Science.gov

Sample records for multiple gene loci

  1. SATB1 tethers multiple gene loci to reprogram expression profiledriving breast cancer metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Hye-Jung; Kohwi, Yoshinori; Kohwi-Shigematsu, Terumi

    2006-07-13

    Global changes in gene expression occur during tumor progression, as indicated by expression profiling of metastatic tumors. How this occurs is poorly understood. SATB1 functions as a genome organizer by folding chromatin via tethering multiple genomic loci and recruiting chromatin remodeling enzymes to regulate chromatin structure and expression of a large number of genes. Here we show that SATB1 is expressed at high levels in aggressive breast cancer cells, and is undetectable in non-malignant breast epithelial cells. Importantly, RNAi-mediated removal of SATB1 from highly-aggressive MDA-MB-231 cells altered the expression levels of over 1200 genes, restored breast-like acinar polarity in three-dimensional cultures, and prevented the metastastic phenotype in vivo. Conversely, overexpression of SATB1 in the less-aggressive breast cancer cell line Hs578T altered the gene expression profile and increased metastasis dramatically in vivo. Thus, SATB1 is a global regulator of gene expression in breast cancer cells, directly regulating crucial metastasis-associated genes, including ERRB2 (HER2/NEU), TGF-{beta}1, matrix metalloproteinase 3, and metastasin. The identification of SATB1 as a protein that re-programs chromatin organization and transcription profiles to promote breast cancer metastasis suggests a new model for metastasis and may provide means of therapeutic intervention.

  2. Large-scale gene-centric meta-analysis across 32 studies identifies multiple lipid loci.

    PubMed

    Asselbergs, Folkert W; Guo, Yiran; van Iperen, Erik P A; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Tragante, Vinicius; Lanktree, Matthew B; Lange, Leslie A; Almoguera, Berta; Appelman, Yolande E; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Beitelshees, Amber L; Bhangale, Tushar R; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Gaunt, Tom R; Gong, Yan; Hopewell, Jemma C; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E; Langaee, Taimour Y; Li, Mingyao; Li, Yun R; Liu, Kiang; McDonough, Caitrin W; Meijs, Matthijs F L; Middelberg, Rita P S; Musunuru, Kiran; Nelson, Christopher P; O'Connell, Jeffery R; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pankow, James S; Pankratz, Nathan; Rafelt, Suzanne; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Romaine, Simon P R; Schork, Nicholas J; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shen, Haiqing; Smith, Erin N; Tischfield, Sam E; van der Most, Peter J; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Verweij, Niek; Volcik, Kelly A; Zhang, Li; Bailey, Kent R; Bailey, Kristian M; Bauer, Florianne; Boer, Jolanda M A; Braund, Peter S; Burt, Amber; Burton, Paul R; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Chen, Wei; Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M; Cupples, L Adrienne; deJong, Jonas S; Delles, Christian; Duggan, David; Fornage, Myriam; Furlong, Clement E; Glazer, Nicole; Gums, John G; Hastie, Claire; Holmes, Michael V; Illig, Thomas; Kirkland, Susan A; Kivimaki, Mika; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E; Kooperberg, Charles; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Kumari, Meena; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Mallela, Laya; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Ordovas, Jose; Ouwehand, Willem H; Post, Wendy S; Saxena, Richa; Scharnagl, Hubert; Schreiner, Pamela J; Shah, Tina; Shields, Denis C; Shimbo, Daichi; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Stolk, Ronald P; Swerdlow, Daniel I; Taylor, Herman A; Topol, Eric J; Toskala, Elina; van Pelt, Joost L; van Setten, Jessica; Yusuf, Salim; Whittaker, John C; Zwinderman, A H; Anand, Sonia S; Balmforth, Anthony J; Berenson, Gerald S; Bezzina, Connie R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P; Caulfield, Mark J; Clarke, Robert; Connell, John M; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Davidson, Karina W; Day, Ian N M; de Bakker, Paul I W; Doevendans, Pieter A; Dominiczak, Anna F; Hall, Alistair S; Hartman, Catharina A; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hillege, Hans L; Hofker, Marten H; Humphries, Steve E; Jarvik, Gail P; Johnson, Julie A; Kaess, Bernhard M; Kathiresan, Sekar; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lawlor, Debbie A; März, Winfried; Melander, Olle; Mitchell, Braxton D; Montgomery, Grant W; Munroe, Patricia B; Murray, Sarah S; Newhouse, Stephen J; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Poulter, Neil; Psaty, Bruce; Redline, Susan; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Schunkert, Heribert; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R; Silverstein, Roy L; Stanton, Alice; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D; Tsai, Michael Y; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schoot, Ellen; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Verschuren, W M Monique; Watkins, Hugh; Wilde, Arthur A M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Whitfield, John B; Hovingh, G Kees; Ballantyne, Christie M; Wijmenga, Cisca; Reilly, Muredach P; Martin, Nicholas G; Wilson, James G; Rader, Daniel J; Samani, Nilesh J; Reiner, Alex P; Hegele, Robert A; Kastelein, John J P; Hingorani, Aroon D; Talmud, Philippa J; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elbers, Clara C; Keating, Brendan J; Drenos, Fotios

    2012-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many SNPs underlying variations in plasma-lipid levels. We explore whether additional loci associated with plasma-lipid phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs), can be identified by a dense gene-centric approach. Our meta-analysis of 32 studies in 66,240 individuals of European ancestry was based on the custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) covering ∼2,000 candidate genes. SNP-lipid associations were replicated either in a cohort comprising an additional 24,736 samples or within the Global Lipid Genetic Consortium. We identified four, six, ten, and four unreported SNPs in established lipid genes for HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TGs, respectively. We also identified several lipid-related SNPs in previously unreported genes: DGAT2, HCAR2, GPIHBP1, PPARG, and FTO for HDL-C; SOCS3, APOH, SPTY2D1, BRCA2, and VLDLR for LDL-C; SOCS3, UGT1A1, BRCA2, UBE3B, FCGR2A, CHUK, and INSIG2 for TC; and SERPINF2, C4B, GCK, GATA4, INSR, and LPAL2 for TGs. The proportion of explained phenotypic variance in the subset of studies providing individual-level data was 9.9% for HDL-C, 9.5% for LDL-C, 10.3% for TC, and 8.0% for TGs. This large meta-analysis of lipid phenotypes with the use of a dense gene-centric approach identified multiple SNPs not previously described in established lipid genes and several previously unknown loci. The explained phenotypic variance from this approach was comparable to that from a meta-analysis of GWAS data, suggesting that a focused genotyping approach can further increase the understanding of heritability of plasma lipids. PMID:23063622

  3. Large-Scale Gene-Centric Meta-analysis across 32 Studies Identifies Multiple Lipid Loci

    PubMed Central

    Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Guo, Yiran; van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Tragante, Vinicius; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Lange, Leslie A.; Almoguera, Berta; Appelman, Yolande E.; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Bhangale, Tushar R.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gong, Yan; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Johnson, Toby; Kleber, Marcus E.; Langaee, Taimour Y.; Li, Mingyao; Li, Yun R.; Liu, Kiang; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Meijs, Matthijs F.L.; Middelberg, Rita P.S.; Musunuru, Kiran; Nelson, Christopher P.; O’Connell, Jeffery R.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pankow, James S.; Pankratz, Nathan; Rafelt, Suzanne; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Romaine, Simon P.R.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shen, Haiqing; Smith, Erin N.; Tischfield, Sam E.; van der Most, Peter J.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Verweij, Niek; Volcik, Kelly A.; Zhang, Li; Bailey, Kent R.; Bailey, Kristian M.; Bauer, Florianne; Boer, Jolanda M.A.; Braund, Peter S.; Burt, Amber; Burton, Paul R.; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Chen, Wei; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; deJong, Jonas S.; Delles, Christian; Duggan, David; Fornage, Myriam; Furlong, Clement E.; Glazer, Nicole; Gums, John G.; Hastie, Claire; Holmes, Michael V.; Illig, Thomas; Kirkland, Susan A.; Kivimaki, Mika; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E.; Kooperberg, Charles; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Kumari, Meena; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mallela, Laya; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Ordovas, Jose; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Post, Wendy S.; Saxena, Richa; Scharnagl, Hubert; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Shah, Tina; Shields, Denis C.; Shimbo, Daichi; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Swerdlow, Daniel I.; Taylor, Herman A.; Topol, Eric J.; Toskala, Elina; van Pelt, Joost L.; van Setten, Jessica; Yusuf, Salim; Whittaker, John C.; Zwinderman, A.H.; Anand, Sonia S.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Clarke, Robert; Connell, John M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Davidson, Karina W.; Day, Ian N.M.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Hall, Alistair S.; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hillege, Hans L.; Hofker, Marten H.; Humphries, Steve E.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Julie A.; Kaess, Bernhard M.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Koenig, Wolfgang; Lawlor, Debbie A.; März, Winfried; Melander, Olle; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Murray, Sarah S.; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Poulter, Neil; Psaty, Bruce; Redline, Susan; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Schunkert, Heribert; Sever, Peter; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Stanton, Alice; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D.; Tsai, Michael Y.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schoot, Ellen; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Verschuren, W.M. Monique; Watkins, Hugh; Wilde, Arthur A.M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Whitfield, John B.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Reilly, Muredach P.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Wilson, James G.; Rader, Daniel J.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Reiner, Alex P.; Hegele, Robert A.; Kastelein, John J.P.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Talmud, Philippa J.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Elbers, Clara C.; Keating, Brendan J.; Drenos, Fotios

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many SNPs underlying variations in plasma-lipid levels. We explore whether additional loci associated with plasma-lipid phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs), can be identified by a dense gene-centric approach. Our meta-analysis of 32 studies in 66,240 individuals of European ancestry was based on the custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) covering ∼2,000 candidate genes. SNP-lipid associations were replicated either in a cohort comprising an additional 24,736 samples or within the Global Lipid Genetic Consortium. We identified four, six, ten, and four unreported SNPs in established lipid genes for HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TGs, respectively. We also identified several lipid-related SNPs in previously unreported genes: DGAT2, HCAR2, GPIHBP1, PPARG, and FTO for HDL-C; SOCS3, APOH, SPTY2D1, BRCA2, and VLDLR for LDL-C; SOCS3, UGT1A1, BRCA2, UBE3B, FCGR2A, CHUK, and INSIG2 for TC; and SERPINF2, C4B, GCK, GATA4, INSR, and LPAL2 for TGs. The proportion of explained phenotypic variance in the subset of studies providing individual-level data was 9.9% for HDL-C, 9.5% for LDL-C, 10.3% for TC, and 8.0% for TGs. This large meta-analysis of lipid phenotypes with the use of a dense gene-centric approach identified multiple SNPs not previously described in established lipid genes and several previously unknown loci. The explained phenotypic variance from this approach was comparable to that from a meta-analysis of GWAS data, suggesting that a focused genotyping approach can further increase the understanding of heritability of plasma lipids. PMID:23063622

  4. Large-scale gene-centric meta-analysis across 32 studies identifies multiple lipid loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many SNPs underlying variations in plasma-lipid levels. We explore whether additional loci associated with plasma-lipid phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholest...

  5. Dothistromin genes at multiple separate loci are regulated by AflR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In fungi, genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites are generally clustered at one location. There are some exceptions, such as genes required for synthesis of dothistromin, a toxin that is a chemical analog of the aflatoxin precursor versicolorin A and made by the pine needle pathog...

  6. Comparative genome-wide analysis reveals that Burkholderia contaminans MS14 possesses multiple antimicrobial biosynthesis genes but not major genetic loci required for pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Peng; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Baird, Sonya M; Showmaker, Kurt C; Smith, Leif; Peterson, Daniel G; Lu, Shien

    2016-06-01

    Burkholderia contaminans MS14 shows significant antimicrobial activities against plant and animal pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The antifungal agent occidiofungin produced by MS14 has great potential for development of biopesticides and pharmaceutical drugs. However, the use of Burkholderia species as biocontrol agent in agriculture is restricted due to the difficulties in distinguishing between plant growth-promoting bacteria and the pathogenic bacteria. The complete MS14 genome was sequenced and analyzed to find what beneficial and virulence-related genes it harbors. The phylogenetic relatedness of B. contaminans MS14 and other 17 Burkholderia species was also analyzed. To research MS14's potential virulence, the gene regions related to the antibiotic production, antibiotic resistance, and virulence were compared between MS14 and other Burkholderia genomes. The genome of B. contaminans MS14 was sequenced and annotated. The genomic analyses reveal the presence of multiple gene sets for antimicrobial biosynthesis, which contribute to its antimicrobial activities. BLAST results indicate that the MS14 genome harbors a large number of unique regions. MS14 is closely related to another plant growth-promoting Burkholderia strain B. lata 383 according to the average nucleotide identity data. Moreover, according to the phylogenetic analysis, plant growth-promoting species isolated from soils and mammalian pathogenic species are clustered together, respectively. MS14 has multiple antimicrobial activity-related genes identified from the genome, but it lacks key virulence-related gene loci found in the pathogenic strains. Additionally, plant growth-promoting Burkholderia species have one or more antimicrobial biosynthesis genes in their genomes as compared with nonplant growth-promoting soil-isolated Burkholderia species. On the other hand, pathogenic species harbor multiple virulence-associated gene loci that are not present in nonpathogenic Burkholderia species. The MS14

  7. Genetic pleiotropy between multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia but not bipolar disorder: differential involvement of immune-related gene loci

    PubMed Central

    Andreassen, O A; Harbo, H F; Wang, Y; Thompson, W K; Schork, A J; Mattingsdal, M; Zuber, V; Bettella, F; Ripke, S; Kelsoe, J R; Kendler, K S; O'Donovan, M C; Sklar, P; McEvoy, L K; Desikan, R S; Lie, B A; Djurovic, S; Dale, A M

    2015-01-01

    Converging evidence implicates immune abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ), and recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified immune-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SCZ. Using the conditional false discovery rate (FDR) approach, we evaluated pleiotropy in SNPs associated with SCZ (n=21 856) and multiple sclerosis (MS) (n=43 879), an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Because SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD) show substantial clinical and genetic overlap, we also investigated pleiotropy between BD (n=16 731) and MS. We found significant genetic overlap between SCZ and MS and identified 21 independent loci associated with SCZ, conditioned on association with MS. This enrichment was driven by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Importantly, we detected the involvement of the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in both SCZ and MS, but with an opposite directionality of effect of associated HLA alleles (that is, MS risk alleles were associated with decreased SCZ risk). In contrast, we found no genetic overlap between BD and MS. Considered together, our findings demonstrate genetic pleiotropy between SCZ and MS and suggest that the MHC signals may differentiate SCZ from BD susceptibility. PMID:24468824

  8. Genetic pleiotropy between multiple sclerosis and schizophrenia but not bipolar disorder: differential involvement of immune-related gene loci.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, O A; Harbo, H F; Wang, Y; Thompson, W K; Schork, A J; Mattingsdal, M; Zuber, V; Bettella, F; Ripke, S; Kelsoe, J R; Kendler, K S; O'Donovan, M C; Sklar, P; McEvoy, L K; Desikan, R S; Lie, B A; Djurovic, S; Dale, A M

    2015-02-01

    Converging evidence implicates immune abnormalities in schizophrenia (SCZ), and recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified immune-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with SCZ. Using the conditional false discovery rate (FDR) approach, we evaluated pleiotropy in SNPs associated with SCZ (n=21,856) and multiple sclerosis (MS) (n=43,879), an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Because SCZ and bipolar disorder (BD) show substantial clinical and genetic overlap, we also investigated pleiotropy between BD (n=16,731) and MS. We found significant genetic overlap between SCZ and MS and identified 21 independent loci associated with SCZ, conditioned on association with MS. This enrichment was driven by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Importantly, we detected the involvement of the same human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in both SCZ and MS, but with an opposite directionality of effect of associated HLA alleles (that is, MS risk alleles were associated with decreased SCZ risk). In contrast, we found no genetic overlap between BD and MS. Considered together, our findings demonstrate genetic pleiotropy between SCZ and MS and suggest that the MHC signals may differentiate SCZ from BD susceptibility. PMID:24468824

  9. Identifying causal variants at loci with multiple signals of association.

    PubMed

    Hormozdiari, Farhad; Kostem, Emrah; Kang, Eun Yong; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Eskin, Eleazar

    2014-10-01

    Although genome-wide association studies have successfully identified thousands of risk loci for complex traits, only a handful of the biologically causal variants, responsible for association at these loci, have been successfully identified. Current statistical methods for identifying causal variants at risk loci either use the strength of the association signal in an iterative conditioning framework or estimate probabilities for variants to be causal. A main drawback of existing methods is that they rely on the simplifying assumption of a single causal variant at each risk locus, which is typically invalid at many risk loci. In this work, we propose a new statistical framework that allows for the possibility of an arbitrary number of causal variants when estimating the posterior probability of a variant being causal. A direct benefit of our approach is that we predict a set of variants for each locus that under reasonable assumptions will contain all of the true causal variants with a high confidence level (e.g., 95%) even when the locus contains multiple causal variants. We use simulations to show that our approach provides 20-50% improvement in our ability to identify the causal variants compared to the existing methods at loci harboring multiple causal variants. We validate our approach using empirical data from an expression QTL study of CHI3L2 to identify new causal variants that affect gene expression at this locus. CAVIAR is publicly available online at http://genetics.cs.ucla.edu/caviar/. PMID:25104515

  10. Identifying Causal Variants at Loci with Multiple Signals of Association

    PubMed Central

    Hormozdiari, Farhad; Kostem, Emrah; Kang, Eun Yong; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Eskin, Eleazar

    2014-01-01

    Although genome-wide association studies have successfully identified thousands of risk loci for complex traits, only a handful of the biologically causal variants, responsible for association at these loci, have been successfully identified. Current statistical methods for identifying causal variants at risk loci either use the strength of the association signal in an iterative conditioning framework or estimate probabilities for variants to be causal. A main drawback of existing methods is that they rely on the simplifying assumption of a single causal variant at each risk locus, which is typically invalid at many risk loci. In this work, we propose a new statistical framework that allows for the possibility of an arbitrary number of causal variants when estimating the posterior probability of a variant being causal. A direct benefit of our approach is that we predict a set of variants for each locus that under reasonable assumptions will contain all of the true causal variants with a high confidence level (e.g., 95%) even when the locus contains multiple causal variants. We use simulations to show that our approach provides 20–50% improvement in our ability to identify the causal variants compared to the existing methods at loci harboring multiple causal variants. We validate our approach using empirical data from an expression QTL study of CHI3L2 to identify new causal variants that affect gene expression at this locus. CAVIAR is publicly available online at http://genetics.cs.ucla.edu/caviar/. PMID:25104515

  11. Gene-centric Meta-analysis in 87,736 Individuals of European Ancestry Identifies Multiple Blood-Pressure-Related Loci

    PubMed Central

    Tragante, Vinicius; Barnes, Michael R.; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Guo, Wei; Franceschini, Nora; Smith, Erin N.; Johnson, Toby; Holmes, Michael V.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Almoguera, Berta; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Chang, Yen-Pei Christy; Elbers, Clara C.; Farrall, Martin; Fischer, Mary E.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gho, Johannes M.I.H.; Gieger, Christian; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Yan; Isaacs, Aaron; Kleber, Marcus E.; Leach, Irene Mateo; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Meijs, Matthijs F.L.; Melander, Olle; Nelson, Christopher P.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Pankratz, Nathan; Price, Tom S.; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shah, Sonia; Tomaszewski, Maciej; van der Most, Peter J.; Van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Vonk, Judith M.; Witkowska, Kate; Wong, Caroline O.L.; Zhang, Li; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Brown, Morris; Burt, Amber; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Connell, John M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Curtis, Sean P.; Davey-Smith, George; Delles, Christian; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Guo, Xiuqing; Haiqing, Shen; Hastie, Claire E.; Hofker, Marten H.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kim, Daniel S.; Kirkland, Susan A.; Klein, Barbara E.; Klein, Ronald; Li, Yun R.; Maiwald, Steffi; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O’Brien, Eoin T.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Palmas, Walter; Parsa, Afshin; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pettinger, Mary; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Ranchalis, Jane E.; M Ridker, Paul; Rose, Lynda M.; Sever, Peter; Shimbo, Daichi; Steele, Laura; Stolk, Ronald P.; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Verschuren, W. Monique; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wyatt, Sharon; Young, J. Hunter; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I.; Davidson, Karina W.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Gums, John G.; Fornage, Myriam; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halder, Indrani; Hillege, Hans L.; Illig, Thomas; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Julie A.; Kastelein, John J.P.; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kumari, Meena; März, Winfried; Murray, Sarah S.; O’Connell, Jeffery R.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Pankow, James S.; Rader, Daniel J.; Redline, Susan; Reilly, Muredach P.; Schadt, Eric E.; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Snieder, Harold; Snyder, Michael; Stanton, Alice V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Watkins, Hugh; Johnson, Andrew D.; Reiner, Alex P.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Levy, Daniel; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Keating, Brendan J.

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ∼50,000 SNPs in up to 87,736 individuals of European ancestry and combined these in a meta-analysis. We replicated findings in an independent set of 68,368 individuals of European ancestry. Our analyses identified 11 previously undescribed associations in independent loci containing 31 genes including PDE1A, HLA-DQB1, CDK6, PRKAG2, VCL, H19, NUCB2, RELA, HOXC@ complex, FBN1, and NFAT5 at the Bonferroni-corrected array-wide significance threshold (p < 6 × 10−7) and confirmed 27 previously reported associations. Bioinformatic analysis of the 11 loci provided support for a putative role in hypertension of several genes, such as CDK6 and NUCB2. Analysis of potential pharmacological targets in databases of small molecules showed that ten of the genes are predicted to be a target for small molecules. In summary, we identified previously unknown loci associated with BP. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, which may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention or drug response stratification. PMID:24560520

  12. Gene-centric meta-analysis in 87,736 individuals of European ancestry identifies multiple blood-pressure-related loci.

    PubMed

    Tragante, Vinicius; Barnes, Michael R; Ganesh, Santhi K; Lanktree, Matthew B; Guo, Wei; Franceschini, Nora; Smith, Erin N; Johnson, Toby; Holmes, Michael V; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Karczewski, Konrad J; Almoguera, Berta; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Chang, Yen-Pei Christy; Elbers, Clara C; Farrall, Martin; Fischer, Mary E; Gaunt, Tom R; Gho, Johannes M I H; Gieger, Christian; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Yan; Isaacs, Aaron; Kleber, Marcus E; Mateo Leach, Irene; McDonough, Caitrin W; Meijs, Matthijs F L; Melander, Olle; Nelson, Christopher P; Nolte, Ilja M; Pankratz, Nathan; Price, Tom S; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shah, Sonia; Tomaszewski, Maciej; van der Most, Peter J; Van Iperen, Erik P A; Vonk, Judith M; Witkowska, Kate; Wong, Caroline O L; Zhang, Li; Beitelshees, Amber L; Berenson, Gerald S; Bhatt, Deepak L; Brown, Morris; Burt, Amber; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Connell, John M; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Curtis, Sean P; Davey-Smith, George; Delles, Christian; Gansevoort, Ron T; Guo, Xiuqing; Haiqing, Shen; Hastie, Claire E; Hofker, Marten H; Hovingh, G Kees; Kim, Daniel S; Kirkland, Susan A; Klein, Barbara E; Klein, Ronald; Li, Yun R; Maiwald, Steffi; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Brien, Eoin T; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Palmas, Walter; Parsa, Afshin; Penninx, Brenda W; Pettinger, Mary; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Ranchalis, Jane E; M Ridker, Paul; Rose, Lynda M; Sever, Peter; Shimbo, Daichi; Steele, Laura; Stolk, Ronald P; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Verschuren, W Monique; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wyatt, Sharon; Young, J Hunter; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Bezzina, Connie R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Casas, Juan P; Caulfield, Mark J; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chasman, Daniel I; Davidson, Karina W; Doevendans, Pieter A; Dominiczak, Anna F; FitzGerald, Garret A; Gums, John G; Fornage, Myriam; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halder, Indrani; Hillege, Hans L; Illig, Thomas; Jarvik, Gail P; Johnson, Julie A; Kastelein, John J P; Koenig, Wolfgang; Kumari, Meena; März, Winfried; Murray, Sarah S; O'Connell, Jeffery R; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Pankow, James S; Rader, Daniel J; Redline, Susan; Reilly, Muredach P; Schadt, Eric E; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Snieder, Harold; Snyder, Michael; Stanton, Alice V; Tobin, Martin D; Uitterlinden, André G; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Samani, Nilesh J; Watkins, Hugh; Johnson, Andrew D; Reiner, Alex P; Zhu, Xiaofeng; de Bakker, Paul I W; Levy, Daniel; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Munroe, Patricia B; Keating, Brendan J

    2014-03-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ~50,000 SNPs in up to 87,736 individuals of European ancestry and combined these in a meta-analysis. We replicated findings in an independent set of 68,368 individuals of European ancestry. Our analyses identified 11 previously undescribed associations in independent loci containing 31 genes including PDE1A, HLA-DQB1, CDK6, PRKAG2, VCL, H19, NUCB2, RELA, HOXC@ complex, FBN1, and NFAT5 at the Bonferroni-corrected array-wide significance threshold (p < 6 × 10(-7)) and confirmed 27 previously reported associations. Bioinformatic analysis of the 11 loci provided support for a putative role in hypertension of several genes, such as CDK6 and NUCB2. Analysis of potential pharmacological targets in databases of small molecules showed that ten of the genes are predicted to be a target for small molecules. In summary, we identified previously unknown loci associated with BP. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, which may provide new targets for therapeutic intervention or drug response stratification. PMID:24560520

  13. Novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci implicated in epigenetic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Andlauer, Till F. M.; Buck, Dorothea; Antony, Gisela; Bayas, Antonios; Bechmann, Lukas; Berthele, Achim; Chan, Andrew; Gasperi, Christiane; Gold, Ralf; Graetz, Christiane; Haas, Jürgen; Hecker, Michael; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Knop, Matthias; Kümpfel, Tania; Limmroth, Volker; Linker, Ralf A.; Loleit, Verena; Luessi, Felix; Meuth, Sven G.; Mühlau, Mark; Nischwitz, Sandra; Paul, Friedemann; Pütz, Michael; Ruck, Tobias; Salmen, Anke; Stangel, Martin; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Stürner, Klarissa H.; Tackenberg, Björn; Then Bergh, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Warnke, Clemens; Weber, Frank; Wiendl, Heinz; Wildemann, Brigitte; Zettl, Uwe K.; Ziemann, Ulf; Zipp, Frauke; Arloth, Janine; Weber, Peter; Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Milena; Scheinhardt, Markus O.; Dankowski, Theresa; Bettecken, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Czamara, Darina; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Franke, Andre; Gieger, Christian; Herms, Stefan; Homuth, Georg; Ising, Marcus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kacprowski, Tim; Kloiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lill, Christina M.; Lucae, Susanne; Meitinger, Thomas; Moebus, Susanne; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nöthen, Markus M.; Petersmann, Astrid; Rawal, Rajesh; Schminke, Ulf; Strauch, Konstantin; Völzke, Henry; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Porcu, Eleonora; Mulas, Antonella; Pitzalis, Maristella; Sidore, Carlo; Zara, Ilenia; Cucca, Francesco; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Ziegler, Andreas; Hemmer, Bernhard; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility in German cohorts with 4888 cases and 10,395 controls. In addition to associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 15 non-MHC loci reached genome-wide significance. Four of these loci are novel MS susceptibility loci. They map to the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, ERG, and SHMT1. The lead variant at SHMT1 was replicated in an independent Sardinian cohort. Products of the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, and ERG play important roles in immune cell regulation. SHMT1 encodes a serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalyzing the transfer of a carbon unit to the folate cycle. This reaction is required for regulation of methylation homeostasis, which is important for establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures. Our GWAS approach in a defined population with limited genetic substructure detected associations not found in larger, more heterogeneous cohorts, thus providing new clues regarding MS pathogenesis. PMID:27386562

  14. Novel multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci implicated in epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Andlauer, Till F M; Buck, Dorothea; Antony, Gisela; Bayas, Antonios; Bechmann, Lukas; Berthele, Achim; Chan, Andrew; Gasperi, Christiane; Gold, Ralf; Graetz, Christiane; Haas, Jürgen; Hecker, Michael; Infante-Duarte, Carmen; Knop, Matthias; Kümpfel, Tania; Limmroth, Volker; Linker, Ralf A; Loleit, Verena; Luessi, Felix; Meuth, Sven G; Mühlau, Mark; Nischwitz, Sandra; Paul, Friedemann; Pütz, Michael; Ruck, Tobias; Salmen, Anke; Stangel, Martin; Stellmann, Jan-Patrick; Stürner, Klarissa H; Tackenberg, Björn; Then Bergh, Florian; Tumani, Hayrettin; Warnke, Clemens; Weber, Frank; Wiendl, Heinz; Wildemann, Brigitte; Zettl, Uwe K; Ziemann, Ulf; Zipp, Frauke; Arloth, Janine; Weber, Peter; Radivojkov-Blagojevic, Milena; Scheinhardt, Markus O; Dankowski, Theresa; Bettecken, Thomas; Lichtner, Peter; Czamara, Darina; Carrillo-Roa, Tania; Binder, Elisabeth B; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Franke, Andre; Gieger, Christian; Herms, Stefan; Homuth, Georg; Ising, Marcus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kacprowski, Tim; Kloiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lill, Christina M; Lucae, Susanne; Meitinger, Thomas; Moebus, Susanne; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nöthen, Markus M; Petersmann, Astrid; Rawal, Rajesh; Schminke, Ulf; Strauch, Konstantin; Völzke, Henry; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wellmann, Jürgen; Porcu, Eleonora; Mulas, Antonella; Pitzalis, Maristella; Sidore, Carlo; Zara, Ilenia; Cucca, Francesco; Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Ziegler, Andreas; Hemmer, Bernhard; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on multiple sclerosis (MS) susceptibility in German cohorts with 4888 cases and 10,395 controls. In addition to associations within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, 15 non-MHC loci reached genome-wide significance. Four of these loci are novel MS susceptibility loci. They map to the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, ERG, and SHMT1. The lead variant at SHMT1 was replicated in an independent Sardinian cohort. Products of the genes L3MBTL3, MAZ, and ERG play important roles in immune cell regulation. SHMT1 encodes a serine hydroxymethyltransferase catalyzing the transfer of a carbon unit to the folate cycle. This reaction is required for regulation of methylation homeostasis, which is important for establishment and maintenance of epigenetic signatures. Our GWAS approach in a defined population with limited genetic substructure detected associations not found in larger, more heterogeneous cohorts, thus providing new clues regarding MS pathogenesis. PMID:27386562

  15. Precision mapping of multiple quantitative trait loci in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, S.W.

    1994-09-01

    Mapping complex quantitative traits in humans is in general a difficult task. Parametric methods are very efficient in mapping a single major quantitative trait locus but they are sensitive to violations in modeling assumptions such non-normality, absence of major genes, and biased sampling. Semi-parametric methods such as Haseman-Elston sib-pair method are more robust but they are less efficient than parametric ones. We have extended the sib-pair method to (1) incorporate information from multiple markers based on the gene identical-by-descent proportions and the proportion of allele sharing at the trait locus, all based on flanking markers; (2) to include sibship data; and (3) to allow for precise localization of multiple quantitative trait loci. We show through simulation that the power of the proposed approach is greater than the sib-pair method. Further extension to include other types of relative pairs is possible.

  16. Unguided Species Delimitation Using DNA Sequence Data from Multiple Loci

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ziheng; Rannala, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed for simultaneous Bayesian inference of species delimitation and species phylogeny using the multispecies coalescent model. The method eliminates the need for a user-specified guide tree in species delimitation and incorporates phylogenetic uncertainty in a Bayesian framework. The nearest-neighbor interchange algorithm was adapted to propose changes to the species tree, with the gene trees for multiple loci altered in the proposal to avoid conflicts with the newly proposed species tree. We also modify our previous scheme for specifying priors for species delimitation models to construct joint priors for models of species delimitation and species phylogeny. As in our earlier method, the modified algorithm integrates over gene trees, taking account of the uncertainty of gene tree topology and branch lengths given the sequence data. We conducted a simulation study to examine the statistical properties of the method using six populations (two sequences each) and a true number of three species, with values of divergence times and ancestral population sizes that are realistic for recently diverged species. The results suggest that the method tends to be conservative with high posterior probabilities being a confident indicator of species status. Simulation results also indicate that the power of the method to delimit species increases with an increase of the divergence times in the species tree, and with an increased number of gene loci. Reanalyses of two data sets of cavefish and coast horned lizards suggest considerable phylogenetic uncertainty even though the data are informative about species delimitation. We discuss the impact of the prior on models of species delimitation and species phylogeny and of the prior on population size parameters (θ) on Bayesian species delimitation. PMID:25274273

  17. Unguided species delimitation using DNA sequence data from multiple Loci.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziheng; Rannala, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    A method was developed for simultaneous Bayesian inference of species delimitation and species phylogeny using the multispecies coalescent model. The method eliminates the need for a user-specified guide tree in species delimitation and incorporates phylogenetic uncertainty in a Bayesian framework. The nearest-neighbor interchange algorithm was adapted to propose changes to the species tree, with the gene trees for multiple loci altered in the proposal to avoid conflicts with the newly proposed species tree. We also modify our previous scheme for specifying priors for species delimitation models to construct joint priors for models of species delimitation and species phylogeny. As in our earlier method, the modified algorithm integrates over gene trees, taking account of the uncertainty of gene tree topology and branch lengths given the sequence data. We conducted a simulation study to examine the statistical properties of the method using six populations (two sequences each) and a true number of three species, with values of divergence times and ancestral population sizes that are realistic for recently diverged species. The results suggest that the method tends to be conservative with high posterior probabilities being a confident indicator of species status. Simulation results also indicate that the power of the method to delimit species increases with an increase of the divergence times in the species tree, and with an increased number of gene loci. Reanalyses of two data sets of cavefish and coast horned lizards suggest considerable phylogenetic uncertainty even though the data are informative about species delimitation. We discuss the impact of the prior on models of species delimitation and species phylogeny and of the prior on population size parameters (θ) on Bayesian species delimitation. PMID:25274273

  18. Spare PRELI Gene Loci: Failsafe Chromosome Insurance?

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, Roberto; Ortiz-Quintero, Blanca; Blackburn, Michael R.; Martinez-Valdez, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Background LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins encode conserved N-terminal mitochondrial signal domains and C-terminal (A/TAEKAK) motif repeats, long-presumed to confer cell resistance to stress and death cues. This prompted the hypothesis that LEA proteins are central to mitochondria mechanisms that connect bioenergetics with cell responses to stress and death signaling. In support of this hypothesis, recent studies have demonstrated that mammalian LEA protein PRELI can act as a biochemical hub, which upholds mitochondria energy metabolism, while concomitantly promoting B cell resistance to stress and induced death. Hence, it is important to define in vivo the physiological relevance of PRELI expression. Methods and Findings Given the ubiquitous PRELI expression during mouse development, embryo lethality could be anticipated. Thus, conditional gene targeting was engineered by insertion of flanking loxP (flox)/Cre recognition sites on PRELI chromosome 13 (Chr 13) locus to abort its expression in a tissue-specific manner. After obtaining mouse lines with homozygous PRELI floxed alleles (PRELIf/f), the animals were crossed with CD19-driven Cre-recombinase transgenic mice to investigate whether PRELI inactivation could affect B-lymphocyte physiology and survival. Mice with homozygous B cell-specific PRELI deletion (CD19-Cre/Chr13 PRELI−/−) bred normally and did not show any signs of morbidity. Histopathology and flow cytometry analyses revealed that cell lineage identity, morphology, and viability were indistinguishable between wild type CD19-Cre/Chr13 PRELI+/+ and CD19-Cre/Chr13 PRELI−/− deficient mice. Furthermore, B cell PRELI gene expression seemed unaffected by Chr13 PRELI gene targeting. However, identification of additional PRELI loci in mouse Chr1 and Chr5 provided an explanation for the paradox between LEA-dependent cytoprotection and the seemingly futile consequences of Chr 13 PRELI gene inactivation. Importantly, PRELI expression from spare

  19. Genetic evidence of multiple loci in dystocia - difficult labour

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dystocia, difficult labour, is a common but also complex problem during childbirth. It can be attributed to either weak contractions of the uterus, a large infant, reduced capacity of the pelvis or combinations of these. Previous studies have indicated that there is a genetic component in the susceptibility of experiencing dystocia. The purpose of this study was to identify susceptibility genes in dystocia. Methods A total of 104 women in 47 families were included where at least two sisters had undergone caesarean section at a gestational length of 286 days or more at their first delivery. Study of medical records and a telephone interview was performed to identify subjects with dystocia. Whole-genome scanning using Affymetrix genotyping-arrays and non-parametric linkage (NPL) analysis was made in 39 women exhibiting the phenotype of dystocia from 19 families. In 68 women re-sequencing was performed of candidate genes showing suggestive linkage: oxytocin (OXT) on chromosome 20 and oxytocin-receptor (OXTR) on chromosome 3. Results We found a trend towards linkage with suggestive NPL-score (3.15) on chromosome 12p12. Suggestive linkage peaks were observed on chromosomes 3, 4, 6, 10, 20. Re-sequencing of OXT and OXTR did not reveal any causal variants. Conclusions Dystocia is likely to have a genetic component with variations in multiple genes affecting the patient outcome. We found 6 loci that could be re-evaluated in larger patient cohorts. PMID:20587075

  20. Meta-Analysis of 13 Genome Scans Reveals Multiple Cleft Lip/Palate Genes with Novel Loci on 9q21 and 2q32-35

    PubMed Central

    Marazita, Mary L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Lidral, Andrew C.; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio; Cooper, Margaret E.; Goldstein, Toby; Maher, Brion S.; Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Schultz, Rebecca; Mansilla, M. Adela; Field, L. Leigh; Liu, You-e; Prescott, Natalie; Malcolm, Sue; Winter, Robin; Ray, Ajit; Moreno, Lina; Valencia, Consuelo; Neiswanger, Katherine; Wyszynski, Diego F.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Albacha-Hejazi, Hasan; Beaty, Terri H.; McIntosh, Iain; Hetmanski, Jacqueline B.; Tunçbilek, Gökhan; Edwards, Matthew; Harkin, Louise; Scott, Rodney; Roddick, Laurence G.

    2004-01-01

    Isolated or nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) is a common birth defect with a complex etiology. A 10-cM genome scan of 388 extended multiplex families with CL/P from seven diverse populations (2,551 genotyped individuals) revealed CL/P genes in six chromosomal regions, including a novel region at 9q21 (heterogeneity LOD score [HLOD]=6.6). In addition, meta-analyses with the addition of results from 186 more families (six populations; 1,033 genotyped individuals) showed genomewide significance for 10 more regions, including another novel region at 2q32-35 (P=.0004). These are the first genomewide significant linkage results ever reported for CL/P, and they represent an unprecedented demonstration of the power of linkage analysis to detect multiple genes simultaneously for a complex disorder. PMID:15185170

  1. Specific gene expression patterns of 108 schizophrenia-associated loci in cortex.

    PubMed

    Ohi, Kazutaka; Shimada, Takamitsu; Nitta, Yusuke; Kihara, Hiroaki; Okubo, Hiroaki; Uehara, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    The latest genome-wide association study of schizophrenia identified 108 distinct genomic loci that contribute to schizophrenia. Brain development and function depend on the precise regulation of gene expression. The expression of many genes is differentially regulated across brain regions and developmental time points. We investigated the specific gene expression patterns arising from the 108 schizophrenia-associated loci using multiple publicly available databases and multiple regional brain datasets from developing and adult post-mortem human brains. The temporal-spatial expression analysis revealed that the genes in these loci were intensively enriched in the cortex during several developmental stages. These cortex-specific genes were particularly expressed in the fetal brain and adult neocortex. PMID:27061659

  2. Exploring multiple quantitative trait loci models of hepatic fibrosis in a mouse intercross.

    PubMed

    Hall, Rabea A; Hillebrandt, Sonja; Lammert, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Most common diseases are attributed to multiple genetic variants, and the feasibility of identifying inherited risk factors is often restricted to the identification of alleles with high or intermediate effect sizes. In our previous studies, we identified single loci associated with hepatic fibrosis (Hfib1-Hfib4). Recent advances in analysis tools allowed us to model loci interactions for liver fibrosis. We analysed 322 F2 progeny from an intercross of the fibrosis-susceptible strain BALB/cJ and the resistant strain FVB/NJ. The mice were challenged with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 6 weeks to induce chronic hepatic injury and fibrosis. Fibrosis progression was quantified by determining histological fibrosis stages and hepatic collagen contents. Phenotypic data were correlated to genome-wide markers to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL). Thirteen susceptibility loci were identified by single and composite interval mapping, and were included in the subsequent multiple QTL model (MQM) testing. Models provided evidence for susceptibility loci with strongest association to collagen contents (chromosomes 1, 2, 8 and 13) or fibrosis stages (chromosomes 1, 2, 12 and 14). These loci contained the known fibrosis risk genes Hc, Fasl and Foxa2 and were incorporated in a fibrosis network. Interestingly the hepatic fibrosis locus on chromosome 1 (Hfib5) connects both phenotype networks, strengthening its role as a potential modifier locus. Including multiple QTL mapping to association studies adds valuable information on gene-gene interactions in experimental crosses and human cohorts. This study presents an initial step towards a refined understanding of profibrogenic gene networks. PMID:26547557

  3. The ribosomal protein genes and Minute loci of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Marygold, Steven J; Roote, John; Reuter, Gunter; Lambertsson, Andrew; Ashburner, Michael; Millburn, Gillian H; Harrison, Paul M; Yu, Zhan; Kenmochi, Naoya; Kaufman, Thomas C; Leevers, Sally J; Cook, Kevin R

    2007-01-01

    Background Mutations in genes encoding ribosomal proteins (RPs) have been shown to cause an array of cellular and developmental defects in a variety of organisms. In Drosophila melanogaster, disruption of RP genes can result in the 'Minute' syndrome of dominant, haploinsufficient phenotypes, which include prolonged development, short and thin bristles, and poor fertility and viability. While more than 50 Minute loci have been defined genetically, only 15 have so far been characterized molecularly and shown to correspond to RP genes. Results We combined bioinformatic and genetic approaches to conduct a systematic analysis of the relationship between RP genes and Minute loci. First, we identified 88 genes encoding 79 different cytoplasmic RPs (CRPs) and 75 genes encoding distinct mitochondrial RPs (MRPs). Interestingly, nine CRP genes are present as duplicates and, while all appear to be functional, one member of each gene pair has relatively limited expression. Next, we defined 65 discrete Minute loci by genetic criteria. Of these, 64 correspond to, or very likely correspond to, CRP genes; the single non-CRP-encoding Minute gene encodes a translation initiation factor subunit. Significantly, MRP genes and more than 20 CRP genes do not correspond to Minute loci. Conclusion This work answers a longstanding question about the molecular nature of Minute loci and suggests that Minute phenotypes arise from suboptimal protein synthesis resulting from reduced levels of cytoribosomes. Furthermore, by identifying the majority of haplolethal and haplosterile loci at the molecular level, our data will directly benefit efforts to attain complete deletion coverage of the D. melanogaster genome. PMID:17927810

  4. Protein-protein interaction analysis highlights additional loci of interest for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ragnedda, Giammario; Disanto, Giulio; Giovannoni, Gavin; Ebers, George C; Sotgiu, Stefano; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V

    2012-01-01

    Genetic factors play an important role in determining the risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). The strongest genetic association in MS is located within the major histocompatibility complex class II region (MHC), but more than 50 MS loci of modest effect located outside the MHC have now been identified. However, the relative candidate genes that underlie these associations and their functions are largely unknown. We conducted a protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis of gene products coded in loci recently reported to be MS associated at the genome-wide significance level and in loci suggestive of MS association. Our aim was to identify which suggestive regions are more likely to be truly associated, which genes are mostly implicated in the PPI network and their expression profile. From three recent independent association studies, SNPs were considered and divided into significant and suggestive depending on the strength of the statistical association. Using the Disease Association Protein-Protein Link Evaluator tool we found that direct interactions among genetic products were significantly higher than expected by chance when considering both significant regions alone (p<0.0002) and significant plus suggestive (p<0.007). The number of genes involved in the network was 43. Of these, 23 were located within suggestive regions and many of them directly interacted with proteins coded within significant regions. These included genes such as SYK, IL-6, CSF2RB, FCLR3, EIF4EBP2 and CHST12. Using the gene portal BioGPS, we tested the expression of these genes in 24 different tissues and found the highest values among immune-related cells as compared to non-immune tissues (p<0.001). A gene ontology analysis confirmed the immune-related functions of these genes. In conclusion, loci currently suggestive of MS association interact with and have similar expression profiles and function as those significantly associated, highlighting the fact that more common variants remain to be

  5. mediator of paramutation1 Is Required for Establishment and Maintenance of Paramutation at Multiple Maize Loci

    PubMed Central

    Dorweiler, Jane E.; Carey, Charles C.; Kubo, Kenneth M.; Hollick, Jay B.; Kermicle, Jerry L.; Chandler, Vicki L.

    2000-01-01

    Paramutation is the directed, heritable alteration of the expression of one allele when heterozygous with another allele. Here, the isolation and characterization of a mutation affecting paramutation, mediator of paramutation1-1 (mop1-1), are described. Experiments demonstrate that the wild-type gene Mop1 is required for establishment and maintenance of the paramutant state. The mop1-1 mutation affects paramutation at the multiple loci tested but has no effect on alleles that do not participate in paramutation. The mutation does not alter the amounts of actin and ubiquitin transcripts, which suggests that the mop1 gene does not encode a global repressor. Maize plants homozygous for mop1-1 can have pleiotropic developmental defects, suggesting that mop1-1 may affect more genes than just the known paramutant ones. The mop1-1 mutation does not alter the extent of DNA methylation in rDNA and centromeric repeats. The observation that mop1 affects paramutation at multiple loci, despite major differences between these loci in their gene structure, correlations with DNA methylation, and stability of the paramutant state, suggests that a common mechanism underlies paramutation. A protein-based epigenetic model for paramutation is discussed. PMID:11090212

  6. Stochastic search variable selection for identifying multiple quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed

    Yi, Nengjun; George, Varghese; Allison, David B

    2003-07-01

    In this article, we utilize stochastic search variable selection methodology to develop a Bayesian method for identifying multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) for complex traits in experimental designs. The proposed procedure entails embedding multiple regression in a hierarchical normal mixture model, where latent indicators for all markers are used to identify the multiple markers. The markers with significant effects can be identified as those with higher posterior probability included in the model. A simple and easy-to-use Gibbs sampler is employed to generate samples from the joint posterior distribution of all unknowns including the latent indicators, genetic effects for all markers, and other model parameters. The proposed method was evaluated using simulated data and illustrated using a real data set. The results demonstrate that the proposed method works well under typical situations of most QTL studies in terms of number of markers and marker density. PMID:12871920

  7. Evolution of V genes from the TRV loci of mammals.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, David N; Gambón-Cerdá, Santiago; Gambón-Deza, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Information concerning the evolution of T lymphocyte receptors (TCR) can be deciphered from that part of the molecule that recognizes antigen presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC), namely the variable (V) regions. The genes that code for these variable regions are found within the TCR loci. Here, we describe a study of the evolutionary origin of V genes that code for the α and β chains of the TCR loci of mammals. In particular, we demonstrate that most of the 35 TRAV and 25 TRBV conserved genes found in Primates are also found in other Eutheria, while in Marsupials, Monotremes, and Reptiles, these genes diversified in a different manner. We also show that in mammals, all TRAV genes are derived from five ancestral genes, while all TRBV genes originate from four such genes. In Reptiles, the five TRAV and three out of the four TRBV ancestral genes exist, as well as other V genes not found in mammals. We also studied the TRGV and TRDV loci from all mammals, and we show a relationship of the TRDV to the TRAV locus throughout evolutionary time. PMID:26024913

  8. Evidence for gene-gene epistatic interactions among susceptibility loci for systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Travis; Adler, Adam; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Williams, Adrienne; Langefeld, Carl D.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Alarcón, Graciela S.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Edberg, Jeffrey C.; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Petri, Michelle; Boackle, Susan A.; Stevens, Anne M.; Reveille, John D.; Sanchez, Elena; Martin, Javier; Niewold, Timothy B.; Vilá, Luis M.; Scofield, R Hal; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Moser, Kathy L.; Merrill, Joan T.; Jacob, Chaim O.; Tsao, Betty P.; James, Judith A.; Vyse, Timothy J.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Harley, John B.; Richardson, Bruce C.; Sawalha, Amr H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Several confirmed genetic susceptibility loci for lupus have been described. To date, no clear evidence for genetic epistasis is established in lupus. We test for gene-gene interactions in a number of known lupus susceptibility loci. Methods Eighteen SNPs tagging independent and confirmed lupus susceptibility loci were genotyped in a set of 4,248 lupus patients and 3,818 normal healthy controls of European descent. Epistasis was tested using a 2-step approach utilizing both parametric and non-parametric methods. The false discovery rate (FDR) method was used to correct for multiple testing. Results We detected and confirmed gene-gene interactions between the HLA region and CTLA4, IRF5, and ITGAM, and between PDCD1 and IL21 in lupus patients. The most significant interaction detected by parametric analysis was between rs3131379 in the HLA region and rs231775 in CTLA4 (Interaction odds ratio=1.19, z-score= 3.95, P= 7.8×10−5 (FDR≤0.05), PMDR= 5.9×10−45). Importantly, our data suggest that in lupus patients the presence of the HLA lupus-risk alleles in rs1270942 and rs3131379 increases the odds of also carrying the lupus-risk allele in IRF5 (rs2070197) by 17% and 16%, respectively (P= 0.0028 and 0.0047). Conclusion We provide evidence for gene-gene epistasis in systemic lupus erythematosus. These findings support a role for genetic interaction contributing to the complexity of lupus heritability. PMID:21952918

  9. Bayesian Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping for Multiple Traits

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Samprit; Yandell, Brian S.; Yi, Nengjun

    2008-01-01

    Most quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping experiments typically collect phenotypic data on multiple correlated complex traits. However, there is a lack of a comprehensive genomewide mapping strategy for correlated traits in the literature. We develop Bayesian multiple-QTL mapping methods for correlated continuous traits using two multivariate models: one that assumes the same genetic model for all traits, the traditional multivariate model, and the other known as the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model that allows different genetic models for different traits. We develop computationally efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms for performing joint analysis. We conduct extensive simulation studies to assess the performance of the proposed methods and to compare with the conventional single-trait model. Our methods have been implemented in the freely available package R/qtlbim (http://www.qtlbim.org), which greatly facilitates the general usage of the Bayesian methodology for unraveling the genetic architecture of complex traits. PMID:18689903

  10. Molecularly tagged genes and quantitative trait loci in cucumber

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the release of the cucumber draft genome, significant progress has been made in molecular mapping, tagging or cloning of horticulturally important genes and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in cucumber, which provides the foundation for practicing marker-assisted selection in cucumber breeding. ...

  11. CREB Binds to Multiple Loci on Human Chromosome 22

    PubMed Central

    Euskirchen, Ghia; Royce, Thomas E.; Bertone, Paul; Martone, Rebecca; Rinn, John L.; Nelson, F. Kenneth; Sayward, Fred; Luscombe, Nicholas M.; Miller, Perry; Gerstein, Mark; Weissman, Sherman; Snyder, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein (CREB) is an important transcription factor that can be activated by hormonal stimulation and regulates neuronal function and development. An unbiased, global analysis of where CREB binds has not been performed. We have mapped for the first time the binding distribution of CREB along an entire human chromosome. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of CREB-associated DNA and subsequent hybridization of the associated DNA to a genomic DNA microarray containing all of the nonrepetitive DNA of human chromosome 22 revealed 215 binding sites corresponding to 192 different loci and 100 annotated potential gene targets. We found binding near or within many genes involved in signal transduction and neuronal function. We also found that only a small fraction of CREB binding sites lay near well-defined 5′ ends of genes; the majority of sites were found elsewhere, including introns and unannotated regions. Several of the latter lay near novel unannotated transcriptionally active regions. Few CREB targets were found near full-length cyclic AMP response element sites; the majority contained shorter versions or close matches to this sequence. Several of the CREB targets were altered in their expression by treatment with forskolin; interestingly, both induced and repressed genes were found. Our results provide novel molecular insights into how CREB mediates its functions in humans. PMID:15082775

  12. Localizing multiple X chromosome-linked retinitis pigmentosa loci using multilocus homogeneity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, J.; Terwilliger, J.D. ); Bhattacharya, S. ); Chen, J.D.; Denton, J.; Donald, J. ); Dubay, C.; Litt, M.; Weleber, R.G. ); Farrar, G.J.; Humphries, P. ); Fishman, G.A.; Wong, F. ); Frey, D.; Maechler, M. )

    1990-01-01

    Multilocus linkage analysis of 62 family pedigrees with X chromosome-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) was undertaken to determine the presence of possible multiple disease loci and to reliability estimate their map location. Multilocus homogeneity tests furnish convincing evidence for the presence of two XLRP loci, the likelihood ratio being 6.4 {times} 10{sup 9}:1 in a favor of two versus a single XLRP locus and gave accurate estimates for their map location. In 60-75% of the families, location of an XLRP gene was estimated at 1 centimorgan distal to OTC, and in 25-40% of the families, an XLRP locus was located halfway between DXS14 (p58-1) and DXZ1 (Xcen), with an estimated recombination fraction of 25% between the two XLRP loci. There is also good evidence for third XLRP locus, midway between DXS28 (C7) and DXS164 (pERT87), supported by a likelihood ratio of 293:1 for three versus two XLRP loci.

  13. Study of Toll-like receptor gene loci in sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Schürmann, M; Kwiatkowski, R; Albrecht, M; Fischer, A; Hampe, J; Müller-Quernheim, J; Schwinger, E; Schreiber, S

    2008-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multi-factorial systemic disease of granulomatous inflammation. Current concepts of the aetiology include interactions of unknown environmental triggers with an inherited susceptibility. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are main components of innate immunity and therefore TLR genes are candidate susceptibility genes in sarcoidosis. Ten members of the human TLR gene family have been identified and mapped to seven chromosomal segments. The aim of this study was to investigate all known TLR gene loci for genetic linkage with sarcoidosis and to follow positive signals with different methods. We analysed linkage of TLR gene loci to sarcoidosis by use of closely flanking microsatellite markers in 83 families with 180 affected siblings. We found significant linkage between sarcoidosis and markers of the TLR4 gene locus on chromosome 9q (non-parametric linkage score 2·63, P = 0·0043). No linkage was found for the remaining TLR gene loci. We subsequently genotyped 1203 sarcoidosis patients from 997 families, 1084 relatives and 537 control subjects for four single nucleotide polymorphisms of TLR4, including Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile. This genotype data set was studied by case–control comparisons and transmission disequilibrium tests, but showed no significant results. In summary, TLR4 − w ith significant genetic linkage results − appears to be the most promising member of the TLR gene family for further investigation in sarcoidosis. However, our results do not confirm the TLR4 polymorphisms Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile as susceptibility markers. Our results rather point to another as yet unidentified variant within or close to TLR4 that might confer susceptibility to sarcoidosis. PMID:18422738

  14. Identification of Multiple Loci Associated with Social Parasitism in Honeybees.

    PubMed

    Wallberg, Andreas; Pirk, Christian W; Allsopp, Mike H; Webster, Matthew T

    2016-06-01

    In colonies of the honeybee Apis mellifera, the queen is usually the only reproductive female, which produces new females (queens and workers) by laying fertilized eggs. However, in one subspecies of A. mellifera, known as the Cape bee (A. m. capensis), worker bees reproduce asexually by thelytoky, an abnormal form of meiosis where two daughter nucleii fuse to form single diploid eggs, which develop into females without being fertilized. The Cape bee also exhibits a suite of phenotypes that facilitate social parasitism whereby workers lay such eggs in foreign colonies so their offspring can exploit their resources. The genetic basis of this switch to social parasitism in the Cape bee is unknown. To address this, we compared genome variation in a sample of Cape bees with other African populations. We find genetic divergence between these populations to be very low on average but identify several regions of the genome with extreme differentiation. The regions are strongly enriched for signals of selection in Cape bees, indicating that increased levels of positive selection have produced the unique set of derived phenotypic traits in this subspecies. Genetic variation within these regions allows unambiguous genetic identification of Cape bees and likely underlies the genetic basis of social parasitism. The candidate loci include genes involved in ecdysteroid signaling and juvenile hormone and dopamine biosynthesis, which may regulate worker ovary activation and others whose products localize at the centrosome and are implicated in chromosomal segregation during meiosis. Functional analysis of these loci will yield insights into the processes of reproduction and chemical signaling in both parasitic and non-parasitic populations and advance understanding of the process of normal and atypical meiosis. PMID:27280405

  15. Identification of Multiple Loci Associated with Social Parasitism in Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Pirk, Christian W.; Allsopp, Mike H.

    2016-01-01

    In colonies of the honeybee Apis mellifera, the queen is usually the only reproductive female, which produces new females (queens and workers) by laying fertilized eggs. However, in one subspecies of A. mellifera, known as the Cape bee (A. m. capensis), worker bees reproduce asexually by thelytoky, an abnormal form of meiosis where two daughter nucleii fuse to form single diploid eggs, which develop into females without being fertilized. The Cape bee also exhibits a suite of phenotypes that facilitate social parasitism whereby workers lay such eggs in foreign colonies so their offspring can exploit their resources. The genetic basis of this switch to social parasitism in the Cape bee is unknown. To address this, we compared genome variation in a sample of Cape bees with other African populations. We find genetic divergence between these populations to be very low on average but identify several regions of the genome with extreme differentiation. The regions are strongly enriched for signals of selection in Cape bees, indicating that increased levels of positive selection have produced the unique set of derived phenotypic traits in this subspecies. Genetic variation within these regions allows unambiguous genetic identification of Cape bees and likely underlies the genetic basis of social parasitism. The candidate loci include genes involved in ecdysteroid signaling and juvenile hormone and dopamine biosynthesis, which may regulate worker ovary activation and others whose products localize at the centrosome and are implicated in chromosomal segregation during meiosis. Functional analysis of these loci will yield insights into the processes of reproduction and chemical signaling in both parasitic and non-parasitic populations and advance understanding of the process of normal and atypical meiosis. PMID:27280405

  16. [Principle of genetic equilibrium for two gene loci].

    PubMed

    Pan, Shen-Yuan; Qu, Ai; Hui, Peng; Li, Ai-Ling

    2004-03-01

    Because linkage equilibrium is introduced by directly quoting the conclusions or imprecise mathematical reasoning in most of textbooks, many students are puzzled with the problem of linkage equilibrium when they learn population genetics. Based on the radical conditions of genetic equilibrium, the principle of linkage equilibrium condition and process, for two gene loci is introduced by precise mathematical reasoning. The article may provide reference to teachers and students in the teaching and learning of population genetics. PMID:15639991

  17. Tissue Restricted Splice Junctions Originate Not Only from Tissue-Specific Gene Loci, but Gene Loci with a Broad Pattern of Expression

    PubMed Central

    Hestand, Matthew S.; Zeng, Zheng; Coleman, Stephen J.; Liu, Jinze; MacLeod, James N.

    2015-01-01

    Cellular mechanisms that achieve protein diversity in eukaryotes are multifaceted, including transcriptional components such as RNA splicing. Through alternative splicing, a single protein-coding gene can generate multiple mRNA transcripts and protein isoforms, some of which are tissue-specific. We have conducted qualitative and quantitative analyses of the Bodymap 2.0 messenger RNA-sequencing data from 16 human tissue samples and identified 209,363 splice junctions. Of these, 22,231 (10.6%) were not previously annotated and 21,650 (10.3%) were expressed in a tissue-restricted pattern. Tissue-restricted alternative splicing was found to be widespread, with approximately 65% of expressed multi-exon genes containing at least one tissue-specific splice junction. Interestingly, we observed many tissue-specific splice junctions not only in genes expressed in one or a few tissues, but also from gene loci with a broad pattern of expression. PMID:26713731

  18. Multiple sclerosis risk loci correlate with cervical cord atrophy and may explain the course of disability.

    PubMed

    Akkad, Denis A; Bellenberg, Barbara; Esser, Sarika; Weiler, Florian; Epplen, Jörg T; Gold, Ralf; Lukas, Carsten; Haghikia, Aiden

    2015-07-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) underscore the genetic basis of multiple sclerosis (MS); however, only few of the newly reported genetic variations relevant in MS have been replicated or correlated for clinical/paraclinical phenotypes such as spinal cord atrophy in independent patient cohorts. We genotyped 141 MS patients for 58 variations reported to reach significance in GWAS. Expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and disease duration (DD) are available from regular clinical examinations. MRI included sagittal high-resolution 3D T1-weighted magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo of the cervical cord region used for volumetry. Due dependency of mean upper cervical cord area (MUCCA) with EDSS and/or DD, correction operations were performed compensating for EDSS/DD. We assessed each MS risk locus for possible MUCCA association. We identified twelve risk loci that significantly correlated with MUCCA. For nine loci-BATF, CYP27B1, IL12B, NFKB1, IL7, PLEK, EVI5, TAGAP and nrs669607-patients revealed significantly higher degree of atrophy; TYK2, RGS1 and CLEC16A revealed inverse effects. The weighted genetic risk score over the twelve loci showed significant correlation with MUCCA. Our data reveal a risk gene depending paraclinical/clinical phenotype. Since MUCCA clearly correlates with disability, the candidates identified here may serve as prognostic markers for disability progression. PMID:25620546

  19. Genetic control of gene expression at novel and established chronic obstructive pulmonary disease loci

    PubMed Central

    Castaldi, Peter J.; Cho, Michael H.; Zhou, Xiaobo; Qiu, Weiliang; Mcgeachie, Michael; Celli, Bartolome; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; Lomas, David A.; Crapo, James D.; Beaty, Terri H.; Rennard, Stephen; Harshfield, Benjamin; Lange, Christoph; Singh, Dave; Tal-Singer, Ruth; Riley, John H.; Quackenbush, John; Raby, Benjamin A.; Carey, Vincent J.; Silverman, Edwin K.; Hersh, Craig P.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic risk loci have been identified for a wide range of diseases through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but the relevant functional mechanisms have been identified for only a small proportion of these GWAS-identified loci. By integrating results from the largest current GWAS of chronic obstructive disease (COPD) with expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in whole blood and sputum from 121 subjects with COPD from the ECLIPSE Study, this analysis identifies loci that are simultaneously associated with COPD and the expression of nearby genes (COPD eQTLs). After integrative analysis, 19 COPD eQTLs were identified, including all four previously identified genome-wide significant loci near HHIP, FAM13A, and the 15q25 and 19q13 loci. For each COPD eQTL, fine mapping and colocalization analysis to identify causal shared eQTL and GWAS variants identified a subset of sites with moderate-to-strong evidence of harboring at least one shared variant responsible for both the eQTL and GWAS signals. Transcription factor binding site (TFBS) analysis confirms that multiple COPD eQTL lead SNPs disrupt TFBS, and enhancer enrichment analysis for loci with the strongest colocalization signals showed enrichment for blood-related cell types (CD3 and CD4+ T cells, lymphoblastoid cell lines). In summary, integrative eQTL and GWAS analysis confirms that genetic control of gene expression plays a key role in the genetic architecture of COPD and identifies specific blood-related cell types as likely participants in the functional pathway from GWAS-associated variant to disease phenotype. PMID:25315895

  20. Multiple Loci Associated with Renal Function in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Shriner, Daniel; Herbert, Alan; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hanxia; Erdos, Michael R.; Chen, Guanjie; Gerry, Norman P.; Christman, Michael F.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans. PMID:23028791

  1. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Shriner, Daniel; Herbert, Alan; Doumatey, Ayo P; Zhou, Jie; Huang, Hanxia; Erdos, Michael R; Chen, Guanjie; Gerry, Norman P; Christman, Michael F; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans. PMID:23028791

  2. Blood Pressure Loci Identified with a Gene-Centric Array

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Toby; Gaunt, Tom R.; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W.; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; O'Brien, Eoin T.; Poulter, Neil R.; Sever, Peter; Shields, Denis C.; Thom, Simon; Wannamethee, Sasiwarang G.; Whincup, Peter H.; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Dobson, Richard J.; Howard, Philip J.; Mein, Charles A.; Onipinla, Abiodun; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Zhang, Yun; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian N.M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Goodall, Alison H.; Fowkes, F. Gerald; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Elliott, Paul; Gateva, Vesela; Braund, Peter S.; Burton, Paul R.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Tobin, Martin D.; van der Harst, Pim; Glorioso, Nicola; Neuvrith, Hani; Salvi, Erika; Staessen, Jan A.; Stucchi, Andrea; Devos, Nabila; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Plouin, Pierre-François; Tichet, Jean; Juhanson, Peeter; Org, Elin; Putku, Margus; Sõber, Siim; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Levinsson, Anna; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Hastie, Claire E.; Hedner, Thomas; Lee, Wai K.; Melander, Olle; Wahlstrand, Björn; Hardy, Rebecca; Wong, Andrew; Cooper, Jackie A.; Palmen, Jutta; Chen, Li; Stewart, Alexandre F.R.; Wells, George A.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wolfs, Marcel G.M.; Clarke, Robert; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Lathrop, Mark; Peden, John F.; Seedorf, Udo; Watkins, Hugh; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Sambrook, Jennifer; Stephens, Jonathan; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Drenos, Fotios; Holmes, Michael V.; Kivimaki, Mika; Shah, Sonia; Shah, Tina; Talmud, Philippa J.; Whittaker, John; Wallace, Chris; Delles, Christian; Laan, Maris; Kuh, Diana; Humphries, Steve E.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Cusi, Daniele; Roberts, Robert; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Franke, Lude; Stanton, Alice V.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Farrall, Martin; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Munroe, Patricia B.

    2011-01-01

    Raised blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have identified 47 distinct genetic variants robustly associated with BP, but collectively these explain only a few percent of the heritability for BP phenotypes. To find additional BP loci, we used a bespoke gene-centric array to genotype an independent discovery sample of 25,118 individuals that combined hypertensive case-control and general population samples. We followed up four SNPs associated with BP at our p < 8.56 × 10−7 study-specific significance threshold and six suggestively associated SNPs in a further 59,349 individuals. We identified and replicated a SNP at LSP1/TNNT3, a SNP at MTHFR-NPPB independent (r2 = 0.33) of previous reports, and replicated SNPs at AGT and ATP2B1 reported previously. An analysis of combined discovery and follow-up data identified SNPs significantly associated with BP at p < 8.56 × 10−7 at four further loci (NPR3, HFE, NOS3, and SOX6). The high number of discoveries made with modest genotyping effort can be attributed to using a large-scale yet targeted genotyping array and to the development of a weighting scheme that maximized power when meta-analyzing results from samples ascertained with extreme phenotypes, in combination with results from nonascertained or population samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcript expression data highlight potential gene regulatory mechanisms at the MTHFR and NOS3 loci. These results provide candidates for further study to help dissect mechanisms affecting BP and highlight the utility of studying SNPs and samples that are independent of those studied previously even when the sample size is smaller than that in previous studies. PMID:22100073

  3. Blood pressure loci identified with a gene-centric array.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Toby; Gaunt, Tom R; Newhouse, Stephen J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; O'Brien, Eoin T; Poulter, Neil R; Sever, Peter; Shields, Denis C; Thom, Simon; Wannamethee, Sasiwarang G; Whincup, Peter H; Brown, Morris J; Connell, John M; Dobson, Richard J; Howard, Philip J; Mein, Charles A; Onipinla, Abiodun; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Zhang, Yun; Davey Smith, George; Day, Ian N M; Lawlor, Debbie A; Goodall, Alison H; Fowkes, F Gerald; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Elliott, Paul; Gateva, Vesela; Braund, Peter S; Burton, Paul R; Nelson, Christopher P; Tobin, Martin D; van der Harst, Pim; Glorioso, Nicola; Neuvrith, Hani; Salvi, Erika; Staessen, Jan A; Stucchi, Andrea; Devos, Nabila; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Plouin, Pierre-François; Tichet, Jean; Juhanson, Peeter; Org, Elin; Putku, Margus; Sõber, Siim; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Levinsson, Anna; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S; Hastie, Claire E; Hedner, Thomas; Lee, Wai K; Melander, Olle; Wahlstrand, Björn; Hardy, Rebecca; Wong, Andrew; Cooper, Jackie A; Palmen, Jutta; Chen, Li; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Wells, George A; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wolfs, Marcel G M; Clarke, Robert; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Lathrop, Mark; Peden, John F; Seedorf, Udo; Watkins, Hugh; Ouwehand, Willem H; Sambrook, Jennifer; Stephens, Jonathan; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Drenos, Fotios; Holmes, Michael V; Kivimaki, Mika; Shah, Sonia; Shah, Tina; Talmud, Philippa J; Whittaker, John; Wallace, Chris; Delles, Christian; Laan, Maris; Kuh, Diana; Humphries, Steve E; Nyberg, Fredrik; Cusi, Daniele; Roberts, Robert; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Franke, Lude; Stanton, Alice V; Dominiczak, Anna F; Farrall, Martin; Hingorani, Aroon D; Samani, Nilesh J; Caulfield, Mark J; Munroe, Patricia B

    2011-12-01

    Raised blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have identified 47 distinct genetic variants robustly associated with BP, but collectively these explain only a few percent of the heritability for BP phenotypes. To find additional BP loci, we used a bespoke gene-centric array to genotype an independent discovery sample of 25,118 individuals that combined hypertensive case-control and general population samples. We followed up four SNPs associated with BP at our p < 8.56 × 10(-7) study-specific significance threshold and six suggestively associated SNPs in a further 59,349 individuals. We identified and replicated a SNP at LSP1/TNNT3, a SNP at MTHFR-NPPB independent (r(2) = 0.33) of previous reports, and replicated SNPs at AGT and ATP2B1 reported previously. An analysis of combined discovery and follow-up data identified SNPs significantly associated with BP at p < 8.56 × 10(-7) at four further loci (NPR3, HFE, NOS3, and SOX6). The high number of discoveries made with modest genotyping effort can be attributed to using a large-scale yet targeted genotyping array and to the development of a weighting scheme that maximized power when meta-analyzing results from samples ascertained with extreme phenotypes, in combination with results from nonascertained or population samples. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcript expression data highlight potential gene regulatory mechanisms at the MTHFR and NOS3 loci. These results provide candidates for further study to help dissect mechanisms affecting BP and highlight the utility of studying SNPs and samples that are independent of those studied previously even when the sample size is smaller than that in previous studies. PMID:22100073

  4. Multiple loci affect genetic predisposition to hepatocarcinogenesis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Manenti, G.; Gariboldi, M.; Canzian, F.

    1994-09-01

    The C3H/He mouse represents a good experimental model of genetic predispositoin to hepatocellular tumor development. We analyzed an interspecific test-cross population of 106 urethane-treated male (C3H/He x Mus spretus) x C57BL/6J mice, typed with 222 genetic markers to locate precisely the hepatocellular tumor susceptibility (Hcs) loci. Three regions, on chromosomes 2, 5, and 19, showed a significant linkage with hepatocellular tumor development, as indicated by different quantitative indexes estimating liver tumor size. Liver tumor frequency was not genetically controlled. These loci are different from three other Hcs loci that we have previously mapped in an F2 progeny of the C3H/He mouse crossed with the resistant laboratory strain A/J. The present result indicates a multigenic model of inheritance for hepatocellular tumor susceptibility.

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Jonathan S.; Li, Ni; Weinhold, Niels; Försti, Asta; Ali, Mina; van Duin, Mark; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Johnson, David C.; Chen, Bowang; Halvarsson, Britt-Marie; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Kuiper, Rowan; Stephens, Owen W.; Bertsch, Uta; Broderick, Peter; Campo, Chiara; Einsele, Hermann; Gregory, Walter A.; Gullberg, Urban; Henrion, Marc; Hillengass, Jens; Hoffmann, Per; Jackson, Graham H.; Johnsson, Ellinor; Jöud, Magnus; Kristinsson, Sigurður Y.; Lenhoff, Stig; Lenive, Oleg; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Migliorini, Gabriele; Nahi, Hareth; Nelander, Sven; Nickel, Jolanta; Nöthen, Markus M.; Rafnar, Thorunn; Ross, Fiona M.; da Silva Filho, Miguel Inacio; Swaminathan, Bhairavi; Thomsen, Hauke; Turesson, Ingemar; Vangsted, Annette; Vogel, Ulla; Waage, Anders; Walker, Brian A.; Wihlborg, Anna-Karin; Broyl, Annemiek; Davies, Faith E.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Langer, Christian; Hansson, Markus; Kaiser, Martin; Sonneveld, Pieter; Stefansson, Kari; Morgan, Gareth J.; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hemminki, Kari; Nilsson, Björn; Houlston, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with a significant heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies have transformed our understanding of MM predisposition, but individual studies have had limited power to discover risk loci. Here we perform a meta-analysis of these GWAS, add a new GWAS and perform replication analyses resulting in 9,866 cases and 239,188 controls. We confirm all nine known risk loci and discover eight new loci at 6p22.3 (rs34229995, P=1.31 × 10−8), 6q21 (rs9372120, P=9.09 × 10−15), 7q36.1 (rs7781265, P=9.71 × 10−9), 8q24.21 (rs1948915, P=4.20 × 10−11), 9p21.3 (rs2811710, P=1.72 × 10−13), 10p12.1 (rs2790457, P=1.77 × 10−8), 16q23.1 (rs7193541, P=5.00 × 10−12) and 20q13.13 (rs6066835, P=1.36 × 10−13), which localize in or near to JARID2, ATG5, SMARCD3, CCAT1, CDKN2A, WAC, RFWD3 and PREX1. These findings provide additional support for a polygenic model of MM and insight into the biological basis of tumour development. PMID:27363682

  6. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Jonathan S; Li, Ni; Weinhold, Niels; Försti, Asta; Ali, Mina; van Duin, Mark; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Johnson, David C; Chen, Bowang; Halvarsson, Britt-Marie; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Kuiper, Rowan; Stephens, Owen W; Bertsch, Uta; Broderick, Peter; Campo, Chiara; Einsele, Hermann; Gregory, Walter A; Gullberg, Urban; Henrion, Marc; Hillengass, Jens; Hoffmann, Per; Jackson, Graham H; Johnsson, Ellinor; Jöud, Magnus; Kristinsson, Sigurður Y; Lenhoff, Stig; Lenive, Oleg; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik; Migliorini, Gabriele; Nahi, Hareth; Nelander, Sven; Nickel, Jolanta; Nöthen, Markus M; Rafnar, Thorunn; Ross, Fiona M; da Silva Filho, Miguel Inacio; Swaminathan, Bhairavi; Thomsen, Hauke; Turesson, Ingemar; Vangsted, Annette; Vogel, Ulla; Waage, Anders; Walker, Brian A; Wihlborg, Anna-Karin; Broyl, Annemiek; Davies, Faith E; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Langer, Christian; Hansson, Markus; Kaiser, Martin; Sonneveld, Pieter; Stefansson, Kari; Morgan, Gareth J; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hemminki, Kari; Nilsson, Björn; Houlston, Richard S

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy with a significant heritable basis. Genome-wide association studies have transformed our understanding of MM predisposition, but individual studies have had limited power to discover risk loci. Here we perform a meta-analysis of these GWAS, add a new GWAS and perform replication analyses resulting in 9,866 cases and 239,188 controls. We confirm all nine known risk loci and discover eight new loci at 6p22.3 (rs34229995, P=1.31 × 10(-8)), 6q21 (rs9372120, P=9.09 × 10(-15)), 7q36.1 (rs7781265, P=9.71 × 10(-9)), 8q24.21 (rs1948915, P=4.20 × 10(-11)), 9p21.3 (rs2811710, P=1.72 × 10(-13)), 10p12.1 (rs2790457, P=1.77 × 10(-8)), 16q23.1 (rs7193541, P=5.00 × 10(-12)) and 20q13.13 (rs6066835, P=1.36 × 10(-13)), which localize in or near to JARID2, ATG5, SMARCD3, CCAT1, CDKN2A, WAC, RFWD3 and PREX1. These findings provide additional support for a polygenic model of MM and insight into the biological basis of tumour development. PMID:27363682

  7. Bayes estimation of species divergence times and ancestral population sizes using DNA sequences from multiple loci.

    PubMed

    Rannala, Bruce; Yang, Ziheng

    2003-08-01

    The effective population sizes of ancestral as well as modern species are important parameters in models of population genetics and human evolution. The commonly used method for estimating ancestral population sizes, based on counting mismatches between the species tree and the inferred gene trees, is highly biased as it ignores uncertainties in gene tree reconstruction. In this article, we develop a Bayes method for simultaneous estimation of the species divergence times and current and ancestral population sizes. The method uses DNA sequence data from multiple loci and extracts information about conflicts among gene tree topologies and coalescent times to estimate ancestral population sizes. The topology of the species tree is assumed known. A Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is implemented to integrate over uncertain gene trees and branch lengths (or coalescence times) at each locus as well as species divergence times. The method can handle any species tree and allows different numbers of sequences at different loci. We apply the method to published noncoding DNA sequences from the human and the great apes. There are strong correlations between posterior estimates of speciation times and ancestral population sizes. With the use of an informative prior for the human-chimpanzee divergence date, the population size of the common ancestor of the two species is estimated to be approximately 20,000, with a 95% credibility interval (8000, 40,000). Our estimates, however, are affected by model assumptions as well as data quality. We suggest that reliable estimates have yet to await more data and more realistic models. PMID:12930768

  8. Immunochip analysis identifies multiple susceptibility loci for systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Mayes, Maureen D; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Gorlova, Olga; Martin, José Ezequiel; Zhou, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei V; Assassi, Shervin; Ying, Jun; Tan, Filemon K; Arnett, Frank C; Reveille, John D; Guerra, Sandra; Teruel, María; Carmona, Francisco David; Gregersen, Peter K; Lee, Annette T; López-Isac, Elena; Ochoa, Eguzkine; Carreira, Patricia; Simeón, Carmen Pilar; Castellví, Iván; González-Gay, Miguel Ángel; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Padyukov, Leonid; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta; Wijmenga, Cisca; Brown, Matthew; Beretta, Lorenzo; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Witte, Torsten; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Kreuter, Alexander; Distler, Jörg H W; Voskuyl, Alexandre E; Schuerwegh, Annemie J; Hesselstrand, Roger; Nordin, Annika; Airó, Paolo; Lunardi, Claudio; Shiels, Paul; van Laar, Jacob M; Herrick, Ariane; Worthington, Jane; Denton, Christopher; Wigley, Fredrick M; Hummers, Laura K; Varga, John; Hinchcliff, Monique E; Baron, Murray; Hudson, Marie; Pope, Janet E; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Dinesh; Phillips, Kristin; Schiopu, Elena; Segal, Barbara M; Molitor, Jerry A; Silver, Richard M; Steen, Virginia D; Simms, Robert W; Lafyatis, Robert A; Fessler, Barri J; Frech, Tracy M; Alkassab, Firas; Docherty, Peter; Kaminska, Elzbieta; Khalidi, Nader; Jones, Henry Niall; Markland, Janet; Robinson, David; Broen, Jasper; Radstake, Timothy R D J; Fonseca, Carmen; Koeleman, Bobby P; Martin, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 1,833 systemic sclerosis (SSc) cases and 3,466 controls were genotyped with the Immunochip array. Classical alleles, amino acid residues, and SNPs across the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region were imputed and tested. These analyses resulted in a model composed of six polymorphic amino acid positions and seven SNPs that explained the observed significant associations in the region. In addition, a replication step comprising 4,017 SSc cases and 5,935 controls was carried out for several selected non-HLA variants, reaching a total of 5,850 cases and 9,401 controls of European ancestry. Following this strategy, we identified and validated three SSc risk loci, including DNASE1L3 at 3p14, the SCHIP1-IL12A locus at 3q25, and ATG5 at 6q21, as well as a suggested association of the TREH-DDX6 locus at 11q23. The associations of several previously reported SSc risk loci were validated and further refined, and the observed peak of association in PXK was related to DNASE1L3. Our study has increased the number of known genetic associations with SSc, provided further insight into the pleiotropic effects of shared autoimmune risk factors, and highlighted the power of dense mapping for detecting previously overlooked susceptibility loci. PMID:24387989

  9. Immunochip Analysis Identifies Multiple Susceptibility Loci for Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Mayes, Maureen D.; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Gorlova, Olga; Martin, José Ezequiel; Zhou, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei V.; Assassi, Shervin; Ying, Jun; Tan, Filemon K.; Arnett, Frank C.; Reveille, John D.; Guerra, Sandra; Teruel, María; Carmona, Francisco David; Gregersen, Peter K.; Lee, Annette T.; López-Isac, Elena; Ochoa, Eguzkine; Carreira, Patricia; Simeón, Carmen Pilar; Castellví, Iván; González-Gay, Miguel Ángel; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Ríos, Raquel; Callejas, José Luis; Navarrete, Nuria; García Portales, Rosa; Camps, María Teresa; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; González-Escribano, María F.; Sánchez-Román, Julio; García-Hernández, Francisco José; Castillo, María Jesús; Aguirre, María Ángeles; Gómez-Gracia, Inmaculada; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Vicente, Esther; Andreu, José Luis; Fernández de Castro, Mónica; García de la Peña, Paloma; López-Longo, Francisco Javier; Martínez, Lina; Fonollosa, Vicente; Espinosa, Gerard; Tolosa, Carlos; Pros, Anna; Rodríguez Carballeira, Mónica; Narváez, Francisco Javier; Rubio Rivas, Manel; Ortiz Santamaría, Vera; Díaz, Bernardino; Trapiella, Luis; Freire, María del Carmen; Sousa, Adrián; Egurbide, María Victoria; Fanlo Mateo, Patricia; Sáez-Comet, Luis; Díaz, Federico; Hernández, Vanesa; Beltrán, Emma; Román-Ivorra, José Andrés; Grau, Elena; Alegre Sancho, Juan José; Blanco García, Francisco J.; Oreiro, Natividad; Fernández Sueiro, Luis; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Padyukov, Leonid; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta; Wijmenga, Cisca; Brown, Matthew; Beretta, Lorenzo; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Witte, Torsten; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Kreuter, Alexander; Distler, Jörg H.W.; Voskuyl, Alexandre E.; Schuerwegh, Annemie J.; Hesselstrand, Roger; Nordin, Annika; Airó, Paolo; Lunardi, Claudio; Shiels, Paul; van Laar, Jacob M.; Herrick, Ariane; Worthington, Jane; Denton, Christopher; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Hummers, Laura K.; Varga, John; Hinchcliff, Monique E.; Baron, Murray; Hudson, Marie; Pope, Janet E.; Furst, Daniel E.; Khanna, Dinesh; Phillips, Kristin; Schiopu, Elena; Segal, Barbara M.; Molitor, Jerry A.; Silver, Richard M.; Steen, Virginia D.; Simms, Robert W.; Lafyatis, Robert A.; Fessler, Barri J.; Frech, Tracy M.; AlKassab, Firas; Docherty, Peter; Kaminska, Elzbieta; Khalidi, Nader; Jones, Henry Niall; Markland, Janet; Robinson, David; Broen, Jasper; Radstake, Timothy R.D.J.; Fonseca, Carmen; Koeleman, Bobby P.; Martin, Javier

    2014-01-01

    In this study, 1,833 systemic sclerosis (SSc) cases and 3,466 controls were genotyped with the Immunochip array. Classical alleles, amino acid residues, and SNPs across the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region were imputed and tested. These analyses resulted in a model composed of six polymorphic amino acid positions and seven SNPs that explained the observed significant associations in the region. In addition, a replication step comprising 4,017 SSc cases and 5,935 controls was carried out for several selected non-HLA variants, reaching a total of 5,850 cases and 9,401 controls of European ancestry. Following this strategy, we identified and validated three SSc risk loci, including DNASE1L3 at 3p14, the SCHIP1-IL12A locus at 3q25, and ATG5 at 6q21, as well as a suggested association of the TREH-DDX6 locus at 11q23. The associations of several previously reported SSc risk loci were validated and further refined, and the observed peak of association in PXK was related to DNASE1L3. Our study has increased the number of known genetic associations with SSc, provided further insight into the pleiotropic effects of shared autoimmune risk factors, and highlighted the power of dense mapping for detecting previously overlooked susceptibility loci. PMID:24387989

  10. Finding Quantitative Trait Loci Genes with Collaborative Targeted Maximum Likelihood Learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Rose, Sherri; van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative trait loci mapping is focused on identifying the positions and effect of genes underlying an an observed trait. We present a collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimator in a semi-parametric model using a newly proposed 2-part super learning algorithm to find quantitative trait loci genes in listeria data. Results are compared to the parametric composite interval mapping approach. PMID:21572586

  11. Finding Quantitative Trait Loci Genes with Collaborative Targeted Maximum Likelihood Learning

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Rose, Sherri; van der Laan, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci mapping is focused on identifying the positions and effect of genes underlying an an observed trait. We present a collaborative targeted maximum likelihood estimator in a semi-parametric model using a newly proposed 2-part super learning algorithm to find quantitative trait loci genes in listeria data. Results are compared to the parametric composite interval mapping approach. PMID:21572586

  12. Multiple loci on 8q24 associated with prostate cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Giles, Graham G; Guy, Michelle; Morrison, Jonathan; Severi, Gianluca; Leongamornlert, Daniel A; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Jhavar, Sameer; Saunders, Ed; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Muir, Kenneth R; English, Dallas R; Dearnaley, David P; Ardern-Jones, Audrey T; Hall, Amanda L; O'Brien, Lynne T; Wilkinson, Rosemary A; Sawyer, Emma; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Horwich, Alan; Huddart, Robert A; Khoo, Vincent S; Parker, Christopher C; Woodhouse, Christopher J; Thompson, Alan; Christmas, Tim; Ogden, Chris; Cooper, Colin; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Eeles, Rosalind A; Easton, Douglas F

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have identified multiple loci on 8q24 associated with prostate cancer risk. We performed a comprehensive analysis of SNP associations across 8q24 by genotyping tag SNPs in 5,504 prostate cancer cases and 5,834 controls. We confirmed associations at three previously reported loci and identified additional loci in two other linkage disequilibrium blocks (rs1006908: per-allele OR = 0.87, P = 7.9 x 10(-8); rs620861: OR = 0.90, P = 4.8 x 10(-8)). Eight SNPs in five linkage disequilibrium blocks were independently associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. PMID:19767752

  13. Power of sib-pair and sib-trio linkage analysis with assortative mating and multiple disease loci

    SciTech Connect

    Sribney, W.M.; Swift, M. )

    1992-10-01

    Sib-pair linkage analysis has been proposed for identifying genes that predispose to common diseases. The authors have shown that the presence of assortative mating and multiple disease-susceptibility loci (genetic heterogeneity) can increase the required sample size for affected-affected sib pairs several fold over the sample size required under random mating. They propose a new test statistic based on sib trios composed of either one unaffected and two affected siblings or one affected and two unaffected siblings. The sample-size requirements under assortative mating and multiple disease loci for these sib-trio statistics are much smaller, under most conditions, than the corresponding sample sizes for sib pairs. Study designs based on data from sib trios with one or two affected members are recommended whenever assortative mating and genetic heterogeneity are suspected. 31 refs.

  14. Fast and Accurate Detection of Multiple Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Nettelblad, Carl; Holmgren, Sverker

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We present a new computational scheme that enables efficient and reliable quantitative trait loci (QTL) scans for experimental populations. Using a standard brute-force exhaustive search effectively prohibits accurate QTL scans involving more than two loci to be performed in practice, at least if permutation testing is used to determine significance. Some more elaborate global optimization approaches, for example, DIRECT have been adopted earlier to QTL search problems. Dramatic speedups have been reported for high-dimensional scans. However, since a heuristic termination criterion must be used in these types of algorithms, the accuracy of the optimization process cannot be guaranteed. Indeed, earlier results show that a small bias in the significance thresholds is sometimes introduced. Our new optimization scheme, PruneDIRECT, is based on an analysis leading to a computable (Lipschitz) bound on the slope of a transformed objective function. The bound is derived for both infinite- and finite-size populations. Introducing a Lipschitz bound in DIRECT leads to an algorithm related to classical Lipschitz optimization. Regions in the search space can be permanently excluded (pruned) during the optimization process. Heuristic termination criteria can thus be avoided. Hence, PruneDIRECT has a well-defined error bound and can in practice be guaranteed to be equivalent to a corresponding exhaustive search. We present simulation results that show that for simultaneous mapping of three QTLS using permutation testing, PruneDIRECT is typically more than 50 times faster than exhaustive search. The speedup is higher for stronger QTL. This could be used to quickly detect strong candidate eQTL networks. PMID:23919387

  15. Presence of Multiple Independent Effects in Risk Loci of Common Complex Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Xiayi

    2012-01-01

    Many genetic loci and SNPs associated with many common complex human diseases and traits are now identified. The total genetic variance explained by these loci for a trait or disease, however, has often been very small. Much of the “missing heritability” has been revealed to be hidden in the genome among the large number of variants with small effects. Several recent studies have reported the presence of multiple independent SNPs and genetic heterogeneity in trait-associated loci. It is therefore reasonable to speculate that such a phenomenon could be common among loci known to be associated with a complex trait or disease. For testing this hypothesis, a total of 117 loci known to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Crohn disease (CD), type 1 diabetes (T1D), or type 2 diabetes (T2D) were selected. The presence of multiple independent effects was assessed in the case-control samples genotyped by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium study and imputed with SNP genotype information from the HapMap Project and the 1000 Genomes Project. Eleven loci with evidence of multiple independent effects were identified in the study, and the number was expected to increase at larger sample sizes and improved statistical power. The variance explained by the multiple effects in a locus was much higher than the variance explained by the single reported SNP effect. The results thus significantly improve our understanding of the allelic structure of these individual disease-associated loci, as well as our knowledge of the general genetic mechanisms of common complex traits and diseases. PMID:22770979

  16. Interactions between SNP alleles at multiple loci contribute to skin color differences between caucasoid and mongoloid subjects.

    PubMed

    Anno, Sumiko; Abe, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takushi

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles at multiple loci associated with racial differences in skin color using SNP genotyping. A total of 122 Caucasians in Toledo, Ohio and 100 Mongoloids in Japan were genotyped for 20 SNPs in 7 candidate genes, encoding the Agouti signaling protein (ASIP), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), tyrosinase (TYR), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), oculocutaneous albinism II (OCA2), microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and myosin VA (MYO5A). Data were used to analyze associations between the 20 SNP alleles using linkage disequilibrium (LD). Combinations of SNP alleles were jointly tested under LD for associations with racial groups by performing a chi(2) test for independence. Results showed that SNP alleles at multiple loci can be considered the haplotype that contributes to significant differences between the two population groups and suggest a high probability of LD. Confirmation of these findings requires further study with other ethnic groups to analyze the associations between SNP alleles at multiple loci and skin color variation among races. PMID:18392143

  17. Temporal and multiple quantitative trait loci analyses of resistance to bacterial wilt in tomato permit the resolution of linked loci.

    PubMed

    Mangin, B; Thoquet, P; Olivier, J; Grimsley, N H

    1999-03-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne bacterium that causes the serious disease known as bacterial wilt in many plant species. In tomato, several QTL controlling resistance have been found, but in different studies, markers spanning a large region of chromosome 6 showed strong association with the resistance. By using two different approaches to analyze the data from a field test F3 population, we show that at least two separate loci approximately 30 cM apart on this chromosome are most likely involved in the resistance. First, a temporal analysis of the progression of symptoms reveals a distal locus early in the development of the disease. As the disease progresses, the maximum LOD peak observed shifts toward the proximal end of the chromosome, obscuring the distal locus. Second, although classical interval mapping could only detect the presence of one locus, a statistical "two-QTL model" test, specifically adapted for the resolution of linked QTL, strongly supported the hypothesis for the presence of two loci. These results are discussed in the context of current molecular knowledge about disease resistance genes on chromosome 6 and observations made by tomato breeders during the production of bacterial wilt-resistant varieties. PMID:10049932

  18. Temporal and multiple quantitative trait loci analyses of resistance to bacterial wilt in tomato permit the resolution of linked loci.

    PubMed Central

    Mangin, B; Thoquet, P; Olivier, J; Grimsley, N H

    1999-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum is a soil-borne bacterium that causes the serious disease known as bacterial wilt in many plant species. In tomato, several QTL controlling resistance have been found, but in different studies, markers spanning a large region of chromosome 6 showed strong association with the resistance. By using two different approaches to analyze the data from a field test F3 population, we show that at least two separate loci approximately 30 cM apart on this chromosome are most likely involved in the resistance. First, a temporal analysis of the progression of symptoms reveals a distal locus early in the development of the disease. As the disease progresses, the maximum LOD peak observed shifts toward the proximal end of the chromosome, obscuring the distal locus. Second, although classical interval mapping could only detect the presence of one locus, a statistical "two-QTL model" test, specifically adapted for the resolution of linked QTL, strongly supported the hypothesis for the presence of two loci. These results are discussed in the context of current molecular knowledge about disease resistance genes on chromosome 6 and observations made by tomato breeders during the production of bacterial wilt-resistant varieties. PMID:10049932

  19. Multiple loci and epistases control genetic variation for seed dormancy in weedy rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xing-You; Kianian, Shahryar F; Foley, Michael E

    2004-01-01

    Weedy rice has much stronger seed dormancy than cultivated rice. A wild-like weedy strain SS18-2 was selected to investigate the genetic architecture underlying seed dormancy, a critical adaptive trait in plants. A framework genetic map covering the rice genome was constructed on the basis of 156 BC(1) [EM93-1 (nondormant breeding line)//EM93-1/SS18-2] individuals. The mapping population was replicated using a split-tiller technique to control and better estimate the environmental variation. Dormancy was determined by germination of seeds after 1, 11, and 21 days of after-ripening (DAR). Six dormancy QTL, designated as qSD(S)-4, -6, -7-1, -7-2, -8, and -12, were identified. The locus qSD(S)-7-1 was tightly linked to the red pericarp color gene Rc. A QTL x DAR interaction was detected for qSD(S)-12, the locus with the largest main effect at 1, 11, and 21 DAR (R(2) = 0.14, 0.24, and 0.20, respectively). Two, three, and four orders of epistases were detected with four, six, and six QTL, respectively. The higher-order epistases strongly suggest the presence of genetically complex networks in the regulation of variation for seed dormancy in natural populations and make it critical to select for a favorable combination of alleles at multiple loci in positional cloning of a target dormancy gene. PMID:15082564

  20. Analysis of putative resistance gene loci in UK field populations of Haemonchus contortus after 6years of macrocyclic lactone use.

    PubMed

    Laing, Roz; Maitland, Kirsty; Lecová, Lenka; Skuce, Philip J; Tait, Andy; Devaney, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    Sheep farmers in the UK rely on strategic anthelmintic use to treat and control gastrointestinal roundworms in their flocks. However, resistance to these drugs is now widespread and threatens the sustainability of sheep production. The mechanisms underlying resistance to the most commonly used class, the macrocyclic lactones, are not known and sensitive diagnostic tools based on molecular markers are not currently available. This prohibits accurate surveillance of resistance or assessment of strategies aimed at controlling its spread. In this study, we examined four UK field populations of Haemonchus contortus, differing in macrocyclic lactone treatment history, for evidence of selection at 'candidate gene' loci identified as determining macrocyclic lactone resistance in previously published research. Individual worms were genotyped at Hc-lgc-37, Hc-glc-5, Hc-avr-14 and Hc-dyf-7, and four microsatellite loci. High levels of polymorphism were identified at the first three candidate gene loci with remarkably little polymorphism at Hc-dyf-7. While some between-population comparisons of individual farms with and without long-term macrocyclic lactone use identified statistically significant differences in allele frequency and/or fixation index at the Hc-lgc-37, Hc-glc-5 or Hc-avr-14 loci, we found no consistent evidence of selection in other equivalent comparisons. While it is possible that different mechanisms are important in different populations or that resistance may be conferred by small changes at multiple loci, our findings suggest that these are unlikely to be major loci conferring macrocyclic lactone resistance on UK farms or suitable for diagnostic marker development. More powerful approaches, using genome-wide or whole genome sequencing, may be required to define macrocyclic lactone resistance loci in such genetically variable populations. PMID:27179994

  1. Multiple mouse chromosomal loci for dynein-based motility

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, K.T.; Mikami, Atsushi; Paschal, B.M.

    1996-08-15

    Dyneins are multisubunit mechanochemical enzymes capable of interacting with microtubules to generate force. Axonemal dyneins produce the motive force for ciliary and flagellar beating by inducing sliding between adjacent microtubules within the axoneme. Cytoplasmic dyneins translocate membranous organelles and chromosomes toward the minus ends of cytoplasmic microtubules. Dynactin is an accessory complex implicated in tethering cytoplasmic dynein to membranous organelles and mitotic kinetochores. In the studies described here, we have identified a number of new dynein genes and determined their mouse chromosomal locations by interspecific backcross analysis. We have also mapped several dynein and dynactin genes cloned previously. Our studies provide the first comprehensive attempt to map dynein and dynactin genes in mammals and provide a basis for the further analysis of dynein function in development and disease. 65 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Novel Loci for Metabolic Networks and Multi-Tissue Expression Studies Reveal Genes for Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, Michael; Ripatti, Samuli; Kettunen, Johannes; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Oksala, Niku; Laurila, Pirkka-Pekka; Kangas, Antti J.; Soininen, Pasi; Savolainen, Markku J.; Viikari, Jorma; Kähönen, Mika; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimäki, Terho; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Palotie, Aarno; de Bakker, Paul I. W.

    2012-01-01

    Association testing of multiple correlated phenotypes offers better power than univariate analysis of single traits. We analyzed 6,600 individuals from two population-based cohorts with both genome-wide SNP data and serum metabolomic profiles. From the observed correlation structure of 130 metabolites measured by nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified 11 metabolic networks and performed a multivariate genome-wide association analysis. We identified 34 genomic loci at genome-wide significance, of which 7 are novel. In comparison to univariate tests, multivariate association analysis identified nearly twice as many significant associations in total. Multi-tissue gene expression studies identified variants in our top loci, SERPINA1 and AQP9, as eQTLs and showed that SERPINA1 and AQP9 expression in human blood was associated with metabolites from their corresponding metabolic networks. Finally, liver expression of AQP9 was associated with atherosclerotic lesion area in mice, and in human arterial tissue both SERPINA1 and AQP9 were shown to be upregulated (6.3-fold and 4.6-fold, respectively) in atherosclerotic plaques. Our study illustrates the power of multi-phenotype GWAS and highlights candidate genes for atherosclerosis. PMID:22916037

  3. Bayesian Multiple Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping for Complex Traits Using Markers of the Entire Genome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hanwen; Eversley, Chevonne D.; Threadgill, David W.; Zou, Fei

    2007-01-01

    A Bayesian methodology has been developed for multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of complex binary traits that follow liability threshold models. Unlike most QTL mapping methods where only one or a few markers are used at a time, the proposed method utilizes all markers across the genome simultaneously. The outperformance of our Bayesian method over the traditional single-marker analysis and interval mapping has been illustrated via simulations and real data analysis to identify candidate loci associated with colorectal cancer. PMID:17483433

  4. The Inference of Phased Haplotypes for the Immunoglobulin H Chain V Region Gene Loci by Analysis of VDJ Gene Rearrangements

    PubMed Central

    Kidd, Marie J.; Chen, Zhiliang; Wang, Yan; Jackson, Katherine J.; Zhang, Lyndon; Boyd, Scott D.; Fire, Andrew Z.; Tanaka, Mark M.; Gaëta, Bruno A.; Collins, Andrew M.

    2014-01-01

    The existence of many highly similar genes in the lymphocyte receptor gene loci makes them difficult to investigate, and the determination of phased “haplotypes” has been particularly problematic. However, V(D)J gene rearrangements provide an opportunity to infer the association of Ig genes along the chromosomes. The chromosomal distribution of H chain genes in an Ig genotype can be inferred through analysis of VDJ rearrangements in individuals who are heterozygous at points within the IGH locus. We analyzed VDJ rearrangements from 44 individuals for whom sufficient unique rearrangements were available to allow comprehensive genotyping. Nine individuals were identified who were heterozygous at the IGHJ6 locus and for whom sufficient suitable VDJ rearrangements were available to allow comprehensive haplotyping. Each of the 18 resulting IGHV|IGHD|IGHJ haplotypes was unique. Apparent deletion polymorphisms were seen that involved as many as four contiguous, functional IGHV genes. Two deletion polymorphisms involving multiple contiguous IGHD genes were also inferred. Three previously unidentified gene duplications were detected, where two sequences recognized as allelic variants of a single gene were both inferred to be on a single chromosome. Phased genomic data brings clarity to the study of the contribution of each gene to the available repertoire of rearranged VDJ genes. Analysis of rearrangement frequencies suggests that particular genes may have substantially different yet predictable propensities for rearrangement within different haplotypes. Together with data highlighting the extent of haplotypic variation within the population, this suggests that there may be substantial variability in the available Ab repertoires of different individuals. PMID:22205028

  5. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes residing under quantitative trait loci in beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to assess the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) developed on candidate genes residing under previously identified quantitative trait loci for marbling score and meat tenderness. Two hundred five SNP were identified on twenty candidate genes. Genes selected under ...

  6. Candidate gene loci in asthmatic and allergic inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, J.; Holgate, S. T.

    1996-01-01

    New techniques for scanning the human genome promise great advances in tracking the origins of disorders caused by multiple genes. However, it is clear from the studies presented in this overview that we are far from understanding the genetic basis of asthma and atopy and their interaction with the environment. It is also clear that agreement must be reached on definition of the phenotype and methods of ascertainment in order to carry out large multicentre collaborative studies. Positive findings need to be validated in different populations selected for the presence of the disease and then confirmed in a random population where the prevalence of asthma and atopy will also be expected to be significant. PMID:8658365

  7. Characterization of gene-environment interactions for colorectal cancer susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, Carolyn M.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Slattery, Martha L.; Pflugeisen, Bethann M.; Lin, Yi; Duggan, David; Nan, Hongmei; Lemire, Mathieu; Rangrej, Jagadish; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Jiao, Shuo; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Liu, Yan; Chen, Lin S.; Stelling, Deanna L.; Warnick, Greg S.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Küry, Sébastien; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giovannucci, Edward; Hazra, Aditi; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Gallinger, Steven; Zanke, Brent W.; Brenner, Hermann; Frank, Bernd; Ma, Jing; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; White, Emily; Newcomb, Polly A.; Kooperberg, Charles; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Prentice, Ross L.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Schoen, Robert E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Hayes, Richard B.; Caan, Bette J.; Potter, John D.; Hsu, Li; Bézieau, Stéphane; Chan, Andrew T.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Peters, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over a dozen loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Here we examined potential effect-modification between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 10 of these loci and probable or established environmental risk factors for CRC in 7,016 CRC cases and 9,723 controls from nine cohort and case-control studies. We used meta-analysis of an efficient empirical-Bayes estimator to detect potential multiplicative interactions between each of the SNPs [rs16892766 at 8q23.3 (EIF3H/UTP23); rs6983267 at 8q24 (MYC); rs10795668 at 10p14 (FLJ3802842); rs3802842 at11q23 (LOC120376); rs4444235 at 14q22.2 (BMP4); rs4779584 at15q13 (GREM1); rs9929218 at16q22.1 (CDH1); rs4939827 at18q21 (SMAD7); rs10411210 at19q13.1 (RHPN2); and rs961253 at 20p12.3 (BMP2)] and select major CRC risk factors (sex, body mass index, height, smoking status, aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, alcohol use, and dietary intake of calcium, folate, red meat, processed meat, vegetables, fruit, and fiber). The strongest statistical evidence for a gene-environment interaction across studies was for vegetable consumption and rs16892766, located on chromosome 8q23.3, near the EIF3H and UTP23 genes (nominal p-interaction =1.3×10–4; adjusted p-value 0.02). The magnitude of the main effect of the SNP increased with increasing levels of vegetable consumption. No other interactions were statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Overall, the association of most CRC susceptibility loci identified in initial GWAS appears to be invariant to the other risk factors considered; however, our results suggest potential modification of the rs16892766 effect by vegetable consumption. PMID:22367214

  8. Highly expressed loci are vulnerable to misleading ChIP localization of multiple unrelated proteins

    PubMed Central

    Thurtle, Deborah M.; Rine, Jasper; van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is the gold-standard technique for localizing nuclear proteins in the genome. We used ChIP, in combination with deep sequencing (Seq), to study the genome-wide distribution of the Silent information regulator (Sir) complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We analyzed ChIP-Seq peaks of the Sir2, Sir3, and Sir4 silencing proteins and discovered 238 unexpected euchromatic loci that exhibited enrichment of all three. Surprisingly, published ChIP-Seq datasets for the Ste12 transcription factor and the centromeric Cse4 protein indicated that these proteins were also enriched in the same euchromatic regions with the high Sir protein levels. The 238 loci, termed ”hyper-ChIPable“, were in highly expressed regions with strong polymerase II and polymerase III enrichment signals, and the correlation between transcription level and ChIP enrichment was not limited to these 238 loci but extended genome-wide. The apparent enrichment of various proteins at hyper-ChIPable loci was not a consequence of artifacts associated with deep sequencing methods, as confirmed by ChIP-quantitative PCR. The localization of unrelated proteins, including the entire silencing complex, to the most highly transcribed genes was highly suggestive of a technical issue with the immunoprecipitations. ChIP-Seq on chromatin immunoprecipitated with a nuclear-localized GFP reproduced the above enrichment in an expression-dependent manner: induction of the GAL genes resulted in an increased ChIP signal of the GFP protein at these loci, with presumably no biological relevance. Whereas ChIP is a broadly valuable technique, some published conclusions based upon ChIP procedures may merit reevaluation in light of these findings. PMID:24173036

  9. Genomewide Multiple-Loci Mapping in Experimental Crosses by Iterative Adaptive Penalized Regression

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Ibrahim, Joseph G.; Zou, Fei

    2010-01-01

    Genomewide multiple-loci mapping can be viewed as a challenging variable selection problem where the major objective is to select genetic markers related to a trait of interest. It is challenging because the number of genetic markers is large (often much larger than the sample size) and there is often strong linkage or linkage disequilibrium between markers. In this article, we developed two methods for genomewide multiple loci mapping: the Bayesian adaptive Lasso and the iterative adaptive Lasso. Compared with eight existing methods, the proposed methods have improved variable selection performance in both simulation and real data studies. The advantages of our methods come from the assignment of adaptive weights to different genetic makers and the iterative updating of these adaptive weights. The iterative adaptive Lasso is also computationally much more efficient than the commonly used marginal regression and stepwise regression methods. Although our methods are motivated by multiple-loci mapping, they are general enough to be applied to other variable selection problems. PMID:20157003

  10. Genome-wide association study reveals multiple loci associated with primary tooth development during infancy.

    PubMed

    Pillas, Demetris; Hoggart, Clive J; Evans, David M; O'Reilly, Paul F; Sipilä, Kirsi; Lähdesmäki, Raija; Millwood, Iona Y; Kaakinen, Marika; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Blane, David; Charoen, Pimphen; Sovio, Ulla; Pouta, Anneli; Freimer, Nelson; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Vaara, Sarianna; Glaser, Beate; Crawford, Peter; Timpson, Nicholas J; Ring, Susan M; Deng, Guohong; Zhang, Weihua; McCarthy, Mark I; Deloukas, Panos; Peltonen, Leena; Elliott, Paul; Coin, Lachlan J M; Smith, George Davey; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta

    2010-02-01

    Tooth development is a highly heritable process which relates to other growth and developmental processes, and which interacts with the development of the entire craniofacial complex. Abnormalities of tooth development are common, with tooth agenesis being the most common developmental anomaly in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study of time to first tooth eruption and number of teeth at one year in 4,564 individuals from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1966) and 1,518 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We identified 5 loci at P<5x10(-8), and 5 with suggestive association (P<5x10(-6)). The loci included several genes with links to tooth and other organ development (KCNJ2, EDA, HOXB2, RAD51L1, IGF2BP1, HMGA2, MSRB3). Genes at four of the identified loci are implicated in the development of cancer. A variant within the HOXB gene cluster associated with occlusion defects requiring orthodontic treatment by age 31 years. PMID:20195514

  11. Loci influencing blood pressure identified using a cardiovascular gene-centric array

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Santhi K.; Tragante, Vinicius; Guo, Wei; Guo, Yiran; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Smith, Erin N.; Johnson, Toby; Castillo, Berta Almoguera; Barnard, John; Baumert, Jens; Chang, Yen-Pei Christy; Elbers, Clara C.; Farrall, Martin; Fischer, Mary E.; Franceschini, Nora; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gho, Johannes M.I.H.; Gieger, Christian; Gong, Yan; Isaacs, Aaron; Kleber, Marcus E.; Leach, Irene Mateo; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Meijs, Matthijs F.L.; Mellander, Olle; Molony, Cliona M.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Price, Tom S.; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shah, Sonia; Shen, Haiqing; Soranzo, Nicole; van der Most, Peter J.; Van Iperen, Erik P.A.; Van Setten, Jessic A.; Vonk, Judith M.; Zhang, Li; Beitelshees, Amber L.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Boer, Jolanda M.A.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Burkley, Ben; Burt, Amber; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chen, Wei; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M.; Curtis, Sean P.; Dreisbach, Albert; Duggan, David; Ehret, Georg B.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Fornage, Myriam; Fox, Ervin; Furlong, Clement E.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Hofker, Marten H.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Kirkland, Susan A.; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Kutlar, Abdullah; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Langaee, Taimour Y.; Li, Yun R.; Lin, Honghuang; Liu, Kiang; Maiwald, Steffi; Malik, Rainer; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; O'Connell, Jeffery R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Palmas, Walter; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pepine, Carl J.; Pettinger, Mary; Polak, Joseph F.; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Ranchalis, Jane; Redline, Susan; Ridker, Paul M.; Rose, Lynda M.; Scharnag, Hubert; Schork, Nicholas J.; Shimbo, Daichi; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Taylor, Herman A.; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke D.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Verschuren, W. Monique; Wijmenga, Cisca; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Wyatt, Sharon; Young, J. Hunter; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Davidson, Karina W.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; FitzGerald, Garret A.; Gums, John G.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hillege, Hans L.; Illig, Thomas; Jarvik, Gail P.; Johnson, Julie A.; Kastelein, John J.P.; Koenig, Wolfgang; März, Winfried; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Murray, Sarah S.; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Reiner, Alex P.; Schadt, Eric E.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Snieder, Harold; Stanton, Alice V.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van der Harst, Pim; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel; Keating, Brendan J.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.

    2013-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is a heritable determinant of risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To investigate genetic associations with systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and pulse pressure (PP), we genotyped ∼50 000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that capture variation in ∼2100 candidate genes for cardiovascular phenotypes in 61 619 individuals of European ancestry from cohort studies in the USA and Europe. We identified novel associations between rs347591 and SBP (chromosome 3p25.3, in an intron of HRH1) and between rs2169137 and DBP (chromosome1q32.1 in an intron of MDM4) and between rs2014408 and SBP (chromosome 11p15 in an intron of SOX6), previously reported to be associated with MAP. We also confirmed 10 previously known loci associated with SBP, DBP, MAP or PP (ADRB1, ATP2B1, SH2B3/ATXN2, CSK, CYP17A1, FURIN, HFE, LSP1, MTHFR, SOX6) at array-wide significance (P < 2.4 × 10−6). We then replicated these associations in an independent set of 65 886 individuals of European ancestry. The findings from expression QTL (eQTL) analysis showed associations of SNPs in the MDM4 region with MDM4 expression. We did not find any evidence of association of the two novel SNPs in MDM4 and HRH1 with sequelae of high BP including coronary artery disease (CAD), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or stroke. In summary, we identified two novel loci associated with BP and confirmed multiple previously reported associations. Our findings extend our understanding of genes involved in BP regulation, some of which may eventually provide new targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23303523

  12. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for craniofacial microsomia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yong-Biao; Hu, Jintian; Zhang, Jiao; Zhou, Xu; Li, Xin; Gu, Chaohao; Liu, Tun; Xie, Yangchun; Liu, Jiqiang; Gu, Mingliang; Wang, Panpan; Wu, Tingting; Qian, Jin; Wang, Yue; Dong, Xiaoqun; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Qingguo

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) is a rare congenital anomaly that involves immature derivatives from the first and second pharyngeal arches. The genetic pathogenesis of CFM is still unclear. Here we interrogate 0.9 million genetic variants in 939 CFM cases and 2,012 controls from China. After genotyping of an additional 443 cases and 1,669 controls, we identify 8 significantly associated loci with the most significant SNP rs13089920 (logistic regression P=2.15 × 10−120) and 5 suggestive loci. The above 13 associated loci, harboured by candidates of ROBO1, GATA3, GBX2, FGF3, NRP2, EDNRB, SHROOM3, SEMA7A, PLCD3, KLF12 and EPAS1, are found to be enriched for genes involved in neural crest cell (NCC) development and vasculogenesis. We then perform whole-genome sequencing on 21 samples from the case cohort, and identify several novel loss-of-function mutations within the associated loci. Our results provide new insights into genetic background of craniofacial microsomia. PMID:26853712

  13. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for craniofacial microsomia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-Biao; Hu, Jintian; Zhang, Jiao; Zhou, Xu; Li, Xin; Gu, Chaohao; Liu, Tun; Xie, Yangchun; Liu, Jiqiang; Gu, Mingliang; Wang, Panpan; Wu, Tingting; Qian, Jin; Wang, Yue; Dong, Xiaoqun; Yu, Jun; Zhang, Qingguo

    2016-01-01

    Craniofacial microsomia (CFM) is a rare congenital anomaly that involves immature derivatives from the first and second pharyngeal arches. The genetic pathogenesis of CFM is still unclear. Here we interrogate 0.9 million genetic variants in 939 CFM cases and 2,012 controls from China. After genotyping of an additional 443 cases and 1,669 controls, we identify 8 significantly associated loci with the most significant SNP rs13089920 (logistic regression P=2.15 × 10(-120)) and 5 suggestive loci. The above 13 associated loci, harboured by candidates of ROBO1, GATA3, GBX2, FGF3, NRP2, EDNRB, SHROOM3, SEMA7A, PLCD3, KLF12 and EPAS1, are found to be enriched for genes involved in neural crest cell (NCC) development and vasculogenesis. We then perform whole-genome sequencing on 21 samples from the case cohort, and identify several novel loss-of-function mutations within the associated loci. Our results provide new insights into genetic background of craniofacial microsomia. PMID:26853712

  14. A method to optimize selection on multiple identified quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Reena; Moreau, Laurence; Dekkers, Jack CM

    2002-01-01

    A mathematical approach was developed to model and optimize selection on multiple known quantitative trait loci (QTL) and polygenic estimated breeding values in order to maximize a weighted sum of responses to selection over multiple generations. The model allows for linkage between QTL with multiple alleles and arbitrary genetic effects, including dominance, epistasis, and gametic imprinting. Gametic phase disequilibrium between the QTL and between the QTL and polygenes is modeled but polygenic variance is assumed constant. Breeding programs with discrete generations, differential selection of males and females and random mating of selected parents are modeled. Polygenic EBV obtained from best linear unbiased prediction models can be accommodated. The problem was formulated as a multiple-stage optimal control problem and an iterative approach was developed for its solution. The method can be used to develop and evaluate optimal strategies for selection on multiple QTL for a wide range of situations and genetic models. PMID:12081805

  15. Numerous Genes in Loci Associated With Body Fat Distribution Are Linked to Adipose Function.

    PubMed

    Dahlman, Ingrid; Rydén, Mikael; Brodin, David; Grallert, Harald; Strawbridge, Rona J; Arner, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Central fat accumulation is a strong risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous loci associated with body fat distribution. The objectives of the current study are to examine whether genes in genetic loci linked to fat distribution can be linked to fat cell size and number (morphology) and/or adipose tissue function. We show, in a cohort of 114 women, that almost half of the 96 genes in these loci are indeed associated with abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue parameters. Thus, adipose mRNA expression of the genes is strongly related to adipose morphology, catecholamine-induced lipid mobilization (lipolysis), or insulin-stimulated lipid synthesis in adipocytes (lipogenesis). In conclusion, the genetic influence on body fat distribution could be mediated via several specific alterations in adipose tissue morphology and function, which in turn may influence the development of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26798124

  16. Structural analysis of the dur loci in S. cerevisiae: two domains of a single multifunctional gene.

    PubMed

    Cooper, T G; Lam, C; Turoscy, V

    1980-03-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the degradation of urea to carbon dioxide and ammonia is catalyzed by urea carboxylase and allophanate hydrolase. The loci coding for these enzymes (dur1 and dur2) are very tightly linked on the right arm of chromosome II between pet11 and met8. Pleiotropic mutations that fail to complement mutations in either of the dur loci were found to be predominantly located in or near the dur2 locus. We interpret these data as suggesting that the two dur loci might in reality be domains of a single gene that codes for a multifunctional polypeptide. In view of this conclusion, we have renamed the dur loci as the dur1,2 locus. PMID:6105114

  17. Genetic identification of multiple loci that control breast cancer susceptibility in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Shepel, L A; Lan, H; Haag, J D; Brasic, G M; Gheen, M E; Simon, J S; Hoff, P; Newton, M A; Gould, M N

    1998-01-01

    We have used a rat model of induced mammary carcinomas in an effort to identify breast cancer susceptibility genes. Using genetic crosses between the carcinoma-resistant Copenhagen (COP) and carcinoma-sensitive Wistar-Furth rats, we have confirmed the identification of the Mcs1 locus that modulates tumor number. We have now also identified two additional loci, Mcs2 and Mcs3. These three loci map to chromosomes 2, 7, and 1, respectively, and interact additively to suppress mammary carcinoma development in the COP strain. They are responsible for a major portion of the tumor-resistant phenotype of the COP rat. No loss of heterozygosity was observed surrounding the three loci. A fourth COP locus, Mcs4, has also been identified on chromosome 8 and acts in contrast to increase the number of carcinomas. These results show that mammary carcinoma susceptibility in the COP rat is a polygenic trait. Interestingly, a polymorphism in the human genomic region homologous to the rat Mcs4 region is associated with an increased breast cancer risk in African-American women. The isolation of the Mcs genes may help elucidate novel mechanisms of carcinogenesis, provide information important for human breast cancer risk estimation, and also provide unique drug discovery targets for breast cancer prevention. PMID:9584103

  18. Extended Analysis of a Genome-Wide Association Study in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Detects Multiple Novel Risk Loci

    PubMed Central

    Folseraas, Trine; Melum, Espen; Rausch, Philipp; Juran, Brian D.; Ellinghaus, Eva; Shiryaev, Alexey; Laerdahl, Jon K.; Ellinghaus, David; Schramm, Christoph; Weismüller, Tobias J.; Gotthardt, Daniel Nils; Hov, Johannes Roksund; Clausen, Ole Petter; Weersma, Rinse K.; Janse, Marcel; Boberg, Kirsten Muri; Björnsson, Einar; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Cleynen, Isabelle; Rosenstiel, Philip; Holm, Kristian; Teufel, Andreas; Rust, Christian; Gieger, Christian; Wichmann, H-Erich; Bergquist, Annika; Ryu, Euijung; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Runz, Heiko; Sterneck, Martina; Vermeire, Severine; Beuers, Ulrich; Wijmenga, Cisca; Schrumpf, Erik; Manns, Michael P.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Schreiber, Stefan; Baines, John F.; Franke, Andre; Karlsen, Tom H.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims A limited number of genetic risk factors have been reported in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). To discover further genetic susceptibility factors for PSC, we followed up on a second tier of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Methods We analyzed 45 SNPs in 1221 PSC cases and 3508 controls. The association results from the replication analysis and the original GWAS (715 PSC cases and 2962 controls) were combined in a meta-analysis comprising 1936 PSC cases and 6470 controls. We performed an analysis of bile microbial community composition in 39 PSC patients by 16S rRNA sequencing. Results Seventeen SNPs representing 12 distinct genetic loci achieved nominal significance (Preplication<0.05) in the replication. The most robust novel association was detected at chromosome 1p36 (rs3748816; Pcombined=2.1×10−8) where the MMEL1 and TNFRSF14 genes represent potential disease genes. Eight additional novel loci showed suggestive evidence of association (Prepl<0.05). FUT2 at chromosome 19q13 (rs602662; Pcomb=1.9×10−6, rs281377; Pcomb = 2.1×10−6 and rs601338; Pcomb=2.7×10−6) is notable due to its implication in altered susceptibility to infectious agents. We found that FUT2 secretor status and genotype defined by rs601338 significantly influences biliary microbial community composition in PSC patients. Conclusions We identify multiple new PSC risk loci by extended analysis of a PSC GWAS. FUT2 genotype needs to be taken into account when assessing the influence from microbiota on biliary pathology in PSC. PMID:22521342

  19. Monte Carlo comparison of preliminary methods for ordering multiple genetic loci.

    PubMed Central

    Olson, J M; Boehnke, M

    1990-01-01

    We carried out a simulation study to compare the power of eight methods for preliminary ordering of multiple genetic loci. Using linkage groups of six loci and a simple pedigree structure, we considered the effects on method performance of locus informativity, interlocus spacing, total distance along the chromosome, and sample size. Method performance was assessed using the mean rank of the true order, the proportion of replicates in which the true order was the best order, and the number of orders that needed to be considered for subsequent multipoint linkage analysis in order to include the true order with high probability. A new method which maximizes the sum of adjacent two-point maximum lod scores divided by the equivalent number of informative meioses and the previously described method which minimizes the sum of adjacent recombination fraction estimates were found to be the best overall locus-ordering methods for the situations considered, although several other methods also performed well. PMID:2393021

  20. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) “835” and “B2,” including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69–12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82–16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  1. Quantitative Trait Loci for Morphological Traits and their Association with Functional Genes in Raphanus sativus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaona; Choi, Su Ryun; Dhandapani, Vignesh; Rameneni, Jana Jeevan; Li, Xiaonan; Pang, Wenxing; Lee, Ji-Young; Lim, Yong Pyo

    2016-01-01

    Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) governing morphologically important traits enables to comprehend their potential genetic mechanisms in the genetic breeding program. In this study, we used 210 F2 populations derived from a cross between two radish inbred lines (Raphanus sativus) "835" and "B2," including 258 SSR markers were used to detect QTLs for 11 morphological traits that related to whole plant, leaf, and root yield in 3 years of replicated field test. Total 55 QTLs were detected which were distributed on each linkage group of the Raphanus genome. Individual QTLs accounted for 2.69-12.6 of the LOD value, and 0.82-16.25% of phenotypic variation. Several genomic regions have multiple traits that clustered together, suggested the existence of pleiotropy linkage. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions with A. thaliana genome selected orthologous genes in radish. InDels and SNPs in the parental lines were detected in those regions by Illumina genome sequence. Five identified candidate gene-based markers were validated by co-mapping with underlying QTLs affecting different traits. Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR analysis showed the different expression levels of these five genes in parental lines. In addition, comparative QTL analysis with B. rapa revealed six common QTL regions and four key major evolutionarily conserved crucifer blocks (J, U, R, and W) harboring QTL for morphological traits. The QTL positions identified in this study will provide a valuable resource for identifying more functional genes when whole radish genome sequence is released. Candidate genes identified in this study that co-localized in QTL regions are expected to facilitate in radish breeding programs. PMID:26973691

  2. Alzheimer's Disease Risk Polymorphisms Regulate Gene Expression in the ZCWPW1 and the CELF1 Loci.

    PubMed

    Karch, Celeste M; Ezerskiy, Lubov A; Bertelsen, Sarah; Goate, Alison M

    2016-01-01

    Late onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) is a genetically complex and clinically heterogeneous disease. Recent large-scale genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than twenty loci that modify risk for AD. Despite the identification of these loci, little progress has been made in identifying the functional variants that explain the association with AD risk. Thus, we sought to determine whether the novel LOAD GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) alter expression of LOAD GWAS genes and whether expression of these genes is altered in AD brains. The majority of LOAD GWAS SNPs occur in gene dense regions under large linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks, making it unclear which gene(s) are modified by the SNP. Thus, we tested for brain expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) between LOAD GWAS SNPs and SNPs in high LD with the LOAD GWAS SNPs in all of the genes within the GWAS loci. We found a significant eQTL between rs1476679 and PILRB and GATS, which occurs within the ZCWPW1 locus. PILRB and GATS expression levels, within the ZCWPW1 locus, were also associated with AD status. Rs7120548 was associated with MTCH2 expression, which occurs within the CELF1 locus. Additionally, expression of several genes within the CELF1 locus, including MTCH2, were highly correlated with one another and were associated with AD status. We further demonstrate that PILRB, as well as other genes within the GWAS loci, are most highly expressed in microglia. These findings together with the function of PILRB as a DAP12 receptor supports the critical role of microglia and neuroinflammation in AD risk. PMID:26919393

  3. Multiple loci govern the bone marrow-derived immunoregulatory mechanism controlling dominant resistance to autoimmune orchitis.

    PubMed Central

    Meeker, N D; Hickey, W F; Korngold, R; Hansen, W K; Sudweeks, J D; Wardell, B B; Griffith, J S; Teuscher, C

    1995-01-01

    The existence of immunoregulatory genes conferring dominant resistance to autoimmunity is well documented. In an effort to better understand the nature and mechanisms of action of these genes, we utilized the murine model of autoimmune orchitis as a prototype. When the orchitis-resistant strain DBA/2J is crossed with the orchitis-susceptible strain BALB/cByJ, the F1 hybrid is completely resistant to the disease. By using reciprocal radiation bone marrow chimeras, the functional component mediating this resistance was mapped to the bone marrow-derived compartment. Resistance is not a function of either low-dose irradiation- or cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg)-sensitive immunoregulatory cells, but can be adoptively transferred by primed splenocytes. Genome exclusion mapping identified three loci controlling the resistant phenotype. Orch3 maps to chromosome 11, whereas Orch4 and Orch5 map to the telomeric and centromeric regions of chromosome 1, respectively. All three genes are linked to a number of immunologically relevant candidate loci. Most significant, however, is the linkage of Orch3 to Idd4 and Orch5 to Idd5, two susceptibility genes which play a role in autoimmune insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus in the nonobese diabetic mouse. PMID:7777570

  4. Drosophila COP9 signalosome subunit 7 interacts with multiple genomic loci to regulate development.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ruth; Atar, Shimshi; Atias, Osnat; Oron, Efrat; Segal, Daniel; Hirsch, Joel A; Tuller, Tamir; Orian, Amir; Chamovitz, Daniel A

    2014-09-01

    The COP9 signalosome protein complex has a central role in the regulation of development of multicellular organisms. While the function of this complex in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is well established, results over the past few years have hinted that the COP9 signalosome may function more broadly in the regulation of gene expression. Here, using DamID technology, we show that COP9 signalosome subunit 7 functionally associates with a large number of genomic loci in the Drosophila genome, and show that the expression of many genes within these loci is COP9 signalosome-dependent. This association is likely direct as we show CSN7 binds DNA in vitro. The genes targeted by CSN7 are preferentially enriched for transcriptionally active regions of the genome, and are involved in the regulation of distinct gene ontology groupings including imaginal disc development and cell-cycle control. In accord, loss of CSN7 function leads to cell-cycle delay and altered wing development. These results indicate that CSN7, and by extension the entire COP9 signalosome, functions directly in transcriptional control. While the COP9 signalosome protein complex has long been known to regulate protein degradation, here we expand the role of this complex by showing that subunit 7 binds DNA in vitro and functions directly in vivo in transcriptional control of developmentally important pathways that are relevant for human health. PMID:25106867

  5. Drosophila COP9 signalosome subunit 7 interacts with multiple genomic loci to regulate development

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Ruth; Atar, Shimshi; Atias, Osnat; Oron, Efrat; Segal, Daniel; Hirsch, Joel A.; Tuller, Tamir; Orian, Amir; Chamovitz, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    The COP9 signalosome protein complex has a central role in the regulation of development of multicellular organisms. While the function of this complex in ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is well established, results over the past few years have hinted that the COP9 signalosome may function more broadly in the regulation of gene expression. Here, using DamID technology, we show that COP9 signalosome subunit 7 functionally associates with a large number of genomic loci in the Drosophila genome, and show that the expression of many genes within these loci is COP9 signalosome-dependent. This association is likely direct as we show CSN7 binds DNA in vitro. The genes targeted by CSN7 are preferentially enriched for transcriptionally active regions of the genome, and are involved in the regulation of distinct gene ontology groupings including imaginal disc development and cell-cycle control. In accord, loss of CSN7 function leads to cell-cycle delay and altered wing development. These results indicate that CSN7, and by extension the entire COP9 signalosome, functions directly in transcriptional control. While the COP9 signalosome protein complex has long been known to regulate protein degradation, here we expand the role of this complex by showing that subunit 7 binds DNA in vitro and functions directly in vivo in transcriptional control of developmentally important pathways that are relevant for human health. PMID:25106867

  6. Dynamic chromatin: the regulatory domain organization of eukaryotic gene loci.

    PubMed

    Bonifer, C; Hecht, A; Saueressig, H; Winter, D M; Sippel, A E

    1991-10-01

    It is hypothesized that nuclear DNA is organized in topologically constrained loop domains defining basic units of higher order chromatin structure. Our studies are performed in order to investigate the functional relevance of this structural subdivision of eukaryotic chromatin for the control of gene expression. We used the chicken lysozyme gene locus as a model to examine the relation between chromatin structure and gene function. Several structural features of the lysozyme locus are known: the extension of the region of general DNAasel sensitivity of the active gene, the location of DNA-sequences with high affinity for the nuclear matrix in vitro, and the position of DNAasel hypersensitive chromatin sites (DHSs). The pattern of DHSs changes depending on the transcriptional status of the gene. Functional studies demonstrated that DHSs mark the position of cis-acting regulatory elements. Additionally, we discovered a novel cis-activity of the border regions of the DNAasel sensitive domain (A-elements). By eliminating the position effect on gene expression usually observed when genes are randomly integrated into the genome after transfection, A-elements possibly serve as punctuation marks for a regulatory chromatin domain. Experiments using transgenic mice confirmed that the complete structurally defined lysozyme gene domain behaves as an independent regulatory unit, expressing the gene in a tissue specific and position independent manner. These expression features were lost in transgenic mice carrying a construct, in which the A-elements as well as an upstream enhancer region were deleted, indicating the lack of a locus activation function on this construct. Experiments are designed in order to uncover possible hierarchical relationships between the different cis-acting regulatory elements for stepwise gene activation during cell differentiation. We are aiming at the definition of the basic structural and functional requirements for position independent and high

  7. Dynamics of heat shock factor association with native gene loci in living cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jie; Munson, Katherine M; Webb, Watt W; Lis, John T

    2006-08-31

    Direct observation of transcription factor action in the living cell nucleus can provide important insights into gene regulatory mechanisms. Live-cell imaging techniques have enabled the visualization of a variety of intranuclear activities, from chromosome dynamics to gene expression. However, progress in studying transcription regulation of specific native genes has been limited, primarily as a result of difficulties in resolving individual gene loci and in detecting the small number of protein molecules functioning within active transcription units. Here we report that multiphoton microscopy imaging of polytene nuclei in living Drosophila salivary glands allows real-time analysis of transcription factor recruitment and exchange on specific native genes. After heat shock, we have visualized the recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to native hsp70 gene loci 87A and 87C in real time. We show that heat shock factor (HSF), the transcription activator of hsp70, is localized to the nucleus before heat shock and translocates from nucleoplasm to chromosomal loci after heat shock. Assays based on fluorescence recovery after photobleaching show a rapid exchange of HSF at chromosomal loci under non-heat-shock conditions but a very slow exchange after heat shock. However, this is not a consequence of a change of HSF diffusibility, as shown here directly by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Our results provide strong evidence that activated HSF is stably bound to DNA in vivo and that turnover or disassembly of transcription activator is not required for rounds of hsp70 transcription. This and previous studies indicate that transcription activators display diverse dynamic behaviours in their associations with targeted loci in living cells. Our method can be applied to study the dynamics of many factors involved in transcription and RNA processing, and in their regulation at native heat shock genes in vivo. PMID:16929308

  8. An IF-FISH Approach for Covisualization of Gene Loci and Nuclear Architecture in Fission Yeast.

    PubMed

    Kim, K-D; Iwasaki, O; Noma, K

    2016-01-01

    Recent genomic studies have revealed that chromosomal structures are formed by a hierarchy of organizing processes ranging from gene associations, including interactions among enhancers and promoters, to topologically associating domain formations. Gene associations identified by these studies can be characterized by microscopic analyses. Fission yeast is a model organism, in which gene associations have been broadly mapped across the genome, although many of those associations have not been further examined by cell biological approaches. To address the technically challenging process of the visualization of associating gene loci in the fission yeast nuclei, we provide, in detail, an IF-FISH procedure that allows for covisualizing both gene loci and nuclear structural markers such as the nuclear membrane and nucleolus. PMID:27423862

  9. Speciation in Passerina buntings: introgression patterns of sex-linked loci identify a candidate gene region for reproductive isolation.

    PubMed

    Carling, Matthew D; Brumfield, Robb T

    2009-03-01

    Sex-chromosomes are thought to play an important role in speciation, but few studies of non-model organisms have investigated the relative influence of multiple sex-linked markers on reproductive isolation. We collected 222 individuals along a geographical transect spanning the hybrid zone between Passerina amoena and P. cyanea (Aves: Cardinalidae). Using maximum-likelihood cline fitting methods, we estimated locus-specific introgression rates for 10 z-linked markers. Although the cline width estimates ranged from 2.8 to 584 km, eight of 10 loci had cline widths between 224 and 271 km. We also used coalescent-based estimates of locus-specific divergence times between P. amoena and P. cyanea to test a recently proposed hypothesis of an inverse relationship between divergence time and cline width but did not find a significant association. The narrow width (2.8 km) of the cline estimated from the VLDLR9 locus indicates strong selection retarding introgression of alleles at this locus across the hybrid zone. Interestingly, a mutation in the very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) gene, in which VLDLR9 is an intron, is known to reduce the egg-laying ability of some chickens, suggesting a possible link between this gene region and reproductive isolation between P. amoena and P. cyanea. These results underscore the importance of sampling multiple loci to investigate introgression patterns across a chromosome or genome and support previous findings of the importance of sex-linked genes in speciation. PMID:19207259

  10. Nonparametric Bayesian Variable Selection With Applications to Multiple Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping With Epistasis and Gene–Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Fei; Huang, Hanwen; Lee, Seunggeun; Hoeschele, Ina

    2010-01-01

    The joint action of multiple genes is an important source of variation for complex traits and human diseases. However, mapping genes with epistatic effects and gene–environment interactions is a difficult problem because of relatively small sample sizes and very large parameter spaces for quantitative trait locus models that include such interactions. Here we present a nonparametric Bayesian method to map multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL) by considering epistatic and gene–environment interactions. The proposed method is not restricted to pairwise interactions among genes, as is typically done in parametric QTL analysis. Rather than modeling each main and interaction term explicitly, our nonparametric Bayesian method measures the importance of each QTL, irrespective of whether it is mostly due to a main effect or due to some interaction effect(s), via an unspecified function of the genotypes at all candidate QTL. A Gaussian process prior is assigned to this unknown function. In addition to the candidate QTL, nongenetic factors and covariates, such as age, gender, and environmental conditions, can also be included in the unspecified function. The importance of each genetic factor (QTL) and each nongenetic factor/covariate included in the function is estimated by a single hyperparameter, which enters the covariance function and captures any main or interaction effect associated with a given factor/covariate. An initial evaluation of the performance of the proposed method is obtained via analysis of simulated and real data. PMID:20551445

  11. Genetic Susceptibility to Vitiligo: GWAS Approaches for Identifying Vitiligo Susceptibility Genes and Loci

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Changbing; Gao, Jing; Sheng, Yujun; Dou, Jinfa; Zhou, Fusheng; Zheng, Xiaodong; Ko, Randy; Tang, Xianfa; Zhu, Caihong; Yin, Xianyong; Sun, Liangdan; Cui, Yong; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component, characterized by areas of depigmented skin resulting from loss of epidermal melanocytes. Genetic factors are known to play key roles in vitiligo through discoveries in association studies and family studies. Previously, vitiligo susceptibility genes were mainly revealed through linkage analysis and candidate gene studies. Recently, our understanding of the genetic basis of vitiligo has been rapidly advancing through genome-wide association study (GWAS). More than 40 robust susceptible loci have been identified and confirmed to be associated with vitiligo by using GWAS. Most of these associated genes participate in important pathways involved in the pathogenesis of vitiligo. Many susceptible loci with unknown functions in the pathogenesis of vitiligo have also been identified, indicating that additional molecular mechanisms may contribute to the risk of developing vitiligo. In this review, we summarize the key loci that are of genome-wide significance, which have been shown to influence vitiligo risk. These genetic loci may help build the foundation for genetic diagnosis and personalize treatment for patients with vitiligo in the future. However, substantial additional studies, including gene-targeted and functional studies, are required to confirm the causality of the genetic variants and their biological relevance in the development of vitiligo. PMID:26870082

  12. Multiple Novel Prostate Cancer Predisposition Loci Confirmed by an International Study: The PRACTICAL Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Easton, Douglas F.; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Ingles, Sue A.; Schaid, Daniel; Thibodeau, Stephen; Dörk, Thilo; Neal, David; Cox, Angela; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walter; Guy, Michelle; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Kedda, Mary-Anne; Spurdle, Amanda; Steginga, Suzanne; John, Esther M.; Giles, Graham; Hopper, John; Chappuis, Pierre O.; Hutter, Pierre; Foulkes, William D.; Hamel, Nancy; Salinas, Claudia A.; Koopmeiners, Joseph S.; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Johanneson, Bo; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L.; Stern, Mariana C.; Corral, Roman; McDonnell, Shannon K.; Schürmann, Peter; Meyer, Andreas; Kuefer, Rainer; Leongamornlert, Daniel A.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Liu, Jo-fen; O'Mara, Tracy; Gardiner, R.A. (Frank); Aitken, Joanne; Joshi, Amit D.; Severi, Gianluca; English, Dallas R.; Southey, Melissa; Edwards, Stephen M.; Amin Al Olama, Ali; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2009-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study found that genetic variants on chromosomes 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 19 and X were associated with prostate cancer risk. We evaluated the most significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in these loci using a worldwide consortium of 13 groups (PRACTICAL). Blood DNA from 7,370 prostate cancer cases and 5,742 male controls was analyzed by genotyping assays. Odds ratios (OR) associated with each genotype were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Six of the seven SNPs showed clear evidence of association with prostate cancer (P = 0.0007-P = 10−17). For each of these six SNPs, the estimated per-allele OR was similar to those previously reported and ranged from 1.12 to 1.29. One SNP on 3p12 (rs2660753) showed a weaker association than previously reported [per-allele OR, 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.16; P = 0.06) versus 1.18 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.31)]. The combined risks associated with each pair of SNPs were consistent with a multiplicative risk model. Under this model, and in combination with previously reported SNPs on 8q and 17q, these loci explain 16% of the familial risk of the disease, and men in the top 10% of the risk distribution have a 2.1-fold increased risk relative to general population rates. This study provides strong confirmation of these susceptibility loci in multiple populations and shows that they make an important contribution to prostate cancer risk prediction. PMID:18708398

  13. Immunochip analyses identify a novel risk locus for primary biliary cirrhosis at 13q14, multiple independent associations at four established risk loci and epistasis between 1p31 and 7q32 risk variants

    PubMed Central

    Juran, Brian D.; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Invernizzi, Pietro; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Li, Yafang; Xie, Gang; Kosoy, Roman; Ransom, Michael; Sun, Ye; Bianchi, Ilaria; Schlicht, Erik M.; Lleo, Ana; Coltescu, Catalina; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Podda, Mauro; Lammert, Craig; Shigeta, Russell; Chan, Landon L.; Balschun, Tobias; Marconi, Maurizio; Cusi, Daniele; Heathcote, E. Jenny; Mason, Andrew L.; Myers, Robert P.; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Odin, Joseph A.; Luketic, Velimir A.; Bacon, Bruce R.; Bodenheimer, Henry C.; Liakina, Valentina; Vincent, Catherine; Levy, Cynthia; Franke, Andre; Gregersen, Peter K.; Bossa, Fabrizio; Gershwin, M. Eric; deAndrade, Mariza; Amos, Christopher I.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Seldin, Michael F.; Siminovitch, Katherine A.

    2012-01-01

    To further characterize the genetic basis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), we genotyped 2426 PBC patients and 5731 unaffected controls from three independent cohorts using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array (Immunochip) enriched for autoimmune disease risk loci. Meta-analysis of the genotype data sets identified a novel disease-associated locus near the TNFSF11 gene at 13q14, provided evidence for association at six additional immune-related loci not previously implicated in PBC and confirmed associations at 19 of 22 established risk loci. Results of conditional analyses also provided evidence for multiple independent association signals at four risk loci, with haplotype analyses suggesting independent SNP effects at the 2q32 and 16p13 loci, but complex haplotype driven effects at the 3q25 and 6p21 loci. By imputing classical HLA alleles from this data set, four class II alleles independently contributing to the association signal from this region were identified. Imputation of genotypes at the non-HLA loci also provided additional associations, but none with stronger effects than the genotyped variants. An epistatic interaction between the IL12RB2 risk locus at 1p31and the IRF5 risk locus at 7q32 was also identified and suggests a complementary effect of these loci in predisposing to disease. These data expand the repertoire of genes with potential roles in PBC pathogenesis that need to be explored by follow-up biological studies. PMID:22936693

  14. Immunochip analyses identify a novel risk locus for primary biliary cirrhosis at 13q14, multiple independent associations at four established risk loci and epistasis between 1p31 and 7q32 risk variants.

    PubMed

    Juran, Brian D; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Invernizzi, Pietro; Atkinson, Elizabeth J; Li, Yafang; Xie, Gang; Kosoy, Roman; Ransom, Michael; Sun, Ye; Bianchi, Ilaria; Schlicht, Erik M; Lleo, Ana; Coltescu, Catalina; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Podda, Mauro; Lammert, Craig; Shigeta, Russell; Chan, Landon L; Balschun, Tobias; Marconi, Maurizio; Cusi, Daniele; Heathcote, E Jenny; Mason, Andrew L; Myers, Robert P; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Odin, Joseph A; Luketic, Velimir A; Bacon, Bruce R; Bodenheimer, Henry C; Liakina, Valentina; Vincent, Catherine; Levy, Cynthia; Franke, Andre; Gregersen, Peter K; Bossa, Fabrizio; Gershwin, M Eric; deAndrade, Mariza; Amos, Christopher I; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Seldin, Michael F; Siminovitch, Katherine A

    2012-12-01

    To further characterize the genetic basis of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), we genotyped 2426 PBC patients and 5731 unaffected controls from three independent cohorts using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array (Immunochip) enriched for autoimmune disease risk loci. Meta-analysis of the genotype data sets identified a novel disease-associated locus near the TNFSF11 gene at 13q14, provided evidence for association at six additional immune-related loci not previously implicated in PBC and confirmed associations at 19 of 22 established risk loci. Results of conditional analyses also provided evidence for multiple independent association signals at four risk loci, with haplotype analyses suggesting independent SNP effects at the 2q32 and 16p13 loci, but complex haplotype driven effects at the 3q25 and 6p21 loci. By imputing classical HLA alleles from this data set, four class II alleles independently contributing to the association signal from this region were identified. Imputation of genotypes at the non-HLA loci also provided additional associations, but none with stronger effects than the genotyped variants. An epistatic interaction between the IL12RB2 risk locus at 1p31and the IRF5 risk locus at 7q32 was also identified and suggests a complementary effect of these loci in predisposing to disease. These data expand the repertoire of genes with potential roles in PBC pathogenesis that need to be explored by follow-up biological studies. PMID:22936693

  15. Specific Gene Loci of Clinical Pseudomonas putida Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Lázaro; Udaondo, Zulema; Duque, Estrella; Fernández, Matilde; Bernal, Patricia; Roca, Amalia; de la Torre, Jesús; Ramos, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida are ubiquitous inhabitants of soils and clinical isolates of this species have been seldom described. Clinical isolates show significant variability in their ability to cause damage to hosts because some of them are able to modulate the host’s immune response. In the current study, comparisons between the genomes of different clinical and environmental strains of P. putida were done to identify genetic clusters shared by clinical isolates that are not present in environmental isolates. We show that in clinical strains specific genes are mostly present on transposons, and that this set of genes exhibit high identity with genes found in pathogens and opportunistic pathogens. The set of genes prevalent in P. putida clinical isolates, and absent in environmental isolates, are related with survival under oxidative stress conditions, resistance against biocides, amino acid metabolism and toxin/antitoxin (TA) systems. This set of functions have influence in colonization and survival within human tissues, since they avoid host immune response or enhance stress resistance. An in depth bioinformatic analysis was also carried out to identify genetic clusters that are exclusive to each of the clinical isolates and that correlate with phenotypical differences between them, a secretion system type III-like was found in one of these clinical strains, a determinant of pathogenicity in Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:26820467

  16. Genomic loci and candidate genes underlying inflammatory nociception

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Harsha K.; Hain, Heather; Quock, Raymond M.; Philip, Vivek M.; Chesler, Elissa J.; Belknap, John K.; Lariviere, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Heritable genetic factors contribute significantly to inflammatory nociception. To determine candidate genes underlying inflammatory nociception, the current study used a mouse model of abdominal inflammatory pain. BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains were administered the intraperitoneal (IP) acetic acid test and genome-wide quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed on the mean number of abdominal contraction and extension movements in three distinct groups of BXD RI mouse strains in two separate experiments. Combined mapping results detected two QTLs on chromosomes (Chr) 3 and 10 across experiments and groups of mice; an additional sex-specific QTL was detected on Chr 16. The results replicate previous findings of a significant QTL, Nociq2, on distal Chr 10 for formalin-induced inflammatory nociception and will aid in identification of the underlying candidate genes. Comparisons of sensitivity to IP acetic acid in BXD RI mouse strains with microarray mRNA transcript expression profiles in specific brain areas detected covarying expression of candidate genes that are also found in the detected QTL confidence intervals. The results indicate that common and distinct genetic mechanisms underlie heritable sensitivity to diverse inflammatory insults, and provide a discrete set of high priority candidate genes to investigate further in rodents and human association studies. PMID:21195549

  17. Fast set-based association analysis using summary data from GWAS identifies novel gene loci for human complex traits.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Andrew; Zhu, Zhihong; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Hill, W David; McRae, Allan F; Visscher, Peter M; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method (fastBAT) that performs a fast set-based association analysis for human complex traits using summary-level data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) data from a reference sample with individual-level genotypes. We demonstrate using simulations and analyses of real datasets that fastBAT is more accurate and orders of magnitude faster than the prevailing methods. Using fastBAT, we analyze summary data from the latest meta-analyses of GWAS on 150,064-339,224 individuals for height, body mass index (BMI), and schizophrenia. We identify 6 novel gene loci for height, 2 for BMI, and 3 for schizophrenia at PfastBAT < 5 × 10(-8). The gain of power is due to multiple small independent association signals at these loci (e.g. the THRB and FOXP1 loci for schizophrenia). The method is general and can be applied to GWAS data for all complex traits and diseases in humans and to such data in other species. PMID:27604177

  18. Fast set-based association analysis using summary data from GWAS identifies novel gene loci for human complex traits

    PubMed Central

    Bakshi, Andrew; Zhu, Zhihong; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A. E.; Hill, W. David; McRae, Allan F.; Visscher, Peter M.; Yang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method (fastBAT) that performs a fast set-based association analysis for human complex traits using summary-level data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) data from a reference sample with individual-level genotypes. We demonstrate using simulations and analyses of real datasets that fastBAT is more accurate and orders of magnitude faster than the prevailing methods. Using fastBAT, we analyze summary data from the latest meta-analyses of GWAS on 150,064–339,224 individuals for height, body mass index (BMI), and schizophrenia. We identify 6 novel gene loci for height, 2 for BMI, and 3 for schizophrenia at PfastBAT < 5 × 10−8. The gain of power is due to multiple small independent association signals at these loci (e.g. the THRB and FOXP1 loci for schizophrenia). The method is general and can be applied to GWAS data for all complex traits and diseases in humans and to such data in other species. PMID:27604177

  19. Novel late-onset Alzheimer disease loci variants associate with brain gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Mariet; Zou, Fanggeng; Chai, High Seng; Younkin, Curtis S.; Crook, Julia; Pankratz, V. Shane; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Rowley, Christopher N.; Nair, Asha A.; Middha, Sumit; Maharjan, Sooraj; Nguyen, Thuy; Ma, Li; Malphrus, Kimberly G.; Palusak, Ryan; Lincoln, Sarah; Bisceglio, Gina; Georgescu, Constantin; Schultz, Debra; Rakhshan, Fariborz; Kolbert, Christopher P.; Jen, Jin; Haines, Jonathan L.; Mayeux, Richard; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Dickson, Dennis W.; Younkin, Steven G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) identified 9 novel risk loci. Discovery of functional variants within genes at these loci is required to confirm their role in Alzheimer disease (AD). Single nucleotide polymorphisms that influence gene expression (eSNPs) constitute an important class of functional variants. We therefore investigated the influence of the novel LOAD risk loci on human brain gene expression. Methods: We measured gene expression levels in the cerebellum and temporal cortex of autopsied AD subjects and those with other brain pathologies (∼400 total subjects). To determine whether any of the novel LOAD risk variants are eSNPs, we tested their cis-association with expression of 6 nearby LOAD candidate genes detectable in human brain (ABCA7, BIN1, CLU, MS4A4A, MS4A6A, PICALM) and an additional 13 genes ±100 kb of these SNPs. To identify additional eSNPs that influence brain gene expression levels of the novel candidate LOAD genes, we identified SNPs ±100 kb of their location and tested for cis-associations. Results: CLU rs11136000 (p = 7.81 × 10−4) and MS4A4A rs2304933/rs2304935 (p = 1.48 × 10−4–1.86 × 10−4) significantly influence temporal cortex expression levels of these genes. The LOAD-protective CLU and risky MS4A4A locus alleles associate with higher brain levels of these genes. There are other cis-variants that significantly influence brain expression of CLU and ABCA7 (p = 4.01 × 10−5–9.09 × 10−9), some of which also associate with AD risk (p = 2.64 × 10−2–6.25 × 10−5). Conclusions: CLU and MS4A4A eSNPs may at least partly explain the LOAD risk association at these loci. CLU and ABCA7 may harbor additional strong eSNPs. These results have implications in the search for functional variants at the novel LOAD risk loci. PMID:22722634

  20. Multiple genetic loci within 11p15 defined by Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome rearrangement breakpoints and subchromosomal transferable fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Hoovers, J M; Kalikin, L M; Johnson, L A; Alders, M; Redeker, B; Law, D J; Bliek, J; Steenman, M; Benedict, M; Wiegant, J

    1995-01-01

    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) involves fetal overgrowth and predisposition to a wide variety of embryonal tumors of childhood. We have previously found that BWS is genetically linked to 11p15 and that this same band shows loss of heterozygosity in the types of tumors to which children with BWS are susceptible. However, 11p15 contains > 20 megabases, and therefore, the BWS and tumor suppressor genes could be distinct. To determine the precise physical relationship between these loci, we isolated yeast artificial chromosomes, and cosmid libraries from them, within the region of loss of heterozygosity in embryonal tumors. Five germ-line balanced chromosomal rearrangement breakpoint sites from BWS patients, as well as a balanced chromosomal translocation breakpoint from a rhabdoid tumor, were isolated within a 295- to 320-kb cluster defined by a complete cosmid contig crossing these breakpoints. This breakpoint cluster terminated approximately 100 kb centromeric to the imprinted gene IGF2 and 100 kb telomeric to p57KIP2, an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases, and was located within subchromosomal transferable fragments that suppressed the growth of embryonal tumor cells in genetic complementation experiments. We have identified 11 transcribed sequences in this BWS/tumor suppressor coincident region, one of which corresponded to p57KIP2. However, three additional BWS breakpoints were > 4 megabases centromeric to the other five breakpoints and were excluded from the tumor suppressor region defined by subchromosomal transferable fragments. Thus, multiple genetic loci define BWS and tumor suppression on 11p15. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 PMID:8618920

  1. A revised Fisher model on analysis of quantitative trait loci with multiple alleles

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Zeng et al. (2005) proposed a general two-allele (G2A) model to model bi-allelic quantitative trait loci (QTL). Comparing with the classical Fisher model, the G2A model can avoid using redundant parameters and be fitted directly using standard least square (LS) approach. In this study, we further extend the G2A model to general multi-allele (GMA) model. First, we propose a one-locus GMA model for phase known genotypes based on modeling the inheritance of paternal and maternal alleles. Next, we develop a one-locus GMA model for phase unknown genotypes by treating it as a special case of the phase known one-locus GMA model. Thirdly, we extend the one-locus GMA models to multiple loci. We discuss how the genetic variance components can be analyzed using these GMA models in equilibrium as well as disequilibrium populations. Finally, we apply the GMA model to a published experimental data set. PMID:25309580

  2. Amplification of multiple genomic loci from single cells isolated by laser micro-dissection of tissues

    PubMed Central

    Frumkin, Dan; Wasserstrom, Adam; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Harmelin, Alon; Rechavi, Gideon; Shapiro, Ehud

    2008-01-01

    Background Whole genome amplification (WGA) and laser assisted micro-dissection represent two recently developed technologies that can greatly advance biological and medical research. WGA allows the analysis of multiple genomic loci from a single genome and has been performed on single cells from cell suspensions and from enzymatically-digested tissues. Laser micro-dissection makes it possible to isolate specific single cells from heterogeneous tissues. Results Here we applied for the first time WGA on laser micro-dissected single cells from stained tissue sections, and developed a protocol for sequentially performing the two procedures. The combined procedure allows correlating the cell's genome with its natural morphology and precise anatomical position. From each cell we amplified 122 genomic and mitochondrial loci. In cells obtained from fresh tissue sections, 64.5% of alleles successfully amplified to ~700000 copies each, and mitochondrial DNA was amplified successfully in all cells. Multiplex PCR amplification and analysis of cells from pre-stored sections yielded significantly poorer results. Sequencing and capillary electrophoresis of WGA products allowed detection of slippage mutations in microsatellites (MS), and point mutations in P53. Conclusion Comprehensive genomic analysis of single cells from stained tissue sections opens new research opportunities for cell lineage and depth analyses, genome-wide mutation surveys, and other single cell assays. PMID:18284708

  3. Natural Variation Identifies Multiple Loci Controlling Petal Shape and Size in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Mary C.; Metheetrairut, Chanatip; Irish, Vivian F.

    2013-01-01

    Natural variation in organ morphologies can have adaptive significance and contribute to speciation. However, the underlying allelic differences responsible for variation in organ size and shape remain poorly understood. We have utilized natural phenotypic variation in three Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes to examine the genetic basis for quantitative variation in petal length, width, area, and shape. We identified 23 loci responsible for such variation, many of which appear to correspond to genes not previously implicated in controlling organ morphology. These analyses also demonstrated that allelic differences at distinct loci can independently affect petal length, width, area or shape, suggesting that these traits behave as independent modules. We also showed that ERECTA (ER), encoding a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor-like serine-threonine kinase, is a major effect locus determining petal shape. Allelic variation at the ER locus was associated with differences in petal cell proliferation and concomitant effects on petal shape. ER has been previously shown to be required for regulating cell division and expansion in other contexts; the ER receptor-like kinase functioning to also control organ-specific proliferation patterns suggests that allelic variation in common signaling components may nonetheless have been a key factor in morphological diversification. PMID:23418598

  4. Age-at-Onset in Late Onset Alzheimer Disease is Modified by Multiple Genetic Loci

    PubMed Central

    Naj, Adam C.; Jun, Gyungah; Reitz, Christiane; Kunkle, Brian W.; Perry, William; Park, YoSon; Beecham, Gary W.; Rajbhandary, Ruchita A.; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L.; Wang, Li-San; Kauwe, John S.K.; Huentelman, Matthew J.; Myers, Amanda J.; Bird, Thomas D.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Jarvik, Gail P.; Crane, Paul K.; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Barmada, Michael M.; Demirci, F. Yesim; Cruchaga, Carlos; Kramer, Patricia; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Hardy, John; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Green, Robert C.; Larson, Eric B.; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Evans, Denis; Schneider, Julie A.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Saykin, Andrew J.; Reiman, Eric M.; De Jager, Philip L.; Bennett, David A.; Morris, John C.; Montine, Thomas J.; Goate, Alison M.; Blacker, Deborah; Tsuang, Debby W.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Martin, Eden R.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Mayeux, Richard; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Importance As APOE locus variants contribute to both risk of late-onset Alzheimer disease and differences in age-at-onset, it is important to know if other established late-onset Alzheimer disease risk loci also affect age-at-onset in cases. Objectives To investigate the effects of known Alzheimer disease risk loci in modifying age-at-onset, and to estimate their cumulative effect on age-at-onset variation, using data from genome-wide association studies in the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC). Design, Setting and Participants The ADGC comprises 14 case-control, prospective, and family-based datasets with data on 9,162 Caucasian participants with Alzheimer’s occurring after age 60 who also had complete age-at-onset information, gathered between 1989 and 2011 at multiple sites by participating studies. Data on genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) most significantly associated with risk at ten confirmed LOAD loci were examined in linear modeling of AAO, and individual dataset results were combined using a random effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis approach to determine if they contribute to variation in age-at-onset. Aggregate effects of all risk loci on AAO were examined in a burden analysis using genotype scores weighted by risk effect sizes. Main Outcomes and Measures Age at disease onset abstracted from medical records among participants with late-onset Alzheimer disease diagnosed per standard criteria. Results Analysis confirmed association of APOE with age-at-onset (rs6857, P=3.30×10−96), with associations in CR1 (rs6701713, P=7.17×10−4), BIN1 (rs7561528, P=4.78×10−4), and PICALM (rs561655, P=2.23×10−3) reaching statistical significance (P<0.005). Risk alleles individually reduced age-at-onset by 3-6 months. Burden analyses demonstrated that APOE contributes to 3.9% of variation in age-at-onset (R2=0.220) over baseline (R2=0.189) whereas the other nine loci together contribute to 1.1% of

  5. Analysis of immune-related loci identifies 48 new susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Beecham, Ashley H; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Xifara, Dionysia K; Davis, Mary F; Kemppinen, Anu; Cotsapas, Chris; Shahi, Tejas S; Spencer, Chris; Booth, David; Goris, An; Oturai, Annette; Saarela, Janna; Fontaine, Bertrand; Hemmer, Bernhard; Martin, Claes; Zipp, Frauke; D’alfonso, Sandra; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; Taylor, Bruce; Harbo, Hanne F; Kockum, Ingrid; Hillert, Jan; Olsson, Tomas; Ban, Maria; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Hintzen, Rogier; Barcellos, Lisa F; Agliardi, Cristina; Alfredsson, Lars; Alizadeh, Mehdi; Anderson, Carl; Andrews, Robert; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Baker, Amie; Band, Gavin; Baranzini, Sergio E; Barizzone, Nadia; Barrett, Jeffrey; Bellenguez, Céline; Bergamaschi, Laura; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Berthele, Achim; Biberacher, Viola; Binder, Thomas M C; Blackburn, Hannah; Bomfim, Izaura L; Brambilla, Paola; Broadley, Simon; Brochet, Bruno; Brundin, Lou; Buck, Dorothea; Butzkueven, Helmut; Caillier, Stacy J; Camu, William; Carpentier, Wassila; Cavalla, Paola; Celius, Elisabeth G; Coman, Irène; Comi, Giancarlo; Corrado, Lucia; Cosemans, Leentje; Cournu-Rebeix, Isabelle; Cree, Bruce A C; Cusi, Daniele; Damotte, Vincent; Defer, Gilles; Delgado, Silvia R; Deloukas, Panos; di Sapio, Alessia; Dilthey, Alexander T; Donnelly, Peter; Dubois, Bénédicte; Duddy, Martin; Edkins, Sarah; Elovaara, Irina; Esposito, Federica; Evangelou, Nikos; Fiddes, Barnaby; Field, Judith; Franke, Andre; Freeman, Colin; Frohlich, Irene Y; Galimberti, Daniela; Gieger, Christian; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Graetz, Christiane; Graham, Andrew; Grummel, Verena; Guaschino, Clara; Hadjixenofontos, Athena; Hakonarson, Hakon; Halfpenny, Christopher; Hall, Gillian; Hall, Per; Hamsten, Anders; Harley, James; Harrower, Timothy; Hawkins, Clive; Hellenthal, Garrett; Hillier, Charles; Hobart, Jeremy; Hoshi, Muni; Hunt, Sarah E; Jagodic, Maja; Jelčić, Ilijas; Jochim, Angela; Kendall, Brian; Kermode, Allan; Kilpatrick, Trevor; Koivisto, Keijo; Konidari, Ioanna; Korn, Thomas; Kronsbein, Helena; Langford, Cordelia; Larsson, Malin; Lathrop, Mark; Lebrun-Frenay, Christine; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette; Lee, Michelle H; Leone, Maurizio A; Leppä, Virpi; Liberatore, Giuseppe; Lie, Benedicte A; Lill, Christina M; Lindén, Magdalena; Link, Jenny; Luessi, Felix; Lycke, Jan; Macciardi, Fabio; Männistö, Satu; Manrique, Clara P; Martin, Roland; Martinelli, Vittorio; Mason, Deborah; Mazibrada, Gordon; McCabe, Cristin; Mero, Inger-Lise; Mescheriakova, Julia; Moutsianas, Loukas; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Nagels, Guy; Nicholas, Richard; Nilsson, Petra; Piehl, Fredrik; Pirinen, Matti; Price, Siân E; Quach, Hong; Reunanen, Mauri; Robberecht, Wim; Robertson, Neil P; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Rog, David; Salvetti, Marco; Schnetz-Boutaud, Nathalie C; Sellebjerg, Finn; Selter, Rebecca C; Schaefer, Catherine; Shaunak, Sandip; Shen, Ling; Shields, Simon; Siffrin, Volker; Slee, Mark; Sorensen, Per Soelberg; Sorosina, Melissa; Sospedra, Mireia; Spurkland, Anne; Strange, Amy; Sundqvist, Emilie; Thijs, Vincent; Thorpe, John; Ticca, Anna; Tienari, Pentti; van Duijn, Cornelia; Visser, Elizabeth M; Vucic, Steve; Westerlind, Helga; Wiley, James S; Wilkins, Alastair; Wilson, James F; Winkelmann, Juliane; Zajicek, John; Zindler, Eva; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Ivinson, Adrian J; Stewart, Graeme; Hafler, David; Hauser, Stephen L; Compston, Alastair; McVean, Gil; De Jager, Philip; Sawcer, Stephen; McCauley, Jacob L

    2013-01-01

    Using the ImmunoChip custom genotyping array, we analysed 14,498 multiple sclerosis subjects and 24,091 healthy controls for 161,311 autosomal variants and identified 135 potentially associated regions (p-value < 1.0 × 10-4). In a replication phase, we combined these data with previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from an independent 14,802 multiple sclerosis subjects and 26,703 healthy controls. In these 80,094 individuals of European ancestry we identified 48 new susceptibility variants (p-value < 5.0 × 10-8); three found after conditioning on previously identified variants. Thus, there are now 110 established multiple sclerosis risk variants in 103 discrete loci outside of the Major Histocompatibility Complex. With high resolution Bayesian fine-mapping, we identified five regions where one variant accounted for more than 50% of the posterior probability of association. This study enhances the catalogue of multiple sclerosis risk variants and illustrates the value of fine-mapping in the resolution of GWAS signals. PMID:24076602

  6. Cardiometabolic risk loci share downstream cis- and trans-gene regulation across tissues and diseases.

    PubMed

    Franzén, Oscar; Ermel, Raili; Cohain, Ariella; Akers, Nicholas K; Di Narzo, Antonio; Talukdar, Husain A; Foroughi-Asl, Hassan; Giambartolomei, Claudia; Fullard, John F; Sukhavasi, Katyayani; Köks, Sulev; Gan, Li-Ming; Giannarelli, Chiara; Kovacic, Jason C; Betsholtz, Christer; Losic, Bojan; Michoel, Tom; Hao, Ke; Roussos, Panos; Skogsberg, Josefin; Ruusalepp, Arno; Schadt, Eric E; Björkegren, Johan L M

    2016-08-19

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of cardiometabolic disease (CMD) risk loci. However, they contribute little to genetic variance, and most downstream gene-regulatory mechanisms are unknown. We genotyped and RNA-sequenced vascular and metabolic tissues from 600 coronary artery disease patients in the Stockholm-Tartu Atherosclerosis Reverse Networks Engineering Task study (STARNET). Gene expression traits associated with CMD risk single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) identified by GWAS were more extensively found in STARNET than in tissue- and disease-unspecific gene-tissue expression studies, indicating sharing of downstream cis-/trans-gene regulation across tissues and CMDs. In contrast, the regulatory effects of other GWAS risk SNPs were tissue-specific; abdominal fat emerged as an important gene-regulatory site for blood lipids, such as for the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery disease risk gene PCSK9 STARNET provides insights into gene-regulatory mechanisms for CMD risk loci, facilitating their translation into opportunities for diagnosis, therapy, and prevention. PMID:27540175

  7. Loci of Mycobacterium avium ser2 gene cluster and their functions.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, J A; McNeil, M R; Belisle, J T; Jacobs, W R; Brennan, P J

    1994-01-01

    The highly antigenic glycopeptidolipids present on the surface of members of the Mycobacterium avium complex serve to distinguish these bacteria from all others and to define the various serovars that compose this complex. Previously, the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the disaccharide hapten [2,3-di-O-methyl-alpha-L-fucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranose] of serovar 2 of the M. avium complex were isolated, localized to a contiguous 22- to 27-kb fragment of the M. avium genome, and designated the ser2 gene cluster (J. T. Belisle, L. Pascopella, J. M. Inamine, P. J. Brennan, and W. R. Jacobs, Jr., J. Bacteriol. 173:6991-6997, 1991). In the present study, transposon saturation mutagenesis was used to map the specific genetic loci within the ser2 gene cluster required for expression of this disaccharide. Four essential loci, termed ser2A, -B, -C, and -D, constituting a total of 5.7 kb within the ser2 gene cluster, were defined. The ser2B and ser2D loci encode the methyltransferases required to methylate the fucose at the 3 and 2 positions, respectively. The rhamnosyltransferase was encoded by ser2A, whereas either ser2C or ser2D encoded the fucosyltransferase. The ser2C and ser2D loci are also apparently involved in the de novo synthesis of fucose. Isolation of the truncated versions of the hapten induced by the transposon insertions provides genetic evidence that the glycopeptidolipids of M. avium serovar 2 are synthesized by an initial transfer of the rhamnose unit to the peptide core followed by fucose and finally O methylation of the fucosyl unit. PMID:8050992

  8. Loci of Mycobacterium avium ser2 gene cluster and their functions.

    PubMed

    Mills, J A; McNeil, M R; Belisle, J T; Jacobs, W R; Brennan, P J

    1994-08-01

    The highly antigenic glycopeptidolipids present on the surface of members of the Mycobacterium avium complex serve to distinguish these bacteria from all others and to define the various serovars that compose this complex. Previously, the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of the disaccharide hapten [2,3-di-O-methyl-alpha-L-fucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranose] of serovar 2 of the M. avium complex were isolated, localized to a contiguous 22- to 27-kb fragment of the M. avium genome, and designated the ser2 gene cluster (J. T. Belisle, L. Pascopella, J. M. Inamine, P. J. Brennan, and W. R. Jacobs, Jr., J. Bacteriol. 173:6991-6997, 1991). In the present study, transposon saturation mutagenesis was used to map the specific genetic loci within the ser2 gene cluster required for expression of this disaccharide. Four essential loci, termed ser2A, -B, -C, and -D, constituting a total of 5.7 kb within the ser2 gene cluster, were defined. The ser2B and ser2D loci encode the methyltransferases required to methylate the fucose at the 3 and 2 positions, respectively. The rhamnosyltransferase was encoded by ser2A, whereas either ser2C or ser2D encoded the fucosyltransferase. The ser2C and ser2D loci are also apparently involved in the de novo synthesis of fucose. Isolation of the truncated versions of the hapten induced by the transposon insertions provides genetic evidence that the glycopeptidolipids of M. avium serovar 2 are synthesized by an initial transfer of the rhamnose unit to the peptide core followed by fucose and finally O methylation of the fucosyl unit. PMID:8050992

  9. Genetic relationship between soxRS and mar loci in promoting multiple antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, P F; Gambino, L F; Sulavik, M C; Gracheck, S J

    1994-01-01

    Multiple antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli has typically been associated with mutations at the mar locus, located at 34 min on the E. coli chromosome. A new mutant, marC, isolated on the basis of a Mar phenotype but which maps to the soxRS (encoding the regulators of the superoxide stress response) locus located at 92 min, is described here. This mutant shares several features with a known constitutive allele of the soxRS gene, prompting the conclusion that it is a highly active allele of this gene. The marC mutation has thus been given the designation soxR201. This new mutant was used to examine the relationship between the mar and sox loci in promoting antibiotic resistance. The results of these studies indicate that full antibiotic resistance resulting from the soxR201 mutation is partially dependent on an intact mar locus and is associated with an increase in the steady-state level of mar-specific mRNA. In addition, paraquat treatment of wild-type cells is shown to increase the level of antibiotic resistance in a dose-dependent manner that requires an intact soxRS locus. Conversely, overexpression of MarA from a multicopy plasmid results in weak activation of a superoxide stress response target gene. These findings are consistent with a model in which the regulatory factors encoded by the marA and soxS genes control the expression of overlapping sets of target genes, with MarA preferentially acting on targets involved with antibiotic resistance and SoxS directed primarily towards components of the superoxide stress response. Furthermore, compounds frequently used to induce the superoxide stress response, including paraquat, menadione, and phenazine methosulfate, differ with respect to the amount of protection provided against them by the antibiotic resistance response. Images PMID:7986007

  10. DNA-damaging agents stimulate gene expression at specific loci in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, C.J.; Walker, G.C.

    1988-05-01

    Operon fusions in Escherichia coli were obtained that showed increased beta-galactosidase expression in response to treatment with the DNA-damaging agent mitomycin C. These fusions were generated by using the Mud(ApR, lac) vector to insert the lactose structural genes randomly into the bacterial chromosome. Induction of beta-galactosidase in these strains, which carried fusions of lac to these din (damage-inducible) loci, was (i) triggered by UV light as well as by mitomycin C and (ii) abolished by either a recA- or a lexA- mutation. Similar characteristics of induction were observed when the lactose genes were fused to a prophage lambda promoter by using Mud(ApR, lac). These results indicate that E. coli contains a set of genes that, like prophage lambda genes, are expressed in response to DNA-damaging agents and regulated by the recA and lexA gene products. These din genes map at five bacterial loci. One din::Mud(ApR, lac) insertion results in a UV-sensitive phenotype and may be within the uvrA transcriptional unit.

  11. Microplitis demolitor Bracovirus Proviral Loci and Clustered Replication Genes Exhibit Distinct DNA Amplification Patterns during Replication

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, Tyler J.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Strand, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polydnaviruses are large, double-stranded DNA viruses that are beneficial symbionts of parasitoid wasps. Polydnaviruses in the genus Bracovirus (BVs) persist in wasps as proviruses, and their genomes consist of two functional components referred to as proviral segments and nudivirus-like genes. Prior studies established that the DNA domains where proviral segments reside are amplified during replication and that segments within amplified loci are circularized before packaging into nucleocapsids. One DNA domain where nudivirus-like genes are located is also amplified but never packaged into virions. We recently sequenced the genome of the braconid Microplitis demolitor, which carries M. demolitor bracovirus (MdBV). Here, we took advantage of this resource to characterize the DNAs that are amplified during MdBV replication using a combination of Illumina and Pacific Biosciences sequencing approaches. The results showed that specific nucleotide sites identify the boundaries of amplification for proviral loci. Surprisingly, however, amplification of loci 3, 4, 6, and 8 produced head-to-tail concatemeric intermediates; loci 1, 2, and 5 produced head-to-head/tail-to-tail concatemers; and locus 7 yielded no identified concatemers. Sequence differences at amplification junctions correlated with the types of amplification intermediates the loci produced, while concatemer processing gave rise to the circularized DNAs that are packaged into nucleocapsids. The MdBV nudivirus-like gene cluster was also amplified, albeit more weakly than most proviral loci and with nondiscrete boundaries. Overall, the MdBV genome exhibited three patterns of DNA amplification during replication. Our data also suggest that PacBio sequencing could be useful in studying the replication intermediates produced by other DNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Polydnaviruses are of fundamental interest because they provide a novel example of viruses evolving into beneficial symbionts. All polydnaviruses are

  12. Association between polymorphism of the norepinephrine transporter gene rs2242446 and rs5669 loci and depression disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yu; Cheng, Qi; Shan, Mo-Shui; Yan, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore the association between polymorphism of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) gene rs2242446 and rs5669 loci and depression in Chinese Han population. Methods: A case-control study was carried out, the gene types and allele distributions of NFT gene rs2242446 and rs5569 loci in 302 depression patients and 302 healthy controls were detected by Taqman SNP genotyping technology. Results: The gene types and allele frequency distributions of NFT gene rs2242446 and rs5569 loci had significant differences between case group and control group (rs2242446, x2=26.045, P<0.05, x2=8.827, P<0.05, rs5569, x2=42.47, P<0.05, x2=20.9, P<0.05). The CC genotype of NET gene rs2242446 locus and rs5569 loci was a protective factor of depression compared with the CT and TT genotypes. Conclusion: The NET genepoly morphism of rs2242446 and rs5569 loci was a ssociated with depression in Chinese Han population, in which the CC genotype of rs2242446 and rs5569 loci was a protective factor of depression. PMID:26770504

  13. Modifying the Schwarz Bayesian information criterion to locate multiple interacting quantitative trait loci.

    PubMed Central

    Bogdan, Malgorzata; Ghosh, Jayanta K; Doerge, R W

    2004-01-01

    The problem of locating multiple interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL) can be addressed as a multiple regression problem, with marker genotypes being the regressor variables. An important and difficult part in fitting such a regression model is the estimation of the QTL number and respective interactions. Among the many model selection criteria that can be used to estimate the number of regressor variables, none are used to estimate the number of interactions. Our simulations demonstrate that epistatic terms appearing in a model without the related main effects cause the standard model selection criteria to have a strong tendency to overestimate the number of interactions, and so the QTL number. With this as our motivation we investigate the behavior of the Schwarz Bayesian information criterion (BIC) by explaining the phenomenon of the overestimation and proposing a novel modification of BIC that allows the detection of main effects and pairwise interactions in a backcross population. Results of an extensive simulation study demonstrate that our modified version of BIC performs very well in practice. Our methodology can be extended to general populations and higher-order interactions. PMID:15238547

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Resistance to Multiple Leaf Spot Diseases of Spring Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Bonman, J. Michael; Xiong, Mai; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Adhikari, Tika B.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated wheat development and deployment of high-yielding, climate resilient, and disease resistant cultivars can contribute to enhanced food security and sustainable intensification. To facilitate gene discovery, we assembled an association mapping panel of 528 spring wheat landraces of diverse geographic origin for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). All accessions were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium 9K wheat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip and 4781 polymorphic SNPs were used for analysis. To identify loci underlying resistance to the major leaf spot diseases and to better understand the genomic patterns, we quantified population structure, allelic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium. Our results showed 32 loci were significantly associated with resistance to the major leaf spot diseases. Further analysis identified QTL effective against major leaf spot diseases of wheat which appeared to be novel and others that were previously identified by association analysis using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) and bi-parental mapping. In addition, several identified SNPs co-localized with genes that have been implicated in plant disease resistance. Future work could aim to select the putative novel loci and pyramid them in locally adapted wheat cultivars to develop broad-spectrum resistance to multiple leaf spot diseases of wheat via marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:25268502

  15. Genome-wide association study reveals novel quantitative trait Loci associated with resistance to multiple leaf spot diseases of spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Suraj; Mamidi, Sujan; Bonman, J Michael; Xiong, Mai; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Adhikari, Tika B

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated wheat development and deployment of high-yielding, climate resilient, and disease resistant cultivars can contribute to enhanced food security and sustainable intensification. To facilitate gene discovery, we assembled an association mapping panel of 528 spring wheat landraces of diverse geographic origin for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). All accessions were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium 9K wheat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip and 4781 polymorphic SNPs were used for analysis. To identify loci underlying resistance to the major leaf spot diseases and to better understand the genomic patterns, we quantified population structure, allelic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium. Our results showed 32 loci were significantly associated with resistance to the major leaf spot diseases. Further analysis identified QTL effective against major leaf spot diseases of wheat which appeared to be novel and others that were previously identified by association analysis using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) and bi-parental mapping. In addition, several identified SNPs co-localized with genes that have been implicated in plant disease resistance. Future work could aim to select the putative novel loci and pyramid them in locally adapted wheat cultivars to develop broad-spectrum resistance to multiple leaf spot diseases of wheat via marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:25268502

  16. Multiple loci associated with canine hip dysplasia (CHD) in German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    Fels, Lena; Marschall, Yvonne; Philipp, Ute; Distl, Ottmar

    2014-06-01

    Canine hip dysplasia (CHD) is the most common hereditary skeletal disorder in dogs. To identify common alleles associated with CHD, we developed 37 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within 13 quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously identified for German shepherd dogs. These SNPs were genotyped in 95 German shepherd dogs affected by CHD and 95 breed, sex, and birth year-matched controls. A total of ten SNPs significant at a nominal P value of 0.05 were validated in 843 German shepherd dogs including 277 unaffected dogs and 566 CHD-affected dogs. Cases and controls were sampled from the whole German shepherd dog population in Germany in such a way that mean coancestry coefficients were below 0.1 % within cases and controls as well as among cases and controls. We identified nine SNPs significantly associated with CHD within five QTL on dog chromosomes (CFA) 3, 9, 26, 33, and 34. Genotype effects of these nine SNPs explained between 22 and 34 % of the phenotypic variance of hip dysplasia in German shepherd dogs. The strongest associated SNPs were located on CFA33 and 34 within the candidate genes PNCP, TRIO, and SLC6A3. Thus, the present study validated positional candidate genes within five QTL for CHD. PMID:24691653

  17. Recombination within and between the human insulin and beta-globin gene loci.

    PubMed Central

    Lebo, R V; Chakravarti, A; Buetow, K H; Cheung, M C; Cann, H; Cordell, B; Goodman, H

    1983-01-01

    We detected a large number of polymorphic insulin restriction fragments in black Americans. These different size fragments were probably generated by unequal recombination on both sides of the human insulin gene. Population genetic analysis indicates that recombination occurred 33 times more frequently than expected to generate this large number of polymorphic fragments. Specific properties of the unique repeated 14- to 16-base-pair sequences 5' to the insulin gene suggest that this sequence would promote increased unequal recombination. Additional pedigree analysis showed that the recombination rate between the structural insulin and beta-globin gene loci was 14% with strong evidence for linkage. Since both insulin and beta-globin have been mapped to the short arm of human chromosome 11, this study establishes that the genetic map distance between these genes is 14.2 centimorgans. PMID:6348773

  18. Nonrandom Distribution of miRNAs Genes and Single Nucleotide Variants in Keratoconus Loci

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Dorota M.; Gajecka, Marzena

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies, the causes of both development and progression of keratoconus remain elusive. Previous studies of this disorder focused mainly on one or two genetic factors only. However, in the analysis of such complex diseases all potential factors should be taken into consideration. The purpose of this study was a comprehensive analysis of known keratoconus loci to uncover genetic factors involved in this disease causation in the general population, which could be omitted in the original studies. In this investigation genomic data available in various databases and experimental own data were assessed. The lists of single nucleotide variants and miRNA genes localized in reported keratoconus loci were obtained from Ensembl and miRBase, respectively. The potential impact of nonsynonymous amino acid substitutions on protein structure and function was assessed with PolyPhen-2 and SIFT. For selected protein genes the ranking was made to choose those most promising for keratoconus development. Ranking results were based on topological features in the protein-protein interaction network. High specificity for the populations in which the causative sequence variants have been identified was found. In addition, the possibility of links between previously analyzed keratoconus loci was confirmed including miRNA-gene interactions. Identified number of genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory agents corroborated the hypothesis of their effect on the disease etiology. Distribution of the numerous sequences variants within both exons and mature miRNA which forces you to search for a broader look at the determinants of keratoconus. Our findings highlight the complexity of the keratoconus genetics. PMID:26176855

  19. Gene-based meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies implicates new loci involved in obesity.

    PubMed

    Hägg, Sara; Ganna, Andrea; Van Der Laan, Sander W; Esko, Tonu; Pers, Tune H; Locke, Adam E; Berndt, Sonja I; Justice, Anne E; Kahali, Bratati; Siemelink, Marten A; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Strachan, David P; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; North, Kari E; Loos, Ruth J F; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Pawitan, Yudi; Ingelsson, Erik

    2015-12-01

    To date, genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified >100 loci with single variants associated with body mass index (BMI). This approach may miss loci with high allelic heterogeneity; therefore, the aim of the present study was to use gene-based meta-analysis to identify regions with high allelic heterogeneity to discover additional obesity susceptibility loci. We included GWAS data from 123 865 individuals of European descent from 46 cohorts in Stage 1 and Metabochip data from additional 103 046 individuals from 43 cohorts in Stage 2, all within the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium. Each cohort was tested for association between ∼2.4 million (Stage 1) or ∼200 000 (Stage 2) imputed or genotyped single variants and BMI, and summary statistics were subsequently meta-analyzed in 17 941 genes. We used the 'VErsatile Gene-based Association Study' (VEGAS) approach to assign variants to genes and to calculate gene-based P-values based on simulations. The VEGAS method was applied to each cohort separately before a gene-based meta-analysis was performed. In Stage 1, two known (FTO and TMEM18) and six novel (PEX2, MTFR2, SSFA2, IARS2, CEP295 and TXNDC12) loci were associated with BMI (P < 2.8 × 10(-6) for 17 941 gene tests). We confirmed all loci, and six of them were gene-wide significant in Stage 2 alone. We provide biological support for the loci by pathway, expression and methylation analyses. Our results indicate that gene-based meta-analysis of GWAS provides a useful strategy to find loci of interest that were not identified in standard single-marker analyses due to high allelic heterogeneity. PMID:26376864

  20. Large-scale gene-centric meta-analysis across 39 studies identifies type 2 diabetes loci.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Richa; Elbers, Clara C; Guo, Yiran; Peter, Inga; Gaunt, Tom R; Mega, Jessica L; Lanktree, Matthew B; Tare, Archana; Castillo, Berta Almoguera; Li, Yun R; Johnson, Toby; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan; Voight, Benjamin F; Balasubramanyam, Ashok; Barnard, John; Bauer, Florianne; Baumert, Jens; Bhangale, Tushar; Böhm, Bernhard O; Braund, Peter S; Burton, Paul R; Chandrupatla, Hareesh R; Clarke, Robert; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Crook, Errol D; Davey-Smith, George; Day, Ian N; de Boer, Anthonius; de Groot, Mark C H; Drenos, Fotios; Ferguson, Jane; Fox, Caroline S; Furlong, Clement E; Gibson, Quince; Gieger, Christian; Gilhuijs-Pederson, Lisa A; Glessner, Joseph T; Goel, Anuj; Gong, Yan; Grant, Struan F A; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hastie, Claire; Humphries, Steve E; Kim, Cecilia E; Kivimaki, Mika; Kleber, Marcus; Meisinger, Christa; Kumari, Meena; Langaee, Taimour Y; Lawlor, Debbie A; Li, Mingyao; Lobmeyer, Maximilian T; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse; Meijs, Matthijs F L; Molony, Cliona M; Morrow, David A; Murugesan, Gurunathan; Musani, Solomon K; Nelson, Christopher P; Newhouse, Stephen J; O'Connell, Jeffery R; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palmen, Jutta; Patel, Sanjey R; Pepine, Carl J; Pettinger, Mary; Price, Thomas S; Rafelt, Suzanne; Ranchalis, Jane; Rasheed, Asif; Rosenthal, Elisabeth; Ruczinski, Ingo; Shah, Sonia; Shen, Haiqing; Silbernagel, Günther; Smith, Erin N; Spijkerman, Annemieke W M; Stanton, Alice; Steffes, Michael W; Thorand, Barbara; Trip, Mieke; van der Harst, Pim; van der A, Daphne L; van Iperen, Erik P A; van Setten, Jessica; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V; Verweij, Niek; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Young, Taylor; Zafarmand, M Hadi; Zmuda, Joseph M; Boehnke, Michael; Altshuler, David; McCarthy, Mark; Kao, W H Linda; Pankow, James S; Cappola, Thomas P; Sever, Peter; Poulter, Neil; Caulfield, Mark; Dominiczak, Anna; Shields, Denis C; Bhatt, Deepak L; Bhatt, Deepak; Zhang, Li; Curtis, Sean P; Danesh, John; Casas, Juan P; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Doevendans, Pieter A; Dorn, Gerald W; Farrall, Martin; FitzGerald, Garret A; Hamsten, Anders; Hegele, Robert; Hingorani, Aroon D; Hofker, Marten H; Huggins, Gordon S; Illig, Thomas; Jarvik, Gail P; Johnson, Julie A; Klungel, Olaf H; Knowler, William C; Koenig, Wolfgang; März, Winfried; Meigs, James B; Melander, Olle; Munroe, Patricia B; Mitchell, Braxton D; Bielinski, Susan J; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Saleheen, Danish; Samani, Nilesh J; Schadt, Eric E; Shuldiner, Alan R; Silverstein, Roy; Kottke-Marchant, Kandice; Talmud, Philippa J; Watkins, Hugh; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Asselbergs, Folkert; de Bakker, Paul I W; McCaffery, Jeanne; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sabatine, Marc S; Wilson, James G; Reiner, Alex; Bowden, Donald W; Hakonarson, Hakon; Siscovick, David S; Keating, Brendan J

    2012-03-01

    To identify genetic factors contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D), we performed large-scale meta-analyses by using a custom ∼50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) with ∼2000 candidate genes in 39 multiethnic population-based studies, case-control studies, and clinical trials totaling 17,418 cases and 70,298 controls. First, meta-analysis of 25 studies comprising 14,073 cases and 57,489 controls of European descent confirmed eight established T2D loci at genome-wide significance. In silico follow-up analysis of putative association signals found in independent genome-wide association studies (including 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls) performed by the DIAGRAM consortium identified a T2D locus at genome-wide significance (GATAD2A/CILP2/PBX4; p = 5.7 × 10(-9)) and two loci exceeding study-wide significance (SREBF1, and TH/INS; p < 2.4 × 10(-6)). Second, meta-analyses of 1,986 cases and 7,695 controls from eight African-American studies identified study-wide-significant (p = 2.4 × 10(-7)) variants in HMGA2 and replicated variants in TCF7L2 (p = 5.1 × 10(-15)). Third, conditional analysis revealed multiple known and novel independent signals within five T2D-associated genes in samples of European ancestry and within HMGA2 in African-American samples. Fourth, a multiethnic meta-analysis of all 39 studies identified T2D-associated variants in BCL2 (p = 2.1 × 10(-8)). Finally, a composite genetic score of SNPs from new and established T2D signals was significantly associated with increased risk of diabetes in African-American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. In summary, large-scale meta-analysis involving a dense gene-centric approach has uncovered additional loci and variants that contribute to T2D risk and suggests substantial overlap of T2D association signals across multiple ethnic groups. PMID:22325160

  1. Multiple-interval mapping for quantitative trait loci controlling endosperm traits.

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Chen-Hung

    2004-01-01

    Endosperm traits are trisomic inheritant and are of great economic importance because they are usually directly related to grain quality. Mapping for quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying endosperm traits can provide an efficient way to genetically improve grain quality. As the traditional QTL mapping methods (diploid methods) are usually designed for traits under diploid control, they are not the ideal approaches to map endosperm traits because they ignore the triploid nature of endosperm. In this article, a statistical method considering the triploid nature of endosperm (triploid method) is developed on the basis of multiple-interval mapping (MIM) to map for the underlying QTL. The proposed triploid MIM method is derived to broadly use the marker information either from only the maternal plants or from both the maternal plants and their embryos in the backcross and F2 populations for mapping endosperm traits. Due to the use of multiple intervals simultaneously to take multiple QTL into account, the triploid MIM method can provide better detection power and estimation precision, and as shown in this article it is capable of analyzing and searching for epistatic QTL directly as compared to the traditional diploid methods and current triploid methods using only one (or two) interval(s). Several important issues in endosperm trait mapping, such as the relation and differences between the diploid and triploid methods, variance components of genetic variation, and the problems if effects are present and ignored, are also addressed. Simulations are performed to further explore these issues, to investigate the relative efficiency of different experimental designs, and to evaluate the performance of the proposed and current methods in mapping endosperm traits. The MIM-based triploid method can provide a powerful tool to estimate the genetic architecture of endosperm traits and to assist the marker-assisted selection for the improvement of grain quality in crop science

  2. Asr genes belong to a gene family comprising at least three closely linked loci on chromosome 4 in tomato.

    PubMed

    Rossi, M; Lijavetzky, D; Bernacchi, D; Hopp, H E; Iusem, N

    1996-09-25

    Asr1, Asr2 and Asr3 are three homologous clones isolated from tomato whose expression is believed to be regulated by abscisic acid (ABA); the corresponding genes thus participate in physiological and developmental processes such as responses of leaf and root to water stress, and fruit ripening. In this report, results obtained with Near Isogenic Lines reveal that Asr1, Asr2 and Asr3 represent three different loci. In addition, we map these genes on the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) map of the tomato genome by using an F2 population derived from an interspecific hybrid cross L. esculentum x L. penelli. RFLP data allow us to map these genes on chromosome 4, suggesting that they belong to a gene family. The elucidation of the genomic organization of the Asr gene family may help in understanding the role of its members in the response to osmotic stress, as well as in fruit ripening, at the molecular level. PMID:8879251

  3. Comparative genetic analysis of inflammatory bowel disease and type 1 diabetes implicates multiple loci with opposite effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Baldassano, Robert; Zhang, Haitao; Qu, Hui-Qi; Imielinski, Marcin; Kugathasan, Subra; Annese, Vito; Dubinsky, Marla; Rotter, Jerome I; Russell, Richard K; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Glessner, Joseph T; Walters, Thomas; Hou, Cuiping; Kim, Cecilia; Frackelton, Edward C; Garris, Maria; Doran, James; Romano, Claudio; Catassi, Carlo; Van Limbergen, Johan; Guthery, Stephen L; Denson, Lee; Piccoli, David; Silverberg, Mark S; Stanley, Charles A; Monos, Dimitri; Wilson, David C; Griffiths, Anne; Grant, Struan F A; Satsangi, Jack; Polychronakos, Constantin; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2010-05-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease, including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), and type 1 diabetes (T1D) are autoimmune diseases that may share common susceptibility pathways. We examined known susceptibility loci for these diseases in a cohort of 1689 CD cases, 777 UC cases, 989 T1D cases and 6197 shared control subjects of European ancestry, who were genotyped by the Illumina HumanHap550 SNP arrays. We identified multiple previously unreported or unconfirmed disease associations, including known CD loci (ICOSLG and TNFSF15) and T1D loci (TNFAIP3) that confer UC risk, known UC loci (HERC2 and IL26) that confer T1D risk and known UC loci (IL10 and CCNY) that confer CD risk. Additionally, we show that T1D risk alleles residing at the PTPN22, IL27, IL18RAP and IL10 loci protect against CD. Furthermore, the strongest risk alleles for T1D within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) confer strong protection against CD and UC; however, given the multi-allelic nature of the MHC haplotypes, sequencing of the MHC locus will be required to interpret this observation. These results extend our current knowledge on genetic variants that predispose to autoimmunity, and suggest that many loci involved in autoimmunity may be under a balancing selection due to antagonistic pleiotropic effect. Our analysis implies that variants with opposite effects on different diseases may facilitate the maintenance of common susceptibility alleles in human populations, making autoimmune diseases especially amenable to genetic dissection by genome-wide association studies. PMID:20176734

  4. Revisiting the Thrifty Gene Hypothesis via 65 Loci Associated with Susceptibility to Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ayub, Qasim; Moutsianas, Loukas; Chen, Yuan; Panoutsopoulou, Kalliope; Colonna, Vincenza; Pagani, Luca; Prokopenko, Inga; Ritchie, Graham R.S.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; McCarthy, Mark I.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Xue, Yali

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the evidence for positive selection in samples of African, European, and East Asian ancestry at 65 loci associated with susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) previously identified through genome-wide association studies. Selection early in human evolutionary history is predicted to lead to ancestral risk alleles shared between populations, whereas late selection would result in population-specific signals at derived risk alleles. By using a wide variety of tests based on the site frequency spectrum, haplotype structure, and population differentiation, we found no global signal of enrichment for positive selection when we considered all T2D risk loci collectively. However, in a locus-by-locus analysis, we found nominal evidence for positive selection at 14 of the loci. Selection favored the protective and risk alleles in similar proportions, rather than the risk alleles specifically as predicted by the thrifty gene hypothesis, and may not be related to influence on diabetes. Overall, we conclude that past positive selection has not been a powerful influence driving the prevalence of T2D risk alleles. PMID:24412096

  5. Characterization of TCF21 Downstream Target Regions Identifies a Transcriptional Network Linking Multiple Independent Coronary Artery Disease Loci

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Clint; Pjanic, Milos; Castano, Victor G.; Kim, Juyong B.; Salfati, Elias L.; Kundaje, Anshul B.; Bejerano, Gill; Assimes, Themistocles; Yang, Xia; Quertermous, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To functionally link coronary artery disease (CAD) causal genes identified by genome wide association studies (GWAS), and to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of atherosclerosis, we have used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) with the CAD associated transcription factor TCF21 in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMC). Analysis of identified TCF21 target genes for enrichment of molecular and cellular annotation terms identified processes relevant to CAD pathophysiology, including “growth factor binding,” “matrix interaction,” and “smooth muscle contraction.” We characterized the canonical binding sequence for TCF21 as CAGCTG, identified AP-1 binding sites in TCF21 peaks, and by conducting ChIP-Seq for JUN and JUND in HCASMC confirmed that there is significant overlap between TCF21 and AP-1 binding loci in this cell type. Expression quantitative trait variation mapped to target genes of TCF21 was significantly enriched among variants with low P-values in the GWAS analyses, suggesting a possible functional interaction between TCF21 binding and causal variants in other CAD disease loci. Separate enrichment analyses found over-representation of TCF21 target genes among CAD associated genes, and linkage disequilibrium between TCF21 peak variation and that found in GWAS loci, consistent with the hypothesis that TCF21 may affect disease risk through interaction with other disease associated loci. Interestingly, enrichment for TCF21 target genes was also found among other genome wide association phenotypes, including height and inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting a functional profile important for basic cellular processes in non-vascular tissues. Thus, data and analyses presented here suggest that study of GWAS transcription factors may be a highly useful approach to identifying disease gene interactions and thus pathways that may be relevant to complex disease etiology. PMID:26020271

  6. Identification of genes for controlling swine adipose deposition by integrating transcriptome, whole-genome resequencing, and quantitative trait loci data.

    PubMed

    Xing, Kai; Zhu, Feng; Zhai, LiWei; Chen, ShaoKang; Tan, Zhen; Sun, YangYang; Hou, ZhuoCheng; Wang, ChuDuan

    2016-01-01

    Backfat thickness is strongly associated with meat quality, fattening efficiency, reproductive performance, and immunity in pigs. Fat storage and fatty acid synthesis mainly occur in adipose tissue. Therefore, we used a high-throughput massively parallel sequencing approach to identify transcriptomes in adipose tissue, and whole-genome differences from three full-sibling pairs of pigs with opposite (high and low) backfat thickness phenotypes. We obtained an average of 38.69 million reads for six samples, 78.68% of which were annotated in the reference genome. Eighty-nine overlapping differentially expressed genes were identified among the three pair comparisons. Whole-genome resequencing also detected multiple genetic variations between the pools of DNA from the two groups. Compared with the animal quantitative trait loci (QTL) database, 20 differentially expressed genes were matched to the QTLs associated with fatness in pigs. Our technique of integrating transcriptome, whole-genome resequencing, and QTL database information provided a rich source of important differentially expressed genes and variations. Associate analysis between selected SNPs and backfat thickness revealed that two SNPs and one haplotype of ME1 significantly affected fat deposition in pigs. Moreover, genetic analysis confirmed that variations in the differentially expressed genes may affect fat deposition. PMID:26996612

  7. Identification of genes for controlling swine adipose deposition by integrating transcriptome, whole-genome resequencing, and quantitative trait loci data

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Kai; Zhu, Feng; Zhai, LiWei; Chen, ShaoKang; Tan, Zhen; Sun, YangYang; Hou, ZhuoCheng; Wang, ChuDuan

    2016-01-01

    Backfat thickness is strongly associated with meat quality, fattening efficiency, reproductive performance, and immunity in pigs. Fat storage and fatty acid synthesis mainly occur in adipose tissue. Therefore, we used a high-throughput massively parallel sequencing approach to identify transcriptomes in adipose tissue, and whole-genome differences from three full-sibling pairs of pigs with opposite (high and low) backfat thickness phenotypes. We obtained an average of 38.69 million reads for six samples, 78.68% of which were annotated in the reference genome. Eighty-nine overlapping differentially expressed genes were identified among the three pair comparisons. Whole-genome resequencing also detected multiple genetic variations between the pools of DNA from the two groups. Compared with the animal quantitative trait loci (QTL) database, 20 differentially expressed genes were matched to the QTLs associated with fatness in pigs. Our technique of integrating transcriptome, whole-genome resequencing, and QTL database information provided a rich source of important differentially expressed genes and variations. Associate analysis between selected SNPs and backfat thickness revealed that two SNPs and one haplotype of ME1 significantly affected fat deposition in pigs. Moreover, genetic analysis confirmed that variations in the differentially expressed genes may affect fat deposition. PMID:26996612

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Wolpin, Brian M; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Kraft, Peter; Kooperberg, Charles; Petersen, Gloria M; Wang, Zhaoming; Arslan, Alan A; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Bracci, Paige M; Buring, Julie; Canzian, Federico; Duell, Eric J; Gallinger, Steven; Giles, Graham G; Goodman, Gary E; Goodman, Phyllis J; Jacobs, Eric J; Kamineni, Aruna; Klein, Alison P; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kulke, Matthew H; Li, Donghui; Malats, Núria; Olson, Sara H; Risch, Harvey A; Sesso, Howard D; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Zheng, Wei; Abnet, Christian C; Albanes, Demetrius; Andreotti, Gabriella; Austin, Melissa A; Barfield, Richard; Basso, Daniela; Berndt, Sonja I; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Brotzman, Michelle; Büchler, Markus W; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Bugert, Peter; Burdette, Laurie; Campa, Daniele; Caporaso, Neil E; Capurso, Gabriele; Chung, Charles; Cotterchio, Michelle; Costello, Eithne; Elena, Joanne; Funel, Niccola; Gaziano, J Michael; Giese, Nathalia A; Giovannucci, Edward L; Goggins, Michael; Gorman, Megan J; Gross, Myron; Haiman, Christopher A; Hassan, Manal; Helzlsouer, Kathy J; Henderson, Brian E; Holly, Elizabeth A; Hu, Nan; Hunter, David J; Innocenti, Federico; Jenab, Mazda; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Klein, Eric A; Kogevinas, Manolis; Krogh, Vittorio; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Kurtz, Robert C; LaCroix, Andrea; Landi, Maria T; Landi, Stefano; Le Marchand, Loic; Mambrini, Andrea; Mannisto, Satu; Milne, Roger L; Nakamura, Yusuke; Oberg, Ann L; Owzar, Kouros; Patel, Alpa V; Peeters, Petra H M; Peters, Ulrike; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Piepoli, Ada; Porta, Miquel; Real, Francisco X; Riboli, Elio; Rothman, Nathaniel; Scarpa, Aldo; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T; Soucek, Pavel; Sund, Malin; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Taylor, Philip R; Theodoropoulos, George E; Thornquist, Mark; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vodicka, Pavel; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wu, Chen; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hoover, Robert; Hartge, Patricia; Fuchs, Charles; Chanock, Stephen J; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael S; Amundadottir, Laufey T

    2014-09-01

    We performed a multistage genome-wide association study including 7,683 individuals with pancreatic cancer and 14,397 controls of European descent. Four new loci reached genome-wide significance: rs6971499 at 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT, per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74-0.84, P = 3.0 × 10(-12)), rs7190458 at 16q23.1 (BCAR1/CTRB1/CTRB2, OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.30-1.65, P = 1.1 × 10(-10)), rs9581943 at 13q12.2 (PDX1, OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.10-1.20, P = 2.4 × 10(-9)) and rs16986825 at 22q12.1 (ZNRF3, OR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.12-1.25, P = 1.2 × 10(-8)). We identified an independent signal in exon 2 of TERT at the established region 5p15.33 (rs2736098, OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.76-0.85, P = 9.8 × 10(-14)). We also identified a locus at 8q24.21 (rs1561927, P = 1.3 × 10(-7)) that approached genome-wide significance located 455 kb telomeric of PVT1. Our study identified multiple new susceptibility alleles for pancreatic cancer that are worthy of follow-up studies. PMID:25086665

  9. Application of the false discovery rate to quantitative trait loci interval mapping with multiple traits.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hakkyo; Dekkers, Jack C M; Soller, M; Malek, Massoud; Fernando, Rohan L; Rothschild, Max F

    2002-01-01

    Controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) has been proposed as an alternative to controlling the genome-wise error rate (GWER) for detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) in genome scans. The objective here was to implement FDR in the context of regression interval mapping for multiple traits. Data on five traits from an F2 swine breed cross were used. FDR was implemented using tests at every 1 cM (FDR1) and using tests with the highest test statistic for each marker interval (FDRm). For the latter, a method was developed to predict comparison-wise error rates. At low error rates, FDR1 behaved erratically; FDRm was more stable but gave similar significance thresholds and number of QTL detected. At the same error rate, methods to control FDR gave less stringent significance thresholds and more QTL detected than methods to control GWER. Although testing across traits had limited impact on FDR, single-trait testing was recommended because there is no theoretical reason to pool tests across traits for FDR. FDR based on FDRm was recommended for QTL detection in interval mapping because it provides significance tests that are meaningful, yet not overly stringent, such that a more complete picture of QTL is revealed. PMID:12072484

  10. Genetics of Hemoglobin in the Deer Mouse, PEROMYSCUS MANICULATUS . II. Multiple Alleles at Regulatory Loci

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Lee R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Deer mice are polymorphic for electrophoretic hemoglobin phenotypes showing one, two, or three bands. Within the multibanded phenotypes, there is considerable variation in the hemoglobin partitioning, defined as the fraction of total hemoglobin made up by the secondary and tertiary bands. In subspecies sonoriensis, for example, hemoglobin partitionings range from 0.03 to 0.38. The inheritance of partitioning values is under remarkably strict genetic control. The genetic variation is additive and the narrow heritability is close to 1.0. The inheritance data can be modeled in precise detail by postulating multiple-allele polymorphisms at globin regulatory loci. Comparison of simulated versus actual inheritance data demonstrates that the so-called null structural alleles actually produce functional globins.—The genetic controls in Peromyscus may be analogous to those in primates. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms effecting the regulation are unknown. Different subspecies of P. maniculatus show strikingly different arrays of partitioning values, but the role of natural selection in maintaining the quantitative polymorphisms remains obscure. PMID:669256

  11. Genetic Population Structure and Gene Flow in the Atlantic Cod Gadus Morhua: A Comparison of Allozyme and Nuclear RFLP Loci

    PubMed Central

    Pogson, G. H.; Mesa, K. A.; Boutilier, R. G.

    1995-01-01

    High levels of gene flow have been implicated in producing uniform patterns of allozyme variation among populations of many marine fish species. We have examined whether gene flow is responsible for the limited population structure in the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., by comparing the previously published patterns of variation at 10 allozyme loci to 17 nuclear restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci scored by 11 anonymous cDNA clones. Unlike the allozyme loci, highly significant differences were observed among all populations at the DNA markers in a pattern consistent with an isolation-by-distance model of population structure. The magnitude of allele frequency variation at the nuclear RFLP loci significantly exceeded that observed at the protein loci (χ(2) = 24.6, d.f. = 5, P < 0.001). Estimates of gene flow from the private alleles method were similar for the allozymes and nuclear RFLPs. From the infinite island model, however, estimates of gene flow from the DNA markers were fivefold lower than indicated by the proteins. The discrepancy between gene flow estimates, combined with the observation of a large excess of rare RFLP alleles, suggests that the Atlantic cod has undergone a recent expansion in population size and that populations are significantly displaced from equilibrium. Because gene flow is a process that affects all loci equally, the heterogeneity observed among populations at the DNA level eliminates gene flow as the explanation for the homogeneous allozyme patterns. Our results suggest that a recent origin of cod populations has acted to constrain the extent of population differentiation observed at weakly polymorphic loci and implicate a role for selection in affecting the distribution of protein variation among natural populations in this species. PMID:7705638

  12. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  13. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  14. Association analysis of GWAS and candidate gene loci in a Pakistani population with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Munir, Saeeda; ber Rahman, Simeen; Rehman, Sadia; Saba, Nusrat; Ahmad, Wasim; Nilsson, Staffan; Mazhar, Kehkashan; Naluai, Åsa Torinsson

    2015-03-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory and hyper proliferative condition of the skin and a serious chronic systemic autoimmune disease. We undertook an association study to investigate the genetic etiology of psoriasis in a Pakistani population by genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported to be associated in genome-wide association (GWAS) or in candidate gene studies of psoriasis. Fifty seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 42 loci were genotyped in 533 psoriasis patients and 373 controls. Our results showed genome wide significant association of the MHC region (rs1265181 being the most significant from five SNPs used with overall OR=3.38; p=2.97E-18), as well as nominally significant associations at ten other loci (p<0.05) in the Pakistani population (LCE3B, REL, IL13/IL4, TNIP1, IL12B, TRAF3IP2, ZC3H12C, NOS2 and RNF114 from GWAS and PRR9 from a previous candidate gene study). Overall, only nine SNPs out of the 42 GWAS loci, displayed an odds ratio in the opposite allelic direction and only three did not reach similar odds ratio within 95% confidence interval as previously reported (SLC45A1/TNFRSF9, ELMO1 and IL28RA). This indicates similar genetic risk factors and molecular mechanisms behind disease in Pakistani psoriasis patients as in other populations. In addition, we show that the MHC and TNIP1 regions are significantly different in patients with psoriasis onset before the age of 40 (type I) compared to after 40 years of age (type II). MHC being associated mainly with type I while TNIP1 with type II patients. PMID:25481369

  15. Identification of New Genetic Susceptibility Loci for Breast Cancer Through Consideration of Gene-Environment Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Schoeps, Anja; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Dunning, Alison M.; Milne, Roger L.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Andrulis, Irene; Brenner, Hermann; Behrens, Sabine; Orr, Nicholas; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Li, Jingmei; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Knight, Julia; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna M.; Dumont, Martine; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Moisse, Matthieu; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Spurdle, Amanda; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Malats, Núria; Arias Perez, JoséI.; Benítez, Javier; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Truong, Théresè; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Braaf, Linde; Atsma, Femke; van den Broek, Alexandra J.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Cox, Angela; Simard, Jacques; Giles, Graham G.; Lambrechts, Diether; Mannermaa, Arto; Brauch, Hiltrud; Guénel, Pascal; Peto, Julian; Fasching, Peter A.; Hopper, John; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Couch, Fergus; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Genes that alter disease risk only in combination with certain environmental exposures may not be detected in genetic association analysis. By using methods accounting for gene-environment (G × E) interaction, we aimed to identify novel genetic loci associated with breast cancer risk. Up to 34,475 cases and 34,786 controls of European ancestry from up to 23 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were included. Overall, 71,527 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), enriched for association with breast cancer, were tested for interaction with 10 environmental risk factors using three recently proposed hybrid methods and a joint test of association and interaction. Analyses were adjusted for age, study, population stratification, and confounding factors as applicable. Three SNPs in two independent loci showed statistically significant association: SNPs rs10483028 and rs2242714 in perfect linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 21 and rs12197388 in ARID1B on chromosome 6. While rs12197388 was identified using the joint test with parity and with age at menarche (P-values = 3 × 10−07), the variants on chromosome 21 q22.12, which showed interaction with adult body mass index (BMI) in 8,891 postmenopausal women, were identified by all methods applied. SNP rs10483028 was associated with breast cancer in women with a BMI below 25 kg/m2 (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.15–1.38) but not in women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or higher (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.72–1.11, P for interaction = 3.2 × 10−05). Our findings confirm comparable power of the recent methods for detecting G × E interaction and the utility of using G × E interaction analyses to identify new susceptibility loci. PMID:24248812

  16. MANBA, CXCR5, SOX8, RPS6KB1 and ZBTB46 are genetic risk loci for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lill, Christina M.; Schjeide, Brit-Maren M.; Graetz, Christiane; Ban, Maria; Alcina, Antonio; Ortiz, Miguel A.; Pérez, Jennifer; Damotte, Vincent; Booth, David; Lopez de Lapuente, Aitzkoa; Broer, Linda; Schilling, Marcel; Akkad, Denis A.; Aktas, Orhan; Alloza, Iraide; Antigüedad, Alfredo; Arroyo, Rafa; Blaschke, Paul; Buttmann, Mathias; Chan, Andrew; Compston, Alastair; Cournu-Rebeix, Isabelle; Dörner, Thomas; Epplen, Joerg T.; Fernández, Óscar; Gerdes, Lisa-Ann; Guillot-Noël, Léna; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Hoffjan, Sabine; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Kemppinen, Anu; Kroner, Antje; Kubisch, Christian; Kümpfel, Tania; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Lohse, Peter; Lubetzki, Catherine; Luessi, Felix; Malhotra, Sunny; Mescheriakova, Julia; Montalban, Xavier; Papeix, Caroline; Paredes, Lidia F.; Rieckmann, Peter; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Winkelmann, Alexander; Zettl, Uwe K.; Hintzen, Rogier; Vandenbroeck, Koen; Stewart, Graeme; Fontaine, Bertrand; Comabella, Manuel; Urcelay, Elena; Matesanz, Fuencisla; Sawcer, Stephen; Bertram, Lars; Zipp, Frauke

    2013-01-01

    A recent genome-wide association study reported five loci for which there was strong, but sub-genome-wide significant evidence for association with multiple sclerosis risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of these potential risk loci in a large and independent data set of ∼20 000 subjects. We tested five single nucleotide polymorphisms rs228614 (MANBA), rs630923 (CXCR5), rs2744148 (SOX8), rs180515 (RPS6KB1), and rs6062314 (ZBTB46) for association with multiple sclerosis risk in a total of 8499 cases with multiple sclerosis, 8765 unrelated control subjects and 958 trios of European descent. In addition, we assessed the overall evidence for association by combining these newly generated data with the results from the original genome-wide association study by meta-analysis. All five tested single nucleotide polymorphisms showed consistent and statistically significant evidence for association with multiple sclerosis in our validation data sets (rs228614: odds ratio = 0.91, P = 2.4 × 10−6; rs630923: odds ratio = 0.89, P = 1.2 × 10−4; rs2744148: odds ratio = 1.14, P = 1.8 × 10−6; rs180515: odds ratio = 1.12, P = 5.2 × 10−7; rs6062314: odds ratio = 0.90, P = 4.3 × 10−3). Combining our data with results from the previous genome-wide association study by meta-analysis, the evidence for association was strengthened further, surpassing the threshold for genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8) in each case. Our study provides compelling evidence that these five loci are genuine multiple sclerosis susceptibility loci. These results may eventually lead to a better understanding of the underlying disease pathophysiology. PMID:23739915

  17. Organization and genomic complexity of sheep immunoglobulin light chain gene loci.

    PubMed

    Qin, Tong; Liu, Zhihong; Zhao, Huijing

    2015-12-01

    Sheep is the representative of the artiodactyla and is an agriculturally important animal, but limited knowledge is available with regard to its immunoglobulin genes and their expression mechanisms in the sheep. Based on the recently released sheep genome, we have characterized the genomic organization of the sheep immunoglobulin light gene loci. The sheep Igλ locus, located on chromosome 17, contains 2Cλ segments each preceded by a Jλ, but the Cλ2 appears to be a pseudogene. A total of 42 Vλ segments (14 potentially functional genes, 1 ORF and 27 pseudogenes) were identified. In contrast, the Igκ locus on chromosome 3 contains only a single Cκ gene, 3 Jk segments and 13 Vκ segments (8 potentially functional genes and 5 pseudogenes). Analysis of junctions of the recombined VJ transcripts revealed a restricted Vλ4-Jλ1-Cλ1 recombination and Vk6-Jk3-Cκ recombination, respectively encode most of λ and κ chain antibody repertoire in the sheep despite more potential germline encoded combinatorial diversity. Therefore, the sheep may use gene conversion in combination with somatic hypermutation for antibody repertoire formation. PMID:26499865

  18. Genetic analysis of Escherichia coli urease genes: evidence for two distinct loci.

    PubMed

    Collins, C M; Falkow, S

    1990-12-01

    Studies with two uropathogenic urease-producing Escherichia coli strains, 1021 and 1440, indicated that the urease genes of each are distinct. Recombinant plasmids encoding urease activity from E. coli 1021 and 1440 differed in their restriction endonuclease cleavage sites and showed minimal DNA hybridization under stringent conditions. The polypeptides encoded by the DNA fragments containing the 1021 and 1440 urease loci differed in electrophoretic mobility under reducing conditions. Regulation of urease gene expression differed in the two ureolytic E. coli. The E. coli 1021 locus is probably chromosomally encoded and has DNA homology to Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia species and to about one-half of the urease-producing E. coli tested. The E. coli 1440 locus is plasmid encoded; plasmids with DNA homology to the 1440 locus probe were found in urease-producing Salmonella spp., Providencia stuartii, and two E. coli isolates. In addition, the 1440 urease probe was homologous to Proteus mirabilis DNA. PMID:2174868

  19. Migration-selection balance at multiple Loci and selection on dominance and recombination.

    PubMed

    Yanchukov, Alexey; Proulx, Stephen R

    2014-01-01

    A steady influx of a single deleterious multilocus genotype will impose genetic load on the resident population and leave multiple descendants carrying various numbers of the foreign alleles. Provided that the foreign types are rare at equilibrium, and all immigrant genes are eventually eliminated by selection, the population structure can be inferred explicitly from the branching process taking place within a single immigrant lineage. Unless the migration and recombination rates were high, this novel method gives a close approximation to the simulation with all possible multilocus genotypes considered. Once the load and the foreign genotypes frequencies are known, it becomes possible to estimate selection acting on the invading modifiers of (i) dominance and (ii) recombination rate on the foreign gene block. We found that the modifiers of the (i) type are able to invade faster than the type (ii) modifier, however, this result only applies in the strong selection/low migration/low recombination scenario. Varying the number of genes in the immigrant genotype can have a non-monotonic effect on the migration load and the modifier's invasion rate: although blocks carrying more genes can give rise to longer lineages, they also experience stronger selection pressure. The heaviest load is therefore imposed by the genotypes carrying moderate numbers of genes. PMID:24551127

  20. Rgg influences the expression of multiple regulatory loci to coregulate virulence factor expression in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Chaussee, Michael S; Sylva, Gail L; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Smoot, Laura M; Graham, Morag R; Watson, Robert O; Musser, James M

    2002-02-01

    The human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes secretes many proteins to the cell wall and extracellular environment that contribute to virulence. Rgg regulates the expression of several exoproteins including a cysteine protease (SPE B), a nuclease (MF-1), a putative nuclease (MF-3), and autolysin. The functional heterogeneity of Rgg-regulated exoproteins and the lack of a conserved regulatory motif in the promoter regions of the genes suggested that Rgg interacts with additional regulatory networks to influence gene expression. DNA microarrays were used to test this hypothesis by comparing genomewide transcript profiles of S. pyogenes NZ131 and isogenic derivative NZ131 rgg during the exponential phase of growth. Transcripts of known and putative virulence-associated genes were more abundant in the rgg mutant, including emm, scpA, orfX, scl1, hasAB, slo, sagA, ska, speH, grab, mac, mf-1, and mf-3. Increased transcription of emm, scpA, and orfX in the rgg mutant was associated with increased production of the corresponding proteins. Differences in the expression of virulence-associated genes were associated with changes in the expression of several regulatory genes, including mga, sagA, csrRS, and fasBCA. The results show that Rgg influences the expression of multiple regulatory networks to coregulate virulence factor expression in S. pyogenes. PMID:11796609

  1. Genetic diversity of MHC class I loci in six non-model frogs is shaped by positive selection and gene duplication

    PubMed Central

    Kiemnec-Tyburczy, K M; Richmond, J Q; Savage, A E; Lips, K R; Zamudio, K R

    2012-01-01

    Comparative studies of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes across vertebrate species can reveal the evolutionary processes that shape the structure and function of immune regulatory proteins. In this study, we characterized MHC class I sequences from six frog species representing three anuran families (Hylidae, Centrolenidae and Ranidae). Using cDNA from our focal species, we amplified a total of 79 unique sequences spanning exons 2–4 that encode the extracellular domains of the functional alpha chain protein. We compared intra- and interspecific nucleotide and amino-acid divergence, tested for recombination, and identified codon sites under selection by estimating the rate of non-synonymous to synonymous substitutions with multiple codon-based maximum likelihood methods. We determined that positive (diversifying) selection was acting on specific amino-acid sites located within the domains that bind pathogen-derived peptides. We also found significant signals of recombination across the physical distance of the genes. Finally, we determined that all the six species expressed two or three putative classical class I loci, in contrast to the single locus condition of Xenopus laevis. Our results suggest that MHC evolution in anurans is a dynamic process and that variation in numbers of loci and genetic diversity can exist among taxa. Thus, the accumulation of genetic data for more species will be useful in further characterizing the relative importance of processes such as selection, recombination and gene duplication in shaping MHC loci among amphibian lineages. PMID:22549517

  2. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wolpin, Brian M.; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Kraft, Peter; Kooperberg, Charles; Petersen, Gloria M.; Wang, Zhaoming; Arslan, Alan A.; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Bracci, Paige M.; Buring, Julie; Canzian, Federico; Duell, Eric J.; Gallinger, Steven; Giles, Graham G.; Goodman, Gary E.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Kamineni, Aruna; Klein, Alison P.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kulke, Matthew H.; Li, Donghui; Malats, Núria; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Sesso, Howard D.; Visvanathan, Kala; White, Emily; Zheng, Wei; Abnet, Christian C.; Albanes, Demetrius; Andreotti, Gabriella; Austin, Melissa A.; Barfield, Richard; Basso, Daniela; Berndt, Sonja I.; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Brotzman, Michelle; Büchler, Markus W.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Bugert, Peter; Burdette, Laurie; Campa, Daniele; Caporaso, Neil E.; Capurso, Gabriele; Chung, Charles; Cotterchio, Michelle; Costello, Eithne; Elena, Joanne; Funel, Niccola; Gaziano, J. Michael; Giese, Nathalia A.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goggins, Michael; Gorman, Megan J.; Gross, Myron; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hassan, Manal; Helzlsouer, Kathy J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Hu, Nan; Hunter, David J.; Innocenti, Federico; Jenab, Mazda; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Klein, Eric A.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Krogh, Vittorio; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Kurtz, Robert C.; LaCroix, Andrea; Landi, Maria T.; Landi, Stefano; Le Marchand, Loic; Mambrini, Andrea; Mannisto, Satu; Milne, Roger L.; Nakamura, Yusuke; Oberg, Ann L.; Owzar, Kouros; Patel, Alpa V.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Peters, Ulrike; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Piepoli, Ada; Porta, Miquel; Real, Francisco X.; Riboli, Elio; Rothman, Nathaniel; Scarpa, Aldo; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Silverman, Debra T.; Soucek, Pavel; Sund, Malin; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Taylor, Philip R.; Theodoropoulos, George E.; Thornquist, Mark; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Vodicka, Pavel; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wu, Chen; Yu, Herbert; Yu, Kai; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Hoover, Robert; Hartge, Patricia; Fuchs, Charles; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    We performed a multistage genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 7,683 individuals with pancreatic cancer and 14,397 controls of European descent. Four new loci reached genome-wide significance: rs6971499 at 7q32.3 (LINC-PINT; per-allele odds ratio [OR] = 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.74–0.84; P = 3.0×10−12), rs7190458 at 16q23.1 (BCAR1/CTRB1/CTRB2; OR = 1.46; 95% CI = 1.30–1.65; P = 1.1×10−10), rs9581943 at 13q12.2 (PDX1; OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.10–1.20; P = 2.4×10−9), and rs16986825 at 22q12.1 (ZNRF3; OR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.12–1.25; P = 1.2×10−8). An independent signal was identified in exon 2 of TERT at the established region 5p15.33 (rs2736098; OR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.76–0.85; P = 9.8×10−14). We also identified a locus at 8q24.21 (rs1561927; P = 1.3×10−7) that approached genome-wide significance located 455 kb telomeric of PVT1. Our study has identified multiple new susceptibility alleles for pancreatic cancer worthy of follow-up studies. PMID:25086665

  3. Evidence for Asymmetrical Divergence-Gene Flow of Nuclear Loci, but Not Mitochondrial Loci, between Seabird Sister Species: Blue-Footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) Boobies

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Scott A.; Anderson, David J.; Friesen, Vicki L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the process of speciation requires understanding how gene flow influences divergence. Recent analyses indicate that divergence can take place despite gene flow and that the sex chromosomes can exhibit different levels of gene flow than autosomes and mitochondrial DNA. Using an eight marker dataset including autosomal, z-linked, and mitochondrial loci we tested the hypothesis that blue-footed (Sula nebouxii) and Peruvian (S. variegata) boobies diverged from their common ancestor with gene flow, paying specific attention to the differences in gene flow estimates from nuclear and mitochondrial markers. We found no gene flow at mitochondrial markers, but found evidence from the combined autosomal and z-linked dataset that blue-footed and Peruvian boobies experienced asymmetrical gene flow during or after their initial divergence, predominantly from Peruvian boobies into blue-footed boobies. This gene exchange may have occurred either sporadically between periods of allopatry, or regularly throughout the divergence process. Our results add to growing evidence that diverging species can remain distinct but exchange genes. PMID:23614045

  4. A 1,681-locus consensus genetic map of cultivated cucumber including 67 NB-LRR resistance gene homolog and ten gene loci

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cucumber is an important vegetable crop that is susceptible to many pathogens, but no disease resistance (R) genes have been cloned. The availability of whole genome sequences provides an excellent opportunity for systematic identification and characterization of the nucleotide binding and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) type R gene homolog (RGH) sequences in the genome. Cucumber has a very narrow genetic base making it difficult to construct high-density genetic maps. Development of a consensus map by synthesizing information from multiple segregating populations is a method of choice to increase marker density. As such, the objectives of the present study were to identify and characterize NB-LRR type RGHs, and to develop a high-density, integrated cucumber genetic-physical map anchored with RGH loci. Results From the Gy14 draft genome, 70 NB-containing RGHs were identified and characterized. Most RGHs were in clusters with uneven distribution across seven chromosomes. In silico analysis indicated that all 70 RGHs had EST support for gene expression. Phylogenetic analysis classified 58 RGHs into two clades: CNL and TNL. Comparative analysis revealed high-degree sequence homology and synteny in chromosomal locations of these RGH members between the cucumber and melon genomes. Fifty-four molecular markers were developed to delimit 67 of the 70 RGHs, which were integrated into a genetic map through linkage analysis. A 1,681-locus cucumber consensus map including 10 gene loci and spanning 730.0 cM in seven linkage groups was developed by integrating three component maps with a bin-mapping strategy. Physically, 308 scaffolds with 193.2 Mbp total DNA sequences were anchored onto this consensus map that covered 52.6% of the 367 Mbp cucumber genome. Conclusions Cucumber contains relatively few NB-LRR RGHs that are clustered and unevenly distributed in the genome. All RGHs seem to be transcribed and shared significant sequence homology and synteny with the melon

  5. Multiple New Loci Associated with Kidney Function and Chronic Kidney Disease: The CKDGen consortium

    PubMed Central

    Köttgen, Anna; Pattaro, Cristian; Böger, Carsten A.; Fuchsberger, Christian; Olden, Matthias; Glazer, Nicole L.; Parsa, Afshin; Gao, Xiaoyi; Yang, Qiong; Smith, Albert V.; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Li, Man; Schmidt, Helena; Tanaka, Toshiko; Isaacs, Aaron; Ketkar, Shamika; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Johnson, Andrew D.; Dehghan, Abbas; Teumer, Alexander; Paré, Guillaume; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Zeller, Tanja; Lohman, Kurt; Cornelis, Marilyn C.; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.; Kronenberg, Florian; Tönjes, Anke; Hayward, Caroline; Aspelund, Thor; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Launer, Lenore; Harris, Tamara B.; Rapmersaud, Evadnie; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Struchalin, Maksim; Cavalieri, Margherita; Singleton, Andrew; Giallauria, Francesco; Metter, Jeffery; de Boer, Ian; Haritunians, Talin; Lumley, Thomas; Siscovick, David; Psaty, Bruce M.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Oostra, Ben A.; Feitosa, Mary; Province, Michael; Levy, Daniel; de Andrade, Mariza; Turner, Stephen T.; Schillert, Arne; Ziegler, Andreas; Wild, Philipp S.; Schnabel, Renate B.; Wilde, Sandra; Muenzel, Thomas F.; Leak, Tennille S; Illig, Thomas; Klopp, Norman; Meisinger, Christa; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Koenig, Wolfgang; Zgaga, Lina; Zemunik, Tatijana; Kolcic, Ivana; Minelli, Cosetta; Hu, Frank B.; Johansson, Åsa; Igl, Wilmar; Zaboli, Ghazal; Wild, Sarah H; Wright, Alan F; Campbell, Harry; Ellinghaus, David; Schreiber, Stefan; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Hofman, Albert; Imboden, Medea; Nitsch, Dorothea; Brandstätter, Anita; Kollerits, Barbara; Kedenko, Lyudmyla; Mägi, Reedik; Stumvoll, Michael; Kovacs, Peter; Boban, Mladen; Campbell, Susan; Endlich, Karlhans; Völzke, Henry; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Nauck, Matthias; Völker, Uwe; Polasek, Ozren; Vitart, Veronique; Badola, Sunita; Parker, Alexander N.; Ridker, Paul M.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Liu, Yongmei; Curhan, Gary C.; Franke, Andre; Rochat, Thierry; Paulweber, Bernhard; Prokopenko, Inga; Wang, Wei; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Reinhold; Ferrucci, Luigi; Shlipak, Michael G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Borecki, Ingrid; Krämer, Bernhard K.; Rudan, Igor; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Rettig, Rainer; Hastie, Nick; Chasman, Daniel I.; Kao, W. H.; Heid, Iris M.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant public health problem, and recent genetic studies have identified common CKD susceptibility variants. The CKDGen consortium performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 67,093 Caucasian individuals from 20 population-based studies to identify new susceptibility loci for reduced renal function, estimated by serum creatinine (eGFRcrea), cystatin C (eGFRcys), and CKD (eGFRcrea <60 ml/min/1.73m2; n = 5,807 CKD cases). Follow-up of the 23 genome-wide significant loci (p<5×10−8) in 22,982 replication samples identified 13 novel loci for renal function and CKD (in or near LASS2, GCKR, ALMS1, TFDP2, DAB2, SLC34A1, VEGFA, PRKAG2, PIP5K1B, ATXN2, DACH1, UBE2Q2, and SLC7A9) and 7 creatinine production and secretion loci (CPS1, SLC22A2, TMEM60, WDR37, SLC6A13, WDR72, BCAS3). These results further our understanding of biologic mechanisms of kidney function by identifying loci potentially influencing nephrogenesis, podocyte function, angiogenesis, solute transport, and metabolic functions of the kidney. PMID:20383146

  6. Comparative genomic hybridization reveals many new loci containing amplified genes in breast cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kallioniemi, O.P.; Kallioniemi, A.H.; Rutovitz, D.; Sudar, D.; Chen, L.C.; Smith, H.S.; Gray, J.W.; Pinkel, D.; Waldman, F.M. GBCRI, San Francisco, CA MRC Genetics Unit, Edinburgh )

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed a powerful new technique, comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), for molecular cytogenetic analysis of solid tumors. In CGH, differentially labeled total tumor DNA and normal reference DNA are allowed to compete for their binding sites in a normal metaphase spread. After immunofluorescent staining, the relative copy numbers of all regions in the tumor genome can be quantitiated with an image analysis system by measuring the intensity ratios of the two fluorochromes along the length of each chromosome. They used CGH to study gene amplification and other chromosomal changes in 16 breast cancer cell lines and 20 primary tumors. The loci undergoing amplification were highly variable from one sample to another and over 20 distinct sites were identified. Some sites correspond to locations of known oncogenes (e.g. erbb2 at 17q12 and myc at 8q24) whereas most of them (e.g. 6p22, 11p15, 17q22) are not previously known to contain amplified oncogenes. Frequent changes affecting larger chromosomal regions, such as duplications of 1q and deletions of 1p32-35, have also been found. CGH can dramatically facilitate identification of commonly altered chromosomal loci in cancer.

  7. Alzheimer’s Disease Risk Polymorphisms Regulate Gene Expression in the ZCWPW1 and the CELF1 Loci

    PubMed Central

    Karch, Celeste M.; Ezerskiy, Lubov A.; Bertelsen, Sarah; Goate, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    Late onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) is a genetically complex and clinically heterogeneous disease. Recent large-scale genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than twenty loci that modify risk for AD. Despite the identification of these loci, little progress has been made in identifying the functional variants that explain the association with AD risk. Thus, we sought to determine whether the novel LOAD GWAS single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) alter expression of LOAD GWAS genes and whether expression of these genes is altered in AD brains. The majority of LOAD GWAS SNPs occur in gene dense regions under large linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks, making it unclear which gene(s) are modified by the SNP. Thus, we tested for brain expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) between LOAD GWAS SNPs and SNPs in high LD with the LOAD GWAS SNPs in all of the genes within the GWAS loci. We found a significant eQTL between rs1476679 and PILRB and GATS, which occurs within the ZCWPW1 locus. PILRB and GATS expression levels, within the ZCWPW1 locus, were also associated with AD status. Rs7120548 was associated with MTCH2 expression, which occurs within the CELF1 locus. Additionally, expression of several genes within the CELF1 locus, including MTCH2, were highly correlated with one another and were associated with AD status. We further demonstrate that PILRB, as well as other genes within the GWAS loci, are most highly expressed in microglia. These findings together with the function of PILRB as a DAP12 receptor supports the critical role of microglia and neuroinflammation in AD risk. PMID:26919393

  8. Genetic structure and gene flow among Komodo dragon populations inferred by microsatellite loci analysis.

    PubMed

    Ciofi, C; Bruford, M W

    1999-12-01

    A general concern for the conservation of endangered species is the maintenance of genetic variation within populations, particularly when they become isolated and reduced in size. Estimates of gene flow and effective population size are therefore important for any conservation initiative directed to the long-term persistence of a species in its natural habitat. In the present study, 10 microsatellite loci were used to assess the level of genetic variability among populations of the Komodo dragon Varanus komodoensis. Effective population size was calculated and gene flow estimates were compared with palaeogeographic data in order to assess the degree of vulnerability of four island populations. Rinca and Flores, currently separated by an isthmus of about 200 m, retained a high level of genetic diversity and showed a high degree of genetic similarity, with gene flow values close to one migrant per generation. The island of Komodo showed by far the highest levels of genetic divergence, and its allelic distinctiveness was considered of great importance in the maintenance of genetic variability within the species. A lack of distinct alleles and low levels of gene flow and genetic variability were found for the small population of Gili Motang island, which was identified as vulnerable to stochastic threats. Our results are potentially important for both the short- and long-term management of the Komodo dragon, and are critical in view of future re-introduction or augmentation in areas where the species is now extinct or depleted. PMID:10703549

  9. Complex CGH alterations on chromosome arm 8p at candidate tumor suppressor gene loci in breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Venter, Deon J; Ramus, Susan J; Hammet, Fleur M A; de Silva, Melanie; Hutchins, Anne-Marie; Petrovic, Vida; Price, Gareth; Armes, Jane E

    2005-07-15

    Loss of genetic material from chromosome arm 8p occurs frequently in human breast carcinomas, consistent with this region of the genome harboring one or more tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). We used the complementary techniques of microsatellite-based LOH, high-density FISH, and conventional CGH on 6 breast cancer cell lines (MCF7, SKBR3, T47D, MDA MB453, BT549, and BT474) to investigate the molecular cytogenetic changes occurring on chromosome 8 during tumorigenesis, with particular emphasis on 6 potential TSGs on 8p. We identified multiple alterations of chromosome 8, including partial or complete deletion of 8p or 8q, duplication of 8q, and isochromosome 8q. The detailed FISH analysis showed several complex rearrangements of 8p with differing breakpoints of varying proximity to the genes of interest. High rates of LOH were observed at markers adjacent to or within PCM1, DUSP4/MKP2, NKX3A, and DLC1, supporting their status as candidate TSGs. Due to the complex ploidy status of these cell lines, relative loss of 8p material detected by CGH did not always correlate with microsatellite-based LOH results. These results extend our understanding of the mechanisms accompanying the dysregulation of candidate tumor suppressor loci on chromosome arm 8p, and identify appropriate cellular systems for further investigation of their biological properties. PMID:15993269

  10. Genealogical analyses of multiple loci of litostomatean ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora, Litostomatea)

    PubMed Central

    Vd’ačný, Peter; Bourland, William A.; Orsi, William; Epstein, Slava S.; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    The class Litostomatea is a highly diverse ciliate taxon comprising hundreds of free-living and endocommensal species. However, their traditional morphology-based classification conflicts with 18S rRNA gene phylogenies indicating (1) a deep bifurcation of the Litostomatea into Rhynchostomatia and Haptoria + Trichostomatia, and (2) body polarization and simplification of the oral apparatus as main evolutionary trends in the Litostomatea. To test whether 18S rRNA molecules provide a suitable proxy for litostomatean evolutionary history, we used eighteen new ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region sequences from various free-living litostomatean orders. These single- and multiple-locus analyses are in agreement with previous 18S rRNA gene phylogenies, supporting that both 18S rRNA gene and ITS region sequences are effective tools for resolving phylogenetic relationships among the litostomateans. Despite insertions, deletions and mutational saturations in the ITS region, the present study shows that ITS1 and ITS2 molecules can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships not only at species level but also at higher taxonomic ranks when their secondary structure information is utilized to aid alignment. PMID:22789763

  11. Genealogical analyses of multiple loci of litostomatean ciliates (Protista, Ciliophora, Litostomatea).

    PubMed

    Vd'ačný, Peter; Bourland, William A; Orsi, William; Epstein, Slava S; Foissner, Wilhelm

    2012-11-01

    The class Litostomatea is a highly diverse ciliate taxon comprising hundreds of free-living and endocommensal species. However, their traditional morphology-based classification conflicts with 18S rRNA gene phylogenies indicating (1) a deep bifurcation of the Litostomatea into Rhynchostomatia and Haptoria+Trichostomatia, and (2) body polarization and simplification of the oral apparatus as main evolutionary trends in the Litostomatea. To test whether 18S rRNA molecules provide a suitable proxy for litostomatean evolutionary history, we used eighteen new ITS1-5.8S rRNA-ITS2 region sequences from various free-living litostomatean orders. These single- and multiple-locus analyses are in agreement with previous 18S rRNA gene phylogenies, supporting that both 18S rRNA gene and ITS region sequences are effective tools for resolving phylogenetic relationships among the litostomateans. Despite insertions, deletions and mutational saturations in the ITS region, the present study shows that ITS1 and ITS2 molecules can be used to infer phylogenetic relationships not only at species level but also at higher taxonomic ranks when their secondary structure information is utilized to aid alignment. PMID:22789763

  12. Gene expression, methylation and neuropathology correlations at progressive supranuclear palsy risk loci.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mariet; Burgess, Jeremy D; Ballard, Travis; Serie, Daniel; Wang, Xue; Younkin, Curtis S; Sun, Zhifu; Kouri, Naomi; Baheti, Saurabh; Wang, Chen; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Nguyen, Thuy; Lincoln, Sarah; Malphrus, Kimberly; Murray, Melissa; Golde, Todd E; Price, Nathan D; Younkin, Steven G; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Asmann, Yan; Ordog, Tamas; Crook, Julia; Dickson, Dennis; Ertekin-Taner, Nilüfer

    2016-08-01

    To determine the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in a genome-wide association study of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), we tested their association with brain gene expression, CpG methylation and neuropathology. In 175 autopsied PSP subjects, we performed associations between seven PSP risk variants and temporal cortex levels of 20 genes in-cis, within ±100 kb. Methylation measures were collected using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing in 43 PSP brains. To determine whether SNP/expression associations are due to epigenetic modifications, CpG methylation levels of associated genes were tested against relevant variants. Quantitative neuropathology endophenotypes were tested for SNP associations in 422 PSP subjects. Brain levels of LRRC37A4 and ARL17B were associated with rs8070723; MOBP with rs1768208 and both ARL17A and ARL17B with rs242557. Expression associations for LRRC37A4 and MOBP were available in an additional 100 PSP subjects. Meta-analysis revealed highly significant associations for PSP risk alleles of rs8070723 and rs1768208 with higher LRRC37A4 and MOBP brain levels, respectively. Methylation levels of one CpG in the 3' region of ARL17B associated with rs242557 and rs8070723. Additionally, methylation levels of an intronic ARL17A CpG associated with rs242557 and that of an intronic MOBP CpG with rs1768208. MAPT and MOBP region risk alleles also associated with higher levels of neuropathology. Strongest associations were observed for rs242557/coiled bodies and tufted astrocytes; and for rs1768208/coiled bodies and tau threads. These findings suggest that PSP variants at MAPT and MOBP loci may confer PSP risk via influencing gene expression and tau neuropathology. MOBP, LRRC37A4, ARL17A and ARL17B warrant further assessment as candidate PSP risk genes. Our findings have implications for the mechanism of action of variants at some of the top PSP risk loci. PMID:27115769

  13. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies discovers multiple loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Berndt, Sonja I.; Camp, Nicola J.; Skibola, Christine F.; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Zhaoming; Gu, Jian; Nieters, Alexandra; Kelly, Rachel S.; Smedby, Karin E.; Monnereau, Alain; Cozen, Wendy; Cox, Angela; Wang, Sophia S.; Lan, Qing; Teras, Lauren R.; Machado, Moara; Yeager, Meredith; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R.; Hartge, Patricia; Purdue, Mark P.; Birmann, Brenda M.; Vajdic, Claire M.; Cocco, Pierluigi; Zhang, Yawei; Giles, Graham G.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Montalvan, Rebecca; Burdett, Laurie; Hutchinson, Amy; Ye, Yuanqing; Call, Timothy G.; Shanafelt, Tait D.; Novak, Anne J.; Kay, Neil E.; Liebow, Mark; Cunningham, Julie M.; Allmer, Cristine; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Adami, Hans-Olov; Melbye, Mads; Glimelius, Bengt; Chang, Ellen T.; Glenn, Martha; Curtin, Karen; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A.; Diver, W Ryan; Link, Brian K.; Weiner, George J.; Conde, Lucia; Bracci, Paige M.; Riby, Jacques; Arnett, Donna K.; Zhi, Degui; Leach, Justin M.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Benavente, Yolanda; Sala, Núria; Casabonne, Delphine; Becker, Nikolaus; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; Staines, Anthony; Chaffee, Kari G.; Achenbach, Sara J.; Vachon, Celine M.; Goldin, Lynn R.; Strom, Sara S.; Leis, Jose F.; Weinberg, J. Brice; Caporaso, Neil E.; Norman, Aaron D.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Morton, Lindsay M.; Severson, Richard K.; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Masala, Giovanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Chirlaque, María- Dolores; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.; Travis, Ruth C.; Southey, Melissa C.; Milne, Roger L.; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Clavel, Jacqueline; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Villano, Danylo J.; Maria, Ann; Spinelli, John J.; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.; Bertrand, Kimberly A.; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Kricker, Anne; Turner, Jenny; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Ferri, Giovanni M.; Miligi, Lucia; Liang, Liming; Ma, Baoshan; Huang, Jinyan; Crouch, Simon; Park, Ju-Hyun; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; North, Kari E.; Snowden, John A.; Wright, Josh; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Offit, Kenneth; Wu, Xifeng; de Sanjose, Silvia; Cerhan, James R.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy with strong heritability. To further understand the genetic susceptibility for CLL and identify common loci associated with risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS) composed of 3,100 cases and 7,667 controls with follow-up replication in 1,958 cases and 5,530 controls. Here we report three new loci at 3p24.1 (rs9880772, EOMES, P=2.55 × 10−11), 6p25.2 (rs73718779, SERPINB6, P=1.97 × 10−8) and 3q28 (rs9815073, LPP, P=3.62 × 10−8), as well as a new independent SNP at the known 2q13 locus (rs9308731, BCL2L11, P=1.00 × 10−11) in the combined analysis. We find suggestive evidence (P<5 × 10−7) for two additional new loci at 4q24 (rs10028805, BANK1, P=7.19 × 10−8) and 3p22.2 (rs1274963, CSRNP1, P=2.12 × 10−7). Pathway analyses of new and known CLL loci consistently show a strong role for apoptosis, providing further evidence for the importance of this biological pathway in CLL susceptibility. PMID:26956414

  14. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies discovers multiple loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Sonja I; Camp, Nicola J; Skibola, Christine F; Vijai, Joseph; Wang, Zhaoming; Gu, Jian; Nieters, Alexandra; Kelly, Rachel S; Smedby, Karin E; Monnereau, Alain; Cozen, Wendy; Cox, Angela; Wang, Sophia S; Lan, Qing; Teras, Lauren R; Machado, Moara; Yeager, Meredith; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Hartge, Patricia; Purdue, Mark P; Birmann, Brenda M; Vajdic, Claire M; Cocco, Pierluigi; Zhang, Yawei; Giles, Graham G; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Montalvan, Rebecca; Burdett, Laurie; Hutchinson, Amy; Ye, Yuanqing; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D; Novak, Anne J; Kay, Neil E; Liebow, Mark; Cunningham, Julie M; Allmer, Cristine; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Adami, Hans-Olov; Melbye, Mads; Glimelius, Bengt; Chang, Ellen T; Glenn, Martha; Curtin, Karen; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A; Diver, W Ryan; Link, Brian K; Weiner, George J; Conde, Lucia; Bracci, Paige M; Riby, Jacques; Arnett, Donna K; Zhi, Degui; Leach, Justin M; Holly, Elizabeth A; Jackson, Rebecca D; Tinker, Lesley F; Benavente, Yolanda; Sala, Núria; Casabonne, Delphine; Becker, Nikolaus; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; McKay, James; Staines, Anthony; Chaffee, Kari G; Achenbach, Sara J; Vachon, Celine M; Goldin, Lynn R; Strom, Sara S; Leis, Jose F; Weinberg, J Brice; Caporaso, Neil E; Norman, Aaron D; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Morton, Lindsay M; Severson, Richard K; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Masala, Giovanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Travis, Ruth C; Southey, Melissa C; Milne, Roger L; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Clavel, Jacqueline; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R; Villano, Danylo J; Maria, Ann; Spinelli, John J; Gascoyne, Randy D; Connors, Joseph M; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Kricker, Anne; Turner, Jenny; Ennas, Maria Grazia; Ferri, Giovanni M; Miligi, Lucia; Liang, Liming; Ma, Baoshan; Huang, Jinyan; Crouch, Simon; Park, Ju-Hyun; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; North, Kari E; Snowden, John A; Wright, Josh; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Offit, Kenneth; Wu, Xifeng; de Sanjose, Silvia; Cerhan, James R; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Slager, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a common lymphoid malignancy with strong heritability. To further understand the genetic susceptibility for CLL and identify common loci associated with risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of four genome-wide association studies (GWAS) composed of 3,100 cases and 7,667 controls with follow-up replication in 1,958 cases and 5,530 controls. Here we report three new loci at 3p24.1 (rs9880772, EOMES, P=2.55 × 10(-11)), 6p25.2 (rs73718779, SERPINB6, P=1.97 × 10(-8)) and 3q28 (rs9815073, LPP, P=3.62 × 10(-8)), as well as a new independent SNP at the known 2q13 locus (rs9308731, BCL2L11, P=1.00 × 10(-11)) in the combined analysis. We find suggestive evidence (P<5 × 10(-7)) for two additional new loci at 4q24 (rs10028805, BANK1, P=7.19 × 10(-8)) and 3p22.2 (rs1274963, CSRNP1, P=2.12 × 10(-7)). Pathway analyses of new and known CLL loci consistently show a strong role for apoptosis, providing further evidence for the importance of this biological pathway in CLL susceptibility. PMID:26956414

  15. Somatic Copy Number Alterations at Oncogenic Loci Show Diverse Correlations with Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Roszik, Jason; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Siroy, Alan E.; Lazar, Alexander J.; Davies, Michael A; Woodman, Scott E; Kwong, Lawrence N

    2016-01-01

    Somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) affecting oncogenic drivers have a firmly established role in promoting cancer. However, no agreed-upon standard exists for calling locus-specific amplifications and deletions in each patient sample. Here, we report the correlative analysis of copy number amplitude and length with gene expression across 6,109 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset across 16 cancer types. Using specificity, sensitivity, and precision-based scores, we assigned optimized amplitude and length cutoffs for nine recurrent SCNAs affecting known oncogenic drivers, using mRNA expression as a functional readout. These cutoffs captured the majority of SCNA-driven, highly-expression-altered samples. The majority of oncogenes required only amplitude cutoffs, as high amplitude samples were almost invariably focal; however, CDKN2A and PTEN uniquely required both amplitude and length cutoffs as primary predictors. For PTEN, these extended to downstream AKT activation. In contrast, SCNA genes located peri-telomerically or in fragile sites showed poor expression-copy number correlations. Overall, our analyses identify optimized amplitude and length cutoffs as efficient predictors of gene expression changes for specific oncogenic SCNAs, yet warn against one-size-fits-all interpretations across all loci. Our results have implications for cancer data analyses and the clinic, where copy number and mutation data are increasingly used to personalize cancer therapy. PMID:26787600

  16. Somatic Copy Number Alterations at Oncogenic Loci Show Diverse Correlations with Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszik, Jason; Wu, Chang-Jiun; Siroy, Alan E.; Lazar, Alexander J.; Davies, Michael A.; Woodman, Scott E.; Kwong, Lawrence N.

    2016-01-01

    Somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) affecting oncogenic drivers have a firmly established role in promoting cancer. However, no agreed-upon standard exists for calling locus-specific amplifications and deletions in each patient sample. Here, we report the correlative analysis of copy number amplitude and length with gene expression across 6,109 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset across 16 cancer types. Using specificity, sensitivity, and precision-based scores, we assigned optimized amplitude and length cutoffs for nine recurrent SCNAs affecting known oncogenic drivers, using mRNA expression as a functional readout. These cutoffs captured the majority of SCNA-driven, highly-expression-altered samples. The majority of oncogenes required only amplitude cutoffs, as high amplitude samples were almost invariably focal; however, CDKN2A and PTEN uniquely required both amplitude and length cutoffs as primary predictors. For PTEN, these extended to downstream AKT activation. In contrast, SCNA genes located peri-telomerically or in fragile sites showed poor expression-copy number correlations. Overall, our analyses identify optimized amplitude and length cutoffs as efficient predictors of gene expression changes for specific oncogenic SCNAs, yet warn against one-size-fits-all interpretations across all loci. Our results have implications for cancer data analyses and the clinic, where copy number and mutation data are increasingly used to personalize cancer therapy.

  17. Phylogeny and historical biogeography of the cocosoid palms (Arecaceae, Arecoideae, Cocoseae) inferred from sequences of six WRKY gene family loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae is the most economically important tribe of palms, including both coconut and African oil palm. It is mostly represented in the Neotropics, with one and two genera endemic to South Africa and Madagascar, respectively. Using primers for six single copy WRKY gene family loci...

  18. Pinpointing genes underlying the quantitative trait loci for root-knot nematode resistance in palaeopolyploid soybean by whole genome resequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to utilize next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to dissect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for southern root-knot nematode (RKN) resistance into individual genes in soybean. Two-hundred forty-six recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between Mage...

  19. Genetic manipulation to analyze pheromone responses: knockouts of multiple receptor genes.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    Gene targeting in the mouse is an essential technique to study gene function in vivo. Multigene families encoding vomeronasal receptor (VR) type 1 and type 2 consist of ~300 intact genes, which are clustered at multiple loci in the mouse genome. To understand the function of VRs and neurons expressing a particular VR in vivo, individual endogenous receptor genes can be manipulated by conventional gene targeting to create loss-of-function mutations or to visualize neurons and their axons expressing the VR. Multiple receptor genes in a cluster can also be deleted simultaneously by chromosome engineering, allowing analysis of function of a particular VR subfamily. Here, we describe protocols for conventional gene targeting and chromosome engineering for deleting a large genomic region in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. PMID:24014359

  20. Linkage Analysis Incorporating Gene-Age Interactions Identifies Seven Novel Lipid Loci: The Family Blood Pressure Program

    PubMed Central

    Kraja, Aldi T.; Turner, Stephen T.; Hanis, Craig L.; Sheu, Wayne; Chen, Ida; Jaquish, Cashell; Cooper, Richard S.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Quertermous, Thomas; Boerwinkle, Eric; Hunt, Steven C.; Rao, DC

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To detect novel loci with age-dependent effects on fasting (≥8 hours) levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides using3,600 African Americans, 1,283 Asians, 3,218 European Americans, and 2,026 Mexican Americans from the Family Blood Pressure Program (FBPP). METHODS Within each subgroup (defined by network, race, and sex), we employedstepwise linear regression (retention p≤0.05) to adjust lipid levels for age, age-squared, age-cubed,body-mass-index, current smoking status, current drinking status, field center, estrogen therapy (females only), as well asantidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antilipidemic medication use. For each trait, we pooled the standardized male and female residuals within each network and race and fit a generalized variance components model that incorporated gene-age interactions. We conducted FBPP-wide and race-specific meta-analyses by combining the p-values of each linkage marker across subgroups usinga modifiedFisher's method. RESULTS We identified seven novel loci with age-dependent effects; four total cholesterol loci from the meta-analysis of Mexican Americans (on chromosomes 2q24.1, 4q21.21, 8q22.2, and 12p11.23) and three high-density lipoprotein loci from the meta-analysis of all FBPP subgroups (on chromosomes 1p12, 14q11.2, and 21q21.1). These loci lacked significant genome-wide linkage or association evidence in the literature and hadlogarithm of odds (LOD) score ≥ 3 in the meta-analysis with LOD≥1 in at least two network and race subgroups (exclusively of non-European descent). CONCLUSION Incorporating gene-age interactions into the analysis of lipids using multi-ethnic cohorts can enhance gene discovery. These interaction loci can guide the selection of familiesfor sequencingstudies of lipid-associated variants. PMID:24819747

  1. Genetic linkage analysis of 14 candidate gene loci in a family with autosomal dominant osteoarthritis without dysplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Meulenbelt, I; Bijkerk, C; Breedveld, F C; Slagboom, P E

    1997-01-01

    The role of various gene loci was investigated in a family in which familial osteoarthritis (FOA), with onset at an early age, is transmitted as an autosomal dominant mendelian trait. The absence of clinical and radiographic signs of dysplasia and calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPDD) indicates that the basic disease process in this family is osteoarthritis (OA). Genetic linkage analysis of 14 candidate genes resulted in the exclusion of 10 important genes (COL2A1, COL9A1, COL9A2, COL11A1, COL11A2, COMP, the CPDD region, CRTL-1, CRTM, and MMP3). Other relevant genes were not informative in this family. The candidate loci previously identified in FOA and heritable skeletal disorders associated with OA are clearly not involved in the development of the primary FOA phenotype in the family investigated, indicating genetic heterogeneity. Images PMID:9429149

  2. Genetic Analysis of the Pathogenic Molecular Sub-phenotype Interferon Alpha Identifies Multiple Novel Loci Involved in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Kariuki, Silvia N.; Ghodke-Puranik, Yogita; Dorschner, Jessica M.; Chrabot, Beverly S.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Tsao, Betty P.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Jacob, Chaim O.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Sivils, Kathy L.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Harley, John B.; Skol, Andrew D.; Niewold, Timothy B.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation of multiple organ systems and dysregulated interferon responses. SLE is both genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous, greatly reducing the power of case-control studies in SLE. Elevated circulating interferon alpha (IFN-α) is a stable, heritable trait in SLE, which has been implicated in primary disease pathogenesis. 40–50% of patients have high IFN-α, and high levels correspond with clinical differences. To study genetic heterogeneity in SLE, we performed a case-case study comparing patients with high vs. low IFN-α in over 1550 SLE cases, including GWAS and replication cohorts. In meta-analysis, the top associations in European ancestry were PRKG1 rs7897633 (PMeta=2.75 × 10−8) and PNP rs1049564 (PMeta=1.24 × 10−7). We also found evidence for cross-ancestral background associations with the ANKRD44 and PLEKHF2 loci. These loci have not been previously identified in case-control SLE genetic studies. Bioinformatic analyses implicated these loci functionally in dendritic cells and natural killer cells, both of which are involved in IFN-α production in SLE. As case-control studies of heterogeneous diseases reach a limit of feasibility with respect to subject number and detectable effect size, the study of informative pathogenic subphenotypes becomes an attractive strategy for genetic discovery in complex disease. PMID:25338677

  3. Genome-wide meta-analyses of multiancestry cohorts identify multiple new susceptibility loci for refractive error and myopia.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Hysi, Pirro G; Wojciechowski, Robert; Fan, Qiao; Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Höhn, René; MacGregor, Stuart; Hewitt, Alex W; Nag, Abhishek; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Zhou, Xin; Ikram, M Kamran; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; McMahon, George; Kemp, John P; Pourcain, Beate St; Simpson, Claire L; Mäkelä, Kari-Matti; Lehtimäki, Terho; Kähönen, Mika; Paterson, Andrew D; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Wong, Hoi Suen; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B; Pärssinen, Olavi; Wedenoja, Juho; Yip, Shea Ping; Ho, Daniel W H; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia; Burdon, Kathryn P; Craig, Jamie E; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Haller, Toomas; Metspalu, Andres; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Tai, E-Shyong; Aung, Tin; Vithana, Eranga; Tay, Wan-Ting; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Chen, Peng; Li, Ruoying; Liao, Jiemin; Zheng, Yingfeng; Ong, Rick T; Döring, Angela; Evans, David M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Verkerk, Annemieke J M H; Meitinger, Thomas; Raitakari, Olli; Hawthorne, Felicia; Spector, Tim D; Karssen, Lennart C; Pirastu, Mario; Murgia, Federico; Ang, Wei; Mishra, Aniket; Montgomery, Grant W; Pennell, Craig E; Cumberland, Phillippa M; Cotlarciuc, Ioana; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Schache, Maria; Janmahasatian, Sarayut; Janmahasathian, Sarayut; Igo, Robert P; Lass, Jonathan H; Chew, Emily; Iyengar, Sudha K; Gorgels, Theo G M F; Rudan, Igor; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F; Polasek, Ozren; Vatavuk, Zoran; Wilson, James F; Fleck, Brian; Zeller, Tanja; Mirshahi, Alireza; Müller, Christian; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Vingerling, Johannes R; Hofman, Albert; Oostra, Ben A; Amin, Najaf; Bergen, Arthur A B; Teo, Yik-Ying; Rahi, Jugnoo S; Vitart, Veronique; Williams, Cathy; Baird, Paul N; Wong, Tien-Yin; Oexle, Konrad; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Mackey, David A; Young, Terri L; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Saw, Seang-Mei; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Stambolian, Dwight; Klaver, Caroline C; Hammond, Christopher J

    2013-03-01

    Refractive error is the most common eye disorder worldwide and is a prominent cause of blindness. Myopia affects over 30% of Western populations and up to 80% of Asians. The CREAM consortium conducted genome-wide meta-analyses, including 37,382 individuals from 27 studies of European ancestry and 8,376 from 5 Asian cohorts. We identified 16 new loci for refractive error in individuals of European ancestry, of which 8 were shared with Asians. Combined analysis identified 8 additional associated loci. The new loci include candidate genes with functions in neurotransmission (GRIA4), ion transport (KCNQ5), retinoic acid metabolism (RDH5), extracellular matrix remodeling (LAMA2 and BMP2) and eye development (SIX6 and PRSS56). We also confirmed previously reported associations with GJD2 and RASGRF1. Risk score analysis using associated SNPs showed a tenfold increased risk of myopia for individuals carrying the highest genetic load. Our results, based on a large meta-analysis across independent multiancestry studies, considerably advance understanding of the mechanisms involved in refractive error and myopia. PMID:23396134

  4. De Novo and Rare Variants at Multiple Loci Support the Oligogenic Origins of Atrioventricular Septal Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Priest, James R.; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Mohammed, Nebil; Nanda, Vivek; Kundu, Ramendra; Schultz, Kathleen; Girirajan, Santhosh; Scheetz, Todd; Waggott, Daryl; Haddad, Francois; Reddy, Sushma; Bernstein, Daniel; Burns, Trudy; Steimle, Jeffrey D.; Yang, Xinan H.; Moskowitz, Ivan P.; Hurles, Matthew; Lifton, Richard P.; Nickerson, Debbie; Bamshad, Michael; Eichler, Evan E.; Mital, Seema; Sheffield, Val; Quertermous, Thomas; Gelb, Bruce D.; Portman, Michael; Ashley, Euan A.

    2016-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) has a complex genetic etiology, and recent studies suggest that high penetrance de novo mutations may account for only a small fraction of disease. In a multi-institutional cohort surveyed by exome sequencing, combining analysis of 987 individuals (discovery cohort of 59 affected trios and 59 control trios, and a replication cohort of 100 affected singletons and 533 unaffected singletons) we observe variation at novel and known loci related to a specific cardiac malformation the atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). In a primary analysis, by combining developmental coexpression networks with inheritance modeling, we identify a de novo mutation in the DNA binding domain of NR1D2 (p.R175W). We show that p.R175W changes the transcriptional activity of Nr1d2 using an in vitro transactivation model in HUVEC cells. Finally, we demonstrate previously unrecognized cardiovascular malformations in the Nr1d2tm1-Dgen knockout mouse. In secondary analyses we map genetic variation to protein-interaction networks suggesting a role for two collagen genes in AVSD, which we corroborate by burden testing in a second replication cohort of 100 AVSDs and 533 controls (p = 8.37e-08). Finally, we apply a rare-disease inheritance model to identify variation in genes previously associated with CHD (ZFPM2, NSD1, NOTCH1, VCAN, and MYH6), cardiac malformations in mouse models (ADAM17, CHRD, IFT140, PTPRJ, RYR1 and ATE1), and hypomorphic alleles of genes causing syndromic CHD (EHMT1, SRCAP, BBS2, NOTCH2, and KMT2D) in 14 of 59 trios, greatly exceeding variation in control trios without CHD (p = 9.60e-06). In total, 32% of trios carried at least one putatively disease-associated variant across 19 loci,suggesting that inherited and de novo variation across a heterogeneous group of loci may contribute to disease risk. PMID:27058611

  5. De Novo and Rare Variants at Multiple Loci Support the Oligogenic Origins of Atrioventricular Septal Heart Defects.

    PubMed

    Priest, James R; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Mohammed, Nebil; Nanda, Vivek; Kundu, Ramendra; Schultz, Kathleen; Lammer, Edward J; Girirajan, Santhosh; Scheetz, Todd; Waggott, Daryl; Haddad, Francois; Reddy, Sushma; Bernstein, Daniel; Burns, Trudy; Steimle, Jeffrey D; Yang, Xinan H; Moskowitz, Ivan P; Hurles, Matthew; Lifton, Richard P; Nickerson, Debbie; Bamshad, Michael; Eichler, Evan E; Mital, Seema; Sheffield, Val; Quertermous, Thomas; Gelb, Bruce D; Portman, Michael; Ashley, Euan A

    2016-04-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) has a complex genetic etiology, and recent studies suggest that high penetrance de novo mutations may account for only a small fraction of disease. In a multi-institutional cohort surveyed by exome sequencing, combining analysis of 987 individuals (discovery cohort of 59 affected trios and 59 control trios, and a replication cohort of 100 affected singletons and 533 unaffected singletons) we observe variation at novel and known loci related to a specific cardiac malformation the atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). In a primary analysis, by combining developmental coexpression networks with inheritance modeling, we identify a de novo mutation in the DNA binding domain of NR1D2 (p.R175W). We show that p.R175W changes the transcriptional activity of Nr1d2 using an in vitro transactivation model in HUVEC cells. Finally, we demonstrate previously unrecognized cardiovascular malformations in the Nr1d2tm1-Dgen knockout mouse. In secondary analyses we map genetic variation to protein-interaction networks suggesting a role for two collagen genes in AVSD, which we corroborate by burden testing in a second replication cohort of 100 AVSDs and 533 controls (p = 8.37e-08). Finally, we apply a rare-disease inheritance model to identify variation in genes previously associated with CHD (ZFPM2, NSD1, NOTCH1, VCAN, and MYH6), cardiac malformations in mouse models (ADAM17, CHRD, IFT140, PTPRJ, RYR1 and ATE1), and hypomorphic alleles of genes causing syndromic CHD (EHMT1, SRCAP, BBS2, NOTCH2, and KMT2D) in 14 of 59 trios, greatly exceeding variation in control trios without CHD (p = 9.60e-06). In total, 32% of trios carried at least one putatively disease-associated variant across 19 loci,suggesting that inherited and de novo variation across a heterogeneous group of loci may contribute to disease risk. PMID:27058611

  6. Evolution of Vertebrate Adam Genes; Duplication of Testicular Adams from Ancient Adam9/9-like Loci

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Members of the disintegrin metalloproteinase (ADAM) family have important functions in regulating cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions as well as cell signaling. There are two major types of ADAMs: the somatic ADAMs (sADAMs) that have a significant presence in somatic tissues, and the testicular ADAMs (tADAMs) that are expressed predominantly in the testis. Genes encoding tADAMs can be further divided into two groups: group I (intronless) and group II (intron-containing). To date, tAdams have only been reported in placental mammals, and their evolutionary origin and relationship to sAdams remain largely unknown. Using phylogenetic and syntenic tools, we analyzed the Adam genes in various vertebrates ranging from fishes to placental mammals. Our analyses reveal duplication and loss of some sAdams in certain vertebrate species. In particular, there exists an Adam9-like gene in non-mammalian vertebrates but not mammals. We also identified putative group I and group II tAdams in all amniote species that have been examined. These tAdam homologues are more closely related to Adams 9 and 9-like than to other sAdams. In all amniote species examined, group II tAdams lie in close vicinity to Adam9 and hence likely arose from tandem duplication, whereas group I tAdams likely originated through retroposition because of their lack of introns. Clusters of multiple group I tAdams are also common, suggesting tandem duplication after retroposition. Therefore, Adam9/9-like and some of the derived tAdam loci are likely preferred targets for tandem duplication and/or retroposition. Consistent with this hypothesis, we identified a young retroposed gene that duplicated recently from Adam9 in the opossum. As a result of gene duplication, some tAdams were pseudogenized in certain species, whereas others acquired new expression patterns and functions. The rapid duplication of Adam genes has a major contribution to the diversity of ADAMs in various vertebrate species. PMID:26308360

  7. Senescence-specific gene expression fingerprints reveal cell-type-dependent physical clustering of up-regulated chromosomal loci

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Pan, Kuang-Hung; Cohen, Stanley N.

    2003-01-01

    Replicative senescence is the state of irreversible proliferative arrest that occurs as a concomitant of progressive telomere shortening. By using cDNA microarrays and the gabriel system of computer programs to apply domain-specific and procedural knowledge for data analysis, we investigated global changes in gene transcription occurring during replicative senescence in human fibroblasts and mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Here we report the identification of transcriptional “fingerprints” unique to senescence, the finding that gene expression perturbations during senescence differ greatly in fibroblasts and HMECs, and the discovery that despite the disparate nature of the chromosomal loci affected by senescence in fibroblasts and HMECs, the up-regulated loci in both types of cells show physical clustering. This clustering, which contrasts with the random distribution of genes down-regulated during senescence or up-regulated during reversible proliferative arrest (i.e., quiescence), supports the view that replicative senescence is associated with alteration of chromatin structure. PMID:12626749

  8. Chromatin interactions and candidate genes at ten prostate cancer risk loci.

    PubMed

    Du, Meijun; Tillmans, Lori; Gao, Jianzhong; Gao, Ping; Yuan, Tiezheng; Dittmar, Rachel L; Song, Wei; Yang, Yuehong; Sahr, Natasha; Wang, Tao; Wei, Gong-Hong; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 100 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with prostate cancer risk. However, the vast majority of these SNPs lie in noncoding regions of the genome. To test whether these risk SNPs regulate their target genes through long-range chromatin interactions, we applied capture-based 3C sequencing technology to investigate possible cis-interactions at ten prostate cancer risk loci in six cell lines. We identified significant physical interactions between risk regions and their potential target genes including CAPG at 2p11.2, C2orf43 at 2p24.1, RFX6 at 6q22.1, NFASC at 1q32.1, MYC at 8q24.1 and AGAP7P at 10q11.23. Most of the interaction peaks were co-localized to regions of active histone modification and transcription factor binding sites. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis showed suggestive eQTL signals at rs1446669, rs699664 and rs1078004 for CAPG (p < 0.004), rs13394027 for C2orf43 (p = 2.25E-27), rs10993994 and rs4631830 for AGAP7P (p < 8.02E-5). Further analysis revealed an enhancer activity at genomic region surrounding rs4631830 which was expected to disrupt HOXB-like DNA binding affinity. This study identifies a set of candidate genes and their potential regulatory variants, and provides additional evidence showing the role of long-range chromatin interactions in prostate cancer etiology. PMID:26979803

  9. Chromatin interactions and candidate genes at ten prostate cancer risk loci

    PubMed Central

    Du, Meijun; Tillmans, Lori; Gao, Jianzhong; Gao, Ping; Yuan, Tiezheng; Dittmar, Rachel L; Song, Wei; Yang, Yuehong; Sahr, Natasha; Wang, Tao; Wei, Gong-Hong; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Wang, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 100 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with prostate cancer risk. However, the vast majority of these SNPs lie in noncoding regions of the genome. To test whether these risk SNPs regulate their target genes through long-range chromatin interactions, we applied capture-based 3C sequencing technology to investigate possible cis-interactions at ten prostate cancer risk loci in six cell lines. We identified significant physical interactions between risk regions and their potential target genes including CAPG at 2p11.2, C2orf43 at 2p24.1, RFX6 at 6q22.1, NFASC at 1q32.1, MYC at 8q24.1 and AGAP7P at 10q11.23. Most of the interaction peaks were co-localized to regions of active histone modification and transcription factor binding sites. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis showed suggestive eQTL signals at rs1446669, rs699664 and rs1078004 for CAPG (p < 0.004), rs13394027 for C2orf43 (p = 2.25E-27), rs10993994 and rs4631830 for AGAP7P (p < 8.02E-5). Further analysis revealed an enhancer activity at genomic region surrounding rs4631830 which was expected to disrupt HOXB-like DNA binding affinity. This study identifies a set of candidate genes and their potential regulatory variants, and provides additional evidence showing the role of long-range chromatin interactions in prostate cancer etiology. PMID:26979803

  10. Cigarette smoking reduces DNA methylation levels at multiple genomic loci but the effect is partially reversible upon cessation.

    PubMed

    Tsaprouni, Loukia G; Yang, Tsun-Po; Bell, Jordana; Dick, Katherine J; Kanoni, Stavroula; Nisbet, James; Viñuela, Ana; Grundberg, Elin; Nelson, Christopher P; Meduri, Eshwar; Buil, Alfonso; Cambien, Francois; Hengstenberg, Christian; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Goodall, Alison H; Ouwehand, Willem H; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil; Spector, Tim D; Samani, Nilesh J; Deloukas, Panos

    2014-10-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor in many diseases. Genome wide association studies have linked genes for nicotine dependence and smoking behavior to increased risk of cardiovascular, pulmonary, and malignant diseases. We conducted an epigenome wide association study in peripheral-blood DNA in 464 individuals (22 current smokers and 263 ex-smokers), using the Human Methylation 450 K array. Upon replication in an independent sample of 356 twins (41 current and 104 ex-smokers), we identified 30 probes in 15 distinct loci, all of which reached genome-wide significance in the combined analysis P < 5 × 10(-8). All but one probe (cg17024919) remained significant after adjusting for blood cell counts. We replicated all 9 known loci and found an independent signal at CPOX near GPR15. In addition, we found 6 new loci at PRSS23, AVPR1B, PSEN2, LINC00299, RPS6KA2, and KIAA0087. Most of the lead probes (13 out of 15) associated with cigarette smoking, overlapped regions of open chromatin (FAIRE and DNaseI hypersensitive sites) or/and H3K27Ac peaks (ENCODE data set), which mark regulatory elements. The effect of smoking on DNA methylation was partially reversible upon smoking cessation for longer than 3 months. We report the first statistically significant interaction between a SNP (rs2697768) and cigarette smoking on DNA methylation (cg03329539). We provide evidence that the metSNP for cg03329539 regulates expression of the CHRND gene located circa 95 Kb downstream of the methylation site. Our findings suggest the existence of dynamic, reversible site-specific methylation changes in response to cigarette smoking , which may contribute to the extended health risks associated with cigarette smoking. PMID:25424692

  11. Multiple Loci within the Major Histocompatibility Complex Confer Risk of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Soltani-Arabshahi, Razieh; Bowcock, Anne M.; Nair, Rajan P.; Stuart, Philip; Elder, James T.; Schrodi, Steven J.; Begovich, Ann B.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Zhang, Xue-Jun; Callis-Duffin, Kristina P.; Krueger, Gerald G.; Goldgar, David E.

    2009-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory skin disease characterized by thickened scaly red plaques. Previously we have performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on psoriasis with 1,359 cases and 1,400 controls, which were genotyped for 447,249 SNPs. The most significant finding was for SNP rs12191877, which is in tight linkage disequilibrium with HLA-Cw*0602, the consensus risk allele for psoriasis. However, it is not known whether there are other psoriasis loci within the MHC in addition to HLA-C. In the present study, we searched for additional susceptibility loci within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region through in-depth analyses of the GWAS data; then, we followed up our findings in an independent Han Chinese 1,139 psoriasis cases and 1,132 controls. Using the phased CEPH dataset as a reference, we imputed the HLA-Cw*0602 in all samples with high accuracy. The association of the imputed HLA-Cw*0602 dosage with disease was much stronger than that of the most significantly associated SNP, rs12191877. Adjusting for HLA-Cw*0602, there were two remaining association signals: one demonstrated by rs2073048 (p = 2×10−6, OR = 0.66), located within c6orf10, a potential downstream effecter of TNF-alpha, and one indicated by rs13437088 (p = 9×10−6, OR = 1.3), located 30 kb centromeric of HLA-B and 16 kb telomeric of MICA. When HLA-Cw*0602, rs2073048, and rs13437088 were all included in a logistic regression model, each of them was significantly associated with disease (p = 3×10−47, 6×10−8, and 3×10−7, respectively). Both putative loci were also significantly associated in the Han Chinese samples after controlling for the imputed HLA-Cw*0602. A detailed analysis of HLA-B in both populations demonstrated that HLA-B*57 was associated with an increased risk of psoriasis and HLA-B*40 a decreased risk, independently of HLA-Cw*0602 and the C6orf10 locus, suggesting the potential pathogenic involvement of HLA-B. These results demonstrate

  12. A candidate gene study of the type I interferon pathway implicates IKBKE and IL8 as risk loci for SLE

    PubMed Central

    Sandling, Johanna K; Garnier, Sophie; Sigurdsson, Snaevar; Wang, Chuan; Nordmark, Gunnel; Gunnarsson, Iva; Svenungsson, Elisabet; Padyukov, Leonid; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Jönsen, Andreas; Bengtsson, Anders A; Truedsson, Lennart; Eriksson, Catharina; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Mälarstig, Anders; Strawbridge, Rona J; Hamsten, Anders; Criswell, Lindsey A; Graham, Robert R; Behrens, Timothy W; Eloranta, Maija-Leena; Alm, Gunnar; Rönnblom, Lars; Syvänen, Ann-Christine

    2011-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease in which the type I interferon pathway has a crucial role. We have previously shown that three genes in this pathway, IRF5, TYK2 and STAT4, are strongly associated with risk for SLE. Here, we investigated 78 genes involved in the type I interferon pathway to identify additional SLE susceptibility loci. First, we genotyped 896 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these 78 genes and 14 other candidate genes in 482 Swedish SLE patients and 536 controls. Genes with P<0.01 in the initial screen were then followed up in 344 additional Swedish patients and 1299 controls. SNPs in the IKBKE, TANK, STAT1, IL8 and TRAF6 genes gave nominal signals of association with SLE in this extended Swedish cohort. To replicate these findings we extracted data from a genomewide association study on SLE performed in a US cohort. Combined analysis of the Swedish and US data, comprising a total of 2136 cases and 9694 controls, implicates IKBKE and IL8 as SLE susceptibility loci (Pmeta=0.00010 and Pmeta=0.00040, respectively). STAT1 was also associated with SLE in this cohort (Pmeta=3.3 × 10−5), but this association signal appears to be dependent of that previously reported for the neighbouring STAT4 gene. Our study suggests additional genes from the type I interferon system in SLE, and highlights genes in this pathway for further functional analysis. PMID:21179067

  13. Evolutionary relationships within the lamioid tribe Synandreae (Lamiaceae) based on multiple low-copy nuclear loci.

    PubMed

    Roy, Tilottama; Catlin, Nathan S; Garner, Drake M G; Cantino, Philip D; Scheen, Anne-Cathrine; Lindqvist, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Lamioideae (Lamiaceae) comprises ten tribes, of which only Stachydeae and Synandreae include New World members. Previous studies have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Synandreae based on plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA loci. In an effort to re-examine the phylogenetic relationships within Synandreae, the current study incorporates data from four low-copy nuclear loci, PHOT1, PHOT2, COR, and PPR. Our results confirm previous studies based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal markers in supporting the monophyly of tribe Synandreae, as well as sister relationships between Brazoria and Warnockia, and between that pair of genera and a monophyletic Physostegia. However, we observe incongruence in the relationships of Macbridea and Synandra. The placement of Synandreae within Lamioideae is poorly resolved and incongruent among different analyses, and the sister group of Synandreae remains enigmatic. Comparison of the colonization and migration patterns corroborates a single colonization of the New World by Synandreae during the Late Miocene/Tortonian age. This is in contrast to the only other lamioid tribe that includes New World members, Stachydeae, which colonized the New World at least twice-during the mid-Miocene and Pliocene. Edaphic conditions and intolerance of soil acidity may be factors that restricted the distribution of most genera of Synandreae to southeastern and south-central North America, whereas polyploidy could have increased the colonizing capability of the more wide-ranging genus, Physostegia. PMID:27547537

  14. Evolutionary relationships within the lamioid tribe Synandreae (Lamiaceae) based on multiple low-copy nuclear loci

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Tilottama; Catlin, Nathan S.; Garner, Drake M.G.; Cantino, Philip D.; Scheen, Anne-Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Lamioideae (Lamiaceae) comprises ten tribes, of which only Stachydeae and Synandreae include New World members. Previous studies have investigated the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Synandreae based on plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA loci. In an effort to re-examine the phylogenetic relationships within Synandreae, the current study incorporates data from four low-copy nuclear loci, PHOT1, PHOT2, COR, and PPR. Our results confirm previous studies based on chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal markers in supporting the monophyly of tribe Synandreae, as well as sister relationships between Brazoria and Warnockia, and between that pair of genera and a monophyletic Physostegia. However, we observe incongruence in the relationships of Macbridea and Synandra. The placement of Synandreae within Lamioideae is poorly resolved and incongruent among different analyses, and the sister group of Synandreae remains enigmatic. Comparison of the colonization and migration patterns corroborates a single colonization of the New World by Synandreae during the Late Miocene/Tortonian age. This is in contrast to the only other lamioid tribe that includes New World members, Stachydeae, which colonized the New World at least twice—during the mid-Miocene and Pliocene. Edaphic conditions and intolerance of soil acidity may be factors that restricted the distribution of most genera of Synandreae to southeastern and south–central North America, whereas polyploidy could have increased the colonizing capability of the more wide-ranging genus, Physostegia. PMID:27547537

  15. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for glioma

    PubMed Central

    Kinnersley, Ben; Labussière, Marianne; Holroyd, Amy; Di Stefano, Anna-Luisa; Broderick, Peter; Vijayakrishnan, Jayaram; Mokhtari, Karima; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Gousias, Konstantinos; Schramm, Johannes; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Fleming, Sarah J.; Herms, Stefan; Heilmann, Stefanie; Schreiber, Stefan; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Nöthen, Markus M.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Lathrop, Mark; Simon, Matthias; Bondy, Melissa; Sanson, Marc; Houlston, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have shown that common genetic variation contributes to the heritable risk of glioma. To identify new glioma susceptibility loci, we conducted a meta-analysis of four GWAS (totalling 4,147 cases and 7,435 controls), with imputation using 1000 Genomes and UK10K Project data as reference. After genotyping an additional 1,490 cases and 1,723 controls we identify new risk loci for glioblastoma (GBM) at 12q23.33 (rs3851634, near POLR3B, P=3.02 × 10−9) and non-GBM at 10q25.2 (rs11196067, near VTI1A, P=4.32 × 10−8), 11q23.2 (rs648044, near ZBTB16, P=6.26 × 10−11), 12q21.2 (rs12230172, P=7.53 × 10−11) and 15q24.2 (rs1801591, near ETFA, P=5.71 × 10−9). Our findings provide further insights into the genetic basis of the different glioma subtypes. PMID:26424050

  16. A genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Speedy, Helen E; Di Bernardo, Maria Chiara; Sava, Georgina P; Dyer, Martin J S; Holroyd, Amy; Wang, Yufei; Sunter, Nicola J; Mansouri, Larry; Juliusson, Gunnar; Smedby, Karin E; Roos, Göran; Jayne, Sandrine; Majid, Aneela; Dearden, Claire; Hall, Andrew G; Mainou-Fowler, Tryfonia; Jackson, Graham H; Summerfield, Geoffrey; Harris, Robert J; Pettitt, Andrew R; Allsup, David J; Bailey, James R; Pratt, Guy; Pepper, Chris; Fegan, Chris; Rosenquist, Richard; Catovsky, Daniel; Allan, James M; Houlston, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) have shown that common genetic variation contributes to the heritable risk of CLL. To identify additional CLL susceptibility loci, we conducted a GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with a published GWAS totaling 1,739 individuals with CLL (cases) and 5,199 controls with validation in an additional 1,144 cases and 3,151 controls. A combined analysis identified new susceptibility loci mapping to 3q26.2 (rs10936599, P = 1.74 × 10(-9)), 4q26 (rs6858698, P = 3.07 × 10(-9)), 6q25.2 (IPCEF1, rs2236256, P = 1.50 × 10(-10)) and 7q31.33 (POT1, rs17246404, P = 3.40 × 10(-8)). Additionally, we identified a promising association at 5p15.33 (CLPTM1L, rs31490, P = 1.72 × 10(-7)) and validated recently reported putative associations at 5p15.33 (TERT, rs10069690, P = 1.12 × 10(-10)) and 8q22.3 (rs2511714, P = 2.90 × 10(-9)). These findings provide further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CLL. PMID:24292274

  17. Multiple Stochastic Point Processes in Gene Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, Rajamanickam

    2008-04-01

    We generalize the idea of multiple-stochasticity in chemical reaction systems to gene expression. Using Chemical Langevin Equation approach we investigate how this multiple-stochasticity can influence the overall molecular number fluctuations. We show that the main sources of this multiple-stochasticity in gene expression could be the randomness in transcription and translation initiation times which in turn originates from the underlying bio-macromolecular recognition processes such as the site-specific DNA-protein interactions and therefore can be internally regulated by the supra-molecular structural factors such as the condensation/super-coiling of DNA. Our theory predicts that (1) in case of gene expression system, the variances ( φ) introduced by the randomness in transcription and translation initiation-times approximately scales with the degree of condensation ( s) of DNA or mRNA as φ ∝ s -6. From the theoretical analysis of the Fano factor as well as coefficient of variation associated with the protein number fluctuations we predict that (2) unlike the singly-stochastic case where the Fano factor has been shown to be a monotonous function of translation rate, in case of multiple-stochastic gene expression the Fano factor is a turn over function with a definite minimum. This in turn suggests that the multiple-stochastic processes can also be well tuned to behave like a singly-stochastic point processes by adjusting the rate parameters.

  18. Transferability and fine mapping of type 2 diabetes loci in African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource Plus Study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Maggie C Y; Saxena, Richa; Li, Jiang; Palmer, Nicholette D; Dimitrov, Latchezar; Xu, Jianzhao; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Zmuda, Joseph M; Siscovick, David S; Patel, Sanjay R; Crook, Errol D; Sims, Mario; Chen, Yii-Der I; Bertoni, Alain G; Li, Mingyao; Grant, Struan F A; Dupuis, Josée; Meigs, James B; Psaty, Bruce M; Pankow, James S; Langefeld, Carl D; Freedman, Barry I; Rotter, Jerome I; Wilson, James G; Bowden, Donald W

    2013-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) disproportionally affects African Americans (AfA) but, to date, genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are primarily from European and Asian populations. We examined the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and locus transferability of 40 reported T2D loci in six AfA GWAS consisting of 2,806 T2D case subjects with or without end-stage renal disease and 4,265 control subjects from the Candidate Gene Association Resource Plus Study. Our results revealed that seven index SNPs at the TCF7L2, KLF14, KCNQ1, ADCY5, CDKAL1, JAZF1, and GCKR loci were significantly associated with T2D (P < 0.05). The strongest association was observed at TCF7L2 rs7903146 (odds ratio [OR] 1.30; P = 6.86 × 10⁻⁸). Locus-wide analysis demonstrated significant associations (P(emp) < 0.05) at regional best SNPs in the TCF7L2, KLF14, and HMGA2 loci as well as suggestive signals in KCNQ1 after correction for the effective number of SNPs at each locus. Of these loci, the regional best SNPs were in differential linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the index and adjacent SNPs. Our findings suggest that some loci discovered in prior reports affect T2D susceptibility in AfA with similar effect sizes. The reduced and differential LD pattern in AfA compared with European and Asian populations may facilitate fine mapping of causal variants at loci shared across populations. PMID:23193183

  19. Combinatorial effects of multiple enhancer variants in linkage disequilibrium dictate levels of gene expression to confer susceptibility to common traits.

    PubMed

    Corradin, Olivia; Saiakhova, Alina; Akhtar-Zaidi, Batool; Myeroff, Lois; Willis, Joseph; Cowper-Sal lari, Richard; Lupien, Mathieu; Markowitz, Sanford; Scacheri, Peter C

    2014-01-01

    DNA variants (SNPs) that predispose to common traits often localize within noncoding regulatory elements such as enhancers. Moreover, loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) often contain multiple SNPs in linkage disequilibrium (LD), any of which may be causal. Thus, determining the effect of these multiple variant SNPs on target transcript levels has been a major challenge. Here, we provide evidence that for six common autoimmune disorders (rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, lupus, and ulcerative colitis), the GWAS association arises from multiple polymorphisms in LD that map to clusters of enhancer elements active in the same cell type. This finding suggests a "multiple enhancer variant" hypothesis for common traits, where several variants in LD impact multiple enhancers and cooperatively affect gene expression. Using a novel method to delineate enhancer-gene interactions, we show that multiple enhancer variants within a given locus typically target the same gene. Using available data from HapMap and B lymphoblasts as a model system, we provide evidence at numerous loci that multiple enhancer variants cooperatively contribute to altered expression of their gene targets. The effects on target transcript levels tend to be modest and can be either gain- or loss-of-function. Additionally, the genes associated with multiple enhancer variants encode proteins that are often functionally related and enriched in common pathways. Overall, the multiple enhancer variant hypothesis offers a new paradigm by which noncoding variants can confer susceptibility to common traits. PMID:24196873

  20. Expanding the CRISPR imaging toolset with Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 for simultaneous imaging of multiple genomic loci

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baohui; Hu, Jeffrey; Almeida, Ricardo; Liu, Harrison; Balakrishnan, Sanjeev; Covill-Cooke, Christian; Lim, Wendell A.; Huang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    In order to elucidate the functional organization of the genome, it is vital to directly visualize the interactions between genomic elements in living cells. For this purpose, we engineered the Cas9 protein from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) for the imaging of endogenous genomic loci, which showed a similar robustness and efficiency as previously reported for Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9). Imaging readouts allowed us to characterize the DNA-binding activity of SaCas9 and to optimize its sgRNA scaffold. Combining SaCas9 and SpCas9, we demonstrated two-color CRISPR imaging with the capability to resolve genomic loci spaced by <300 kb. Combinatorial color-mixing further enabled us to code multiple genomic elements in the same cell. Our results highlight the potential of combining SpCas9 and SaCas9 for multiplexed CRISPR-Cas9 applications, such as imaging and genome engineering. PMID:26740581

  1. Expanding the CRISPR imaging toolset with Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 for simultaneous imaging of multiple genomic loci.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baohui; Hu, Jeffrey; Almeida, Ricardo; Liu, Harrison; Balakrishnan, Sanjeev; Covill-Cooke, Christian; Lim, Wendell A; Huang, Bo

    2016-05-01

    In order to elucidate the functional organization of the genome, it is vital to directly visualize the interactions between genomic elements in living cells. For this purpose, we engineered the Cas9 protein from Staphylococcus aureus (SaCas9) for the imaging of endogenous genomic loci, which showed a similar robustness and efficiency as previously reported for Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9). Imaging readouts allowed us to characterize the DNA-binding activity of SaCas9 and to optimize its sgRNA scaffold. Combining SaCas9 and SpCas9, we demonstrated two-color CRISPR imaging with the capability to resolve genomic loci spaced by <300 kb. Combinatorial color-mixing further enabled us to code multiple genomic elements in the same cell. Our results highlight the potential of combining SpCas9 and SaCas9 for multiplexed CRISPR-Cas9 applications, such as imaging and genome engineering. PMID:26740581

  2. Polymorphisms in CRHR1 and the Serotonin Transporter Loci: Gene × Gene × Environment Interactions on Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh; Mercer, Kristina B; Deveau, Todd C; Smith, Alicia K; Gillespie, Charles F; Nemeroff, Charles B; Cubells, Joseph F; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2010-01-01

    Gene × environment (G × E) interactions mediating depressive symptoms have been separately identified in the stress-sensitive serotonergic (5-HTTLPR) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRHR1) systems. Our objective was to examine whether the effects of child abuse are moderated by gene × gene (G × G) interactions between CRHR1 and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. We used an association study examining G × G × E interactions of CRHR1 and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms and measures of child abuse on adult depressive symptomatology. The participant population (N = 1,392) was African-American, of low socioeconomic status (60% with <$1,000/month family income), and with high rates of childhood and lifetime trauma. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and history of Major Depression by Structure Clinical Interview based on DSM-IV (SCID). We first replicated an interaction of child abuse and 5-HTTLPR on lifetime SCID diagnosis of major depression in a subsample (N = 236) of the study population—the largest African-American 5-HTTLPR cohort reported to date. We then extended our previously reported interaction with both a CRHR1 SNP (rs110402) and TCA haplotype interacting with child abuse to predict current symptoms (N = 1,059; P = 0.0089). We found that the 5-HTTLPR S allele interacted with CRHR1 haplotypes and child abuse to predict current depressive symptoms (N = 856, P = 0.016). These data suggest that G × E interactions predictive of depressive symptoms may be differentially sensitive to levels of childhood trauma, and the effects of child abuse are moderated by genetic variation at both the CRHR1 and 5-HTTLPR loci and by their G × G interaction. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:20029939

  3. Integrated Genomic and Transcriptional Profiling Identifies Chromosomal Loci with Altered Gene Expression in Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wilting, Saskia M.; de Wilde, Jillian; Meijer, Chris J. L. M.; Berkhof, Johannes; Yi, Yajun; van Wieringen, Wessel N.; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J. M.; Meijer, Gerrit A.; Ylstra, Bauke; Snijders, Peter J. F.; Steenbergen, Renske D. M.

    2009-01-01

    For a better understanding of the consequences of recurrent chromosomal alterations in cervical carcinomas, we integrated genome-wide chromosomal and transcriptional profiles of 10 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 5 adenocarcinomas (AdCAs) and 6 normal controls. Previous genomic profiling showed that gains at chromosome arms 1q, 3q, and 20q as well as losses at 8q, 10q, 11q, and 13q were common in cervical carcinomas. Altered regions spanned multiple megabases, and the extent to which expression of genes located there is affected remains unclear. Expression analysis of these previously chromosomally profiled carcinomas yielded 83 genes with significantly differential expression between carcinomas and normal epithelium. Application of differential gene locus mapping (DIGMAP) analysis and the array CGH expression integration tool (ACE-it) identified hotspots within large chromosomal alterations in which gene expression was altered as well. Chromosomal gains of the long arms of chromosome 1, 3, and 20 resulted in increased expression of genes located at 1q32.1-32.2, 3q13.32-23, 3q26.32-27.3, and 20q11.21-13.33, whereas a chromosomal loss of 11q22.3-25 was related to decreased expression of genes located in this region. Overexpression of DTX3L, PIK3R4, ATP2C1, and SLC25A36, all located at 3q21.1-23 and identified by DIGMAP, ACE-it or both, was confirmed in an independent validation sample set consisting of 12 SCCs and 13 normal ectocervical samples. In conclusion, integrated chromosomal and transcriptional profiling identified chromosomal hotspots at 1q, 3q, 11q, and 20q with altered gene expression within large commonly altered chromosomal regions in cervical cancer. PMID:18618715

  4. Molecular phylogeny of Salmo of the western Balkans, based upon multiple nuclear loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Classification of species within the genus Salmo is still a matter of discussion due to their high level of diversity and to the low power of resolution of mitochondrial (mt)DNA-based phylogeny analyses that have been traditionally used in evolutionary studies of the genus. We apply a new marker system based on nuclear (n)DNA loci to present a novel view of the phylogeny of Salmo representatives and we compare it with the mtDNA-based phylogeny. Methods Twenty-two nDNA loci were sequenced for 76 individuals of the brown trout complex: Salmo trutta (Danubian, Atlantic, Adriatic, Mediterranean and Duero mtDNA lineages), Salmo marmoratus (marble trout), Salmo obtusirostris (softmouth trout), and Salmo ohridanus (Ohrid belvica or belushka). Sequences were phylogenetically analyzed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The divergence time of the major clades was estimated using the program BEAST. Results The existence of five genetic units i.e. S. salar, S. ohridanus, S. obtusirostris, S. marmoratus and the S. trutta complex, including its major phylogenetic lineages was confirmed. Contrary to previous observations, S. obtusirostris was found to be sister to the S. trutta complex and the S. marmoratus clade rather than to the S. ohridanus clade. Reticulate evolution of S. obtusirostris was confirmed and a time for its pre-glacial origin suggested. S. marmoratus was found to be a separate species as S. trutta and S. obtusirostris. Relationships among lineages within the S. trutta complex were weakly supported and remain largely unresolved. Conclusions Nuclear DNA-based results showed a fairly good match with the phylogeny of Salmo inferred from mtDNA analyses. The comparison of nDNA and mtDNA data revealed at least four cases of mitochondrial–nuclear DNA discordance observed that were all confined to the Adriatic basin of the Western Balkans. Together with the well-known extensive morphological and genetic variability of Balkan trouts, this

  5. Comprehensive analysis of schizophrenia-associated loci highlights ion channel pathways and biologically plausible candidate causal genes.

    PubMed

    Pers, Tune H; Timshel, Pascal; Ripke, Stephan; Lent, Samantha; Sullivan, Patrick F; O'Donovan, Michael C; Franke, Lude; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2016-03-15

    Over 100 associated genetic loci have been robustly associated with schizophrenia. Gene prioritization and pathway analysis have focused on a priori hypotheses and thus may have been unduly influenced by prior assumptions and missed important causal genes and pathways. Using a data-driven approach, we show that genes in associated loci: (1) are highly expressed in cortical brain areas; (2) are enriched for ion channel pathways (false discovery rates <0.05); and (3) contain 62 genes that are functionally related to each other and hence represent promising candidates for experimental follow up. We validate the relevance of the prioritized genes by showing that they are enriched for rare disruptive variants and de novo variants from schizophrenia sequencing studies (odds ratio 1.67, P = 0.039), and are enriched for genes encoding members of mouse and human postsynaptic density proteomes (odds ratio 4.56, P = 5.00 × 10(-4); odds ratio 2.60, P = 0.049).The authors wish it to be known that, in their opinion, the first 2 authors should be regarded as joint First Author. PMID:26755824

  6. A radiation hybrid map of 15 loci on the distal long arm of chromosome 4, the region containing the gene responsible for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD)

    SciTech Connect

    Winokur, S.T.; Wasmuth, J.H. ); Schutte, B. ); Weiffenbach, B. ); Washington, S.S.; Chakravarti, A. ); McElligot, D. ); Altherr, M.R. Los Alamos National Lab., NM )

    1993-10-01

    A physical map of 4q35 was constructed through radiation hybrid analysis of 134 clones generated from the cell line HHW416, a chromosome 4-only human-hamster somatic cell hybrid. This subtelomeric region contains the as-yet-unidentified gene responsible for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. The most likely order of 15 loci within 4q35 was determined. The loci ordered on this radiation hybrid map include both genes and polymorphic loci, as well as monomorphic loci which cannot be placed on a genetic linkage map. The physical distance spanning these loci was estimated to be approximately 4.5 Mb, by using a kilobase/centiray conversion factor derived from 4p16.3 marker analysis through the same set of radiation hybrids. The comparison of this physical map to established genetic maps suggests that this region is smaller than initially estimated and that recombination rates are increased near the telomere. 37 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Bioinvasions of the medfly Ceratitis capitata: source estimation using DNA sequences at multiple intron loci.

    PubMed

    Davies, N; Villablanca, F X; Roderick, G K

    1999-09-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is a devastating agricultural pest that threatens to become established in vulnerable areas such as California and Florida. Considerable controversy surrounds the status of Californian medfly infestations: Do they represent repeated introductions or the persistence of a resident population? Attempts to resolve this question using traditional population genetic markers and statistical methods are problematic because the most likely source populations in Latin America were themselves only recently colonized and are genetically very similar. Here, significant population structure among several New World medfly populations is demonstrated through the analysis of DNA sequence variation at four intron loci. Surprisingly, in these newly founded populations, estimates of population structure increase when measures of subdivision take into account the relatedness of alleles as well as their frequency. A nonequilibrium, likelihood-based statistical test that utilizes multilocus genotypes suggests that the sole medfly captured in California during 1996 was introduced from Latin America and was less likely to be a remnant of an ancestral Californian population. Many bioinvasions are hierarchical in nature, consisting of several sequential or overlapping invasion events, the totality of which can be termed a metainvasion. Phylogenetic data from multilocus DNA sequences will be vital to understanding the evolutionary and ecological processes that underlie metainvasions and to resolving their constituent levels. PMID:10471718

  8. Simultaneous detection of multiple STR loci on sex chromosomes for forensic testing of sex and identity.

    PubMed

    Tun, Z; Honda, K; Nakatome, M; Nakamura, M; Shimada, S; Ogura, Y; Kuroki, H; Yamazaki, M; Terada, M; Matoba, R

    1999-07-01

    The forensic usefulness of X and Y chromosomal STR loci has recently been demonstrated. One quadruplex-PCR, using 2 X- and 2 Y-STRs (STRX1/HPRTB and DYS390/ DYS393), and 2 duplex-PCRs, each using an X- and a Y-STR (ARA/DYS390 and ARA/DYS393), and detection of PCR products by using an automated DNA sequencer are reported herein. This approach allows us to determine not only the sex of the donor of a sample, but also the X- and/or Y-STR genotypes of the sample. A male biological specimen yields 4 amplified products in quadruplex-PCR and 2 amplified fragments in duplex-PCRs, whereas a female biological specimen yields only 2 amplified fragments of X-STR in quadruplex-PCR and one fragment, also of X-STR, in duplex-PCRs. Our study thus provides useful information for many activities in forensic practice, such as identity testing, paternity testing, especially of deficiency cases, compilation of population data, and sex determination of a biological sample from a single PCR. PMID:10432611

  9. Multiple novel prostate cancer susceptibility signals identified by fine-mapping of known risk loci among Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Dadaev, Tokhir; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Li, Qiuyan; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Saunders, Edward J.; Stephens, Sarah; Cieza-Borrella, Clara; Whitmore, Ian; Benlloch Garcia, Sara; Giles, Graham G.; Southey, Melissa C.; Fitzgerald, Liesel; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schleutker, Johanna; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Neal, David E.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Mcdonnell, Shannon K.; Schaid, Daniel J.; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Arndt, Volker; Park, Jong Y.; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith A.; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Lophatonanon, Artitaya; Muir, Kenneth; Viñuela, Ana; Brown, Andrew A.; Freedman, Mathew; Conti, David V.; Easton, Douglas; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous common prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility loci. We have fine-mapped 64 GWAS regions known at the conclusion of the iCOGS study using large-scale genotyping and imputation in 25 723 PrCa cases and 26 274 controls of European ancestry. We detected evidence for multiple independent signals at 16 regions, 12 of which contained additional newly identified significant associations. A single signal comprising a spectrum of correlated variation was observed at 39 regions; 35 of which are now described by a novel more significantly associated lead SNP, while the originally reported variant remained as the lead SNP only in 4 regions. We also confirmed two association signals in Europeans that had been previously reported only in East-Asian GWAS. Based on statistical evidence and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure, we have curated and narrowed down the list of the most likely candidate causal variants for each region. Functional annotation using data from ENCODE filtered for PrCa cell lines and eQTL analysis demonstrated significant enrichment for overlap with bio-features within this set. By incorporating the novel risk variants identified here alongside the refined data for existing association signals, we estimate that these loci now explain ∼38.9% of the familial relative risk of PrCa, an 8.9% improvement over the previously reported GWAS tag SNPs. This suggests that a significant fraction of the heritability of PrCa may have been hidden during the discovery phase of GWAS, in particular due to the presence of multiple independent signals within the same region. PMID:26025378

  10. Multiple novel prostate cancer susceptibility signals identified by fine-mapping of known risk loci among Europeans.

    PubMed

    Amin Al Olama, Ali; Dadaev, Tokhir; Hazelett, Dennis J; Li, Qiuyan; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Saunders, Edward J; Stephens, Sarah; Cieza-Borrella, Clara; Whitmore, Ian; Benlloch Garcia, Sara; Giles, Graham G; Southey, Melissa C; Fitzgerald, Liesel; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Aly, Markus; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Haiman, Christopher A; Schleutker, Johanna; Wahlfors, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo L; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Neal, David E; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Mcdonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluzniak, Wojciech; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Arndt, Volker; Park, Jong Y; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith A; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Lophatonanon, Artitaya; Muir, Kenneth; Viñuela, Ana; Brown, Andrew A; Freedman, Mathew; Conti, David V; Easton, Douglas; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Eeles, Rosalind A; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2015-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous common prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility loci. We have fine-mapped 64 GWAS regions known at the conclusion of the iCOGS study using large-scale genotyping and imputation in 25 723 PrCa cases and 26 274 controls of European ancestry. We detected evidence for multiple independent signals at 16 regions, 12 of which contained additional newly identified significant associations. A single signal comprising a spectrum of correlated variation was observed at 39 regions; 35 of which are now described by a novel more significantly associated lead SNP, while the originally reported variant remained as the lead SNP only in 4 regions. We also confirmed two association signals in Europeans that had been previously reported only in East-Asian GWAS. Based on statistical evidence and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure, we have curated and narrowed down the list of the most likely candidate causal variants for each region. Functional annotation using data from ENCODE filtered for PrCa cell lines and eQTL analysis demonstrated significant enrichment for overlap with bio-features within this set. By incorporating the novel risk variants identified here alongside the refined data for existing association signals, we estimate that these loci now explain ∼38.9% of the familial relative risk of PrCa, an 8.9% improvement over the previously reported GWAS tag SNPs. This suggests that a significant fraction of the heritability of PrCa may have been hidden during the discovery phase of GWAS, in particular due to the presence of multiple independent signals within the same region. PMID:26025378

  11. Characterization of expressed class II MHC sequences in the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis) reveals multiple DRB loci.

    PubMed

    Busch, Joseph D; Waser, Peter M; DeWoody, J Andrew

    2008-11-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are exceptionally polymorphic due to the combined effects of natural and sexual selection. Most research in wild populations has focused on the second exon of a single class II locus (DRB), but complete gene sequences can provide an illuminating backdrop for studies of intragenic selection, recombination, and organization. To this end, we characterized class II loci in the banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis). Seven DRB-like sequences (provisionally named MhcDisp-DRB*01 through *07) were isolated from spleen cDNA and most likely comprise > or =5 loci; this multiformity is quite unlike the situation in muroid rodents such as Mus, Rattus, and Peromyscus. In silico translation revealed the presence of important structural residues for glycosylation sites, salt bonds, and CD4+ T-cell recognition. Amino-acid distances varied widely among the seven sequences (2-34%). Nuclear DNA sequences from the Disp-DRB*07 locus (approximately 10 kb) revealed a conventional exon/intron structure as well as a number of microsatellites and short interspersed nuclear elements (B4, Alu, and IDL-Geo subfamilies). Rates of nucleotide substitution at Disp-DRB*07 are similar in both exons and introns (pi = 0.015 and 0.012, respectively), which suggests relaxed selection and may indicate that this locus is an expressed pseudogene. Finally, we performed BLASTn searches against Dipodomys ordii genomic sequences (unassembled reads) and find 90-97% nucleotide similarity between the two kangaroo rat species. Collectively, these data suggest that class II diversity in heteromyid rodents is based on polylocism and departs from the muroid architecture. PMID:18836711

  12. Genome-wide association study of clinically defined gout identifies multiple risk loci and its association with clinical subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Ken; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Chiba, Toshinori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Takada, Yuzo; Danjoh, Inaho; Shimizu, Seiko; Abe, Junko; Kawamura, Yusuke; Terashige, Sho; Ogata, Hiraku; Tatsukawa, Seishiro; Yin, Guang; Okada, Rieko; Morita, Emi; Naito, Mariko; Tokumasu, Atsumi; Onoue, Hiroyuki; Iwaya, Keiichi; Ito, Toshimitsu; Takada, Tappei; Inoue, Katsuhisa; Kato, Yukio; Nakamura, Yukio; Sakurai, Yutaka; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Hosoya, Tatsuo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Ituro; Kubo, Michiaki; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Gout, caused by hyperuricaemia, is a multifactorial disease. Although genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of gout have been reported, they included self-reported gout cases in which clinical information was insufficient. Therefore, the relationship between genetic variation and clinical subtypes of gout remains unclear. Here, we first performed a GWAS of clinically defined gout cases only. Methods A GWAS was conducted with 945 patients with clinically defined gout and 1213 controls in a Japanese male population, followed by replication study of 1048 clinically defined cases and 1334 controls. Results Five gout susceptibility loci were identified at the genome-wide significance level (p<5.0×10−8), which contained well-known urate transporter genes (ABCG2 and SLC2A9) and additional genes: rs1260326 (p=1.9×10−12; OR=1.36) of GCKR (a gene for glucose and lipid metabolism), rs2188380 (p=1.6×10−23; OR=1.75) of MYL2-CUX2 (genes associated with cholesterol and diabetes mellitus) and rs4073582 (p=6.4×10−9; OR=1.66) of CNIH-2 (a gene for regulation of glutamate signalling). The latter two are identified as novel gout loci. Furthermore, among the identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we demonstrated that the SNPs of ABCG2 and SLC2A9 were differentially associated with types of gout and clinical parameters underlying specific subtypes (renal underexcretion type and renal overload type). The effect of the risk allele of each SNP on clinical parameters showed significant linear relationships with the ratio of the case–control ORs for two distinct types of gout (r=0.96 [p=4.8×10−4] for urate clearance and r=0.96 [p=5.0×10−4] for urinary urate excretion). Conclusions Our findings provide clues to better understand the pathogenesis of gout and will be useful for development of companion diagnostics. PMID:25646370

  13. Sequence variation within the rRNA gene loci of 12 Drosophila species

    PubMed Central

    Stage, Deborah E.; Eickbush, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    Concerted evolution maintains at near identity the hundreds of tandemly arrayed ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and their spacers present in any eukaryote. Few comprehensive attempts have been made to directly measure the identity between the rDNA units. We used the original sequencing reads (trace archives) available through the whole-genome shotgun sequencing projects of 12 Drosophila species to locate the sequence variants within the 7.8–8.2 kb transcribed portions of the rDNA units. Three to 18 variants were identified in >3% of the total rDNA units from 11 species. Species where the rDNA units are present on multiple chromosomes exhibited only minor increases in sequence variation. Variants were 10–20 times more abundant in the noncoding compared with the coding regions of the rDNA unit. Within the coding regions, variants were three to eight times more abundant in the expansion compared with the conserved core regions. The distribution of variants was largely consistent with models of concerted evolution in which there is uniform recombination across the transcribed portion of the unit with the frequency of standing variants dependent upon the selection pressure to preserve that sequence. However, the 28S gene was found to contain fewer variants than the 18S gene despite evolving 2.5-fold faster. We postulate that the fewer variants in the 28S gene is due to localized gene conversion or DNA repair triggered by the activity of retrotransposable elements that are specialized for insertion into the 28S genes of these species. PMID:17989256

  14. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse-effects of selection and gene conversion.

    PubMed

    Minias, P; Bateson, Z W; Whittingham, L A; Johnson, J A; Oyler-McCance, S; Dunn, P O

    2016-05-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens. PMID:26860199

  15. Contrasting evolutionary histories of MHC class I and class II loci in grouse—Effects of selection and gene conversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minias, Piotr; Bateson, Zachary W; Whittingham, Linda A; Johnson, Jeff A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Dunn, Peter O

    2016-01-01

    Genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) encode receptor molecules that are responsible for recognition of intracellular and extracellular pathogens (class I and class II genes, respectively) in vertebrates. Given the different roles of class I and II MHC genes, one might expect the strength of selection to differ between these two classes. Different selective pressures may also promote different rates of gene conversion at each class. Despite these predictions, surprisingly few studies have looked at differences between class I and II genes in terms of both selection and gene conversion. Here, we investigated the molecular evolution of MHC class I and II genes in five closely related species of prairie grouse (Centrocercus and Tympanuchus) that possess one class I and two class II loci. We found striking differences in the strength of balancing selection acting on MHC class I versus class II genes. More than half of the putative antigen-binding sites (ABS) of class II were under positive or episodic diversifying selection, compared with only 10% at class I. We also found that gene conversion had a stronger role in shaping the evolution of MHC class II than class I. Overall, the combination of strong positive (balancing) selection and frequent gene conversion has maintained higher diversity of MHC class II than class I in prairie grouse. This is one of the first studies clearly demonstrating that macroevolutionary mechanisms can act differently on genes involved in the immune response against intracellular and extracellular pathogens.

  16. Evidence for multiple loci from a genome scan of autism kindreds.

    PubMed

    Schellenberg, G D; Dawson, G; Sung, Y J; Estes, A; Munson, J; Rosenthal, E; Rothstein, J; Flodman, P; Smith, M; Coon, H; Leong, L; Yu, C-E; Stodgell, C; Rodier, P M; Spence, M A; Minshew, N; McMahon, W M; Wijsman, E M

    2006-11-01

    We performed a genome-wide linkage scan using highly polymorphic microsatellite markers. To minimize genetic heterogeneity, we focused on sibpairs meeting the strict diagnosis of autism. In our primary analyses, we observed a strong linkage signal (P=0.0006, 133.16 cM) on chromosome 7q at a location coincident with other linkage studies. When a more relaxed diagnostic criteria was used, linkage evidence at this location was weaker (P=0.01). The sample was stratified into families with only male affected subjects (MO) and families with at least one female affected subject (FC). The strongest signal unique to the MO group was on chromosome 11 (P=0.0009, 83.82 cM), and for the FC group on chromosome 4 (P=0.002, 111.41 cM). We also divided the sample into regression positive and regression negative families. The regression-positive group showed modest linkage signals on chromosomes 10 (P=0.003, 0 cM) and 14 (P=0.005, 104.2 cM). More significant peaks were seen in the regression negative group on chromosomes 3 (P=0.0002, 140.06 cM) and 4 (P=0.0005, 111.41 cM). Finally, we used language acquisition data as a quantitative trait in our linkage analysis and observed a chromosome 9 signal (149.01 cM) of P=0.00006 and an empirical P-value of 0.0008 at the same location. Our work provides strong conformation for an autism locus on 7q and suggestive evidence for several other chromosomal locations. Diagnostic specificity and detailed analysis of the autism phenotype is critical for identifying autism loci. PMID:16880825

  17. Rate of Gene Silencing at Duplicate Loci: A Theoretical Study and Interpretation of Data from Tetraploid Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Hsiung

    1980-01-01

    A large-scale simulation has been conducted on the rate of gene loss at duplicate loci under irreversible mutation. It is found that tight linkage does not provide a strong sheltering effect, as thought by previous authors; indeed, the mean loss time for the case of tight linkage is of the same order of magnitude as that for no linkage, as long as Nu is not much larger than 1, where N is the effective population size and u the mutation rate. When Nu is 0.01 or less, the two loci behave almost as neutral loci, regardless of linkage, and the mean loss time is about only half the mean extinction time for a neutral allele under irreversible mutation. However, the former becomes two or more times larger than the latter when Nu ≥ 1.——In the simulation, the sojourn times in the frequency intervals (0, 0.01) and (0.99, 1) and the time for the frequency of the null allele to reach 0.99 at one of the two loci have also been recorded. The results show that the population is monomorphic for the normal allele most of the time if Nu ≤ 0.01, but polymorphic for the null and the normal alleles most of the time if Nu ≥ 0.1.——The distribution of the frequency of the null allele in an equilibrium tetraploid population has been studied analytically. The present results have been applied to interpret data from some fish groups that are of tetraploid origin, and a model for explaining the slow rate of gene loss in these fishes is proposed. PMID:7429144

  18. Multiple Independent Loci at Chromosome 15q25.1 Affect Smoking Quantity: a Meta-Analysis and Comparison with Lung Cancer and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Saccone, Nancy L.; Culverhouse, Robert C.; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Cannon, Dale S.; Chen, Xiangning; Cichon, Sven; Giegling, Ina; Han, Shizhong; Han, Younghun; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Kong, Xiangyang; Landi, Maria Teresa; Ma, Jennie Z.; Short, Susan E.; Stephens, Sarah H.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Sun, Lingwei; Wang, Yufei; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Aggen, Steven H.; Breslau, Naomi; Broderick, Peter; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Heath, Andrew C.; Heliövaara, Markku; Hoft, Nicole R.; Hunter, David J.; Jensen, Majken K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Niu, Tianhua; Payne, Thomas J.; Peltonen, Leena; Pergadia, Michele L.; Rice, John P.; Sherva, Richard; Spitz, Margaret R.; Sun, Juzhong; Wang, Jen C.; Weiss, Robert B.; Wheeler, William; Witt, Stephanie H.; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Caporaso, Neil E.; Ehringer, Marissa A.; Eisen, Tim; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gelernter, Joel; Houlston, Richard; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kraft, Peter; Leppert, Mark F.; Li, Ming D.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Pillai, Sreekumar; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Schwartz, Ann; Amos, Christopher I.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, genetic association findings for nicotine dependence, smoking behavior, and smoking-related diseases converged to implicate the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which includes the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit genes. In particular, association with the nonsynonymous CHRNA5 SNP rs16969968 and correlates has been replicated in several independent studies. Extensive genotyping of this region has suggested additional statistically distinct signals for nicotine dependence, tagged by rs578776 and rs588765. One goal of the Consortium for the Genetic Analysis of Smoking Phenotypes (CGASP) is to elucidate the associations among these markers and dichotomous smoking quantity (heavy versus light smoking), lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We performed a meta-analysis across 34 datasets of European-ancestry subjects, including 38,617 smokers who were assessed for cigarettes-per-day, 7,700 lung cancer cases and 5,914 lung-cancer-free controls (all smokers), and 2,614 COPD cases and 3,568 COPD-free controls (all smokers). We demonstrate statistically independent associations of rs16969968 and rs588765 with smoking (mutually adjusted p-values<10−35 and <10−8 respectively). Because the risk alleles at these loci are negatively correlated, their association with smoking is stronger in the joint model than when each SNP is analyzed alone. Rs578776 also demonstrates association with smoking after adjustment for rs16969968 (p<10−6). In models adjusting for cigarettes-per-day, we confirm the association between rs16969968 and lung cancer (p<10−20) and observe a nominally significant association with COPD (p = 0.01); the other loci are not significantly associated with either lung cancer or COPD after adjusting for rs16969968. This study provides strong evidence that multiple statistically distinct loci in this region affect smoking behavior. This study is also the first report of association between rs588765

  19. Follow-up of loci from the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Disease Project identifies TRIP4 as a novel susceptibility gene

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, A; Heilmann, S; Becker, T; Hernández, I; Wagner, H; Thelen, M; Mauleón, A; Rosende-Roca, M; Bellenguez, C; Bis, J C; Harold, D; Gerrish, A; Sims, R; Sotolongo-Grau, O; Espinosa, A; Alegret, M; Arrieta, J L; Lacour, A; Leber, M; Becker, J; Lafuente, A; Ruiz, S; Vargas, L; Rodríguez, O; Ortega, G; Dominguez, M-A; Mayeux, R; Haines, J L; Pericak-Vance, M A; Farrer, L A; Schellenberg, G D; Chouraki, V; Launer, L J; van Duijn, C; Seshadri, S; Antúnez, C; Breteler, M M; Serrano-Ríos, M; Jessen, F; Tárraga, L; Nöthen, M M; Maier, W; Boada, M; Ramírez, A

    2014-01-01

    To follow-up loci discovered by the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Disease Project, we attempted independent replication of 19 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a large Spanish sample (Fundació ACE data set; 1808 patients and 2564 controls). Our results corroborate association with four SNPs located in the genes INPP5D, MEF2C, ZCWPW1 and FERMT2, respectively. Of these, ZCWPW1 was the only SNP to withstand correction for multiple testing (P=0.000655). Furthermore, we identify TRIP4 (rs74615166) as a novel genome-wide significant locus for Alzheimer's disease risk (odds ratio=1.31; confidence interval 95% (1.19–1.44); P=9.74 × 10−9). PMID:24495969

  20. Identification of Novel Candidate Gene Loci and Increased Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy among Infants with Conotruncal Heart Defects

    PubMed Central

    Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Iovannisci, David M.; Lin, Bin; Parodi, Christina; Schultz, Kathleen; Shaw, Gary M.; Lammer, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    Congenital heart defects are common malformations, affecting 4–8 per 1,000 total births. Conotruncal defects are an important pathogenetic subset of congenital heart defects, comprising nearly 20 percent of the total. Although both environmental and genetic factors are known to contribute to the occurrence of conotruncal defects, the causes remain unknown for most. To identify novel candidate genes/loci, we used array comparative genomic hybridization to detect chromosomal microdeletions/duplications. From a population base of 974,579 total births born during 1999–2004, we screened 389 California infants born with tetralogy of Fallot or d-transposition of the great arteries. We found that 1.7% (5/288) of males with a conotruncal defect had sex chromosome aneuploidy, a seven-fold increased frequency (relative risk = 7.0; 95% confidence interval 2.9–16.9). We identified eight chromosomal microdeletions/duplications for conotruncal defects. From these duplications and deletions, we found five high priority candidate genes (GATA4, CRKL, BMPR1A, SNAI2 and ZFHX4). This is the initial report that sex chromosome aneuploidy is associated with conotruncal defects among boys. These chromosomal microduplications/deletions provide evidence that GATA4, SNAI2 and CRKL are highly dosage sensitive genes involved in outflow tract development. Genome wide screening for copy number variation can be productive for identifying novel genes/loci contributing to nonsyndromic common malformations. PMID:24127225

  1. Gene-centric meta-analyses for central adiposity traits in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent confirm known loci and reveal several novel associations

    PubMed Central

    Yoneyama, Sachiko; Guo, Yiran; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Barnes, Michael R.; Elbers, Clara C.; Karczewski, Konrad J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Bauer, Florianne; Baumert, Jens; Beitelshees, Amber; Berenson, Gerald S.; Boer, Jolanda M.A.; Burke, Gregory; Cade, Brian; Chen, Wei; Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Gieger, Christian; Gong, Yan; Gorski, Mathias; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Johnson, Toby; Lamonte, Michael J.; Mcdonough, Caitrin; Monda, Keri L.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Nelson, Christopher P.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Ordovas, Jose; Peter, Inga; Peters, Annette; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shen, Haiqinq; Smith, Erin; Speilotes, Liz; Thomas, Fridtjof; Thorand, Barbara; Monique Verschuren, W. M.; Anand, Sonia S.; Dominiczak, Anna; Davidson, Karina W.; Hegele, Robert A.; Heid, Iris; Hofker, Marten H.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Illig, Thomas; Johnson, Julie A.; Kirkland, Susan; König, Wolfgang; Langaee, Taimour Y.; Mccaffery, Jeanne; Melander, Olle; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Munroe, Patricia; Murray, Sarah S.; Papanicolaou, George; Redline, Susan; Reilly, Muredach; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schork, Nicholas J.; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Shimbo, Daichi; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Tobin, Martin D.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Yusuf, Salim; Hakonarson, Hakon; Lange, Leslie A.; Demerath, Ellen W; Fox, Caroline S.; North, Kari E; Reiner, Alex P.; Keating, Brendan; Taylor, Kira C.

    2014-01-01

    Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are surrogate measures of central adiposity that are associated with adverse cardiovascular events, type 2 diabetes and cancer independent of body mass index (BMI). WC and WHR are highly heritable with multiple susceptibility loci identified to date. We assessed the association between SNPs and BMI-adjusted WC and WHR and unadjusted WC in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent from 22 cohorts collaborating with the NHLBI's Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) project. The study population consisted of women and men aged 20–80 years. Study participants were genotyped using the ITMAT/Broad/CARE array, which includes ∼50 000 cosmopolitan tagged SNPs across ∼2100 cardiovascular-related genes. Each trait was modeled as a function of age, study site and principal components to control for population stratification, and we conducted a fixed-effects meta-analysis. No new loci for WC were observed. For WHR analyses, three novel loci were significantly associated (P < 2.4 × 10−6). Previously unreported rs2811337-G near TMCC1 was associated with increased WHR (β ± SE, 0.048 ± 0.008, P = 7.7 × 10−9) as was rs7302703-G in HOXC10 (β = 0.044 ± 0.008, P = 2.9 × 10−7) and rs936108-C in PEMT (β = 0.035 ± 0.007, P = 1.9 × 10−6). Sex-stratified analyses revealed two additional novel signals among females only, rs12076073-A in SHC1 (β = 0.10 ± 0.02, P = 1.9 × 10−6) and rs1037575-A in ATBDB4 (β = 0.046 ± 0.01, P = 2.2 × 10−6), supporting an already established sexual dimorphism of central adiposity-related genetic variants. Functional analysis using ENCODE and eQTL databases revealed that several of these loci are in regulatory regions or regions with differential expression in adipose tissue. PMID:24345515

  2. Gene-centric meta-analyses for central adiposity traits in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent confirm known loci and reveal several novel associations.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Sachiko; Guo, Yiran; Lanktree, Matthew B; Barnes, Michael R; Elbers, Clara C; Karczewski, Konrad J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Bauer, Florianne; Baumert, Jens; Beitelshees, Amber; Berenson, Gerald S; Boer, Jolanda M A; Burke, Gregory; Cade, Brian; Chen, Wei; Cooper-Dehoff, Rhonda M; Gaunt, Tom R; Gieger, Christian; Gong, Yan; Gorski, Mathias; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Johnson, Toby; Lamonte, Michael J; McDonough, Caitrin; Monda, Keri L; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Nelson, Christopher P; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Ordovas, Jose; Peter, Inga; Peters, Annette; Shaffer, Jonathan; Shen, Haiqinq; Smith, Erin; Speilotes, Liz; Thomas, Fridtjof; Thorand, Barbara; Monique Verschuren, W M; Anand, Sonia S; Dominiczak, Anna; Davidson, Karina W; Hegele, Robert A; Heid, Iris; Hofker, Marten H; Huggins, Gordon S; Illig, Thomas; Johnson, Julie A; Kirkland, Susan; König, Wolfgang; Langaee, Taimour Y; McCaffery, Jeanne; Melander, Olle; Mitchell, Braxton D; Munroe, Patricia; Murray, Sarah S; Papanicolaou, George; Redline, Susan; Reilly, Muredach; Samani, Nilesh J; Schork, Nicholas J; Van Der Schouw, Yvonne T; Shimbo, Daichi; Shuldiner, Alan R; Tobin, Martin D; Wijmenga, Cisca; Yusuf, Salim; Hakonarson, Hakon; Lange, Leslie A; Demerath, Ellen W; Fox, Caroline S; North, Kari E; Reiner, Alex P; Keating, Brendan; Taylor, Kira C

    2014-05-01

    Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are surrogate measures of central adiposity that are associated with adverse cardiovascular events, type 2 diabetes and cancer independent of body mass index (BMI). WC and WHR are highly heritable with multiple susceptibility loci identified to date. We assessed the association between SNPs and BMI-adjusted WC and WHR and unadjusted WC in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent from 22 cohorts collaborating with the NHLBI's Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) project. The study population consisted of women and men aged 20-80 years. Study participants were genotyped using the ITMAT/Broad/CARE array, which includes ∼50 000 cosmopolitan tagged SNPs across ∼2100 cardiovascular-related genes. Each trait was modeled as a function of age, study site and principal components to control for population stratification, and we conducted a fixed-effects meta-analysis. No new loci for WC were observed. For WHR analyses, three novel loci were significantly associated (P < 2.4 × 10(-6)). Previously unreported rs2811337-G near TMCC1 was associated with increased WHR (β ± SE, 0.048 ± 0.008, P = 7.7 × 10(-9)) as was rs7302703-G in HOXC10 (β = 0.044 ± 0.008, P = 2.9 × 10(-7)) and rs936108-C in PEMT (β = 0.035 ± 0.007, P = 1.9 × 10(-6)). Sex-stratified analyses revealed two additional novel signals among females only, rs12076073-A in SHC1 (β = 0.10 ± 0.02, P = 1.9 × 10(-6)) and rs1037575-A in ATBDB4 (β = 0.046 ± 0.01, P = 2.2 × 10(-6)), supporting an already established sexual dimorphism of central adiposity-related genetic variants. Functional analysis using ENCODE and eQTL databases revealed that several of these loci are in regulatory regions or regions with differential expression in adipose tissue. PMID:24345515

  3. Consensus gene regulatory networks: combining multiple microarray gene expression datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeling, Emma; Tucker, Allan

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we present a method for modelling gene regulatory networks by forming a consensus Bayesian network model from multiple microarray gene expression datasets. Our method is based on combining Bayesian network graph topologies and does not require any special pre-processing of the datasets, such as re-normalisation. We evaluate our method on a synthetic regulatory network and part of the yeast heat-shock response regulatory network using publicly available yeast microarray datasets. Results are promising; the consensus networks formed provide a broader view of the potential underlying network, obtaining an increased true positive rate over networks constructed from a single data source.

  4. Genetic variation in the odorant receptors family 13 and the mhc loci influence mate selection in a multiple sclerosis dataset

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background When selecting mates, many vertebrate species seek partners with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes different from their own, presumably in response to selective pressure against inbreeding and towards MHC diversity. Attempts at replication of these genetic results in human studies, however, have reached conflicting conclusions. Results Using a multi-analytical strategy, we report validated genome-wide relationships between genetic identity and human mate choice in 930 couples of European ancestry. We found significant similarity between spouses in the MHC at class I region in chromosome 6p21, and at the odorant receptor family 13 locus in chromosome 9. Conversely, there was significant dissimilarity in the MHC class II region, near the HLA-DQA1 and -DQB1 genes. We also found that genomic regions with significant similarity between spouses show excessive homozygosity in the general population (assessed in the HapMap CEU dataset). Conversely, loci that were significantly dissimilar among spouses were more likely to show excessive heterozygosity in the general population. Conclusions This study highlights complex patterns of genomic identity among partners in unrelated couples, consistent with a multi-faceted role for genetic factors in mate choice behavior in human populations. PMID:21067613

  5. Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error.

    PubMed

    Fan, Qiao; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Wojciechowski, Robert; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Hysi, Pirro G; Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Höhn, René; Vitart, Veronique; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yamashiro, Kenji; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lu, Yi; Haller, Toomas; Xie, Jing; Delcourt, Cécile; Pirastu, Mario; Wedenoja, Juho; Gharahkhani, Puya; Venturini, Cristina; Miyake, Masahiro; Hewitt, Alex W; Guo, Xiaobo; Mazur, Johanna; Huffman, Jenifer E; Williams, Katie M; Polasek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Vatavuk, Zoran; Wilson, James F; Joshi, Peter K; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M; Simpson, Claire L; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Igo, Robert P; Mirshahi, Alireza; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Bellenguez, Céline; Blettner, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Seppala, Ilkka; Zeller, Tanja; Meitinger, Thomas; Ried, Janina S; Gieger, Christian; Portas, Laura; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Amin, Najaf; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Xu; Tai-Hui Boh, Eileen; Ikram, M Kamran; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Gupta, Preeti; Tan, Vincent; Zhou, Lei; Ho, Candice E H; Lim, Wan'e; Beuerman, Roger W; Siantar, Rosalynn; Tai, E-Shyong; Vithana, Eranga; Mihailov, Evelin; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Hayward, Caroline; Luben, Robert N; Foster, Paul J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Hoi-Suen; Mitchell, Paul; Metspalu, Andres; Aung, Tin; Young, Terri L; He, Mingguang; Pärssinen, Olavi; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Jin Wang, Jie; Williams, Cathy; Jonas, Jost B; Teo, Yik-Ying; Mackey, David A; Oexle, Konrad; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Paterson, Andrew D; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wong, Tien-Yin; Baird, Paul N; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E Bailey; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Hammond, Christopher J; Klaver, Caroline C W; Saw, Seang-Mei; Rahi, Jugnoo S; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Kemp, John P; Timpson, Nicholas J; Smith, George Davey; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Fogarty, Rhys D; Iyengar, Sudha K; Chew, Emily; Janmahasatian, Sarayut; Martin, Nicholas G; MacGregor, Stuart; Xu, Liang; Schache, Maria; Nangia, Vinay; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Wright, Alan F; Fondran, Jeremy R; Lass, Jonathan H; Feng, Sheng; Zhao, Jing Hua; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J; Rantanen, Taina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia; Tam, Pancy O; Jhanji, Vishal; Young, Alvin L; Döring, Angela; Raffel, Leslie J; Cotch, Mary-Frances; Li, Xiaohui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K H; Biino, Ginevra; Vaccargiu, Simona; Fossarello, Maurizio; Fleck, Brian; Yazar, Seyhan; Tideman, Jan Willem L; Tedja, Milly; Deangelis, Margaret M; Morrison, Margaux; Farrer, Lindsay; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Meguro, Akira; Mäkelä, Kari Matti

    2016-01-01

    Myopia is the most common human eye disorder and it results from complex genetic and environmental causes. The rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia poses a major public health challenge. Here, the CREAM consortium performs a joint meta-analysis to test single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) main effects and SNP × education interaction effects on refractive error in 40,036 adults from 25 studies of European ancestry and 10,315 adults from 9 studies of Asian ancestry. In European ancestry individuals, we identify six novel loci (FAM150B-ACP1, LINC00340, FBN1, DIS3L-MAP2K1, ARID2-SNAT1 and SLC14A2) associated with refractive error. In Asian populations, three genome-wide significant loci AREG, GABRR1 and PDE10A also exhibit strong interactions with education (P<8.5 × 10(-5)), whereas the interactions are less evident in Europeans. The discovery of these loci represents an important advance in understanding how gene and environment interactions contribute to the heterogeneity of myopia. PMID:27020472

  6. Multiple sclerosis risk loci and disease severity in 7,125 individuals from 10 studies

    PubMed Central

    George, Michaela F.; Briggs, Farren B.S.; Shao, Xiaorong; Gianfrancesco, Milena A.; Kockum, Ingrid; Harbo, Hanne F.; Celius, Elisabeth G.; Bos, Steffan D.; Hedström, Anna; Shen, Ling; Bernstein, Allan; Alfredsson, Lars; Hillert, Jan; Olsson, Tomas; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A.; De Jager, Philip L.; Oturai, Annette B.; Søndergaard, Helle B.; Sellebjerg, Finn; Sorensen, Per S.; Gomez, Refujia; Caillier, Stacy J.; Cree, Bruce A.C.; Oksenberg, Jorge R.; Hauser, Stephen L.; D'Alfonso, Sandra; Leone, Maurizio A.; Boneschi, Filippo Martinelli; Sorosina, Melissa; van der Mei, Ingrid; Taylor, Bruce V.; Zhou, Yuan; Schaefer, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the association between 52 risk variants identified through genome-wide association studies and disease severity in multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Ten unique MS case data sets were analyzed. The Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) was calculated using the Expanded Disability Status Scale at study entry and disease duration. MSSS was considered as a continuous variable and as 2 dichotomous variables (median and extreme ends; MSSS of ≤5 vs >5 and MSSS of <2.5 vs ≥7.5, respectively). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were examined individually and as both combined weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) and unweighted genetic risk score (GRS) for association with disease severity. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted and adjusted for cohort, sex, age at onset, and HLA-DRB1*15:01. Results: A total of 7,125 MS cases were analyzed. The wGRS and GRS were not strongly associated with disease severity after accounting for cohort, sex, age at onset, and HLA-DRB1*15:01. After restricting analyses to cases with disease duration ≥10 years, associations were null (p value ≥0.05). No SNP was associated with disease severity after adjusting for multiple testing. Conclusions: The largest meta-analysis of established MS genetic risk variants and disease severity, to date, was performed. Results suggest that the investigated MS genetic risk variants are not associated with MSSS, even after controlling for potential confounders. Further research in large cohorts is needed to identify genetic determinants of disease severity using sensitive clinical and MRI measures, which are critical to understanding disease mechanisms and guiding development of effective treatments. PMID:27540591

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loci Influencing Normal Human Facial Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Raffensperger, Zachary D.; Heike, Carrie L.; Cunningham, Michael L.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.; Kau, Chung How; Moreno, Lina M.; Wehby, George L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Laurie, Cecelia A.; Laurie, Cathy C.; Santorico, Stephanie; Klein, Ophir; Feingold, Eleanor; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Spritz, Richard A.; Marazita, Mary L.; Weinberg, Seth M.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous lines of evidence point to a genetic basis for facial morphology in humans, yet little is known about how specific genetic variants relate to the phenotypic expression of many common facial features. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of 20 quantitative facial measurements derived from the 3D surface images of 3118 healthy individuals of European ancestry belonging to two US cohorts. Analyses were performed on just under one million genotyped SNPs (Illumina OmniExpress+Exome v1.2 array) imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel (Phase 3). We observed genome-wide significant associations (p < 5 x 10−8) for cranial base width at 14q21.1 and 20q12, intercanthal width at 1p13.3 and Xq13.2, nasal width at 20p11.22, nasal ala length at 14q11.2, and upper facial depth at 11q22.1. Several genes in the associated regions are known to play roles in craniofacial development or in syndromes affecting the face: MAFB, PAX9, MIPOL1, ALX3, HDAC8, and PAX1. We also tested genotype-phenotype associations reported in two previous genome-wide studies and found evidence of replication for nasal ala length and SNPs in CACNA2D3 and PRDM16. These results provide further evidence that common variants in regions harboring genes of known craniofacial function contribute to normal variation in human facial features. Improved understanding of the genes associated with facial morphology in healthy individuals can provide insights into the pathways and mechanisms controlling normal and abnormal facial morphogenesis. PMID:27560520

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Multiple Loci Influencing Normal Human Facial Morphology.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Orlova, Ekaterina; Lee, Myoung Keun; Leslie, Elizabeth J; Raffensperger, Zachary D; Heike, Carrie L; Cunningham, Michael L; Hecht, Jacqueline T; Kau, Chung How; Nidey, Nichole L; Moreno, Lina M; Wehby, George L; Murray, Jeffrey C; Laurie, Cecelia A; Laurie, Cathy C; Cole, Joanne; Ferrara, Tracey; Santorico, Stephanie; Klein, Ophir; Mio, Washington; Feingold, Eleanor; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Spritz, Richard A; Marazita, Mary L; Weinberg, Seth M

    2016-08-01

    Numerous lines of evidence point to a genetic basis for facial morphology in humans, yet little is known about how specific genetic variants relate to the phenotypic expression of many common facial features. We conducted genome-wide association meta-analyses of 20 quantitative facial measurements derived from the 3D surface images of 3118 healthy individuals of European ancestry belonging to two US cohorts. Analyses were performed on just under one million genotyped SNPs (Illumina OmniExpress+Exome v1.2 array) imputed to the 1000 Genomes reference panel (Phase 3). We observed genome-wide significant associations (p < 5 x 10-8) for cranial base width at 14q21.1 and 20q12, intercanthal width at 1p13.3 and Xq13.2, nasal width at 20p11.22, nasal ala length at 14q11.2, and upper facial depth at 11q22.1. Several genes in the associated regions are known to play roles in craniofacial development or in syndromes affecting the face: MAFB, PAX9, MIPOL1, ALX3, HDAC8, and PAX1. We also tested genotype-phenotype associations reported in two previous genome-wide studies and found evidence of replication for nasal ala length and SNPs in CACNA2D3 and PRDM16. These results provide further evidence that common variants in regions harboring genes of known craniofacial function contribute to normal variation in human facial features. Improved understanding of the genes associated with facial morphology in healthy individuals can provide insights into the pathways and mechanisms controlling normal and abnormal facial morphogenesis. PMID:27560520

  9. Gene-centric meta-analyses of 108 912 individuals confirm known body mass index loci and reveal three novel signals.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yiran; Lanktree, Matthew B; Taylor, Kira C; Hakonarson, Hakon; Lange, Leslie A; Keating, Brendan J

    2013-01-01

    Recent genetic association studies have made progress in uncovering components of the genetic architecture of the body mass index (BMI). We used the ITMAT-Broad-Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) (IBC) array comprising up to 49 320 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across ~2100 metabolic and cardiovascular-related loci to genotype up to 108 912 individuals of European ancestry (EA), African-Americans, Hispanics and East Asians, from 46 studies, to provide additional insight into SNPs underpinning BMI. We used a five-phase study design: Phase I focused on meta-analysis of EA studies providing individual level genotype data; Phase II performed a replication of cohorts providing summary level EA data; Phase III meta-analyzed results from the first two phases; associated SNPs from Phase III were used for replication in Phase IV; finally in Phase V, a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of all samples from four ethnicities was performed. At an array-wide significance (P < 2.40E-06), we identify novel BMI associations in loci translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 40 homolog (yeast) - apolipoprotein E - apolipoprotein C-I (TOMM40-APOE-APOC1) (rs2075650, P = 2.95E-10), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 2 (SREBF2, rs5996074, P = 9.43E-07) and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2 [NTRK2, a brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) receptor gene, rs1211166, P = 1.04E-06] in the Phase IV meta-analysis. Of 10 loci with previous evidence for BMI association represented on the IBC array, eight were replicated, with the remaining two showing nominal significance. Conditional analyses revealed two independent BMI-associated signals in BDNF and melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) regions. Of the 11 array-wide significant SNPs, three are associated with gene expression levels in both primary B-cells and monocytes; with rs4788099 in SH2B adaptor protein 1 (SH2B1) notably being associated with the expression of multiple genes in cis. These multi

  10. Evidence for multiple sex-determining loci in Tasmanian Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    PubMed Central

    Eisbrenner, W D; Botwright, N; Cook, M; Davidson, E A; Dominik, S; Elliott, N G; Henshall, J; Jones, S L; Kube, P D; Lubieniecki, K P; Peng, S; Davidson, W S

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic sex in salmonids is determined primarily by a genetic male heterogametic system; yet, sex reversal can be accomplished via hormonal treatment. In Tasmanian Atlantic salmon aquaculture, to overcome problems associated with early sexual maturation in males, sex-reversed females are crossed with normal females to produce all female stock. However, phenotypic distinction of sex-reversed females (neo-males) from true males is problematic. We set out to identify genetic markers that could make this distinction. Microsatellite markers from chromosome 2 (Ssa02), to which the sex-determining locus (SEX) has been mapped in two Scottish Atlantic salmon families, did not predict sex in a pilot study of seven families. A TaqMan 64 SNP genome-wide scan suggested SEX was on Ssa06 in these families, and this was confirmed by microsatellite markers. A survey of 58 families in total representing 38 male lineages in the SALTAS breeding program found that 34 of the families had SEX on Ssa02, in 22 of the families SEX was on Ssa06, and two of the families had a third SEX locus, on Ssa03. A PCR test using primers designed from the recently published sdY gene is consistent with Tasmanian Atlantic salmon having a single sex-determining gene that may be located on at least three linkage groups. PMID:23759729

  11. A genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci for variation in human ear morphology.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Reales, Guillermo; Smith, Andrew J P; Konka, Esra; Palmen, Jutta; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Calderón, Rosario; Rosique, Javier; Cheeseman, Michael; Bhutta, Mahmood F; Humphries, Steve E; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a genome-wide association study for non-pathological pinna morphology in over 5,000 Latin Americans. We find genome-wide significant association at seven genomic regions affecting: lobe size and attachment, folding of antihelix, helix rolling, ear protrusion and antitragus size (linear regression P values 2 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-14)). Four traits are associated with a functional variant in the Ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) gene, a key regulator of embryonic skin appendage development. We confirm expression of Edar in the developing mouse ear and that Edar-deficient mice have an abnormally shaped pinna. Two traits are associated with SNPs in a region overlapping the T-Box Protein 15 (TBX15) gene, a major determinant of mouse skeletal development. Strongest association in this region is observed for SNP rs17023457 located in an evolutionarily conserved binding site for the transcription factor Cartilage paired-class homeoprotein 1 (CART1), and we confirm that rs17023457 alters in vitro binding of CART1. PMID:26105758

  12. A genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci for variation in human ear morphology

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Reales, Guillermo; Smith, Andrew J. P.; Konka, Esra; Palmen, Jutta; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria- Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Calderón, Rosario; Rosique, Javier; Cheeseman, Michael; Bhutta, Mahmood F.; Humphries, Steve E.; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a genome-wide association study for non-pathological pinna morphology in over 5,000 Latin Americans. We find genome-wide significant association at seven genomic regions affecting: lobe size and attachment, folding of antihelix, helix rolling, ear protrusion and antitragus size (linear regression P values 2 × 10−8 to 3 × 10−14). Four traits are associated with a functional variant in the Ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) gene, a key regulator of embryonic skin appendage development. We confirm expression of Edar in the developing mouse ear and that Edar-deficient mice have an abnormally shaped pinna. Two traits are associated with SNPs in a region overlapping the T-Box Protein 15 (TBX15) gene, a major determinant of mouse skeletal development. Strongest association in this region is observed for SNP rs17023457 located in an evolutionarily conserved binding site for the transcription factor Cartilage paired-class homeoprotein 1 (CART1), and we confirm that rs17023457 alters in vitro binding of CART1. PMID:26105758

  13. [Estimation of the recombination fraction by the maximum likelihood method in mapping interacting genes relative to marker loci].

    PubMed

    Priiatkina, S N

    2002-05-01

    For mapping nonlinked interacting genes relative to marker loci, the recombination fractions can be calculated by using the log-likelihood functions were derived that permit estimation of recombinant fractions by solving the ML equations on the basis of F2 data at various types of interaction. In some cases, the recombinant fraction estimates are obtained in the analytical form while in others they are numerically calculated from concrete experimental data. With the same type of epistasis the log-functions were shown to differ depending on the functional role (suppression or epistasis) of the mapped gene. Methods for testing the correspondence of the model and the recombination fraction estimates to the experimental data are discussed. In ambiguous cases, analysis of the linked marker behavior makes it possible to differentiate gene interaction from distorted single-locus segregation, which at some forms of interaction imitate phenotypic ratios. PMID:12068553

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of Pasteuria penetrans by use of multiple genetic loci.

    PubMed

    Charles, Lauren; Carbone, Ignazio; Davies, Keith G; Bird, David; Burke, Mark; Kerry, Brian R; Opperman, Charles H

    2005-08-01

    Pasteuria penetrans is a gram-positive, endospore-forming eubacterium that apparently is a member of the Bacillus-Clostridium clade. It is an obligate parasite of root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and preferentially grows on the developing ovaries, inhibiting reproduction. Root knot nematodes are devastating root pests of economically important crop plants and are difficult to control. Consequently, P. penetrans has long been recognized as a potential biocontrol agent for root knot nematodes, but the fastidious life cycle and the obligate nature of parasitism have inhibited progress on mass culture and deployment. We are currently sequencing the genome of the Pasteuria bacterium and have performed amino acid level analyses of 33 bacterial species (including P. penetrans) using concatenation of 40 housekeeping genes, with and without insertions/deletions (indels) removed, and using each gene individually. By application of maximum-likelihood, maximum-parsimony, and Bayesian methods to the resulting data sets, P. penetrans was found to cluster tightly, with a high level of confidence, in the Bacillus class of the gram-positive, low-G+C-content eubacteria. Strikingly, our analyses identified P. penetrans as ancestral to Bacillus spp. Additionally, all analyses revealed that P. penetrans is surprisingly more closely related to the saprophytic extremophile Bacillus haladurans and Bacillus subtilis than to the pathogenic species Bacillus anthracis and Bacillus cereus. Collectively, these findings strongly imply that P. penetrans is an ancient member of the Bacillus group. We suggest that P. penetrans may have evolved from an ancient symbiotic bacterial associate of nematodes, possibly as the root knot nematode evolved to be a highly specialized parasite of plants. PMID:16077116

  15. [Susceptibility gene in multiple system atrophy (MSA)].

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate molecular bases of multiple system atrophy (MSA), we first focused on recently identified MSA multiplex families. Though linkage analyses followed by whole genome resequencing, we have identified a causative gene, COQ2, for MSA. We then conducted comprehensive nucleotide sequence analysis of COQ2 of sporadic MSA cases and controls, and found that functionally deleterious COQ2 variants confer a strong risk for developing MSA. COQ2 encodes an enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of coenzyme Q10. Decreased synthesis of coenzyme Q10 is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of MSA through decreased electron transport in mitochondria and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. PMID:25672683

  16. Multiple germline functional VL genes contribute to the IgL repertoire in ducks.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaoxing; Wang, Jing; Ma, Li; Wang, Xifeng; Cheng, Xueqian; Han, Haitang; Zhao, Yaofeng; Ren, Liming

    2016-07-01

    In the immunoglobulin light chain gene loci of nearly all bird species examined to date, there is only a single functional variable gene segment that can recombine with joining gene segments. Thus, Ig light chain diversity relies on gene conversion using pseudogenes as sequence donors to modify the single rearranged variable gene. In the present study, we have sequenced a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone containing the entire duck Igλ light chain gene locus. Although only a single pair of Jλ and Cλ was found, 88 Vλ gene segments were identified upstream of the Jλ and Cλ segments. Among the identified Vλ gene segments, 79 appear to be pseudogenes, the remaining 9 are structurally intact and all are able to functionally rearrange with the Jλ. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the 9 functional variable genes may have been derived from a single gene through duplication events. Although these multiple functional variable gene segments can be subject to VJ recombination, both gene conversion and somatic hypermutation are also actively involved in the generation of diversity in duck Igλ light chains. These data provide significant insight into understanding the duck Ig system. PMID:26945621

  17. Identification of multiple risk variants for ankylosing spondylitis through high-density genotyping of immune-related loci.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Adrian; Hadler, Johanna; Pointon, Jenny P; Robinson, Philip C; Karaderi, Tugce; Leo, Paul; Cremin, Katie; Pryce, Karena; Harris, Jessica; Lee, Seunghun; Joo, Kyung Bin; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Weisman, Michael; Ward, Michael; Zhou, Xiaodong; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Chiocchia, Gilles; Nossent, Johannes; Lie, Benedicte A; Førre, Øystein; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Laiho, Kari; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Yu; Wu, Xin; Bradbury, Linda A; Elewaut, Dirk; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Stebbings, Simon; Appleton, Louise; Farrah, Claire; Lau, Jonathan; Kenna, Tony J; Haroon, Nigil; Ferreira, Manuel A; Yang, Jian; Mulero, Juan; Fernandez-Sueiro, Jose Luis; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; Lopez-Larrea, Carlos; Deloukas, Panos; Donnelly, Peter; Bowness, Paul; Gafney, Karl; Gaston, Hill; Gladman, Dafna D; Rahman, Proton; Maksymowych, Walter P; Xu, Huji; Crusius, J Bart A; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E; Chou, Chung-Tei; Valle-Oñate, Raphael; Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo; Hansen, Inger Myrnes; Pimentel-Santos, Fernando M; Inman, Robert D; Videm, Vibeke; Martin, Javier; Breban, Maxime; Reveille, John D; Evans, David M; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Wordsworth, Bryan Paul; Brown, Matthew A

    2013-07-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a common, highly heritable inflammatory arthritis affecting primarily the spine and pelvis. In addition to HLA-B*27 alleles, 12 loci have previously been identified that are associated with ankylosing spondylitis in populations of European ancestry, and 2 associated loci have been identified in Asians. In this study, we used the Illumina Immunochip microarray to perform a case-control association study involving 10,619 individuals with ankylosing spondylitis (cases) and 15,145 controls. We identified 13 new risk loci and 12 additional ankylosing spondylitis-associated haplotypes at 11 loci. Two ankylosing spondylitis-associated regions have now been identified encoding four aminopeptidases that are involved in peptide processing before major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation. Protective variants at two of these loci are associated both with reduced aminopeptidase function and with MHC class I cell surface expression. PMID:23749187

  18. Identification of multiple risk variants for ankylosing spondylitis through high-density genotyping of immune-related loci

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Adrian; Hadler, Johanna; Pointon, Jenny P; Robinson, Philip C; Karaderi, Tugce; Leo, Paul; Cremin, Katie; Pryce, Karena; Harris, Jessica; lee, Seunghun; Joo, Kyung Bin; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Weisman, Michael; Ward, Michael; Zhou, Xiaodong; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Chiocchia, Gilles; Nossent, Johannes; Lie, Benedicte A; Førre, Øystein; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Laiho, Kari; Jiang, Lei; Liu, Yu; Wu, Xin; Bradbury, Linda A; Elewaut, Dirk; Burgos-Vargas, Ruben; Stebbings, Simon; Appleton, Louise; Farrah, Claire; Lau, Jonathan; Kenna, Tony J; Haroon, Nigil; Ferreira, Manuel A; Yang, Jian; Mulero, Juan; Fernandez-Sueiro, Jose Luis; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A; lopez-Larrea, Carlos; Deloukas, Panos; Donnelly, Peter; Bowness, Paul; Gafney, Karl; Gaston, Hill; Gladman, Dafna D; Rahman, Proton; Maksymowych, Walter P; Xu, Huji; Crusius, J Bart A; van der Horst-Bruinsma, Irene E; Chou, Chung-Tei; Valle-Oñate, Raphael; Romero-Sánchez, Consuelo; Hansen, Inger Myrnes; Pimentel-Santos, Fernando M; Inman, Robert D; Videm, Vibeke; Martin, Javier; Breban, Maxime; Reveille, John D; Evans, David M; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Wordsworth, Bryan Paul; Brown, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a common, highly heritable inflammatory arthritis affecting primarily the spine and pelvis. In addition to HLA-B*27 alleles, 12 loci have previously been identified that are associated with ankylosing spondylitis in populations of European ancestry, and 2 associated loci have been identified in Asians. In this study, we used the Illumina Immunochip microarray to perform a case-control association study involving 10,619 individuals with ankylosing spondylitis (cases) and 15,145 controls. We identified 13 new risk loci and 12 additional ankylosing spondylitis–associated haplotypes at 11 loci. Two ankylosing spondylitis–associated regions have now been identified encoding four aminopeptidases that are involved in peptide processing before major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation. Protective variants at two of these loci are associated both with reduced aminopeptidase function and with MHC class I cell surface expression. PMID:23749187

  19. Species-Level Phylogeny and Polyploid Relationships in Hordeum (Poaceae) Inferred by Next-Generation Sequencing and In Silico Cloning of Multiple Nuclear Loci

    PubMed Central

    Brassac, Jonathan; Blattner, Frank R.

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidization is an important speciation mechanism in the barley genus Hordeum. To analyze evolutionary changes after allopolyploidization, knowledge of parental relationships is essential. One chloroplast and 12 nuclear single-copy loci were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in all Hordeum plus six out-group species. Amplicons from each of 96 individuals were pooled, sheared, labeled with individual-specific barcodes and sequenced in a single run on a 454 platform. Reference sequences were obtained by cloning and Sanger sequencing of all loci for nine supplementary individuals. The 454 reads were assembled into contigs representing the 13 loci and, for polyploids, also homoeologues. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted for all loci separately and for a concatenated data matrix of all loci. For diploid taxa, a Bayesian concordance analysis and a coalescent-based dated species tree was inferred from all gene trees. Chloroplast matK was used to determine the maternal parent in allopolyploid taxa. The relative performance of different multilocus analyses in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization was also assessed. The resulting multilocus phylogeny reveals for the first time species phylogeny and progenitor-derivative relationships of all di- and polyploid Hordeum taxa within a single analysis. Our study proves that it is possible to obtain a multilocus species-level phylogeny for di- and polyploid taxa by combining PCR with next-generation sequencing, without cloning and without creating a heavy load of sequence data. PMID:26048340

  20. Berry and phenology-related traits in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.): From Quantitative Trait Loci to underlying genes

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Laura; Battilana, Juri; Lamaj, Flutura; Fanizza, Girolamo; Grando, Maria Stella

    2008-01-01

    Background The timing of grape ripening initiation, length of maturation period, berry size and seed content are target traits in viticulture. The availability of early and late ripening varieties is desirable for staggering harvest along growing season, expanding production towards periods when the fruit gets a higher value in the market and ensuring an optimal plant adaptation to climatic and geographic conditions. Berry size determines grape productivity; seedlessness is especially demanded in the table grape market and is negatively correlated to fruit size. These traits result from complex developmental processes modified by genetic, physiological and environmental factors. In order to elucidate their genetic determinism we carried out a quantitative analysis in a 163 individuals-F1 segregating progeny obtained by crossing two table grape cultivars. Results Molecular linkage maps covering most of the genome (2n = 38 for Vitis vinifera) were generated for each parent. Eighteen pairs of homologous groups were integrated into a consensus map spanning over 1426 cM with 341 markers (mainly microsatellite, AFLP and EST-derived markers) and an average map distance between loci of 4.2 cM. Segregating traits were evaluated in three growing seasons by recording flowering, veraison and ripening dates and by measuring berry size, seed number and weight. QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) analysis was carried out based on single marker and interval mapping methods. QTLs were identified for all but one of the studied traits, a number of them steadily over more than one year. Clusters of QTLs for different characters were detected, suggesting linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci, as well as regions affecting specific traits. The most interesting QTLs were investigated at the gene level through a bioinformatic analysis of the underlying Pinot noir genomic sequence. Conclusion Our results revealed novel insights into the genetic control of relevant grapevine features. They

  1. A genome-wide association study points to multiple loci predicting antidepressant treatment outcome in depression

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Elisabeth B.; Bettecken, Thomas; Uhr, Manfred; Ripke, Stephan; Kohli, Martin A.; Hennings, Johannes M.; Horstmann, Sonja; Kloiber, Stefan; Menke, Andreas; Bondy, Brigitta; Rupprecht, Rainer; Domschke, Katharina; Baune, Bernhard T.; Arolt, Volker; Rush, A. John; Holsboer, Florian; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram

    2015-01-01

    Context Efficacy of antidepressant treatment in depression is unsatisfactory as one in three patients does not fully recover even after several treatment trials. Genetic factors and clinical characteristics contribute to the failure of a favorable treatment outcome. Objective To identify genetic and clinical determinants of antidepressant treatment outcome in depression. Design Genome-wide pharmacogenetic association study with two independent replication samples. Setting We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study in patients from the Munich-Antidepressant-Response-Signature (MARS) project and in pooled DNA from an independent German replication sample. A set of 328 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) highly related to outcome in both GWA studies was genotyped in a sample of the Sequenced-Treatment-Alternatives-to-Relieve-Depression (STAR*D) study. Participants 339 inpatients suffering from a depressive episode (MARS sample), further 361 depressed inpatients (German replication sample), and 832 outpatients with major depression (STAR*D sample). Main Outcome Measures We generated a multi-locus genetic variable describing the individual number of alleles of the selected SNPs associated with beneficial treatment outcome in the MARS sample (“response” alleles) to evaluate additive genetic effects on antidepressant treatment outcome. Results Multi-locus analysis revealed a significant contribution of a binary variable categorizing patients as carriers of a high vs. low number of response alleles in predicting antidepressant treatment outcome in both samples, MARS and STAR*D. In addition, we observed that patients with a comorbid anxiety disorder in combination with a low number of response alleles showed the least favorable outcome. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the importance of multiple genetic factors in combination with clinical features to predict antidepressant treatment outcome underscoring the multifactorial nature of this trait. PMID

  2. Estimating the species tree for Hawaiian Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) from multiple loci in the presence of reticulate evolution.

    PubMed

    Willyard, Ann; Wallace, Lisa E; Wagner, Warren L; Weller, Stephen G; Sakai, Ann K; Nepokroeff, Molly

    2011-07-01

    Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae) is a monophyletic genus of 34 species, all endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, that arose from a single colonization, providing one of the best examples of adaptive radiation in Hawai'i. Species utilize a range of habitats and exhibit a variety of growth forms and transitions in breeding systems from hermaphroditism toward dimorphism or autogamy. Our study included the most thorough sampling to date: 2-5 individuals per species and 4 independent genetic partitions: eight plastid and three low-copy nuclear loci (9217bps), allowing a three-locus BEST species tree. Despite incomplete resolution at the tips, our results support monophyly for each extant species. Gene trees revealed several clear cases of cytonuclear incongruence, likely created by interspecific introgression. Conflict occurs at the divergence of section Alphaschiedea as well as at the tips. Ages inferred from a BEAST analysis allow an original colonization onto either Nihoa or Kauaì and inform some aspects of inter-island migrations. We suggest that several hard polytomies on the species tree are biologically realistic, signifying either nearly simultaneous speciation or historical introgressive hybridization. Based on inferred node ages that exceed expected coalescent times, we propose that undetected nuclear introgression may play a larger role than incomplete lineage sorting in sections Schiedea and Mononeura. PMID:21511045

  3. Transferability and fine-mapping of glucose and insulin quantitative trait loci across populations: CARe, the Candidate Gene Association Resource

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C.-T.; Ng, M. C. Y.; Rybin, D.; Adeyemo, A.; Bielinski, S. J.; Boerwinkle, E.; Borecki, I.; Cade, B.; Chen, Y. D. I.; Djousse, L.; Fornage, M.; Goodarzi, M. O.; Grant, S. F. A.; Guo, X.; Harris, T.; Kabagambe, E.; Kizer, J. R.; Liu, Y.; Lunetta, K. L.; Mukamal, K.; Nettleton, J. A.; Pankow, J. S.; Patel, S. R.; Ramos, E.; Rasmussen-Torvik, L.; Rich, S. S.; Rotimi, C. N.; Sarpong, D.; Shriner, D.; Sims, M.; Zmuda, J. M.; Redline, S.; Kao, W. H.; Siscovick, D.; Florez, J. C.; Rotter, J. I.; Dupuis, J.; Wilson, J. G.; Bowden, D. W.; Meigs, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Hyperglycaemia disproportionately affects African-Americans (AfAs). We tested the transferability of 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with glycaemic traits identified in European ancestry (EuA) populations in 5,984 non-diabetic AfAs. Methods We meta-analysed SNP associations with fasting glucose (FG) or insulin (FI) in AfAs from five cohorts in the Candidate Gene Association Resource. We: (1) calculated allele frequency differences, variations in linkage disequilibrium (LD), fixation indices (Fsts) and integrated haplotype scores (iHSs); (2) tested EuA SNPs in AfAs; and (3) interrogated within ±250 kb around each EuA SNP in AfAs. Results Allele frequency differences ranged from 0.6% to 54%. Fst exceeded 0.15 at 6/16 loci, indicating modest population differentiation. All iHSs were <2, suggesting no recent positive selection. For 18 SNPs, all directions of effect were the same and 95% CIs of association overlapped when comparing EuA with AfA. For 17 of 18 loci, at least one SNP was nominally associated with FG in AfAs. Four loci were significantly associated with FG (GCK, p=5.8 × 10-8; MTNR1B, p=8.5 × 10-9; and FADS1, p=2.2 × 10-4) or FI (GCKR, p=5.9 × 10-4). At GCK and MTNR1B the EuA and AfA SNPs represented the same signal, while at FADS1, and GCKR, the EuA and best AfA SNPs were weakly correlated (r2<0.2), suggesting allelic heterogeneity for association with FG at these loci. Conclusions/interpretation Few glycaemic SNPs showed strict evidence of transferability from EuA to AfAs. Four loci were significantly associated in both AfAs and those with EuA after accounting for varying LD across ancestral groups, with new signals emerging to aid fine-mapping. PMID:22893027

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple novel loci associated with disease progression in subjects with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Hu, X; Pickering, E H; Hall, S K; Naik, S; Liu, Y C; Soares, H; Katz, E; Paciga, S A; Liu, W; Aisen, P S; Bales, K R; Samad, T A; John, S L

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia among the elderly population; however, knowledge about genetic risk factors involved in disease progression is limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using clinical decline as measured by changes in the Clinical Dementia Rating-sum of boxes as a quantitative trait to test for single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were associated with the rate of progression in 822 Caucasian subjects of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). There was no significant association with disease progress for any of the recently identified disease susceptibility variants in CLU, CR1, PICALM, BIN1, EPHA1, MS4A6A, MS4A4E or CD33 following multiple testing correction. We did, however, identify multiple novel loci that reached genome-wide significance at the 0.01 level. These top variants (rs7840202 at chr8 in UBR5: P=4.27 × 10(-14); rs11637611 with a cluster of SNPs at chr15q23 close to the Tay-Sachs disease locus: P=1.07 × 10(-15); and rs12752888 at chr1: P=3.08 × 10(-11)) were also associated with a significant decline in cognition as well as the conversion of subjects with MCI to a diagnosis of AD. Taken together, these variants define approximately 16.6% of the MCI sub-population with a faster rate of decline independent of the other known disease risk factors. In addition to providing new insights into protein pathways that may be involved with the progress to AD in MCI subjects, these variants if further validated may enable the identification of a more homogeneous population of subjects at an earlier stage of disease for testing novel hypotheses and/or therapies in the clinical setting. PMID:22833209

  5. TERT gene harbors multiple variants associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Campa, Daniele; Rizzato, Cosmeri; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Pacetti, Paola; Vodicka, Pavel; Cleary, Sean P; Capurso, Gabriele; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Werner, Jens; Gazouli, Maria; Butterbach, Katja; Ivanauskas, Audrius; Giese, Nathalia; Petersen, Gloria M; Fogar, Paola; Wang, Zhaoming; Bassi, Claudio; Ryska, Miroslav; Theodoropoulos, George E; Kooperberg, Charles; Li, Donghui; Greenhalf, William; Pasquali, Claudio; Hackert, Thilo; Fuchs, Charles S; Mohelnikova-Duchonova, Beatrice; Sperti, Cosimo; Funel, Niccola; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Wareham, Nicholas J; Buring, Julie; Holcátová, Ivana; Costello, Eithne; Zambon, Carlo-Federico; Kupcinskas, Juozas; Risch, Harvey A; Kraft, Peter; Bracci, Paige M; Pezzilli, Raffaele; Olson, Sara H; Sesso, Howard D; Hartge, Patricia; Strobel, Oliver; Małecka-Panas, Ewa; Visvanathan, Kala; Arslan, Alan A; Pedrazzoli, Sergio; Souček, Pavel; Gioffreda, Domenica; Key, Timothy J; Talar-Wojnarowska, Renata; Scarpa, Aldo; Mambrini, Andrea; Jacobs, Eric J; Jamroziak, Krzysztof; Klein, Alison; Tavano, Francesca; Bambi, Franco; Landi, Stefano; Austin, Melissa A; Vodickova, Ludmila; Brenner, Hermann; Chanock, Stephen J; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Piepoli, Ada; Cantore, Maurizio; Zheng, Wei; Wolpin, Brian M; Amundadottir, Laufey T; Canzian, Federico

    2015-11-01

    A small number of common susceptibility loci have been identified for pancreatic cancer, one of which is marked by rs401681 in the TERT-CLPTM1L gene region on chromosome 5p15.33. Because this region is characterized by low linkage disequilibrium, we sought to identify whether additional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could be related to pancreatic cancer risk, independently of rs401681. We performed an in-depth analysis of genetic variability of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) and the telomerase RNA component (TERC) genes, in 5,550 subjects with pancreatic cancer and 7,585 controls from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) and the PanScan consortia. We identified a significant association between a variant in TERT and pancreatic cancer risk (rs2853677, odds ratio = 0.85; 95% confidence interval = 0.80-0.90, p = 8.3 × 10(-8)). Additional analysis adjusting rs2853677 for rs401681 indicated that the two SNPs are independently associated with pancreatic cancer risk, as suggested by the low linkage disequilibrium between them (r(2) = 0.07, D' = 0.28). Three additional SNPs in TERT reached statistical significance after correction for multiple testing: rs2736100 (p = 3.0 × 10(-5) ), rs4583925 (p = 4.0 × 10(-5) ) and rs2735948 (p = 5.0 × 10(-5) ). In conclusion, we confirmed that the TERT locus is associated with pancreatic cancer risk, possibly through several independent variants. PMID:25940397

  6. Integrative Transcriptome, Genome and Quantitative Trait Loci Resources Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Turbot.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Diego; Fernández, Carlos; Hermida, Miguel; Sciara, Andrés; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Cabaleiro, Santiago; Caamaño, Rubén; Martínez, Paulino; Bouza, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Growth traits represent a main goal in aquaculture breeding programs and may be related to adaptive variation in wild fisheries. Integrating quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and next generation sequencing can greatly help to identify variation in candidate genes, which can result in marker-assisted selection and better genetic structure information. Turbot is a commercially important flatfish in Europe and China, with available genomic information on QTLs and genome mapping. Muscle and liver RNA-seq from 18 individuals was carried out to obtain gene sequences and markers functionally related to growth, resulting in a total of 20,447 genes and 85,344 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Many growth-related genes and SNPs were identified and placed in the turbot genome and genetic map to explore their co-localization with growth-QTL markers. Forty-five SNPs on growth-related genes were selected based on QTL co-localization and relevant function for growth traits. Forty-three SNPs were technically feasible and validated in a wild Atlantic population, where 91% were polymorphic. The integration of functional and structural genomic resources in turbot provides a practical approach for QTL mining in this species. Validated SNPs represent a useful set of growth-related gene markers for future association, functional and population studies in this flatfish species. PMID:26901189

  7. Integrative Transcriptome, Genome and Quantitative Trait Loci Resources Identify Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Candidate Genes for Growth Traits in Turbot

    PubMed Central

    Robledo, Diego; Fernández, Carlos; Hermida, Miguel; Sciara, Andrés; Álvarez-Dios, José Antonio; Cabaleiro, Santiago; Caamaño, Rubén; Martínez, Paulino; Bouza, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Growth traits represent a main goal in aquaculture breeding programs and may be related to adaptive variation in wild fisheries. Integrating quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and next generation sequencing can greatly help to identify variation in candidate genes, which can result in marker-assisted selection and better genetic structure information. Turbot is a commercially important flatfish in Europe and China, with available genomic information on QTLs and genome mapping. Muscle and liver RNA-seq from 18 individuals was carried out to obtain gene sequences and markers functionally related to growth, resulting in a total of 20,447 genes and 85,344 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Many growth-related genes and SNPs were identified and placed in the turbot genome and genetic map to explore their co-localization with growth-QTL markers. Forty-five SNPs on growth-related genes were selected based on QTL co-localization and relevant function for growth traits. Forty-three SNPs were technically feasible and validated in a wild Atlantic population, where 91% were polymorphic. The integration of functional and structural genomic resources in turbot provides a practical approach for QTL mining in this species. Validated SNPs represent a useful set of growth-related gene markers for future association, functional and population studies in this flatfish species. PMID:26901189

  8. Comparative cytogenomics of poultry: mapping of single gene and repeat loci in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    McPherson, Marla C; Robinson, Charmaine M; Gehlen, Lida P; Delany, Mary E

    2014-04-01

    Well-characterized molecular and cytogenetic maps are yet to be established in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica). The aim of the current study was to cytogenetically map and determine linkage of specific genes and gene complexes in Japanese quail through the use of chicken (Gallus gallus) and turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) genomic DNA probes and conduct a comparative study among the three genomes. Chicken and turkey clones were used as probes on mitotic metaphase and meiotic pachytene stage chromosomes of the three species for the purpose of high-resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The genes and complexes studied included telomerase RNA (TR), telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), 5S rDNA, 18S-5.8S-28S rDNA (i.e., nucleolus organizer region (NOR)), and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The telomeric profile of Japanese quail was investigated through the use of FISH with a TTAGGG-PNA probe. A range of telomeric array sizes were confirmed as found for the other poultry species. Three NOR loci were identified in Japanese quail, and single loci each for TR, TERT, 5S rDNA and the MHC-B. The MHC-B and one NOR locus were linked on a microchromosome in Japanese quail. We confirmed physical linkage of 5S rDNA and the TR gene on an intermediate-sized chromosome in quail, similar to both chicken and turkey. TERT localized to CJA 2 in quail and the orthologous chromosome region in chicken (GGA 2) and in turkey (MGA 3). The cytogenetic profile of Japanese quail was further developed by this study and synteny was identified among the three poultry species. PMID:24604153

  9. On the organization of human T-cell receptor loci: log-periodic distribution of T-cell receptor gene segments

    PubMed Central

    Toor, Amir A.; Toor, Abdullah A.; Rahmani, Mohamed; Manjili, Masoud H.

    2016-01-01

    The human T-cell repertoire is complex and is generated by the rearrangement of variable (V), diversity (D) and joining (J) segments on the T-cell receptor (TCR) loci. The T-cell repertoire demonstrates self-similarity in terms clonal frequencies when defined by V, D and J gene segment usage; therefore to determine whether the structural ordering of these gene segments on the TCR loci contributes to the observed clonal frequencies, the TCR loci were examined for self-similarity and periodicity in terms of gene segment organization. Logarithmic transformation of numeric sequence order demonstrated that the V and J gene segments for both T-cell receptor α (TRA) and β (TRB) loci are arranged in a self-similar manner when the spacing between the adjacent segments was considered as a function of the size of the neighbouring gene segment, with an average fractal dimension of approximately 1.5. Accounting for the gene segments occurring on helical DNA molecules with a logarithmic distribution, sine and cosine functions of the log-transformed angular coordinates of the start and stop nucleotides of successive TCR gene segments showed an ordered progression from the 5′ to the 3′ end of the locus, supporting a log-periodic organization. T-cell clonal frequency estimates, based on V and J segment usage, from normal stem cell donors were plotted against the V and J segment on TRB locus and demonstrated a periodic distribution. We hypothesize that this quasi-periodic variation in gene-segment representation in the T-cell clonal repertoire may be influenced by the location of the gene segments on the periodic-logarithmically scaled TCR loci. Interactions between the two strands of DNA in the double helix may influence the probability of gene segment usage by means of either constructive or destructive interference resulting from the superposition of the two helices. PMID:26763333

  10. Highly efficient CRISPR/Cas9-mediated TAR cloning of genes and chromosomal loci from complex genomes in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nicholas C.O.; Larionov, Vladimir; Kouprina, Natalay

    2015-01-01

    Transformation-associated recombination (TAR) protocol allowing the selective isolation of full-length genes complete with their distal enhancer regions and entire genomic loci with sizes up to 250 kb from complex genomes in yeast S. cerevisiae has been developed more than a decade ago. However, its wide spread usage has been impeded by a low efficiency (0.5–2%) of chromosomal region capture during yeast transformants which in turn requires a time-consuming screen of hundreds of colonies. Here, we demonstrate that pre-treatment of genomic DNA with CRISPR-Cas9 nucleases to generate double-strand breaks near the targeted genomic region results in a dramatic increase in the fraction of gene-positive colonies (up to 32%). As only a dozen or less yeast transformants need to be screened to obtain a clone with the desired chromosomal region, extensive experience with yeast is no longer required. A TAR-CRISPR protocol may help to create a bank of human genes, each represented by a genomic copy containing its native regulatory elements, that would lead to a significant advance in functional, structural and comparative genomics, in diagnostics, gene replacement, generation of animal models for human diseases and has a potential for gene therapy. PMID:25690893

  11. A Trans-Acting Regulatory Gene That Inversely Affects the Expression of the White, Brown and Scarlet Loci in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Rabinow, L.; Nguyen-Huynh, A. T.; Birchler, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    A trans-acting regulatory gene, Inr-a, that alters the level of expression of the white eye color locus as an inverse function of the number of its functional copies is described. Several independent lines of evidence demonstrate that this regulatory gene interacts with white via the promoter sequences. Among these are the observations that the inverse regulatory effect is conferred to the Adh gene when fused to the white promoter and that cis-regulatory mutants of white fail to respond. The phenotypic response to Inr-a is found in all tissues in which white is expressed, and mutants of the regulator exhibit a recessive lethality during larval periods. Increased white messenger RNA levels in pupal stages are found in Inr-a/+ individuals versus +/+ and a coordinate response is observed for mRNA levels from the brown and scarlet loci. All are structurally related and participate in pigment deposition. These experiments demonstrate that a single regulatory gene can exert an inverse effect on a target structural locus, a situation postulated from segmental aneuploid studies of gene expression and dosage compensation. PMID:1743487

  12. Phenotypes Associated with Knockouts of Eight Dense Granule Gene Loci (GRA2-9) in Virulent Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Rommereim, Leah M; Bellini, Valeria; Fox, Barbara A; Pètre, Graciane; Rak, Camille; Touquet, Bastien; Aldebert, Delphine; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Mercier, Corinne; Bzik, David J

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii actively invades host cells and establishes a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that accumulates many proteins secreted by the dense granules (GRA proteins). To date, at least 23 GRA proteins have been reported, though the function(s) of most of these proteins still remains unknown. We targeted gene knockouts at ten GRA gene loci (GRA1-10) to investigate the cellular roles and essentiality of these classical GRA proteins during acute infection in the virulent type I RH strain. While eight of these genes (GRA2-9) were successfully knocked out, targeted knockouts at the GRA1 and GRA10 loci were not obtained, suggesting these GRA proteins may be essential. As expected, the Δgra2 and Δgra6 knockouts failed to form an intravacuolar network (IVN). Surprisingly, Δgra7 exhibited hyper-formation of the IVN in both normal and lipid-free growth conditions. No morphological alterations were identified in parasite or PV structures in the Δgra3, Δgra4, Δgra5, Δgra8, or Δgra9 knockouts. With the exception of the Δgra3 and Δgra8 knockouts, all of the GRA knockouts exhibited defects in their infection rate in vitro. While the single GRA knockouts did not exhibit reduced replication rates in vitro, replication rate defects were observed in three double GRA knockout strains (Δgra4Δgra6, Δgra3Δgra5 and Δgra3Δgra7). However, the virulence of single or double GRA knockout strains in CD1 mice was not affected. Collectively, our results suggest that while the eight individual GRA proteins investigated in this study (GRA2-9) are not essential, several GRA proteins may provide redundant and potentially important functions during acute infection. PMID:27458822

  13. Phenotypes Associated with Knockouts of Eight Dense Granule Gene Loci (GRA2-9) in Virulent Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Barbara A.; Pètre, Graciane; Rak, Camille; Touquet, Bastien; Aldebert, Delphine; Dubremetz, Jean-François; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Mercier, Corinne; Bzik, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii actively invades host cells and establishes a parasitophorous vacuole (PV) that accumulates many proteins secreted by the dense granules (GRA proteins). To date, at least 23 GRA proteins have been reported, though the function(s) of most of these proteins still remains unknown. We targeted gene knockouts at ten GRA gene loci (GRA1-10) to investigate the cellular roles and essentiality of these classical GRA proteins during acute infection in the virulent type I RH strain. While eight of these genes (GRA2-9) were successfully knocked out, targeted knockouts at the GRA1 and GRA10 loci were not obtained, suggesting these GRA proteins may be essential. As expected, the Δgra2 and Δgra6 knockouts failed to form an intravacuolar network (IVN). Surprisingly, Δgra7 exhibited hyper-formation of the IVN in both normal and lipid-free growth conditions. No morphological alterations were identified in parasite or PV structures in the Δgra3, Δgra4, Δgra5, Δgra8, or Δgra9 knockouts. With the exception of the Δgra3 and Δgra8 knockouts, all of the GRA knockouts exhibited defects in their infection rate in vitro. While the single GRA knockouts did not exhibit reduced replication rates in vitro, replication rate defects were observed in three double GRA knockout strains (Δgra4Δgra6, Δgra3Δgra5 and Δgra3Δgra7). However, the virulence of single or double GRA knockout strains in CD1 mice was not affected. Collectively, our results suggest that while the eight individual GRA proteins investigated in this study (GRA2-9) are not essential, several GRA proteins may provide redundant and potentially important functions during acute infection. PMID:27458822

  14. Fine mapping of type 1 diabetes susceptibility loci and evidence for colocalization of causal variants with lymphoid gene enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Chen, Wei-Min; Burren, Oliver; Cooper, Nick J.; Quinlan, Aaron R.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Farber, Emily; Bonnie, Jessica K.; Szpak, Michal; Schofield, Ellen; Achuthan, Premanand; Guo, Hui; Fortune, Mary D.; Stevens, Helen; Walker, Neil M.; Ward, Luke D.; Kundaje, Anshul; Kellis, Manolis; Daly, Mark J.; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Cooper, Jason D.; Deloukas, Panos; Todd, John A.; Wallace, Chris; Concannon, Patrick; Rich, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies of type 1 diabetes (T1D) have identified 50 susceptibility regions1,2 (www.T1DBase.org) revealing major pathways contributing to risk3, with some loci shared across immune disorders4–6. In order to make genetic comparisons across autoimmune disorders as informative as possible a dense genotyping array, the ImmunoChip, was developed, from which four novel T1D regions were identified (P < 5 × 10−8). A comparative analysis with 15 immune diseases (www.ImmunoBase.org) revealed that T1D is more similar genetically to other autoantibody-positive diseases, most significantly to juvenile idiopathic arthritis and least to ulcerative colitis, and provided support for three additional novel T1D loci. Using a Bayesian approach, we defined credible sets for the T1D SNPs. These T1D SNPs localized to enhancer sequences active in thymus, T and B cells, and CD34+ stem cells. Enhancer-promoter interactions can now be analyzed in these cell types to identify which particular genes and regulatory sequences are causal. PMID:25751624

  15. Fine mapping of type 1 diabetes susceptibility loci and evidence for colocalization of causal variants with lymphoid gene enhancers.

    PubMed

    Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Chen, Wei-Min; Burren, Oliver; Cooper, Nick J; Quinlan, Aaron R; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C; Farber, Emily; Bonnie, Jessica K; Szpak, Michal; Schofield, Ellen; Achuthan, Premanand; Guo, Hui; Fortune, Mary D; Stevens, Helen; Walker, Neil M; Ward, Lucas D; Kundaje, Anshul; Kellis, Manolis; Daly, Mark J; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Cooper, Jason D; Deloukas, Panos; Todd, John A; Wallace, Chris; Concannon, Patrick; Rich, Stephen S

    2015-04-01

    Genetic studies of type 1 diabetes (T1D) have identified 50 susceptibility regions, finding major pathways contributing to risk, with some loci shared across immune disorders. To make genetic comparisons across autoimmune disorders as informative as possible, a dense genotyping array, the Immunochip, was developed, from which we identified four new T1D-associated regions (P < 5 × 10(-8)). A comparative analysis with 15 immune diseases showed that T1D is more similar genetically to other autoantibody-positive diseases, significantly most similar to juvenile idiopathic arthritis and significantly least similar to ulcerative colitis, and provided support for three additional new T1D risk loci. Using a Bayesian approach, we defined credible sets for the T1D-associated SNPs. The associated SNPs localized to enhancer sequences active in thymus, T and B cells, and CD34(+) stem cells. Enhancer-promoter interactions can now be analyzed in these cell types to identify which particular genes and regulatory sequences are causal. PMID:25751624

  16. The Genetics of a Small Autosomal Region of Drosophila Melanogaster Containing the Structural Gene for Alcohol Dehydrogenase. VII. Characterization of the Region around the Snail and Cactus Loci

    PubMed Central

    Ashburner, M.; Thompson, P.; Roote, J.; Lasko, P. F.; Grau, Y.; Messal, M. E.; Roth, S.; Simpson, P.

    1990-01-01

    The genetic interval 35C to 36A on chromosome arm 2L of Drosophila melanogaster has been saturated for mutations with visible or lethal phenotypes. 38 loci have been characterized, including several maternal-effect lethals (vasa, Bic-C, chiffon, cactus and cornichon) and several early embryonic lethals, including snail and fizzy. About 130 deletions have been used to order these loci. Complex interactions between mutant alleles have been uncovered in the immediate genetic environs of the snail gene, as has further evidence for an interaction between this region and that including the nearby genes no-ocelli and elbow. PMID:2123463

  17. AF9 promotes hESC neural differentiation through recruiting TET2 to neurodevelopmental gene loci for methylcytosine hydroxylation

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yunbo; Wang, Xiongjun; Wang, Ran; Li, Yuanyuan; Yu, Fang; Yang, Xianfa; Song, Lu; Xu, Guoliang; Chin, Y Eugene; Jing, Naihe

    2015-01-01

    AF9 mutations have been implicated in human neurodevelopmental diseases and murine Af9 mediates histone methylation during cortical neuron generation. However, AF9 function and related mechanisms in human neurodevelopment remain unknown. Here we show that AF9 is necessary and sufficient for human embryonic stem cell (hESC) neural differentiation and neurodevelopmental gene activation. The 5-methylcytosine (5mC) dioxygenase TET2, which was identified in an AF9-associated protein complex, physically interacted with AF9. Both AF9 and TET2 co-localized in 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC)-positive hESC-derived neurons and were required for appropriate hESC neural differentiation. Upon binding to AAC-containing motifs, AF9 recruited TET2 to occupy the common neurodevelopmental gene loci to direct 5mC-to-5hmC conversion, which was followed by sequential activation of neural target genes and hESC neural commitment. These findings define an AF9–TET2 regulatory complex for modulating human neural development and reveal a novel mechanism by which the AF9 recognition specificity and TET2 hydroxylation activity cooperate to control neurodevelopmental gene activation. PMID:27462416

  18. [Polymorphic loci and polymorphism analysis of short tandem repeats within XNP gene].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qi-Ji; Gong, Yao-Qin; Guo, Chen-Hong; Chen, Bing-Xi; Li, Jiang-Xia; Guo, Yi-Shou

    2002-01-01

    To select polymorphic short tandem repeat markers within X-linked nuclear protein (XNP) gene, genomic clones which contain XNP gene were recognized by homologous analysis with XNP cDNA. By comparing the cDNA with genomic DNA, non-exonic sequences were identified, and short tandem repeats were selected from non-exonic sequences by using BCM search Launcher. Polymorphisms of the short tandem repeats in Chinese population were evaluated by PCR amplification and PAGE. Five short tandem repeats were identified from XNP gene, two of which were polymorphic. Four and 11 alleles were observed in Chinese population for XNPSTR1 and XNPSTR4, respectively. Heterozygosities were 47% for XNPSTR1 and 70% for XNPSTR4. XNPSTR1 and XNPSTR4 localized within 3' end and intron 10, respectively. Two polymorphic short tandem repeats have been identified within XNP gene and will be useful for linkage analysis and gene diagnosis of XNP gene. PMID:12182071

  19. Linkage disequilibrium between the juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis gene and marker loci on chromosome 16p12. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, T.J.; MacCormack, K.; Gleitsman, J.; Schlumpf, K.; Breakefield, X.O.; Gusella, J.F.; Haines, J.L. )

    1994-01-01

    The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; Batten disease) are a collection of autosomal recessive disorders characterized by the accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigments in the neurons and other cell types. Clinically, these disorders are characterized by progressive encephalopathy, loss of vision, and seizures. CLN3, the gene responsible for juvenile NCL, has been mapped to a 15-cM region flanked by the marker loci D16S148 and D16S150 on human chromosome 16. CLN2, the gene causing the late-infantile form of NCL (LNCL), is not yet mapped. The authors have used highly informative dinucleoide repeat markers mapping between D16S148 and D16S150 to refine the localization of CLN3 and to test for linkage to CLN2. The authors find significant linkage disequilibrium between CLN3 and the dinucleotide repeat marker loci D16S288 (X[sup 2](7) = 46.5, P < .005), D16S298 (X[sup 2](6) = 36.6, P < .005), and D16S299 (X[sup 2](7) = 73.8, P < .005), and also a novel RFLP marker at the D16S272 locus (X[sup 2](1) = 5.7, P = .02). These markers all map to 16p12.1. The D16S298/D16S299 haplotype [open quotes]5/4[close quotes] is highly overrepresented, accounting for 54% of CLN3 chromosomes as compared with 8% of control chromosomes (X[sup 2] = 117, df = 1, P < .001). Examination of the haplotypes suggests that the CLN3 locus can be narrowed to the region immediately surrounding these markers in 16p12.1. Analysis of D16S299 in LNCL pedigrees supports the previous finding that CLN3 and CLN2 are different genetic loci. This study also indicates that dinucleotide repeat markers play a valuable role in disequilibrium studies. 23 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  20. Fine-mapping identifies multiple prostate cancer risk loci at 5p15, one of which associates with TERT expression

    PubMed Central

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Saunders, Edward J.; Leongamornlert, Daniel A.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Dadaev, Tokhir; Jugurnauth-Little, Sarah; Ross-Adams, Helen; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Halim, Silvia; Russel, Roslin; Dunning, Alison M.; Luccarini, Craig; Dennis, Joe; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Muir, Ken; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Gapstur, Susan; Chanock, Stephen; Berndt, Sonja I.; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald; Schleutker, Johanna; Weischer, Maren; Canzian, Federico; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Campa, Daniele; Ingles, Sue A.; John, Esther M.; Hayes, Richard B.; Pharoah, Paul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Schaid, Dan; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong Y.; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A.; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Wilkinson, Rosemary A.; Sawyer, Emma J.; Morgan, Angela; Dicks, Ed; Baynes, Caroline; Conroy, Don; Bojesen, Stig E.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, François; Tessier, Daniel C.; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2013-01-01

    Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 5p15 and multiple cancer types have been reported. We have previously shown evidence for a strong association between prostate cancer (PrCa) risk and rs2242652 at 5p15, intronic in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene that encodes TERT. To comprehensively evaluate the association between genetic variation across this region and PrCa, we performed a fine-mapping analysis by genotyping 134 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array or Sequenom MassArray iPlex, followed by imputation of 1094 SNPs in 22 301 PrCa cases and 22 320 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis identified four signals in the promoter or intronic regions of TERT that independently associated with PrCa risk. Gene expression analysis of normal prostate tissue showed evidence that SNPs within one of these regions also associated with TERT expression, providing a potential mechanism for predisposition to disease. PMID:23535824

  1. Fine-mapping identifies multiple prostate cancer risk loci at 5p15, one of which associates with TERT expression.

    PubMed

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Saunders, Edward J; Leongamornlert, Daniel A; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Dadaev, Tokhir; Jugurnauth-Little, Sarah; Ross-Adams, Helen; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Halim, Silvia; Russell, Roslin; Russel, Roslin; Dunning, Alison M; Luccarini, Craig; Dennis, Joe; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L; Muir, Ken; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J; Gapstur, Susan; Chanock, Stephen; Berndt, Sonja I; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald; Schleutker, Johanna; Weischer, Maren; Canzian, Federico; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Campa, Daniele; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Hayes, Richard B; Pharoah, Paul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Ostrander, Elaine A; Signorello, Lisa B; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Schaid, Dan; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong Y; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A; Teixeira, Manuel R; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Wilkinson, Rosemary A; Sawyer, Emma J; Morgan, Angela; Dicks, Ed; Baynes, Caroline; Conroy, Don; Bojesen, Stig E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, François; Tessier, Daniel C; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A

    2013-06-15

    Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 5p15 and multiple cancer types have been reported. We have previously shown evidence for a strong association between prostate cancer (PrCa) risk and rs2242652 at 5p15, intronic in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene that encodes TERT. To comprehensively evaluate the association between genetic variation across this region and PrCa, we performed a fine-mapping analysis by genotyping 134 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array or Sequenom MassArray iPlex, followed by imputation of 1094 SNPs in 22 301 PrCa cases and 22 320 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis identified four signals in the promoter or intronic regions of TERT that independently associated with PrCa risk. Gene expression analysis of normal prostate tissue showed evidence that SNPs within one of these regions also associated with TERT expression, providing a potential mechanism for predisposition to disease. PMID:23535824

  2. Form follows function - the three-dimensional structure of antigen receptor gene loci.

    PubMed

    Fugmann, Sebastian D

    2014-04-01

    Antigen receptor genes are assembled during lymphocyte development from individual gene segments by a somatic gene rearrangement process named V(D)J recombination. This process is tightly regulated to ensure the generation of an unbiased broad primary repertoire of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors, and to prevent aberrant recombination products that could initiate lymphomagenesis. One important mode of regulation that has recently been discovered for the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene locus is the adoption of distinct three-dimensional structures of the locus. Changes in the spatial conformation are thought to ensure the appropriate access of the V(D)J recombinase machinery at each developmental stage, and the formation of extensive chromosome loops has been implicated in allowing equal access to widely dispersed gene elements. PMID:24549092

  3. Methionine-dependent histone methylation at developmentally important gene loci in mouse preimplantation embryos.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Mari; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Sugimoto, Miki; Kume, Shinichi

    2015-12-01

    The involvement of specific nutrients in epigenetic gene regulation is a possible mechanism underlying nutrition-directed phenotypic alteration. However, the involvement of nutrients in gene-specific epigenetic regulation remains poorly understood. Methionine has been received attention as a possible nutrient involved in epigenetic modifications, as it is a precursor of the universal methyl donor for epigenetic methylation of DNA and histones. In the present study, the disruption of methionine metabolism by ethionine, an antimetabolite of methionine, induced abnormally higher expression of genes related to cell lineage differentiation and resulted in impaired blastocyst development of mouse preimplantation embryos in vitro. These effects were mitigated by the presence of methionine. Importantly, ethionine treatment induced lower trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 but did not affect methylation of DNA in the promoter regions of the examined genes. These results demonstrated that intact methionine metabolism is required for proper epigenetic histone modifications and normal expression of developmentally important genes during preimplantation development. PMID:26372092

  4. First insights into the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) blood transcriptome: a resource for novel gene loci and immunogenetics.

    PubMed

    Du, Lianming; Li, Wujiao; Fan, Zhenxin; Shen, Fujun; Yang, Mingyu; Wang, Zili; Jian, Zuoyi; Hou, Rong; Yue, Bisong; Zhang, Xiuyue

    2015-07-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is one of the most famous flagship species for conservation, and its draft genome has recently been assembled. However, the transcriptome is not yet available. In this study, the blood transcriptomes of three pandas were characterized and about 160 million sequencing reads were generated using Illumina HiSeq 2000 paired-end sequencing technology. The assembly yielded 92 598 transcripts with an average length of 1626 bp and N50 length of 2842 bp. Based on a sequence similarity search against nonredundant (nr) protein database, a total of 38 522 (41.6%) transcripts were annotated. Of these annotated transcripts, 25 142 and 8272 transcripts were assigned to gene ontology terms and clusters of orthologous group, respectively. A search against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) indicated that 9098 (9.83%) transcripts mapped to 324 KEGG pathways, and the best represented functional categories of pathways were signal transduction and immune system. We have also identified 23 460 microsatellites, 43 560 SNPs as well as 21 456 alternative splicing events in the assembly. Additionally, a total of 24 341 complete open reading frames (ORFs) were detected from the assembly where 1492 ORFs were found to be novel gene loci as these have not been annotated so far in any public database. PMID:25556892

  5. A survey of airway responsiveness in 36 inbred mouse strains facilitates gene mapping studies and identification of quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    Leme, Adriana S.; Williams, Laura K.; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Szatkiewicz, Jin P.; Verdugo, Ricardo; Paigen, Beverly; Shapiro, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) is a critical phenotype of human asthma and animal models of asthma. Other studies have measured AHR in nine mouse strains, but only six strains have been used to identify genetic loci underlying AHR. Our goals were to increase the genetic diversity of available strains by surveying 27 additional strains, to apply haplotype association mapping to the 36-strain survey, and to identify new genetic determinants for AHR. We derived AHR from the increase in airway resistance in females subjected to increasing levels of methacholine concentrations. We used haplotype association mapping to identify associations between AHR and haplotypes on chromosomes 3, 5, 8, 12, 13, and 14. And we used bioinformatics techniques to narrow the identified region on chromosome 13, reducing the region to 29 candidate genes, with 11 of considerable interest. Our combined use of haplotype association mapping with bioinformatics tools is the first study of its kind for AHR on these 36 strains of mice. Our analyses have narrowed the possible QTL genes and will facilitate the discovery of novel genes that regulate AHR in mice. PMID:20143096

  6. Copy number variation and microdeletions of the Y chromosome linked genes and loci across different categories of Indian infertile males

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Anju; Yadav, Sandeep Kumar; Misro, Man Mohan; Ahmad, Jamal; Ali, Sher

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed 34 azoospermic (AZ), 43 oligospermic (OS), and 40 infertile males with normal spermiogram (INS) together with 55 normal fertile males (NFM) from the Indian population. AZ showed more microdeletions in the AZFa and AZFb regions whereas oligospermic ones showed more microdeletions in the AZFc region. Frequency of the AZF partial deletions was higher in males with spermatogenic impairments than in INS. Significantly, SRY, DAZ and BPY2 genes showed copy number variation across different categories of the patients and much reduced copies of the DYZ1 repeat arrays compared to that in normal fertile males. Likewise, INS showed microdeletions, sequence and copy number variation of several Y linked genes and loci. In the context of infertility, STS deletions and copy number variations both were statistically significant (p = 0.001). Thus, semen samples used during in vitro fertilization (IVF) and assisted reproductive technology (ART) must be assessed for the microdeletions of AZFa, b and c regions in addition to the affected genes reported herein. Present study is envisaged to be useful for DNA based diagnosis of different categories of the infertile males lending support to genetic counseling to the couples aspiring to avail assisted reproductive technologies. PMID:26638807

  7. Global population genetic structure and male-mediated gene flow in the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas): analysis of microsatellite loci.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Mark A; Schwartz, Tonia S; Karl, Stephen A

    2004-01-01

    We assessed the degree of population subdivision among global populations of green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, using four microsatellite loci. Previously, a single-copy nuclear DNA study indicated significant male-mediated gene flow among populations alternately fixed for different mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and that genetic divergence between populations in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans was more common than subdivisions among populations within ocean basins. Even so, overall levels of variation at single-copy loci were low and inferences were limited. Here, the markedly more variable microsatellite loci confirm the presence of male-mediated gene flow among populations within ocean basins. This analysis generally confirms the genetic divergence between the Atlantic and Pacific. As with the previous study, phylogenetic analyses of genetic distances based on the microsatellite loci indicate a close genetic relationship among eastern Atlantic and Indian Ocean populations. Unlike the single-copy study, however, the results here cannot be attributed to an artifact of general low variability and likely represent recent or ongoing migration between ocean basins. Sequence analyses of regions flanking the microsatellite repeat reveal considerable amounts of cryptic variation and homoplasy and significantly aid in our understanding of population connectivity. Assessment of the allele frequency distributions indicates that at least some of the loci may not be evolving by the stepwise mutation model. PMID:15126404

  8. Gene-centric meta-analyses for central adiposity traits in up to 57 412 individuals of European descent confirm known loci and reveal several novel associations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are surrogate measures of central adiposity that are associated with adverse cardiovascular events, type 2 diabetes and cancer independent of body mass index (BMI). WC and WHR are highly heritable with multiple susceptibility loci identified to d...

  9. ATRX Plays a Key Role in Maintaining Silencing at Interstitial Heterochromatic Loci and Imprinted Genes.

    PubMed

    Voon, Hsiao P J; Hughes, Jim R; Rode, Christina; De La Rosa-Velázquez, Inti A; Jenuwein, Thomas; Feil, Robert; Higgs, Douglas R; Gibbons, Richard J

    2015-04-21

    Histone H3.3 is a replication-independent histone variant, which replaces histones that are turned over throughout the entire cell cycle. H3.3 deposition at euchromatin is dependent on HIRA, whereas ATRX/Daxx deposits H3.3 at pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres. The role of H3.3 at heterochromatic regions is unknown, but mutations in the ATRX/Daxx/H3.3 pathway are linked to aberrant telomere lengthening in certain cancers. In this study, we show that ATRX-dependent deposition of H3.3 is not limited to pericentric heterochromatin and telomeres but also occurs at heterochromatic sites throughout the genome. Notably, ATRX/H3.3 specifically localizes to silenced imprinted alleles in mouse ESCs. ATRX KO cells failed to deposit H3.3 at these sites, leading to loss of the H3K9me3 heterochromatin modification, loss of repression, and aberrant allelic expression. We propose a model whereby ATRX-dependent deposition of H3.3 into heterochromatin is normally required to maintain the memory of silencing at imprinted loci. PMID:25865896

  10. Genetic variation at the LDL receptor and HMG-CoA reductase gene loci, lipid levels, statin response, and cardiovascular disease incidence in PROSPER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to evaluate associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLRC44857T, minor allele frequency (MAF) 0.26, and A44964G, MAF 0.25, both in the untranslated region) and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCRi18 T >G, MAF 0.019) gene loci with ba...

  11. Lack of an association between candidate gene loci and idiopathic generalized epilepsy in Kuwaiti Arab children.

    PubMed

    Haider, M Z; Habeeb, Y; Al-Nakkas, E; Al-Anzi, H; Zaki, M; Al-Tawari, A; Al-Bloushi, M

    2005-10-01

    Idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs) are the most common types of epilepsy in childhood and adolescence. A variety of data suggest that IGEs have a predominant genetic etiology. Recently, a number of gene mutations have been found to be associated with various types of epilepsy in mainly the Caucasian populations. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of three different candidate genes with IGE in Kuwaiti Arab children. This study includes 123 Kuwaiti patients with a confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy. Most of the patients have had a diagnostic EEG with generalized spike-wave discharges (GSWs). All patients were evaluated by using a validated seizure questionnaire. The clinical type of epilepsy was determined by a trained neurologist/pediatrician. The study also include 100 controls, the control subjects were children which did not have any history of neurological disorders. Blood samples were collected from all patients and control subjects after taking informed consent. DNA was isolated and analyzed by molecular methods. A FokI polymorphism in neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha-4 subunit (CHRNA4) gene was detected by PCR-RFLP method. A missense mutation (Ser248Phe) in CHRNA4 gene was analyzed by PCR-RFLP using HpaII. A C121W mutation in sodium-channel beta-1 subunit (SCN1B) gene was screened by a PCR-RFLP method using HinPI. A 2-bp deletion in Cystatin B gene was detected by PCR-RFLP using XcmI. The incidence of three FokI polymorphism genotypes in Kuwaiti IGE patients was 1,1 (85%), 1,2 (14%) and 2,2 (1%) respectively. The missense mutation Ser248Phe of CHRNA4 gene was not detected at all in Kuwaiti IGE patients. The C387G transversion resulting in C121W change in third exon of the SCN1B gene was detected in 3/123 patients (2%). The patients carrying this mutation also exhibited febrile seizures. The incidence of 2 bp deletion in the cystatin B gene was found to be 4% (5/123 IGE patients). The data obtained from molecular

  12. Genome-wide meta-analysis of maize heterosis reveals the potential role of additive gene expression at pericentromeric loci

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The identification of QTL involved in heterosis formation is one approach to unravel the not yet fully understood genetic basis of heterosis - the improved agronomic performance of hybrid F1 plants compared to their inbred parents. The identification of candidate genes underlying a QTL is important both for developing markers and determining the molecular genetic basis of a trait, but remains difficult owing to the large number of genes often contained within individual QTL. To address this problem in heterosis analysis, we applied a meta-analysis strategy for grain yield (GY) of Zea mays L. as example, incorporating QTL-, hybrid field-, and parental gene expression data. Results For the identification of genes underlying known heterotic QTL, we made use of tight associations between gene expression pattern and the trait of interest, identified by correlation analyses. Using this approach genes strongly associated with heterosis for GY were discovered to be clustered in pericentromeric regions of the complex maize genome. This suggests that expression differences of sequences in recombination-suppressed regions are important in the establishment of heterosis for GY in F1 hybrids and also in the conservation of heterosis for GY across genotypes. Importantly functional analysis of heterosis-associated genes from these genomic regions revealed over-representation of a number of functional classes, identifying key processes contributing to heterosis for GY. Based on the finding that the majority of the analyzed heterosis-associated genes were addtitively expressed, we propose a model referring to the influence of cis-regulatory variation on heterosis for GY by the compensation of fixed detrimental expression levels in parents. Conclusions The study highlights the utility of a meta-analysis approach that integrates phenotypic and multi-level molecular data to unravel complex traits in plants. It provides prospects for the identification of genes relevant for

  13. Confirmation of Multiple Risk Loci and Genetic Impacts by a Genome-Wide Association Study of Type 2 Diabetes in the Japanese Population

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Serizawa, Masakuni; Yamamoto, Ken; Fujisawa, Tomomi; Nakashima, Eitaro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takao; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Miyagishi, Makoto; Nakashima, Naoki; Nawata, Hajime; Nakamura, Jiro; Kono, Suminori; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Kato, Norihiro

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To identify novel type 2 diabetes gene variants and confirm previously identified ones, a three-staged genome-wide association study was performed in the Japanese population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In the stage 1 scan, we genotyped 519 case and 503 control subjects with 482,625 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers; in the stage 2 panel comprising 1,110 case subjects and 1,014 control subjects, we assessed 1,456 SNPs (P < 0.0025, stage 1); additionally to direct genotyping, 964 healthy control subjects formed the in silico control panel. Along with genome-wide exploration, we aimed to replicate the disease association of 17 SNPs from 16 candidate loci previously identified in Europeans. The associated and/or replicated loci (23 SNPs; P < 7 × 10–5 for genome-wide exploration and P < 0.05 for replication) were examined in the stage 3 panel comprising 4,000 case subjects and 12,569 population-based samples, from which 4,889 nondiabetic control subjects were preselected. The 12,569 subjects were used for overall risk assessment in the general population. RESULTS Four loci—1 novel with suggestive evidence (PEPD on 19q13, P = 1.4 × 10–5) and three previously reported—were identified; the association of CDKAL1, CDKN2A/CDKN2B, and KCNQ1 were confirmed (P < 10–19). Moreover, significant associations were replicated in five other candidate loci: TCF7L2, IGF2BP2, SLC30A8, HHEX, and KCNJ11. There was substantial overlap of type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes between the two populations, whereas effect size and explained variance tended to be higher in the Japanese population. CONCLUSIONS The strength of association was more prominent in the Japanese population than in Europeans for more than half of the confirmed type 2 diabetes loci. PMID:19401414

  14. Quantitative trait loci and underlying candidate genes controlling agronomical and fruit quality traits in octoploid strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    PubMed

    Zorrilla-Fontanesi, Yasmín; Cabeza, Amalia; Domínguez, Pedro; Medina, Juan Jesús; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Amaya, Iraida

    2011-09-01

    Breeding for fruit quality traits in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, 2n = 8x = 56) is complex due to the polygenic nature of these traits and the octoploid constitution of this species. In order to improve the efficiency of genotype selection, the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and associated molecular markers will constitute a valuable tool for breeding programs. However, the implementation of these markers in breeding programs depends upon the complexity and stability of QTLs across different environments. In this work, the genetic control of 17 agronomical and fruit quality traits was investigated in strawberry using a F(1) population derived from an intraspecific cross between two contrasting selection lines, '232' and '1392'. QTL analyses were performed over three successive years based on the separate parental linkage maps and a pseudo-testcross strategy. The integrated strawberry genetic map consists of 338 molecular markers covering 37 linkage groups, thus exceeding the 28 chromosomes. 33 QTLs were identified for 14 of the 17 studied traits and approximately 37% of them were stable over time. For each trait, 1-5 QTLs were identified with individual effects ranging between 9.2 and 30.5% of the phenotypic variation, indicating that all analysed traits are complex and quantitatively inherited. Many QTLs controlling correlated traits were co-located in homoeology group V, indicating linkage or pleiotropic effects of loci. Candidate genes for several QTLs controlling yield, anthocyanins, firmness and L-ascorbic acid are proposed based on both their co-localization and predicted function. We also report conserved QTLs among strawberry and other Rosaceae based on their syntenic location. PMID:21667037

  15. Mutations in Rik1, Clr2, Clr3 and Clr4 Genes Asymmetrically Derepress the Silent Mating-Type Loci in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ekwall, K.; Ruusala, T.

    1994-01-01

    In Schizosaccharomyces pombe the mating-type information is stored at two transcriptionally silent loci (mat2 and mat3). The region between these sites (K region) is inert for meiotic crossing over. The mating-type genes (M or P) are expressed only when present at a third, active locus (mat1). We have earlier shown that the positional regulation of P genes is based on repression at the silent site, caused by elements in the flanking DNA sequences. In this study we have mutagenized a sterile mat1 deleted strain and selected for cells that are able to conjugate. Recessive mutations of this type should define genes encoding trans-acting factors involved in repression of the silent mating-type loci. Before this work mutations in two genes, clr1 and swi6, had been shown to allow both expression of the silent loci and recombination in the K region. The sensitivity of the present selection is demonstrated by the isolation of new mutations that derepress one or both of the silent loci (M-mating or bi-mating). The frequency of M-mating mutants was almost two orders of magnitude higher than that of bi-mating mutants and in all mutants analyzed mat3-M expression was significantly higher than mat2-P expression. The mutations define three new genes, clr2, clr3 and clr4. In addition we show that the rik1 mutant previously known to allow recombination in the K region also derepresses the silent loci. PMID:8138176

  16. Analysis of thirteen trinucleotide repeat loci as candidate genes for Schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S.; Leggo, J.; Ferguson-Smith, M.A.; Rubinsztein, D.C.

    1996-04-09

    A group of diseases are due to abnormal expansions of trinucleotide repeats. These diseases all affect the nervous system. In addition, they manifest the phenomenon of anticipation, in which the disease tends to present at an earlier age or with greater severity in successive generations. Many additional genes with trinucleotide repeats are believed to be expressed in the human brain. As anticipation has been reported in schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder, we have examined allele distributions of 13 trinucleotide repeat-containing genes, many novel and all expressed in the brain, in genomic DNA from schizophrenic (n = 20-97) and bipolar affective disorder patients (23-30) and controls (n = 43-146). No evidence was obtained to implicate expanded alleles in these 13 genes as causal factors in these diseases. 26 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  17. Temporal dynamics and developmental memory of 3D chromatin architecture at Hox gene loci

    PubMed Central

    Noordermeer, Daan; Leleu, Marion; Schorderet, Patrick; Joye, Elisabeth; Chabaud, Fabienne; Duboule, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Hox genes are essential regulators of embryonic development. Their step-wise transcriptional activation follows their genomic topology and the various states of activation are subsequently memorized into domains of progressively overlapping gene products. We have analyzed the 3D chromatin organization of Hox clusters during their early activation in vivo, using high-resolution circular chromosome conformation capture. Initially, Hox clusters are organized as single chromatin compartments containing all genes and bivalent chromatin marks. Transcriptional activation is associated with a dynamic bi-modal 3D organization, whereby the genes switch autonomously from an inactive to an active compartment. These local 3D dynamics occur within a framework of constitutive interactions within the surrounding Topological Associated Domains, indicating that this regulation process is mostly cluster intrinsic. The step-wise progression in time is fixed at various body levels and thus can account for the chromatin architectures previously described at a later stage for different anterior to posterior levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02557.001 PMID:24843030

  18. Multiple mismatches at the low expression HLA loci DP, DQ, and DRB3/4/5 associate with adverse outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Klein, John P.; Haagenson, Michael; Spellman, Stephen R.; Anasetti, Claudio; Noreen, Harriet; Baxter-Lowe, Lee Ann; Cano, Pedro; Flomenberg, Neal; Confer, Dennis L.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Petersdorf, Effie W.; Setterholm, Michelle; Champlin, Richard; Lee, Stephanie J.; de Lima, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    A single mismatch in highly expressed HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1 loci (HEL) is associated with worse outcomes in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, while less is known about the cumulative impact of mismatches in the lesser expressed HLA loci DRB3/4/5, DQ, and DP (LEL). We studied whether accumulation of LEL mismatches is associated with deleterious effects in 3853 unrelated donor transplants stratified according to number of matches in the HEL. In the 8/8 matched HEL group, LEL mismatches were not associated with any adverse outcome. Mismatches at HLA-DRB1 were associated with occurrence of multiple LEL mismatches. In the 7/8 HEL group, patients with 3 or more LEL mismatches scored in the graft-versus-host vector had a significantly higher risk of mortality (1.45 and 1.43) and transplant-related mortality (1.68 and 1.54) than the subgroups with 0 or 1 LEL mismatches. No single LEL locus had a more pronounced effect on clinical outcome. Three or more LEL mismatches are associated with lower survival after 7/8 HEL matched transplantation. Prospective evaluation of matching for HLA-DRB3/4/5, -DQ, and -DP loci is warranted to reduce posttransplant risks in donor-recipient pairs matched for 7/8 HEL. PMID:23596045

  19. Integration of Genome-Wide SNP Data and Gene-Expression Profiles Reveals Six Novel Loci and Regulatory Mechanisms for Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines in Whole Blood

    PubMed Central

    Beutner, Frank; Holdt, Lesca M.; Gross, Arnd; Teren, Andrej; Tönjes, Anke; Becker, Susen; Krohn, Knut; Kovacs, Peter; Stumvoll, Michael; Teupser, Daniel; Thiery, Joachim; Ceglarek, Uta; Scholz, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Profiling amino acids and acylcarnitines in whole blood spots is a powerful tool in the laboratory diagnosis of several inborn errors of metabolism. Emerging data suggests that altered blood levels of amino acids and acylcarnitines are also associated with common metabolic diseases in adults. Thus, the identification of common genetic determinants for blood metabolites might shed light on pathways contributing to human physiology and common diseases. We applied a targeted mass-spectrometry-based method to analyze whole blood concentrations of 96 amino acids, acylcarnitines and pathway associated metabolite ratios in a Central European cohort of 2,107 adults and performed genome-wide association (GWA) to identify genetic modifiers of metabolite concentrations. We discovered and replicated six novel loci associated with blood levels of total acylcarnitine, arginine (both on chromosome 6; rs12210538, rs17657775), propionylcarnitine (chromosome 10; rs12779637), 2-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine (chromosome 21; rs1571700), stearoylcarnitine (chromosome 1; rs3811444), and aspartic acid traits (chromosome 8; rs750472). Based on an integrative analysis of expression quantitative trait loci in blood mononuclear cells and correlations between gene expressions and metabolite levels, we provide evidence for putative causative genes: SLC22A16 for total acylcarnitines, ARG1 for arginine, HLCS for 2-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine, JAM3 for stearoylcarnitine via a trans-effect at chromosome 1, and PPP1R16A for aspartic acid traits. Further, we report replication and provide additional functional evidence for ten loci that have previously been published for metabolites measured in plasma, serum or urine. In conclusion, our integrative analysis of SNP, gene-expression and metabolite data points to novel genetic factors that may be involved in the regulation of human metabolism. At several loci, we provide evidence for metabolite regulation via gene-expression and observed overlaps with GWAS

  20. Tissue microarray-based screening for chromosomal breakpoints affecting the T-cell receptor gene loci in mature T-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Leich, E; Haralambieva, E; Zettl, A; Chott, A; Rüdiger, T; Höller, S; Müller-Hermelink, H-K; Ott, G; Rosenwald, A

    2007-09-01

    The pathogenesis of mature T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (T-NHLs) is poorly understood. Analogous to B-cell lymphomas, in which the immunoglobulin (IgH) receptor loci are frequently targeted by chromosomal translocations, the T-cell receptor (TCR) gene loci are affected by translocations in a subset of precursor T-cell malignancies. In a large-scale analysis of 245 paraffin-embedded mature T-NHLs, arranged in a tissue microarray format and using improved FISH assays for the detection of breakpoints in the TCRalpha/delta, TCRbeta, and TCRgamma loci, we provide evidence that mature T-NHLs other than T-cell prolymphocytic leukaemia (T-PLL) also occasionally show a chromosomal rearrangement that involves the TCRalpha/delta locus. In particular, one peripheral T-cell lymphoma (not otherwise specified, NOS) with the morphological variant of Lennert lymphoma displayed a chromosomal translocation t(14;19) involving the TCRalpha/delta and the BCL3 loci. A second case, an angio-immunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AILT), carried an inv(14)(q11q32) affecting the TCRalpha/delta and IgH loci. FISH signal constellations as well as concomitant comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) data were also suggestive of the occurrence of an isochromosome 7, previously described to be pathognomonic for hepatosplenic T-cell lymphomas, in rare cases of enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma. PMID:17582237

  1. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2008-06-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  2. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2012-05-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  3. Methods for monitoring multiple gene expression

    DOEpatents

    Berka, Randy; Bachkirova, Elena; Rey, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The present invention relates to methods for monitoring differential expression of a plurality of genes in a first filamentous fungal cell relative to expression of the same genes in one or more second filamentous fungal cells using microarrays containing Trichoderma reesei ESTs or SSH clones, or a combination thereof. The present invention also relates to computer readable media and substrates containing such array features for monitoring expression of a plurality of genes in filamentous fungal cells.

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies multiple loci associated with both mammographic density and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Sara; Thompson, Deborah J.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Li, Jingmei; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Scott, Christopher; Stone, Jennifer; Douglas, Julie A.; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fernandez-Navarro, Pablo; Verghase, Jajini; Smith, Paula; Brown, Judith; Luben, Robert; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Heit, John A.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Norman, Aaron; Goode, Ellen L.; Cunningham, Julie M.; deAndrade, Mariza; Vierkant, Robert A.; Czene, Kamila; Fasching, Peter A.; Baglietto, Laura; Southey, Melissa C.; Giles, Graham G.; Shah, Kaanan P.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hazra, Aditi; Hunter, David J.; Kraft, Peter; Pollan, Marina; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Couch, Fergus J.; Hopper, John L.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Boyd, Norman F.; Vachon, Celine M.; Tamimi, Rulla M.

    2015-01-01

    Mammographic density reflects the amount of stromal and epithelial tissues in relation to adipose tissue in the breast and is a strong risk factor for breast cancer. Here we report the results from meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of three mammographic density phenotypes: dense area, non-dense area and percent density in up to 7,916 women in stage 1 and an additional 10,379 women in stage 2. We identify genome-wide significant (P<5×10−8) loci for dense area (AREG, ESR1, ZNF365, LSP1/TNNT3, IGF1, TMEM184B, SGSM3/MKL1), non-dense area (8p11.23) and percent density (PRDM6, 8p11.23, TMEM184B). Four of these regions are known breast cancer susceptibility loci, and four additional regions were found to be associated with breast cancer (P<0.05) in a large meta-analysis. These results provide further evidence of a shared genetic basis between mammographic density and breast cancer and illustrate the power of studying intermediate quantitative phenotypes to identify putative disease susceptibility loci. PMID:25342443

  5. Meta-analysis identifies multiple loci associated with kidney function-related traits in east Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yukinori; Sim, Xueling; Go, Min Jin; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Gu, Dongfeng; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Maeda, Shiro; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Chen, Peng; Lim, Su-Chi; Wong, Tien-Yin; Liu, Jianjun; Young, Terri L; Aung, Tin; Seielstad, Mark; Teo, Yik-Ying; Kim, Young Jin; Lee, Jong-Young; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kang, Daehee; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chang, Li-Ching; Fann, S-J Cathy; Mei, Hao; Rao, Dabeeru C; Hixson, James E; Chen, Shufeng; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Isono, Masato; Ogihara, Toshio; Chambers, John C; Zhang, Weihua; Kooner, Jaspal S; Albrecht, Eva; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Kato, Norihiro; He, Jiang; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Cho, Yoon Shin; Tai, E-Shyong; Tanaka, Toshihiro

    2012-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), impairment of kidney function, is a serious public health problem, and the assessment of genetic factors influencing kidney function has substantial clinical relevance. Here, we report a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for kidney function-related traits, including 71,149 east Asian individuals from 18 studies in 11 population-, hospital- or family-based cohorts, conducted as part of the Asian Genetic Epidemiology Network (AGEN). Our meta-analysis identified 17 loci newly associated with kidney function-related traits, including the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen, uric acid and serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate based on serum creatinine levels (eGFRcrea) (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)). We further examined these loci with in silico replication in individuals of European ancestry from the KidneyGen, CKDGen and GUGC consortia, including a combined total of ∼110,347 individuals. We identify pleiotropic associations among these loci with kidney function-related traits and risk of CKD. These findings provide new insights into the genetics of kidney function. PMID:22797727

  6. Suppressor Mutants of Neurospora Crassa That Tolerate Allelic Differences at Single or at Multiple Heterokaryon Incompatibility Loci

    PubMed Central

    Arganoza, M. T.; Ohrnberger, J.; Min, J.; Akins, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    Allelic differences at any one of at least 11 heterokaryon incompatibility (het) loci in Neurospora crassa trigger an incompatibility response: localized cell death at sites of hyphal anastomosis. We have isolated spontaneous and insertional suppressor mutants that are heterokaryon-compatible in spite of allelic differences at one or at several het loci. Some intra- and extragenic mutants tolerated allelic differences only at single het loci. Multi-tolerant spontaneous mutants were isolated by selecting simultaneously for tolerance of differences at het-c, -d and -e, or at each of these plus mating-type. Some suppressor mutants were specific for only one allele at the affected het locus; others suppressed both alleles. Insertional mutations were isolated from banks of transformants, each having a plasmid integrated into a random position in the chromosome. One mutant tolerated allelic differences at het-d. A homologous cosmid from a Neurospora genomic bank complemented the mutant phenotype. A second insertional inactivation mutant was tolerant of het-c differences. Inactivation of the wild-type locus corresponding to the integration site was accomplished by repeat-induced point mutation (RIP). The RIP progeny, like the original mutant, were tolerant of differences at het-c. It may be possible to use such suppressor mutants as universal donors of hypovirulence in pathogenic fungi. PMID:8088519

  7. Quantitative Trait Loci and Candidate Genes for Neutrophil Recruitment in Sterile Inflammation Mapped in AXB-BXA Recombinant Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Quyen; Seltzer, Ze’ev; Sima, Corneliu; Lakschevitz, Flavia S.; Glogauer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil recruitment (NR) to sites of sterile inflammation plays a key role in tissue damage and healing potential of lesions characteristic to non-infectious inflammatory diseases. Previous studies suggested significant genetic control of neutrophil survival, function, and migration in inflammatory responses to endogenous and exogenous stimuli. We have mapped the murine genome for quantitative trait loci (QTLs) harbouring genetic determinants that regulate NR in SI using a murine model of chemically-induced peritonitis. NR was quantified in 16 AXB-BXA recombinant inbred strains and their progenitors, A/J (A) and C57BL/6J (B). A continuous distribution of NR was found among the strains, with parent B showing higher NR and parent A showing lower NR (3.0-fold difference, p=0.05). Within the progeny strains, a 5.5-fold difference in NR was observed between the lowest, BXA1, and the highest responders AXB19 (p<0.001). This data was analyzed using GeneNetwork, which linked NR to one significant QTL on chromosome 12 (Peritoneal Neutrophil Recruitment 1, PNR1) and two suggestive QTLs (PNR2, PNR3) on chromosomes 12 and 16 respectively. Sixty-four candidate genes within PNR1 were cross-referenced with currently published data, mRNA expression from two NR microarrays, and single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. The present study brings new light into the genetics of NR in response to cell injury and highlights potential candidate genes Hif1α, Fntb, and Prkch and their products for further studies on neutrophil infiltration and inflammation resolution in sterile inflammation. PMID:25942439

  8. Promising Loci and Genes for Yolk and Ovary Weight in Chickens Revealed by a Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guoqiang; Yuan, Jingwei; Duan, Zhongyi; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Wang, Kehua; Yang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Because it serves as the cytoplasm of the oocyte and provides a large amount of reserves, the egg yolk has biological significance for developing embryos. The ovary and its hierarchy of follicles are the main reproductive organs responsible for yolk deposition in chickens. However, the genetic architecture underlying the yolk and ovarian follicle weights remains elusive. Here, we measured the yolk weight (YW) at 11 age points from onset of egg laying to 72 weeks of age and measured the follicle weight (FW) and ovary weight (OW) at 73 weeks as part of a comprehensive genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1,534 F2 hens derived from reciprocal crosses between White Leghorn (WL) and Dongxiang chickens (DX). For all ages, YWs exhibited moderate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimates (0.25–0.38), while the estimates for FW (0.16) and OW (0.20) were relatively low. Independent univariate genome-wide screens for each trait identified 12, 3, and 31 novel significant associations with YW, FW, and OW, respectively. A list of candidate genes such as ZAR1, STARD13, ACER1b, ACSBG2, and DHRS12 were identified for having a plausible function in yolk and follicle development. These genes are important to the initiation of embryogenesis, lipid transport, lipoprotein synthesis, lipid droplet promotion, and steroid hormone metabolism, respectively. Our study provides for the first time a genome-wide association (GWA) analysis for follicle and ovary weight. Identification of the promising loci as well as potential candidate genes will greatly advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying dynamic yolk weight and ovarian follicle development and has practical significance in breeding programs for the alteration of yolk weight at different age points. PMID:26332579

  9. Two distinct genetic loci regulating class II gene expression are defective in human mutant and patient cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Z; Accolla, R S; Pious, D; Zegers, B J; Strominger, J L

    1988-01-01

    Heterokaryons were prepared and analyzed shortly after cell fusion using two mutant class-II-negative human B cell lines (RJ 2.2.5 and 6.1.6) and a cell line (TF) from a patient with a class-II-negative Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome. The resulting transient heterokaryons were analyzed by using an anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibody to assess the cell surface expression of HLA-DR (the major subtype of class II antigens) by immunofluorescence microscopy and by using uniformly 32P-labeled SP6 RNA probes in Northern blots and RNase protection assays to assess mRNA synthesis. We find that class II gene expression in a B cell line from a Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome patient (TF) is rescued by a B cell line which expresses class II antigens indicating that this disease, at least in part, is caused by a defect(s) in a genetic locus encoding a factor(s) necessary for class II gene expression. Secondly, reciprocal genetic complementation was demonstrated in the heterokaryons 6.1.6 x RJ 2.2.5 and TF x RJ 2.2.5 (but not in TF x 6.1.6) by detection of cell surface DR by immunofluorescence microscopy and by a novel class II mRNA typing technique which allows characterization of distinct class II alleles. Thus, the two mutants generated in vitro have defects at two different genetic loci encoding specific regulatory factors necessary for human class II gene expression. One of these mutant cell lines, but not the other, complements the defect in the patient cell line, TF. Images PMID:2458252

  10. Rpv10: a new locus from the Asian Vitis gene pool for pyramiding downy mildew resistance loci in grapevine.

    PubMed

    Schwander, Florian; Eibach, Rudolf; Fechter, Iris; Hausmann, Ludger; Zyprian, Eva; Töpfer, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    A population derived from a cross between grapevine breeding strain Gf.Ga-52-42 and cultivar 'Solaris' consisting of 265 F1-individuals was genetically mapped using SSR markers and screened for downy mildew resistance. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis revealed two strong QTLs on linkage groups (LGs) 18 and 09. The locus on LG 18 was found to be identical with the previously described locus Rpv3 and is transmitted by Gf.Ga-52-42. 'Solaris' transmitted the resistance-related locus on LG 09 explaining up to 50% of the phenotypic variation in the population. This downy mildew resistance locus is named Rpv10 for resistance to Plasmopara viticola. Rpv10 was initially introgressed from Vitis amurensis, a wild species of the Asian Vitis gene pool. The one-LOD supported confidence interval of the QTL spans a section of 2.1 centi Morgan (cM) corresponding to 314 kb in the reference genome PN40024 (12x). Eight resistance gene analogues (RGAs) of the NBS-LRR type and additional resistance-linked genes are located in this region of PN40024. The F1 sub-population which contains the Rpv3 as well as the Rpv10 locus showed a significantly higher degree of resistance, indicating additive effects by pyramiding of resistance loci. Possibilities for using the resistance locus Rpv10 in a grapevine breeding programme are discussed. Furthermore, the marker data revealed 'Severnyi' × 'Muscat Ottonel' as the true parentage for the male parent of 'Solaris'. PMID:21935694

  11. Cloning and partial characterization of two chromosomal loci from Bacteroides ovatus that contain genes essential for growth on guar gum.

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, P J; Arnold, P; Salyers, A A

    1992-01-01

    Previously, we isolated three transposon insertion mutants of Bacteroides ovatus (M-4, M-5, and M-7) that were unable to grow on the branched polysaccharide guar gum. In this study, we used a tetracycline resistance gene on the transposon to clone chromosomal DNA adjacent to the transposon insertions in each of the three mutants. Restriction analysis of the flanking chromosomal DNA in M-4 and M-7 revealed that the insertions in these two mutants were in the same location. The cloned DNA adjacent to the insertions in M-5 and M-7 was used as a hybridization probe to clone the wild-type loci. Two clones of about 10 kbp in size were obtained. Restriction analysis showed that these two clones did not overlap. The clone of the M-5 locus appeared to contain all of the genes affected by the M-5 insertion, but we were unable to demonstrate complementation of the M-5 mutation because of the instability of the clone in this background. Analysis of the clone of the M-7 locus showed that it contained a guar gum-regulated promoter, but the transcript originating from this promoter was not affected by the transposon insertion. Thus, the M-7 locus apparently contains at least two separate transcriptional units, the one defined by this promoter and the one interrupted by the transposon insertion. Insertion mutations downstream of the guar gum-regulated promoter demonstrated that there were essential guar gum utilization genes in this region. The M-7 mutant was eliminated by the wild type in the intestinal tracts of germfree mice.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1622223

  12. Candidate genes in quantitative trait loci associated with absolute and relative kidney weight in rats with Inherited Stress Induced Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The kidney mass is significantly increased in hypertensive ISIAH rats with Inherited Stress Induced Arterial Hypertension as compared with normotensive WAG rats. The QTL/microarray approach was carried out to determine the positional candidate genes in the QTL for absolute and relative kidney weight. Results Several known and predicted genes differentially expressed in ISIAH and WAG kidney were mapped to genetic loci associated with the absolute and relative kidney weight in 6-month old F2 hybrid (ISIAHxWAG) males. The knowledge-driven filtering of the list of candidates helped to suggest several positional candidate genes, which may be related to the structural and mass changes in hypertensive ISIAH kidney. In the current study, we showed that all loci found for absolute and relative kidney weight didn't overlap with significant or suggestive loci for arterial blood pressure level. So, the genes differentially expressed in ISIAH and WAG kidneys and located in these QTL regions associated with absolute and relative kidney weight shouldn't substantially influence the BP level in the 6 month-old ISIAH rats. However, in some cases, small effects may be suggested. Conclusions The further experimental validation of causative genes and detection of polymorphisms will provide opportunities to advance our understanding of the underlying nature of structural and mass changes in hypertensive ISIAH kidney. PMID:25707311

  13. Epigenomic analysis of the HOX gene loci reveals mechanisms that may control canonical expression patterns in AML and normal hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, David H.; Young, Margaret A.; Lamprecht, Tamara L.; Helton, Nichole M.; Fulton, Robert; O’Laughlin, Michelle; Fronick, Catrina; Magrini, Vincent; Demeter, Ryan T.; Miller, Christopher A.; Klco, Jeffery M.; Wilson, Richard K.; Ley, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    HOX genes are highly expressed in many acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples, but the patterns of expression and associated regulatory mechanisms are not clearly understood. We analyzed RNA sequencing data from 179 primary AML samples and normal hematopoietic cells to understand the range of expression patterns in normal versus leukemic cells. HOX expression in AML was restricted to specific genes in the HOXA or HOXB loci, and was highly correlated with recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities. However, the majority of samples expressed a canonical set of HOXA and HOXB genes that was nearly identical to the expression signature of normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). Transcriptional profiles at the HOX loci were similar between normal cells and AML samples, and involved bidirectional transcription at the center of each gene cluster. Epigenetic analysis of a subset of AML samples also identified common regions of chromatin accessibility in AML samples and normal CD34+ cells that displayed differences in methylation depending on HOX expression patterns. These data provide an integrated epigenetic view of the HOX gene loci in primary AML samples, and suggest that HOX expression in most AML samples represents a normal stem cell program that is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms at specific regulatory elements. PMID:25600023

  14. Epigenomic analysis of the HOX gene loci reveals mechanisms that may control canonical expression patterns in AML and normal hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D H; Young, M A; Lamprecht, T L; Helton, N M; Fulton, R; O'Laughlin, M; Fronick, C; Magrini, V; Demeter, R T; Miller, C A; Klco, J M; Wilson, R K; Ley, T J

    2015-06-01

    HOX genes are highly expressed in many acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples, but the patterns of expression and associated regulatory mechanisms are not clearly understood. We analyzed RNA sequencing data from 179 primary AML samples and normal hematopoietic cells to understand the range of expression patterns in normal versus leukemic cells. HOX expression in AML was restricted to specific genes in the HOXA or HOXB loci, and was highly correlated with recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities. However, the majority of samples expressed a canonical set of HOXA and HOXB genes that was nearly identical to the expression signature of normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Transcriptional profiles at the HOX loci were similar between normal cells and AML samples, and involved bidirectional transcription at the center of each gene cluster. Epigenetic analysis of a subset of AML samples also identified common regions of chromatin accessibility in AML samples and normal CD34(+) cells that displayed differences in methylation depending on HOX expression patterns. These data provide an integrated epigenetic view of the HOX gene loci in primary AML samples, and suggest that HOX expression in most AML samples represents a normal stem cell program that is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms at specific regulatory elements. PMID:25600023

  15. Intragenic homogenization and multiple copies of prey-wrapping silk genes in Argiope garden spiders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spider silks are spectacular examples of phenotypic diversity arising from adaptive molecular evolution. An individual spider can produce an array of specialized silks, with the majority of constituent silk proteins encoded by members of the spidroin gene family. Spidroins are dominated by tandem repeats flanked by short, non-repetitive N- and C-terminal coding regions. The remarkable mechanical properties of spider silks have been largely attributed to the repeat sequences. However, the molecular evolutionary processes acting on spidroin terminal and repetitive regions remain unclear due to a paucity of complete gene sequences and sampling of genetic variation among individuals. To better understand spider silk evolution, we characterize a complete aciniform spidroin gene from an Argiope orb-weaving spider and survey aciniform gene fragments from congeneric individuals. Results We present the complete aciniform spidroin (AcSp1) gene from the silver garden spider Argiope argentata (Aar_AcSp1), and document multiple AcSp1 loci in individual genomes of A. argentata and the congeneric A. trifasciata and A. aurantia. We find that Aar_AcSp1 repeats have >98% pairwise nucleotide identity. By comparing AcSp1 repeat amino acid sequences between Argiope species and with other genera, we identify regions of conservation over vast amounts of evolutionary time. Through a PCR survey of individual A. argentata, A. trifasciata, and A. aurantia genomes, we ascertain that AcSp1 repeats show limited variation between species whereas terminal regions are more divergent. We also find that average dN/dS across codons in the N-terminal, repetitive, and C-terminal encoding regions indicate purifying selection that is strongest in the N-terminal region. Conclusions Using the complete A. argentata AcSp1 gene and spidroin genetic variation between individuals, this study clarifies some of the molecular evolutionary processes underlying the spectacular mechanical attributes of

  16. The green monster process for the generation of yeast strains carrying multiple gene deletions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yo; Stam, Jason; Novotny, Mark; Yachie, Nozomu; Lasken, Roger S; Roth, Frederick P

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypes for a gene deletion are often revealed only when the mutation is tested in a particular genetic background or environmental condition(1,2). There are examples where many genes need to be deleted to unmask hidden gene functions(3,4). Despite the potential for important discoveries, genetic interactions involving three or more genes are largely unexplored. Exhaustive searches of multi-mutant interactions would be impractical due to the sheer number of possible combinations of deletions. However, studies of selected sets of genes, such as sets of paralogs with a greater a priori chance of sharing a common function, would be informative. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, gene knockout is accomplished by replacing a gene with a selectable marker via homologous recombination. Because the number of markers is limited, methods have been developed for removing and reusing the same marker(5,6,7,8,9,10). However, sequentially engineering multiple mutations using these methods is time-consuming because the time required scales linearly with the number of deletions to be generated. Here we describe the Green Monster method for routinely engineering multiple deletions in yeast(11). In this method, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter integrated into deletions is used to quantitatively label strains according to the number of deletions contained in each strain (Figure 1). Repeated rounds of assortment of GFP-marked deletions via yeast mating and meiosis coupled with flow-cytometric enrichment of strains carrying more of these deletions lead to the accumulation of deletions in strains (Figure 2). Performing multiple processes in parallel, with each process incorporating one or more deletions per round, reduces the time required for strain construction. The first step is to prepare haploid single-mutants termed 'ProMonsters,' each of which carries a GFP reporter in a deleted locus and one of the 'toolkit' loci-either Green Monster GMToolkit-a or GMToolkit

  17. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) and Candidate Genes for Cadmium Tolerance in Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Induri, Brahma R; Ellis, Danielle R; Slavov, Gancho; Yin, Tongming; Muchero, Wellington; Tuskan, Gerald A; DiFazio, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of genetic variation in response of Populus to heavy metals like cadmium (Cd) is an important step in understanding the underlying mechanisms of tolerance. In this study, a pseudo-backcross pedigree of Populus trichocarpa and Populus deltoides was characterized for Cd exposure. The pedigree showed significant variation for Cd tolerance thus enabling the identification of relatively tolerant and susceptible genotypes for intensive characterization. A total of 16 QTLs at logarithm of odds (LOD) ratio > 2.5, were found to be associated with total dry weight, its components, and root volume. Four major QTLs for total dry weight were mapped to different linkage groups in control (LG III) and Cd conditions (LG XVI) and had opposite allelic effects on Cd tolerance, suggesting that these genomic regions were differentially controlled. The phenotypic variation explained by Cd QTL for all traits under study varied from 5.9% to 11.6% and averaged 8.2% across all QTL. Leaf Cd contents also showed significant variation suggesting the phytoextraction potential of Populus genotypes, though heritability of this trait was low (0.22). A whole-genome microarray study was conducted by using two genotypes with extreme responses for Cd tolerance in the above study and differentially expressed genes were identified. Candidate genes including CAD2 (CADMIUM SENSITIVE 2), HMA5 (HEAVY METAL ATPase5), ATGTST1 (Arabidopsis thaliana Glutathione S-Transferase1), ATGPX6 (Glutathione peroxidase 6), and ATMRP 14 (Arabidopsis thaliana Multidrug Resistance associated Protein 14) were identified from QTL intervals and microarray study. Functional characterization of these candidate genes could enhance phytoremediation capabilities of Populus.

  18. Signatures of accelerated somatic evolution in gene promoters in multiple cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyle S.; Yadav, Vinod K.; Pedersen, Brent S.; Shaknovich, Rita; Geraci, Mark W.; Pollard, Katherine S.; De, Subhajyoti

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-associated somatic mutations outside protein-coding regions remain largely unexplored. Analyses of the TERT locus have indicated that non-coding regulatory mutations can be more frequent than previously suspected and play important roles in oncogenesis. Using a computational method called SASE-hunter, developed here, we identified a novel signature of accelerated somatic evolution (SASE) marked by a significant excess of somatic mutations localized in a genomic locus, and prioritized those loci that carried the signature in multiple cancer patients. Interestingly, even when an affected locus carried the signature in multiple individuals, the mutations contributing to SASE themselves were rarely recurrent at the base-pair resolution. In a pan-cancer analysis of 906 samples from 12 tumor types, we detected SASE in the promoters of several genes, including known cancer genes such as MYC, BCL2, RBM5 and WWOX. Nucleotide substitution patterns consistent with oxidative DNA damage and local somatic hypermutation appeared to contribute to this signature in selected gene promoters (e.g. MYC). SASEs in selected cancer gene promoters were associated with over-expression, and also correlated with the age of onset of cancer, aggressiveness of the disease and survival. Taken together, our work detects a hitherto under-appreciated and clinically important class of regulatory changes in cancer genomes. PMID:25934800

  19. A non-inheritable maternal Cas9-based multiple-gene editing system in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Kamiyoshi, Akiko; Kawate, Hisaka; Mori, Chie; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanaka, Megumu; Uetake, Ryuichi; Sato, Masahiro; Shindo, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of editing multiple genes through one-step zygote injection. The preexisting method is largely based on the co-injection of Cas9 DNA (or mRNA) and guide RNAs (gRNAs); however, it is unclear how many genes can be simultaneously edited by this method, and a reliable means to generate transgenic (Tg) animals with multiple gene editing has yet to be developed. Here, we employed non-inheritable maternal Cas9 (maCas9) protein derived from Tg mice with systemic Cas9 overexpression (Cas9 mice). The maCas9 protein in zygotes derived from mating or in vitro fertilization of Tg/+ oocytes and +/+ sperm could successfully edit the target genome. The efficiency of such maCas9-based genome editing was comparable to that of zygote microinjection–based genome editing widely used at present. Furthermore, we demonstrated a novel approach to create “Cas9 transgene-free” gene-modified mice using non-Tg (+/+) zygotes carrying maCas9. The maCas9 protein in mouse zygotes edited nine target loci simultaneously after injection with nine different gRNAs alone. Cas9 mouse-derived zygotes have the potential to facilitate the creation of genetically modified animals carrying the Cas9 transgene, enabling repeatable genome engineering and the production of Cas9 transgene-free mice. PMID:26817415

  20. A non-inheritable maternal Cas9-based multiple-gene editing system in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takayuki; Kamiyoshi, Akiko; Kawate, Hisaka; Mori, Chie; Watanabe, Satoshi; Tanaka, Megumu; Uetake, Ryuichi; Sato, Masahiro; Shindo, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 system is capable of editing multiple genes through one-step zygote injection. The preexisting method is largely based on the co-injection of Cas9 DNA (or mRNA) and guide RNAs (gRNAs); however, it is unclear how many genes can be simultaneously edited by this method, and a reliable means to generate transgenic (Tg) animals with multiple gene editing has yet to be developed. Here, we employed non-inheritable maternal Cas9 (maCas9) protein derived from Tg mice with systemic Cas9 overexpression (Cas9 mice). The maCas9 protein in zygotes derived from mating or in vitro fertilization of Tg/+ oocytes and +/+ sperm could successfully edit the target genome. The efficiency of such maCas9-based genome editing was comparable to that of zygote microinjection-based genome editing widely used at present. Furthermore, we demonstrated a novel approach to create "Cas9 transgene-free" gene-modified mice using non-Tg (+/+) zygotes carrying maCas9. The maCas9 protein in mouse zygotes edited nine target loci simultaneously after injection with nine different gRNAs alone. Cas9 mouse-derived zygotes have the potential to facilitate the creation of genetically modified animals carrying the Cas9 transgene, enabling repeatable genome engineering and the production of Cas9 transgene-free mice. PMID:26817415

  1. Restriction fragment length polymorphism within the class I gene loci of the equine major histocompatibility complex

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, A.J.; Bailey, E.; Woodward, J.G.

    1986-03-05

    Fourteen standard bred horses were serotyped as homozygous for 1 of 6 Equine Leukocyte Antigen (ELA) specificities. DNA was purified from peripheral leukocytes and digested with Hind III or Pvu II. Southern blot hybridization analysis was carried out using a /sup 32/P-labeled mouse cDNA probe (PH2IIa) specific for class I MHC genes. Both enzymes generated blots that contained a large number of bands (23 to 30) per horse. Significant polymorphism existed among most fragment sizes, while a dozen highly conserved band sizes suggested the presence of Qa/tla - like genes. Only 2 animals (both W6's) showed identical band patterns. Polymorphism was greatest between horses of different serotypes and was significantly decreased within serotypes. Unique bands were present on both blots for both W1's and W6's and may account for the serologic specificity seen in ELA W1 and W6 horses. This study is consistent with the findings in other higher vertebrates and implies that the MHC of the horse includes a highly polymorphic class I multigene family.

  2. Monoallelic Expression of Multiple Genes in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinhui; Valo, Zuzana; Smith, David; Singer-Sam, Judith

    2007-01-01

    The inheritance pattern of a number of major genetic disorders suggests the possible involvement of genes that are expressed from one allele and silent on the other, but such genes are difficult to detect. Since DNA methylation in regulatory regions is often a mark of gene silencing, we modified existing microarray-based assays to detect both methylated and unmethylated DNA sequences in the same sample, a variation we term the MAUD assay. We probed a 65 Mb region of mouse Chr 7 for gene-associated sequences that show two distinct DNA methylation patterns in the mouse CNS. Selected genes were then tested for allele-specific expression in clonal neural stem cell lines derived from reciprocal F1 (C57BL/6×JF1) hybrid mice. In addition, using a separate approach, we directly analyzed allele-specific expression of a group of genes interspersed within clusters of OlfR genes, since the latter are subject to allelic exclusion. Altogether, of the 500 known genes in the chromosomal region surveyed, five show monoallelic expression, four identified by the MAUD assay (Agc1, p (pink-eyed dilution), P4ha3 and Thrsp), and one by its proximity to OlfR genes (Trim12). Thrsp (thyroid hormone responsive SPOT14 homolog) is expressed in hippocampus, but the human protein homolog, S14, has also been implicated in aggressive breast cancer. Monoallelic expression of the five genes is not coordinated at a chromosome-wide level, but rather regulated at individual loci. Taken together, our results suggest that at least 1% of previously untested genes are subject to allelic exclusion, and demonstrate a dual approach to expedite their identification. PMID:18074017

  3. Monoallelic expression of multiple genes in the CNS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhui; Valo, Zuzana; Smith, David; Singer-Sam, Judith

    2007-01-01

    The inheritance pattern of a number of major genetic disorders suggests the possible involvement of genes that are expressed from one allele and silent on the other, but such genes are difficult to detect. Since DNA methylation in regulatory regions is often a mark of gene silencing, we modified existing microarray-based assays to detect both methylated and unmethylated DNA sequences in the same sample, a variation we term the MAUD assay. We probed a 65 Mb region of mouse Chr 7 for gene-associated sequences that show two distinct DNA methylation patterns in the mouse CNS. Selected genes were then tested for allele-specific expression in clonal neural stem cell lines derived from reciprocal F(1) (C57BL/6xJF1) hybrid mice. In addition, using a separate approach, we directly analyzed allele-specific expression of a group of genes interspersed within clusters of OlfR genes, since the latter are subject to allelic exclusion. Altogether, of the 500 known genes in the chromosomal region surveyed, five show monoallelic expression, four identified by the MAUD assay (Agc1, p (pink-eyed dilution), P4ha3 and Thrsp), and one by its proximity to OlfR genes (Trim12). Thrsp (thyroid hormone responsive SPOT14 homolog) is expressed in hippocampus, but the human protein homolog, S14, has also been implicated in aggressive breast cancer. Monoallelic expression of the five genes is not coordinated at a chromosome-wide level, but rather regulated at individual loci. Taken together, our results suggest that at least 1% of previously untested genes are subject to allelic exclusion, and demonstrate a dual approach to expedite their identification. PMID:18074017

  4. Anonymous marker loci within 400 kb of HLA-A generate haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with the hemochromatosis gene (HFE)

    SciTech Connect

    Yaouanq, J.; Perichon, M.; Treut, A.L.; Kahloun, A.E.; Mauvieux, V.; Blayau, M.; Jouanolle, A.M.; Chauvel, B.; Le Gall, J.Y.; David, V. )

    1994-02-01

    The hemochromatosis gene (HFE) maps to 6p21.3 and is less than 1 cM from the HLA class I gene; however, the precise physical location of the gene has remained elusive and controversial. The unambiguous identification of a crossover event within hemochromatosis families is very difficult; it is particularly hampered by the variability of the phenotypic expression as well as by the sex- and age-related penetrance of the disease. For these considerations, traditional linkage analysis could prove of limited value in further refining the extrapolated physical position of HFE. The authors therefore embarked upon a linkage-disequilibrium analysis of HFE and normal chromosomes for the Brittany population. In this report, 66 hemochromatosis families yielding 151 hemochromatosis chromosomes and 182 normal chromosomes were RFLP-typed with a battery of probes, including two newly derived polymorphic markers from the 6.7 and HLA-F loci located 150 and 250 kb telomeric to HLA-A, respectively. The results suggest a strong peak of existing linkage disequilibrium focused within the i82-to-6.7 interval (approximately 250 kb). The zone of linkage disequilibrium is flanked by the i97 locus, positioned 30 kb proximal to i82, and the HLA-F gene, found 250 kb distal to HLA-A, markers of which display no significant association with HFE. These data support the possibility that HFE resides within the 400-kb expanse of DNA between i97 and HLA-F. Alternatively, the very tight association of HLA-A3 and allele 1 of the 6.7 locus, both of which are comprised by the major ancestral or founder HFE haplotype in Brittany, supports the possibility that the disease gene may reside immediately telomeric to the 6.7 locus within the linkage-disequilibrium zone. Additionally, hemochromatosis haplotypes possessing HLA-A11 and the low-frequency HLA-F polymorphism (allele 2) are supportive of a separate founder chromosome containing a second, independently arising mutant allele. 69 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  5. Coding Gene Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Mapping and Quantitative Trait Loci Detection for Physiological Reproductive Traits in Brook Charr, Salvelinus fontinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sauvage, Christopher; Vagner, Marie; Derôme, Nicolas; Audet, Céline; Bernatchez, Louis

    2012-01-01

    A linkage map of 40 linkage groups (LGs) was developed for brook charr, Salvelinus fontinalis, using an F2 interstrain hybrid progeny (n = 171) and 256 coding gene SNP developed specifically for brook charr and validated from a large (>1000) subset of putative SNP, as well as 81 microsatellite markers. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) related to reproduction functions, these fish were also phenotyped at six physiological traits, including spermatozoid head diameter, sperm concentration, plasma testosterone, plasma 11-keto-testosterone, egg diameter, and plasma 17β-estradiol. Five significant QTL were detected over four LGs for egg diameter and plasma 17β-estradiol concentration in females, and sperm concentration as well as spermatozoid head diameter in males. In females, two different QTLs located on LG 11 and LG 34 were associated with the egg number, whereas one QTL was associated with plasma 17β-estradiol concentration (LG 8). Their total percent variance explained (PVE) was 26.7% and 27.6%, respectively. In males, two QTL were also detected for the sperm concentration, and their PVE were estimated at 18.58% and 14.95%, respectively. The low QTL number, associated with the high PVE, suggests that the variance in these reproductive physiological traits was either under the control of one major gene or a small number of genes. The QTL associated with sperm concentration, plasma 17β-estradiol, and egg diameter appeared to be under a dominance effect, whereas the two others were under a negative additive effect. These results show that genes underlying the phenotypic variance of these traits are under different modes of action (additive vs. dominance) and may be used to predict an increase or a decrease in their phenotypic values in subsequent generations of selective breeding. Moreover, this newly developed panel of mapped SNP located in coding gene regions will be useful for screening wild populations, especially in the context of investigating the

  6. Efficient Mapping of Plant Height Quantitative Trait Loci in a Sorghum Association Population With Introgressed Dwarfing Genes

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Patrick J.; Rooney, William L.; Franks, Cleve; Kresovich, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Of the four major dwarfing genes described in sorghum, only Dw3 has been cloned. We used association mapping to characterize the phenotypic effects of the dw3 mutation and to fine map a second, epistatic dwarfing QTL on sorghum chromosome 9 (Sb-HT9.1). Our panel of 378 sorghum inbreds includes 230 sorghum conversion (SC) lines, which are exotic lines that have been introgressed with dwarfing quantitative trait loci (QTL) from a common parent. The causal mutation in dw3 associates with reduced lower internode length and an elongation of the apex, consistent with its role as an auxin efflux carrier. Lines carrying the dw3 mutation display high haplotype homozygosity over several megabases in the Dw3 region, but most markers linked to Dw3 do not associate significantly with plant height due to allele sharing between Dw3 and dw3 individuals. Using markers with a high mutation rate and the dw3 mutation as an interaction term, significant trait associations were detected across a 7-Mb region around Sb-HT9.1, largely due to higher detection power in the SC lines. Conversely, the likely QTL interval for Sb-HT9.1 was reduced to ∼100 kb, demonstrating that the unique structure of this association panel provides both power and resolution for a genomewide scan. PMID:18757942

  7. Deletions of multidrug resistance gene loci in breast cancer leads to the down-regulation of its expression and predict tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Litviakov, Nikolai V.; Cherdyntseva, Nadezhda V.; Tsyganov, Matvey M.; Slonimskaya, Elena M.; Ibragimova, Marina K.; Kazantseva, Polina V.; Kzhyshkowska, Julia; Choinzonov, Eugeniy L.

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is intensively used for the treatment of primary breast cancer. In our previous studies, we reported that clinical tumor response to NAC is associated with the change of multidrug resistance (MDR) gene expression in tumors after chemotherapy. In this study we performed a combined analysis of MDR gene locus deletions in tumor DNA, MDR gene expression and clinical response to NAC in 73 BC patients. Copy number variations (CNVs) in biopsy specimens were tested using high-density microarray platform CytoScanTM HD Array (Affymetrix, USA). 75%–100% persons having deletions of MDR gene loci demonstrated the down-regulation of MDR gene expression. Expression of MDR genes was 2–8 times lower in patients with deletion than in patients having no deletion only in post-NAC tumors samples but not in tumor tissue before chemotherapy. All patients with deletions of ABCB1 ABCB 3 ABCC5 gene loci – 7q21.1, 6p21.32, 3q27 correspondingly, and most patients having deletions in ABCC1 (16p13.1), ABCC2 (10q24), ABCG1 (21q22.3), ABCG2 (4q22.1), responded favorably to NAC. The analysis of all CNVs, including both amplification and deletion showed that the frequency of 13q14.2 deletion was 85% among patients bearing tumor with the deletion at least in one MDR gene locus versus 9% in patients with no deletions. Differences in the frequency of 13q14.2 deletions between the two groups were statistically significant (p = 2.03 ×10−11, Fisher test, Bonferroni-adjusted p = 1.73 × 10−8). In conclusion, our study for the first time demonstrates that deletion MDR gene loci can be used as predictive marker for tumor response to NAC. PMID:26799285

  8. Genes and loci involved in febrile seizures and related epilepsy syndromes.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, Dominique; Van Broeckhoven, Christine; De Jonghe, Peter

    2006-05-01

    Epilepsy is a paroxysmal disorder with a cumulative incidence of about 3%. About 13% of patients with epilepsy have a history of febrile seizures (FS). Generalized epilepsy with FS plus (GEFS+) is a familial epilepsy syndrome in which patients can have classic FS, FS that persist beyond the age of 5 years (i.e., FS+), and/or epilepsy. Both genetic and environmental factors have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of FS and GEFS+. During the past 10 years, molecular genetic studies have contributed a great deal to the identification of genetic factors involved in FS and GEFS+. In this study we aimed to provide a comprehensive review of currently known genes for FS and GEFS+, and the methods and approaches used to identify them. We also discuss the knowledge we currently have and hypotheses regarding the effect of the mutations on their respective protein functions. PMID:16550559

  9. Homozygosity mapping in consanguineous families reveals extreme heterogeneity of non-syndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation and identifies 8 novel gene loci.

    PubMed

    Najmabadi, Hossein; Motazacker, Mohammad Mahdi; Garshasbi, Masoud; Kahrizi, Kimia; Tzschach, Andreas; Chen, Wei; Behjati, Farkhondeh; Hadavi, Valeh; Nieh, Sahar Esmaeeli; Abedini, Seyedeh Sedigheh; Vazifehmand, Reza; Firouzabadi, Saghar Ghasemi; Jamali, Payman; Falah, Masoumeh; Seifati, Seyed Morteza; Grüters, Annette; Lenzner, Steffen; Jensen, Lars R; Rüschendorf, Franz; Kuss, Andreas W; Ropers, H Hilger

    2007-03-01

    Autosomal recessive gene defects are arguably the most important, but least studied genetic causes of severe cognitive dysfunction. Homozygosity mapping in 78 consanguineous Iranian families with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive mental retardation (NS-ARMR) has enabled us to determine the chromosomal localization of at least 8 novel gene loci for this condition. Our data suggest that in the Iranian population NS-ARMR is very heterogeneous, and they argue against the existence of frequent gene defects that account for more than a few percent of the cases. PMID:17120046

  10. Migration and Gene Flow Among Domestic Populations of the Chagas Insect Vector Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Detected by Microsatellite Loci

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Lori; Monroy, M. Carlota; Rodas, Antonieta Guadalupe; Hicks, Robin M.; Lucero, David E.; Lyons, Leslie A.; Dorn, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811) is the most abundant and significant insect vector of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi in Central America, and particularly in Guatemala. Tr. cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, and successful disease control requires understanding the geographic distribution and degree of migration of vectors such as T. dimidiata that frequently re-infest houses within months following insecticide application. The population genetic structure of T. dimidiata collected from six villages in southern Guatemala was studied to gain insight into the migration patterns of the insects in this region where populations are largely domestic. This study provided insight into the likelihood of eliminating T. dimidiata by pesticide application as has been observed in some areas for other domestic triatomines such as Triatoma infestans. Genotypes of microsatellite loci for 178 insects from six villages were found to represent five genetic clusters using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Individual clusters were found in multiple villages, with multiple clusters in the same house. Although migration occurred, there was statistically significant genetic differentiation among villages (FRT = 0.05) and high genetic differentiation among houses within villages (FSR = 0.11). Relatedness of insects within houses varied from 0 to 0.25, i.e., from unrelated to half-sibs. The results suggest that T. dimidiata in southern Guatemala moves between houses and villages often enough that recolonization is likely, implying the use of insecticides alone is not sufficient for effective control of Chagas disease in this region and more sustainable solutions are required. PMID:26334816

  11. Waardenberg syndrome (WS) type I is caused by defects at multiple loci, one of which is near ALPP on chromosome 2: First report of the WS consortium

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Lindsay A.; Grundfast, Kenneth M.; Amos, Jean; Arnos, Kathleen S.; Asher, James H.; Beighton, Peter; Diehl, Scott R.; Fex, Jörgen; Foy, Carole; Friedman, Thomas B.; Greenberg, Jacquie; Hoth, Christopher; Marazita, Mary; Milunsky, Aubrey; Morell, Robert; Nance, Walter; Newton, Valerie; Ramesar, Rajkumar; Agustin, Theresa B. San; Skare, James; Stevens, Cathy A.; Wagner, Ronald G.; Wilcox, Edward R.; Winship, Ingrid; Read, Andrew P.

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies have localized the gene for Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type I to the distal portion of chromosome 2q, near the ALPP locus. We pooled linkage data obtained from 41 WS type I and 3 WS type II families which were typed for six polymorphic loci on chromosome 2q in order to refine the location of the WS locus (WS1) and evaluate the extent of genetic heterogeneity. In the course of this work, we developed diagnostic criteria for genetic and phenotypic studies. Our findings, based on two-locus and multilocus analysis using a linkage map established from reference pedigrees, suggest that there are two or more mutations causing WS, one of which (i.e., WS1) is located on chromosome 2q, between the ALPP and FN1 loci, at distances of 7.8 cM and 11.2 cM for each marker, respectively. The results also indicate that WS1 is responsible for the illness in approximately 45% of all families in this sample. However, the odds favoring this position over a location between ALPP and SAG are only 2:1 when alternate assumptions about the proportion of linked families are considered. We conclude that a more saturated map of this region of chromosome 2q, including highly polymorphic markers, will be needed to accurately distinguish linked families and, ultimately, isolate the mutant gene. PMID:1349198

  12. Integration of gene-based markers in a pearl millet genetic map for identification of candidate genes underlying drought tolerance quantitative trait loci

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Identification of genes underlying drought tolerance (DT) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) will facilitate understanding of molecular mechanisms of drought tolerance, and also will accelerate genetic improvement of pearl millet through marker-assisted selection. We report a map based on genes with assigned functional roles in plant adaptation to drought and other abiotic stresses and demonstrate its use in identifying candidate genes underlying a major DT-QTL. Results Seventy five single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and conserved intron spanning primer (CISP) markers were developed from available expressed sequence tags (ESTs) using four genotypes, H 77/833-2, PRLT 2/89-33, ICMR 01029 and ICMR 01004, representing parents of two mapping populations. A total of 228 SNPs were obtained from 30.5 kb sequenced region resulting in a SNP frequency of 1/134 bp. The positions of major pearl millet linkage group (LG) 2 DT-QTLs (reported from crosses H 77/833-2 × PRLT 2/89-33 and 841B × 863B) were added to the present consensus function map which identified 18 genes, coding for PSI reaction center subunit III, PHYC, actin, alanine glyoxylate aminotransferase, uridylate kinase, acyl-CoA oxidase, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, MADS-box, serine/threonine protein kinase, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, zinc finger C- × 8-C × 5-C × 3-H type, Hd3, acetyl CoA carboxylase, chlorophyll a/b binding protein, photolyase, protein phosphatase1 regulatory subunit SDS22 and two hypothetical proteins, co-mapping in this DT-QTL interval. Many of these candidate genes were found to have significant association with QTLs of grain yield, flowering time and leaf rolling under drought stress conditions. Conclusions We have exploited available pearl millet EST sequences to generate a mapped resource of seventy five new gene-based markers for pearl millet and demonstrated its use in identifying candidate genes underlying a major DT-QTL in this species. The reported gene-based markers represent

  13. Nucleotide variation and balancing selection at the Ckma gene in Atlantic cod: analysis with multiple merger coalescent models

    PubMed Central

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín

    2015-01-01

    High-fecundity organisms, such as Atlantic cod, can withstand substantial natural selection and the entailing genetic load of replacing alleles at a number of loci due to their excess reproductive capacity. High-fecundity organisms may reproduce by sweepstakes leading to highly skewed heavy-tailed offspring distribution. Under such reproduction the Kingman coalescent of binary mergers breaks down and models of multiple merger coalescent are more appropriate. Here we study nucleotide variation at the Ckma (Creatine Kinase Muscle type A) gene in Atlantic cod. The gene shows extreme differentiation between the North (Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Barents Sea) and the South (Faroe Islands, North-, Baltic-, Celtic-, and Irish Seas) with FST > 0.8 between regions whereas neutral loci show no differentiation. This is evidence of natural selection. The protein sequence is conserved by purifying selection whereas silent and non-coding sites show extreme differentiation. The unfolded site-frequency spectrum has three modes, a mode at singleton sites and two high frequency modes at opposite frequencies representing divergent branches of the gene genealogy that is evidence for balancing selection. Analysis with multiple-merger coalescent models can account for the high frequency of singleton sites and indicate reproductive sweepstakes. Coalescent time scales vary with population size and with the inverse of variance in offspring number. Parameter estimates using multiple-merger coalescent models show that times scales are faster than under the Kingman coalescent. PMID:25755922

  14. Nucleotide variation and balancing selection at the Ckma gene in Atlantic cod: analysis with multiple merger coalescent models.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Einar; Halldórsdóttir, Katrín

    2015-01-01

    High-fecundity organisms, such as Atlantic cod, can withstand substantial natural selection and the entailing genetic load of replacing alleles at a number of loci due to their excess reproductive capacity. High-fecundity organisms may reproduce by sweepstakes leading to highly skewed heavy-tailed offspring distribution. Under such reproduction the Kingman coalescent of binary mergers breaks down and models of multiple merger coalescent are more appropriate. Here we study nucleotide variation at the Ckma (Creatine Kinase Muscle type A) gene in Atlantic cod. The gene shows extreme differentiation between the North (Canada, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, Barents Sea) and the South (Faroe Islands, North-, Baltic-, Celtic-, and Irish Seas) with FST > 0.8 between regions whereas neutral loci show no differentiation. This is evidence of natural selection. The protein sequence is conserved by purifying selection whereas silent and non-coding sites show extreme differentiation. The unfolded site-frequency spectrum has three modes, a mode at singleton sites and two high frequency modes at opposite frequencies representing divergent branches of the gene genealogy that is evidence for balancing selection. Analysis with multiple-merger coalescent models can account for the high frequency of singleton sites and indicate reproductive sweepstakes. Coalescent time scales vary with population size and with the inverse of variance in offspring number. Parameter estimates using multiple-merger coalescent models show that times scales are faster than under the Kingman coalescent. PMID:25755922

  15. Multiple cholinergic nicotinic receptor genes affect nicotine dependence risk in African and European Americans

    PubMed Central

    Saccone, Nancy L.; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Wang, Jen C.; Grucza, Richard A.; Breslau, Naomi; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Johnson, Eric O.; Rice, John P.; Goate, Alison M.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    Several independent studies show that the chromosome 15q25.1 region, which contains the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster, harbors variants strongly associated with nicotine dependence, other smoking behaviors, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We investigated whether variants in other cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunit (CHRN) genes affect risk for nicotine dependence in a new sample of African-Americans (N = 710). We also analyzed this African-American sample together with a European-American sample (N=2062, 1608 of which have been previously studied), allowing for differing effects in the two populations. Cases are current nicotine-dependent smokers and controls are non-dependent smokers. Variants in or near CHRND-CHRNG, CHRNA7, and CHRNA10 show modest association with nicotine dependence risk in the African-American sample. In addition, CHRNA4, CHRNB3-CHRNA6, and CHRNB1 show association in at least one population. CHRNG and CHRNA4 harbor SNPs that have opposite directions of effect in the two populations. In each of the population samples, these loci substantially increase the trait variation explained, although no loci meet Bonferroni-corrected significance in the African-American sample alone. The trait variation explained by three key associated SNPs in CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 is 1.9% in European-Americans and also 1.9% in African-Americans; this increases to 4.5% in EAs and 7.3% in AAs when we add six variants representing associations at other CHRN genes. Multiple nicotinic receptor subunit genes outside of chromosome 15q25 are likely to be important in the biological processes and development of nicotine dependence, and some of these risks may be shared across diverse populations. PMID:20584212

  16. Multiple Avirulence Loci and Allele-Specific Effector Recognition Control the Pm3 Race-Specific Resistance of Wheat to Powdery Mildew[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Roffler, Stefan; Stirnweis, Daniel; Treier, Georges; Herren, Gerhard; Korol, Abraham B.; Wicker, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In cereals, several mildew resistance genes occur as large allelic series; for example, in wheat (Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum), 17 functional Pm3 alleles confer agronomically important race-specific resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis). The molecular basis of race specificity has been characterized in wheat, but little is known about the corresponding avirulence genes in powdery mildew. Here, we dissected the genetics of avirulence for six Pm3 alleles and found that three major Avr loci affect avirulence, with a common locus_1 involved in all AvrPm3-Pm3 interactions. We cloned the effector gene AvrPm3a2/f2 from locus_2, which is recognized by the Pm3a and Pm3f alleles. Induction of a Pm3 allele-dependent hypersensitive response in transient assays in Nicotiana benthamiana and in wheat demonstrated specificity. Gene expression analysis of Bcg1 (encoded by locus_1) and AvrPm3 a2/f2 revealed significant differences between isolates, indicating that in addition to protein polymorphisms, expression levels play a role in avirulence. We propose a model for race specificity involving three components: an allele-specific avirulence effector, a resistance gene allele, and a pathogen-encoded suppressor of avirulence. Thus, whereas a genetically simple allelic series controls specificity in the plant host, recognition on the pathogen side is more complex, allowing flexible evolutionary responses and adaptation to resistance genes. PMID:26452600

  17. Histone Gene Multiplicity and Position Effect Variegation in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Gerald D.; Sinclair, Donald A.; Grigliatti, Thomas A.

    1983-01-01

    The histone genes of wild-type Drosophila melanogaster are reiterated 100–150 times per haploid genome and are located in the segment of chromosome 2 that corresponds to polytene bands 39D2-3 to E1-2. The influence of altered histone gene multiplicity on chromatin structure has been assayed by measuring modification of the gene inactivation associated with position effect variegation in genotypes bearing deletions of the 39D-E segment. The proportion of cells in which a variegating gene is active is increased in genotypes that are heterozygous for a deficiency that removes the histone gene complex. Deletions that remove segments adjacent to the histone gene complex have no effect on the expression of variegating genes. Suppression of position effect variegation associated with reduction of histone gene multiplicity applies to both X-linked and autosomal variegating genes. Position effects exerted by both autosomal and sex-chromosome heterochromatin were suppressible by deletions of the histone gene complex. The suppression was independent of the presence of the Y chromosome. A deficiency that deletes only the distal portion of the histone gene complex also has the ability to suppress position effect variegation. Duplication of the histone gene complex did not enhance position effect variegation. Deletion or duplication of the histone gene complex in the maternal genome had no effect on the extent of variegation in progeny whose histone gene multiplicity was normal. These results are discussed with respect to current knowledge of the organization of the histone gene complex and control of its expression. PMID:17246163

  18. Screening for Multiple Genes Influencing Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Shelley D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Examines the "sib pair" method of linkage analysis designed to locate genes influencing dyslexia, which has several advantages over the "LOD" score method. Notes that the sib pair analysis was able to detect the same linkages as the LOD method, plus a possible third region. Confirms that the sib pair method is an effective means of screening. (RS)

  19. Multiple type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes following genome-wide association scan in UK samples

    PubMed Central

    Zeggini, Eleftheria; Weedon, Michael N.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Elliott, Katherine S.; Lango, Hana; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Perry, John R.B.; Rayner, Nigel W.; Freathy, Rachel M.; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Shields, Beverley; Morris, Andrew P.; Ellard, Sian; Groves, Christopher J.; Harries, Lorna W.; Marchini, Jonathan L.; Owen, Katharine R.; Knight, Beatrice; Cardon, Lon R.; Walker, Mark; Hitman, Graham A.; Morris, Andrew D.; Doney, Alex S.F.; McCarthy, Mark I.; Hattersley, Andrew T.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the development of type 2 diabetes are poorly understood. Starting from genome-wide genotype data for 1,924 diabetic cases and 2,938 population controls generated by the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium, we set out to detect replicated diabetes association signals through analysis of 3,757 additional cases and 5,346 controls, and by integration of our findings with equivalent data from other international consortia. We detected diabetes susceptibility loci in and around the genes CDKAL1, CDKN2A/CDKN2B and IGF2BP2 and confirmed the recently described associations at HHEX/IDE and SLC30A8. Our findings provide insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes, emphasizing the contribution of multiple variants of modest effect. The regions identified underscore the importance of pathways influencing pancreatic beta cell development and function in the etiology of type 2 diabetes. PMID:17463249

  20. Expression of DNA methylation genes in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fagone, Paolo; Mangano, Katia; Di Marco, Roberto; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia; Chikovan, Tinatin; Signorelli, Santo; Lombardo, Giuseppe A G; Patti, Francesco; Mammana, Santa; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2016-01-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immunoinflammatory disease of the central nervous system that seems to be influenced by DNA methylation. We sought to explore the expression pattern of genes involved in the control of DNA methylation in Secondary Progressive (SP) MS patients' PBMCs. We have found that SP MS is characterized by a significant upregulation of two genes belonging to the MBD family genes, MBD2 and MBD4, and by a downregulation of TDG and TET3. PMID:26711572

  1. Population genetic structure of the African elephant in Uganda based on variation at mitochondrial and nuclear loci: evidence for male-biased gene flow.

    PubMed

    Nyakaana, S; Arctander, P

    1999-07-01

    A drastic decline has occurred in the size of the Uganda elephant population in the last 40 years, exacerbated by two main factors; an increase in the size of the human population and poaching for ivory. One of the attendant consequences of such a decline is a reduction in the amount of genetic diversity in the surviving populations due to increased effects of random genetic drift. Information about the amount of genetic variation within and between the remaining populations is vital for their future conservation and management. The genetic structure of the African elephant in Uganda was examined using nucleotide variation of mitochondrial control region sequences and four nuclear microsatellite loci in 72 individuals from three localities. Eleven mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes were observed, nine of which were geographically localized. We found significant genetic differentiation between the three populations at the mitochondrial locus while three out of the four microsatellite loci differentiated KV and QE, one locus differentiated KV and MF and no loci differentiated MF and QE. Expected heterozygosity at the four loci varied between 0.51 and 0.84 while nucleotide diversity at the mitochondrial locus was 1.4%. Incongruent patterns of genetic variation within and between populations were revealed by the two genetic systems, and we have explained these in terms of the differences in the effective population sizes of the two genomes and male-biased gene flow between populations. PMID:10447852

  2. Comparison of CDC and sequence-based molecular typing of syphilis treponemes: tpr and arp loci are variable in multiple samples from the same patient

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Molecular typing of syphilis-causing strains provides important epidemiologic data. We tested whether identified molecular subtypes were identical in PCR-positive parallel samples taken from the same patient at a same time. We also tested whether subtype prevalence differs in skin and blood samples. Results Eighteen syphilis positive patients (showing both positive serology and PCR), with two PCR-typeable parallel samples taken at the same time, were tested with both CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and sequence-based typing. Samples taken from 9 of 18 patients were completely typed for TP0136, TP0548, 23S rDNA, arp, and tpr loci. The CDC typing revealed 11 distinct genotypes while the sequence-based typing identified 6 genotypes. When results from molecular typing of TP0136, TP0548, and 23S rDNA were analyzed in samples taken from the same patient, no discrepancies in the identified genotypes were found; however, there were discrepancies in 11 of 18 patients (61.1%) samples relative to the arp and tpr loci. In addition to the above described typing, 127 PCR-positive swabs and whole blood samples were tested for individual genotype frequencies. The repetition number for the arp gene was lower in whole blood (WB) samples compared to swab samples. Similarly, the most common tpr RFLP type “d” was found to have lower occurrence rates in WB samples while type “e” had an increased occurrence in these samples. Conclusions Differences in the CDC subtypes identified in parallel samples indicated genetic instability of the arp and tpr loci and suggested limited applicability of the CDC typing system in epidemiological studies. Differences in treponemal genotypes detected in whole blood and swab samples suggested important differences between both compartments and/or differences in adherence of treponeme variants to human cells. PMID:23898829

  3. The Role of Multiple Transcription Factors In Archaeal Gene Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Charles J. Daniels

    2008-09-23

    Since the inception of this research program, the project has focused on two central questions: What is the relationship between the 'eukaryal-like' transcription machinery of archaeal cells and its counterparts in eukaryal cells? And, how does the archaeal cell control gene expression using its mosaic of eukaryal core transcription machinery and its bacterial-like transcription regulatory proteins? During the grant period we have addressed these questions using a variety of in vivo approaches and have sought to specifically define the roles of the multiple TATA binding protein (TBP) and TFIIB-like (TFB) proteins in controlling gene expression in Haloferax volcanii. H. volcanii was initially chosen as a model for the Archaea based on the availability of suitable genetic tools; however, later studies showed that all haloarchaea possessed multiple tbp and tfb genes, which led to the proposal that multiple TBP and TFB proteins may function in a manner similar to alternative sigma factors in bacterial cells. In vivo transcription and promoter analysis established a clear relationship between the promoter requirements of haloarchaeal genes and those of the eukaryal RNA polymerase II promoter. Studies on heat shock gene promoters, and the demonstration that specific tfb genes were induced by heat shock, provided the first indication that TFB proteins may direct expression of specific gene families. The construction of strains lacking tbp or tfb genes, coupled with the finding that many of these genes are differentially expressed under varying growth conditions, provided further support for this model. Genetic tools were also developed that led to the construction of insertion and deletion mutants, and a novel gene expression scheme was designed that allowed the controlled expression of these genes in vivo. More recent studies have used a whole genome array to examine the expression of these genes and we have established a linkage between the expression of specific tfb

  4. Gene-alcohol interactions identify several novel blood pressure loci including a promising locus near SLC16A9

    PubMed Central

    Simino, Jeannette; Sung, Yun Ju; Kume, Rezart; Schwander, Karen; Rao, D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for hypertension, with recent candidate studies implicating gene-alcohol interactions in blood pressure (BP) regulation. We used 6882 (predominantly) Caucasian participants aged 20–80 years from the Framingham SNP Health Association Resource (SHARe) to perform a genome-wide analysis of SNP-alcohol interactions on BP traits. We used a two-step approach in the ABEL suite to examine genetic interactions with three alcohol measures (ounces of alcohol consumed per week, drinks consumed per week, and the number of days drinking alcohol per week) on four BP traits [systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), mean arterial (MAP), and pulse (PP) pressure]. In the first step, we fit a linear mixed model of each BP trait onto age, sex, BMI, and antihypertensive medication while accounting for the phenotypic correlation among relatives. In the second step, we conducted 1 degree-of-freedom (df) score tests of the SNP main effect, alcohol main effect, and SNP-alcohol interaction using the maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) of the parameters from the first step. We then calculated the joint 2 df score test of the SNP main effect and SNP-alcohol interaction using MixABEL. The effect of SNP rs10826334 (near SLC16A9) on SBP was significantly modulated by both the number of alcoholic drinks and the ounces of alcohol consumed per week (p-values of 1.27E-08 and 3.92E-08, respectively). Each copy of the G-allele decreased SBP by 3.79 mmHg in those consuming 14 drinks per week vs. a 0.461 mmHg decrease in non-drinkers. Index SNPs in 20 other loci exhibited suggestive (p-value ≤ 1E-06) associations with BP traits by the 1 df interaction test or joint 2 df test, including 3 rare variants, one low-frequency variant, and SNPs near/in genes ESRRG, FAM179A, CRIPT-SOCS5, KAT2B, ADCY2, GLI3, ZNF716, SLIT1, PDE3A, KERA-LUM, RNF219-AS1, CLEC3A, FBXO15, and IGSF5. SNP-alcohol interactions may enhance discovery of novel variants with large effects that can be

  5. Multiple Gene Repression in Cyanobacteria Using CRISPRi.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lun; Cengic, Ivana; Anfelt, Josefine; Hudson, Elton P

    2016-03-18

    We describe the application of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi) for gene repression in the model cyanobacterium Synechcocystis sp. PCC 6803. The nuclease-deficient Cas9 from the type-II CRISPR/Cas of Streptrococcus pyogenes was used to repress green fluorescent protein (GFP) to negligible levels. CRISPRi was also used to repress formation of carbon storage compounds polyhydroxybutryate (PHB) and glycogen during nitrogen starvation. As an example of the potential of CRISPRi for basic and applied cyanobacteria research, we simultaneously knocked down 4 putative aldehyde reductases and dehydrogenases at 50-95% repression. This work also demonstrates that tightly repressed promoters allow for inducible and reversible CRISPRi in cyanobacteria. PMID:26689101

  6. Multiplex SSR-PCR approaches for semi-automated genotyping and characterization of loci linked to blast disease resistance genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Ashkani, Sadegh; Rafii, Mohd Yusop; Shabanimofrad, Mahmoodreza; Foroughi, Majid; Azizia, Parisa; Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed; Sahebi, Mahbod; Harun, Abd Rahim; Nasehi, Abbas

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, 63 polymorphic microsatellite markers related to rice blast resistance genes were fluorescently labelled at the 5'-end with either 6-FAM or HEX using the G5 dye set and incorporated into a multiplex SSR-PCR for the detection of fragments using an automated system. For rice F3 families obtained from crosses between Pongsu Seribu 2 (Malaysian blast resistant cultivar) and Mahsuri (a susceptible rice cultivar), the genotypes for 13 designated multiplex SSR panels were determined. The genotyping assays were performed using a capillary-based ABIPRISM 3100 genetic analyser. The sizes of the SSRs alleles observed in the range from 79 to 324 bp. The observed marker segregation data were analysed using the Chi(2) test. A genetic linkage map covering ten chromosomes and comprising 63 polymorphic SSR markers was constructed, and the distorted loci were localised to linkage groups. The results indicated that distorted loci are presented on eight chromosomes. PMID:26318048

  7. Antipsychotic Induced Gene Regulation in Multiple Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Girgenti, Matthew James; Nisenbaum, Laura K.; Bymaster, Franklin; Terwilliger, Rosemarie; Duman, Ronald S; Newton, Samuel Sathyanesan

    2010-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs is not well understood. Their complex receptor affinity profiles indicate that their action could extend beyond dopamine receptor blockade. Single gene expression studies and high-throughput gene profiling have shown the induction of genes from several molecular classes and functional categories. Using a focused microarray approach we investigated gene regulation in rat striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus after chronic administration of haloperidol or olanzapine. Regulated genes were validated by in-situ hybridization, realtime PCR and immunohistochemistry. Only limited overlap was observed in genes regulated by haloperidol and olanzapine. Both drugs elicited maximal gene regulation in the striatum and least in the hippocampus. Striatal gene induction by haloperidol was predominantly in neurotransmitter signaling, G-protein coupled receptors and transcription factors. Olanzapine prominently induced retinoic acid and trophic factor signaling genes in the frontal cortex. The data also revealed the induction of several genes that could be targeted in future drug development efforts. The study uncovered the induction of several novel genes, including somatostatin receptors and metabotropic glutamate receptors. The results demonstrating the regulation of multiple receptors and transcription factors suggests that both typical and atypical antipsychotics could possess a complex molecular mechanism of action. PMID:20070867

  8. Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height

    PubMed Central

    Lango Allen, Hana; Estrada, Karol; Lettre, Guillaume; Berndt, Sonja I.; Weedon, Michael N.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Willer, Cristen J.; Jackson, Anne U.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Ferreira, Teresa; Wood, Andrew R.; Weyant, Robert J.; Segrè, Ayellet V.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Wheeler, Eleanor; Soranzo, Nicole; Park, Ju-Hyun; Yang, Jian; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Randall, Joshua C.; Qi, Lu; Smith, Albert Vernon; Mägi, Reedik; Pastinen, Tomi; Liang, Liming; Heid, Iris M.; Luan, Jian'an; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Winkler, Thomas W.; Goddard, Michael E.; Lo, Ken Sin; Palmer, Cameron; Workalemahu, Tsegaselassie; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Johansson, Åsa; Zillikens, M.Carola; Feitosa, Mary F.; Esko, Tõnu; Johnson, Toby; Ketkar, Shamika; Kraft, Peter; Mangino, Massimo; Prokopenko, Inga; Absher, Devin; Albrecht, Eva; Ernst, Florian; Glazer, Nicole L.; Hayward, Caroline; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Knowles, Joshua W.; Kutalik, Zoltán; Monda, Keri L.; Polasek, Ozren; Preuss, Michael; Rayner, Nigel W.; Robertson, Neil R.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Xu, Jianfeng; Zhao, Jing Hua; Nyholt, Dale R.; Pellikka, Niina; Perola, Markus; Perry, John R.B.; Surakka, Ida; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Altmaier, Elizabeth L.; Amin, Najaf; Aspelund, Thor; Bhangale, Tushar; Boucher, Gabrielle; Chasman, Daniel I.; Chen, Constance; Coin, Lachlan; Cooper, Matthew N.; Dixon, Anna L.; Gibson, Quince; Grundberg, Elin; Hao, Ke; Junttila, M. Juhani; Kaplan, Lee M.; Kettunen, Johannes; König, Inke R.; Kwan, Tony; Lawrence, Robert W.; Levinson, Douglas F.; Lorentzon, Mattias; McKnight, Barbara; Morris, Andrew P.; Müller, Martina; Ngwa, Julius Suh; Purcell, Shaun; Rafelt, Suzanne; Salem, Rany M.; Salvi, Erika; Sanna, Serena; Shi, Jianxin; Sovio, Ulla; Thompson, John R.; Turchin, Michael C.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Verlaan, Dominique J.; Vitart, Veronique; White, Charles C.; Ziegler, Andreas; Almgren, Peter; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Campbell, Harry; Citterio, Lorena; De Grandi, Alessandro; Dominiczak, Anna; Duan, Jubao; Elliott, Paul; Elosua, Roberto; Eriksson, Johan G.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Geus, Eco J.C.; Glorioso, Nicola; Haiqing, Shen; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Havulinna, Aki S.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hui, Jennie; Igl, Wilmar; Illig, Thomas; Jula, Antti; Kajantie, Eero; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Koiranen, Markku; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kovacs, Peter; Laitinen, Jaana; Liu, Jianjun; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Marusic, Ana; Maschio, Andrea; Meitinger, Thomas; Mulas, Antonella; Paré, Guillaume; Parker, Alex N.; Peden, John F.; Petersmann, Astrid; Pichler, Irene; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Pouta, Anneli; Ridderstråle, Martin; Rotter, Jerome I.; Sambrook, Jennifer G.; Sanders, Alan R.; Schmidt, Carsten Oliver; Sinisalo, Juha; Smit, Jan H.; Stringham, Heather M.; Walters, G.Bragi; Widen, Elisabeth; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Zagato, Laura; Zgaga, Lina; Zitting, Paavo; Alavere, Helene; Farrall, Martin; McArdle, Wendy L.; Nelis, Mari; Peters, Marjolein J.; Ripatti, Samuli; van Meurs, Joyce B.J.; Aben, Katja K.; Ardlie, Kristin G; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Beilby, John P.; Bergman, Richard N.; Bergmann, Sven; Collins, Francis S.; Cusi, Daniele; den Heijer, Martin; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gejman, Pablo V.; Hall, Alistair S.; Hamsten, Anders; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Iribarren, Carlos; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kiemeney, Lambertus; Kocher, Thomas; Launer, Lenore J.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Melander, Olle; Mosley, Tom H.; Musk, Arthur W.; Nieminen, Markku S.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Ohlsson, Claes; Oostra, Ben; Palmer, Lyle J.; Raitakari, Olli; Ridker, Paul M.; Rioux, John D.; Rissanen, Aila; Rivolta, Carlo; Schunkert, Heribert; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siscovick, David S.; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Viikari, Jorma; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Province, Michael A.; Kayser, Manfred; Arnold, Alice M.; Atwood, Larry D.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Chanock, Stephen J.; Deloukas, Panos; Gieger, Christian; Grönberg, Henrik; Hall, Per; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Hengstenberg, Christian; Hoffman, Wolfgang; Lathrop, G.Mark; Salomaa, Veikko; Schreiber, Stefan; Uda, Manuela; Waterworth, Dawn; Wright, Alan F.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Barroso, Inês; Hofman, Albert; Mohlke, Karen L.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Cupples, L.Adrienne; Erdmann, Jeanette; Fox, Caroline S.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Harris, Tamara B.; Hayes, Richard B.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Mooser, Vincent; Munroe, Patricia B.; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rudan, Igor; Samani, Nilesh J.; Spector, Timothy D.; Völzke, Henry; Watkins, Hugh; Wilson, James F.; Groop, Leif C.; Haritunians, Talin; Hu, Frank B.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Metspalu, Andres; North, Kari E.; Schlessinger, David; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Hunter, David J.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Strachan, David P.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Borecki, Ingrid B.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Schadt, Eric E.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Peltonen, Leena; Uitterlinden, André; Visscher, Peter M.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.; Ingelsson, Erik; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Stefansson, Kari; Frayling, Timothy M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2010-01-01

    Most common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified >600 variants associated with human traits1, but these typically explain small fractions of phenotypic variation, raising questions about the utility of further studies. Here, using 183,727 individuals, we show that hundreds of genetic variants, in at least 180 loci, influence adult height, a highly heritable and classic polygenic trait2,3. The large number of loci reveals patterns with important implications for genetic studies of common human diseases and traits. First, the 180 loci are not random, but instead are enriched for genes that are connected in biological pathways (P=0.016), and that underlie skeletal growth defects (P<0.001). Second, the likely causal gene is often located near the most strongly associated variant: in 13 of 21 loci containing a known skeletal growth gene, that gene was closest to the associated variant. Third, at least 19 loci have multiple independently associated variants, suggesting that allelic heterogeneity is a frequent feature of polygenic traits, that comprehensive explorations of already-discovered loci should discover additional variants, and that an appreciable fraction of associated loci may have been identified. Fourth, associated variants are enriched for likely functional effects on genes, being over-represented amongst variants that alter amino acid structure of proteins and expression levels of nearby genes. Our data explain ∼10% of the phenotypic variation in height, and we estimate that unidentified common variants of similar effect sizes would increase this figure to ∼16% of phenotypic variation (∼20% of heritable variation). Although additional approaches are needed to fully dissect the genetic architecture of polygenic human traits, our findings indicate that GWA studies can identify large numbers of loci that

  9. Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Yesilyurt, Betul T; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Arias Perez, José Ignacio; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C; Spurdle, Amanda; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif B; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E; Easton, Doug F; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D P; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2015-03-15

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint ) <1.1 × 10(-3) . None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ≥170 cm (OR = 1.22, p = 0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160 cm (OR = 0.83, p = 0.039, pint = 1.9 × 10(-4) ). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR = 0.85, p = 2.0 × 10(-4) ), and absent in women who had had just one (OR = 0.96, p = 0.19, pint = 6.1 × 10(-4) ). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR = 0.93, p = 2.8 × 10(-5) ), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR = 1.07, p = 0.14, pint = 3.4 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, recently identified BC susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies. PMID:25227710

  10. An investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Anja; Milne, Roger L.; Truong, Thérèse; Knight, Julia A.; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Munday, Hannah R.; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Brand, Judith S.; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine M.; Hallberg, Emily; Castelao, J. Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Torres, Maria; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Yesilyurt, Betul T.; Floris, Giuseppe; Leunen, Karin; Engelhardt, Ellen G.; Broeks, Annegien; Rutgers, Emiel J.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Cross, Simon; Reed, Malcolm; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Perez, José Ignacio Arias; Provenzano, Elena; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda; Investigators, kConFab; Group, AOCS; Häberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; McLean, Catriona; Baglietto, Laura; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Sherman, Mark E.; Brüning, Thomas; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk; Ashworth, Alan; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Swerdlow, Anthony; Giles, Graham G.; Brenner, Hermann; Fasching, Peter A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Hopper, John; Benítez, Javier; Cox, Angela; Andrulis, Irene L.; Lambrechts, Diether; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Couch, Fergus; Czene, Kamila; Bojesen, Stig E.; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Guénel, Pascal; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint) <1.1×10−3. None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ≥170cm (OR=1.22, p=0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160cm (OR=0.83, p=0.039, pint=1.9×10−4). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR=0.85, p=2.0×10−4), and absent in women who had had just one (OR=0.96, p=0.19, pint = 6.1×10−4). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR=0.93, p=2.8×10−5), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR=1.07, p=0.14, pint = 3.4×10−4). In conclusion, recently identified breast cancer susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies. PMID:25227710

  11. Mutation to Wider Virulence in Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici: Evidence for the Existence of Loci Which Allow the Fungus To Overcome Several Host Stem Rust Resistance Genes Simultaneously †

    PubMed Central

    Gates, J. E.; Loegering, W. Q.

    1991-01-01

    Mutants of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici were obtained which were able to overcome simultaneously several host stem rust resistance (Sr) genes effective against the wild-type culture. These results suggest that, in addition to those Psr loci which relate specifically to host Sr genes in a “gene for gene” manner, one or more general loci may be present in this pathogen. The product(s) of these general genes may be necessary for the expression of various host Sr genes. The evolution of a super race capable of overcoming many Sr genes for resistance seems likely, as such a pathogen would not have to give up the many proteins predicted by the gene-for-gene relationship. Moreover, it appears that specificity in the wheat rust system is more complicated than suggested by the gene-for-gene concept. PMID:16348542

  12. Genetic structure and gene flow among South Florida populations of Iris hexagona Walt. (Iridaceae) assessed with 19 microsatellite DNA loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated genetic variation within and among 11 populations of Iris hexagona at its southern limits in the Florida peninsula using 19 microsatellite loci. All of the populations contain varying numbers of identical multi-locus genotypes, indicative of clonal reproduction. Two populations are...

  13. Aberrant Gene Promoter Methylation Associated with Sporadic Multiple Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalo, Victoria; Lozano, Juan José; Muñoz, Jenifer; Balaguer, Francesc; Pellisé, Maria; de Miguel, Cristina Rodríguez; Andreu, Montserrat; Jover, Rodrigo; Llor, Xavier; Giráldez, M. Dolores; Ocaña, Teresa; Serradesanferm, Anna; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Jimeno, Mireya; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Sendino, Oriol; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Castells, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) multiplicity has been mainly related to polyposis and non-polyposis hereditary syndromes. In sporadic CRC, aberrant gene promoter methylation has been shown to play a key role in carcinogenesis, although little is known about its involvement in multiplicity. To assess the effect of methylation in tumor multiplicity in sporadic CRC, hypermethylation of key tumor suppressor genes was evaluated in patients with both multiple and solitary tumors, as a proof-of-concept of an underlying epigenetic defect. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined a total of 47 synchronous/metachronous primary CRC from 41 patients, and 41 gender, age (5-year intervals) and tumor location-paired patients with solitary tumors. Exclusion criteria were polyposis syndromes, Lynch syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. DNA methylation at the promoter region of the MGMT, CDKN2A, SFRP1, TMEFF2, HS3ST2 (3OST2), RASSF1A and GATA4 genes was evaluated by quantitative methylation specific PCR in both tumor and corresponding normal appearing colorectal mucosa samples. Overall, patients with multiple lesions exhibited a higher degree of methylation in tumor samples than those with solitary tumors regarding all evaluated genes. After adjusting for age and gender, binomial logistic regression analysis identified methylation of MGMT2 (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.10 to 1.97; p = 0.008) and RASSF1A (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.01 to 4.13; p = 0.047) as variables independently associated with tumor multiplicity, being the risk related to methylation of any of these two genes 4.57 (95% CI, 1.53 to 13.61; p = 0.006). Moreover, in six patients in whom both tumors were available, we found a correlation in the methylation levels of MGMT2 (r = 0.64, p = 0.17), SFRP1 (r = 0.83, 0.06), HPP1 (r = 0.64, p = 0.17), 3OST2 (r = 0.83, p = 0.06) and GATA4 (r = 0.6, p = 0.24). Methylation in normal appearing colorectal mucosa from patients with multiple

  14. Identification of quantitative trait loci and candidate genes for an anxiolytic-like response to ethanol in BXD recombinant inbred strains.

    PubMed

    Putman, A H; Wolen, A R; Harenza, J L; Yordanova, R K; Webb, B T; Chesler, E J; Miles, M F

    2016-04-01

    Genetic differences in acute behavioral responses to ethanol contribute to the susceptibility to alcohol use disorder and the reduction of anxiety is a commonly reported motive underlying ethanol consumption among alcoholics. Therefore, we studied the genetic variance in anxiolytic-like responses to ethanol across the BXD recombinant inbred (RI) mouse panel using the light-dark transition model of anxiety. Strain-mean genetic mapping and a mixed-model quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis replicated several previously published QTL for locomotor activity and identified several novel anxiety-related loci. Significant loci included a chromosome 11 saline anxiety-like QTL (Salanq1) and a chromosome 12 locus (Etanq1) influencing the anxiolytic-like response to ethanol. Etanq1 was successfully validated by studies with BXD advanced intercross strains and fine-mapped to a region comprising less than 3.5 Mb. Through integration of genome-wide mRNA expression profiles of the mesocorticolimbic reward circuit (prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and ventral midbrain) across the BXD RI panel, we identified high priority candidate genes within Etanq1, the strongest of which was Ninein (Nin), a Gsk3β-interacting protein that is highly expressed in the brain. PMID:26948279

  15. Global Population Genetic Structure and Male-Mediated Gene Flow in the Green Turtle (Chelonia Mydas): RFLP Analyses of Anonymous Nuclear Loci

    PubMed Central

    Karl, S. A.; Bowen, B. W.; Avise, J. C.

    1992-01-01

    We introduce an approach for the analysis of Mendelian polymorphisms in nuclear DNA (nDNA), using restriction fragment patterns from anonymous single-copy regions amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, and apply this method to the elucidation of population structure and gene flow in the endangered green turtle, Chelonia mydas. Seven anonymous clones isolated from a total cell DNA library were sequenced to generate primers for the amplification of nDNA fragments. Nine individuals were screened for restriction site polymorphisms at these seven loci, using 40 endonucleases. Two loci were monomorphic, while the remainder exhibited a total of nine polymorphic restriction sites and three size variants (reflecting 600-base pair (bp) and 20-bp deletions and a 20-bp insertion). A total of 256 turtle specimens from 15 nesting populations worldwide were then scored for these polymorphisms. Genotypic proportions within populations were in accord with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Strong linkage disequilibrium observed among polymorphic sites within loci enabled multisite haplotype assignments. Estimates of the standardized variance in haplotype frequency among global collections (F(ST) = 0.17), within the Atlantic-Mediterranean (F(ST) = 0.13), and within the Indian-Pacific (F(ST) = 0.13), revealed a moderate degree of population substructure. Although a previous study concluded that nesting populations appear to be highly structured with respect to female (mitochondrial DNA) lineages, estimates of Nm based on nDNA data from this study indicate moderate rates of male-mediated gene flow. A positive relationship between genetic similarity and geographic proximity suggests historical connections and/or contemporary gene flow between particular rookery populations, likely via matings on overlapping feeding grounds, migration corridors or nonnatal rookeries. PMID:1350555

  16. The Green Monster Process for the Generation of Yeast Strains Carrying Multiple Gene Deletions

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yo; Stam, Jason; Novotny, Mark; Yachie, Nozomu; Lasken, Roger S.; Roth, Frederick P.

    2012-01-01

    Phenotypes for a gene deletion are often revealed only when the mutation is tested in a particular genetic background or environmental condition1,2. There are examples where many genes need to be deleted to unmask hidden gene functions3,4. Despite the potential for important discoveries, genetic interactions involving three or more genes are largely unexplored. Exhaustive searches of multi-mutant interactions would be impractical due to the sheer number of possible combinations of deletions. However, studies of selected sets of genes, such as sets of paralogs with a greater a priori chance of sharing a common function, would be informative. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, gene knockout is accomplished by replacing a gene with a selectable marker via homologous recombination. Because the number of markers is limited, methods have been developed for removing and reusing the same marker5,6,7,8,9,10. However, sequentially engineering multiple mutations using these methods is time-consuming because the time required scales linearly with the number of deletions to be generated. Here we describe the Green Monster method for routinely engineering multiple deletions in yeast11. In this method, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter integrated into deletions is used to quantitatively label strains according to the number of deletions contained in each strain (Figure 1). Repeated rounds of assortment of GFP-marked deletions via yeast mating and meiosis coupled with flow-cytometric enrichment of strains carrying more of these deletions lead to the accumulation of deletions in strains (Figure 2). Performing multiple processes in parallel, with each process incorporating one or more deletions per round, reduces the time required for strain construction. The first step is to prepare haploid single-mutants termed 'ProMonsters,' each of which carries a GFP reporter in a deleted locus and one of the 'toolkit' loci—either Green Monster GMToolkit-a or GMToolkit-α at the

  17. Expression of multiple gamma-glutamyltransferase genes in man.

    PubMed Central

    Courtay, C; Heisterkamp, N; Siest, G; Groffen, J

    1994-01-01

    In clinical and pharmacological laboratories, the assay for gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity is an important diagnostic test, but one with high biological variability. Although the human genome contains multiple GGT genomic sequences, the diagnostic tests generally assume that only a single GGT gene is active. In the current study, segments encompassing parts of seven different potential human GGT genes have been molecularly cloned. Based on sequence determination of exons within these distinct genomic clones, oligonucleotide primers were designed which would prime and PCR-amplify putative mRNA of all seven potential GGT genes, if expressed. Gene-specific oligonucleotide probes were then utilized to assay the transcriptional status of the seven possible GGT genes in a wide variety of human RNAs. Our results show that a single GGT gene exhibits ubiquitous expression in all RNAs tested, including those from fetal and adult liver. A surprisingly large number of four additional GGT genes is expressed in man. Interestingly, these novel GGT genes are expressed in a tissue-restricted manner, which suggests that their corresponding gene products exhibit distinct functions in these specific tissues. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7906515

  18. Two novel tumor suppressor gene loci on chromosome 6q and 15q in human osteosarcoma identified through comparative study of allelic imbalances in mouse and man.

    PubMed

    Nathrath, Michaela H; Kuosaite, Virginija; Rosemann, Michael; Kremer, Marcus; Poremba, Christopher; Wakana, Shigeharu; Yanagi, Masayuki; Nathrath, Walter B J; Höfler, Heinz; Imai, Kenji; Atkinson, Michael J

    2002-08-29

    We have performed a comparative study of allelic imbalances in human and murine osteosarcomas to identify genetic changes critical for osteosarcomagenesis. Two adjacent but discrete loci on mouse chromosome 9 were found to show high levels of allelic imbalance in radiation-induced osteosarcomas arising in (BALB/cxCBA/CA) F1 hybrid mice. The syntenic human chromosomal regions were investigated in 42 sporadic human osteosarcomas. For the distal locus (OSS1) on mouse chromosome 9 the syntenic human locus was identified on chromosome 6q14 and showed allelic imbalance in 77% of the cases. Comparison between the human and mouse syntenic regions narrowed the locus down to a 4 Mbp fragment flanked by the marker genes ME1 and SCL35A1. For the proximal locus (OSS2) on mouse chromosome 9, a candidate human locus was mapped to chromosome 15q21 in a region showing allelic imbalance in 58% of human osteosarcomas. We have used a combination of synteny and microsatellite mapping to identify two potential osteosarcoma suppressor gene loci. This strategy represents a powerful tool for the identification of new genes important for the formation of human tumors. PMID:12185601

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies loci and candidate genes for meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiangwei; Qi, Xin; Wu, Yang; Zhu, Bo; Xu, Lingyang; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Chen, Yan; Li, Junya; Gao, Huijiang

    2016-06-01

    Improving meat quality is the best way to enhance profitability and strengthen competitiveness in beef industry. Identification of genetic variants that control beef quality traits can help breeders design optimal breeding programs to achieve this goal. We carried out a genome-wide association study for meat quality traits in 1141 Simmental cattle using the Illumina Bovine HD 770K SNP array to identify the candidate genes and genomic regions associated with meat quality traits for beef cattle, including fat color, meat color, marbling score, longissimus muscle area, and shear force. In our study, we identified twenty significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (p < 1.47 × 10(-6)) associated with these five meat quality traits. Notably, we observed several SNPs were in or near eleven genes which have been reported previously, including TMEM236, SORL1, TRDN, S100A10, AP2S1, KCTD16, LOC506594, DHX15, LAMA4, PREX1, and BRINP3. We identified a haplotype block on BTA13 containing five significant SNPs associated with fat color trait. We also found one of 19 SNPs was associated with multiple traits (shear force and longissimus muscle area) on BTA7. Our results offer valuable insights to further explore the potential mechanism of meat quality traits in Simmental beef cattle. PMID:27126640

  20. Two new loci and gene sets related to sex determination and cancer progression are associated with susceptibility to testicular germ cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Kristiansen, Wenche; Karlsson, Robert; Rounge, Trine B; Whitington, Thomas; Andreassen, Bettina K; Magnusson, Patrik K; Fosså, Sophie D; Adami, Hans-Olov; Turnbull, Clare; Haugen, Trine B; Grotmol, Tom; Wiklund, Fredrik

    2015-07-15

    Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have reported 19 distinct susceptibility loci for testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT). A GWA study for TGCT was performed by genotyping 610 240 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1326 cases and 6687 controls from Sweden and Norway. No novel genome-wide significant associations were observed in this discovery stage. We put forward 27 SNPs from 15 novel regions and 12 SNPs previously reported, for replication in 710 case-parent triads and 289 cases and 290 controls. Predefined biological pathways and processes, in addition to a custom-built sex-determination gene set, were subject to enrichment analyses using Meta-Analysis Gene Set Enrichment of Variant Associations (M) and Improved Gene Set Enrichment Analysis for Genome-wide Association Study (I). In the combined meta-analysis, we observed genome-wide significant association for rs7501939 on chromosome 17q12 (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.72-0.84, P = 1.1 × 10(-9)) and rs2195987 on chromosome 19p12 (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69-0.84, P = 3.2 × 10(-8)). The marker rs7501939 on chromosome 17q12 is located in an intron of the HNF1B gene, encoding a member of the homeodomain-containing superfamily of transcription factors. The sex-determination gene set (false discovery rate, FDRM < 0.001, FDRI < 0.001) and pathways related to NF-κB, glycerophospholipid and ether lipid metabolism, as well as cancer and apoptosis, was associated with TGCT (FDR < 0.1). In addition to revealing two new TGCT susceptibility loci, our results continue to support the notion that genes governing normal germ cell development in utero are implicated in the development of TGCT. PMID:25877299

  1. In silico gene prioritization by integrating multiple data sources.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yixuan; Wang, Wenhui; Zhou, Yingyao; Shields, Robert; Chanda, Sumit K; Elston, Robert C; Li, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Identifying disease genes is crucial to the understanding of disease pathogenesis, and to the improvement of disease diagnosis and treatment. In recent years, many researchers have proposed approaches to prioritize candidate genes by considering the relationship of candidate genes and existing known disease genes, reflected in other data sources. In this paper, we propose an expandable framework for gene prioritization that can integrate multiple heterogeneous data sources by taking advantage of a unified graphic representation. Gene-gene relationships and gene-disease relationships are then defined based on the overall topology of each network using a diffusion kernel measure. These relationship measures are in turn normalized to derive an overall measure across all networks, which is utilized to rank all candidate genes. Based on the informativeness of available data sources with respect to each specific disease, we also propose an adaptive threshold score to select a small subset of candidate genes for further validation studies. We performed large scale cross-validation analysis on 110 disease families using three data sources. Results have shown that our approach consistently outperforms other two state of the art programs. A case study using Parkinson disease (PD) has identified four candidate genes (UBB, SEPT5, GPR37 and TH) that ranked higher than our adaptive threshold, all of which are involved in the PD pathway. In particular, a very recent study has observed a deletion of TH in a patient with PD, which supports the importance of the TH gene in PD pathogenesis. A web tool has been implemented to assist scientists in their genetic studies. PMID:21731658

  2. Three subfamilies of pheromone and receptor genes generate multiple B mating specificities in the mushroom Coprinus cinereus.

    PubMed Central

    Halsall, J R; Milner, M J; Casselton, L A

    2000-01-01

    The B mating type locus of the basidiomycete Coprinus cinereus encodes a large family of lipopeptide pheromones and their seven transmembrane domain receptors. Here we show that the B42 locus, like the previously described B6 locus, derives its unique specificity from nine multiallelic genes that are organized into three subgroups each comprising a receptor and two pheromone genes. We show that the three genes within each group are kept together as a functional unit by being embedded in an allele-specific DNA sequence. Using a combination of sequence analysis, Southern blotting, and DNA-mediated transformation with cloned genes, we demonstrate that different B loci may share alleles of one or two groups of genes. This is consistent with the prediction that the three subgroups of genes are functionally redundant and that it is the different combinations of their alleles that generate the multiple B mating specificities found in nature. The B42 locus was found to contain an additional gene, mfs1, that encodes a putative multidrug transporter belonging to the major facilitator family. In strains with other B mating specificities, this gene, whose functional significance was not established, lies in a region of shared homology flanking the B locus. PMID:10757757

  3. Linkage analysis of candidate myelin genes in familial multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Seboun, E; Oksenberg, J R; Rombos, A; Usuku, K; Goodkin, D E; Lincoln, R R; Wong, M; Pham-Dinh, D; Boesplug-Tanguy, O; Carsique, R; Fitoussi, R; Gartioux, C; Reyes, C; Ribierre, F; Faure, S; Fizames, C; Gyapay, G; Weissenbach, J; Dautigny, A; Rimmler, J B; Garcia, M E; Pericak-Vance, M A; Haines, J L; Hauser, S L

    1999-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. A complex genetic etiology is thought to underlie susceptibility to this disease. The present study was designed to analyze whether differences in genes that encode myelin proteins influence susceptibility to MS. We performed linkage analysis of MS to markers in chromosomal regions that include the genes encoding myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMGP), and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in a well-characterized population of 65 multiplex MS families consisting of 399 total individuals, 169 affected with MS and 102 affected sibpairs. Physical mapping data permitted placement of MAG and PLP genes on the Genethon genetic map; all other genes were mapped on the Genethon genetic map by linkage analysis. For each gene, at least one marker within the gene and/or two tightly linked flanking markers were analyzed. Marker data analysis employed a combination of genetic trait model-dependent (parametric) and model-independent linkage methods. Results indicate that MAG, MBP, OMGP, and PLP genes do not have a significant genetic effect on susceptibility to MS in this population. As MOG resides within the MHC, a potential role of the MOG gene could not be excluded. PMID:10541588

  4. Whole-Genome Comparison of Two Campylobacter jejuni Isolates of the Same Sequence Type Reveals Multiple Loci of Different Ancestral Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Biggs, Patrick J.; Fearnhead, Paul; Hotter, Grant; Mohan, Vathsala; Collins-Emerson, Julie; Kwan, Errol; Besser, Thomas E.; Cookson, Adrian; Carter, Philip E.; French, Nigel P.

    2011-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni ST-474 is the most important human enteric pathogen in New Zealand, and yet this genotype is rarely found elsewhere in the world. Insight into the evolution of this organism was gained by a whole genome comparison of two ST-474, flaA SVR-14 isolates and other available C. jejuni isolates and genomes. The two isolates were collected from different sources, human (H22082) and retail poultry (P110b), at the same time and from the same geographical location. Solexa sequencing of each isolate resulted in 1.659 Mb (H22082) and 1.656 Mb (P110b) of assembled sequences within 28 (H22082) and 29 (P110b) contigs. We analysed 1502 genes for which we had sequences within both ST-474 isolates and within at least one of 11 C. jejuni reference genomes. Although 94.5% of genes were identical between the two ST-474 isolates, we identified 83 genes that differed by at least one nucleotide, including 55 genes with non-synonymous substitutions. These covered 101 kb and contained 672 point differences. We inferred that 22 (3.3%) of these differences were due to mutation and 650 (96.7%) were imported via recombination. Our analysis estimated 38 recombinant breakpoints within these 83 genes, which correspond to recombination events affecting at least 19 loci regions and gives a tract length estimate of 2 kb. This includes a 12 kb region displaying non-homologous recombination in one of the ST-474 genomes, with the insertion of two genes, including ykgC, a putative oxidoreductase, and a conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function. Furthermore, our analysis indicates that the source of this recombined DNA is more likely to have come from C. jejuni strains that are more closely related to ST-474. This suggests that the rates of recombination and mutation are similar in order of magnitude, but that recombination has been much more important for generating divergence between the two ST-474 isolates. PMID:22096527

  5. Expression profile of telomere-associated genes in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    de la Guardia, Rafael Díaz; Catalina, Purificación; Panero, Julieta; Elosua, Carolina; Pulgarin, Andrés; López, María Belén; Ayllón, Verónica; Ligero, Gertrudis; Slavutsky, Irma; Leone, Paola E

    2012-01-01

    To further contribute to the understanding of multiple myeloma, we have focused our research interests on the mechanisms by which tumour plasma cells have a higher survival rate than normal plasma cells. In this article, we study the expression profile of genes involved in the regulation and protection of telomere length, telomerase activity and apoptosis in samples from patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smouldering multiple myeloma, multiple myeloma (MM) and plasma cell leukaemia (PCL), as well as several human myeloma cell lines (HMCLs). Using conventional cytogenetic and fluorescence in situ hybridization studies, we identified a high number of telomeric associations (TAs). Moreover, telomere length measurements by terminal restriction fragment (TRF) assay showed a shorter mean TRF peak value, with a consistent correlation with the number of TAs. Using gene expression arrays and quantitative PCR we identified the hTERT gene together with 16 other genes directly involved in telomere length maintenance: HSPA9, KRAS, RB1, members of the Small nucleolar ribonucleoproteins family, A/B subfamily of ubiquitously expressed heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, and 14-3-3 family. The expression levels of these genes were even higher than those in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which have unlimited proliferation capacity. In conclusion, the gene signature suggests that MM tumour cells are able to maintain stable short telomere lengths without exceeding the short critical length, allowing cell divisions to continue. We propose that this could be a mechanism contributing to MM tumour cells expansion in the bone marrow (BM). PMID:22947336

  6. Comparison of Multiple Gene Assembly Methods for Metabolic Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chenfeng; Mansoorabadi, Karen; Jeffries, Thomas

    A universal, rapid DNA assembly method for efficient multigene plasmid construction is important for biological research and for optimizing gene expression in industrial microbes. Three different approaches to achieve this goal were evaluated. These included creating long complementary extensions using a uracil-DNA glycosylase technique, overlap extension polymerase chain reaction, and a SfiI-based ligation method. SfiI ligation was the only successful approach for assembling large DNA fragments that contained repeated homologous regions. In addition, the SfiI method has been improved over a similar, previous published technique so that it is more flexible and does not require polymerase chain reaction to incorporate adaptors. In the present study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes TAL1, TKL1, and PYK1 under control of the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase promoter were successfully ligated together using multiple unique SfiI restriction sites. The desired construct was obtained 65% of the time during vector construction using four-piece ligations. The SfiI method consists of three steps: first a SfiI linker vector is constructed, whose multiple cloning site is flanked by two three-base linkers matching the neighboring SfiI linkers on SfiI digestion; second, the linkers are attached to the desired genes by cloning them into SfiI linker vectors; third, the genes flanked by the three-base linkers, are released by SfiI digestion. In the final step, genes of interest are joined together in a simple one-step ligation.

  7. Parallel bacterial evolution within multiple patients identifies candidate pathogenicity genes

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Tami D.; Michel, Jean-Baptiste; Aingaran, Mythili; Potter-Bynoe, Gail; Roux, Damien; Davis, Michael R.; Skurnik, David; Leiby, Nicholas; LiPuma, John J.; Goldberg, Joanna B.; McAdam, Alexander J.; Priebe, Gregory P.; Kishony, Roy

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial pathogens evolve during the infection of their human hosts1-8, but separating adaptive and neutral mutations remains challenging9-11. Here, we identify bacterial genes under adaptive evolution by tracking recurrent patterns of mutations in the same pathogenic strain during the infection of multiple patients. We conducted a retrospective study of a Burkholderia dolosa outbreak among people with cystic fibrosis, sequencing the genomes of 112 isolates collected from 14 individuals over 16 years. We find that 17 bacterial genes acquired non-synonymous mutations in multiple individuals, which indicates parallel adaptive evolution. Mutations in these genes illuminate the genetic basis of important pathogenic phenotypes, including antibiotic resistance and bacterial membrane composition, and implicate oxygen-dependent gene regulation as paramount in lung infections. Several genes have not been previously implicated in pathogenesis, suggesting new therapeutic targets. The identification of parallel molecular evolution suggests key selection forces acting on pathogens within humans and can help predict and prepare for their future evolutionary course. PMID:22081229

  8. Multiple Routes to Subfunctionalization and Gene Duplicate Specialization

    PubMed Central

    Proulx, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Gene duplication is arguably the most significant source of new functional genetic material. A better understanding of the processes that lead to the stable incorporation of gene duplications into the genome is important both because it relates to interspecific differences in genome composition and because it can shed light on why some classes of gene are more prone to duplication than others. Typically, models of gene duplication consider the periods before duplication, during the spread and fixation of a new duplicate, and following duplication as distinct phases without a common underlying selective environment. I consider a scenario where a gene that is initially expressed in multiple contexts can undergo mutations that alter its expression profile or its functional coding sequence. The selective regime that acts on the functional output of the allele copies carried by an individual is constant. If there is a potential selective benefit to having different coding sequences expressed in each context, then, regardless of the constraints on functional variation at the single-locus gene, the waiting time until a gene duplication is incorporated goes down as population size increases. PMID:22143920

  9. Structured association analysis leads to insight into Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene regulation by finding multiple contributing eQTL hotspots associated with functional gene modules

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Association analysis using genome-wide expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) data investigates the effect that genetic variation has on cellular pathways and leads to the discovery of candidate regulators. Traditional analysis of eQTL data via pairwise statistical significance tests or linear regression does not leverage the availability of the structural information of the transcriptome, such as presence of gene networks that reveal correlation and potentially regulatory relationships among the study genes. We employ a new eQTL mapping algorithm, GFlasso, which we have previously developed for sparse structured regression, to reanalyze a genome-wide yeast dataset. GFlasso fully takes into account the dependencies among expression traits to suppress false positives and to enhance the signal/noise ratio. Thus, GFlasso leverages the gene-interaction network to discover the pleiotropic effects of genetic loci that perturb the expression level of multiple (rather than individual) genes, which enables us to gain more power in detecting previously neglected signals that are marginally weak but pleiotropically significant. Results While eQTL hotspots in yeast have been reported previously as genomic regions controlling multiple genes, our analysis reveals additional novel eQTL hotspots and, more interestingly, uncovers groups of multiple contributing eQTL hotspots that affect the expression level of functional gene modules. To our knowledge, our study is the first to report this type of gene regulation stemming from multiple eQTL hotspots. Additionally, we report the results from in-depth bioinformatics analysis for three groups of these eQTL hotspots: ribosome biogenesis, telomere silencing, and retrotransposon biology. We suggest candidate regulators for the functional gene modules that map to each group of hotspots. Not only do we find that many of these candidate regulators contain mutations in the promoter and coding regions of the genes, in the case

  10. Targeted insertions of two exogenous collagen genes into both alleles of their endogenous loci in cultured human cells: the insertions are directed by relatively short fragments containing the promoters and the 5' ends of the genes.

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, A; Smelt, S; Mewar, R; Fertala, A; Sieron, A L; Overhauser, J; Prockop, D J

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that type II procollagen is synthesized by HT-1080 cells that are stably transfected with constructs of the human COL2A1 gene that contain the promoter and 5' end of either the COL2A1 gene or the human COL1A1 gene. Since the host HT-1080 cells were from a human tumor line that synthesizes type IV collagen but not type II or type I procollagen, the results suggested that the constructs were integrated near active enhancers or promoters. Here, however, we demonstrate that a 33-kb construct of the COL2A1 gene containing a 5' fragment from the same gene was inserted into both alleles of the endogenous COL2A1 gene on chromosome 12, apparently by homologous recombination by a nonconservative pathway. In contrast, a similar construct of the COL2A1 gene in which the 5' end was replaced with a 1.9-kb fragment from the 5' end of the COL1A1 gene was inserted into both alleles of the locus for the COL1A1 gene on chromosome 17. Therefore, targeted insertion of the gene construct was not directed by the degree of sequence homology. Instead, it was directed by the relatively short 5' fragment from the COL1A1 gene that contained the promoter and the initially transcribed sequences of the gene. After insertion, both gene constructs were expressed from previously inactive loci. Images PMID:8041796

  11. [Strategies for regulating multiple genes in microbial cell factories].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tianyi; Li, Lixiang; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2010-10-01

    Microbial metabolic engineering and synthetic biology are important disciplines of microbial technology nowadays. Microbial cells are fast growing, easy to be cultivated in large scale, clear in genetic background and convenient in genetic modification. They play an important role in many domains. Microbial cell factory means an artificial microbial metabolic system that can be used in chemical production. The construction of a microbial cell factory needs transferring of multiple genes or a whole metabolic pathway, which may cause some problems such as metabolism imbalance and accumulation of mesostates. This review focuses on the regulation strategies of different levels involving simultaneous engagement of multiple genes. Future perspectives on the development of this domain were also discussed. PMID:21218630

  12. Loci under selection during multiple range expansions of an invasive plant are mostly population specific, but patterns are associated with climate.

    PubMed

    Zenni, Rafael D; Hoban, Sean M

    2015-07-01

    Identifying the genes underlying rapid evolutionary changes, describing their function and ascertaining the environmental pressures that determine fitness are the central elements needed for understanding of evolutionary processes and phenotypic changes that improve the fitness of populations. It has been hypothesized that rapid adaptive changes in new environments may contribute to the rapid spread and success of invasive plants and animals. As yet, studies of adaptation during invasion are scarce, as is knowledge of the genes underlying adaptation, especially in multiple replicated invasions. Here, we quantified how genotype frequencies change during invasions, resulting in rapid evolution of naturalized populations. We used six fully replicated common garden experiments in Brazil where Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) was introduced at the same time, in the same numbers, from the same seed sources, and has formed naturalized populations expanding outward from the plantations. We used a combination of nonparametric, population genetics and multivariate statistics to detect changes in genotype frequencies along each of the six naturalization gradients and their association with climate as well as shifts in allele frequencies compared to the source populations. Results show 25 genes with significant shifts in genotype frequencies. Six genes had shifts in more than one population. Climate explained 25% of the variation in the groups of genes under selection across all locations, but specific genes under strong selection during invasions did not show climate-related convergence. In conclusion, we detected rapid evolutionary changes during invasive range expansions, but the particular gene-level patterns of evolution may be population specific. PMID:25958932

  13. Demographic histories of adaptively diverged riparian and non-riparian species of Ainsliaea (Asteraceae) inferred from coalescent analyses using multiple nuclear loci

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding demographic histories, such as divergence time, patterns of gene flow, and population size changes, in ecologically diverging lineages provide implications for the process and maintenance of population differentiation by ecological adaptation. This study addressed the demographic histories in two independently derived lineages of flood-resistant riparian plants and their non-riparian relatives [Ainsliaea linearis (riparian) and A. apiculata (non-riparian); A. oblonga (riparian) and A. macroclinidioides (non-riparian); Asteraceae] using an isolation-with-migration (IM) model based on variation at 10 nuclear DNA loci. Results The highest posterior probabilities of the divergence time parameters were estimated to be ca. 25,000 years ago for A. linearis and A. apiculata and ca. 9000 years ago for A. oblonga and A. macroclinidioides, although the confidence intervals of the parameters had broad ranges. The likelihood ratio tests detected evidence of historical gene flow between both riparian/non-riparian species pairs. The riparian populations showed lower levels of genetic diversity and a significant reduction in effective population sizes compared to the non-riparian populations and their ancestral populations. Conclusions This study showed the recent origins of flood-resistant riparian plants, which are remarkable examples of plant ecological adaptation. The recent divergence and genetic signatures of historical gene flow among riparian/non-riparian species implied that they underwent morphological and ecological differentiation within short evolutionary timescales and have maintained their species boundaries in the face of gene flow. Comparative analyses of adaptive divergence in two sets of riparian/non-riparian lineages suggested that strong natural selection by flooding had frequently reduced the genetic diversity and size of riparian populations through genetic drift, possibly leading to fixation of adaptive traits in riparian

  14. Parallel Recruitment of Multiple Genes into C4 Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Boxall, Susanna F.; Gregory, Richard; Edwards, Erika J.; Hartwell, James; Osborne, Colin P.

    2013-01-01

    During the diversification of living organisms, novel adaptive traits usually evolve through the co-option of preexisting genes. However, most enzymes are encoded by gene families, whose members vary in their expression and catalytic properties. Each may therefore differ in its suitability for recruitment into a novel function. In this work, we test for the presence of such a gene recruitment bias using the example of C4 photosynthesis, a complex trait that evolved recurrently in flowering plants as a response to atmospheric CO2 depletion. We combined the analysis of complete nuclear genomes and high-throughput transcriptome data for three grass species that evolved the C4 trait independently. For five of the seven enzymes analyzed, the same gene lineage was recruited across the independent C4 origins, despite the existence of multiple copies. The analysis of a closely related C3 grass confirmed that C4 expression patterns were not present in the C3 ancestors but were acquired during the evolutionary transition to C4 photosynthesis. The significant bias in gene recruitment indicates that some genes are more suitable for a novel function, probably because the mutations they accumulated brought them closer to the characteristics required for the new function. PMID:24179135

  15. Evidence that a secondary metabolic biosynthetic gene cluster has grown by gene relocation during evolution of the filamentous fungus Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Robert H; McCormick, Susan P; Alexander, Nancy J; Desjardins, Anne E

    2009-12-01

    Trichothecenes are terpene-derived secondary metabolites produced by multiple genera of filamentous fungi, including many plant pathogenic species of Fusarium. These metabolites are of interest because they are toxic to animals and plants and can contribute to pathogenesis of Fusarium on some crop species. Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides have trichothecene biosynthetic genes (TRI) at three loci: a 12-gene TRI cluster and two smaller TRI loci that consist of one or two genes. Here, comparisons of additional Fusarium species have provided evidence that TRI loci have a complex evolutionary history that has included loss, non-functionalization and rearrangement of genes as well as trans-species polymorphism. The results also indicate that the TRI cluster has expanded in some species by relocation of two genes into it from the smaller loci. Thus, evolutionary forces have driven consolidation of TRI genes into fewer loci in some fusaria but have maintained three distinct TRI loci in others. PMID:19843228

  16. Genes within the Idd5 and Idd9/11 Diabetes Susceptibility Loci affect the Pathogenic Activity of B-cells in NOD mice1

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Pablo A.; Chapman, Harold D.; Stolp, Jessica; Johnson, Ellis; Cox, S. Lewis; Hunter, Kara; Wicker, Linda S.; Serreze, David V.

    2010-01-01

    Autoreactive T-cells clearly mediate the pancreatic β cell destruction causing Type 1 diabetes (T1D)2. However, studies in NOD mice indicate that B-cells also contribute to pathogenesis since their ablation by introduction of an Igμnull mutation elicits T1D resistance. T1D susceptibility is restored in NOD.Igμnull mice that are irradiated and reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow (SBM) plus NOD B-cells, but not SBM alone. Thus, we hypothesized some non-MHC T1D susceptibility (Idd) genes contribute to disease by allowing development of pathogenic B-cells. Supporting this hypothesis was the finding, that unlike those from NOD donors, engraftment with B-cells from H2g7 MHC matched, but T1D-resistant, NOR mice failed to restore full disease susceptibility in NOD.Igμnull recipients. T1D resistance in NOR mice is mainly encoded within the Idd13, Idd5.2 and Idd9/11 loci. B-cells from NOD congenic stocks containing Idd9/11 or Idd5.1/5.2 resistance loci respectively derived from the NOR or C57BL/10 strains were characterized by suppressed diabetogenic activity. Immature autoreactive B-cells in NOD mice have an impaired ability to be rendered anergic upon antigen engagement. Interestingly, both Idd5.1/5.2 and Idd9/11 resistance loci were found to normalize this B-cell tolerogenic process, which may represent a mechanism contributing to the inhibition of T1D. PMID:17082619

  17. Inference of gene interaction networks using conserved subsequential patterns from multiple time course gene expression datasets

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Motivation Deciphering gene interaction networks (GINs) from time-course gene expression (TCGx) data is highly valuable to understand gene behaviors (e.g., activation, inhibition, time-lagged causality) at the system level. Existing methods usually use a global or local proximity measure to infer GINs from a single dataset. As the noise contained in a single data set is hardly self-resolved, the results are sometimes not reliable. Also, these proximity measurements cannot handle the co-existence of the various in vivo positive, negative and time-lagged gene interactions. Methods and results We propose to infer reliable GINs from multiple TCGx datasets using a novel conserved subsequential pattern of gene expression. A subsequential pattern is a maximal subset of genes sharing positive, negative or time-lagged correlations of one expression template on their own subsets of time points. Based on these patterns, a GIN can be built from each of the datasets. It is assumed that reliable gene interactions would be detected repeatedly. We thus use conserved gene pairs from the individual GINs of the multiple TCGx datasets to construct a reliable GIN for a species. We apply our method on six TCGx datasets related to yeast cell cycle, and validate the reliable GINs using protein interaction networks, biopathways and transcription factor-gene regulations. We also compare the reliable GINs with those GINs reconstructed by a global proximity measure Pearson correlation coefficient method from single datasets. It has been demonstrated that our reliable GINs achieve much better prediction performance especially with much higher precision. The functional enrichment analysis also suggests that gene sets in a reliable GIN are more functionally significant. Our method is especially useful to decipher GINs from multiple TCGx datasets related to less studied organisms where little knowledge is available except gene expression data. PMID:26681650

  18. Discovery of new risk loci for IgA nephropathy implicates genes involved in immunity against intestinal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Li, Yifu; Scolari, Francesco; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Choi, Murim; Verbitsky, Miguel; Fasel, David; Lata, Sneh; Prakash, Sindhuri; Shapiro, Samantha; Fischman, Clara; Snyder, Holly J; Appel, Gerald; Izzi, Claudia; Viola, Battista Fabio; Dallera, Nadia; Del Vecchio, Lucia; Barlassina, Cristina; Salvi, Erika; Bertinetto, Francesca Eleonora; Amoroso, Antonio; Savoldi, Silvana; Rocchietti, Marcella; Amore, Alessandro; Peruzzi, Licia; Coppo, Rosanna; Salvadori, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Magistroni, Riccardo; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Caridi, Gianluca; Bodria, Monica; Lugani, Francesca; Allegri, Landino; Delsante, Marco; Maiorana, Mariarosa; Magnano, Andrea; Frasca, Giovanni; Boer, Emanuela; Boscutti, Giuliano; Ponticelli, Claudio; Mignani, Renzo; Marcantoni, Carmelita; Di Landro, Domenico; Santoro, Domenico; Pani, Antonello; Polci, Rosaria; Feriozzi, Sandro; Chicca, Silvana; Galliani, Marco; Gigante, Maddalena; Gesualdo, Loreto; Zamboli, Pasquale; Battaglia, Giovanni Giorgio; Garozzo, Maurizio; Maixnerová, Dita; Tesar, Vladimir; Eitner, Frank; Rauen, Thomas; Floege, Jürgen; Kovacs, Tibor; Nagy, Judit; Mucha, Krzysztof; Pączek, Leszek; Zaniew, Marcin; Mizerska-Wasiak, Małgorzata; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Pawlaczyk, Krzysztof; Gale, Daniel; Barratt, Jonathan; Thibaudin, Lise; Berthoux, Francois; Canaud, Guillaume; Boland, Anne; Metzger, Marie; Panzer, Ulf; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Goto, Shin; Narita, Ichiei; Caliskan, Yasar; Xie, Jingyuan; Hou, Ping; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Hong; Wyatt, Robert J; Novak, Jan; Julian, Bruce A; Feehally, John; Stengel, Benedicte; Cusi, Daniele; Lifton, Richard P; Gharavi, Ali G

    2014-11-01

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common form of glomerulonephritis, with discovery and follow-up in 20,612 individuals of European and East Asian ancestry. We identified six new genome-wide significant associations, four in ITGAM-ITGAX, VAV3 and CARD9 and two new independent signals at HLA-DQB1 and DEFA. We replicated the nine previously reported signals, including known SNPs in the HLA-DQB1 and DEFA loci. The cumulative burden of risk alleles is strongly associated with age at disease onset. Most loci are either directly associated with risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or maintenance of the intestinal epithelial barrier and response to mucosal pathogens. The geospatial distribution of risk alleles is highly suggestive of multi-locus adaptation, and genetic risk correlates strongly with variation in local pathogens, particularly helminth diversity, suggesting a possible role for host-intestinal pathogen interactions in shaping the genetic landscape of IgAN. PMID:25305756

  19. Discovery of new risk loci for IgA nephropathy implicates genes involved in immunity against intestinal pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kiryluk, Krzysztof; Li, Yifu; Scolari, Francesco; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Choi, Murim; Verbitsky, Miguel; Fasel, David; Lata, Sneh; Prakash, Sindhuri; Shapiro, Samantha; Fischman, Clara; Snyder, Holly J.; Appel, Gerald; Izzi, Claudia; Viola, Battista Fabio; Dallera, Nadia; Vecchio, Lucia Del; Barlassina, Cristina; Salvi, Erika; Bertinetto, Francesca Eleonora; Amoroso, Antonio; Savoldi, Silvana; Rocchietti, Marcella; Amore, Alessandro; Peruzzi, Licia; Coppo, Rosanna; Salvadori, Maurizio; Ravani, Pietro; Magistroni, Riccardo; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco; Caridi, Gianluca; Bodria, Monica; Lugani, Francesca; Allegri, Landino; Delsante, Marco; Maiorana, Mariarosa; Magnano, Andrea; Frasca, Giovanni; Boer, Emanuela; Boscutti, Giuliano; Ponticelli, Claudio; Mignani, Renzo; Marcantoni, Carmelita; Di Landro, Domenico; Santoro, Domenico; Pani, Antonello; Polci, Rosaria; Feriozzi, Sandro; Chicca, Silvana; Galliani, Marco; Gigante, Maddalena; Gesualdo, Loreto; Zamboli, Pasquale; Maixnerová, Dita; Tesar, Vladimir; Eitner, Frank; Rauen, Thomas; Floege, Jürgen; Kovacs, Tibor; Nagy, Judit; Mucha, Krzysztof; Pączek, Leszek; Zaniew, Marcin; Mizerska-Wasiak, Małgorzata; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Pawlaczyk, Krzysztof; Gale, Daniel; Barratt, Jonathan; Thibaudin, Lise; Berthoux, Francois; Canaud, Guillaume; Boland, Anne; Metzger, Marie; Panzer, Ulf; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Goto, Shin; Narita, Ichiei; Caliskan, Yasar; Xie, Jingyuan; Hou, Ping; Chen, Nan; Zhang, Hong; Wyatt, Robert J.; Novak, Jan; Julian, Bruce A.; Feehally, John; Stengel, Benedicte; Cusi, Daniele; Lifton, Richard P.; Gharavi, Ali G.

    2014-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common form of glomerulonephritis, with discovery and follow-up in 20,612 individuals of European and East Asian ancestry. We identified six novel genome-wide significant associations, four in ITGAM-ITGAX, VAV3 and CARD9 and two new independent signals at HLA-DQB1 and DEFA. We replicated the nine previously reported signals, including known SNPs in the HLA-DQB1 and DEFA loci. The cumulative burden of risk alleles is strongly associated with age at disease onset. Most loci are either directly associated with risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or maintenance of the intestinal epithelial barrier and response to mucosal pathogens. The geo-spatial distribution of risk alleles is highly suggestive of multi-locus adaptation and the genetic risk correlates strongly with variation in local pathogens, particularly helminth diversity, suggesting a possible role for host-intestinal pathogen interactions in shaping the genetic landscape of IgAN. PMID:25305756

  20. SHC2 gene copy number in multiple system atrophy (MSA)

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Marcus C.; Garland, Emily M.; Hedges, Lora; Womack-Nunley, Bethany; Hamid, Rizwan; Phillips, John A.; Shibao, Cyndya A.; Raj, Satish R.; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic, late onset, rapidly-progressing neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by autonomic failure, together with parkinsonian, cerebellar, and pyramidal motor symptoms. The pathologic hallmark is the glial cytoplasmic inclusion with alpha-synuclein aggregates. MSA is thus an alpha synucleinopathy. Recently, Sasaki et al. reported that heterozygosity for copy number loss of Src homology 2 domain containing-transforming protein 2 (SHC2) genes (heterozygous SHC2 gene deletions) occurred in DNAs from many Japanese individuals with MSA. Because background copy number variation (CNV) can be distinct in different human populations, we assessed SHC2 allele copy number in DNAs from a US cohort of individuals with MSA, to determine the contribution of SHC2 gene copy number variation in an American cohort followed at a US referral center for MSA. Our cohort included 105 carefully phenotyped individuals with MSA. Methods We studied 105 well characterized patients with MSA and 5 control subjects with reduced SHC2 gene copy number. We used two TaqMan Gene Copy Number Assays, to determine the copy number of two segments of the SHC2 gene that are separated by 27 Kb. Results Assay results of DNAs from all of our 105 subjects with MSA showed two copies of both segments of their SHC2 genes. Conclusion Our results indicate that SHC2 gene deletions underlie few, if any, cases of well characterized MSA in the US population. This is in contrast to the Japanese experience reported by Sasaki et al., likely reflecting heterogeneity of the disease in different genetic backgrounds. PMID:24170347

  1. Pristane-Induced Arthritis Loci Interact with the Slc11a1 Gene to Determine Susceptibility in Mice Selected for High Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    De Franco, Marcelo; Peters, Luciana C.; Correa, Mara A.; Galvan, Antonella; Canhamero, Tatiane; Borrego, Andrea; Jensen, José R.; Gonçalves, Jussara; Cabrera, Wafa H. K.; Starobinas, Nancy; Ribeiro, Orlando G.; Dragani, Tommaso; Ibañez, Olga M.

    2014-01-01

    AIRmax (maximal inflammation) and AIRmin (minimal inflammation) mice show distinct susceptibilities to pristane-induced arthritis (PIA). The Slc11a1 gene, which regulates macrophage and neutrophil activity, is involved in this infirmity. AIRmaxSS mice homozygous for the non-functional Slc11a1 S (gly169asp) allele obtained by genotype-assisted crosses from AIRmax and AIRmin mice are more susceptible than mice homozygous for the Slc11a1 resistant (R) allele. The present work sought to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulating PIA and to examine the interactions of these QTL with Slc11a1 alleles in modulating PIA. Mice were given two ip injections of 0.5 mL pristane at 60 day intervals, and the incidence and severity of PIA was scored up to 160 days. Genome-wide linkage studies were performed to search for arthritis QTL in an F2 (AIRmax × AIRmin, n = 290) population. Significant arthritis QTL (LODscore>4) were detected on chromosomes 5 and 8, and suggestive QTL on chromosomes 7, 17 and 19. Global gene expression analyses performed on Affymetrix mouse 1.0 ST bioarrays (27k genes) using RNA from arthritic or control mice paws showed 419 differentially expressed genes between AIRmax and AIRmin mice and demonstrated significantly (P<0.001) over-represented genes related to inflammatory responses and chemotaxis. Up-regulation of the chemokine genes Cxcl1, Cxcl9, Cxcl5, Cxcl13 on chromosome 5 was higher in AIRmaxSS than in the other lines. Macrophage scavenger receptor 1 and hemeoxigenase (decycling) 1 genes on chromosome 8 were also expressed at higher levels in AIRmaxSS mice. Our results show that the gene expression profiles of the two arthritis QTL (on chromosomes 5 and 8) correlate with Slc11a1 alleles, resulting in enhanced AIRmaxSS mice susceptibility to PIA. PMID:24505471

  2. Pristane-induced arthritis loci interact with the Slc11a1 gene to determine susceptibility in mice selected for high inflammation.

    PubMed

    De Franco, Marcelo; Peters, Luciana C; Correa, Mara A; Galvan, Antonella; Canhamero, Tatiane; Borrego, Andrea; Jensen, José R; Gonçalves, Jussara; Cabrera, Wafa H K; Starobinas, Nancy; Ribeiro, Orlando G; Dragani, Tommaso A; Dragani, Tommaso; Ibañez, Olga M

    2014-01-01

    AIRmax (maximal inflammation) and AIRmin (minimal inflammation) mice show distinct susceptibilities to pristane-induced arthritis (PIA). The Slc11a1 gene, which regulates macrophage and neutrophil activity, is involved in this infirmity. AIRmax (SS) mice homozygous for the non-functional Slc11a1 S (gly169asp) allele obtained by genotype-assisted crosses from AIRmax and AIRmin mice are more susceptible than mice homozygous for the Slc11a1 resistant (R) allele. The present work sought to identify the quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulating PIA and to examine the interactions of these QTL with Slc11a1 alleles in modulating PIA. Mice were given two ip injections of 0.5 mL pristane at 60 day intervals, and the incidence and severity of PIA was scored up to 160 days. Genome-wide linkage studies were performed to search for arthritis QTL in an F2 (AIRmax × AIRmin, n = 290) population. Significant arthritis QTL (LODscore>4) were detected on chromosomes 5 and 8, and suggestive QTL on chromosomes 7, 17 and 19. Global gene expression analyses performed on Affymetrix mouse 1.0 ST bioarrays (27k genes) using RNA from arthritic or control mice paws showed 419 differentially expressed genes between AIRmax and AIRmin mice and demonstrated significantly (P<0.001) over-represented genes related to inflammatory responses and chemotaxis. Up-regulation of the chemokine genes Cxcl1, Cxcl9, Cxcl5, Cxcl13 on chromosome 5 was higher in AIRmax(SS) than in the other lines. Macrophage scavenger receptor 1 and hemeoxigenase (decycling) 1 genes on chromosome 8 were also expressed at higher levels in AIRmax(SS) mice. Our results show that the gene expression profiles of the two arthritis QTL (on chromosomes 5 and 8) correlate with Slc11a1 alleles, resulting in enhanced AIRmax(SS) mice susceptibility to PIA. PMID:24505471

  3. Genomic organization and gene expression of the multiple globins in Atlantic cod: conservation of globin-flanking genes in chordates infers the origin of the vertebrate globin clusters

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The vertebrate globin genes encoding the α- and β-subunits of the tetrameric hemoglobins are clustered at two unlinked loci. The highly conserved linear order of the genes flanking the hemoglobins provides a strong anchor for inferring common ancestry of the globin clusters. In fish, the number of α-β-linked globin genes varies considerably between different sublineages and seems to be related to prevailing physico-chemical conditions. Draft sequences of the Atlantic cod genome enabled us to determine the genomic organization of the globin repertoire in this marine species that copes with fluctuating environments of the temperate and Arctic regions. Results The Atlantic cod genome was shown to contain 14 globin genes, including nine hemoglobin genes organized in two unlinked clusters designated β5-α1-β1-α4 and β3-β4-α2-α3-β2. The diverged cod hemoglobin genes displayed different expression levels in adult fish, and tetrameric hemoglobins with or without a Root effect were predicted. The novel finding of maternally inherited hemoglobin mRNAs is consistent with a potential role played by fish hemoglobins in the non-specific immune response. In silico analysis of the six teleost genomes available showed that the two α-β globin clusters are flanked by paralogs of five duplicated genes, in agreement with the proposed teleost-specific duplication of the ancestral vertebrate globin cluster. Screening the genome of extant urochordate and cephalochordate species for conserved globin-flanking genes revealed linkage of RHBDF1, MPG and ARHGAP17 to globin genes in the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, while these genes together with LCMT are closely positioned in amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae), but seem to be unlinked to the multiple globin genes identified in this species. Conclusion The plasticity of Atlantic cod to variable environmental conditions probably involves the expression of multiple globins with potentially different properties. The

  4. Screening of candidate genes and fine mapping of drought tolerance quantitative trait loci on chromosome 4 in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Nie, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Wu, Yun-Hua; Liu, Hao-Jie; Mao, Wei-Wei; Du, Juan; Xiu, Hai-Lin; Wu, Xiao-Yu; Li, Xia; Yan, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Lan; Liu, Hong-Yan; Hu, Song-Ping

    2015-11-01

    Due to severe water resource shortage, genetics of and breeding for DT (drought tolerance) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) have become one of the hot research topics. Identification of grain yield QTLs (quantitative trait loci) directly related to the DT trait of rice can provide useful information for breeding new drought-resistant and water-saving rice varieties via marker-assisted selection. A population of 105 advanced BILs (backcross introgression lines) derived from a cross between Zhenshan97B and IRAT109 in Zhenshan97B background were grown under drought stress in a field experiment and phenotypic traits were investigated. The results showed that in the target interval of RM273-RM255 on chromosome 4, three main-effect QTLs related to panicle length, panicle number, and spikelet number per panicle were identified (LOD [logarithm of the odds] > 2.0). The panicle length-related QTL had two loci located in the neighboring intervals of RM17308-RM17305 and RM17349-RM17190, which explained 18.80% and 20.42%, respectively, of the phenotypic variation, while the panicle number-related QTL was identified in the interval of RM1354-RM17308, explaining 11.47% of the phenotypic variation. As far as the spikelet number per panicle-related QTL was concerned, it was found to be located in the interval of RM17308-RM17305, which explained 28.08% of the phenotypic variation. Using the online Plant-GE query system, a total of 13 matched ESTs (expressed sequence tags) were found in the target region, and of the 13 ESTs, 12 had corresponding predicted genes. For instance, the two ESTs CB096766 and CA765747 were corresponded to the same predicted gene LOC_Os04g46370, while the other four ESTs, CA754286, CB000011, CX056247, and CX056240, were corresponded to the same predicted gene LOC_Os04g46390. PMID:26640678

  5. Resistance gene enrichment sequencing (RenSeq) enables reannotation of the NB-LRR gene family from sequenced plant genomes and rapid mapping of resistance loci in segregating populations.

    PubMed

    Jupe, Florian; Witek, Kamil; Verweij, Walter; Sliwka, Jadwiga; Pritchard, Leighton; Etherington, Graham J; Maclean, Dan; Cock, Peter J; Leggett, Richard M; Bryan, Glenn J; Cardle, Linda; Hein, Ingo; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2013-11-01

    RenSeq is a NB-LRR (nucleotide binding-site leucine-rich repeat) gene-targeted, Resistance gene enrichment and sequencing method that enables discovery and annotation of pathogen resistance gene family members in plant genome sequences. We successfully applied RenSeq to the sequenced potato Solanum tuberosum clone DM, and increased the number of identified NB-LRRs from 438 to 755. The majority of these identified R gene loci reside in poorly or previously unannotated regions of the genome. Sequence and positional details on the 12 chromosomes have been established for 704 NB-LRRs and can be accessed through a genome browser that we provide. We compared these NB-LRR genes and the corresponding oligonucleotide baits with the highest sequence similarity and demonstrated that ~80% sequence identity is sufficient for enrichment. Analysis of the sequenced tomato S. lycopersicum 'Heinz 1706' extended the NB-LRR complement to 394 loci. We further describe a methodology that applies RenSeq to rapidly identify molecular markers that co-segregate with a pathogen resistance trait of interest. In two independent segregating populations involving the wild Solanum species S. berthaultii (Rpi-ber2) and S. ruiz-ceballosii (Rpi-rzc1), we were able to apply RenSeq successfully to identify markers that co-segregate with resistance towards the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. These SNP identification workflows were designed as easy-to-adapt Galaxy pipelines. PMID:23937694

  6. Bacterial evolution through the selective loss of beneficial Genes. Trade-offs in expression involving two loci.

    PubMed Central

    Zinser, Erik R; Schneider, Dominique; Blot, Michel; Kolter, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    The loss of preexisting genes or gene activities during evolution is a major mechanism of ecological specialization. Evolutionary processes that can account for gene loss or inactivation have so far been restricted to one of two mechanisms: direct selection for the loss of gene activities that are disadvantageous under the conditions of selection (i.e., antagonistic pleiotropy) and selection-independent genetic drift of neutral (or nearly neutral) mutations (i.e., mutation accumulation). In this study we demonstrate with an evolved strain of Escherichia coli that a third, distinct mechanism exists by which gene activities can be lost. This selection-dependent mechanism involves the expropriation of one gene's upstream regulatory element by a second gene via a homologous recombination event. Resulting from this genetic exchange is the activation of the second gene and a concomitant inactivation of the first gene. This gene-for-gene expression tradeoff provides a net fitness gain, even if the forfeited activity of the first gene can play a positive role in fitness under the conditions of selection. PMID:12930738

  7. René Stet's impact on the study of teleost major histocompatibility genes: evolution from loci to populations.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Brian

    2008-02-01

    René Josephus Maria Stet pursued a 35-year-long scientific career contributing to human immunology, shrimp immunity and teleost immunity. His most significant contributions, however, were to the field of teleost major histocompatibility (MH) gene research from 1988 to 2007, a field in which he was a leader and an innovator. This review will discuss his work on these genes, highlighting the impact he had in three temporally overlapping phases of his career that can be characterized as MH gene discovery, MH gene function and evolution and population dynamics of teleost MH genes. PMID:18193417

  8. A Candy Gene Game for Teaching Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Roxanne H.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a genetic game that allows students to construct a human face as determined by the random selection of alleles from a gene pool. Can be used to teach the concepts of chromosome inheritance, dominance, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles, multiple loci, independent assortment, multiple gene traits, and evolution. (JRH)

  9. Adaptive Horizontal Gene Transfers between Multiple Cheese-Associated Fungi.

    PubMed

    Ropars, Jeanne; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Gouzy, Jérôme; Sallet, Erika; Dumas, Émilie; Lacoste, Sandrine; Debuchy, Robert; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-10-01

    Domestication is an excellent model for studies of adaptation because it involves recent and strong selection on a few, identified traits [1-5]. Few studies have focused on the domestication of fungi, with notable exceptions [6-11], despite their importance to bioindustry [12] and to a general understanding of adaptation in eukaryotes [5]. Penicillium fungi are ubiquitous molds among which two distantly related species have been independently selected for cheese making-P. roqueforti for blue cheeses like Roquefort and P. camemberti for soft cheeses like Camembert. The selected traits include morphology, aromatic profile, lipolytic and proteolytic activities, and ability to grow at low temperatures, in a matrix containing bacterial and fungal competitors [13-15]. By comparing the genomes of ten Penicillium species, we show that adaptation to cheese was associated with multiple recent horizontal transfers of large genomic regions carrying crucial metabolic genes. We identified seven horizontally transferred regions (HTRs) spanning more than 10 kb each, flanked by specific transposable elements, and displaying nearly 100% identity between distant Penicillium species. Two HTRs carried genes with functions involved in the utilization of cheese nutrients or competition and were found nearly identical in multiple strains and species of cheese-associated Penicillium fungi, indicating recent selective sweeps; they were experimentally associated with faster growth and greater competitiveness on cheese and contained genes highly expressed in the early stage of cheese maturation. These findings have industrial and food safety implications and improve our understanding of the processes of adaptation to rapid environmental changes. PMID:26412136

  10. Gene Duplication within the Family Salmonidae: Disomic Inheritance of Two Loci Reported to Be Tetrasomic in Rainbow Trout

    PubMed Central

    Allendorf, Frederick W.; Utter, Fred M.

    1973-01-01

    We describe our studies of the genetics of allelic variation for NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Five populations of rainbow trout were studied to determine the phenotypic distribution of IDH; 453 progeny from a number of controlled matings were examined to determine the nature of inheritance of these alleles. The variation was found to be the result of four alleles producing protein subunits of differing electrophoretic mobilities. Progeny from crosses clearly demonstrated the presence of two disomic loci controlling the variation, rather than one tetrasomic locus as had been previously reported. These findings support our contention that the hypothesis of a tetraploid event in salmonid evolution should not be uncritically accepted. PMID:17248635

  11. Walking on multiple disease-gene networks to prioritize candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Uncovering causal genes for human inherited diseases, as the primary step toward understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases, requires a combined analysis of genetic and genomic data. Although bioinformatics methods have been designed to prioritize candidate genes resulting from genetic linkage analysis or association studies, the coverage of both diseases and genes in existing methods is quite limited, thereby preventing the scan of causal genes for a significant proportion of diseases at the whole-genome level. To overcome this limitation, we propose a method named pgWalk to prioritize candidate genes by integrating multiple phenomic and genomic data. We derive three types of phenotype similarities among 7719 diseases and nine types of functional similarities among 20327 genes. Based on a pair of phenotype and gene similarities, we construct a disease-gene network and then simulate the process that a random walker wanders on such a heterogeneous network to quantify the strength of association between a candidate gene and a query disease. A weighted version of the Fisher's method with dependent correction is adopted to integrate 27 scores obtained in this way, and a final q-value is calibrated for prioritizing candidate genes. A series of validation experiments are conducted to demonstrate the superior performance of this approach. We further show the effectiveness of this method in exome sequencing studies of autism and epileptic encephalopathies. An online service and the standalone software of pgWalk can be found at http://bioinfo.au.tsinghua.edu.cn/jianglab/pgwalk. PMID:25681405

  12. Susceptibility Genes for Multiple Sclerosis Identified in a Gene-Based Genome-Wide Association Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiang; Deng, Fei-Yan; Lu, Xin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. The aim of this study was to identify more genes associated with MS. Methods Based on the publicly available data of the single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) from the database of Genotypes and Phenotypes, we conducted a powerful gene-based GWAS in an initial sample with 931 family trios, and a replication study sample with 978 cases and 883 controls. For interesting genes, gene expression in MS-related cells between MS cases and controls was examined by using publicly available datasets. Results A total of 58 genes was identified, including 20 "novel" genes significantly associated with MS (p<1.40×10-4). In the replication study, 44 of the 58 identified genes had been genotyped and 35 replicated the association. In the gene-expression study, 21 of the 58 identified genes exhibited differential expressions in MS-related cells. Thus, 15 novel genes were supported by replicated association and/or differential expression. In particular, four of the novel genes, those encoding myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), coiled-coil alpha-helical rod protein 1 (CCHCR1), human leukocyte antigen complex group 22 (HCG22), and major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM alpha (HLA-DMA), were supported by the evidence of both. Conclusions The results of this study emphasize the high power of gene-based GWAS in detecting the susceptibility genes of MS. The novel genes identified herein may provide new insights into the molecular genetic mechanisms underlying MS. PMID:26320842

  13. Identification of five novel modifier loci of ApcMin harbored in the BXH14 recombinant inbred strain

    PubMed Central

    Siracusa, Linda D.

    2012-01-01

    Every year thousands of people in the USA are diagnosed with small intestine and colorectal cancers (CRC). Although environmental factors affect disease etiology, uncovering underlying genetic factors is imperative for risk assessment and developing preventative therapies. Familial adenomatous polyposis is a heritable genetic disorder in which individuals carry germ-line mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene that predisposes them to CRC. The Apc Min mouse model carries a point mutation in the Apc gene and develops polyps along the intestinal tract. Inbred strain background influences polyp phenotypes in Apc Min mice. Several Modifier of Min (Mom) loci that alter tumor phenotypes associated with the Apc Min mutation have been identified to date. We screened BXH recombinant inbred (RI) strains by crossing BXH RI females with C57BL/6J (B6) Apc Min males and quantitating tumor phenotypes in backcross progeny. We found that the BXH14 RI strain harbors five modifier loci that decrease polyp multiplicity. Furthermore, we show that resistance is determined by varying combinations of these modifier loci. Gene interaction network analysis shows that there are multiple networks with proven gene–gene interactions, which contain genes from all five modifier loci. We discuss the implications of this result for studies that define susceptibility loci, namely that multiple networks may be acting concurrently to alter tumor phenotypes. Thus, the significance of this work resides not only with the modifier loci we identified but also with the combinations of loci needed to get maximal protection against polyposis and the impact of this finding on human disease studies. Abbreviations:APCadenomatous polyposis coliGWASgenome-wide association studiesQTLquantitative trait lociSNPsingle-nucleotide polymorphism. PMID:22637734

  14. Prostate cancer risk locus at 8q24 as a regulatory hub by physical interactions with multiple genomic loci across the genome

    PubMed Central

    Du, Meijun; Yuan, Tiezheng; Schilter, Kala F.; Dittmar, Rachel L.; Mackinnon, Alexander; Huang, Xiaoyi; Tschannen, Michael; Worthey, Elizabeth; Jacob, Howard; Xia, Shu; Gao, Jianzhong; Tillmans, Lori; Lu, Yan; Liu, Pengyuan; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Wang, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome 8q24 locus contains regulatory variants that modulate genetic risk to various cancers including prostate cancer (PC). However, the biological mechanism underlying this regulation is not well understood. Here, we developed a chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based multi-target sequencing technology and systematically examined three PC risk regions at the 8q24 locus and their potential regulatory targets across human genome in six cell lines. We observed frequent physical contacts of this risk locus with multiple genomic regions, in particular, inter-chromosomal interaction with CD96 at 3q13 and intra-chromosomal interaction with MYC at 8q24. We identified at least five interaction hot spots within the predicted functional regulatory elements at the 8q24 risk locus. We also found intra-chromosomal interaction genes PVT1, FAM84B and GSDMC and inter-chromosomal interaction gene CXorf36 in most of the six cell lines. Other gene regions appeared to be cell line-specific, such as RRP12 in LNCaP, USP14 in DU-145 and SMIN3 in lymphoblastoid cell line. We further found that the 8q24 functional domains more likely interacted with genomic regions containing genes enriched in critical pathways such as Wnt signaling and promoter motifs such as E2F1 and TCF3. This result suggests that the risk locus may function as a regulatory hub by physical interactions with multiple genes important for prostate carcinogenesis. Further understanding genetic effect and biological mechanism of these chromatin interactions will shed light on the newly discovered regulatory role of the risk locus in PC etiology and progression. PMID:25149474

  15. Gene expression in self-repressing system with multiple gene copies.

    PubMed

    Miekisz, Jacek; Szymańska, Paulina

    2013-02-01

    We analyze a simple model of a self-repressing system with multiple gene copies. Protein molecules may bound to DNA promoters and block their own transcription. We derive analytical expressions for the variance of the number of protein molecules in the stationary state in the self-consistent mean-field approximation. We show that the Fano factor (the variance divided by the mean value) is bigger for the one-gene case than for two gene copies and the difference decreases to zero as frequencies of binding and unbinding increase to infinity. PMID:23354928

  16. Functional Analysis of Sirtuin Genes in Multiple Plasmodium falciparum Strains

    PubMed Central

    Merrick, Catherine J.; Jiang, Rays H. Y.; Skillman, Kristen M.; Samarakoon, Upeka; Moore, Rachel M.; Dzikowski, Ron; Ferdig, Michael T.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe human malaria, employs antigenic variation to avoid host immunity. Antigenic variation is achieved by transcriptional switching amongst polymorphic var genes, enforced by epigenetic modification of chromatin. The histone-modifying ‘sirtuin’ enzymes PfSir2a and PfSir2b have been implicated in this process. Disparate patterns of var expression have been reported in patient isolates as well as in cultured strains. We examined var expression in three commonly used laboratory strains (3D7, NF54 and FCR-3) in parallel. NF54 parasites express significantly lower levels of var genes compared to 3D7, despite the fact that 3D7 was originally a clone of the NF54 strain. To investigate whether this was linked to the expression of sirtuins, genetic disruption of both sirtuins was attempted in all three strains. No dramatic changes in var gene expression occurred in NF54 or FCR-3 following PfSir2b disruption, contrasting with previous observations in 3D7. In 3D7, complementation of the PfSir2a genetic disruption resulted in a significant decrease in previously-elevated var gene expression levels, but with the continued expression of multiple var genes. Finally, rearranged chromosomes were observed in the 3D7 PfSir2a knockout line. Our results focus on the potential for parasite genetic background to contribute to sirtuin function in regulating virulence gene expression and suggest a potential role for sirtuins in maintaining genome integrity. PMID:25780929

  17. Genes from Chagas Susceptibility Loci That Are Differentially Expressed in T. cruzi-Resistant Mice Are Candidates Accounting for Impaired Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Graefe, Sebastian E. B.; Streichert, Thomas; Budde, Birgit S.; Nürnberg, Peter; Steeg, Christiane; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Fleischer, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    Variation between inbred mice of susceptibility to experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection has frequently been described, but the immunogenetic background is poorly understood. The outcross of the susceptible parental mouse strains C57BL/6 (B6) and DBA/2 (D2), B6D2F1 (F1) mice, is highly resistant to this parasite. In the present study we show by quantitative PCR that the increase of tissue parasitism during the early phase of infection is comparable up to day 11 between susceptible B6 and resistant F1 mice. A reduction of splenic parasite burdens occurs thereafter in both strains but is comparatively retarded in susceptible mice. Splenic microarchitecture is progressively disrupted with loss of follicles and B lymphocytes in B6 mice, but not in F1 mice. By genotyping of additional backcross offspring we corroborate our earlier findings that susceptibility maps to three loci on Chromosomes 5, 13 and 17. Analysis of gene expression of spleen cells from infected B6 and F1 mice with microarrays identifies about 0.3% of transcripts that are differentially expressed. Assuming that differential susceptibility is mediated by altered gene expression, we propose that the following differentially expressed transcripts from these loci are strong candidates for the observed phenotypic variation: H2-Eα, H2-D1, Ng23, Msh5 and Tubb5 from Chromosome 17; and Cxcl11, Bmp2k and Spp1 from Chromosome 5. Our results indicate that innate mechanisms are not of primary relevance to resistance of F1 mice to T. cruzi infection, and that differential susceptibility to experimental infection with this protozoan pathogen is not paralleled by extensive variation of the transcriptome. PMID:17183687

  18. Integration of novel SSR and gene-based SNP marker loci in the chickpea genetic map and establishment of new anchor points with Medicago truncatula genome

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Spurthi N.; Zhu, Hongyan; Varghese, Nicy; Datta, Subhojit; Choi, Hong-Kyu; Horres, Ralf; Jüngling, Ruth; Singh, Jagbir; Kavi Kishor, P. B.; Sivaramakrishnan, S.; Hoisington, Dave A.; Kahl, Günter; Winter, Peter; Cook, Douglas R.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents the development and mapping of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in chickpea. The mapping population is based on an inter-specific cross between domesticated and non-domesticated genotypes of chickpea (Cicer arietinum ICC 4958 × C. reticulatum PI 489777). This same population has been the focus of previous studies, permitting integration of new and legacy genetic markers into a single genetic map. We report a set of 311 novel SSR markers (designated ICCM—ICRISAT chickpea microsatellite), obtained from an SSR-enriched genomic library of ICC 4958. Screening of these SSR markers on a diverse panel of 48 chickpea accessions provided 147 polymorphic markers with 2–21 alleles and polymorphic information content value 0.04–0.92. Fifty-two of these markers were polymorphic between parental genotypes of the inter-specific population. We also analyzed 233 previously published (H-series) SSR markers that provided another set of 52 polymorphic markers. An additional 71 gene-based SNP markers were developed from transcript sequences that are highly conserved between chickpea and its near relative Medicago truncatula. By using these three approaches, 175 new marker loci along with 407 previously reported marker loci were integrated to yield an improved genetic map of chickpea. The integrated map contains 521 loci organized into eight linkage groups that span 2,602 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 4.99 cM. Gene-based markers provide anchor points for comparing the genomes of Medicago and chickpea, and reveal extended synteny between these two species. The combined set of genetic markers and their integration into an improved genetic map should facilitate chickpea genetics and breeding, as well as translational studies between chickpea and Medicago. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1265-1) contains supplementary material, which is

  19. Migration and horizontal gene transfer divide microbial genomes into multiple niches.

    PubMed

    Niehus, Rene; Mitri, Sara; Fletcher, Alexander G; Foster, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is central to microbial evolution, because it enables genetic regions to spread horizontally through diverse communities. However, how gene transfer exerts such a strong effect is not understood. Here we develop an eco-evolutionary model and show how genetic transfer, even when rare, can transform the evolution and ecology of microbes. We recapitulate existing models, which suggest that asexual reproduction will overpower horizontal transfer and greatly limit its effects. We then show that allowing immigration completely changes these predictions. With migration, the rates and impacts of horizontal transfer are greatly increased, and transfer is most frequent for loci under positive natural selection. Our analysis explains how ecologically important loci can sweep through competing strains and species. In this way, microbial genomes can evolve to become ecologically diverse where different genomic regions encode for partially overlapping, but distinct, ecologies. Under these conditions ecological species do not exist, because genes, not species, inhabit niches. PMID:26592443

  20. Migration and horizontal gene transfer divide microbial genomes into multiple niches

    PubMed Central

    Niehus, Rene; Mitri, Sara; Fletcher, Alexander G.; Foster, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer is central to microbial evolution, because it enables genetic regions to spread horizontally through diverse communities. However, how gene transfer exerts such a strong effect is not understood. Here we develop an eco-evolutionary model and show how genetic transfer, even when rare, can transform the evolution and ecology of microbes. We recapitulate existing models, which suggest that asexual reproduction will overpower horizontal transfer and greatly limit its effects. We then show that allowing immigration completely changes these predictions. With migration, the rates and impacts of horizontal transfer are greatly increased, and transfer is most frequent for loci under positive natural selection. Our analysis explains how ecologically important loci can sweep through competing strains and species. In this way, microbial genomes can evolve to become ecologically diverse where different genomic regions encode for partially overlapping, but distinct, ecologies. Under these conditions ecological species do not exist, because genes, not species, inhabit niches. PMID:26592443

  1. Development of a set of oligonucleotide primers specific for genes at the Glu-1 complex loci of wheat.

    PubMed

    D'Ovidio, R; Masci, S; Porceddu, E

    1995-07-01

    Specific amplification of the complete coding region of all six high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin genes present in hexaploid wheat was obtained by the polyerase chain reaction (PCR). Primers specific for the N-terminal region of the 1Dx gene and for the repetitive domain of the y-type HMW glutenin genes were also developed. Although the primers were constructed on the basis of the nucleotide sequences of HMW glutenin genes present in T. aestivum L. cv 'Cheyenne', they were very efficient in amplifying HMW glutenin genes of diploid and tetraploid wheat species. PCR analysis of HMW glutenin genes of T. urartu Tuman., T. longissimum (Schweinf. & Muschl.) Bowden and T. speltoides (Tausch) Gren. ex Richt, showed a high degree of length polymorphism, whereas a low degree of length variation was found in accessions of T. tauschii (Coss.) Schmal. Furthermore, using primers specific for the repetitive regions of HMW genes, we could demonstrate that the size variation observed was due to a different length of the central repetitive domain. The usefulness of the PCR-based approach to analyze the genetic polymorphism of HMW glutenin genes, to isolate new allelic variants, to estimate their molecular size and to verify the number of cysteine residues is discussed. PMID:24169762

  2. Rapid evolution and complex structural organization in genomic regions harboring multiple prolamin genes in the polyploid wheat genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genes encoding wheat prolamins belong to complicated multi-gene families in the wheat genome. To understand the structural complexity of storage protein loci, we sequenced and analyzed orthologous regions containing both gliadin and LMW-glutenin genes from the A and B genomes of a tetraploid wheat ...

  3. Synergistic Interactions between Drosophila Orthologues of Genes Spanned by De Novo Human CNVs Support Multiple-Hit Models of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Grice, Stuart J.; Liu, Ji-Long; Webber, Caleb

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are highly heritable and characterised by deficits in social interaction and communication, as well as restricted and repetitive behaviours. Although a number of highly penetrant ASD gene variants have been identified, there is growing evidence to support a causal role for combinatorial effects arising from the contributions of multiple loci. By examining synaptic and circadian neurological phenotypes resulting from the dosage variants of unique human:fly orthologues in Drosophila, we observe numerous synergistic interactions between pairs of informatically-identified candidate genes whose orthologues are jointly affected by large de novo copy number variants (CNVs). These CNVs were found in the genomes of individuals with autism, including a patient carrying a 22q11.2 deletion. We first demonstrate that dosage alterations of the unique Drosophila orthologues of candidate genes from de novo CNVs that harbour only a single candidate gene display neurological defects similar to those previously reported in Drosophila models of ASD-associated variants. We then considered pairwise dosage changes within the set of orthologues of candidate genes that were affected by the same single human de novo CNV. For three of four CNVs with complete orthologous relationships, we observed significant synergistic effects following the simultaneous dosage change of gene pairs drawn from a single CNV. The phenotypic variation observed at the Drosophila synapse that results from these interacting genetic variants supports a concordant phenotypic outcome across all interacting gene pairs following the direction of human gene copy number change. We observe both specificity and transitivity between interactors, both within and between CNV candidate gene sets, supporting shared and distinct genetic aetiologies. We then show that different interactions affect divergent synaptic processes, demonstrating distinct molecular aetiologies. Our study illustrates

  4. Selection of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (mar) mutants of Escherichia coli by using the disinfectant pine oil: roles of the mar and acrAB loci.

    PubMed Central

    Moken, M C; McMurry, L M; Levy, S B

    1997-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli selected for resistance to the disinfectant pine oil or to a household product containing pine oil also showed resistance to multiple antibiotics (tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and nalidixic acid) and overexpressed the marA gene. Likewise, antibiotic-selected Mar mutants, which also overexpress marA, were resistant to pine oil. Deletion of the mar or acrAB locus, the latter encoding a multidrug efflux pump positively regulated in part by MarA, increased the susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains to pine oil. PMID:9420057

  5. Estrogen Signaling Multiple Pathways to Impact Gene Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Maria; Galluzzo, Paola; Ascenzi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    Steroid hormones exert profound effects on cell growth, development, differentiation, and homeostasis. Their effects are mediated through specific intracellular steroid receptors that act via multiple mechanisms. Among others, the action mechanism starting upon 17β-estradiol (E2) binds to its receptors (ER) is considered a paradigmatic example of how steroid hormones function. Ligand-activated ER dimerizes and translocates in the nucleus where it recognizes specific hormone response elements located in or near promoter DNA regions of target genes. Behind the classical genomic mechanism shared with other steroid hormones, E2 also modulates gene expression by a second indirect mechanism that involves the interaction of ER with other transcription factors which, in turn, bind their cognate DNA elements. In this case, ER modulates the activities of transcription factors such as the activator protein (AP)-1, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and stimulating protein-1 (Sp-1), by stabilizing DNA-protein complexes and/or recruiting co-activators. In addition, E2 binding to ER may also exert rapid actions that start with the activation of a variety of signal transduction pathways (e.g. ERK/MAPK, p38/MAPK, PI3K/AKT, PLC/PKC). The debate about the contribution of different ER-mediated signaling pathways to coordinate the expression of specific sets of genes is still open. This review will focus on the recent knowledge about the mechanism by which ERs regulate the expression of target genes and the emerging field of integration of membrane and nuclear receptor signaling, giving examples of the ways by which the genomic and non-genomic actions of ERs on target genes converge. PMID:18369406

  6. Evolutionary genomics of immunoglobulin-encoding Loci in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Das, Sabyasachi; Hirano, Masayuki; Tako, Rea; McCallister, Chelsea; Nikolaidis, Nikolas

    2012-04-01

    Immunoglobulins (or antibodies) are an essential element of the jawed vertebrate adaptive immune response system. These molecules have evolved over the past 500 million years and generated highly specialized proteins that recognize an extraordinarily large number of diverse substances, collectively known as antigens. During vertebrate evolution the diversification of the immunoglobulin-encoding loci resulted in differences in the genomic organization, gene content, and ratio of functional genes and pseudogenes. The tinkering process in the immunoglobulin-encoding loci often gave rise to lineage-specific characteristics that were formed by selection to increase species adaptation and fitness. Immunoglobulin loci and their encoded antibodies have been shaped repeatedly by contrasting evolutionary forces, either to conserve the prototypic structure and mechanism of action or to generate alternative and diversified structures and modes of function. Moreover, evolution favored the development of multiple mechanisms of primary and secondary antibody diversification, which are used by different species to effectively generate an almost infinite collection of diverse antibody types. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the genomics and evolution of the immunoglobulin-encoding loci and their protein products in jawed vertebrates. PMID:23024601

  7. Transcriptomic characterization of two major Fusarium resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs), Fhb1 and Qfhs.ifa-5A, identifies novel candidate genes

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Wolfgang; Steiner, Barbara; Ametz, Christian; Siegwart, Gerald; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Berthiller, Franz; Lemmens, Marc; Jia, Haiyan; Adam, Gerhard; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Kreil, David P; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat. We developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing in the two strongest known F. graminearum resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs), Qfhs.ndsu-3BS (also known as resistance gene Fhb1) and Qfhs.ifa-5A, which are located on the short arm of chromosome 3B and on chromosome 5A, respectively. These NILs showing different levels of resistance were used to identify transcripts that are changed significantly in a QTL-specific manner in response to the pathogen and between mock-inoculated samples. After inoculation with F. graminearum spores, 16 transcripts showed a significantly different response for Fhb1 and 352 for Qfhs.ifa-5A. Notably, we identified a lipid transfer protein which is constitutively at least 50-fold more abundant in plants carrying the resistant allele of Qfhs.ifa-5A. In addition to this candidate gene associated with Qfhs.ifa-5A, we identified a uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferase gene, designated TaUGT12887, exhibiting a positive difference in response to the pathogen in lines harbouring both QTLs relative to lines carrying only the Qfhs.ifa-5A resistance allele, suggesting Fhb1 dependence of this transcript. Yet, this dependence was observed only in the NIL with already higher basal resistance. The complete cDNA of TaUGT12887 was reconstituted from available wheat genomic sequences, and a synthetic recoded gene was expressed in a toxin-sensitive strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This gene conferred deoxynivalenol resistance, albeit much weaker than that observed with the previously characterized barley HvUGT13248. PMID:23738863

  8. Adaptive Horizontal Gene Transfers between Multiple Cheese-Associated Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ropars, Jeanne; Rodríguez de la Vega, Ricardo C.; López-Villavicencio, Manuela; Gouzy, Jérôme; Sallet, Erika; Dumas, Émilie; Lacoste, Sandrine; Debuchy, Robert; Dupont, Joëlle; Branca, Antoine; Giraud, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    Summary Domestication is an excellent model for studies of adaptation because it involves recent and strong selection on a few, identified traits [1–5]. Few studies have focused on the domestication of fungi, with notable exceptions [6–11], despite their importance to bioindustry [12] and to a general understanding of adaptation in eukaryotes [5]. Penicillium fungi are ubiquitous molds among which two distantly related species have been independently selected for cheese making—P. roqueforti for blue cheeses like Roquefort and P. camemberti for soft cheeses like Camembert. The selected traits include morphology, aromatic profile, lipolytic and proteolytic activities, and ability to grow at low temperatures, in a matrix containing bacterial and fungal competitors [13–15]. By comparing the genomes of ten Penicillium species, we show that adaptation to cheese was associated with multiple recent horizontal transfers of large genomic regions carrying crucial metabolic genes. We identified seven horizontally transferred regions (HTRs) spanning more than 10 kb each, flanked by specific transposable elements, and displaying nearly 100% identity between distant Penicillium species. Two HTRs carried genes with functions involved in the utilization of cheese nutrients or competition and were found nearly identical in multiple strains and species of cheese-associated Penicillium fungi, indicating recent selective sweeps; they were experimentally associated with faster growth and greater competitiveness on cheese and contained genes highly expressed in the early stage of cheese maturation. These findings have industrial and food safety implications and improve our understanding of the processes of adaptation to rapid environmental changes. PMID:26412136

  9. All-or-(N)One - an epistemological characterization of the human tumorigenic neuronal paralogous FAM72 gene loci.

    PubMed

    Kutzner, Arne; Pramanik, Subrata; Kim, Pok-Son; Heese, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    FAM72 is a novel neuronal progenitor cell (NPC) self-renewal supporting protein expressed under physiological conditions at low levels in other tissues. Accumulating data indicate the potential pivotal tumourigenic effects of FAM72. Our in silico human genome-wide analysis (GWA) revealed that the FAM72 gene family consists of four human-specific paralogous members, all of which are located on chromosome (chr) 1. Unique asymmetric FAM72 segmental gene duplications are most likely to have occurred in conjunction with the paired genomic neighbour SRGAP2 (SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein), as both genes have four paralogues in humans but only one vertebra-emerging orthologue in all other species. No species with two or three FAM72/SRGAP2 gene pairs could be identified, and the four exclusively human-defining ohnologues, with different mutation patterns in Homo neanderthalensis and Denisova hominin, may remain under epigenetic control through long non-coding (lnc) RNAs. PMID:26206078

  10. Platypus globin genes and flanking loci suggest a new insertional model for beta-globin evolution in birds and mammals

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vidushi S; Cooper, Steven JB; Deakin, Janine E; Fulton, Bob; Graves, Tina; Warren, Wesley C; Wilson, Richard K; Graves, Jennifer AM

    2008-01-01

    Background Vertebrate alpha (α)- and beta (β)-globin gene families exemplify the way in which genomes evolve to produce functional complexity. From tandem duplication of a single globin locus, the α- and β-globin clusters expanded, and then were separated onto different chromosomes. The previous finding of a fossil β-globin gene (ω) in the marsupial α-cluster, however, suggested that duplication of the α-β cluster onto two chromosomes, followed by lineage-specific gene loss and duplication, produced paralogous α- and β-globin clusters in birds and mammals. Here we analyse genomic data from an egg-laying monotreme mammal, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), to explore haemoglobin evolution at the stem of the mammalian radiation. Results The platypus α-globin cluster (chromosome 21) contains embryonic and adult α- globin genes, a β-like ω-globin gene, and the GBY globin gene with homology to cytoglobin, arranged as 5'-ζ-ζ'-αD-α3-α2-α1-ω-GBY-3'. The platypus β-globin cluster (chromosome 2) contains single embryonic and adult globin genes arranged as 5'-ε-β-3'. Surprisingly, all of these globin genes were expressed in some adult tissues. Comparison of flanking sequences revealed that all jawed vertebrate α-globin clusters are flanked by MPG-C16orf35 and LUC7L, whereas all bird and mammal β-globin clusters are embedded in olfactory genes. Thus, the mammalian α- and β-globin clusters are orthologous to the bird α- and β-globin clusters respectively. Conclusion We propose that α- and β-globin clusters evolved from an ancient MPG-C16orf35-α-β-GBY-LUC7L arrangement 410 million years ago. A copy of the original β (represented by ω in marsupials and monotremes) was inserted into an array of olfactory genes before the amniote radiation (>315 million years ago), then duplicated and diverged to form orthologous clusters of β-globin genes with different expression profiles in different lineages. PMID:18657265

  11. Conserved globulin gene across eight grass genomes identify fundamental units of the loci encoding seed storage proteins.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yong Qiang; Wanjugi, Humphrey; Coleman-Derr, Devin; Kong, Xiuying; Anderson, Olin D

    2010-03-01

    The wheat high molecular weight (HMW) glutenins are important seed storage proteins that determine bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum). In this study, detailed comparative sequence analyses of large orthologous HMW glutenin genomic regions from eight grass species, representing a wide evolutionary history of grass genomes, reveal a number of lineage-specific sequence changes. These lineage-specific changes, which resulted in duplications, insertions, and deletions of genes, are the major forces disrupting gene colinearity among grass genomes. Our results indicate that the presence of the HMW glutenin gene in Triticeae genomes was caused by lineage-specific duplication of a globulin gene. This tandem duplication event is shared by Brachypodium and Triticeae genomes, but is absent in rice, maize, and sorghum, suggesting the duplication occurred after Brachypodium and Triticeae genomes diverged from the other grasses ~35 Ma ago. Aside from their physical location in tandem, the sequence similarity, expression pattern, and conserved cis-acting elements responsible for endosperm-specific expression further support the paralogous relationship between the HMW glutenin and globulin genes. While the duplicated copy in Brachypodium has apparently become nonfunctional, the duplicated copy in wheat has evolved to become the HMW glutenin gene by gaining a central prolamin repetitive domain. PMID:19707805

  12. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies and Network Analysis-Based Integration with Gene Expression Data Identify New Suggestive Loci and Unravel a Wnt-Centric Network Associated with Dupuytren’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Kerstin; Siegert, Sabine; Toliat, Mohammad Reza; Du, Juanjiangmeng; Casper, Ramona; Dolmans, Guido H.; Werker, Paul M.; Tinschert, Sigrid; Franke, Andre; Gieger, Christian; Strauch, Konstantin; Nothnagel, Michael; Nürnberg, Peter; Hennies, Hans Christian

    2016-01-01

    Dupuytren´s disease, a fibromatosis of the connective tissue in the palm, is a common complex disease with a strong genetic component. Up to date nine genetic loci have been found to be associated with the disease. Six of these loci contain genes that code for Wnt signalling proteins. In spite of this striking first insight into the genetic factors in Dupuytren´s disease, much of the inherited risk in Dupuytren´s disease still needs to be discovered. The already identified loci jointly explain ~1% of the heritability in this disease. To further elucidate the genetic basis of Dupuytren´s disease, we performed a genome-wide meta-analysis combining three genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets, comprising 1,580 cases and 4,480 controls. We corroborated all nine previously identified loci, six of these with genome-wide significance (p-value < 5x10-8). In addition, we identified 14 new suggestive loci (p-value < 10−5). Intriguingly, several of these new loci contain genes associated with Wnt signalling and therefore represent excellent candidates for replication. Next, we compared whole-transcriptome data between patient- and control-derived tissue samples and found the Wnt/β-catenin pathway to be the top deregulated pathway in patient samples. We then conducted network and pathway analyses in order to identify protein networks that are enriched for genes highlighted in the GWAS meta-analysis and expression data sets. We found further evidence that the Wnt signalling pathways in conjunction with other pathways may play a critical role in Dupuytren´s disease. PMID:27467239

  13. Detecting selection in the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, using DNA sequence data from multiple nuclear protein-coding genes.

    PubMed

    Yednock, Bree K; Neigel, Joseph E

    2014-01-01

    The identification of genes involved in the adaptive evolution of non-model organisms with uncharacterized genomes constitutes a major challenge. This study employed a rigorous and targeted candidate gene approach to test for positive selection on protein-coding genes of the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Four genes with putative roles in physiological adaptation to environmental stress were chosen as candidates. A fifth gene not expected to play a role in environmental adaptation was used as a control. Large samples (n>800) of DNA sequences from C. sapidus were used in tests of selective neutrality based on sequence polymorphisms. In combination with these, sequences from the congener C. similis were used in neutrality tests based on interspecific divergence. In multiple tests, significant departures from neutral expectations and indicative of positive selection were found for the candidate gene trehalose 6-phosphate synthase (tps). These departures could not be explained by any of the historical population expansion or bottleneck scenarios that were evaluated in coalescent simulations. Evidence was also found for balancing selection at ATP-synthase subunit 9 (atps) using a maximum likelihood version of the Hudson, Kreitmen, and Aguadé test, and positive selection favoring amino acid replacements within ATP/ADP translocase (ant) was detected using the McDonald-Kreitman test. In contrast, test statistics for the control gene, ribosomal protein L12 (rpl), which presumably has experienced the same demographic effects as the candidate loci, were not significantly different from neutral expectations and could readily be explained by demographic effects. Together, these findings demonstrate the utility of the candidate gene approach for investigating adaptation at the molecular level in a marine invertebrate for which extensive genomic resources are not available. PMID:24896825

  14. Identification and Replication of Three Novel Myopia Common Susceptibility Gene Loci on Chromosome 3q26 using Linkage and Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Carbonaro, Francis; Liew, S. H. Melissa; Lau, Winston; Spector, Tim D.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Refractive error is a highly heritable quantitative trait responsible for considerable morbidity. Following an initial genome-wide linkage study using microsatellite markers, we confirmed evidence for linkage to chromosome 3q26 and then conducted fine-scale association mapping using high-resolution linkage disequilibrium unit (LDU) maps. We used a preliminary discovery marker set across the 30-Mb region with an average SNP density of 1 SNP/15 kb (Map 1). Map 1 was divided into 51 LDU windows and additional SNPs were genotyped for six regions (Map 2) that showed preliminary evidence of multi-marker association using composite likelihood. A total of 575 cases and controls selected from the tails of the trait distribution were genotyped for the discovery sample. Malecot model estimates indicate three loci with putative common functional variants centred on MFN1 (180,566 kb; 95% confidence interval 180,505–180, 655 kb), approximately 156 kb upstream from alternate-splicing SOX2OT (182,595 kb; 95% CI 182,533–182,688 kb) and PSARL (184,386 kb; 95% CI 184,356–184,411 kb), with the loci showing modest to strong evidence of association for the Map 2 discovery samples (p<10−7, p<10−10, and p = 0.01, respectively). Using an unselected independent sample of 1,430 individuals, results replicated for the MFN1 (p = 0.006), SOX2OT (p = 0.0002), and PSARL (p = 0.0005) gene regions. MFN1 and PSARL both interact with OPA1 to regulate mitochondrial fusion and the inhibition of mitochondrial-led apoptosis, respectively. That two mitochondrial regulatory processes in the retina are implicated in the aetiology of myopia is surprising and is likely to provide novel insight into the molecular genetic basis of common myopia. PMID:18846214

  15. Gene expression profiles of autophagy-related genes in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Igci, Mehri; Baysan, Mehmet; Yigiter, Remzi; Ulasli, Mustafa; Geyik, Sirma; Bayraktar, Recep; Bozgeyik, İbrahim; Bozgeyik, Esra; Bayram, Ali; Cakmak, Ecir Ali

    2016-08-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an imflammatory disease of central nervous system caused by genetic and environmental factors that remain largely unknown. Autophagy is the process of degradation and recycling of damaged cytoplasmic organelles, macromolecular aggregates, and long-lived proteins. Malfunction of autophagy contributes to the pathogenesis of neurological diseases, and autophagy genes may modulate the T cell survival. We aimed to examine the expression levels of autophagy-related genes. The blood samples of 95 unrelated patients (aged 17-65years, 37 male, 58 female) diagnosed as MS and 95 healthy controls were used to extract the RNA samples. After conversion to single stranded cDNA using polyT priming: the targeted genes were pre-amplified, and 96×78 (samples×primers) qRT-PCR reactions were performed for each primer pair on each sample on a 96.96 array of Fluidigm BioMark™. Compared to age- and sex-matched controls, gene expression levels of ATG16L2, ATG9A, BCL2, FAS, GAA, HGS, PIK3R1, RAB24, RGS19, ULK1, FOXO1, HTT were significantly altered (false discovery rate<0.05). Thus, altered expression levels of several autophagy related genes may affect protein levels, which in turn would influence the activity of autophagy, or most probably, those genes might be acting independent of autophagy and contributing to MS pathogenesis as risk factors. The indeterminate genetic causes leading to alterations in gene expressions require further analysis. PMID:27125224

  16. Reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in multiple avian species.

    PubMed

    Olias, Philipp; Adam, Iris; Meyer, Anne; Scharff, Constance; Gruber, Achim D

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ) on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common crane (Grus grus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica), cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti), ostrich (Struthio camelus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ) that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species. PMID:24926893

  17. Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Multiple Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Anne; Scharff, Constance; Gruber, Achim D.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ) on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common crane (Grus grus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica), cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti), ostrich (Struthio camelus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ) that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species. PMID:24926893

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis of Copy Number Variation Identifies Candidate Gene Loci Associated with the Progression of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zain, Shamsul Mohd; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Cooper, David N.; Razali, Rozaimi; Rampal, Sanjay; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Chan, Wah-Kheong; Anwar, Arif; Rosli, Nurul Shielawati Mohamed; Mahfudz, Anis Shafina; Cheah, Phaik-Leng; Basu, Roma Choudhury; Mohamed, Zahurin

    2014-01-01

    Between 10 and 25% of individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) develop hepatic fibrosis leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To investigate the molecular basis of disease progression, we performed a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) in a total of 49 patients with NAFLD [10 simple steatosis and 39 non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)] and 49 matched controls using high-density comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarrays. A total of 11 CNVs were found to be unique to individuals with simple steatosis, whilst 22 were common between simple steatosis and NASH, and 224 were unique to NASH. We postulated that these CNVs could be involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD progression. After stringent filtering, we identified four rare and/or novel CNVs that may influence the pathogenesis of NASH. Two of these CNVs, located at 13q12.11 and 12q13.2 respectively, harbour the exportin 4 (XPO4) and phosphodiesterase 1B (PDE1B) genes which are already known to be involved in the etiology of liver cirrhosis and HCC. Cross-comparison of the genes located at these four CNV loci with genes already known to be associated with NAFLD yielded a set of genes associated with shared biological processes including cell death, the key process involved in ‘second hit’ hepatic injury. To our knowledge, this pilot study is the first to provide CNV information of potential relevance to the NAFLD spectrum. These data could prove invaluable in predicting patients at risk of developing NAFLD and more importantly, those who will subsequently progress to NASH. PMID:24743702

  19. Simulating the yield impacts of organ-level quantitative trait loci associated with drought response in maize: a "gene-to-phenotype" modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Chenu, Karine; Chapman, Scott C; Tardieu, François; McLean, Greg; Welcker, Claude; Hammer, Graeme L

    2009-12-01

    Under drought, substantial genotype-environment (G x E) interactions impede breeding progress for yield. Identifying genetic controls associated with yield response is confounded by poor genetic correlations across testing environments. Part of this problem is related to our inability to account for the interplay of genetic controls, physiological traits, and environmental conditions throughout the crop cycle. We propose a modeling approach to bridge this "gene-to-phenotype" gap. For maize under drought, we simulated the impact of quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling two key processes (leaf and silk elongation) that influence crop growth, water use, and grain yield. Substantial G x E interaction for yield was simulated for hypothetical recombinant inbred lines (RILs) across different seasonal patterns of drought. QTL that accelerated leaf elongation caused an increase in crop leaf area and yield in well-watered or preflowering water deficit conditions, but a reduction in yield under terminal stresses (as such "leafy" genotypes prematurely exhausted the water supply). The QTL impact on yield was substantially enhanced by including pleiotropic effects of these QTL on silk elongation and on consequent grain set. The simulations obtained illustrated the difficulty of interpreting the genetic control of yield for genotypes influenced only by the additive effects of QTL associated with leaf and silk growth. The results highlight the potential of integrative simulation modeling for gene-to-phenotype prediction and for exploiting G x E interactions for complex traits such as drought tolerance. PMID:19786622

  20. Identification of Single- and Multiple-Class Specific Signature Genes from Gene Expression Profiles by Group Marker Index

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yu-Shuen; Aguan, Kripamoy; Pal, Nikhil R.; Chung, I-Fang

    2011-01-01

    Informative genes from microarray data can be used to construct prediction model and investigate biological mechanisms. Differentially expressed genes, the main targets of most gene selection methods, can be classified as single- and multiple-class specific signature genes. Here, we present a novel gene selection algorithm based on a Group Marker Index (GMI), which is intuitive, of low-computational complexity, and efficient in identification of both types of genes. Most gene selection methods identify only single-class specific signature genes and cannot identify multiple-class specific signature genes easily. Our algorithm can detect de novo certain conditions of multiple-class specificity of a gene and makes use of a novel non-parametric indicator to assess the discrimination ability between classes. Our method is effective even when the sample size is small as well as when the class sizes are significantly different. To compare the effectiveness and robustness we formulate an intuitive template-based method and use four well-known datasets. We demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms the template-based method in difficult cases with unbalanced distribution. Moreover, the multiple-class specific genes are good biomarkers and play important roles in biological pathways. Our literature survey supports that the proposed method identifies unique multiple-class specific marker genes (not reported earlier to be related to cancer) in the Central Nervous System data. It also discovers unique biomarkers indicating the intrinsic difference between subtypes of lung cancer. We also associate the pathway information with the multiple-class specific signature genes and cross-reference to published studies. We find that the identified genes participate in the pathways directly involved in cancer development in leukemia data. Our method gives a promising way to find genes that can involve in pathways of multiple diseases and hence opens up the possibility of using an existing

  1. Vitamin D-gene interactions in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Berlanga-Taylor, Antonio J; Disanto, Giulio; Ebers, George C; Ramagopalan, Sreeram V

    2011-12-15

    Vitamin D has been studied for over a century and its functions related to calcium homeostasis are well established. Over the last 30 years or so it has become increasingly clear that it has a wider role in physiology and, importantly, also in disease. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to multiple sclerosis (MS); however the molecular mechanisms of this association were poorly understood. Recent technological advances have provided major insights as to how vitamin D may exert its role, particularly through the actions of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). In this review we aim to highlight the importance of the interaction between vitamin D and MS associated genes which provide a biological basis for the association between vitamin D and MS risk. PMID:22000399

  2. Identification of loci and functional characterization of trichothecene biosynthesis genes in the filamentous fungus of the genus Trichoderma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecenes are mycotoxins produced by Trichoderma, Fusarium and at least four other genera in the fungal order Hypocreales. Fusarium has a trichothecene biosynthetic gene (TRI) cluster that encodes transport and regulatory proteins as well as most enzymes required for formation of the mycotoxin...

  3. Identification of genes/loci and functional markers for seed oil quality improvement by exploring soybean genetic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The difference in seed oil composition and content among soybean genotypes can be attributed mostly to variations in transcript sequences and/or transcript accumulation of oil-related genes expressed in seeds. We applied the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system to sequence RNA populations in soybean seeds fro...

  4. Genetic variation in the dimorphic regions of RAP-1 genes and rap-1 loci of Babesia bigemina.

    PubMed

    Hötzel, I; Suarez, C E; McElwain, T F; Palmer, G H

    1997-12-15

    The rhoptry-associated protein-1 (RAP-1) of Babesia bigemina induces protective immune responses in cattle. RAP-1 has two regions of sequence dimorphism at the carboxy and amino terminal ends, respectively. Neutralization-sensitive, surface-exposed B-cell epitopes are present in the amino terminal variant type 1 (NT-1), and CD4+ T-cell epitopes in the carboxy terminal variant type 1 (CT-1). Importantly, antibodies recognizing NT-1 epitopes do not cross react with NT-2 and CD4+ T-cells recognizing epitopes in CT-1 do not cross react with CT-2, suggesting that variation in dimorphic regions of RAP-1 is immunologically significant. We evaluated rap-1 locus structure and the extent of sequence variation in the dimorphic regions of rap-1 genes from geographically diverse strains of B. bigemina. All strains contained NT-1 and NT-2 the encoding sequences were highly conserved, with at least 99%, nucleotide identity among strains. However, the Puerto Rico strain encoded a hybrid NT-1/NT-2 sequence which appears to have originated by a gene conversion event. The 3' ends of rap-1 genes, which include the carboxy terminal variants, are conserved among strains. A new and conserved CT variant (CT-3), with a region of sequence identity to CT-2 and a sequence not related to either CT-1 or CT-2, was identified in all strains of B. bigemina. All but one strain encode both NTs and the three CT variants. The S1A strain, an attenuated strain from Argentina, does not encode CT-2. While NT-1 is associated only with CT-1, NT-2 can be associated with all three CT variants in RAP-1. Within the genome, rap-1 genes are arranged in tandem repeats but with different gene copy number and arrangements among strains. Collectively, the data suggest that gene conversion and unequal recombination events contribute to overall rap-1 sequence conservation among gene variants and strains but may also generate new rap-1 variants. PMID:9476795

  5. Development of a Multiple Loci Variable Number of Tandem Repeats Analysis (MLVA) to Unravel the Intra-Pathovar Structure of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae Populations Worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Ciarroni, Serena; Gallipoli, Lorenzo; Taratufolo, Maria C.; Butler, Margi I.; Poulter, Russell T. M.; Pourcel, Christine; Vergnaud, Gilles; Balestra, Giorgio M.; Mazzaglia, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial canker of kiwifruit by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is an emblematic example of a catastrophic disease of fruit crops. In 2008 a new, extremely virulent form of the pathogen emerged and rapidly devastated many Actinidia spp. orchards all over the world. In order to understand differences in populations within this pathovar and to elucidate their diffusion and movements on world scale, it is necessary to be able to quickly and on a routine basis compare new isolates with previous records. In this report a worldwide collection of 142 strains was analyzed by MLVA, chosen as investigative technique for its efficacy, reproducibility, simplicity and low cost. A panel of 13 Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) loci was identified and used to describe the pathogen population. The MLVA clustering is highly congruent with the population structure as previously established by other molecular approaches including whole genome sequencing and correlates with geographic origin, time of isolation and virulence. For convenience, we divided the VNTR loci in two panels. Panel 1 assay, using six loci, recognizes 23 different haplotypes, clustered into ten complexes with highest congruence with previous classifications. Panel 2, with seven VNTR loci, provides discriminatory power. Using the total set of 13 VNTR loci, 58 haplotypes can be distinguished. The recent hypervirulent type shows very limited diversity and includes, beside the strains from Europe, New Zealand and Chile, a few strains from Shaanxi, China. A broad genetic variability is observed in China, but different types are also retrievable in Japan and Korea. The low virulent strains cluster together and are very different from the other MLVA genotypes. Data were used to generate a public database in MLVAbank. MLVA represents a very promising first-line assay for large-scale routine genotyping, prior to whole genome sequencing of only the most relevant samples. PMID:26262683

  6. Capture Hi-C reveals novel candidate genes and complex long-range interactions with related autoimmune risk loci

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Paul; McGovern, Amanda; Orozco, Gisela; Duffus, Kate; Yarwood, Annie; Schoenfelder, Stefan; Cooper, Nicholas J.; Barton, Anne; Wallace, Chris; Fraser, Peter; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have been tremendously successful in identifying genetic variants associated with complex diseases. The majority of association signals are intergenic and evidence is accumulating that a high proportion of signals lie in enhancer regions. We use Capture Hi-C to investigate, for the first time, the interactions between associated variants for four autoimmune diseases and their functional targets in B- and T-cell lines. Here we report numerous looping interactions and provide evidence that only a minority of interactions are common to both B- and T-cell lines, suggesting interactions may be highly cell-type specific; some disease-associated SNPs do not interact with the nearest gene but with more compelling candidate genes (for example, FOXO1, AZI2) often situated several megabases away; and finally, regions associated with different autoimmune diseases interact with each other and the same promoter suggesting common autoimmune gene targets (for example, PTPRC, DEXI and ZFP36L1). PMID:26616563

  7. Loci and candidate gene identification for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) via association and linkage maps.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xue; Han, Yingpeng; Li, Yinghui; Liu, Dongyuan; Sun, Mingming; Zhao, Yue; Lv, Chunmei; Li, Dongmei; Yang, Zhijiang; Huang, Long; Teng, Weili; Qiu, Lijuan; Zheng, Hongkun; Li, Wenbin

    2015-04-01

    Soybean white mold (SWM), caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ((Lib.) W. Phillips), is currently considered to be the second most important cause of soybean yield loss due to disease. Research is needed to identify SWM-resistant germplasm and gain a better understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of SWM resistance in soybean. Stem pigmentation after treatment with oxaloacetic acid is an effective indicator of resistance to SWM. A total of 128 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of 'Maple Arrow' (partial resistant to SWM) and 'Hefeng 25' (susceptible) and 330 diverse soybean cultivars were screened for the soluble pigment concentration of their stems, which were treated with oxalic acid. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying soluble pigment concentration were detected by linkage mapping of the RILs. Three hundred and thirty soybean cultivars were sequenced using the whole-genome encompassing approach and 25 179 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected for the fine mapping of SWM resistance genes by genome-wide association studies. Three out of five SNP markers representing a linkage disequilibrium (LD) block and a single locus on chromosome 13 (Gm13) were significantly associated with the soluble pigment content of stems. Three more SNPs that represented three minor QTLs for the soluble pigment content of stems were identified on another three chromosomes by association mapping. A major locus with the largest effect on Gm13 was found both by linkage and association mapping. Four potential candidate genes involved in disease response or the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were identified at the locus near the significant SNPs (<60 kbp). The beneficial allele and candidate genes should be useful in soybean breeding for improving resistance to SWM. PMID:25736370

  8. Mapping adipose and muscle tissue expression quantitative trait loci in African Americans to identify genes for type 2 diabetes and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sajuthi, Satria P; Sharma, Neeraj K; Chou, Jeff W; Palmer, Nicholette D; McWilliams, David R; Beal, John; Comeau, Mary E; Ma, Lijun; Calles-Escandon, Jorge; Demons, Jamehl; Rogers, Samantha; Cherry, Kristina; Menon, Lata; Kouba, Ethel; Davis, Donna; Burris, Marcie; Byerly, Sara J; Ng, Maggie C Y; Maruthur, Nisa M; Patel, Sanjay R; Bielak, Lawrence F; Lange, Leslie A; Guo, Xiuqing; Sale, Michèle M; Chan, Kei Hang K; Monda, Keri L; Chen, Gary K; Taylor, Kira; Palmer, Cameron; Edwards, Todd L; North, Kari E; Haiman, Christopher A; Bowden, Donald W; Freedman, Barry I; Langefeld, Carl D; Das, Swapan K

    2016-08-01

    Relative to European Americans, type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent in African Americans (AAs). Genetic variation may modulate transcript abundance in insulin-responsive tissues and contribute to risk; yet, published studies identifying expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) in African ancestry populations are restricted to blood cells. This study aims to develop a map of genetically regulated transcripts expressed in tissues important for glucose homeostasis in AAs, critical for identifying the genetic etiology of T2D and related traits. Quantitative measures of adipose and muscle gene expression, and genotypic data were integrated in 260 non-diabetic AAs to identify expression regulatory variants. Their roles in genetic susceptibility to T2D, and related metabolic phenotypes, were evaluated by mining GWAS datasets. eQTL analysis identified 1971 and 2078 cis-eGenes in adipose and muscle, respectively. Cis-eQTLs for 885 transcripts including top cis-eGenes CHURC1, USMG5, and ERAP2 were identified in both tissues. 62.1 % of top cis-eSNPs were within ±50 kb of transcription start sites and cis-eGenes were enriched for mitochondrial transcripts. Mining GWAS databases revealed association of cis-eSNPs for more than 50 genes with T2D (e.g. PIK3C2A, RBMS1, UFSP1), gluco-metabolic phenotypes (e.g. INPP5E, SNX17, ERAP2, FN3KRP), and obesity (e.g. POMC, CPEB4). Integration of GWAS meta-analysis data from AA cohorts revealed the most significant association for cis-eSNPs of ATP5SL and MCCC1 genes, with T2D and BMI, respectively. This study developed the first comprehensive map of adipose and muscle tissue eQTLs in AAs (publically accessible at https://mdsetaa.phs.wakehealth.edu ) and identified genetically regulated transcripts for delineating genetic causes of T2D, and related metabolic phenotypes. PMID:27193597

  9. Construction of a gene-gene interaction network with a combined score across multiple approaches.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A M; Song, H; Shen, Y H; Liu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in computational methods for inves-tigating physical and functional gene interactions has provided new insights into the complexity of biological processes. An essential part of these methods is presented visually in the form of gene interaction networks that can be valuable in exploring the mechanisms of disease. Here, a combined network based on gene pairs with an extra layer of re-liability was constructed after converting and combining the gene pair scores using a novel algorithm across multiple approaches. Four groups of kidney cancer data sets from ArrayExpress were downloaded and analyzed to identify differentially expressed genes using a rank prod-ucts analysis tool. Gene co-expression network, protein-protein interac-tion, co-occurrence network and a combined network were constructed using empirical Bayesian meta-analysis approach, Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) database, an odds ratio formula of the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics and a novel rank algorithm with combined score, respectively. The topological features of these networks were then compared to evaluate their performances. The results indicated that the gene pairs and their relationship rank-ings were not uniform. The values of topological parameters, such as clustering coefficient and the fitting coefficient R(2) of interaction net-work constructed using our ranked based combination score, were much greater than the other networks. The combined network had a classic small world property which transferred information quickly and displayed great resilience to the dysfunction of low-degree hubs with high-clustering and short average path length. It also followed distinct-ly a scale-free network with a higher reliability. PMID:26125911

  10. Fine mapping of eight psoriasis susceptibility loci.

    PubMed

    Das, Sayantan; Stuart, Philip E; Ding, Jun; Tejasvi, Trilokraj; Li, Yanming; Tsoi, Lam C; Chandran, Vinod; Fischer, Judith; Helms, Cynthia; Duffin, Kristina Callis; Voorhees, John J; Bowcock, Anne M; Krueger, Gerald G; Lathrop, G Mark; Nair, Rajan P; Rahman, Proton; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Gladman, Dafna; Elder, James T

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have identified 41 independent genome-wide significant psoriasis susceptibility loci. After our first psoriasis genome-wide association study, we designed a custom genotyping array to fine-map eight genome-wide significant susceptibility loci known at that time (IL23R, IL13, IL12B, TNIP1, MHC, TNFAIP3, IL23A and RNF114) enabling genotyping of 2269 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the eight loci for 2699 psoriasis cases and 2107 unaffected controls of European ancestry. We imputed these data using the latest 1000 Genome reference haplotypes, which included both indels and SNPs, to increase the marker density of the eight loci to 49 239 genetic variants. Using stepwise conditional association analysis, we identified nine independent signals distributed across six of the eight loci. In the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, we detected three independent signals at rs114255771 (P = 2.94 × 10(-74)), rs6924962 (P = 3.21 × 10(-19)) and rs892666 (P = 1.11 × 10(-10)). Near IL12B we detected two independent signals at rs62377586 (P = 7.42 × 10(-16)) and rs918518 (P = 3.22 × 10(-11)). Only one signal was observed in each of the TNIP1 (rs17728338; P = 4.15 × 10(-13)), IL13 (rs1295685; P = 1.65 × 10(-7)), IL23A (rs61937678; P = 1.82 × 10(-7)) and TNFAIP3 (rs642627; P = 5.90 × 10(-7)) regions. We also imputed variants for eight HLA genes and found that SNP rs114255771 yielded a more significant association than any HLA allele or amino-acid residue. Further analysis revealed that the HLA-C*06-B*57 haplotype tagged by this SNP had a significantly higher odds ratio than other HLA-C*06-bearing haplotypes. The results demonstrate allelic heterogeneity at IL12B and identify a high-risk MHC class I haplotype, consistent with the existence of multiple psoriasis effectors in the MHC. PMID:25182136

  11. Fine mapping of eight psoriasis susceptibility loci

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sayantan; Stuart, Philip E; Ding, Jun; Tejasvi, Trilokraj; Li, Yanming; Tsoi, Lam C; Chandran, Vinod; Fischer, Judith; Helms, Cynthia; Duffin, Kristina Callis; Voorhees, John J; Bowcock, Anne M; Krueger, Gerald G; Lathrop, G Mark; Nair, Rajan P; Rahman, Proton; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Gladman, Dafna; Elder, James T

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified 41 independent genome-wide significant psoriasis susceptibility loci. After our first psoriasis genome-wide association study, we designed a custom genotyping array to fine-map eight genome-wide significant susceptibility loci known at that time (IL23R, IL13, IL12B, TNIP1, MHC, TNFAIP3, IL23A and RNF114) enabling genotyping of 2269 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the eight loci for 2699 psoriasis cases and 2107 unaffected controls of European ancestry. We imputed these data using the latest 1000 Genome reference haplotypes, which included both indels and SNPs, to increase the marker density of the eight loci to 49 239 genetic variants. Using stepwise conditional association analysis, we identified nine independent signals distributed across six of the eight loci. In the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, we detected three independent signals at rs114255771 (P=2.94 × 10−74), rs6924962 (P=3.21 × 10−19) and rs892666 (P=1.11 × 10−10). Near IL12B we detected two independent signals at rs62377586 (P=7.42 × 10−16) and rs918518 (P=3.22 × 10−11). Only one signal was observed in each of the TNIP1 (rs17728338; P=4.15 × 10−13), IL13 (rs1295685; P=1.65 × 10−7), IL23A (rs61937678; P=1.82 × 10−7) and TNFAIP3 (rs642627; P=5.90 × 10−7) regions. We also imputed variants for eight HLA genes and found that SNP rs114255771 yielded a more significant association than any HLA allele or amino-acid residue. Further analysis revealed that the HLA-C*06-B*57 haplotype tagged by this SNP had a significantly higher odds ratio than other HLA-C*06-bearing haplotypes. The results demonstrate allelic heterogeneity at IL12B and identify a high-risk MHC class I haplotype, consistent with the existence of multiple psoriasis effectors in the MHC. PMID:25182136

  12. Distinct loci in the CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4 gene cluster are associated with onset of regular smoking.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Sarah H; Hartz, Sarah M; Hoft, Nicole R; Saccone, Nancy L; Corley, Robin C; Hewitt, John K; Hopfer, Christian J; Breslau, Naomi; Coon, Hilary; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Han, Younghun; Hansel, Nadia N; Jiang, Chenhui; Korhonen, Tellervo; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Jason; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Shaffer, John R; Short, Susan E; Sun, Juzhong; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Vink, Jacqueline M; Wenzlaff, Angela; Wheeler, William; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H; Balmforth, Anthony J; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Beaty, Terri H; Benjamin, Daniel J; Bergen, Andrew W; Broms, Ulla; Cesarini, David; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gillespie, Nathan A; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S; Hällfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hickie, Ian B; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kähönen, Mika; Koellinger, Philipp D; Kittner, Stephen; Konte, Bettina; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M; Mathias, Rasika A; McNeil, Daniel W; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari E; Paré, Peter D; Pergadia, Michele; Ruczinski, Ingo; Salomaa, Veikko; Viikari, Jorma; Willemsen, Gonneke; Barnes, Kathleen C; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caporaso, Neil; Edenberg, Howard J; Francks, Clyde; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johannesson, Magnus; Kendler, Kenneth S; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Marazita, Mary L; Marchini, Jonathan; Mitchell, Braxton D; Nöthen, Markus M; Penninx, Brenda W; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J; Schwartz, Ann G; Shete, Sanjay; Spitz, Margaret; Swan, Gary E; Völzke, Henry; Veijola, Juha; Wei, Qingyi; Amos, Chris; Cannon, Dale S; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G; Stevens, Victoria L; Weiss, Robert B; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2013-12-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes (CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4) have been reproducibly associated with nicotine dependence, smoking behaviors, and lung cancer risk. Of the few reports that have focused on early smoking behaviors, association results have been mixed. This meta-analysis examines early smoking phenotypes and SNPs in the gene cluster to determine: (1) whether the most robust association signal in this region (rs16969968) for other smoking behaviors is also associated with early behaviors, and/or (2) if additional statistically independent signals are important in early smoking. We focused on two phenotypes: age of tobacco initiation (AOI) and age of first regular tobacco use (AOS). This study included 56,034 subjects (41 groups) spanning nine countries and evaluated five SNPs including rs1948, rs16969968, rs578776, rs588765, and rs684513. Each dataset was analyzed using a centrally generated script. Meta-analyses were conducted from summary statistics. AOS yielded significant associations with SNPs rs578776 (beta = 0.02, P = 0.004), rs1948 (beta = 0.023, P = 0.018), and rs684513 (beta = 0.032, P = 0.017), indicating protective effects. There were no significant associations for the AOI phenotype. Importantly, rs16969968, the most replicated signal in this region for nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and cotinine levels, was not associated with AOI (P = 0.59) or AOS (P = 0.92). These results provide important insight into the complexity of smoking behavior phenotypes, and suggest that association signals in the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster affecting early smoking behaviors may be different from those affecting the mature nicotine dependence phenotype. PMID:24186853

  13. Distinct Loci in the CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4 Gene Cluster Are Associated With Onset of Regular Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Sarah H.; Hartz, Sarah M.; Hoft, Nicole R.; Saccone, Nancy L.; Corley, Robin C.; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Breslau, Naomi; Coon, Hilary; Chen, Xiangning; Ducci, Francesca; Dueker, Nicole; Franceschini, Nora; Frank, Josef; Han, Younghun; Hansel, Nadia N.; Jiang, Chenhui; Korhonen, Tellervo; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Jason; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Michel, Martha; Shaffer, John R.; Short, Susan E.; Sun, Juzhong; Teumer, Alexander; Thompson, John R.; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Wenzlaff, Angela; Wheeler, William; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Aggen, Steven H.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Beaty, Terri H.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Bergen, Andrew W.; Broms, Ulla; Cesarini, David; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Jingchun; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Cichon, Sven; Couper, David; Cucca, Francesco; Dick, Danielle; Foroud, Tatiana; Furberg, Helena; Giegling, Ina; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Gu, Fangyi; Hall, Alistair S.; Hällfors, Jenni; Han, Shizhong; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hickie, Ian B.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kaakinen, Marika; Kähönen, Mika; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Kittner, Stephen; Konte, Bettina; Landi, Maria-Teresa; Laatikainen, Tiina; Leppert, Mark; Levy, Steven M.; Mathias, Rasika A.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Murray, Tanda; Nauck, Matthias; North, Kari E.; Paré, Peter D.; Pergadia, Michele; Ruczinski, Ingo; Salomaa, Veikko; Viikari, Jorma; Willemsen, Gonneke; Barnes, Kathleen C.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Caporaso, Neil; Edenberg, Howard J.; Francks, Clyde; Gelernter, Joel; Grabe, Hans Jörgen; Hops, Hyman; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Johannesson, Magnus; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Marazita, Mary L.; Marchini, Jonathan; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Raitakari, Olli; Rietschel, Marcella; Rujescu, Dan; Samani, Nilesh J.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shete, Sanjay; Spitz, Margaret; Swan, Gary E.; Völzke, Henry; Veijola, Juha; Wei, Qingyi; Amos, Chris; Cannon, Dale S.; Grucza, Richard; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Heath, Andrew; Johnson, Eric O.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Madden, Pamela; Martin, Nicholas G.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Weiss, Robert B.; Kraft, Peter; Bierut, Laura J.; Ehringer, Marissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes (CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4) have been reproducibly associated with nicotine dependence, smoking behaviors, and lung cancer risk. Of the few reports that have focused on early smoking behaviors, association results have been mixed. This meta-analysis examines early smoking phenotypes and SNPs in the gene cluster to determine: (1) whether the most robust association signal in this region (rs16969968) for other smoking behaviors is also associated with early behaviors, and/or (2) if additional statistically independent signals are important in early smoking. We focused on two phenotypes: age of tobacco initiation (AOI) and age of first regular tobacco use (AOS). This study included 56,034 subjects (41 groups) spanning nine countries and evaluated five SNPs including rs1948, rs16969968, rs578776, rs588765, and rs684513. Each dataset was analyzed using a centrally generated script. Meta-analyses were conducted from summary statistics. AOS yielded significant associations with SNPs rs578776 (beta = 0.02, P = 0.004), rs1948 (beta = 0.023, P = 0.018), and rs684513 (beta = 0.032, P = 0.017), indicating protective effects. There were no significant associations for the AOI phenotype. Importantly, rs16969968, the most replicated signal in this region for nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and cotinine levels, was not associated with AOI (P = 0.59) or AOS (P = 0.92). These results provide important insight into the complexity of smoking behavior phenotypes, and suggest that association signals in the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster affecting early smoking behaviors may be different from those affecting the mature nicotine dependence phenotype. PMID:24186853

  14. X-Linked Gene Expression in the Virginia Opossum: Differences between the Paternally Derived Gpd and Pgk-A Loci

    PubMed Central

    Samollow, Paul B.; Ford, Allen L.; VandeBerg, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Expression of X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and phosphoglycerate kinase-A (PGK-A) in the Virginia opossum ( Didelphis virginiana) was studied electrophoretically in animals from natural populations and those produced through controlled laboratory crosses. Blood from most of the wild animals exhibited a common single-banded phenotype for both enzymes. Rare variant animals, regardless of sex, exhibited single-banded phenotypes different in mobility from the common mobility class of the respective enzyme. The laboratory crosses confirmed the allelic basis for the common and rare phenotypes. Transmission of PGK-A phenotypes followed the pattern of determinate (nonrandom) inactivation of the paternally derived Pgk-A allele, and transmission of G6PD also was consistent with this pattern. A survey of tissue-specific expression of G6PD phenotypes of heterozygous females revealed, in almost all tissues, three-banded patterns skewed in favor of the allele that was expressed in blood cells. Three-banded patterns were never observed in males or in putatively homozygous females. These patterns suggest simultaneous, but unequal, expression of the maternally and paternally derived Gpd alleles within individual cells (i.e., partial paternal allele expression). The absence of such partial expression was noted in a parallel survey of females heterozygous at the Pgk-A locus. Thus, it appears that Gpd and Pgk-A are X-linked in D. virginiana and subject to preferential paternal allele inactivation, but that dosage compensation may not be complete for all paternally derived X-linked genes. The data establish the similarity between the American and Australian marsupial patterns of X-linked gene regulation and, thus, support the hypothesis that this form of dosage compensation was present in the early marsupial lineage that gave rise to these modern marsupial divisions. In addition, the data provide the first documentation of the differential expression of two X

  15. Identification of loci affecting flavour volatile emissions in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Tieman, Denise M; Zeigler, Michelle; Schmelz, Eric A; Taylor, Mark G; Bliss, Peter; Kirst, Matias; Klee, Harry J

    2006-01-01

    Fresh tomato fruit flavour is the sum of the interaction between sugars, acids, and a set of approximately 30 volatile compounds synthesized from a diverse set of precursors, including amino acids, lipids, and carotenoids. Some of these volatiles impart desirable qualities while others are negatively perceived. As a first step to identify the genes responsible for the synthesis of flavour-related chemicals, an attempt was made to identify loci that influence the chemical composition of ripe fruits. A genetically diverse but well-defined Solanum pennellii IL population was used. Because S. pennellii is a small green-fruited species, this population exhibits great biochemical diversity and is a rich source of genes affecting both fruit development and chemical composition. This population was used to identify multiple loci affecting the composition of chemicals related to flavour. Twenty-five loci were identified that are significantly altered in one or more of 23 different volatiles and four were altered in citric acid content. It was further shown that emissions of carotenoid-derived volatiles were directly correlated with the fruit carotenoid content. Linked molecular markers should be useful for breeding programmes aimed at improving fruit flavour. In the longer term, the genes responsible for controlling the levels of these chemicals will be important tools for understanding the complex interactions that ultimately integrate to provide the unique flavour of a tomato. PMID:16473892

  16. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies multiple lung cancer susceptibility loci in never-smoking Asian women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoming; Seow, Wei Jie; Shiraishi, Kouya; Hsiung, Chao A; Matsuo, Keitaro; Liu, Jie; Chen, Kexin; Yamji, Taiki; Yang, Yang; Chang, I-Shou; Wu, Chen; Hong, Yun-Chul; Burdett, Laurie; Wyatt, Kathleen; Chung, Charles C; Li, Shengchao A; Yeager, Meredith; Hutchinson, Amy; Hu, Wei; Caporaso, Neil; Landi, Maria T; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Song, Minsun; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Kohno, Takashi; Yokota, Jun; Kunitoh, Hideo; Ashikawa, Kyota; Momozawa, Yukihide; Daigo, Yataro; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Yatabe, Yasushi; Hida, Toyoaki; Hu, Zhibin; Dai, Juncheng; Ma, Hongxia; Jin, Guangfu; Song, Bao; Wang, Zhehai; Cheng, Sensen; Yin, Zhihua; Li, Xuelian; Ren, Yangwu; Guan, Peng; Chang, Jiang; Tan, Wen; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chang, Gee-Chen; Tsai, Ying-Huang; Su, Wu-Chou; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Chen, Yuh-Min; Zheng, Hong; Li, Haixin; Cui, Ping; Guo, Huan; Xu, Ping; Liu, Li; Iwasaki, Motoki; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Zhu, Junjie; Jiang, Gening; Fei, Ke; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Yeul Hong; Sung, Jae Sook; Park, Kyong Hwa; Kim, Young Tae; Jung, Yoo Jin; Kang, Chang Hyun; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Hee Nam; Jeon, Hyo-Sung; Choi, Jin Eun; Choi, Yi Young; Kim, Jin Hee; Oh, In-Jae; Kim, Young-Chul; Sung, Sook Whan; Kim, Jun Suk; Yoon, Ho-Il; Kweon, Sun-Seog; Shin, Min-Ho; Seow, Adeline; Chen, Ying; Lim, Wei-Yen; Liu, Jianjun; Wong, Maria Pik; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Bassig, Bryan A; Tucker, Margaret; Berndt, Sonja I; Chow, Wong-Ho; Ji, Bu-Tian; Wang, Junwen; Xu, Jun; Sihoe, Alan Dart Loon; Ho, James C M; Chan, John K C; Wang, Jiu-Cun; Lu, Daru; Zhao, Xueying; Zhao, Zhenhong; Wu, Junjie; Chen, Hongyan; Jin, Li; Wei, Fusheng; Wu, Guoping; An, She-Juan; Zhang, Xu-Chao; Su, Jian; Wu, Yi-Long; Gao, Yu-Tang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; He, Xingzhou; Li, Jihua; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Qiuyin; Klein, Robert; Pao, William; Lawrence, Charles; Hosgood, H Dean; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Chien, Li-Hsin; Chen, Ying-Hsiang; Chen, Chung-Hsing; Wang, Wen-Chang; Chen, Chih-Yi; Wang, Chih-Liang; Yu, Chong-Jen; Chen, Hui-Ling; Su, Yu-Chun; Tsai, Fang-Yu; Chen, Yi-Song; Li, Yao-Jen; Yang, Tsung-Ying; Lin, Chien-Chung; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Wu, Tangchun; Lin, Dongxin; Zhou, Baosen; Yu, Jinming; Shen, Hongbing; Kubo, Michiaki; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing

    2016-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of lung cancer in Asian never-smoking women have previously identified six susceptibility loci associated with lung cancer risk. To further discover new susceptibility loci, we imputed data from four GWAS of Asian non-smoking female lung cancer (6877 cases and 6277 controls) using the 1000 Genomes Project (Phase 1 Release 3) data as the reference and genotyped additional samples (5878 cases and 7046 controls) for possible replication. In our meta-analysis, three new loci achieved genome-wide significance, marked by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7741164 at 6p21.1 (per-allele odds ratio (OR) = 1.17; P = 5.8 × 10(-13)), rs72658409 at 9p21.3 (per-allele OR = 0.77; P = 1.41 × 10(-10)) and rs11610143 at 12q13.13 (per-allele OR = 0.89; P = 4.96 × 10(-9)). These findings identified new genetic susceptibility alleles for lung cancer in never-smoking women in Asia and merit follow-up to understand their biological underpinnings. PMID:26732429

  17. Analysis of candidate genes underlying two epistatic quantitative trait loci on SSC12 affecting litter size in pig.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, A; Rodríguez, C; Varona, L; Balcells, I; Noguera, J L; Ovilo, C; Fernández, A I

    2010-02-01

    The previous results from a genome scan for total number of piglets born and number of piglets born alive in a F(2) Iberian by Meishan intercross showed several single and epistatic QTL. One of the most interesting results was obtained for SSC12, where two QTL affecting both traits showed epistatic interaction. In this study, we proposed two genes (SLC9A3R1 and NOS2) as biological and potentially positional candidates underlying these QTL. Both cDNAs were characterized and 23 polymorphisms were detected. A chromosome scan was conducted with 12 markers, plus one SNP in SLC9A3R1 and one in NOS2, covering 110 cM of SSC12. The epistatic QTL (QTL1 at 15 cM and QTL2 at 97 cM) were confirmed, and SLC9A3R1 and NOS2 were mapped around the QTL1 and QTL2 regions respectively. Several SNPs in both genes were tested with standard animal model and marker assisted association tests. The most significant results were obtained with the NOS2 haplotype defined by one missense SNP c.2192C > T (Val to Ala) and a 15 bp duplication at the 3'UTR. This duplication seems to include AU-rich elements, and could be a target site for miRNA, therefore there are statistical and biological indications to consider this haplotype as the potential causal mutation underlying QTL2. SLC9A3R1 results were not conclusive. Although the interaction between the SNPs was not significant, we cannot reject the possibility of interaction of the NOS2 haplotype with other polymorphisms closely linked to the SL9A3R1 SNPs analysed. PMID:19793269

  18. Variations of the perforin gene in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cappellano, G; Orilieri, E; Comi, C; Chiocchetti, A; Bocca, S; Boggio, E; Bernardone, I S; Cometa, A; Clementi, R; Barizzone, N; D'Alfonso, S; Corrado, L; Galimberti, D; Scarpini, E; Guerini, F R; Caputo, D; Paolicelli, D; Trojano, M; Figà-Talamanca, L; Salvetti, M; Perla, F; Leone, M; Monaco, F; Dianzani, U

    2008-07-01

    Perforin is involved in cell-mediated cytotoxicity and mutations of its gene (PRF1) cause familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FLH2). PRF1 sequencing in 190 patients with multiple sclerosis and 268 controls detected two FLH2-associated variations (A91V, N252S) in both groups and six novel mutations (C999T, G1065A, G1428A, A1620G, G719A, C1069T) in patients. All together, carriers of these variations were more frequent in patients than in controls (phenotype frequency: 17 vs 9%, P=0.0166; odds ratio (OR)=2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-3.77). Although A91V was the most frequent variation and displayed a trend of association with multiple sclerosis (MS) in the first population of patients and controls (frequency of the 91V allele: 0.076 vs 0.043, P=0.044), we used it as a marker to confirm PRF1 involvement in MS and assessed its frequency in a second population of 966 patients and 1520 controls. Frequency of the 91V allele was significantly higher in patients than in controls also in the second population (0.075 vs 0.058%, P=0.019). In the combined cohorts of 1156 patients and 1788 controls, presence of the 91V allele in single or double dose conferred an OR=1.38 (95% CI=1.10-1.74). These data suggest that A91V and possibly other perforin variations indicate susceptibility to MS. PMID:18496551

  19. A next-generation sequencing method for overcoming the multiple gene copy problem in polyploid phylogenetics, applied to Poa grasses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Polyploidy is important from a phylogenetic perspective because of its immense past impact on evolution and its potential future impact on diversification, survival and adaptation, especially in plants. Molecular population genetics studies of polyploid organisms have been difficult because of problems in sequencing multiple-copy nuclear genes using Sanger sequencing. This paper describes a method for sequencing a barcoded mixture of targeted gene regions using next-generation sequencing methods to overcome these problems. Results Using 64 3-bp barcodes, we successfully sequenced three chloroplast and two nuclear gene regions (each of which contained two gene copies with up to two alleles per individual) in a total of 60 individuals across 11 species of Australian Poa grasses. This method had high replicability, a low sequencing error rate (after appropriate quality control) and a low rate of missing data. Eighty-eight percent of the 320 gene/individual combinations produced sequence reads, and >80% of individuals produced sufficient reads to detect all four possible nuclear alleles of the homeologous nuclear loci with 95% probability. We applied this method to a group of sympatric Australian alpine Poa species, which we discovered to share an allopolyploid ancestor with a group of American Poa species. All markers revealed extensive allele sharing among the Australian species and so we recommend that the current taxonomy be re-examined. We also detected hypermutation in the trnH-psbA marker, suggesting it should not be used as a land plant barcode region. Some markers indicated differentiation between Tasmanian and mainland samples. Significant positive spatial genetic structure was detected at <100 km with chloroplast but not nuclear markers, which may be a result of restricted seed flow and long-distance pollen flow in this wind-pollinated group. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that 454 sequencing of barcoded amplicon mixtures can be used to

  20. Fine scale association mapping of disease loci using simplex families.

    PubMed

    Morris, A P; Whittaker, J C

    2000-05-01

    We present a new method for the fine scale mapping of disease loci based on samples of simplex families, each containing an affected child. The method is based on a generalisation of a single locus allele transmission model to multiple marker loci. The model is developed under the assumption of a single ancestral mutation and allows for the calculation of posterior probabilities that each allele at a particular marker was present on the founder chromosome. We illustrate the method using simulated family data for cystic fibrosis and Huntingtons disease, for which the locations of mutations in the disease genes are now known. For both diseases, our new method provides good estimates of the location of the mutations. PMID:11246474

  1. X-linked gene expression in the Virginia opossum: differences between the paternally derived Gpd and Pgk-A loci

    SciTech Connect

    Samollow, P.B.; Ford, A.L.; VandeBerg, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Expression of X-linked glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and phosphoglycerate kinase-A (PGK-A) in the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) was studied electrophoretically in animals from natural populations and those produced through controlled laboratory crosses. Blood from most of the wild animals exhibited a common single-banded phenotype for both enzymes. Rare variant animals, regardless of sex, exhibited single-banded phenotypes different in mobility from the common mobility class of the respective enzyme. The laboratory crosses confirmed the allelic basis for the common and rare phenotypes. Transmission of PGK-A phenotypes followed the pattern of determinate (nonrandom) inactivation of the paternally derived Pgk-A allele, and transmission of G6PD also was consistent with this pattern. A survey of tissue-specific expression of G6PD phenotypes of heterozygous females revealed, in almost all tissues, three-banded patterns skewed in favor of the allele that was expressed in blood cells. Three-banded patterns were never observed in males or in putatively homozygous females. These patterns suggest simultaneous, but unequal, expression of the maternally and paternally derived Gpd alleles within individual cells. The absence of such partial expression was noted in a parallel survey of females heterozygous at the Pgd-A locus. Thus, it appears that Gpd and Pgk-A are X-linked in D. virginiana and subject to preferential paternal allele inactivation, but that dosage compensation may not be complete for all paternally derived X-linked genes.

  2. PDCD10 Gene Mutations in Multiple Cerebral Cavernous Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Cigoli, Maria Sole; Avemaria, Francesca; De Benedetti, Stefano; Gesu, Giovanni P.; Accorsi, Lucio Giordano; Parmigiani, Stefano; Corona, Maria Franca; Capra, Valeria; Mosca, Andrea; Giovannini, Simona; Notturno, Francesca; Ciccocioppo, Fausta; Volpi, Lilia; Estienne, Margherita; De Michele, Giuseppe; Antenora, Antonella; Bilo, Leda; Tavoni, Antonietta; Zamponi, Nelia; Alfei, Enrico; Baranello, Giovanni; Riva, Daria; Penco, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are vascular abnormalities that may cause seizures, intracerebral haemorrhages, and focal neurological deficits. Familial form shows an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance with incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expression. Three genes have been identified causing familial CCM: KRIT1/CCM1, MGC4607/CCM2, and PDCD10/CCM3. Aim of this study is to report additional PDCD10/CCM3 families poorly described so far which account for 10-15% of hereditary cerebral cavernous malformations. Our group investigated 87 consecutive Italian affected individuals (i.e. positive Magnetic Resonance Imaging) with multiple/familial CCM through direct sequencing and Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) analysis. We identified mutations in over 97.7% of cases, and PDCD10/CCM3 accounts for 13.1%. PDCD10/CCM3 molecular screening revealed four already known mutations and four novel ones. The mutated patients show an earlier onset of clinical manifestations as compared to CCM1/CCM2 mutated patients. The study of further families carrying mutations in PDCD10/CCM3 may help define a possible correlation between genotype and phenotype; an accurate clinical follow up of the subjects would help define more precisely whether mutations in PDCD10/CCM3 lead to a characteristic phenotype. PMID:25354366

  3. Contributions to gene activation by multiple functions of Bicoid.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, X; Yuan, D; Scarborough, T; Ma, J

    1999-01-01

    Bicoid is a Drosophila morphogenetic protein required for the development of anterior structures in the embryo. To gain a better understanding of how Bicoid works as a transcriptional activator, we systematically analysed various functions of Bicoid required for gene activation. We provide evidence suggesting that Bicoid is an intrinsically weak activator. First, our biochemical experiments demonstrate that the Bicoid-DNA complexes are very unstable, suggesting a weak DNA-binding function of Bicoid. This idea is further supported by our experiments demonstrating that the same number of LexA-Bicoid fusion molecules can activate transcription more effectively from LexA sites than from Bicoid sites. Secondly, we demonstrate that transcriptional activation by the weak activator Bicoid is readily influenced by the local enhancer environment. These influences are decreased when the Bicoid function is enforced by attaching to it either a known dimerization domain or the strong activation domain VP16. VP16 can also compensate for the loss of some Bicoid sites in an enhancer element. Our experiments demonstrate that the outcome of transcriptional activation by Bicoid is determined by multiple weak functions that are interconnected, a finding that can further help us to understand how this morphogenetic protein achieves its molecular functions. PMID:10024522

  4. Gene-wide analyses of genome-wide association datasets: evidence for multiple common risk alleles for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and for overlap in genetic risk

    PubMed Central

    Moskvina, V.; Craddock, N.; Holmans, P.; Nikolov, I.; Pahwa, J.S.; Green, E.; Owen, M.J.; O’Donovan, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses have identified susceptibility loci for many diseases, but most risk for any complex disorder remains un-attributed. There is therefore scope for complementary approaches to these datasets. Gene-wide approaches potentially offer additional insights. They might identify association to genes through multiple signals. Also, by providing support for genes rather than SNPs, they offer an additional opportunity to compare the results across datasets. We have undertaken gene-wide analysis of two GWAS datasets; schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. We performed two forms of analysis, one based upon the smallest p-value per gene, the other upon a truncated product of p method. For each dataset and at a range of statistical thresholds, we observed significantly more SNPs within genes (pmin for excess<0.001) showing evidence for association than expected whereas this was not true for extra-genic SNPs (pmin for excess>0.1). At a range of thresholds of significance, we also observed substantially more associated genes than expected (pmin for excess in schizophrenia =1.8×10−8, in bipolar = 2.4×10−6). Moreover, an excess of genes showed evidence for association across disorders. Among those genes surpassing thresholds highly enriched for true association, we observed evidence for association to genes reported in other GWAS datasets (CACNA1C) or to closely related family members of those genes including CSF2RB, CACNA1B, and DGKI. Our analyses show that association signals are enriched in and around genes, that large numbers of genes contribute to both disorders, and that gene-wide analyses offer useful complementary approaches to more standard methods. PMID:19065143

  5. Layered genetic control of DNA methylation and gene expression: a locus of multiple sclerosis in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jean; Bourdon, Celine; Bernard, Manon; Wilson, Michael D; Reischl, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Ruggeri, Barbara; Schumann, Gunter; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Leemans, Alexander; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Leonard, Gabriel; Richer, Louis; Bouchard, Luigi; Gaudet, Daniel; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka

    2015-10-15

    DNA methylation may contribute to the etiology of complex genetic disorders through its impact on genome integrity and gene expression; it is modulated by DNA-sequence variants, named methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs). Most meQTLs influence methylation of a few CpG dinucleotides within short genomic regions (<3 kb). Here, we identified a layered genetic control of DNA methylation at numerous CpGs across a long 300 kb genomic region. This control involved a single long-range meQTL and multiple local meQTLs. The long-range meQTL explained up to 75% of variance in methylation of CpGs located over extended areas of the 300 kb region. The meQTL was identified in four samples (P = 2.8 × 10(-17), 3.1 × 10(-31), 4.0 × 10(-71) and 5.2 × 10(-199)), comprising a total of 2796 individuals. The long-range meQTL was strongly associated not only with DNA methylation but also with mRNA expression of several genes within the 300 kb region (P = 7.1 × 10(-18)-1.0 × 10(-123)). The associations of the meQTL with gene expression became attenuated when adjusted for DNA methylation (causal inference test: P = 2.4 × 10(-13)-7.1 × 10(-20)), indicating coordinated regulation of DNA methylation and gene expression. Further, the long-range meQTL was found to be in linkage disequilibrium with the most replicated locus of multiple sclerosis, a disease affecting primarily the brain white matter. In middle-aged adults free of the disease, we observed that the risk allele was associated with subtle structural properties of the brain white matter found in multiple sclerosis (P = 0.02). In summary, we identified a long-range meQTL that controls methylation and expression of several genes and may be involved in increasing brain vulnerability to multiple sclerosis. PMID:26220975

  6. A method to generate recombinant Salmonella typhi Ty21a strains expressing multiple heterologous genes using an improved recombineering strategy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Yang, Mei; Wong, Ho Yin Bosco; Watt, Rory M; Song, Erwei; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2011-07-01

    Live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi Ty21a (Ty21a) is an important vaccine strain used in clinical studies for typhoid fever and as a vaccine vector for the expression of heterologous antigens. To facilitate the use of Ty21a in such studies, it is desirable to develop improved strategies that enable the stable chromosomal integration and expression of multiple heterologous antigens. The phage λ Red homologous recombination system has previously been used in various gram-negative bacteria species to mediate the accurate replacement of regions of chromosomal DNA with PCR-generated 'targeting cassettes' that contain flanking regions of shared homologous DNA sequence. However, the efficiency of λ Red-mediated recombineering in Ty21a is far lower than in Escherichia coli and other Salmonella typhimurium strains. Here, we describe an improved strategy for recombineering-based methods in Ty21a. Our reliable and efficient method involves the use of linear DNA-targeting cassettes that contain relatively long flanking 'arms' of sequence (ca. 1,000 bp) homologous to the chromosomal target. This enables multiple gene-targeting procedures to be performed on a single Ty21a chromosome in a straightforward, sequential manner. Using this strategy, we inserted three different influenza antigen expression cassettes as well as a green fluorescent protein gene reporter into four different loci on the Ty21a chromosome, with high efficiency and accuracy. Fluorescent microscopy and Western blotting analysis confirmed that strong inducible expression of all four heterologous genes could be achieved. In summary, we have developed an efficient, robust, and versatile method that may be used to construct recombinant Ty21a antigen-expressing strains. PMID:216