham and as well as its effect on product quality and, second, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the synergistic bactericidal action of NIR heating and UV irradiation. With the inoculation amounts used, simultaneous NIR-UV combined treatment for 70 s achieved 3.62, 4.17, and 3.43 log CFU reductions of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. For all three pathogens, the simultaneous application of both technologies resulted in an additional log unit reduction as a result of their synergism compared to the sum of the reductions obtained after the individual treatments. To investigate the mechanisms of NIR-UV synergistic injury for a particular microorganism in a food base, we evaluated the effect of four types of metabolic inhibitors using the overlay method and confirmed that damage to cellular membranes and the inability of cells to repair these structures due to ribosomal damage were the primary factors related to the synergistic lethal effect. Additionally, NIR-UV combined treatment for a maximum of 70 s did not alter the color values or texture parameters of ham slices significantly (P > 0.05). These results suggest that a NIR-UV combined process could be an innovative antimicrobial intervention for RTE meat products. PMID:25107964

  14. Enhanced Inactivation of Food-Borne Pathogens in Ready-To-Eat Sliced Ham by Near-Infrared Heating Combined with UV-C Irradiation and Mechanism of the Synergistic Bactericidal Action

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jae-Won

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study described in this article was, first, to investigate the effect of the simultaneous application of near-infrared (NIR) heating and UV irradiation on inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced ham and as well as its effect on product quality and, second, to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the synergistic bactericidal action of NIR heating and UV irradiation. With the inoculation amounts used, simultaneous NIR-UV combined treatment for 70 s achieved 3.62, 4.17, and 3.43 log CFU reductions of E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and L. monocytogenes, respectively. For all three pathogens, the simultaneous application of both technologies resulted in an additional log unit reduction as a result of their synergism compared to the sum of the reductions obtained after the individual treatments. To investigate the mechanisms of NIR-UV synergistic injury for a particular microorganism in a food base, we evaluated the effect of four types of metabolic inhibitors using the overlay method and confirmed that damage to cellular membranes and the inability of cells to repair these structures due to ribosomal damage were the primary factors related to the synergistic lethal effect. Additionally, NIR-UV combined treatment for a maximum of 70 s did not alter the color values or texture parameters of ham slices significantly (P > 0.05). These results suggest that a NIR-UV combined process could be an innovative antimicrobial intervention for RTE meat products. PMID:25107964

  15. Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Ronnie; Peter van Esse, H.; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Bolton, Melvin D.; Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Saber, Mojtaba Keykha; Zhang, Zhao; Usami, Toshiyuki; Lievens, Bart; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, and plants in turn use immune receptors to try to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum, but the corresponding Verticillium effector remained unknown thus far. By high-throughput population genome sequencing, a single 50-Kb sequence stretch was identified that only occurs in race 1 strains, and subsequent transcriptome sequencing of Verticillium-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants revealed only a single highly expressed ORF in this region, designated Ave1 (for Avirulence on Ve1 tomato). Functional analyses confirmed that Ave1 activates Ve1-mediated resistance and demonstrated that Ave1 markedly contributes to fungal virulence, not only on tomato but also on Arabidopsis. Interestingly, Ave1 is homologous to a widespread family of plant natriuretic peptides. Besides plants, homologous proteins were only found in the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis and the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum higginsianum, Cercospora beticola, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The distribution of Ave1 homologs, coincident with the presence of Ave1 within a flexible genomic region, strongly suggests that Verticillium acquired Ave1 from plants through horizontal gene transfer. Remarkably, by transient expression we show that also the Ave1 homologs from F. oxysporum and C. beticola can activate Ve1-mediated resistance. In line with this observation, Ve1 was found to mediate resistance toward F. oxysporum in tomato, showing that this immune receptor is involved in resistance against multiple fungal pathogens. PMID:22416119

  16. Pathogenicity of DNA Variants and Double Mutations in Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 and Von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Erlic, Zoran; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Sullivan, Maren; Franke, Gerlind; Peczkowska, Mariola; Harsch, Igor; Schott, Matthias; Gabbert, Helmut E.; Valimäki, Matti; Preuss, Simon F.; Hasse-Lazar, Kornelia; Waligorski, Dariusz; Robledo, Mercedes; Januszewicz, Andrzej; Eng, Charis; Neumann, Hartmut P. H.

    2010-01-01

    Context: Cancer genetics is fundamental for preventive medicine, in particular in pheochromocytoma-associated syndromes. Variants in two susceptibility genes, SDHC and RET, were found in a kindred with head and neck paraganglioma. This observation of coincident DNA variants, both reported as pathogenic, in two known susceptibility genes prompted the question of their pathogenic relevance. Objective: Our objective was to elucidate the pathogenic role of the detected variants and study the prevalence of such variants. Patients: Patients were registrants from the European-American Pheochromocytoma-Paraganglioma and German von Hippel-Lindau Disease Registries. Design: Analysis of germline mutation screening results for all pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma susceptibility genes, including RET [multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2)] and VHL [von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL)]. Cases in which more than one DNA variant was found were clinically reevaluated, and cosegregation of the disease with the variant was analyzed within the registrants’ families. A total of 1000 controls were screened for the presence of detected variants, and in silico analyses were performed. Results: Three variants were identified, RET p.Tyr791Phe and p.Ser649Leu and VHL p.Pro81Ser. The frequencies of RET p.Ser649Leu (0.07%) and p.Tyr791Phe (0.9%) compared with controls excluded the two variants’ role in the etiology of MEN 2 and VHL. None of the carriers of the RET variants who underwent prophylactic thyroidectomy showed medullary thyroid carcinoma. Clinical reinvestigation of 18 variant carriers excluded MEN 2. VHL variant p.Pro81Ser, also previously described as a mutation, did not segregate with the VHL in one family. In silico analyses for these variants predicted unmodified protein function. Conclusions: RET p.Tyr791Phe and p.Ser649Leu and VHL p.Pro81Ser are definitely not pathogenic mutations for VHL and MEN 2. Misinterpretation results in irreversible clinical consequences. PMID

  17. Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    de Jonge, Ronnie; van Esse, H Peter; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Bolton, Melvin D; Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Saber, Mojtaba Keykha; Zhang, Zhao; Usami, Toshiyuki; Lievens, Bart; Subbarao, Krishna V; Thomma, Bart P H J

    2012-03-27

    Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, and plants in turn use immune receptors to try to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and Verticillium albo-atrum, but the corresponding Verticillium effector remained unknown thus far. By high-throughput population genome sequencing, a single 50-Kb sequence stretch was identified that only occurs in race 1 strains, and subsequent transcriptome sequencing of Verticillium-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants revealed only a single highly expressed ORF in this region, designated Ave1 (for Avirulence on Ve1 tomato). Functional analyses confirmed that Ave1 activates Ve1-mediated resistance and demonstrated that Ave1 markedly contributes to fungal virulence, not only on tomato but also on Arabidopsis. Interestingly, Ave1 is homologous to a widespread family of plant natriuretic peptides. Besides plants, homologous proteins were only found in the bacterial plant pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis and the plant pathogenic fungi Colletotrichum higginsianum, Cercospora beticola, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The distribution of Ave1 homologs, coincident with the presence of Ave1 within a flexible genomic region, strongly suggests that Verticillium acquired Ave1 from plants through horizontal gene transfer. Remarkably, by transient expression we show that also the Ave1 homologs from F. oxysporum and C. beticola can activate Ve1-mediated resistance. In line with this observation, Ve1 was found to mediate resistance toward F. oxysporum in tomato, showing that this immune receptor is involved in resistance against multiple fungal pathogens. PMID:22416119

  18. Comparative genomic analysis of multiple strains of two unusual plant pathogens: Pseudomonas corrugata and Pseudomonas mediterranea

    PubMed Central

    Trantas, Emmanouil A.; Licciardello, Grazia; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Witek, Kamil; Strano, Cinzia P.; Duxbury, Zane; Ververidis, Filippos; Goumas, Dimitrios E.; Jones, Jonathan D. G.; Guttman, David S.; Catara, Vittoria; Sarris, Panagiotis F.

    2015-01-01

    The non-fluorescent pseudomonads, Pseudomonas corrugata (Pcor) and P. mediterranea (Pmed), are closely related species that cause pith necrosis, a disease of tomato that causes severe crop losses. However, they also show strong antagonistic effects against economically important pathogens, demonstrating their potential for utilization as biological control agents. In addition, their metabolic versatility makes them attractive for the production of commercial biomolecules and bioremediation. An extensive comparative genomics study is required to dissect the mechanisms that Pcor and Pmed employ to cause disease, prevent disease caused by other pathogens, and to mine their genomes for genes that encode proteins involved in commercially important chemical pathways. Here, we present the draft genomes of nine Pcor and Pmed strains from different geographical locations. This analysis covered significant genetic heterogeneity and allowed in-depth genomic comparison. All examined strains were able to trigger symptoms in tomato plants but not all induced a hypersensitive-like response in Nicotiana benthamiana. Genome-mining revealed the absence of type III secretion system and known type III effector-encoding genes from all examined Pcor and Pmed strains. The lack of a type III secretion system appears to be unique among the plant pathogenic pseudomonads. Several gene clusters coding for type VI secretion system were detected in all genomes. Genome-mining also revealed the presence of gene clusters for biosynthesis of siderophores, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, and hydrogen cyanide. A highly conserved quorum sensing system was detected in all strains, although species specific differences were observed. Our study provides the basis for in-depth investigations regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying virulence strategies in the battle between plants and microbes. PMID:26300874

  19. Food safety - mitigating pathogens in beef cattle: What can producers do?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle are colonized by a complex microbiome within their gastrointestinal tract and on their skin/hide which can be colonized by foodborne pathogenic bacteria, such as Salmonella, Campylobacter, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). In-plant pathogen reduction strategies reduce direct foodborne il...

  20. Vibrio cholerae hemagglutinin(HA)/protease: An extracellular metalloprotease with multiple pathogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Benitez, Jorge A; Silva, Anisia J

    2016-06-01

    Vibrio cholerae of serogroup O1 and O139, the etiological agent of the diarrheal disease cholera, expresses the extracellular Zn-dependent metalloprotease hemagglutinin (HA)/protease also reported as vibriolysin. This enzyme is also produced by non-O1/O139 (non-cholera) strains that cause mild, sporadic illness (i.e. gastroenteritis, wound or ear infections). Orthologs of HA/protease are present in other members of the Vibrionaceae family pathogenic to humans and fish. HA/protease belongs to the M4 neutral peptidase family and displays significant amino acid sequence homology to Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase (LasB) and Bacillus thermoproteolyticus thermolysin. It exhibits a broad range of potentially pathogenic activities in cell culture and animal models. These activities range from the covalent modification of other toxins, the degradation of the protective mucus barrier and disruption of intestinal tight junctions. Here we review (i) the structure and regulation of HA/protease expression, (ii) its interaction with other toxins and the intestinal mucosa and (iii) discuss the possible role(s) of HA/protease in the pathogenesis of cholera. PMID:26952544

  1. Epidemiologic evaluation of multiple respiratory pathogens in cats in animal shelters.

    PubMed

    Bannasch, Michael J; Foley, Janet E

    2005-04-01

    Upper respiratory tract infection (URI) propagates readily within cats in shelters and often results in euthanasia of affected cats. In a case-control evaluation of 573 cats in eight shelters in California in 2001 and 2002, the prevalence of feline calicivirus (FCV) was from 13 to 36%, feline herpesvirus (FHV) was from 3 to 38%, and prevalence of Bordetella bronchiseptica, Chlamydophila felis, and Mycoplasma species was from 2 to 14%. Cats with URI tended to be housed in isolation, dehydrated, and younger than cats without URI, and infected with FHV, Mycoplasma species, FCV, or C felis. Shelters differed in the prevalence of pathogens and many cats appeared positive for infection after about 1 week of sheltering. It is helpful for shelters to understand the risk factors associated with URI in order to evaluate the costs and benefits of treatment and improve their procedures to decrease the incidence of URI within their facilities. Antiherpetics and antimycoplasmal drugs may be beneficial for individual animal care. Results document the utility of comprehensive URI surveillance and herd management for specific pathogens typical in that shelter. PMID:15771947

  2. NATURAL ATYPICAL LISTERIA INNOCUA STRAINS WITH LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES PATHOGENICITY ISLAND 1 GENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The detection of the human foodborne pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes, in food, environmental samples and clinical specimens associated with cases of listeriosis, a rare but high mortality-rate disease, requires distinguishing the pathogen from other Listeria species. Speciation...

  3. Microbiological food safety issues in Brazil: bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Bruna Carrer; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; De Martinis, Elaine Cristina Pereira

    2013-03-01

    The globalization of food supply impacts patterns of foodborne disease outbreaks worldwide, and consumers are having increased concern about microbiological food safety. In this sense, the assessment of epidemiological data of foodborne diseases in different countries has not only local impact, but it can also be of general interest, especially in the case of major global producers and exporters of several agricultural food products, such as Brazil. In this review, the most common agents of foodborne illnesses registered in Brazil will be presented, compiled mainly from official databases made available to the public. In addition, some representative examples of studies on foodborne bacterial pathogens commonly found in Brazilian foods are provided. PMID:23489044

  4. Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes: A Real Challenge in Quality Control.

    PubMed

    Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Szabó, Judit; Dombrádi, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Szilvia; Pócsi, István

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen, and the detection and differentiation of this bacterium from the nonpathogenic Listeria species are of great importance to the food industry. Differentiation of Listeria species is very difficult, even with the sophisticated MALDI-TOF MS technique because of the close genetic relationship of the species and the usual gene transfer. The present paper emphasizes the difficulties of the differentiation through the standardized detection and confirmation according to ISO 11290-1:1996 and basic available L. monocytogenes detection methods and tests (such as API Listeria test, MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and hly gene PCR). With the increase of reports on the pathogenesis of atypical Listeria strains in humans, the significance of species level determination has become questionable, especially in food quality control, and the detection of pathogenic characteristics seems to be more relevant. PMID:27239376

  5. Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes: A Real Challenge in Quality Control

    PubMed Central

    Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Szabó, Judit; Dombrádi, Zsuzsanna; Kovács, Szilvia; Pócsi, István

    2016-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen, and the detection and differentiation of this bacterium from the nonpathogenic Listeria species are of great importance to the food industry. Differentiation of Listeria species is very difficult, even with the sophisticated MALDI-TOF MS technique because of the close genetic relationship of the species and the usual gene transfer. The present paper emphasizes the difficulties of the differentiation through the standardized detection and confirmation according to ISO 11290-1:1996 and basic available L. monocytogenes detection methods and tests (such as API Listeria test, MALDI-TOF MS analysis, and hly gene PCR). With the increase of reports on the pathogenesis of atypical Listeria strains in humans, the significance of species level determination has become questionable, especially in food quality control, and the detection of pathogenic characteristics seems to be more relevant. PMID:27239376

  6. Phylogenetic and Molecular Analysis of Food-Borne Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Elisabeth; Mellmann, Alexander; Semmler, Torsten; Stoeber, Helen; Wieler, Lothar H.; Karch, Helge; Kuebler, Nikole; Fruth, Angelika; Harmsen, Dag; Weniger, Thomas; Tietze, Erhard

    2013-01-01

    Seventy-five food-associated Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were analyzed by molecular and phylogenetic methods to describe their pathogenic potential. The presence of the locus of proteolysis activity (LPA), the chromosomal pathogenicity island (PAI) PAI ICL3, and the autotransporter-encoding gene sabA was examined by PCR. Furthermore, the occupation of the chromosomal integration sites of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), selC, pheU, and pheV, as well as the Stx phage integration sites yehV, yecE, wrbA, z2577, and ssrA, was analyzed. Moreover, the antibiotic resistance phenotypes of all STEC strains were determined. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed, and sequence types (STs) and sequence type complexes (STCs) were compared with those of 42 hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS)-associated enterohemorrhagic E. coli (HUSEC) strains. Besides 59 STs and 4 STCs, three larger clusters were defined in this strain collection. Clusters A and C consist mostly of highly pathogenic eae-positive HUSEC strains and some related food-borne STEC strains. A member of a new O26 HUS-associated clone and the 2011 outbreak strain E. coli O104:H4 were found in cluster A. Cluster B comprises only eae-negative food-borne STEC strains as well as mainly eae-negative HUSEC strains. Although food-borne strains of cluster B were not clearly associated with disease, serotypes of important pathogens, such as O91:H21 and O113:H21, were in this cluster and closely related to the food-borne strains. Clonal analysis demonstrated eight closely related genetic groups of food-borne STEC and HUSEC strains that shared the same ST and were similar in their virulence gene composition. These groups should be considered with respect to their potential for human infection. PMID:23417002

  7. Phylogenetic and molecular analysis of food-borne shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Elisabeth; Mellmann, Alexander; Semmler, Torsten; Stoeber, Helen; Wieler, Lothar H; Karch, Helge; Kuebler, Nikole; Fruth, Angelika; Harmsen, Dag; Weniger, Thomas; Tietze, Erhard; Schmidt, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    Seventy-five food-associated Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains were analyzed by molecular and phylogenetic methods to describe their pathogenic potential. The presence of the locus of proteolysis activity (LPA), the chromosomal pathogenicity island (PAI) PAI ICL3, and the autotransporter-encoding gene sabA was examined by PCR. Furthermore, the occupation of the chromosomal integration sites of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), selC, pheU, and pheV, as well as the Stx phage integration sites yehV, yecE, wrbA, z2577, and ssrA, was analyzed. Moreover, the antibiotic resistance phenotypes of all STEC strains were determined. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed, and sequence types (STs) and sequence type complexes (STCs) were compared with those of 42 hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS)-associated enterohemorrhagic E. coli (HUSEC) strains. Besides 59 STs and 4 STCs, three larger clusters were defined in this strain collection. Clusters A and C consist mostly of highly pathogenic eae-positive HUSEC strains and some related food-borne STEC strains. A member of a new O26 HUS-associated clone and the 2011 outbreak strain E. coli O104:H4 were found in cluster A. Cluster B comprises only eae-negative food-borne STEC strains as well as mainly eae-negative HUSEC strains. Although food-borne strains of cluster B were not clearly associated with disease, serotypes of important pathogens, such as O91:H21 and O113:H21, were in this cluster and closely related to the food-borne strains. Clonal analysis demonstrated eight closely related genetic groups of food-borne STEC and HUSEC strains that shared the same ST and were similar in their virulence gene composition. These groups should be considered with respect to their potential for human infection. PMID:23417002

  8. The food industry's current and future role in preventing microbial foodborne illness within the United States.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Michael P; Erickson, Marilyn C; Alali, Walid; Cannon, Jennifer; Deng, Xiangyu; Ortega, Ynes; Smith, Mary Alice; Zhao, Tong

    2015-07-15

    During the past century, the microbiological safety of the US food supply has improved; however, many foodborne illnesses and outbreaks occur annually. Hence, opportunities for the food industry to improve the safety of both domestic and imported food exist through the adoption of risk-based preventive measures. Challenging food safety issues that are on the horizon include demographic changes to a population whose immune system is more susceptible to foodborne and opportunistic pathogens, climate changes that will shift where food is produced, and consumers' preferences for raw and minimally processed foods. Increased environmental and product testing and anonymous data sharing by the food industry with the public health community would aid in identifying system weaknesses and enabling more targeted corrective and preventive actions. Clinicians will continue to play a major role in reducing foodborne illnesses by diagnosing and reporting cases and in helping to educate the consumer about food safety practices. PMID:25824814

  9. Bio-Functional Au/Si Nanorods for Pathogen Detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract Nanotechnology applications for food safety and biosecurity, especially development of nanoscale sensors for foodborne pathogen measurement are emerging. A novel bio-functional nanosensor for Salmonella detection was developed using hetero-nanorods. The silica nanorods were fabr...

  10. Hfq Influences Multiple Transport Systems and Virulence in the Plant Pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Wilms, Ina; Möller, Philip; Stock, Anna-Maria; Gurski, Rosemarie; Lai, Erh-Min

    2012-01-01

    The Hfq protein mediates gene regulation by small RNAs (sRNAs) in about 50% of all bacteria. Depending on the species, phenotypic defects of an hfq mutant range from mild to severe. Here, we document that the purified Hfq protein of the plant pathogen and natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium tumefaciens binds to the previously described sRNA AbcR1 and its target mRNA atu2422, which codes for the substrate binding protein of an ABC transporter taking up proline and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Several other ABC transporter components were overproduced in an hfq mutant compared to their levels in the parental strain, suggesting that Hfq plays a major role in controlling the uptake systems and metabolic versatility of A. tumefaciens. The hfq mutant showed delayed growth, altered cell morphology, and reduced motility. Although the DNA-transferring type IV secretion system was produced, tumor formation by the mutant strain was attenuated, demonstrating an important contribution of Hfq to plant transformation by A. tumefaciens. PMID:22821981

  11. An Epithelial Integrin Regulates the Amplitude of Protective Lung Interferon Responses against Multiple Respiratory Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Meliopoulos, Victoria A; Van de Velde, Lee-Ann; Van de Velde, Nicholas C; Karlsson, Erik A; Neale, Geoff; Vogel, Peter; Guy, Cliff; Sharma, Shalini; Duan, Susu; Surman, Sherri L; Jones, Bart G; Johnson, Michael D L; Bosio, Catharine; Jolly, Lisa; Jenkins, R Gisli; Hurwitz, Julia L; Rosch, Jason W; Sheppard, Dean; Thomas, Paul G; Murray, Peter J; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2016-08-01

    The healthy lung maintains a steady state of immune readiness to rapidly respond to injury from invaders. Integrins are important for setting the parameters of this resting state, particularly the epithelial-restricted αVβ6 integrin, which is upregulated during injury. Once expressed, αVβ6 moderates acute lung injury (ALI) through as yet undefined molecular mechanisms. We show that the upregulation of β6 during influenza infection is involved in disease pathogenesis. β6-deficient mice (β6 KO) have increased survival during influenza infection likely due to the limited viral spread into the alveolar spaces leading to reduced ALI. Although the β6 KO have morphologically normal lungs, they harbor constitutively activated lung CD11b+ alveolar macrophages (AM) and elevated type I IFN signaling activity, which we traced to the loss of β6-activated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Administration of exogenous TGF-β to β6 KO mice leads to reduced numbers of CD11b+ AMs, decreased type I IFN signaling activity and loss of the protective phenotype during influenza infection. Protection extended to other respiratory pathogens such as Sendai virus and bacterial pneumonia. Our studies demonstrate that the loss of one epithelial protein, αVβ6 integrin, can alter the lung microenvironment during both homeostasis and respiratory infection leading to reduced lung injury and improved survival. PMID:27505057

  12. An Epithelial Integrin Regulates the Amplitude of Protective Lung Interferon Responses against Multiple Respiratory Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Van de Velde, Nicholas C.; Karlsson, Erik A.; Neale, Geoff; Vogel, Peter; Sharma, Shalini; Duan, Susu; Surman, Sherri L.; Jones, Bart G.; Johnson, Michael D. L.; Bosio, Catharine; Jolly, Lisa; Jenkins, R. Gisli; Hurwitz, Julia L.; Rosch, Jason W.; Sheppard, Dean; Thomas, Paul G.; Murray, Peter J.; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    The healthy lung maintains a steady state of immune readiness to rapidly respond to injury from invaders. Integrins are important for setting the parameters of this resting state, particularly the epithelial-restricted αVβ6 integrin, which is upregulated during injury. Once expressed, αVβ6 moderates acute lung injury (ALI) through as yet undefined molecular mechanisms. We show that the upregulation of β6 during influenza infection is involved in disease pathogenesis. β6-deficient mice (β6 KO) have increased survival during influenza infection likely due to the limited viral spread into the alveolar spaces leading to reduced ALI. Although the β6 KO have morphologically normal lungs, they harbor constitutively activated lung CD11b+ alveolar macrophages (AM) and elevated type I IFN signaling activity, which we traced to the loss of β6-activated transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Administration of exogenous TGF-β to β6 KO mice leads to reduced numbers of CD11b+ AMs, decreased type I IFN signaling activity and loss of the protective phenotype during influenza infection. Protection extended to other respiratory pathogens such as Sendai virus and bacterial pneumonia. Our studies demonstrate that the loss of one epithelial protein, αVβ6 integrin, can alter the lung microenvironment during both homeostasis and respiratory infection leading to reduced lung injury and improved survival. PMID:27505057

  13. Update on antibiotic resistance in foodborne Lactobacillus and Lactococcus species.

    PubMed

    Devirgiliis, Chiara; Zinno, Paola; Perozzi, Giuditta

    2013-01-01

    Lactobacilli represent a major Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) component within the complex microbiota of fermented foods obtained from meat, dairy, and vegetable sources. Lactococci, on the other hand, are typical of milk and fermented dairy products, which in turn represent the vast majority of fermented foods. As is the case for all species originating from the environment, foodborne lactobacilli and lactococci consist of natural, uncharacterized strains, whose biodiversity depends on geographical origin, seasonality, animal feeding/plant growth conditions. Although a few species of opportunistic pathogens have been described, lactobacilli and lactococci are mostly non-pathogenic, Gram-positive bacteria displaying probiotic features. Since antibiotic resistant (AR) strains do not constitute an immediate threat to human health, scientific interest for detailed studies on AR genes in these species has been greatly hindered. However, increasing evidence points at a crucial role for foodborne LAB as reservoir of potentially transmissible AR genes, underlining the need for further, more detailed studies aimed at identifying possible strategies to avoid AR spread to pathogens through fermented food consumption. The availability of a growing number of sequenced bacterial genomes has been very helpful in identifying the presence/distribution of mobile elements associated with AR genes, but open questions and knowledge gaps still need to be filled, highlighting the need for systematic and datasharing approaches to implement both surveillance and mechanistic studies on transferability of AR genes. In the present review we report an update of the recent literature on AR in lactobacilli and lactococci following the 2006 EU-wide ban of the use of antibiotics as feed additives in animal farming, and we discuss the limits of the present knowledge in evaluating possible risks for human health. PMID:24115946

  14. Behavior of foodborne pathogens in Teewurst raw spreadable sausage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Teewurst is a traditional raw spreadable sausage of Germanic origin that is widely consumed in different countries worldwide including the United States. According to the USDA/FSIS Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book teewurst is an uncooked product processed with or without curing that is cold s...

  15. Molecular approaches for the characterization of foodborne pathogens in poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The transmission of Campylobacter spp. and baseline level of antimicrobial resistance associated with these organisms has significant implications for environmental, animal, and human health. One focus is the use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and the effects on antibiotic resistan...

  16. High-throughput biosensors for multiplexed foodborne pathogen detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incidental contamination of foods by harmful bacteria (such as E. coli and Salmonella) and the toxins that they produce is a serious threat to public health and the economy in the United States. The presence of such bacteri and toxins in foods must be rapidly determined at various stages of food pr...

  17. On-farm strategies to reduce foodborne pathogen contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development and use of new technologies has dramatically increased the efficiency of food production and created a massive animal production and food manufacturing industry in developed countries capable of feeding much of the world’s population. While the food supply of most developed countries con...

  18. Antimicrobial resistance of foodborne pathogens in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial resistance has become a global concern since antibiotics were first introduced for clinical treatment of human and animal infections. Surveillance systems that monitor for antimicrobial resistance are often quite valuable. In 1996, three U.S. federal agencies: the U.S. Food and Drug A...

  19. Knowledge of Brucella as a food-borne pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Brucella spp. are known for causing reproductive losses in domestic livestock, they are also capable of infecting humans and causing clinical disease. Human infection with Brucella is almost exclusively a result of direct contact with infected animals or consumption of products made from un...

  20. Crystal structure of a bacterial phosphoglucomutase, an enzyme involved in the virulence of multiple human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Mehra-Chaudhary, Ritcha; Mick, Jacob; Tanner, John J.; Henzl, Michael T.; Beamer, Lesa J.

    2011-01-01

    The crystal structure of the enzyme phosphoglucomutase from Salmonella typhimurium (StPGM) is reported at 1.7 Å resolution. This is the first high-resolution structural characterization of a bacterial protein from this large enzyme family, which has a central role in metabolism and is also important to bacterial virulence and infectivity. A comparison of the active site of StPGM with that of other phosphoglucomutases reveals conserved residues that are likely involved in catalysis and ligand binding for the entire enzyme family. An alternate crystal form of StPGM and normal mode analysis give insights into conformational changes of the C-terminal domain that occur upon ligand binding. A novel observation from the StPGM structure is an apparent dimer in the asymmetric unit of the crystal, mediated largely through contacts in an N-terminal helix. Analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering confirm that StPGM forms a dimer in solution. Multiple sequence alignments and phylogenetic studies show that a distinct subset of bacterial PGMs share the signature dimerization helix, while other bacterial and eukaryotic PGMs are likely monomers. These structural, biochemical, and bioinformatic studies of StPGM provide insights into the large α-d-phosphohexomutase enzyme superfamily to which it belongs, and are also relevant to the design of inhibitors specific to the bacterial PGMs. PMID:21246636

  1. Epitope spreading as an early pathogenic event in pediatric multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Francisco J.; Patel, Bonny; Yeste, Ada; Nyirenda, Mukanthu; Kenison, Jessica; Rahbari, Roya; Fetco, Dumitru; Hussain, Mohammad; O'Mahony, Julia; Magalhaes, Sandra; McGowan, Melissa; Johnson, Trina; Rajasekharan, Sathy; Narayanan, Sridar; Arnold, Douglas L.; Weiner, Howard L.; Banwell, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: For most adults with initial clinical presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS), biological disease was likely initiated many years prior. Pediatric-onset MS provides an opportunity to study early disease processes. Methods: Using antigen microarrays, including CNS-related proteins, lipids, and other autoantigens, we studied early immunologic events involved in clinical onset of pediatric MS. Serum samples were collected at the time of incident acquired CNS demyelinating syndromes (ADS) in children who, in subsequent prospective follow-up, were ascertained to have either pediatric MS (ADS-MS) or a monophasic illness (ADS-mono). Samples were obtained both at the time of ADS presentation and 3 months into follow-up. We used an initial training set of samples to implicate antibody signatures associated with each group, and then a test set. An additional set of follow-up samples (stability set) was used as a form of internal validation. Results: Children with ADS-MS tended to have distinguishable serum antibody patterns both at the time of ADS presentation and 3 months into follow-up. At the time of ADS, serum samples from patients with ADS-MS or ADS-mono reacted against similar numbers of CNS antigens, although CNS antigens implicated in adult MS were more often targeted in children with ADS-MS. The follow-up ADS-MS samples reacted against a broader panel of CNS antigens, while corresponding ADS-mono samples exhibited a contraction of the initial antibody response. Conclusions: Our findings in this prospective cohort of pediatric-onset CNS demyelinating diseases point to an active process of epitope spreading during early stages of MS, not seen in monophasic CNS inflammatory conditions. PMID:25381299

  2. Multiple and Diverse vsp and vlp Sequences in Borrelia miyamotoi, a Hard Tick-Borne Zoonotic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Alan G.

    2016-01-01

    Based on chromosome sequences, the human pathogen Borrelia miyamotoi phylogenetically clusters with species that cause relapsing fever. But atypically for relapsing fever agents, B. miyamotoi is transmitted not by soft ticks but by hard ticks, which also are vectors of Lyme disease Borrelia species. To further assess the relationships of B. miyamotoi to species that cause relapsing fever, I investigated extrachromosomal sequences of a North American strain with specific attention on plasmid-borne vsp and vlp genes, which are the underpinnings of antigenic variation during relapsing fever. For a hybrid approach to achieve assemblies that spanned more than one of the paralogous vsp and vlp genes, a database of short-reads from next-generation sequencing was supplemented with long-reads obtained with real-time DNA sequencing from single polymerase molecules. This yielded three contigs of 31, 16, and 11 kb, which each contained multiple and diverse sequences that were homologous to vsp and vlp genes of the relapsing fever agent B. hermsii. Two plasmid fragments had coding sequences for plasmid partition proteins that differed from each other from paralogous proteins for the megaplasmid and a small plasmid of B. miyamotoi. One of 4 vsp genes, vsp1, was present at two loci, one of which was downstream of a candiate prokaryotic promoter. A limited RNA-seq analysis of a population growing in the blood of mice indicated that of the 4 different vsp genes vsp1 was the one that was expressed. The findings indicate that B. miyamotoi has at least four types of plasmids, two or more of which bear vsp and vlp gene sequences that are as numerous and diverse as those of relapsing fever Borrelia. The database and insights from these findings provide a foundation for further investigations of the immune responses to this pathogen and of the capability of B. miyamotoi for antigenic variation. PMID:26785134

  3. Multiple host-specific toxins, lateral gene transfer and gene loss in the evolution of cereal Pleosporalean pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We are analysing the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum in order to determine the molecular basis of pathogenicity. The genome sequence of S. nodorum has been obtained and compared to the tan spot pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Combined analyses of genome sequences, specific wheat populatio...

  4. Diagnosis and Management of Foodborne Illness.

    PubMed

    Switaj, Timothy L; Winter, Kelly J; Christensen, Scott R

    2015-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that each year, one in six Americans will experience a foodborne illness. The most common causes in the United States are viruses, such as norovirus; bacteria, such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Listeria; and parasites, such as Toxoplasma gondii and Giardia. Resources are available to educate consumers on food recalls and proper handling, storage, and cooking of foods. Diagnosis and management of a foodborne illness are based on the history and physical examination. Common symptoms of foodborne illnesses include vomiting, diarrhea (with or without blood), fever, abdominal cramping, headache, dehydration, myalgia, and arthralgias. Definitive diagnosis can be made only through stool culture or more advanced laboratory testing. However, these results should not delay empiric treatment if a foodborne illness is suspected. Empiric treatment should focus on symptom management, rehydration if the patient is clinically dehydrated, and antibiotic therapy. Foodborne illnesses should be reported to local and state health agencies; reporting requirements vary among states. PMID:26371569

  5. Evaluation of Luminex xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel Assay for Detection of Multiple Diarrheal Pathogens in Fecal Samples in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Duong, Vu Thuy; Phat, Voong Vinh; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Trung, Pham Duc; Minh, Pham Van; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Campbell, James I; Le Phuc, Hoang; Ha, Ton Thi Thanh; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Huong, Dang Thao; Xang, Nguyen Van; Dong, Nguyen; Phuong, Le Thi; Hung, Nguyen Van; Phu, Bui Duc; Phuc, Tran My; Thwaites, Guy E; Vi, Lu Lan; Rabaa, Maia A; Thompson, Corinne N; Baker, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Diarrheal disease is a complex syndrome that remains a leading cause of global childhood morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of enteric pathogens in a timely and precise manner is important for making treatment decisions and informing public health policy, but accurate diagnosis is a major challenge in industrializing countries. Multiplex molecular diagnostic techniques may represent a significant improvement over classical approaches. We evaluated the Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) assay for the detection of common enteric bacterial and viral pathogens in Vietnam. Microbiological culture and real-time PCR were used as gold standards. The tests were performed on 479 stool samples collected from people admitted to the hospital for diarrheal disease throughout Vietnam. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the xTAG GPP for the seven principal diarrheal etiologies. The sensitivity and specificity for the xTAG GPP were >88% for Shigellaspp.,Campylobacterspp., rotavirus, norovirus genotype 1/2 (GI/GII), and adenovirus compared to those of microbiological culture and/or real-time PCR. However, the specificity was low (∼60%) for Salmonella species. Additionally, a number of important pathogens that are not identified in routine hospital procedures in this setting, such as Cryptosporidiumspp. and Clostridium difficile, were detected with the GPP. The use of the Luminex xTAG GPP for the detection of enteric pathogens in settings, like Vietnam, would dramatically improve the diagnostic accuracy and capacity of hospital laboratories, allowing for timely and appropriate therapy decisions and a wider understanding of the epidemiology of pathogens associated with severe diarrheal disease in low-resource settings. PMID:26865681

  6. Evaluation of Luminex xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel Assay for Detection of Multiple Diarrheal Pathogens in Fecal Samples in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Vu Thuy; Phat, Voong Vinh; Tuyen, Ha Thanh; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Trung, Pham Duc; Minh, Pham Van; Tu, Le Thi Phuong; Campbell, James I.; Le Phuc, Hoang; Ha, Ton Thi Thanh; Ngoc, Nguyen Minh; Huong, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; Huong, Dang Thao; Xang, Nguyen Van; Dong, Nguyen; Phuong, Le Thi; Hung, Nguyen Van; Phu, Bui Duc; Phuc, Tran My; Thwaites, Guy E.; Vi, Lu Lan; Rabaa, Maia A.; Baker, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Diarrheal disease is a complex syndrome that remains a leading cause of global childhood morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of enteric pathogens in a timely and precise manner is important for making treatment decisions and informing public health policy, but accurate diagnosis is a major challenge in industrializing countries. Multiplex molecular diagnostic techniques may represent a significant improvement over classical approaches. We evaluated the Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) assay for the detection of common enteric bacterial and viral pathogens in Vietnam. Microbiological culture and real-time PCR were used as gold standards. The tests were performed on 479 stool samples collected from people admitted to the hospital for diarrheal disease throughout Vietnam. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for the xTAG GPP for the seven principal diarrheal etiologies. The sensitivity and specificity for the xTAG GPP were >88% for Shigella spp., Campylobacter spp., rotavirus, norovirus genotype 1/2 (GI/GII), and adenovirus compared to those of microbiological culture and/or real-time PCR. However, the specificity was low (∼60%) for Salmonella species. Additionally, a number of important pathogens that are not identified in routine hospital procedures in this setting, such as Cryptosporidium spp. and Clostridium difficile, were detected with the GPP. The use of the Luminex xTAG GPP for the detection of enteric pathogens in settings, like Vietnam, would dramatically improve the diagnostic accuracy and capacity of hospital laboratories, allowing for timely and appropriate therapy decisions and a wider understanding of the epidemiology of pathogens associated with severe diarrheal disease in low-resource settings. PMID:26865681

  7. Navigating the legal framework for state foodborne illness surveillance and outbreak response: observations and challenges.

    PubMed

    David, Stephanie D; Katz, Rebecca L

    2013-03-01

    Public health and food safety officials have long recognized the important role that state agencies play in protecting consumers from foodborne disease. With the increasing occurrence of multi-jurisdictional outbreaks, efforts have been underway to modernize and make more uniform the patchwork of state laws, protocols, and policies that exist across the U.S. for food-borne illness surveillance and outbreak response activities. To aid in this endeavor, and to better understand the role of law in a state's ability to carry out these functions effectively, we are creating a database of key legal authorities and provisions relating to foodborne illness surveillance and outbreak response across the 50 states and District of Columbia. There appears to be wide variation in the legal infrastructure for these activities, ranging from how certain terms are defined, to what and when foodborne illnesses must be reported, to which level of government has responsibility over investigation and response of foodborne outbreaks. As outbreaks become more widespread and involve multiple jurisdictions, it is important that public health and food safety stakeholders understand the legal authorities under which they operate, how such authorities may impede or promote efficient and effective surveillance and outbreak response, and use that knowledge to determine if state laws should be updated or strengthened. PMID:23590736

  8. Type I IFN Does Not Promote Susceptibility to Foodborne Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Michelle G; Myers-Morales, Tanya; D'Orazio, Sarah E F

    2016-04-01

    Type I IFN (IFN-α/β) is thought to enhance growth of the foodborne intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes by promoting mechanisms that dampen innate immunity to infection. However, the type I IFN response has been studied primarily using methods that bypass the stomach and, therefore, fail to replicate the natural course of L. monocytogenes infection. In this study, we compared i.v. and foodborne transmission of L. monocytogenes in mice lacking the common type I IFN receptor (IFNAR1(-/-)). Contrary to what was observed using i.v. infection, IFNAR1(-/-) and wild-type mice had similar bacterial burdens in the liver and spleen following foodborne infection. Splenocytes from wild-type mice infected i.v. produced significantly more IFN-β than did those infected by the foodborne route. Consequently, the immunosuppressive effects of type I IFN signaling, which included T cell death, increased IL-10 secretion, and repression of neutrophil recruitment to the spleen, were all observed following i.v. but not foodborne transmission of L. monocytogenes. Type I IFN was also previously shown to cause a loss of responsiveness to IFN-γ through downregulation of the IFN-γ receptor α-chain on macrophages and dendritic cells. However, we detected a decrease in surface expression of IFN-γ receptor α-chain even in the absence of IFN-α/β signaling, suggesting that in vivo, this infection-induced phenotype is not type I IFN-dependent. These results highlight the importance of using the natural route of infection for studies of host-pathogen interactions and suggest that the detrimental effects of IFN-α/β signaling on the innate immune response to L. monocytogenes may be an artifact of the i.v. infection model. PMID:26895837

  9. CDC 2011 Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... Total number of foodborne illnesses each year CDC estimated the number of illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths caused by both known and unspecified agents. CDC estimated what proportion of each were foodborne. The first ...

  10. A Recently Discovered Pathogenic Paramyxovirus, Sosuga Virus, is Present in Rousettus aegyptiacus Fruit Bats at Multiple Locations in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Amman, Brian R.; Albariño, Cesar G.; Bird, Brian H.; Nyakarahuka, Luke; Sealy, Tara K.; Balinandi, Stephen; Schuh, Amy J.; Campbell, Shelly M.; Ströher, Ute; Jones, Megan E. B.; Vodzack, Megan E.; Reeder, DeeAnn M.; Kaboyo, Winyi; Nichol, Stuart T.; S.Towner, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In August 2012, a wildlife biologist became ill immediately following a 6-wk field trip to collect bats and rodents in South Sudan and Uganda. After returning to the US, the biologist was admitted to the hospital with multiple symptoms including fever, malaise, headache, generalized myalgia and arthralgia, stiffness in the neck, and sore throat. Soon after admission, the patient developed a maculopapular rash and oropharynx ulcerations. The patient remained hospitalized for 14 d. Several suspect pathogens, including viral hemorrhagic fever viruses such as Ebola viruses and Marburg viruses, were ruled out through standard diagnostic testing. However, deep sequencing and metagenomic analyses identified a novel paramyxovirus, later named Sosuga virus, in the patient’s blood. To determine the potential source, bat tissues collected during the 3-wk period just prior to the onset of symptoms were tested for Sosuga virus, and several Egyptian rousette bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) were found to be positive. Further analysis of archived Egyptian rousette tissues collected at other localities in Uganda found additional Sosuga virus–positive bats, suggesting this species could be a potential natural reservoir for this novel paramyxovirus. PMID:25919464

  11. Genetic Analysis of the Pathogenic Molecular Sub-phenotype Interferon Alpha Identifies Multiple Novel Loci Involved in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Kariuki, Silvia N.; Ghodke-Puranik, Yogita; Dorschner, Jessica M.; Chrabot, Beverly S.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Tsao, Betty P.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Jacob, Chaim O.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Sivils, Kathy L.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Harley, John B.; Skol, Andrew D.; Niewold, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation of multiple organ systems and dysregulated interferon responses. SLE is both genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous, greatly reducing the power of case-control studies in SLE. Elevated circulating interferon alpha (IFN-α) is a stable, heritable trait in SLE, which has been implicated in primary disease pathogenesis. 40–50% of patients have high IFN-α, and high levels correspond with clinical differences. To study genetic heterogeneity in SLE, we performed a case-case study comparing patients with high vs. low IFN-α in over 1550 SLE cases, including GWAS and replication cohorts. In meta-analysis, the top associations in European ancestry were PRKG1 rs7897633 (PMeta=2.75 × 10−8) and PNP rs1049564 (PMeta=1.24 × 10−7). We also found evidence for cross-ancestral background associations with the ANKRD44 and PLEKHF2 loci. These loci have not been previously identified in case-control SLE genetic studies. Bioinformatic analyses implicated these loci functionally in dendritic cells and natural killer cells, both of which are involved in IFN-α production in SLE. As case-control studies of heterogeneous diseases reach a limit of feasibility with respect to subject number and detectable effect size, the study of informative pathogenic subphenotypes becomes an attractive strategy for genetic discovery in complex disease. PMID:25338677

  12. Seminal fluid of honeybees contains multiple mechanisms to combat infections of the sexually transmitted pathogen Nosema apis.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yan; Grassl, Julia; Millar, A Harvey; Baer, Boris

    2016-01-27

    The societies of ants, bees and wasps are genetically closed systems where queens only mate during a brief mating episode prior to their eusocial life and males therefore provide queens with a lifetime supply of high-quality sperm. These ejaculates also contain a number of defence proteins that have been detected in the seminal fluid but their function and efficiency have never been investigated in great detail. Here, we used the honeybee Apis mellifera and quantified whether seminal fluid is able to combat infections of the fungal pathogen Nosema apis, a widespread honeybee parasite that is also sexually transmitted. We provide the first empirical evidence that seminal fluid has a remarkable antimicrobial activity against N. apis spores and that antimicrobial seminal fluid components kill spores in multiple ways. The protein fraction of seminal fluid induces extracellular spore germination, which disrupts the life cycle of N. apis, whereas the non-protein fraction of seminal fluid induces a direct viability loss of intact spores. We conclude that males provide their ejaculates with efficient antimicrobial molecules that are able to kill N. apis spores and thereby reduce the risk of disease transmission during mating. Our findings could be of broader significance to master honeybee diseases in managed honeybee stock in the future. PMID:26791609

  13. Staphylococcus aureus and staphylococcal food-borne disease: an ongoing challenge in public health.

    PubMed

    Kadariya, Jhalka; Smith, Tara C; Thapaliya, Dipendra

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD) is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail industry account for the majority of SFD outbreaks. However, several studies have documented prevalence of S. aureus in many food products including raw retail meat indicating that consumers are at potential risk of S. aureus colonization and subsequent infection. Presence of pathogens in food products imposes potential hazard for consumers and causes grave economic loss and loss in human productivity via food-borne disease. Symptoms of SFD include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps with or without diarrhea. Preventive measures include safe food handling and processing practice, maintaining cold chain, adequate cleaning and disinfection of equipment, prevention of cross-contamination in home and kitchen, and prevention of contamination from farm to fork. This paper provides a brief overview of SFD, contributing factors, risk that it imposes to the consumers, current research gaps, and preventive measures. PMID:24804250

  14. Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcal Food-Borne Disease: An Ongoing Challenge in Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Tara C.

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcal food-borne disease (SFD) is one of the most common food-borne diseases worldwide resulting from the contamination of food by preformed S. aureus enterotoxins. It is one of the most common causes of reported food-borne diseases in the United States. Although several Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) have been identified, SEA, a highly heat-stable SE, is the most common cause of SFD worldwide. Outbreak investigations have found that improper food handling practices in the retail industry account for the majority of SFD outbreaks. However, several studies have documented prevalence of S. aureus in many food products including raw retail meat indicating that consumers are at potential risk of S. aureus colonization and subsequent infection. Presence of pathogens in food products imposes potential hazard for consumers and causes grave economic loss and loss in human productivity via food-borne disease. Symptoms of SFD include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps with or without diarrhea. Preventive measures include safe food handling and processing practice, maintaining cold chain, adequate cleaning and disinfection of equipment, prevention of cross-contamination in home and kitchen, and prevention of contamination from farm to fork. This paper provides a brief overview of SFD, contributing factors, risk that it imposes to the consumers, current research gaps, and preventive measures. PMID:24804250

  15. A review of outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships: evidence for risk management.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Roisin M.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Bartram, Jamie K.; Farber, Jeffrey M.; Benembarek, Peter K.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Foodborne disease outbreaks on ships are of concern because of their potentially serious health consequences for passengers and crew and high costs to the industry. The authors conducted a review of outbreaks of foodborne diseases associated with passenger ships in the framework of a World Health Organization project on setting guidelines for ship sanitation. METHODS: The authors reviewed data on 50 outbreaks of foodborne disease associated with passenger ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and food vehicles were collected. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with cruise ships and that almost 10,000 people were affected. Salmonella spp were most frequently associated with outbreaks. Foodborne outbreaks due to enterotoxigenic E. coli spp, Shigella spp, noroviruses (formally called Norwalk-like viruses), Vibrio spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium perfringens, Cyclospora sp, and Trichinella sp also occurred on ships. Factors associated with the outbreaks reviewed include inadequate temperature control, infected food handlers, contaminated raw ingredients, cross-contamination, inadequate heat treatment, and onshore excursions. Seafood was the most common food vehicle implicated in outbreaks. CONCLUSIONS: Many ship-associated outbreaks could have been prevented if measures had been taken to ensure adequate temperature control, avoidance of cross-contamination, reliable food sources, adequate heat treatment, and exclusion of infected food handlers from work. PMID:15219800

  16. Genetic variants of Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida), a flounder parasite causing foodborne disease.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, F; Ogasawara, Y; Kato, K; Sekizuka, T; Nozaki, T; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Ohnishi, T; Kuroda, M

    2016-06-01

    Foodborne disease outbreaks caused by raw olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus) parasitized with Kudoa septempunctata have been reported in Japan. Origins of olive flounders consumed in Japan vary, being either domestic or imported, and aquaculture-raised or natural. Although it is unknown whether different sources are associated with different outcomes, it is desirable to identify whether this is the case by determining whether unique K. septempunctata strains occur and if so, whether some are associated with foodborne illness. We here developed an intraspecific genotyping method, using the sequence variation of mitochondrial genes. We collected olive flounder samples from foodborne disease outbreaks, domestic fish farms or quarantine offices and investigated whether K. septempunctata genotype is associated with pathogenicity or geographic origin. The 104 samples were classified into three genotypes, ST1, ST2 and ST3. Frequency of symptomatic cases differed by genotypes, but the association was not statistically significant. Whereas K. septempunctata detected from aquaculture-raised and natural fish from Japan were either ST1 or ST2, those from fish inspected at quarantine from Korea to Japan were ST3. Our method can be applied to phylogeographic analysis of K. septempunctata and contribute to containing the foodborne disease. The genotype database is hosted in the PubMLST website (http://pubmlst.org/kseptempunctata/). PMID:26096292

  17. Impacts of globalization on foodborne parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010 an estimated 3% of the world’s population lived outside their country of origin. Among immigrants, tourists, and business travellers worldwide several foodborne parasites are frequently found including Ascaris, Trichiuris, hookworms, Enterobius, Fasciola, Hymenolepis, and several protozoa. T...

  18. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, metabolism, pathogenesis and resorvoirs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illness worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them...

  19. From the ground up: groundwater, surface water runoff, and air as pathogen routes for food contamination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne infectious disease transmission of 31 pathogen types is estimated to account for 9.4 million illnesses, 56,000 hospitalizations, and 1,300 deaths in the United States annually (Scallan et al. 2011). The economic costs from foodborne illness in the United States are more than $50 billion pe...

  20. Geographic isolates of Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus: Genome sequence analysis and pathogenicity against European and Asian gypsy moth strains.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Robert L; Rowley, Daniel L; Keena, Melody A

    2016-06-01

    Isolates of the baculovirus species Lymantria dispar multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus have been formulated and applied to suppress outbreaks of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. To evaluate the genetic diversity in this species at the genomic level, the genomes of three isolates from Massachusetts, USA (LdMNPV-Ab-a624), Spain (LdMNPV-3054), and Japan (LdMNPV-3041) were sequenced and compared with four previously determined LdMNPV genome sequences. The LdMNPV genome sequences were collinear and contained the same homologous repeats (hrs) and clusters of baculovirus repeat orf (bro) gene family members in the same relative positions in their genomes, although sequence identities in these regions were low. Of 146 non-bro ORFs annotated in the genome of the representative isolate LdMNPV 5-6, 135 ORFs were found in every other LdMNPV genome, including the 37 core genes of Baculoviridae and other genes conserved in genus Alphabaculovirus. Phylogenetic inference with an alignment of the core gene nucleotide sequences grouped isolates 3041 (Japan) and 2161 (Korea) separately from a cluster containing isolates from Europe, North America, and Russia. To examine phenotypic diversity, bioassays were carried out with a selection of isolates against neonate larvae from three European gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) and three Asian gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar asiatica and Lymantria dispar japonica) colonies. LdMNPV isolates 2161 (Korea), 3029 (Russia), and 3041 (Japan) exhibited a greater degree of pathogenicity against all L. dispar strains than LdMNPV from a sample of Gypchek. This study provides additional information on the genetic diversity of LdMNPV isolates and their activity against the Asian gypsy moth, a potential invasive pest of North American trees and forests. PMID:27090923

  1. Attribution of Foodborne Illnesses, Hospitalizations, and Deaths to Food Commodities by using Outbreak Data, United States, 1998–2008

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Robert M.; Ayers, Tracy; Tauxe, Robert V.; Braden, Christopher R.; Angulo, Frederick J.; Griffin, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    Each year, >9 million foodborne illnesses are estimated to be caused by major pathogens acquired in the United States. Preventing these illnesses is challenging because resources are limited and linking individual illnesses to a particular food is rarely possible except during an outbreak. We developed a method of attributing illnesses to food commodities that uses data from outbreaks associated with both simple and complex foods. Using data from outbreak-associated illnesses for 1998–2008, we estimated annual US foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths attributable to each of 17 food commodities. We attributed 46% of illnesses to produce and found that more deaths were attributed to poultry than to any other commodity. To the extent that these estimates reflect the commodities causing all foodborne illness, they indicate that efforts are particularly needed to prevent contamination of produce and poultry. Methods to incorporate data from other sources are needed to improve attribution estimates for some commodities and agents. PMID:23622497

  2. Inactivation of foodborne microorganisms using engineered water nanostructures (EWNS).

    PubMed

    Pyrgiotakis, Georgios; Vasanthakumar, Archana; Gao, Ya; Eleftheriadou, Mary; Toledo, Eduardo; DeAraujo, Alice; McDevitt, James; Han, Taewon; Mainelis, Gediminas; Mitchell, Ralph; Demokritou, Philip

    2015-03-17

    Foodborne diseases caused by the consumption of food contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms or their toxins have very serious economic and public health consequences. Here, we explored the effectiveness of a recently developed intervention method for inactivation of microorganisms on fresh produce, and food production surfaces. This method utilizes Engineered Water Nanostructures (EWNS) produced by electrospraying of water vapor. EWNS possess unique properties; they are 25 nm in diameter, remain airborne in indoor conditions for hours, contain Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and have very strong surface charge (on average 10 e/structure). Here, their efficacy in inactivating representative foodborne bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria innocua, on stainless steel surfaces and on organic tomatoes, was assessed. The inactivation was facilitated using two different exposure approaches in order to optimize the delivery of EWNS to bacteria: (1) EWNS were delivered on the surfaces by diffusion and (2) a "draw through" Electrostatic Precipitator Exposure System (EPES) was developed and characterized for EWNS delivery to surfaces. Using the diffusion approach and an EWNS concentration of 24,000 #/cm3, the bacterial concentrations on the surfaces were reduced, depending on the bacterium and the surface type, by values ranging between 0.7 to 1.8 logs. Using the EPES approach and for an aerosol concentration of 50,000 #/cm3 at 90 min of exposure, results show a 1.4 log reduction for E. coli on organic tomato surfaces, as compared to the control (same conditions in regards to temperature and Relative Humidity). Furthermore, for L. innocua, the dose-response relationship was demonstrated and found to be a 0.7 and 1.2 logs removal at 12,000 and 23,000 #/cm3, respectively. The results presented here indicate that this novel, chemical-free, and environmentally friendly intervention method holds potential for development and application in the

  3. Pathogen risk associated with farming practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 associated with the consumption of leafy greens has focused attention on routes of contamination of these commodities with bacterial foodborne pathogens. A summary of research activities at the Environmental Micorbial and Food Safety Laboratory have evaluated mechanism...

  4. Guidance for improving the federal response to foodborne illness outbreaks associated with fresh produce.

    PubMed

    Benson, Sara M

    2010-01-01

    Today, our nation's food supply flows through a complicated chain of farmers, processors, and distributors before reaching consumers. At some point during this process, food can become contaminated with pathogens and it can make people sick. The Food and Drug Administration, along with the Centers for Disease Control, are in charge of fighting an outbreak once it occurs. The CDC first identifies a specific food that is making people ill, and then the FDA steps in to find the source of that contaminated food. This process, however, does not always run smoothly. Historically, these federal agencies have been underfunded and have had few staff dedicated to fighting foodborne illness outbreaks. This means that an outbreak is not always handled effectively or efficiently, which can have devastating effects on innocent industry actors. This Note gives practical guidance to the FDA and CDC for improving its responses to foodborne illness outbreaks so that consumers, as well as innocent industry actors, are protected. PMID:24479238

  5. Contamination of fresh produce with human pathogens: sources and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since 1991 there have been several outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with the presence of human pathogens on fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. These outbreaks have led to increased concern about the prevalence of pathogens in the environment and the vulnerability of fresh produce...

  6. Fundamentals, achievements and challenges in the electrochemical sensing of pathogens.

    PubMed

    Monzó, Javier; Insua, Ignacio; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Rodriguez, Paramaconi

    2015-11-01

    Electrochemical sensors are powerful tools widely used in industrial, environmental and medical applications. The versatility of electrochemical methods allows for the investigation of chemical composition in real time and in situ. Electrochemical detection of specific biological molecules is a powerful means for detecting disease-related markers. In the last 10 years, highly-sensitive and specific methods have been developed to detect waterborne and foodborne pathogens. In this review, we classify the different electrochemical techniques used for the qualitative and quantitative detection of pathogens. The robustness of electrochemical methods allows for accurate detection even in heterogeneous and impure samples. We present a fundamental description of the three major electrochemical sensing methods used in the detection of pathogens and the advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods. In each section, we highlight recent breakthroughs, including the utilisation of microfluidics, immunomagnetic separation and multiplexing for the detection of multiple pathogens in a single device. We also include recent studies describing new strategies for the design of future immunosensing systems and protocols. The high sensitivity and selectivity, together with the portability and the cost-effectiveness of the instrumentation, enhances the demand for further development in the electrochemical detection of microbes. PMID:26339688

  7. Tomato immune receptor Ve1 recognizes effector of multiple fungal pathogens uncovered by genome and RNA sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal plant pathogens secrete effector molecules to establish disease on their hosts, while plants in turn utilize immune receptors to intercept these effectors. The tomato immune receptor Ve1 governs resistance to race 1 strains of the soil-borne vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. alb...

  8. Strategies for the reduction of human pathogens in tomatoes and leafy greens: A farm to fork systems approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomatoes and leafy-greens are two produce commodities that are susceptible to foodborne pathogen contamination and subsequent association with foodborne illness. Outbreak investigations have associated water – through pre-harvest (irrigation) and post-harvest (cooling, wash-tank or rinse water) as ...

  9. Intervention Strategies for Pathogen Control and the USDA Pathogen Modeling Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite stricter regulatory standards, commercial standards, and better methods for controlling microorganisms, the increasing numbers of illnesses associated with foodborne pathogens, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7, has renewed concerns about the safety of our food supp...

  10. Online Reports of Foodborne Illness Capture Foods Implicated in Official Foodborne Outbreak Reports

    PubMed Central

    Nsoesie, Elaine O.; Gordon, Sheryl A.; Brownstein, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Traditional surveillance systems only capture a fraction of the estimated 48 million yearly cases of foodborne illness in the United States. We assessed whether foodservice reviews on Yelp.com (a business review site) can be used to support foodborne illness surveillance efforts. Methods We obtained reviews from 2005–2012 of 5824 foodservice businesses closest to 29 colleges. After extracting recent reviews describing episodes of foodborne illness, we compared implicated foods to foods in outbreak reports from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Results Broadly, the distribution of implicated foods across five categories was as follows: aquatic (16% Yelp, 12% CDC), dairy-eggs (23% Yelp, 23% CDC), fruits-nuts (7% Yelp, 7% CDC), meat-poultry (32% Yelp, 33% CDC), and vegetables (22% Yelp, 25% CDC). The distribution of foods across 19 more specific food categories was also similar, with spearman correlations ranging from 0.60 to 0.85 for 2006–2011. The most implicated food categories in both Yelp and CDC were beef, dairy, grains-beans, poultry and vine-stalk. Conclusions Based on observations in this study and the increased usage of social media, we posit that online illness reports could complement traditional surveillance systems by providing near real-time information on foodborne illnesses, implicated foods and locations. PMID:25124281

  11. A Conserved Helicobacter pylori Gene, HP0102, Is Induced Upon Contact With Gastric Cells and Has Multiple Roles in Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Chowdhury, Rukhsana

    2016-07-15

    Contact with host cells is recognized as a signal capable of triggering expression of bacterial genes important for host pathogen interaction. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the gastric epithelial cell line AGS strongly upregulated expression of a gene, HP0102, in the adhered bacteria in all strains examined, including several Indian clinical isolates. The gene is highly conserved and ubiquitously present in all 69 sequenced H. pylori genomes at the same genomic locus, as well as in 15 Indian clinical isolates. The gene is associated with 2 distinct phenotypes related to pathogenicity. In AGS cell-adhered H. pylori, it has a role in upregulation of cagA expression from a specific σ(28)-RNAP promoter and consequent induction of the hummingbird phenotype in the infected AGS cells. Furthermore, HP0102 has a role in chemotaxis and a ΔHP0102 mutant exhibited low acid-escape response that might account for the poor colonization efficiency of the mutant. PMID:27056952

  12. The Effect of Antibody-Dependent Enhancement on the Transmission Dynamics and Persistence of Multiple-Strain Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Neil; Anderson, Roy; Gupta, Sunetra

    1999-01-01

    Cross-reactive antibodies produced by a mammalian host during infection by a particular microparasitic strain usually have the effect of reducing the probability of the host being infected by a different, but closely related, pathogen strain. Such cross-reactive immunological responses thereby induce between-strain competition within the pathogen population. However, in some cases such as dengue virus, evidence suggests that cross-reactive antibodies act to enhance rather than restrict the severity of a subsequent infection by another strain. This cooperative mechanism is thought to explain why pre-existing immunity to dengue virus is an important risk factor for the development of severe disease (i.e., dengue shock syndrome and dengue hemorrhagic fever). In this paper, we explore the effect of antibody-dependent enhancement on the transmission dynamics of multistrain pathogen populations. We show that enhancement frequently may generate complex and persistent cyclical or chaotic epidemic behavior. Furthermore, enhancement acts to permit the coexistence of all strains where in its absence only one or a subset would persist.

  13. Activity-guided purification identifies lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, as a therapeutic agent multiple pathogenic factors of acne.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuck Hoon; Yoon, Ji Young; Park, Seon Yong; Min, Seonguk; Kim, Yong-il; Park, Ji Yong; Lee, Yun-Sang; Thiboutot, Diane M; Suh, Dae Hun

    2015-06-01

    Acne vulgaris is a nearly universal cutaneous disease characterized by multifactorial pathogenic processes. Because current acne medications have various side effects, investigating new pharmacologically active molecules is important for treating acne. As natural products generally provide various classes of relatively safe compounds with medicinal potentials, we performed activity-guided purification after a series of screenings from the extracts of five medicinal plants to explore alternative acne medications. Lupeol, a pentacyclic triterpene, from the hexane extract of Solanum melongena L. (SM) was identified after instrumental analysis. Lupeol targeted most of the major pathogenic features of acne with desired physicochemical traits. It strongly suppressed lipogenesis by modulating the IGF-1R/phosphatidylinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/sterol response element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) signaling pathway in SEB-1 sebocytes, and reduced inflammation by suppressing the NF-κB pathway in SEB-1 sebocytes and HaCaT keratinocytes. Lupeol exhibited a marginal effect on cell viability and may have modulated dyskeratosis of the epidermis. Subsequently, histopathological analysis of human patients' acne tissues after applying lupeol for 4 weeks demonstrated that lupeol markedly attenuated the levels of both the number of infiltrated cells and major pathogenic proteins examined in vitro around comedones or sebaceous glands, providing solid evidence for suggested therapeutic mechanisms. These results demonstrate the clinical feasibility of applying lupeol for the treatment of acne. PMID:25647437

  14. Antibacterial effect of Allium sativum cloves and Zingiber officinale rhizomes against multiple-drug resistant clinical pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Rajaram, Shyamkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antibacterial properties of Allium sativum (garlic) cloves and Zingiber officinale (ginger) rhizomes against multi-drug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection. Methods The cloves of garlic and rhizomes of ginger were extracted with 95% (v/v) ethanol. The ethanolic extracts were subjected to antibacterial sensitivity test against clinical pathogens. Results Anti-bacterial potentials of the extracts of two crude garlic cloves and ginger rhizomes were tested against five gram negative and two gram positive multi-drug resistant bacteria isolates. All the bacterial isolates were susceptible to crude extracts of both plants extracts. Except Enterobacter sp. and Klebsiella sp., all other isolates were susceptible when subjected to ethanolic extracts of garlic and ginger. The highest inhibition zone was observed with garlic (19.45 mm) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). The minimal inhibitory concentration was as low as 67.00 µg/mL against P. aeruginosa. Conclusions Natural spices of garlic and ginger possess effective anti-bacterial activity against multi-drug clinical pathogens and can be used for prevention of drug resistant microbial diseases and further evaluation is necessary. PMID:23569978

  15. First Report of a Foodborne Providencia alcalifaciens Outbreak in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Mohammad Monir; Odoyo, Erick; Larson, Peter S.; Apondi, Ernest; Kathiiko, Cyrus; Miringu, Gabriel; Nakashima, Masahiro; Ichinose, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Providencia alcalifaciens is an emerging bacterial pathogen known to cause acute gastroenteritis in children and travelers. In July 2013, P. alcalifaciens was isolated from four children appearing for diarrhea at Kiambu District Hospital (KDH) in Kenya. This study describes the outbreak investigation, which aimed to identify the source and mechanisms of infection. We identified seven primary and four secondary cases. Among primary cases were four mothers who had children and experienced mild diarrhea after eating mashed potatoes. The mothers reported feeding children after visiting the toilet and washing their hands without soap. P. alcalifaciens was detected from all secondary cases, and the isolates were found to be clonal by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting. Our study suggests that the outbreak was caused by P. alcalifaciens, although no fluid accumulation was observed in rabbit ileal loops. The vehicle of the outbreak was believed to be the mashed potato dish, but the source of P. alcalifaciens could not be confirmed. We found that lack of hygiene, inadequate food storage, and improper hand washing before food preparation was the likely cause of the current outbreak. This is the first report of a foodborne infection caused by P. alcalifaciens in Kenya. PMID:26123962

  16. Hepatitis E virus: foodborne, waterborne and zoonotic transmission.

    PubMed

    Yugo, Danielle M; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2013-10-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for epidemics and endemics of acute hepatitis in humans, mainly through waterborne, foodborne, and zoonotic transmission routes. HEV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus classified in the family Hepeviridae and encompasses four known Genotypes (1-4), at least two new putative genotypes of mammalian HEV, and one floating genus of avian HEV. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEVs only affect humans, while Genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and responsible for sporadic and autochthonous infections in both humans and several other animal species worldwide. HEV has an ever-expanding host range and has been identified in numerous animal species. Swine serve as a reservoir species for HEV transmission to humans; however, it is likely that other animal species may also act as reservoirs. HEV poses an important public health concern with cases of the disease definitively linked to handling of infected pigs, consumption of raw and undercooked animal meats, and animal manure contamination of drinking or irrigation water. Infectious HEV has been identified in numerous sources of concern including animal feces, sewage water, inadequately-treated water, contaminated shellfish and produce, as well as animal meats. Many aspects of HEV pathogenesis, replication, and immunological responses remain unknown, as HEV is an extremely understudied but important human pathogen. This article reviews the current understanding of HEV transmission routes with emphasis on food and environmental sources and the prevalence of HEV in animal species with zoonotic potential in humans. PMID:24071919

  17. Hepatitis E Virus: Foodborne, Waterborne and Zoonotic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Yugo, Danielle M.; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is responsible for epidemics and endemics of acute hepatitis in humans, mainly through waterborne, foodborne, and zoonotic transmission routes. HEV is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus classified in the family Hepeviridae and encompasses four known Genotypes (1–4), at least two new putative genotypes of mammalian HEV, and one floating genus of avian HEV. Genotypes 1 and 2 HEVs only affect humans, while Genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic and responsible for sporadic and autochthonous infections in both humans and several other animal species worldwide. HEV has an ever-expanding host range and has been identified in numerous animal species. Swine serve as a reservoir species for HEV transmission to humans; however, it is likely that other animal species may also act as reservoirs. HEV poses an important public health concern with cases of the disease definitively linked to handling of infected pigs, consumption of raw and undercooked animal meats, and animal manure contamination of drinking or irrigation water. Infectious HEV has been identified in numerous sources of concern including animal feces, sewage water, inadequately-treated water, contaminated shellfish and produce, as well as animal meats. Many aspects of HEV pathogenesis, replication, and immunological responses remain unknown, as HEV is an extremely understudied but important human pathogen. This article reviews the current understanding of HEV transmission routes with emphasis on food and environmental sources and the prevalence of HEV in animal species with zoonotic potential in humans. PMID:24071919

  18. First Report of a Foodborne Providencia alcalifaciens Outbreak in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mohammad Monir; Odoyo, Erick; Larson, Peter S; Apondi, Ernest; Kathiiko, Cyrus; Miringu, Gabriel; Nakashima, Masahiro; Ichinose, Yoshio

    2015-09-01

    Providencia alcalifaciens is an emerging bacterial pathogen known to cause acute gastroenteritis in children and travelers. In July 2013, P. alcalifaciens was isolated from four children appearing for diarrhea at Kiambu District Hospital (KDH) in Kenya. This study describes the outbreak investigation, which aimed to identify the source and mechanisms of infection. We identified seven primary and four secondary cases. Among primary cases were four mothers who had children and experienced mild diarrhea after eating mashed potatoes. The mothers reported feeding children after visiting the toilet and washing their hands without soap. P. alcalifaciens was detected from all secondary cases, and the isolates were found to be clonal by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting. Our study suggests that the outbreak was caused by P. alcalifaciens, although no fluid accumulation was observed in rabbit ileal loops. The vehicle of the outbreak was believed to be the mashed potato dish, but the source of P. alcalifaciens could not be confirmed. We found that lack of hygiene, inadequate food storage, and improper hand washing before food preparation was the likely cause of the current outbreak. This is the first report of a foodborne infection caused by P. alcalifaciens in Kenya. PMID:26123962

  19. Consumers and foodborne diseases: knowledge, attitudes and reported behavior in one region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Angelillo, I F; Foresta, M R; Scozzafava, C; Pavia, M

    2001-02-28

    A survey was conducted to investigate knowledge, attitudes and related behavior on foodborne diseases and food-handling practices among consumers in one region of Italy. A self-administered questionnaire was offered to a random sample of mothers of children attending public schools. Of the 394 responding mothers, 36% knew about all the six foodborne pathogens investigated but only 11.1% correctly indicated six related different food vehicles; education level was a predictor of this knowledge. A positive attitude towards foodborne disease control, significantly higher in older and more educated women, was reported by the great majority, who agreed that improper storage of food represents a health hazard (95.7%), that washing hands before handling unwrapped raw or cooked food reduces the risk of food poisoning (93.2%), and that the awareness of the temperature of the refrigerator is crucial in reducing risk of food poisoning (90.1%). Only 53.9% reported washing hands before and after touching raw or unwrapped food and 50.4% reported using soap to wash hands. A total of 75.6% clean kitchen benches after every use and 81.1% use hot water and soap for this purpose. Only 25.6% thaw food in the refrigerator and 49.9% put leftovers in the refrigerator soon after meals. Washing hands before and after touching unwrapped food was significantly higher in women living in larger families and who had been informed by physicians about foodborne diseases. Educational programs and the counseling efforts of physicians, particularly focused to less educated subjects, are greatly needed. PMID:11252498

  20. Associations among pathogenic bacteria, parasites, and environmental and land use factors in multiple mixed-use watersheds.

    PubMed

    Wilkes, G; Edge, T A; Gannon, V P J; Jokinen, C; Lyautey, E; Neumann, N F; Ruecker, N; Scott, A; Sunohara, M; Topp, E; Lapen, D R

    2011-11-15

    Over a five year period (2004-08), 1171 surface water samples were collected from up to 24 sampling locations representing a wide range of stream orders, in a river basin in eastern Ontario, Canada. Water was analyzed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cyst densities, the presence of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica, Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The study objective was to explore associations among pathogen densities/occurrence and objectively defined land use, weather, hydrologic, and water quality variables using CART (Classification and Regression Tree) and binary logistical regression techniques. E. coli O157:H7 detections were infrequent, but detections were related to upstream livestock pasture density; 20% of the detections were located where cattle have access to the watercourses. The ratio of detections:non-detections for Campylobacter spp. was relatively higher (>1) when mean air temperatures were 6% below mean study period temperature values (relatively cooler periods). Cooler water temperatures, which can promote bacteria survival and represent times when land applications of manure typically occur (spring and fall), may have promoted increased frequency of Campylobacter spp. Fifty-nine percent of all Salmonella spp. detections occurred when river discharge on a branch of the river system of Shreve stream order = 9550 was >83 percentile. Hydrological events that promote off farm/off field/in stream transport must manifest themselves in order for detection of Salmonella spp. to occur in surface water in this region. Fifty seven percent of L. monocytogenes detections occurred in spring, relative to other seasons. It was speculated that a combination of winter livestock housing, silage feeding during winter, and spring application of manure that accrued during winter, contributed to elevated occurrences of this pathogen in spring. Cryptosporidium and Giardia oocyst and cyst densities were, overall