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Sample records for multiple immediate-early gene-deleted

  1. Properties of a herpes simplex virus multiple immediate-early gene-deleted recombinant as a vaccine vector

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Daisuke; Brockman, Mark A.; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Mathews, Lydia; Lucas, William T.; Murphy, Cynthia G.; Felber, Barbara K.; Pavlakis, George N.; Deluca, Neal A.; Knipe, David M. . E-mail: david_knipe@hms.harvard.edu

    2007-01-20

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) recombinants induce durable immune responses in rhesus macaques and mice and have induced partial protection in rhesus macaques against mucosal challenge with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). In this study, we evaluated the properties of a new generation HSV vaccine vector, an HSV-1 multiple immediate-early (IE) gene deletion mutant virus, d106, which contains deletions in the ICP4, ICP27, ICP22, and ICP47 genes. Because several of the HSV IE genes have been implicated in immune evasion, inactivation of the genes encoding these proteins was expected to result in enhanced immunogenicity. The d106 virus expresses few HSV gene products and shows minimal cytopathic effect in cultured cells. When d106 was inoculated into mice, viral DNA accumulated at high levels in draining lymph nodes, consistent with an ability to transduce dendritic cells and activate their maturation and movement to lymph nodes. A d106 recombinant expressing Escherichia coli {beta}-galactosidase induced durable {beta}-gal-specific IgG and CD8{sup +} T cell responses in naive and HSV-immune mice. Finally, d106-based recombinants have been constructed that express simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag, env, or a rev-tat-nef fusion protein for several days in cultured cells. Thus, d106 shows many of the properties desirable in a vaccine vector: limited expression of HSV gene products and cytopathogenicity, high level expression of transgenes, ability to induce durable immune responses, and an ability to transduce dendritic cells and induce their maturation and migration to lymph nodes.

  2. Multiple gene deletion in Cryptococcus neoformans using the Cre-lox system.

    PubMed

    Baker, Lorina G; Lodge, Jennifer K

    2012-01-01

    Reverse genetics is commonly used to identify and characterize genes involved in a variety of cellular processes. There is a limited set of positive selectable markers available for use in making gene deletions or other genetic manipulations in Cryptococcus neoformans. Here, we describe the adaptation of the Bacteriophage P1 Cre-loxP system for use in C. neoformans, and its application in the excision and reuse of the geneticin drug marker. This tool will allow investigators to make multiple, sequential gene deletions in the same strain, which should facilitate the analysis of multigene families. PMID:22328369

  3. Efficient and simple generation of multiple unmarked gene deletions in Mycobacterium smegmatis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xu-Jian; Yan, Mei-Yi; Zhu, Hui; Guo, Xiao-Peng; Sun, Yi-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Research on mycobacterial genetics relies heavily on techniques for directed gene mutation, but genetic studies are often hampered by the difficulty of generating gene deletions in mycobacteria. We developed an efficient and improved deletion system, described here in detail, which can be used to construct multiple unmarked recombinants in mycobacteria. We tested this system by using it to sequentially delete four pairs of toxin-antitoxin genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis. PMID:26972108

  4. Assessment of the Toxicity of CuO Nanoparticles by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutants with Multiple Genes Deleted.

    PubMed

    Bao, Shaopan; Lu, Qicong; Fang, Tao; Dai, Heping; Zhang, Chao

    2015-12-01

    To develop applicable and susceptible models to evaluate the toxicity of nanoparticles, the antimicrobial effects of CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) on various Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) strains (wild type, single-gene-deleted mutants, and multiple-gene-deleted mutants) were determined and compared. Further experiments were also conducted to analyze the mechanisms associated with toxicity using copper salt, bulk CuO (bCuO), carbon-shelled copper nanoparticles (C/Cu-NPs), and carbon nanoparticles (C-NPs) for comparisons. The results indicated that the growth inhibition rates of CuO-NPs for the wild-type and the single-gene-deleted strains were comparable, while for the multiple-gene deletion mutant, significantly higher toxicity was observed (P < 0.05). When the toxicity of the CuO-NPs to yeast cells was compared with the toxicities of copper salt and bCuO, we concluded that the toxicity of CuO-NPs should be attributed to soluble copper rather than to the nanoparticles. The striking difference in adverse effects of C-NPs and C/Cu-NPs with equivalent surface areas also proved this. A toxicity assay revealed that the multiple-gene-deleted mutant was significantly more sensitive to CuO-NPs than the wild type. Specifically, compared with the wild-type strain, copper was readily taken up by mutant strains when cell permeability genes were knocked out, and the mutants with deletions of genes regulated under oxidative stress (OS) were likely producing more reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hence, as mechanism-based gene inactivation could increase the susceptibility of yeast, the multiple-gene-deleted mutants should be improved model organisms to investigate the toxicity of nanoparticles. PMID:26386067

  5. Interstitial deletion of 11(p11.2p12): A newly described contiguous gene deletion syndrome involving the gene for hereditary multiple exostoses

    SciTech Connect

    Potocki, L.; Shaffer, L.G.

    1996-03-29

    Individuals with deletions of the proximal portion of the short arm of chromosome 11 share many manifestations including mental retardation, biparietal foramina, minor facial anomalies, and multiple cartilaginous exostoses. The finding of multiple exostoses in these patients is remarkable as the disorder hereditary multiple exostoses, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, has recently been mapped by linkage to three regions, including proximal 11p. We report the clinical and molecular findings in an additional patient with an 11(p11.2p12) deletion. Cytogenetic and molecular analysis demonstrated a de novo, paternally derived deletion for markers which have been shown to be tightly linked to the 11p locus (EXT2). These data support the location of EXT2 within this region and also provide information regarding the ordering of polymorphic markers on 11p. Deletion 11(p11.2p12) is a rare, yet specific, deletion syndrome involving the EXT2 locus, a gene for parietal foramina, and a mental retardation locus, and therefore can be classified as a contiguous gene deletion syndrome. 24 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Serum Leukocyte Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor A3 (LILRA3) Is Increased in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis and Is a Strong Independent Indicator of Disease Severity; 6.7kbp LILRA3 Gene Deletion Is Not Associated with Diseases Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    An, Hongyan; Lim, Chai; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Vollmer-Conna, Ute; Rawlinson, William; Bryant, Katherine; Tedla, Nicodemus

    2016-01-01

    Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor A3 (LILRA3) is a soluble immune regulatory molecule primarily expressed by monocytes and macrophages. A homozygous 6.7kbp LILRA3 gene deletion that removes the first seven of its eight exons is predicted to lead to lack of LILRA3 protein, although this has not been experimentally confirmed. Moreover, there are conflicting results with regards to the link between the LILRA3 homozygous genetic deletion and susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) in different European populations. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LILRA3 gene deletion is associated with MS susceptibility in a North American cohort of European ancestry and assess if serum LILRA3 protein level is a marker of clinical subtype and/or disease severity in MS. A total of 456 patients with MS and 99 unrelated healthy controls were genotyped for the 6.7kbp LILRA3 gene deletion and levels of LILRA3 protein in sera determined by in-house sandwich ELISA. We showed that LILRA3 gene deletion was not associated with MS susceptibility and did not affect the age of disease onset, clinical subtype or disease severity. However, we discovered for the first time that homozygous LILRA3 gene deletion results in lack of production of LILRA3 protein. Importantly, LILRA3 protein level was significantly increased in sera of patients with MS when compared with control subjects, particularly in more severe type primary progressive MS. Multiple regression analysis showed that LILRA3 level in serum was one of the strongest independent markers of disease severity in MS, which potentially can be used as a diagnostic marker. PMID:26871720

  7. GITR gene deletion and GITR-FC soluble protein administration inhibit multiple organ failure induced by zymosan.

    PubMed

    Galuppo, Maria; Nocentini, Giuseppe; Mazzon, Emanuela; Ronchetti, Simona; Esposito, Emanuela; Riccardi, Luisa; Di Paola, Rosanna; Bruscoli, Stefano; Riccardi, Carlo; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2011-09-01

    Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a systemic inflammatory event that can result in organ damage, failure, and high risk of mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible role of glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related (GITR) on zymosan-induced MODS. Mice were allocated into one GITR knockout (GITR-KO) and two GITR wild-type (GITR-WT) experimental groups. All the animals were treated with zymosan (500 mg/kg, suspended in saline solution, i.p.), and animals of one GITR-WT group received GITR-Fc (6.25 ?g/mouse; 3 h after zymosan injection) by mini-osmotic pump. Moreover, three control groups were performed (one GITR-KO and two GITR-WT experimental groups), administering saline instead of zymosan and treating one of the GITR-WT group with GITR-Fc (6.25 ?g/mouse; 3 h after saline injection) by mini-osmotic pump. A number of inflammatory parameters such as edema formation, histological damage, adhesion molecules expression, neutrophil infiltration, proinflammatory cytokines, nitrotyrosine, and iNOS production are significantly reduced in GITR-KO as compared with GITR-WT mice as well as in GITR-WT mice treated with GITR-Fc. We here show that GITR plays a role in the modulation of experimental MODS. In particular, we show that genetic inhibition of GITR expression, in GITR-KO mice, or administration of soluble GITR-Fc receptor in GITR-WT mice, reduces inflammation, organ tissue damage, and mortality. Results, while confirming the proinflammatory role of GITR, extend our observations indicating that GITR plays a role in zymosan-induced inflammation and MODS. PMID:21654556

  8. Immediate early response genes and cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Healy, Shannon; Khan, Protiti; Davie, James R

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has been described as not one disease, but several, each with unique characteristics, symptoms, prognostics and outcomes. Underlying this complexity is a differential expression of genes, leading to a motley of phenotypes which orchestrate the hallmarks of cancer. The idea of treating, suppressing or even preventing all forms of cancer with a single form of therapy seems untenable given the complexities of these gene expression profiles. However, recent advances in the study of immediate early genes, a family of genes that are rapidly and transiently upregulated following an external stimulus such as growth factors, hormones or stress, and their ubiquitous involvement in regulating oncogenomic responses may lend itself to new and unique therapies. At the very least, understanding and targeting immediate early gene expression and function remains an untapped area in cancer prevention research, and could very well provide new resources in cancer treatment and new perspectives in directed cancer suppression. In this review, we will discuss the critical role immediate early genes play in cancer progression, and provide specific examples of immediate early gene function and inhibition. PMID:22983151

  9. Adaptive cyanogenesis clines evolve recurrently through geographical sorting of existing gene deletions.

    PubMed

    Kooyers, N J; Olsen, K M

    2014-11-01

    Identifying the genetic basis of parallel phenotypic evolution provides insight into the process of adaptation and evolutionary constraint. White clover (Trifolium repens) has evolved climate-associated adaptive clines in cyanogenesis (the ability to produce hydrogen cyanide upon tissue damage) in several world regions where it has been introduced. Gene-deletion polymorphisms at the CYP79D15 and Li loci underlie the presence/absence of the cyanogenic phenotype. Both loci have undergone multiple independent gene-deletion events, which are identifiable through molecular signatures in flanking regions. To investigate whether cyanogenesis clines in introduced populations have evolved through the sorting of standing genetic variation or de novo gene deletions, we examined cyanogenesis gene-flanking regions in three world regions. In comparison with native Eurasian populations, we find no evidence for novel gene deletion events in any introduced region, which suggests that these adaptive clines have evolved through the geographical sorting of pre-existing genetic variation. PMID:25146520

  10. Group II Intron-Anchored Gene Deletion in Clostridium

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Kaizhi; Zhu, Yan; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium plays an important role in commercial and medical use, for which targeted gene deletion is difficult. We proposed an intron-anchored gene deletion approach for Clostridium, which combines the advantage of the group II intron ClosTron system and homologous recombination. In this approach, an intron carrying a fragment homologous to upstream or downstream of the target site was first inserted into the genome by retrotransposition, followed by homologous recombination, resulting in gene deletion. A functional unknown operon CAC14931494 located in the chromosome, and an operon ctfAB located in the megaplasmid of C. acetobutylicum DSM1731 were successfully deleted by using this approach, without leaving antibiotic marker in the genome. We therefore propose this approach can be used for targeted gene deletion in Clostridium. This approach might also be applicable for gene deletion in other bacterial species if group II intron retrotransposition system is established. PMID:21304965

  11. Somatic mosaicism for a DMD gene deletion

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, Kayoko; Ikeya, Kiyoko; Kondo, Eri

    1995-03-13

    Mosaicism is a mixed state, with two cell populations of different genetic origins caused by a cell mutation occurring after fertilization. In the present case, DNA analysis of lymphocytes led to a DMD diagnosis before death. Postmortem immunocytochemical and DNA analysis showed somatic mosaicism. At age 18 years, blood lymphocyte DNA analysis showed a DMD gene deletion, upstream from exon 7 to the 5{prime} end containing both muscle and brain promoters. As the patient`s mother and elder sister had no deletions, he was considered to have a new mutation. Immunocytochemical studies of postmortem tissues showed that dystrophin was absent from the tongue, deltoid, intercostal, psoas and rectus femoris muscles, but there was a mix of dystrophin-positive and negative fibers in the rectus abdominis, cardiac, temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles. All diaphragm cells were dystrophin positive. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from all tissues except the temporalis and sternocleidomastoid muscles, diaphragm and kidney, in which no deletion was found, showed the deletion from at least exon 6 to the 5{prime} end containing both muscle and brain promoters. In this case, a genomic deletion of the DMD gene contributed to the formation of tissues derived from both ectoderm and endoderm, and cells of mesodermal origin showed genotypic and phenotypic heterogeneity. Our results indicate a mutation of the present case may have occurred just before the period of germ layer formation. 34 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Efficient sequential repetitive gene deletions in Neurospora crassa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite its long-standing history as a model organism, Neurospora crassa has limited tools for repetitive gene deletions utilizing recyclable self-excising marker systems. Here we describe, for the first time, the functionality of a bacterial recombination system employing -recombinase acting on si...

  13. Sensorineural deafness and male infertility: a contiguous gene deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuzhou; Malekpour, Mahdi; Al?Madani, Navid; Kahrizi, Kimia; Zanganeh, Marvam; Mohseni, Marzieh; Mojahedi, Faezeh; Daneshi, Ahmad; Najmabadi, Hossein; Smith, Richard J H

    2007-01-01

    Background Syndromic hearing loss that results from contiguous gene deletions is uncommon. Deafness?infertility syndrome (DIS) is caused by large contiguous gene deletions at 15q15.3. Methods Three families with a novel syndrome characterised by deafness and infertility are described. These three families do not share a common ancestor and do not share identical deletions. Linkage was established by completing a genome?wide scan and candidate genes in the linked region were screened by direct sequencing. Results The deleted region is about 100?kb long and involves four genes (KIAA0377, CKMT1B, STRC and CATSPER2), each of which has a telomeric duplicate. This genomic architecture underlies the mechanism by which these deletions occur. CATSPER2 and STRC are expressed in the sperm and inner ear, respectively, consistent with the phenotype in persons homozygous for this deletion. A deletion of this region has been reported in one other family segregating male infertility and sensorineural deafness, although congenital dyserythropoietic anaemia type I (CDAI) was also present, presumably due to a second deletion in another genomic region. Conclusion We have identified three families segregating an autosomal recessive contiguous gene deletion syndrome characterised by deafness and sperm dysmotility. This new syndrome is caused by the deletion of contiguous genes at 15q15.3. PMID:17098888

  14. Donor-recipient mismatch for common gene deletion polymorphisms in graft-versus-host disease

    PubMed Central

    McCarroll, Steven A.; Bradner, James E.; Turpeinen, Hannu; Volin, Liisa; Martin, Paul J.; Chilewski, Shannon D.; Antin, Joseph H.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Ruutu, Tapani; Storer, Barry; Warren, Edus H.; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Lue Ping; Ginsburg, David; Soiffer, Robert J.; Partanen, Jukka; Hansen, John A.; Ritz, Jerome; Palotie, Aarno; Altshuler, David

    2009-01-01

    Transplantation and pregnancy, in which two diploid genomes reside in one body, can each lead to diseases in which immune cells from one individual target antigens encoded in the others genome. One such disease, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, or bone marrow transplant), is common even after transplants between HLA-identical siblings, indicating that cryptic histocompatibility loci exist outside the HLA locus. The immune system of an individual whose genome is homozygous for a gene deletion can recognize epitopes encoded by that gene as alloantigens. Analyzing common gene deletions in three HSCT cohorts (1,345 HLA-identical sibling donor-recipient pairs), we found that risk of acute GVHD was greater (OR = 2.5 [95%CI, 1.44.6]) when donor and recipient were mismatched for homozygous deletion of UGT2B17, a gene expressed in GVHD-affected tissues and giving rise to multiple histocompatibility antigens. Human genome structural variation merits investigation as a potential mechanism in diseases of alloimmunity. PMID:19935662

  15. Donor-recipient mismatch for common gene deletion polymorphisms in graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    McCarroll, Steven A; Bradner, James E; Turpeinen, Hannu; Volin, Liisa; Martin, Paul J; Chilewski, Shannon D; Antin, Joseph H; Lee, Stephanie J; Ruutu, Tapani; Storer, Barry; Warren, Edus H; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Lue Ping; Ginsburg, David; Soiffer, Robert J; Partanen, Jukka; Hansen, John A; Ritz, Jerome; Palotie, Aarno; Altshuler, David

    2009-12-01

    Transplantation and pregnancy, in which two diploid genomes reside in one body, can each lead to diseases in which immune cells from one individual target antigens encoded in the other's genome. One such disease, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, or bone marrow transplant), is common even after transplants between HLA-identical siblings, indicating that cryptic histocompatibility loci exist outside the HLA locus. The immune system of an individual whose genome is homozygous for a gene deletion could recognize epitopes encoded by that gene as alloantigens. Analyzing common gene deletions in three HSCT cohorts (1,345 HLA-identical sibling donor-recipient pairs), we found that risk of acute GVHD was greater (odds ratio (OR) = 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-4.6) when donor and recipient were mismatched for homozygous deletion of UGT2B17, a gene expressed in GVHD-affected tissues and giving rise to multiple histocompatibility antigens. Human genome structural variation merits investigation as a potential mechanism in diseases of alloimmunity. PMID:19935662

  16. A Proteomic Analysis of Immediate-Early Response Plasma Proteins After 70% and 90% Partial Hepatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sudhanshu; Zou, Yuhong; Bao, Qi; Wang, Mu; Dai, Guoli

    2015-01-01

    Partial hepatectomy (PH) induces robust hepatic regenerative and metabolic responses that are considered to be triggered by humoral factors. The aim of the study was to identify plasma protein factors that potentially trigger or reflect the bodys immediate-early responses to liver mass reduction. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to sham operation, 70% PH, or 90% PH. Blood was collected from the inferior vena cava at 20, 60, and 180 minutes after surgery. Using a label-free quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach, we identified 399 proteins exhibiting significant changes in plasma expression between any two groups. Of the 399 proteins, 167 proteins had multiple unique sequences and high peptide ID confidence (>90%) and were defined as priority 1 proteins. A group of plasma proteins largely associated with metabolism is enriched after 70% PH. Among the plasma proteins that respond to 90% PH are a dominant group of proteins that are also associated with metabolism and one known cytokine (platelet factor 4). Ninety percent PH and 70% PH induces similar changes in plasma protein profile. Our findings enable us to gain insight into the immediate-early response of plasma proteins to liver mass loss. Our data support the notion that increased metabolic demands of the body after massive liver mass loss may function as a sensor that calibrates hepatic regenerative response. PMID:23279269

  17. Enhancer RNA facilitates NELF release from immediate early genes.

    PubMed

    Schaukowitch, Katie; Joo, Jae-Yeol; Liu, Xihui; Watts, Jonathan K; Martinez, Carlos; Kim, Tae-Kyung

    2014-10-01

    Enhancer RNAs (eRNAs) are a class of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) expressed from active enhancers, whose function and action mechanism are yet to be firmly established. Here we show that eRNAs facilitate the transition of paused RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) into productive elongation by acting as a decoy for the negative elongation factor (NELF) complex upon induction of immediate early genes (IEGs) in neurons. eRNAs are synthesized prior to the culmination of target gene transcription and interact with the NELF complex. Knockdown of eRNAs expressed at neuronal enhancers impairs transient release of NELF from the specific target promoters during transcriptional activation, coinciding with a decrease in target mRNA induction. The enhancer-promoter interaction was unaffected by eRNA knockdown. Instead, chromatin looping might enable eRNAs to act locally at a specific promoter. Our findings highlight the spatiotemporally regulated action mechanism of eRNAs during early transcriptional elongation. PMID:25263592

  18. Discrimination of mumps virus small hydrophobic gene deletion effects from gene translation effects on virus virulence.

    PubMed

    Malik, Tahir; Shegogue, Candie Wolbert; Werner, Kellie; Ngo, Laurie; Sauder, Christian; Zhang, Cheryl; Duprex, William Paul; Rubin, Steven

    2011-06-01

    Deletion of the small hydrophobic (SH) protein of certain paramyxoviruses has been found to result in attenuation, suggesting that the SH protein is a virulence factor. To investigate the role of the mumps virus (MuV) SH protein in virulence, multiple stop codons were introduced into the open reading frame (ORF) of a MuV molecular clone (r88-1961(SHstop)), preserving genome structure but precluding production of the SH protein. No differences in neurovirulence were seen between the wild-type and the SH(stop) viruses. In contrast, upon deletion of the SH gene, significant neuroattenuation was observed. These data indicate that the MuV SH protein is not a neurovirulence factor and highlight the importance of distinguishing gene deletion effects from protein-specific effects. PMID:21471236

  19. Inhibition of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early gene expression by an antisense oligonucleotide complementary to immediate-early RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, K P; Fox, M C; Brown-Driver, V; Martin, M J; Azad, R F

    1996-01-01

    ISIS 2922 is a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide that is complementary to human cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early (IE) RNA and that exhibits potent and specific antiviral activity against CMV in cell culture assays. Specific assay systems were developed to separately characterize the antisense and nonantisense components of the antiviral activity mediated by ISIS 2922. In U373 cells transformed with cDNA encoding the CMV IE 55-kDa (IE55) protein, expression was inhibited at nanomolar concentrations comparable to effective concentrations in antiviral assays. The specificity of inhibition was demonstrated by using control oligonucleotides incorporating progressive base changes to destabilize oligonucleotide-RNA base pairing and by showing a lack of inhibition of the CMV IE72 product expressed from the same promoter. Inhibition of IE55 protein expression correlated with a reduction in mRNA levels consistent with an RNase H-mediated termination event. Studies with virus-infected cells demonstrated that antisense and nonantisense mechanisms contribute to the antiviral activity of ISIS 2922. Base complementarity to target RNA was important for optimal activity in antiviral assays, but base changes affecting parameters other than hybridization affinity also influenced antiviral activity. Sequence-independent inhibition of virus adsorption to host cells by phosphorothioate oligonucleotides was also observed at high concentrations. Therefore, at least three different mechanisms may contribute to the antiviral activity of ISIS 2922 in cell culture: antisense-mediated inhibition of target gene expression; nonantisense, sequence-dependent inhibition of virus replication; and sequence-independent inhibition of virus adsorption to host cells. PMID:8878571

  20. Influence of Isoflurane on Immediate-Early Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Bunting, Kristopher M.; Nalloor, Rebecca I.; Vazdarjanova, Almira

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anterograde amnesia is a hallmark effect of volatile anesthetics. Isoflurane is known to affect both the translation and transcription of plasticity-associated genes required for normal memory formation in many brain regions. What is not known is whether isoflurane anesthesia prevents the initiation of transcription or whether it halts transcription already in progress. We tested the hypothesis that general anesthesia with isoflurane prevents learning-induced initiation of transcription of several memory-associated immediate-early genes (IEGs) correlated with amnesia; we also assessed whether it stops transcription initiated prior to anesthetic administration. Methods: Using a Tone Fear Conditioning paradigm, rats were trained to associate a tone with foot-shock. Animals received either no anesthesia, anesthesia immediately after training, or anesthesia before, during, and after training. Animals were either sacrificed after training or tested 24 h later for long-term memory. Using Cellular Compartment Analysis of Temporal Activity by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (catFISH), we examined the percentage of neurons expressing the IEGs Arc/Arg3.1 and Zif268/Egr1/Ngfi-A/Krox-24 in the dorsal hippocampus, primary somatosensory cortex, and primary auditory cortex. Results: On a cellular level, isoflurane administered at high doses (general anesthesia) prevented initiation of transcription, but did not stop transcription of Arc and Zif268 mRNA initiated prior to anesthesia. On a behavioral level, the same level of isoflurane anesthesia produced anterograde amnesia for fear conditioning when administered before and during training, but did not produce retrograde amnesia when administered immediately after training. Conclusion: General anesthesia with isoflurane prevents initiation of learning-related transcription but does not stop ongoing transcription of two plasticity-related IEGs, Arc and Zif268, a pattern of disruption that parallels the effects of isoflurane on memory formation. Combined with published research on the effects of volatile anesthetics on memory in behaving animals, our data suggests that different levels of anesthesia affect memory via different mechanisms: general anesthesia prevents elevation of mRNA levels of Arc and Zif268 which are necessary for normal memory formation, while anesthesia at lower doses affects the strength of memory by affecting levels of plasticity-related proteins. PMID:26793081

  1. Pseudomonas putida KT2440 markerless gene deletion using a combination of ? Red recombineering and Cre/loxP site-specific recombination.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xi; Yang, Yunwen; Ling, Wen; Zhuang, Hao; Li, Qin; Shang, Guangdong

    2016-02-01

    Pseudomonas putida KT2440 is a saprophytic, environmental microorganism that plays important roles in the biodegradation of environmental toxic compounds and production of polymers, chemicals and secondary metabolites. Gene deletion of KT2440 usually involves cloning of the flanking homologous fragments of the gene of interest into a suicide vector followed by transferring into KT2440 via triparental conjugation. Selection and counterselection steps are then employed to generate gene deletion mutant. However, these methods are tedious and are not suitable for the manipulation of multiple genes simultaneously. Herein, a two-step, markerless gene deletion method is presented. First, homologous armsflanked loxP-neo-loxP was knocked-in to replace the gene of interest, then the kanamycin resistance marker is removed by Cre recombinase catalyzed site-specific recombination. Both two-plasmid and one-plasmid gene systems were established. MekR/PmekA regulated gene expression system was found to be suitable for tight Cre expression in one-plasmid deletion system. The straightforward, time saving and highly efficient markerless gene deletion strategy has the potential to facilitate the genetics and functional genomics study of P.putida KT2440. PMID:26802072

  2. Negative elongation factor NELF controls transcription of immediate early genes in a stimulus-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Piuz, Isabelle; Schlegel, Werner

    2009-01-15

    The transcription rate of immediate early genes (IEGs) is controlled directly by transcription elongation factors at the transcription elongation step. Negative elongation factor (NELF) and 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF) stall RNA polymerase II (pol II) soon after transcription initiation. Upon induction of IEG transcription, DSIF is converted into an accelerator for pol II elongation. To address whether and how NELF as well as DSIF controls overall IEG transcription, its expression was reduced using stable RNA interference in GH4C1 cells. NELF knock-down reduced thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-induced transcription of the IEGs c-fos, MKP-1, and junB. In contrast, epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced transcription of these IEGs was unaltered or even slightly increased by NELF knock-down. Thus, stable knock-down of NELF affects IEG transcription stimulation-specifically. Conversely, DSIF knock-down reduced both TRH- and EGF-induced transcription of the three IEGs. Interestingly, TRH-induced activation of the MAP kinase pathway, a pathway essential for transcription of the three IEGs, was down-regulated by NELF knock-down. Thus, stable knock-down of NELF, by modulating intracellular signaling pathways, caused stimulation-specific loss of IEG transcription. These observations indicate that NELF controls overall IEG transcription via multiple mechanisms both directly and indirectly. PMID:19014935

  3. Negative elongation factor NELF controls transcription of immediate early genes in a stimulus-specific manner

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, Toshitsugu; Piuz, Isabelle; Schlegel, Werner

    2009-01-15

    The transcription rate of immediate early genes (IEGs) is controlled directly by transcription elongation factors at the transcription elongation step. Negative elongation factor (NELF) and 5,6-dichloro-1-{beta}-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB) sensitivity-inducing factor (DSIF) stall RNA polymerase II (pol II) soon after transcription initiation. Upon induction of IEG transcription, DSIF is converted into an accelerator for pol II elongation. To address whether and how NELF as well as DSIF controls overall IEG transcription, its expression was reduced using stable RNA interference in GH4C1 cells. NELF knock-down reduced thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)-induced transcription of the IEGs c-fos, MKP-1, and junB. In contrast, epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced transcription of these IEGs was unaltered or even slightly increased by NELF knock-down. Thus, stable knock-down of NELF affects IEG transcription stimulation-specifically. Conversely, DSIF knock-down reduced both TRH- and EGF-induced transcription of the three IEGs. Interestingly, TRH-induced activation of the MAP kinase pathway, a pathway essential for transcription of the three IEGs, was down-regulated by NELF knock-down. Thus, stable knock-down of NELF, by modulating intracellular signaling pathways, caused stimulation-specific loss of IEG transcription. These observations indicate that NELF controls overall IEG transcription via multiple mechanisms both directly and indirectly.

  4. STAT3-mediated Coincidence Detection Regulates Noncanonical Immediate Early Gene Induction*

    PubMed Central

    Waitkus, Matthew S.; Chandrasekharan, Unni M.; Willard, Belinda; Haque, S. Jaharul; DiCorleto, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Signaling pathways interact with one another to form dynamic networks in which the cellular response to one stimulus may depend on the presence, intensity, timing, or localization of other signals. In rare cases, two stimuli may be simultaneously required for cells to elicit a significant biological output. This phenomenon, generally termed coincidence detection, requires a downstream signaling node that functions as a Boolean AND gate to restrict biological output from a network unless multiple stimuli are received within a specific window of time. Simultaneous activation of the EGF receptor (EGFR) and a thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor-1, PAR-1) increases the expression of multiple immediate early genes (IEGs) associated with growth and angiogenesis. Using a bioinformatic comparison of IEG promoter regions, we identified STAT3 as a critical transcription factor for the detection of coincident EGFR/PAR-1 activation. EGFR activation induces classical STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation but also initiates an inhibitory signal through the PI3K-AKT signaling axis that prevents STAT3 Ser727 phosphorylation. Coincident PAR-1 signaling resolves these conflicting EGF-activated pathways by blocking AKT activation and permitting GSK-3?/?-dependent STAT3 Ser727 phosphorylation and STAT3-dependent gene expression. Functionally, combinatorial EGFR/PAR-1 signaling suppresses EGF-induced proliferation and thrombin-induced leukocyte adhesion and triggers a STAT3-dependent increase in endothelial cell migration. This study reveals a novel signaling role for STAT3 in which the simultaneous presence of extracellular EGF and thrombin is detected at the level of STAT3 post-translational modifications. Collectively, our results describe a novel regulatory mechanism in which combinatorial EGFR/PAR-1 signaling regulates STAT3-dependent IEG induction and endothelial cell migration. PMID:23504318

  5. Inhibition of Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early Gene Expression by Cyclin A2-Dependent Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Oduro, Jennifer D.; Uecker, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) starts its lytic replication cycle only in the G0/G1 phase of the cell division cycle. S/G2 cells can be infected but block the onset of immediate-early (IE) gene expression. This block can be overcome by inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs), suggesting that cyclin A2, the only cyclin with an S/G2-specific activity profile, may act as a negative regulator of viral gene expression. To directly test this hypothesis, we generated derivatives of an HCMV-permissive glioblastoma cell line that express cyclin A2 in a constitutive, cell cycle-independent manner. We demonstrate that even moderate cyclin A2 overexpression in G1 was sufficient to severely compromise the HCMV replicative cycle after high-multiplicity infection. This negative effect was composed of a strong but transient inhibition of IE gene transcription and a more sustained alteration of IE mRNA processing, resulting in reduced levels of UL37 and IE2, an essential transactivator of viral early gene expression. Consistently, cyclin A2-overexpressing cells showed a strong delay of viral early and late gene expression, as well as virus reproduction. All effects were dependent on CDK activity, as a cyclin A2 mutant deficient in CDK binding was unable to interfere with the HCMV infectious cycle. Interestingly, murine CMV, whose IE gene expression is known to be cell cycle independent, is not affected by cyclin A2. Instead, it upregulates cyclin A2-associated kinase activity upon infection. Understanding the mechanisms behind the HCMV-specific action of cyclin A2-CDK might reveal new targets for antiviral strategies. PMID:22718829

  6. Direct cellobiose production from cellulose using sextuple beta-glucosidase gene deletion Neurospora crassa mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct cellobiose production from cellulose by a genetically modified fungus—Neurospora crassa, was explored in this study. A library of N. crassa sextuple beta-glucosidase (bgl) gene deletion strains was constructed. Various concentrations of cellobiose were detected in the culture broth of the N. ...

  7. Simple Method for Markerless Gene Deletion in Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Man Hwan; Lee, Je Chul; Kim, Jungmin

    2015-01-01

    The traditional markerless gene deletion technique based on overlap extension PCR has been used for generating gene deletions in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. However, the method is time-consuming because it requires restriction digestion of the PCR products in DNA cloning and the construction of new vectors containing a suitable antibiotic resistance cassette for the selection of A. baumannii merodiploids. Moreover, the availability of restriction sites and the selection of recombinant bacteria harboring the desired chimeric plasmid are limited, making the construction of a chimeric plasmid more difficult. We describe a rapid and easy cloning method for markerless gene deletion in A. baumannii, which has no limitation in the availability of restriction sites and allows for easy selection of the clones carrying the desired chimeric plasmid. Notably, it is not necessary to construct new vectors in our method. This method utilizes direct cloning of blunt-end DNA fragments, in which upstream and downstream regions of the target gene are fused with an antibiotic resistance cassette via overlap extension PCR and are inserted into a blunt-end suicide vector developed for blunt-end cloning. Importantly, the antibiotic resistance cassette is placed outside the downstream region in order to enable easy selection of the recombinants carrying the desired plasmid, to eliminate the antibiotic resistance cassette via homologous recombination, and to avoid the necessity of constructing new vectors. This strategy was successfully applied to functional analysis of the genes associated with iron acquisition by A. baumannii ATCC 19606 and to ompA gene deletion in other A. baumannii strains. Consequently, the proposed method is invaluable for markerless gene deletion in multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:25746991

  8. Simple Method for Markerless Gene Deletion in Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Oh, Man Hwan; Lee, Je Chul; Kim, Jungmin; Choi, Chul Hee; Han, Kyudong

    2015-05-15

    The traditional markerless gene deletion technique based on overlap extension PCR has been used for generating gene deletions in multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. However, the method is time-consuming because it requires restriction digestion of the PCR products in DNA cloning and the construction of new vectors containing a suitable antibiotic resistance cassette for the selection of A. baumannii merodiploids. Moreover, the availability of restriction sites and the selection of recombinant bacteria harboring the desired chimeric plasmid are limited, making the construction of a chimeric plasmid more difficult. We describe a rapid and easy cloning method for markerless gene deletion in A. baumannii, which has no limitation in the availability of restriction sites and allows for easy selection of the clones carrying the desired chimeric plasmid. Notably, it is not necessary to construct new vectors in our method. This method utilizes direct cloning of blunt-end DNA fragments, in which upstream and downstream regions of the target gene are fused with an antibiotic resistance cassette via overlap extension PCR and are inserted into a blunt-end suicide vector developed for blunt-end cloning. Importantly, the antibiotic resistance cassette is placed outside the downstream region in order to enable easy selection of the recombinants carrying the desired plasmid, to eliminate the antibiotic resistance cassette via homologous recombination, and to avoid the necessity of constructing new vectors. This strategy was successfully applied to functional analysis of the genes associated with iron acquisition by A. baumannii ATCC 19606 and to ompA gene deletion in other A. baumannii strains. Consequently, the proposed method is invaluable for markerless gene deletion in multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:25746991

  9. Food-associated cues alter forebrain functional connectivity as assessed with immediate early gene and proenkephalin expression

    PubMed Central

    Schiltz, Craig A; Bremer, Quentin Z; Landry, Charles F; Kelley, Ann E

    2007-01-01

    Background Cues predictive of food availability are powerful modulators of appetite as well as food-seeking and ingestive behaviors. The neurobiological underpinnings of these conditioned responses are not well understood. Monitoring regional immediate early gene expression is a method used to assess alterations in neuronal metabolism resulting from upstream intracellular and extracellular signaling. Furthermore, assessing the expression of multiple immediate early genes offers a window onto the possible sequelae of exposure to food cues, since the function of each gene differs. We used immediate early gene and proenkephalin expression as a means of assessing food cue-elicited regional activation and alterations in functional connectivity within the forebrain. Results Contextual cues associated with palatable food elicited conditioned motor activation and corticosterone release in rats. This motivational state was associated with increased transcription of the activity-regulated genes homer1a, arc, zif268, ngfi-b and c-fos in corticolimbic, thalamic and hypothalamic areas and of proenkephalin within striatal regions. Furthermore, the functional connectivity elicited by food cues, as assessed by an inter-regional multigene-expression correlation method, differed substantially from that elicited by neutral cues. Specifically, food cues increased cortical engagement of the striatum, and within the nucleus accumbens, shifted correlations away from the shell towards the core. Exposure to the food-associated context also induced correlated gene expression between corticostriatal networks and the basolateral amygdala, an area critical for learning and responding to the incentive value of sensory stimuli. This increased corticostriatal-amygdalar functional connectivity was absent in the control group exposed to innocuous cues. Conclusion The results implicate correlated activity between the cortex and the striatum, especially the nucleus accumbens core and the basolateral amygdala, in the generation of a conditioned motivated state that may promote excessive food intake. The upregulation of a number of genes in unique patterns within corticostriatal, thalamic, and hypothalamic networks suggests that food cues are capable of powerfully altering neuronal processing in areas mediating the integration of emotion, cognition, arousal, and the regulation of energy balance. As many of these genes play a role in plasticity, their upregulation within these circuits may also indicate the neuroanatomic and transcriptional correlates of extinction learning. PMID:17462082

  10. Expression of immediate early genes after treatment of human astrocytoma cells with radiation and taxol

    SciTech Connect

    Gubits, R.M.; Geard, C.R.; Schiff, P.B.

    1993-10-20

    The promising chemotherapeutic agent, taxol, has been shown to sensitize the G18 line of human astrocytoma cells to ionizing radiation. The present studies were performed to identify specific changes in gene expression associated with this altered sensitivity. The products of immediate early genes, which are induced transiently in cells in response to a variety of treatments, including growth factors, neurotransmitters, and irradiation with UV light or X rays, are thought to initiate a cascade of genetic responses to alterations in cellular environment. The present results demonstrate a dramatic attenuation in one immediate early gene response in association with a treatment that enhances radiosensitivity in a refractory human brain tumor line. 22 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Human Cytomegalovirus pUL97 Regulates the Viral Major Immediate Early Promoter by Phosphorylation-Mediated Disruption of Histone Deacetylase 1 Binding

    PubMed Central

    Bigley, Tarin M.; Reitsma, Justin M.; Mirza, Shama P.

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common agent of congenital infection and causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients. Current approved therapies focus on inhibiting viral DNA replication. The HCMV kinase pUL97 contributes to multiple stages of viral infection including DNA replication, controlling the cell cycle, and virion maturation. Our studies demonstrate that pUL97 also functions by influencing immediate early (IE) gene expression during the initial stages of infection. Inhibition of kinase activity using the antiviral compound maribavir or deletion of the UL97 gene resulted in decreased expression of viral immediate early genes during infection. Expression of pUL97 was sufficient to transactivate IE1 gene expression from the viral genome, which was dependent on viral kinase activity. We observed that pUL97 associates with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). HDAC1 is a transcriptional corepressor that acts to silence expression of viral genes. We observed that inhibition or deletion of pUL97 kinase resulted in increased HDAC1 and decreased histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation associating with the viral major immediate early (MIE) promoter. IE expression during pUL97 inhibition or deletion was rescued following inhibition of deacetylase activity. HDAC1 associates with chromatin by protein-protein interactions. Expression of active but not inactive pUL97 kinase decreased HDAC1 interaction with the transcriptional repressor protein DAXX. Finally, using mass spectrometry, we found that HDAC1 is uniquely phosphorylated upon expression of pUL97. Our results support the conclusion that HCMV pUL97 kinase regulates viral immediate early gene expression by phosphorylation-mediated disruption of HDAC1 binding to the MIE promoter. PMID:23616659

  12. Human cytomegalovirus pUL97 regulates the viral major immediate early promoter by phosphorylation-mediated disruption of histone deacetylase 1 binding.

    PubMed

    Bigley, Tarin M; Reitsma, Justin M; Mirza, Shama P; Terhune, Scott S

    2013-07-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common agent of congenital infection and causes severe disease in immunocompromised patients. Current approved therapies focus on inhibiting viral DNA replication. The HCMV kinase pUL97 contributes to multiple stages of viral infection including DNA replication, controlling the cell cycle, and virion maturation. Our studies demonstrate that pUL97 also functions by influencing immediate early (IE) gene expression during the initial stages of infection. Inhibition of kinase activity using the antiviral compound maribavir or deletion of the UL97 gene resulted in decreased expression of viral immediate early genes during infection. Expression of pUL97 was sufficient to transactivate IE1 gene expression from the viral genome, which was dependent on viral kinase activity. We observed that pUL97 associates with histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). HDAC1 is a transcriptional corepressor that acts to silence expression of viral genes. We observed that inhibition or deletion of pUL97 kinase resulted in increased HDAC1 and decreased histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation associating with the viral major immediate early (MIE) promoter. IE expression during pUL97 inhibition or deletion was rescued following inhibition of deacetylase activity. HDAC1 associates with chromatin by protein-protein interactions. Expression of active but not inactive pUL97 kinase decreased HDAC1 interaction with the transcriptional repressor protein DAXX. Finally, using mass spectrometry, we found that HDAC1 is uniquely phosphorylated upon expression of pUL97. Our results support the conclusion that HCMV pUL97 kinase regulates viral immediate early gene expression by phosphorylation-mediated disruption of HDAC1 binding to the MIE promoter. PMID:23616659

  13. Structural analysis of the major immediate early gene of human cytomegalovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Stenberg, R.M.; Thomsen, D.R.; Stinski, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    The most abundant species of human cytomegalovirus (Towne) immediate early polysome-associated RNA originates from a region of ca. 2.8 kilobases within the XbaI-E DNA fragment. These sequences code for a 1.95-kilobase mRNA and are referred to as immediate early coding region one. The authors have utilized the nuclease mapping technique of Berk and Sharp to examine this gene in detail. Cloned fragments of human cytomegalovirus DNA, either labeled with /sup 32/P in vivo or end labeled in vitro at the 5' or 3' termini, were hybridized to immediate early polysome-associated RNA. The hybrids were treated with single-strand-specific nuclease and subjected to electrophoresis in either neutral or denaturing gels. The major transcript was shown to be spliced molecule containing a 3' terminal exon of 1341 nucleotides. The sequence of the exons as well as the locations of the intro-exon splice junctions were determined. The predicted molecular weight of the polypeptide originating from this region was estimated to be 64,000. The properties of the viral gene and its protein product are discussed.

  14. Construction and characterization of a herpes simplex virus type 1 mutant unable to transinduce immediate-early gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Ace, C I; McKee, T A; Ryan, J M; Cameron, J M; Preston, C M

    1989-01-01

    A herpes simplex virus mutant, in1814, possessing a 12-base-pair insertion in the gene encoding the transinducing factor Vmw65 has been constructed. The insertion abolished the ability of Vmw65 to transinduce immediate-early (IE) gene expression and to form a protein-DNA complex with cell proteins and the IE-specific regulatory element TAATGAGAT. Accumulation of IE RNA 1 and 2 was reduced four- to fivefold in in1814-infected cells, but the level of IE RNA 4 was reduced only by twofold, and IE RNA 3 was unaffected. Mutant in1814 had a high particle/PFU ratio, but many of the particles, although unable to form plaques, were capable of normal participation in the early stages of infection at high multiplicity of infection. The defect of in1814 was overcome partially by transfection of a plasmid encoding the IE protein Vmw110 into cells prior to titration and by prior infection with ultraviolet light-inactivated herpes simplex virus. Mutant in1814 was essentially avirulent when injected into mice. The results demonstrate that transinduction of IE transcription by Vmw65 is important at low multiplicity of infection and in vivo but that at high multiplicity of infection the function is redundant. Images PMID:2539517

  15. Efficient and simple generation of unmarked gene deletions in Mycobacterium smegmatis.

    PubMed

    Shenkerman, Yael; Elharar, Yifat; Vishkautzan, Marina; Gur, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    Genetic research in molecular laboratories relies heavily on directed mutagenesis and gene deletion techniques. In mycobacteria, however, genetic analysis is often hindered by difficulties in the preparation of deletion mutants. Indeed, in comparison to the allelic exchange systems available for the study of other common model organisms, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli, mycobacterial gene disruption systems suffer from low mutant isolation success rates, mostly due to inefficient homologous recombination and a high degree of non-specific recombination. Here, we present a gene deletion system that combines efficient homologous recombination with advanced screening of mutants. This novel methodology allows for gene disruption in three consecutive steps. The first step relies on the use of phage Che9c recombineering proteins for directed insertion into the chromosome of a linear DNA fragment that encodes GFP and confers hygromycin resistance. In the second step, GFP positive and hygromycin resistant colonies are selected, and in the last step, the gfp-hyg cassette is excised from the chromosome, thus resulting in the formation of an unmarked deletion. We provide a detailed gene deletion methodology and demonstrate the use of this genetic system by deleting the prcSBA operon of Mycobacterium smegmatis. PMID:24100088

  16. Effects of G-gene Deletion and Replacement on Rabies Virus Vector Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Sho; Ohara, Shinya; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro; Iijima, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    The glycoprotein-gene (G gene) -deleted rabies virus (RV) vector is a powerful tool to examine the function and structure of neural circuits. We previously reported that the deletion of the G gene enhances the transgene expression level of the RV vector. However, the mechanism of this enhancement remains to be clarified. We presume that there are two possible factors for this enhancement. The first factor is the glycoprotein of RV, which shows cytotoxicity; thus, may cause a dysfunction in the translation process of infected cells. The second possible factor is the enhanced expression of the L gene, which encodes viral RNA polymerase. In the RV, it is known that the gene expression level is altered depending on the position of the gene. Since G-gene deletion displaces the L gene in the genome, the expression of the L gene and viral transcription may be enhanced. In this study, we compared the transgene expression level and viral transcription of three recombinant RV vectors. The effect of glycoprotein was examined by comparing the viral gene expression of G-gene-intact RV and G-gene-replaced RV. Despite the fact that the L-gene transcription level of these two RV vectors was similar, the G-gene-replaced RV vector showed higher viral transcription and transgene expression level than the G-gene-intact RV vector. To examine the effect of the position of the L gene, we compared the viral gene expression of the G-gene-deleted RV and G-gene-replaced RV. The G-gene-deleted RV vector showed higher L-gene transcription, viral transcription, and transgene expression level than the G-gene-replaced RV vector. These results indicate that G-gene deletion enhances the transgene expression level through at least two factors, the absence of glycoprotein and enhancement of L-gene expression. These findings enable investigators to design a useful viral vector that shows a controlled desirable transgene expression level in applications. PMID:26023771

  17. Temporal regulation of herpes simplex virus type 2 transcription and characterization of virus immediate early mRNA's.

    PubMed Central

    Easton, A J; Clements, J B

    1980-01-01

    Nuclear and cytoplasmic virus RNAs, synthesized in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 2 at early and late times post-infection, and in the continuous presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (immediate early), have been analyzed by blot hybridization to virus DNA fragments generated by Bam HI and Eco RI restriction endonucleases. Polyadenylated immediate early mRNAs were separated on denaturing gels containing CH3HgOH giving three virus-specific mRNA bands of estimated sizes 4.7, 3.4 and 1.75 kb, and these have been mapped to five discrete regions of the genome. The polypeptides produced by in vitro translation of the HSV-2 immediate early mRNA's have been identified. Orientations of immediate early mRNA's on the virus genome have been determined by mapping cDNAs complementary to the 3'termini of the mRNAs. Images PMID:6253886

  18. Large contiguous gene deletions in Sjögren-Larsson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Engelstad, Holly; Carney, Gael; S'aulis, Dana; Rise, Janae; Sanger, Warren G; Rudd, M Katharine; Richard, Gabriele; Carr, Christopher W; Abdul-Rahman, Omar A; Rizzo, William B

    2011-11-01

    Sjögren-Larsson syndrome (SLS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by ichthyosis, mental retardation, spasticity and mutations in the ALDH3A2 gene for fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of fatty aldehyde to fatty acid. More than 70 mutations have been identified in SLS patients, including small deletions or insertions, missense mutations, splicing defects and complex nucleotide changes. We now describe 2 SLS patients whose disease is caused by large contiguous gene deletions of the ALDH3A2 locus on 17p11.2. The deletions were defined using long distance inverse PCR and microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization. A 24-year-old SLS female was homozygous for a 352-kb deletion involving ALDH3A2 and 4 contiguous genes including ALDH3A1, which codes for the major soluble protein in cornea. Although lacking corneal disease, she showed severe symptoms of SLS with uncommon deterioration in oral motor function and loss of ambulation. The other 19-month-old female patient was a compound heterozygote for a 1.44-Mb contiguous gene deletion and a missense mutation (c.407C>T, P136L) in ALDH3A2. These studies suggest that large gene deletions may account for up to 5% of the mutant alleles in SLS. Geneticists should consider the possibility of compound heterozygosity for large deletions in patients with SLS and other inborn errors of metabolism, which has implications for carrier testing and prenatal diagnosis. PMID:21684788

  19. Gene deletion strategy to examine the involvement of the two chondroitin lyases in Flavobacterium columnare virulence.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Qin, Ting; Zhang, Xiao Lin; Huang, Bei; Liu, Zhi Xin; Xie, Hai Xia; Zhang, Jin; McBride, Mark J; Nie, Pin

    2015-11-01

    Flavobacterium columnare is an important bacterial pathogen of freshwater fish that causes high mortality of infected fish and heavy economic losses in aquaculture. The pathogenesis of this bacterium is poorly understood, in part due to the lack of efficient methods for genetic manipulation. In this study, a gene deletion strategy was developed and used to determine the relationship between the production of chondroitin lyases and virulence. The F. johnsoniae ompA promoter (PompA) was fused to sacB to construct a counterselectable marker for F. columnare. F. columnare carrying PompA-sacB failed to grow on media containing 10% sucrose. A suicide vector carrying PompA-sacB was constructed, and a gene deletion strategy was developed. Using this approach, the chondroitin lyase-encoding genes, cslA and cslB, were deleted. The ?cslA and ?cslB mutants were both partially deficient in digestion of chondroitin sulfate A, whereas a double mutant (?cslA ?cslB) was completely deficient in chondroitin lyase activity. Cells of F. columnare wild-type strain G4 and of the chondroitin lyase-deficient ?cslA ?cslB mutant exhibited similar levels of virulence toward grass carp in single-strain infections. Coinfections, however, revealed a competitive advantage for the wild type over the chondroitin lyase mutant. The results indicate that chondroitin lyases are not essential virulence factors of F. columnare but may contribute to the ability of the pathogen to compete and cause disease in natural infections. The gene deletion method developed in this study may be employed to investigate the virulence factors of this bacterium and may have wide application in many other members of the phylum Bacteroidetes. PMID:26253667

  20. The human cytomegalovirus US3 immediate-early protein lacking the putative transmembrane domain regulates gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tenney, D J; Santomenna, L D; Goudie, K B; Colberg-Poley, A M

    1993-06-25

    Through alternative transcript splicing, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US3 immediate-early (IE) locus encodes multiple products including potential membrane-bound glycoproteins. To characterize the US3 products and determine which encode regulatory activity, individual cDNAs were cloned and expressed. Three transcript species were confirmed through the isolation of cDNAs; an unspliced transcript, a transcript spliced once from exon 3 to exon 5 and a transcript spliced both at exon 1 to exon 3 and at exon 3 to exon 5. The predicted signal sequences and N-linked glycosylation sites in the US3 products were confirmed using expression in reticulocyte lysates containing microsomal membranes. Regulatory activity of the individual US3 products was demonstrated using transient transfection assays. The unspliced cDNA and the cDNA containing the exon 3 to exon 5 splice, encoded products which increased expression of the human heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) promoter, while the product of the doubly-spliced US3 cDNA did not. Transactivation was synergistically increased by coexpression with the HCMV UL37 protein. We conclude that the first 132 amino acids common to the unspliced and the singly-spliced US3 gene products are sufficient for hsp70 transactivation; while the amino-terminal 28 amino acids, encoded by the doubly-spliced US3 cDNA, are not. These results demonstrate that a US3 IE protein lacking the putative transmembrane domain has regulatory activity. PMID:8392711

  1. A Diverse Repertoire of CD4 T Cells Targets the Immediate-Early 1 Protein of Human Cytomegalovirus

    PubMed Central

    Ameres, Stefanie; Liang, Xiaoling; Wiesner, Martina; Mautner, Josef; Moosmann, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    T-cell responses to the immediate-early 1 (IE-1) protein of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are associated with protection from viral disease. Thus, IE-1 is a promising target for immunotherapy. CD8 T-cell responses to IE-1 are generally strong. In contrast, CD4 T-cell responses to IE-1 were described to be comparatively infrequent or undetectable in HCMV carriers, and information on their target epitopes and their function has been limited. To analyze the repertoire of IE-1-specific CD4 T cells, we expanded them from healthy donors with autologous IE-1-expressing mini-EpsteinBarr virus-transformed B-cell lines and established IE-1-specific CD4 T-cell clones. Clones from seven out of seven HCMV-positive donors recognized endogenously processed IE-1 epitopes restricted through HLA-DR, DQ, or DP. Three to seven IE-1 epitopes were recognized per donor. Cumulatively, about 27 different HLA/peptide class II complexes were recognized by 117 IE-1-specific clones. Our results suggest that a highly diversified repertoire of IE-1-specific CD4 T cells targeting multiple epitopes is usually present in healthy HCMV carriers. Therefore, multiepitope approaches to immunomonitoring and immunotherapy will make optimal use of this potentially important class of HCMV-specific effector cells. PMID:26635812

  2. Recovery of Replication-Competent and G-Gene-Deleted Rabies Viruses from cDNA.

    PubMed

    Hagendorf, Nadin; Conzelmann, Karl-Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes the recovery of replication-competent rabies viruses (RV) such as SAD L16 or SAD L16-eGFP. It is suggested that at least three parallel transfection experiments are performed to increase the success rate (in three 3.5-cm(2) dishes or in three wells in a six-well plate). The entire protocol takes 10 d, and successful rescue can be obtained after 6 d. An additional procedure for the recovery of G-gene-deleted viruses is also included. Please note that appropriate biosafety measures are needed. PMID:26631127

  3. Characterization of regulatory functions of the HSV-1 immediate-early protein ICP22.

    PubMed

    Prod'hon, C; Machuca, I; Berthomme, H; Epstein, A; Jacquemont, B

    1996-12-15

    Previous work has shown that the 68-kDa immediate-early protein of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), also known as ICP22, is involved in the control of viral gene expression, although the precise mechanism remains to be elucidated. In order to study the function(s) of this protein, we constructed expression vectors containing the coding sequence of the ICP22 gene placed under the control of the SV40 or HCMV promoter. After cell transfection, ICP22 synthesis was studied by immunoblotting, using a specific antiserum. In transient expression experiments in COS cells in which the ICP22 vector was under the control of the SV40 promoter, we found that ICP22 was able to inhibit chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) expression under the control of either the alpha 22 (IE4) promoter or other immediate-early promoters, such as alpha 4 (IE3), alpha 0 (IE1), and alpha 27 (IE2). CAT expression under the control of the alpha 4 (IE3) promoter was inhibited in these cells by expression of ICP22 under the control of the HCMV promoter; it was also inhibited in RAT-1 cells by ICP22 expressed under the control of the SV40 or HCMV promoter. In contrast, CAT expression directed by the SV40 or HCMV promoters was only weakly or not inhibited by the ICP22 vectors. We also constructed an expression vector for UL13, a gene whose product is implicated in the phosphorylation of ICP22. Although CAT expression under the control of the alpha 4 (IE3) promoter was also negatively regulated by the UL13 gene product, the effects of the ICP22 (directed by the SV40 or HCMV promoter) and UL13 vectors were not synergistic; furthermore, at a particular molar ratio of the two vectors, inhibition of CAT activity was partially reversed. The results in the present work suggest that ICP22 can negatively regulate the expression of immediate-early viral genes and that its phosphorylation by UL13 protein kinase might be involved in the modulation of its function. PMID:8955059

  4. A Comprehensive Analysis of Replicative Lifespan in 4,698 Single-Gene Deletion Strains Uncovers Conserved Mechanisms of Aging.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Mark A; Delaney, Joe R; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Tsuchiyama, Scott; Shemorry, Anna; Sim, Sylvia; Chou, Annie Chia-Zong; Ahmed, Umema; Carr, Daniel; Murakami, Christopher J; Schleit, Jennifer; Sutphin, George L; Wasko, Brian M; Bennett, Christopher F; Wang, Adrienne M; Olsen, Brady; Beyer, Richard P; Bammler, Theodor K; Prunkard, Donna; Johnson, Simon C; Pennypacker, Juniper K; An, Elroy; Anies, Arieanna; Castanza, Anthony S; Choi, Eunice; Dang, Nick; Enerio, Shiena; Fletcher, Marissa; Fox, Lindsay; Goswami, Sarani; Higgins, Sean A; Holmberg, Molly A; Hu, Di; Hui, Jessica; Jelic, Monika; Jeong, Ki-Soo; Johnston, Elijah; Kerr, Emily O; Kim, Jin; Kim, Diana; Kirkland, Katie; Klum, Shannon; Kotireddy, Soumya; Liao, Eric; Lim, Michael; Lin, Michael S; Lo, Winston C; Lockshon, Dan; Miller, Hillary A; Moller, Richard M; Muller, Brian; Oakes, Jonathan; Pak, Diana N; Peng, Zhao Jun; Pham, Kim M; Pollard, Tom G; Pradeep, Prarthana; Pruett, Dillon; Rai, Dilreet; Robison, Brett; Rodriguez, Ariana A; Ros, Bopharoth; Sage, Michael; Singh, Manpreet K; Smith, Erica D; Snead, Katie; Solanky, Amrita; Spector, Benjamin L; Steffen, Kristan K; Tchao, Bie Nga; Ting, Marc K; Vander Wende, Helen; Wang, Dennis; Welton, K Linnea; Westman, Eric A; Brem, Rachel B; Liu, Xin-Guang; Suh, Yousin; Zhou, Zhongjun; Kaeberlein, Matt; Kennedy, Brian K

    2015-11-01

    Many genes that affect replicative lifespan (RLS) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae also affect aging in other organisms such as C. elegans and M. musculus. We performed a systematic analysis of yeast RLS in a set of 4,698 viable single-gene deletion strains. Multiple functional gene clusters were identified, and full genome-to-genome comparison demonstrated a significant conservation in longevity pathways between yeast and C. elegans. Among the mechanisms of aging identified, deletion of tRNA exporter LOS1 robustly extended lifespan. Dietary restriction (DR) and inhibition of mechanistic Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) exclude Los1 from the nucleus in a Rad53-dependent manner. Moreover, lifespan extension from deletion of LOS1 is nonadditive with DR or mTOR inhibition, and results in Gcn4 transcription factor activation. Thus, the DNA damage response and mTOR converge on Los1-mediated nuclear tRNA export to regulate Gcn4 activity and aging. PMID:26456335

  5. DNA methylation and gene deletion analysis of brain metastases in melanoma patients identifies mutually exclusive molecular alterations

    PubMed Central

    Marzese, Diego M.; Scolyer, Richard A.; Roqu, Maria; Vargas-Roig, Laura M.; Huynh, Jamie L.; Wilmott, James S.; Murali, Rajmohan; Buckland, Michael E.; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Thompson, John F.; Morton, Donald L.; Kelly, Daniel F.; Hoon, Dave S. B.

    2014-01-01

    Background The brain is a common target of metastases for melanoma patients. Little is known about the genetic and epigenetic alterations in melanoma brain metastases (MBMs). Unraveling these molecular alterations is a key step in understanding their aggressive nature and identifying novel therapeutic targets. Methods Genome-wide DNA methylation analyses of MBMs (n = 15) and normal brain tissues (n = 91) and simultaneous multigene DNA methylation and gene deletion analyses of metastatic melanoma tissues (99 MBMs and 43 extracranial metastases) were performed. BRAF and NRAS mutations were evaluated in MBMs by targeted sequencing. Results MBMs showed significant epigenetic heterogeneity. RARB, RASSF1, ESR1, APC, PTEN, and CDH13 genes were frequently hypermethylated. Deletions were frequently detected in the CDKN2A/B locus. Of MBMs, 46.1% and 28.8% had BRAF and NRAS missense mutations, respectively. Compared with lung and liver metastases, MBMs exhibited higher frequency of CDH13 hypermethylation and CDKN2A/B locus deletion. Mutual exclusivity between hypermethylated genes and CDKN2A/B locus deletion identified 2 clinically relevant molecular subtypes of MBMs. CDKN2A/B deletions were associated with multiple MBMs and frequently hypermethylated genes with shorter time to brain metastasis. Conclusions Melanoma cells that colonize the brain harbor numerous genetically and epigenetically altered genes. This study presents an integrated genomic and epigenomic analysis that reveals MBM-specific molecular alterations and mutually exclusive molecular subtypes. PMID:24968695

  6. Transcription mapping and expression patterns of genes in the major immediate-early region of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    PubMed

    Saveliev, Alexei; Zhu, Fan; Yuan, Yan

    2002-08-01

    Viral immediate-early (IE) genes are the first class of viral genes expressed during primary infection or reactivation from latency. They usually encode regulatory proteins that play crucial roles in viral life cycle. In a previous study, four regions in the KSHV genome were found to be actively transcribed in the immediate-early stage of viral reactivation in primary effusion lymphoma cells. Three immediate-early transcripts were characterized in these regions, as follows: mRNAs for ORF50 (KIE-1), ORF-45 (KIE-2), and ORF K4.2 (KIE-3) (F. X. Zhu, T. Cusano, and Y. Yuan, 1999, J. Virol. 73, 5556-5567). In the present study, we further analyzed the expression of genes in these IE regions in BC-1 and BCBL-1 cells. One of the immediate-early regions (KIE-1) that encompasses ORF50 and other genes was intensively studied to establish a detailed transcription map and expression patterns of genes in this region. This study led to identification of several novel IE transcripts in this region. They include a 2.6-kb mRNA which encodes ORF48/ORF29b, a family of transcripts that are complementary to ORF50 mRNA and a novel K8 IE mRNA of 1.5 kb. Together with the IE mRNA for ORF50 which was identified previously, four immediate-early genes have been mapped to KIE-1 region. Therefore, we would designate KIE-1 the major immediate-early region of KSHV. In addition, we showed that transcription of K8 gene is controlled by two promoters, yielding two transcripts, an immediate-early mRNA of 1.5 kb and a delayed-early mRNA of 1.3 kb. PMID:12202233

  7. A requirement for the immediate early gene zif268 in reconsolidation of recognition memory after retrieval.

    PubMed

    Bozon, Bruno; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2003-11-13

    Recent research has revived interest in the possibility that previously consolidated memories need to reconsolidate when recalled to return to accessible long-term memory. Evidence suggests that both consolidation and reconsolidation of certain types of memory require protein synthesis, but whether similar molecular mechanisms are involved remains unclear. Here, we explore whether zif268, an activity-dependent inducible immediate early gene (IEG) required for consolidation of new memories, is also recruited for reconsolidation of recognition memory following reactivation. We show that when a consolidated memory for objects is recalled, zif268 mutant mice are impaired in further long-term but not short-term recognition memory. The impairment is specific to reactivation with the previously memorized objects in the relevant context, occurs in delayed recall, and does not recover over several days. These findings indicate that IEG-mediated transcriptional regulation in neurons is one common molecular mechanism for the storage of newly formed and reactivated recognition memories. PMID:14622575

  8. Central Renin Injections: Effects on Drinking and Expression of Immediate Early Genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Zhice; Johnson, Alan Kim

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated the drinking response and the expression of Fos- and Egr-1-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir, Egr-1-ir) in the brain induced by endogenous angiotensin generated by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of renin. Renin induced Fos-ir in the subformical organ (SFO), median preoptic (MnPO), supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei (SON and PVN), area postrema (AP), nuclei of the solitary tract (NTS) and lateral parabrachial nuclei (LPBN). Renin-induced Egr-1-ir exhibited a similar pattern of distribution as that observed for Fos-ir. The dose of i.c.v. renin that induced expression of immediate early gene (IEG) product immunoreactivity also produced vigorous drinking. When renin-injected rats were pretreated with captopril, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, drinking was blocked. With the same captopril pretreatment, both Fos- and Egr-1-ir in the SFO, MnPO, SON, PVN, AP and LPBN were also significantly reduced.

  9. Obligatory role for the immediate early gene NARP in critical period plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yu; Huang, Shiyong; Chang, Michael; Worley, Paul; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Quinlan, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The immediate early gene NARP is an AMPAR binding protein that is specifically enriched at excitatory synapses onto fast-spiking parvalbumin-positive interneurons (FS (PV) INs). Here we show that transgenic deletion of NARP decreases the number of excitatory synaptic inputs onto FS (PV) INs, and reduces net excitatory synaptic drive onto FS (PV) INs. Accordingly, the visual cortex NARP −/− mice is hyper-excitable, and unable to express ocular dominance plasticity, although many aspects of visual function are unimpaired. Importantly, the number and strength of inhibitory synaptic contacts from FS (PV) INs onto principle neurons in the visual cortex is normal in NARP −/− mice, and enhancement of this output recovers the expression of experience-dependent synaptic plasticity. Thus the recruitment of inhibition from FS (PV) INs plays a central role in enabling the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity. PMID:23889936

  10. The immediate early genes of human cytomegalovirus upregulate tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Geist, L J; Monick, M M; Stinski, M F; Hunninghake, G W

    1994-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of disease in the immunocompromised patient and CMV infection is associated with predominantly mononuclear inflammatory response. Since products of the CMV immediate early (IE) gene region are potent trans-activators, we used the monocyte cell line THP-1 and a transient transfection assay to determine if these viral proteins upregulate expression of the TNF gene. The IE genes of CMV upregulated TNF gene activity as judged by increases in promoter activity, steady state mRNA, and protein production. The presence or absence of the 3' untranslated region of the TNF gene did not affect gene expression induced by the IE gene products. These studies suggest that activation of TNF gene expression by the CMV IE gene products may, in part, account for the inflammatory response associated with CMV infections. Images PMID:8113386

  11. Cytomegalovirus infects human lymphocytes and monocytes: virus expression is restricted to immediate-early gene products.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, G P; Schrier, R D; Oldstone, M B

    1984-01-01

    In this investigation, we studied the ability of human cytomegalovirus to infect peripheral blood mononuclear cells. With monoclonal antibody technology, we demonstrated that cytomegalovirus could infect human lymphocytes of T- and B-cell lineage, natural killer cells, and monocytes. Furthermore, virus expression was limited to the synthesis of immediate-early cytomegalovirus polypeptides. These peripheral blood mononuclear cells did not produce infectious virus, nor were mature virions visualized by electron microscopy. This abortive infection of mononuclear cells was most convincingly shown with stocks of cytomegalovirus that had been recently isolated from infected patients and passaged minimally in fibroblasts. This argues for an increased lymphotropic effect of some isolates of cytomegalovirus, compared to strains of virus that are extensively adapted to growth in fibroblasts. Furthermore, immunocompetent cells that were shown to be abortively infected with cytomegalovirus lost selected differentiated functions. Images PMID:6091137

  12. Defined Single-Gene and Multi-Gene Deletion Mutant Collections in Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Porwollik, Steffen; Santiviago, Carlos A.; Cheng, Pui; Long, Fred; Desai, Prerak; Fredlund, Jennifer; Srikumar, Shabarinath; Silva, Cecilia A.; Chu, Weiping; Chen, Xin; Canals, Rocío; Reynolds, M. Megan; Bogomolnaya, Lydia; Shields, Christine; Cui, Ping; Guo, Jinbai; Zheng, Yi; Endicott-Yazdani, Tiana; Yang, Hee-Jeong; Maple, Aimee; Ragoza, Yury; Blondel, Carlos J.; Valenzuela, Camila; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene; McClelland, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We constructed two collections of targeted single gene deletion (SGD) mutants and two collections of targeted multi-gene deletion (MGD) mutants in Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium 14028s. The SGD mutant collections contain (1), 3517 mutants in which a single gene is replaced by a cassette containing a kanamycin resistance (KanR) gene oriented in the sense direction (SGD-K), and (2), 3376 mutants with a chloramphenicol resistance gene (CamR) oriented in the antisense direction (SGD-C). A combined total of 3773 individual genes were deleted across these SGD collections. The MGD collections contain mutants bearing deletions of contiguous regions of three or more genes and include (3), 198 mutants spanning 2543 genes replaced by a KanR cassette (MGD-K), and (4), 251 mutants spanning 2799 genes replaced by a CamR cassette (MGD-C). Overall, 3476 genes were deleted in at least one MGD collection. The collections with different antibiotic markers permit construction of all viable combinations of mutants in the same background. Together, the libraries allow hierarchical screening of MGDs for different phenotypic followed by screening of SGDs within the target MGD regions. The mutants of these collections are stored at BEI Resources (www.beiresources.org) and publicly available. PMID:25007190

  13. Rb and p53 gene deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from irradiated and control mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1997-08-01

    This study was conducted on mouse lung adenocarcinoma tissues that were formalin-treated and paraffin-embedded 25 years ago to investigate the large gene deletions of mRb and p53 in B6CF{sub 1} male mice. A total of 80 lung tissue samples from irradiated mice and 40 lung samples from nonirradiated controls were randomly selected and examined in the mRb portion of this study. The results showed a significant (P < 0.05) higher percentage of mRb deletions in lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to 60 once-weekly {gamma}-ray doses than those from mice receiving 24 once-weekly {gamma}-ray doses at low doses and low dose rates; however, the percentage was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that for spontaneous lung adenocarcinomas or lung adenocarcinomas from mice exposed to single-dose {gamma} irradiation at a similar total dose. mRb fragments 3 (71%) and 5 (67%), the parts of the gene that encoded the pocket binding region of Rb protein to adenovirus E1A and SV40 T-antigen, were the most frequently deleted fragments. p53 gene deletion analysis was carried out on normal lungs and lung adenocarcinomas that were initially found to bear mRb deletions. Exons 1,4,5,6, and 9 were chosen to be analyzed.

  14. Inositol polyphosphate multikinase is a coactivator for serum response factor-dependent induction of immediate early genes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunha; Tyagi, Richa; Lee, Joo-Young; Park, Jina; Kim, Young-ran; Beon, Jiyoon; Chen, Po Yu; Cha, Jiyoung Y.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Kim, Seyun

    2013-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate multikinase (IPMK) is a notably pleiotropic protein. It displays both inositol phosphate kinase and phosphatidylinositol kinase catalytic activities. Noncatalytically, IPMK stabilizes the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and acts as a transcriptional coactivator for CREB-binding protein/E1A binding protein p300 and tumor suppressor protein p53. Serum response factor (SRF) is a major transcription factor for a wide range of immediate early genes. We report that IPMK, in a noncatalytic role, is a transcriptional coactivator for SRF mediating the transcription of immediate early genes. Stimulation by serum of many immediate early genes is greatly reduced by IPMK deletion. IPMK stimulates expression of these genes, an influence also displayed by catalytically inactive IPMK. IPMK acts by binding directly to SRF and thereby enhancing interactions of SRF with the serum response element of diverse genes. PMID:24248338

  15. Specific interactions between transcription factors and the promoter-regulatory region of the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early gene

    SciTech Connect

    Ghazal, P.; Lubon, H.; Hennighausen, L. )

    1988-03-01

    Repeat sequence motifs as well as unique sequences between nucleotides {minus}150 and {minus}22 of the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early 1 gene interact in vitro with nuclear proteins. The authors show that a transcriptional element between nucleotides {minus}91 and {minus}65 stimulated promoter activity in vivo and in vitro by binding specific cellular transcription factors. Finally, a common sequence motif, (T)TGG/AC, present in 15 of the determined binding sites suggests a particular class of nuclear factors associated with the immediate-early 1 gene.

  16. Cell-specific activity of the modulator region in the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early gene

    SciTech Connect

    Lubon, H.K.; Hennighausen, L. ); Ghazal, P.; Reynolds-Kohler, C.; Lockshin, C.; Nelson, J. )

    1989-03-01

    In this paper the authors demonstrate that modular sequences upstream of the enhancer of the major immediate-early promoter of human cytomegalovirus exert a differential effort on the level of transcription in a variety of cells and that this region has the capacity to interact with specific nuclear protein. Depending on the cell type, these modulator sequences increased or decreased transcriptional activation from the IE1 gene promoter-enhancer. The cell lines identified in this report should be useful to study the molecular mechanism of cell-specific transcriptional repression and activation exerted by the major immediate-early promoter upstream region.

  17. Soluble epoxide hydrolase gene deletion improves blood flow and reduces infarct size after cerebral ischemia in reproductively senescent female mice

    PubMed Central

    Zuloaga, Kristen L.; Zhang, Wenri; Roese, Natalie E.; Alkayed, Nabil J.

    2015-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), a key enzyme in the metabolism of vasodilatory epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), is sexually dimorphic, suppressed by estrogen, and contributes to underlying sex differences in cerebral blood flow and injury after cerebral ischemia. We tested the hypothesis that sEH inhibition or gene deletion in reproductively senescent (RS) female mice would increase cerebral perfusion and decrease infarct size following stroke. RS (1518 month old) and young (34 month old) female sEH knockout (sEHKO) mice and wild type (WT) mice were subjected to 45 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with laser Doppler perfusion monitoring. WT mice were treated with vehicle or a sEH inhibitor t-AUCB at the time of reperfusion and every 24 h thereafter for 3 days. Differences in regional cerebral blood flow were measured in vivo using optical microangiography (OMAG). Infarct size was measured 3 days after reperfusion. Infarct size and cerebral perfusion 24 h after MCAO were not altered by age. Both sEH gene deletion and sEH inhibition increased cortical perfusion 24 h after MCAO. Neither sEH gene deletion nor sEH inhibition reduced infarct size in young mice. However, sEH gene deletion, but not sEH inhibition of the hydrolase domain of the enzyme, decreased infarct size in RS mice. Results of these studies show that sEH gene deletion and sEH inhibition enhance cortical perfusion following MCAO and sEH gene deletion reduces damage after ischemia in RS female mice; however this neuroprotection in absent is young mice. PMID:25642188

  18. Specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes recognize the immediate-early transactivator Zta of Epstein-Barr virus.

    PubMed Central

    Bogedain, C; Wolf, H; Modrow, S; Stuber, G; Jilg, W

    1995-01-01

    We identified the immediate-early transactivator Zta of Epstein-Barr virus as a target for specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Cells pulsed with overlapping synthetic peptides representing the entire amino acid sequence of Zta proved to be efficient for the in vitro stimulation of Zta-specific CTL in several donors. With peptide-pulsed target cells, we found that CTL from several donors recognize a peptide comprising 15 amino acids. The immune response against this peptide exerted by CTL lines from different donors was found to be restricted by two different molecules of the major histocompatibility complex: HLA-B8 and HLA-Cw6. The latter molecule could for the first time be identified as a restricting element for a CTL response. The epitope of the HLA-B8-restricted CTL could be mapped to an octameric sequence between amino acid positions 190 and 197 of the Zta protein, whereas the minimal epitope of HLA-Cw6-restricted CTL consists of 11 to 15 residues between positions 187 and 201. Thus, the HLA-B8 and HLA-Cw6 epitopes widely overlap but are not completely identical. In vitro stimulation of blood lymphocytes from a panel of HLA-B8-positive or HLA-Cw6-positive virus carriers, using autologous cells pulsed with the Zta peptides comprising the HLA-B8 or HLA-Cw6 epitope, respectively, revealed in both cases that most of these donors developed a Zta-specific cytotoxic activity. These data, as well as the high spread of the major histocompatibility complex molecules HLA-B8 and HLA-Cw6 in most populations, suggest that an efficient CTL response directed against gene products of the immediate-early group of the lytic cycle exists in vivo in a considerable portion of virus carriers. A CTL response against proteins expressed immediately after the switch into the lytic cycle could eliminate lytically activated cells at an early stage and would thus efficiently prevent the production and release of progeny virions. PMID:7609055

  19. Evidence of Selection for the ?-Globin Gene Deletions and Triplications in a Southern Chinese Population.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xing-Mei; Wu, Man-Yu; Li, Dong-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    ?(+)-Thalassemia (?(+)-thal) is common in Southern China. The high frequency could be due to over dominant selection through malaria. Two molecular mechanisms that produce ?(+)-thal have been defined; one results in the -?(3.7) (rightward) deletion and reciprocal ???(anti 3.7) triplication, and the other one results in the -?(4.2) (leftward) deletion and reciprocal ???(anti 4.2) triplication. Considering that each de novo event produced a chromosome with an ? gene deletion and a chromosome with an ? triplication, if there is no favorable allele, one would expected to find the same allelic frequencies. We found a favorable selection for the -?(3.7) deletion in the Chinese population, and we also found that the ? triplication is not as rare as was first thought, especially for the ???(anti 3.7) triplication. PMID:26290492

  20. Biochemical activities of T-antigen proteins encoded by simian virus 40 A gene deletion mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, R; Peden, K; Pipas, J M; Nathans, D; Tjian, R

    1983-01-01

    We have analyzed T antigens produced by a set of simian virus 40 (SV40) A gene deletion mutants for ATPase activity and for binding to the SV40 origin of DNA replication. Virus stocks of nonviable SV40 A gene deletion mutants were established in SV40-transformed monkey COS cells. Mutant T antigens were produced in mutant virus-infected CV1 cells. The structures of the mutant T antigens were characterized by immunoprecipitation with monoclonal antibodies directed against distinct regions of the T-antigen molecule. T antigens in crude extracts prepared from cells infected with 10 different mutants were immobilized on polyacrylamide beads with monoclonal antibodies, quantified by Coomassie blue staining, and then assayed directly for T antigen-specific ATPase activity and for binding to the SV40 origin of DNA replication. Our results indicate that the T antigen coding sequences required for origin binding map between 0.54 and 0.35 map units on the SV40 genome. In contrast, sequences closer to the C terminus of T antigen (between 0.24 and 0.20 map units) are required for ATPase activity. The presence of the ATPase activity correlated closely with the ability of the mutant viruses to replicate and to transform nonpermissive cells. The origin binding activity was retained, however, by three mutants that lacked these two functions, indicating that this activity is not sufficient to support either cellular transformation or viral replication. Neither the ATPase activity nor the origin binding activity correlated with the ability of the mutant DNA to activate silent rRNA genes or host cell DNA synthesis. Images PMID:6300658

  1. Effects of Bax Gene Deletion on Social Behaviors and Neural Response to Olfactory Cues in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Melissa M.; Niel, Lee; Anyan, Jeff J.; Griffith, Andrew T.; Monks, D. Ashley; Forger, Nancy G.

    2011-01-01

    Bax is a pro-death protein that plays a crucial role in developmental neuronal cell death. Bax?/? mice exhibit increased neuron number and the elimination of several neural sex differences. Here we examined the effects of Bax gene deletion on social behaviors (olfactory preference, social recognition, social approach, and aggression) and the neural processing of olfactory cues. Bax deletion eliminated the normal sex difference in olfactory preference behavior. In the social recognition test, both genotypes discriminated a novel conspecific, but wildtype males and Bax?/? animals of both sexes spent much more time than wildtype females investigating stimulus animals. Similarly, Bax?/? mice were more sociable than wildtype mice in a social approach test. Bax deletion had no effect on aggression in a resident/intruder paradigm where males, regardless of genotype, exhibited a shorter latency to attack. Thus, the prevention of neuronal cell death by Bax gene deletion results in greater sociability as well as the elimination of sex differences in some social behaviors. To examine olfactory processing of socially relevant cues, we counted c-Fos immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells in several nodes of the accessory olfactory pathway after exposure to male-soiled or control bedding. In both genotypes, exposure to male-soiled bedding increased Fos-ir cells in the posterodorsal medial amygdala, principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), and the response in the MPN was greater in females than in males. However, a reduction in Fos-ir cells was seen in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus of Bax?/? mice. PMID:22034980

  2. Effects of Bax gene deletion on social behaviors and neural response to olfactory cues in mice.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Melissa M; Niel, Lee; Anyan, Jeff J; Griffith, Andrew T; Monks, D Ashley; Forger, Nancy G

    2011-11-01

    Bax is a pro-death protein that plays a crucial role in developmental neuronal cell death. Bax(-/-) mice exhibit increased neuron number and lack several neural sex differences. Here we examined the effects of Bax gene deletion on social behaviors (olfactory preference, social recognition, social approach and aggression) and the neural processing of olfactory cues. Bax deletion eliminated the normal sex difference in olfactory preference behavior. In the social recognition test, both genotypes discriminated a novel conspecific, but wild-type males and Bax(-/-) animals of both sexes spent much more time than wild-type females investigating stimulus animals. Similarly, Bax(-/-) mice were more sociable than wild-type mice in a social approach test. Bax deletion had no effect on aggression in a resident/intruder paradigm where males, regardless of genotype, exhibited a shorter latency to attack. Thus, the prevention of neuronal cell death by Bax gene deletion results in greater sociability as well as the elimination of sex differences in some social behaviors. To examine olfactory processing of socially relevant cues, we counted c-Fos-immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells in several nodes of the accessory olfactory pathway after exposure to male-soiled or control bedding. In both genotypes, exposure to male-soiled bedding increased Fos-ir cells in the posterodorsal medial amygdala, principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), and the response in the MPN was greater in females than in males. However, a reduction in Fos-ir cells was seen in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus of Bax(-/-) mice. PMID:22034980

  3. Salicylate-induced changes in immediate-early genes in the hippocampal CA1 area

    PubMed Central

    WU, HAO; XU, FENG-LEI; YIN, YONG; DA, PENG; YOU, XIAO-DONG; XU, HUI-MIN; TANG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    Studies have suggested that salicylate affects neuronal function via interactions with specific membrane channels/receptors. However, the effect of salicylate on activity and synaptic morphology of the hippocampal Cornu Ammonis (CA) 1 area remains to be elucidated. The activation of immediate-early genes (IEGs) was reported to correlate with neuronal activity, in particular activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein and early growth response gene 1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of these IEGs, as well that of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2B in rats following acute and chronic salicylate treatment. Protein and messenger RNA levels of all three genes were increased in rats following chronic administration of salicylate (300 mg/kg for 10 days), returning to baseline levels 14 days post-cessation of treatment. The transient upregulation of gene expression following treatment was accompanied by ultrastructural alterations in hippocampal CA1 area synapses. An increase in synaptic interface curvature was observed as well as an increased number of presynaptic vesicles; in addition, postsynaptic densities thickened and lengthened. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that chronic exposure to salicylate may lead to structural alteration of hippocampal CA1 neurons, and it was suggested that this process occurs through induced expression of IEGs via NMDA receptor activation. PMID:25873216

  4. Presentation of an Immunodominant Immediate-Early CD8+ T Cell Epitope Resists Human Cytomegalovirus Immunoevasion

    PubMed Central

    Ameres, Stefanie; Mautner, Josef; Schlott, Fabian; Neuenhahn, Michael; Busch, Dirk H.; Plachter, Bodo; Moosmann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Control of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) depends on CD8+ T cell responses that are shaped by an individual's repertoire of MHC molecules. MHC class I presentation is modulated by a set of HCMV-encoded proteins. Here we show that HCMV immunoevasins differentially impair T cell recognition of epitopes from the same viral antigen, immediate-early 1 (IE-1), that are presented by different MHC class I allotypes. In the presence of immunoevasins, HLA-A- and HLA-B-restricted T cell clones were ineffective, but HLA-C*0702-restricted T cell clones recognized and killed infected cells. Resistance of HLA-C*0702 to viral immunoevasins US2 and US11 was mediated by the alpha3 domain and C-terminal region of the HLA heavy chain. In healthy donors, HLA-C*0702-restricted T cells dominated the T cell response to IE-1. The same HLA-C allotype specifically protected infected cells from attack by NK cells that expressed a corresponding HLA-C-specific KIR. Thus, allotype-specific viral immunoevasion allows HCMV to escape control by NK cells and HLA-A- and HLA-B-restricted T cells, while the virus becomes selectively vulnerable to an immunodominant population of HLA-C-restricted T cells. Our work identifies a T cell population that may be of particular efficiency in HCMV-specific immunotherapy. PMID:23717207

  5. Modeling the Kinetics of a Memory-Associated Immediate Early Gene's Compartmental Expression After Sensory Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willats, Adam; Ivanova, Tamara; Prinz, Astrid; Liu, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) are rapidly and transiently transcribed in neurons after a sensory experience. Some of these genes act as effector IEGs, which mediate specific effects on cellular function. Arc is one such effector IEG that is essential for synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation in hippocampus and cortex. The expression of Arc in neurons has previously been examined using an imaging method known as Compartmental Analysis of Temporal Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization. Previous work found that the time course of Arc expression within the nuclear and perinuclear cytoplasmic compartments of a neuron is altered by prior sensory experience. We explore a simple model of the kinetics of IEG transcription and nuclear export, with the aim of eventually uncovering possible mechanisms for how experience alters expression kinetics. Thus far, we characterize our compartmental model using phase-plane analysis and validate it against several IEG expression data sets, including one where prior experience with vocalizing mice alters the time course of call-induced Arc expression in the auditory cortex of a listening mouse. Our model provides a framework to explore why Arc expression may change depending on a receiver's past sound experience and internal state. Adam Willats was supported by NIH Training Grant 5T90DA032466. This research was also supported by NIDCD R01 DC8343.

  6. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of a herpes simplex virus immediate early polypeptide

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, C.M.; Notarianni, E.L.

    1983-12-01

    In vitro poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) immediate early polypeptide Vmw175 is reported. The phenomenon was most clearly observed by use of the temperature-sensitive mutant tsK, which overproduces Vmw175 at the nonpermissive temperature (NPT) and has a mutation in the coding sequences for this polypeptide. Nuclei prepared from cells which were infected with tsK at NPT and subsequently downshifted to the permissive temperature incorporated (/sup 32/P)NAD into Vmw175. This reaction did not occur when nuclei were prepared from cells constantly maintained at NPT, showing that only functional Vmw175 can be radiolabeled with (/sup 32/P)NAD. The identity of the acceptor protein was confirmed by demonstrating the expected electrophoretic mobility differences between the HSV-1 and HSV-2 counterparts of Vmw175. The use of suitable inhibitors demonstrated that the reaction represented mono- or poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and further analysis showed the presence of long poly(ADP-ribose) chains attached to Vmw175. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation may be important as a cause or result of the regulation of viral transcription by Vmw175. Radiolabeling of another virus-specified polypeptide (approximate molecular weight 38,000), thought to be a structural component of the input virus, is also reported.

  7. Mapping vocalization-related immediate early gene expression in echolocating bats

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Christine P.; Smotherman, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of spontaneously vocalizing primates, cetaceans, bats and rodents suggests these animals possess a limited but meaningful capacity to manipulate the timing and acoustic structure of their vocalizations, yet the neural substrate for even the simplest forms of vocal modulation in mammals remains unknown. Echolocating bats rapidly and routinely manipulate the acoustic structure of their outgoing vocalizations to improve echolocation efficiency, reflecting cognitive rather than limbic control of the vocal motor pathways. In this study, we used immunohistochemical localization of immediate early gene (c-fos) expression to map neural activity in the brains of spontaneously echolocating stationary Mexican free-tailed bats. Our results support the current model of vocal control obtained largely through microstimulation studies, but also provide evidence for the contributions of two novel regions, the dorsolateral caudate nucleus and mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, which together suggest a striatothalamic feedback loop may be involved in the control of echolocation pulse production. Additionally, we found evidence of a motivation pathway, including the lateral habenula, substantia nigra pars compacta, and raphe nuclei. These data provide novel insights into where and how mammalian vocalizations may be regulated by sensory, contextual and motivational cues. PMID:21726584

  8. Temporal Decoding of MAP Kinase and CREB Phosphorylation by Selective Immediate Early Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Takeshi H.; Uda, Shinsuke; Tsuchiya, Takaho; Ozaki, Yu-ichi; Kuroda, Shinya

    2013-01-01

    A wide range of growth factors encode information into specific temporal patterns of MAP kinase (MAPK) and CREB phosphorylation, which are further decoded by expression of immediate early gene products (IEGs) to exert biological functions. However, the IEG decoding system remain unknown. We built a data-driven based on time courses of MAPK and CREB phosphorylation and IEG expression in response to various growth factors to identify how signal is processed. We found that IEG expression uses common decoding systems regardless of growth factors and expression of each IEG differs in upstream dependency, switch-like response, and linear temporal filters. Pulsatile ERK phosphorylation was selectively decoded by expression of EGR1 rather than c-FOS. Conjunctive NGF and PACAP stimulation was selectively decoded by synergistic JUNB expression through switch-like response to c-FOS. Thus, specific temporal patterns and combinations of MAPKs and CREB phosphorylation can be decoded by selective IEG expression via distinct temporal filters and switch-like responses. The data-driven modeling is versatile for analysis of signal processing and does not require detailed prior knowledge of pathways. PMID:23469182

  9. Role of Immediate-Early Genes in Synaptic Plasticity and Neuronal Ensembles Underlying the Memory Trace

    PubMed Central

    Minatohara, Keiichiro; Akiyoshi, Mika; Okuno, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In the brain, neuronal gene expression is dynamically changed in response to neuronal activity. In particular, the expression of immediate-early genes (IEGs) such as egr-1, c-fos, and Arc is rapidly and selectively upregulated in subsets of neurons in specific brain regions associated with learning and memory formation. IEG expression has therefore been widely used as a molecular marker for neuronal populations that undergo plastic changes underlying formation of long-term memory. In recent years, optogenetic and pharmacogenetic studies of neurons expressing c-fos or Arc have revealed that, during learning, IEG-positive neurons encode and store information that is required for memory recall, suggesting that they may be involved in formation of the memory trace. However, despite accumulating evidence for the role of IEGs in synaptic plasticity, the molecular and cellular mechanisms associated with this process remain unclear. In this review, we first summarize recent literature concerning the role of IEG-expressing neuronal ensembles in organizing the memory trace. We then focus on the physiological significance of IEGs, especially Arc, in synaptic plasticity, and describe our hypotheses about the importance of Arc expression in various types of input-specific circuit reorganization. Finally, we offer perspectives on Arc function that would unveil the role of IEG-expressing neurons in the formation of memory traces in the hippocampus and other brain areas. PMID:26778955

  10. Expression of immediate-early genes in the dorsal cochlear nucleus in salicylate-induced tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shou-Sen; Mei, Ling; Chen, Jian-Yong; Huang, Zhi-Wu; Wu, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Spontaneous neuronal activity in dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) may be involved in the physiological processes underlying salicylate-induced tinnitus. As a neuronal activity marker, immediate-early gene (IEG) expression, especially activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arc/Arg3.1) and the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1), appears to be highly correlated with sensory-evoked neuronal activity. However, their relationships with tinnitus induced by salicylate have rarely been reported in the DCN. In this study, we assessed the effect of acute and chronic salicylate treatment on the expression of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), Arg3.1, and Egr-1. We also observed ultrastructural alterations in the DCN synapses in an animal model of tinnitus. Levels of mRNA and protein expression of NR2B and Arg3.1 were increased in rats that were chronically administered salicylate (200mg/kg, twice daily for 3, 7, or 14days). These levels returned to baseline 14days after cessation of treatment. However, no significant changes were observed in Egr-1 gene expression in any groups. Furthermore, rats subjected to long-term salicylate administration showed more presynaptic vesicles, thicker and longer postsynaptic densities, and increased synaptic interface curvature. Alterations of Arg3.1 and NR2B may be responsible for the changes in the synaptic ultrastructure. These changes confirm that salicylate can cause neural plasticity changes at the DCN level. PMID:25636249

  11. Wavelength-specific induction of immediate early genes by ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Ariizumi, K; Bergstresser, P R; Takashima, A

    1996-06-01

    Exposure of skin in vivo to ultraviolet B (UVB) or ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation produces a variety of distinct clinical manifestations. In the present study, we characterized the immediate early genes that are activated in an epidermoid carcinoma cell line (A431) when exposed to UVB (FS20 sunlamp) or UVA radiation (window glass-filtered black light). We observed that: (a) c-jun mRNA expression is upregulated predominantly by UVB; (b) fra-1 and c-myc are downregulated by UVB, whereas both are upregulated by UVA; (c) fra-2 and AP-2 are downregulated modestly by UVB, (d) c-fos is unaffected, and (e) optimal regulation of each gene is achieved at environmentally relevant fluences (25-100 J/m2 for UVB and 2500-10 000 J/m2 for UVA). Thus, distinct sets of genes are activated (or repressed) by UVB and UVA irradiation. Treatment with organic hydrogen peroxides mimicked UVB radiation in upregulating c-jun expression, suggesting the participation of reactive oxygen intermediates in the UVB-signaling pathway. We propose that wavelength-specific regulation of nuclear mediator genes accounts for the development of at least some of the wavelength-specific cutaneous manifestations of ultraviolet radiation. PMID:8814547

  12. TISSUE-PLASMINOGEN ACTIVATOR IS INDUCED AS AN IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENE DURING SEIZURE, KINDLING, AND LONG-TERM POTENTIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activity-dependent genes in brain have been identified using differential screening of hippocampal cDNA library from rats exposed to metrazol seizures under conditions of superconduction. Five immediate early genes whose expression is elevated by neural activity were identified. ...

  13. A Form of Perforant Path LTP Can Occur without ERK1/2 Phosphorylation or Immediate Early Gene Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Oswald; Huang, Fen; Guzowski, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulation paradigms that induce perforant path long-term potentiation (LTP) initiate phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and induce expression of a variety of immediate early genes (IEGs). These events are thought to be critical components of the mechanism for establishing the changes in synaptic efficacy that endure for hours or longer. Here we show that

  14. A Form of Perforant Path LTP Can Occur without ERK1/2 Phosphorylation or Immediate Early Gene Induction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Oswald; Huang, Fen; Guzowski, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Stimulation paradigms that induce perforant path long-term potentiation (LTP) initiate phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and induce expression of a variety of immediate early genes (IEGs). These events are thought to be critical components of the mechanism for establishing the changes in synaptic efficacy that endure for hours or longer. Here we show that…

  15. Expression of the Immediate-Early Gene-Encoded Protein Egr-1 ("zif268") during in Vitro Classical Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokin, Maxim; Keifer, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    Expression of the immediate-early genes (IEGs) has been shown to be induced by activity-dependent synaptic plasticity or behavioral training and is thought to play an important role in long-term memory. In the present study, we examined the induction and expression of the IEG-encoded protein Egr-1 during an in vitro neural correlate of eyeblink

  16. Immediate-early gene region of human cytomegalovirus trans-activates the promoter of human immunodeficiency virus

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.G.; Kenney, S.C.; Kamine, J.; Pagano, J.S.; Huang, E.S.

    1987-12-01

    Almost all homosexual patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are also actively infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). The authors have hypothesized that an interaction between HCMV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the agent that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, may exist at a molecular level and contribute to the manifestations of HIV infection. In this report, they demonstrate that the immediate-early gene region of HCMV, in particular immediate-early region 2, trans-activates the expression of the bacterial gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase that is fused to the HIV long terminal repeat and carried by plasmid pHIV-CAT. The HCMV immediate-early trans-activator increases the level of mRNA from the plamid pHIV-CAT. The sequences of HIV that are responsive to trans-activation by the HDMV immediate-early region are distinct from HIV sequences that are required for response to the HIV tat. The stimulation of HIV gene expression by HDMV gene functions could enhance the consequences of HIV infection in persons with previous or concurrent HCMV infection.

  17. A self-excising beta-recombinase/six cassette for repetitive gene deletion and homokaryon purification in Neurospora crassa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study we developed a cassette employing a bacterial beta-recombinase acting on six recognition sequences (beta-rec/six), which allowed repetitive site-specific gene deletion and marker recycling in Neurospora crassa. However, only one positive selection marker was used in the cassette...

  18. Acoustic modulation of immediate early gene expression in the auditory midbrain of female tngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Sabrina S; Mangiamele, Lisa A; Lebonville, Christina L

    2008-01-23

    To better understand the molecular consequences of auditory processing in frogs, we investigated the acoustic modulation of two immediate early genes (IEGs), egr-1 and fos, in the auditory midbrain of female tngara frogs. Since tngara frog egr-1 had already been identified, we first isolated a tngara-specific fos clone using degenerate PCR followed by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. In order to examine the temporal kinetics of acoustically modulated IEG mRNA expression, we first acoustically isolated females collected from a mating chorus and analyzed the decline in IEG expression in the torus semicircularis (homolog of the inferior colliculus). We found that IEG mRNA levels declined rapidly and reached baseline within 2 h. Next, we presented females with a 30-min recording of a mating chorus and analyzed IEG expression following different survival times. We found that IEG expression increased within 15-30 min of sound presentation but, compared to other vertebrates, in the tngara frog it took longer to reach the highest and lowest mRNA levels in response to sound and isolation, respectively. We also found that acoustic stimulation of egr-1 and fos differed in the three subdivisions of the torus semicircularis, suggesting that, as in birds, the two genes could provide largely different information when used in IEG mapping studies. While our results confirm the generality of sensory-induced IEG expression in vertebrates, whether the longer time course of IEG expression that we observed represents a species difference in the mechanisms of IEG transcription awaits further study. PMID:18061149

  19. The immediate early gene Egr3 mediates adaptation to stress and novelty

    PubMed Central

    Gallitano-Mendel1, Amelia; Izumi, Yukitoshi; Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Zorumski, Charles F.; Howell, Maureen P.; Muglia, Louis J.; Wozniak, David F.; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Stress and exploration of novel environments induce neural expression of immediate early gene transcription factors (IEG-TFs). However, as yet no IEG-TF has been shown to be required for the normal biological or behavioral responses to these stimuli. Here we show that mice deficient for the IEG-TF early growth response gene (Egr) 3, display accentuated behavioral responses to the mild stress of handling paralleled by increased release of the stress hormone corticosterone. Egr3−/− mice also display abnormal responses to novelty, including heightened reactivity to novel environments and failure to habituate to social cues or startling acoustic stimuli. In a Y-maze spontaneous alternation task, they perform fewer sequential arm entries than controls, suggesting defects in immediate memory. Because stress and novelty stimulate hippocampal long-term depression (LTD), and because abnormalities in habituation to novelty and Y-maze performance have been associated with LTD deficits, we examined this form of synaptic plasticity in Egr3−/− mice. We found that Egr3−/− mice fail to establish hippocampal LTD in response to low frequency stimulation and exhibit dysfunction of an ifenprodil-sensitive (NR1/NR2B) NMDA receptor subclass. LTP induction was not altered. The NR2B-dependent dysfunction does not result from transcriptional regulation of this subunit by Egr3, because NR2B mRNA levels did not differ in the hippocampi of Egr3−/− and control mice. These findings are the first demonstration of the requirement for an IEG-TF in mediating the response to stress and novelty, and in the establishment of LTD. PMID:17692471

  20. The dusp1 Immediate Early Gene is Regulated by Natural Stimuli Predominantly in Sensory Input Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Horita, Haruhito; Wada, Kazuhiro; Rivas, Miriam V.; Hara, Erina; Jarvis, Erich D.

    2010-01-01

    Many immediate early genes (IEGs) have activity-dependent induction in a subset of brain subdivisions or neuron types. However, none have been reported yet with regulation specific to thalamic-recipient sensory neurons of the telencephalon or in the thalamic sensory input neurons themselves. Here, we report the first such gene, dual specificity phosphatase 1 (dusp1). Dusp1 is an inactivator of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and MAPK activates expression of egr1, one of the most commonly studied IEGs, as determined in cultured cells. We found that in the brain of naturally behaving songbirds and other avian species, hearing song, seeing visual stimuli, or performing motor behavior caused high dusp1 upregulation, respectively, in auditory, visual, and somatosensory input cell populations of the thalamus and thalamic-recipient sensory neurons of the telencephalic pallium, whereas high egr1 upregulation occurred only in subsequently connected secondary and tertiary sensory neuronal populations of these same pathways. Motor behavior did not induce high levels of dusp1 expression in the motor-associated areas adjacent to song nuclei, where egr1 is upregulated in response to movement. Our analysis of dusp1 expression in mouse brain suggests similar regulation in the sensory input neurons of the thalamus and thalamic-recipient layer IV and VI neurons of the cortex. These findings suggest that dusp1 has specialized regulation to sensory input neurons of the thalamus and telencephalon; they further suggest that this regulation may serve to attenuate stimulus-induced expression of egr1 and other IEGs, leading to unique molecular properties of forebrain sensory input neurons. PMID:20506480

  1. Construction and properties of pseudorabies virus recombinants with altered control of immediate-early gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Glazenburg, K L; Peeters, B P; Pol, J M; Gielkens, A L; Moormann, R J

    1995-01-01

    To investigate how altered control of expression of the essential immediate-early (IE) gene of pseudorabies virus influences virus replication and virulence, we replaced the IE promoter with the tissue-specific promoters of the bovine cytokeratin IV gene (CKIV), the bovine cytokeratin VIb gene (CKVIb), or the inducible promoter of Drosophila heat shock gene HSP70. We compared expression of the IE gene of the wild-type virus and recombinant viruses in different cell types and at different temperatures and found that IE expression had become cell type or temperature dependent. When a recombinant virus was titrated on nonpermissive cells or was titrated at nonpermissive temperatures in vitro, the plating efficiency was reduced by more than 99%. Mice were inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.), intraperitoneally (i.p.), or intranasally (i.n.) with a dose equal to 100 times the 50% lethal dose of the wild-type virus. After inoculation with temperature-sensitive recombinant N-HSP, two (s.c.), two (i.p.), and four (i.n.) of five mice died. However, at this dose, recombinant N-CKIV, which contains a promoter specific for stratified epithelial tissue of the tongue mucosa, was not lethal when inoculated s.c. or i.p. but killed four mice when inoculated i.n. Recombinant N-CKVIb, which contains a promoter specific for the suprabasal layers of the epidermis, was not lethal after inoculation by any of the three routes. In explant cultures of nasal mucosa of pigs, replication of N-CKIV and N-CKVIb was not markedly reduced in the epithelium. However, in contrast to results obtained with wild-type virus, infection of the stroma was not observed. We conclude that the replicative ability and virulence of pseudorabies virus can be influenced by altering control of expression of the IE gene. PMID:7527083

  2. Characterization of the regulatory functions of the equine herpesvirus 1 immediate-early gene product.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R H; Caughman, G B; O'Callaghan, D J

    1992-01-01

    Use of the translation-inhibiting drug cycloheximide has indicated that the equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) immediate-early (IE) gene, the sole EHV-1 IE gene, encodes a major viral regulatory protein since IE mRNA translation is a prerequisite for all further viral gene expression (W.L. Gray, R. P. Baumann, A. T. Robertson, G. B. Caughman, D. J. O'Callaghan, and J. Staczek, Virology 158:79-87, 1987). An EHV-1 IE gene expression vector (pSVIE) in combination with chimeric EHV-1 promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter constructs was used in transient transfection assays to characterize the regulatory functions of the IE gene product. These experiments demonstrated that (i) the EHV-1 IE gene product is a bifunctional protein capable of both positive and negative modulation of gene expression; (ii) the IE gene product possesses an autoregulatory function which represses the IE promoter; (iii) IE autoregulation is dependent on IE promoter sequences mapping within positions -288 to +73 relative to the transcription initiation site (+1) of the IE gene; (iv) the IE gene product can independently activate the EHV-1 tk promoter (an early promoter) by as much as 60-fold; (v) two EHV-1 beta-gamma (leaky late) promoters, those of IR5 (gene 5 in the inverted repeat) and the glycoprotein D gene, demonstrate a requirement for both the IE gene product as well as a gene product encoded within the EHV-1 XbaI G fragment for significant activation; and (vi) the IE gene product is capable of activating heterologous viral promoters. Images PMID:1309921

  3. Functional profiling of immediate early gene Egr1 in an anorexic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Jiang, Weixi; Yuan, Dun

    2013-11-01

    A small population of neurons in the hypothalamus is known to promote food intake by releasing inhibitory agouti?related peptide (ARP) and neuropeptide Y to broad postsynaptic areas. Acute ablation of ARP neurons in adult mice leads to rapid loss of appetite and the development of an anorexic phenotype. Recent studies have suggested that ablation of ARP neurons removes critical inhibition of postsynaptic neurons, resulting in hyperexcitation of selected downstream neurons. Left uncontrolled, this neuronal hyperactivation is hypothesized to induce starvation. However, the cellular mechanism underlying the control of excitability of postsynaptic neurons in response to the ablation of ARP neurons is poorly understood. The present study aimed to determine the functional correlation between ARP neurons and an immediate early gene, early growth response factor?1 (Egr1), in postsynaptic neurons in the context of energy homeostasis. Egr1 expression levels were analyzed in different postsynaptic areas upon acute ablation of ARP neurons. As ARP neurons increase appetite by inhibiting the pro?opiomelanocortin pathway, it was also investigated whether blockade of melanocortin signaling affects Egr1 expression in ARP neuron?ablated mice. The results suggested that ablation of ARP neurons induced robust expression of Egr1 in numerous common postsynaptic targets of ARP and pro?opiomelanocortin neurons. When ARP neurons were acutely ablated, it was demonstrated that Egr1 induction was attenuated by chronic blockade of the melanocortin signaling pathway in the arcuate nucleus, but not in other downstream regions. Further analysis of the Egr1 signaling cascade may aid in differentiating the functional involvement of postsynaptic targets of ARP neurons in the control of energy metabolism. PMID:24002696

  4. Temporal regulation of expression of immediate early and second phase transcripts by endothelin-1 in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cullingford, Timothy E; Markou, Thomais; Fuller, Stephen J; Giraldo, Alejandro; Pikkarainen, Sampsa; Zoumpoulidou, Georgia; Alsafi, Ali; Ekere, Collins; Kemp, Timothy J; Dennis, Jayne L; Game, Laurence; Sugden, Peter H; Clerk, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Background Endothelin-1 stimulates Gq protein-coupled receptors to promote proliferation in dividing cells or hypertrophy in terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes, endothelin-1 rapidly (within minutes) stimulates protein kinase signaling, including extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2; though not ERK5), with phenotypic/physiological changes developing from approximately 12 h. Hypertrophy is associated with changes in mRNA/protein expression, presumably consequent to protein kinase signaling, but the connections between early, transient signaling events and developed hypertrophy are unknown. Results Using microarrays, we defined the early transcriptional responses of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to endothelin-1 over 4 h, differentiating between immediate early gene (IEG) and second phase RNAs with cycloheximide. IEGs exhibited differential temporal and transient regulation, with expression of second phase RNAs within 1 h. Of transcripts upregulated at 30 minutes encoding established proteins, 28 were inhibited >50% by U0126 (which inhibits ERK1/2/5 signaling), with 9 inhibited 25-50%. Expression of only four transcripts was not inhibited. At 1 h, most RNAs (approximately 67%) were equally changed in total and polysomal RNA with approximately 17% of transcripts increased to a greater extent in polysomes. Thus, changes in expression of most protein-coding RNAs should be reflected in protein synthesis. However, approximately 16% of transcripts were essentially excluded from the polysomes, including some protein-coding mRNAs, presumably inefficiently translated. Conclusion The phasic, temporal regulation of early transcriptional responses induced by endothelin-1 in cardiomyocytes indicates that, even in terminally differentiated cells, signals are propagated beyond the primary signaling pathways through transcriptional networks leading to phenotypic changes (that is, hypertrophy). Furthermore, ERK1/2 signaling plays a major role in this response. PMID:18275597

  5. Impact of UGT2B17 gene deletion on the steroid profile of an athlete.

    PubMed

    Martín-Escudero, Pilar; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús; Del Prado, Nayade; Galindo Canales, Mercedes; Fuentes Ferrer, Manuel; Vargas, Soledad; Soldevilla, Ana B; Serrano-Garde, Ester; Miguel-Tobal, Francisco; Maestro de Las Casas, Marisa; Fernandez-Pérez, Cristina

    2015-12-01

    The measurement of the testosterone to epitestosterone ratio (T/E ratio) in urine is often used as a marker for testosterone administration in the doping control field. This study examines the frequencies of the different expression forms of the UGT2B17 gene, and assesses their effects on this marker in volunteer subjects. The sample for this descriptive study was composed of male and female athletes aged between 16 and 55 years old who practiced different sports disciplines. All participants underwent a sports-medical physical examination, and subsequently provided 10 urine samples consecutively over a period of 48 h. The dependent variable examined was T/E and the main independent variable was the UGT2B17 gene polymorphism. During 1 year, 1410 urine samples were obtained from 141 athletes. The frequencies of the three genotypes were as follows: wt homozygotes (ins/ins) 48.2% (n = 68), mutant homozygotes (del/del) 12.1% (n = 17), and heterozygotes (ins/del) 39.7% (n = 56). Genotype distributions varied significantly (P < 0.001) according to ethnicity, 80% of Asian subjects being homozygous for the gene deletion (del/del) compared to 6.9% of Caucasian subjects. A multivariate analysis adjusted for genotype, age, sex, and sports discipline revealed that athletes with the del/del polymorphism showed a significantly lower mean T/E than heterozygotes (ins/del). In contrast, homozygous athletes for the gene insertion (ins/ins) showed higher mean T/E ratios than heterozygotes (ins/del). UGT2B17 gene deletion has a strong influence on the T/E ratio in urine, which is the most efficient indicator of testosterone prohormone misuse. Others factors studied seem not to have such an impact. The genotyping of UGT2B17 is an important source of information for understanding steroid profiling in the doping control field; therefore it is suggested that it be included in the Athletes Biological Passport. PMID:26668303

  6. Structure and transcription of an immediate-early region in the human herpesvirus 6 genome.

    PubMed Central

    Schiewe, U; Neipel, F; Schreiner, D; Fleckenstein, B

    1994-01-01

    The unique segment of the human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) genome is essentially collinear to the unique long DNA segment of another betaherpesvirus, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). However, the HHV-6 genomic section that is analogous in position to the major immediate-early (IE) locus of HCMV does not exhibit recognizable sequence homologies. The respective HHV-6 region of 5.5 kbp is flanked on one side by 25 to 28 incomplete tandem repeats of 105 to 110 bp that contain, with one exception, a single KpnI restriction site (KpnI repeats). About 250 reiterations of the sequence motif CACATA are located on the other end. We identified two open reading frames of 375 and 2,595 nucleotides, respectively, on one strand. Strand-specific Northern blot analyses with RNA harvested from HHV-6 (strain U1102)-infected HSB-2 cells or cord blood lymphocytes revealed two transcripts of about 3.5 and 4.7 kb in the corresponding orientation. Sequence analyses of the respective cDNA clones and primer extension experiments were used to map the mRNAs. The two transcripts are coterminal and multiply spliced and code for the same putative 104.6-kDa protein, but they are initiated from different promoters. Characterization of smaller cDNA clones and Northern blotting with other strand-specific probes showed that singly spliced mRNAs of 1.0 and 1.5 kb are transcribed from the opposite strand; they could code for a 17.2-kDa polypeptide. Blocking experiments with cycloheximide led to the conclusion that only the 3.5-kb mRNA is synthesized in the absence of protein biosynthesis upon infection with cell-free virus. This identifies a single IE gene of HHV-6 at the genomic position corresponding to the major IE region of HCMV, although the coding content and transcriptional regulation are quite different for these two herpesvirus IE regions. Images PMID:8151768

  7. gamma Heavy chain disease in man: cDNA sequence supports partial gene deletion model.

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, A; Steinmetz, M; Barritault, D; Frangione, B; Franklin, E C; Hood, L; Buxbaum, J N

    1982-01-01

    Human gamma heavy chain disease (HCD) is characterized by the presence in serum of a short monoclonal Ig gamma chain unattached to light chains. Although most HCD proteins have internal deletions, in some the defect is NH2-terminal. The OMM gamma 3 HCD serum protein is of the latter type, having undergone an extensive NH2-terminal deletion with a sequence starting within the hinge. A cell line synthesizing the OMM protein has enabled us to study the biogenesis of the abnormal molecule. In vitro translation of isolated mRNA yields a protein containing a hydrophobic NH2-terminal leader sequence. In the intact cell, the precursor molecule is processed normally to yield a protein with an NH2-terminal sequence homologous to the beginning of the variable (V) region. The nucleotide sequence of cDNA prepared from the OMM mRNA encodes a 19-amino acid leader followed by the first 15 residues of the V region. An extensive internal deletion encompasses the remainder of the V and the entire CH1 domain. Immediately following the short V region, there is information in the cDNA for the entire normal hinge. The primary synthetic product is thus an internally deleted molecule that undergoes postsynthetic degradation to yield the NH2-terminally deleted serum protein. The structure of the OMM mRNA suggests that the protein abnormality results from a partial gene deletion rather than defective splicing. PMID:6808505

  8. Unmarked gene deletion and host-vector system for the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus islandicus.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ling; Zhu, Haojun; Chen, Zhengjun; Liang, Yun Xiang; She, Qunxin

    2009-07-01

    Sulfolobus islandicus is being used as a model for studying archaeal biology, geo-biology and evolution. However, no genetic system is available for this organism. To produce an S. islandicus mutant suitable for genetic analyses, we screened for colonies with a spontaneous pyrEF mutation. One mutant was obtained containing only 233 bp of the original pyrE sequence in the mutant allele and it was used as a host to delete the beta-glycosidase (lacS) gene. Two unmarked gene deletion methods were employed, namely plasmid integration and segregation, and marker replacement and looping out, and unmarked lacS mutants were obtained by each method. A new alternative recombination mechanism, i.e., marker circularization and integration, was shown to operate in the latter method, which did not yield the designed deletion mutation. Subsequently, Sulfolobus-E. coli plasmid shuttle vectors were constructed, which genetically complemented DeltapyrEFDeltalacS mutation after transformation. Thus, a complete set of genetic tools was established for S. islandicus with pyrEF and lacS as genetic markers. PMID:19513584

  9. A next-generation genetically attenuated Plasmodium falciparum parasite created by triple gene deletion.

    PubMed

    Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Camargo, Nelly; Harupa, Anke; Kaushansky, Alexis; Douglass, Alyse N; Baldwin, Michael; Healer, Julie; O'Neill, Matthew; Phuong, Thuan; Cowman, Alan; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2014-09-01

    Immunization with live-attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites completely protects against malaria infection. Genetic engineering offers a versatile platform to create live-attenuated sporozoite vaccine candidates. We previously generated a genetically attenuated parasite (GAP) by deleting the P52 and P36 genes in the NF54 wild-type (WT) strain of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf p52(-)/p36(-) GAP). Preclinical assessment of p52(-)/p36(-) GAP in a humanized mouse model indicated an early and severe liver stage growth defect. However, human exposure to >200 Pf p52(-)/p36(-) GAP-infected mosquito bites in a safety trial resulted in peripheral parasitemia in one of six volunteers, revealing that this GAP was incompletely attenuated. We have now created a triple gene deleted GAP by additionally removing the SAP1 gene (Pf p52(-)/p36(-)/sap1(-) GAP) and employed flippase (FLP)/flippase recognition target (FRT) recombination for drug selectable marker cassette removal. This next-generation GAP was indistinguishable from WT parasites in blood stage and mosquito stage development. Using an improved humanized mouse model transplanted with human hepatocytes and human red blood cells, we show that despite a high-dose sporozoite challenge, Pf p52(-)/p36(-)/sap1(-) GAP did not transition to blood stage infection and appeared to be completely attenuated. Thus, clinical testing of Pf p52(-)/p36(-)/sap1(-) GAP assessing safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy against sporozoite challenge is warranted. PMID:24827907

  10. A two-step integration method for seamless gene deletion in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jian; Wang, Guanglu; Zhang, Cuiying; Tan, Haigang; Sun, Xi; Wu, Mingyue; Xiao, Dongguang

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we developed a seamless gene deletion method through a two-step integration protocol to construct an industrial baker's yeast with NTH1 deletion. A fusion fragment consisted of the upstream sequence, and the downstream sequence of NTH1 was subcloned into an integrating plasmid containing a URA3 counter-selection marker for excision of unwanted DNA. The plasmid was integrated into the genomic NTH1 locus of recipient baker's yeast, leading to tandem repeats of the upstream flank and the downstream flank. Pop-out of the URA3 marker occurs by integration recombination between either the downstream flank repeats or the upstream flank repeats. Integration recombination between the repeats results in NTH1 deletion without any heterologous DNA and reversion to a wild-type strain. The desired deletion occurred with a frequency of approximately 10(-5). Polymerase chain reaction verification and sequence analysis confirmed the NTH1 disruption and the absence of integrated plasmid sequences in the genome of the selected strain. In addition, the mutant with NTH1 deletion exhibits a higher trehalose accumulation and consequently displays a higher viability of yeast cells after freezing. Thus, this method proposes a protocol to construct mutant yeast without leaving behind any heterologous DNA sequences and will facilitate the genetic engineering of any yeast. PMID:23597844

  11. A mouse model for adult cardiac-specific gene deletion with CRISPR/Cas9.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Kelli J; Makarewich, Catherine A; McAnally, John; Anderson, Douglas M; Zentilin, Lorena; Liu, Ning; Giacca, Mauro; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N

    2016-01-12

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated (Cas)9 genomic editing has revolutionized the generation of mutant animals by simplifying the creation of null alleles in virtually any organism. However, most current approaches with this method require zygote injection, making it difficult to assess the adult, tissue-specific functions of genes that are widely expressed or which cause embryonic lethality when mutated. Here, we describe the generation of cardiac-specific Cas9 transgenic mice, which express high levels of Cas9 in the heart, but display no overt defects. In proof-of-concept experiments, we used Adeno-Associated Virus 9 (AAV9) to deliver single-guide RNA (sgRNA) that targets the Myh6 locus exclusively in cardiomyocytes. Intraperitoneal injection of postnatal cardiac-Cas9 transgenic mice with AAV9 encoding sgRNA against Myh6 resulted in robust editing of the Myh6 locus. These mice displayed severe cardiomyopathy and loss of cardiac function, with elevation of several markers of heart failure, confirming the effectiveness of this method of adult cardiac gene deletion. Mice with cardiac-specific expression of Cas9 provide a tool that will allow rapid and accurate deletion of genes following a single injection of AAV9-sgRNAs, thereby circumventing embryonic lethality. This method will be useful for disease modeling and provides a means of rapidly editing genes of interest in the heart. PMID:26719419

  12. β2AR Antagonists and β2AR Gene Deletion Both Promote Skin Wound Repair Processes

    PubMed Central

    Pullar, Christine E; Le Provost, Gabrielle S; O'Leary, Andrew P; Evans, Sian E; Baier, Brian S; Isseroff, R Rivkah

    2012-01-01

    Skin wound healing is a complex process requiring the coordinated, temporal orchestration of numerous cell types and biological processes to regenerate damaged tissue. Previous work has demonstrated that a functional β-adrenergic receptor autocrine/paracrine network exists in skin, but the role of β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) in wound healing is unknown. A range of in vitro (single-cell migration, immunoblotting, ELISA, enzyme immunoassay), ex vivo (rat aortic ring assay), and in vivo (chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, zebrafish, murine wild-type, and β2AR knockout excisional skin wound models) models were used to demonstrate that blockade or loss of β2AR gene deletion promoted wound repair, a finding that is, to our knowledge, previously unreported. Compared with vehicle-only controls, β2AR antagonism increased angiogenesis, dermal fibroblast function, and re-epithelialization, but had no effect on wound inflammation in vivo. Skin wounds in β2AR knockout mice contracted and re-epithelialized faster in the first few days of wound repair in vivo. β2AR antagonism enhanced cell motility through distinct intracellular signalling mechanisms and increased vascular endothelial growth factor secretion from keratinocytes. β2AR antagonism promoted wound repair processes in the early stages of wound repair, revealing a possible new avenue for therapeutic intervention. PMID:22495178

  13. Protein Kinase C? Blocks Immediate-Early Gene Expression in Senescent Cells by Inactivating Serum Response Factor

    PubMed Central

    Wheaton, Keith; Riabowol, Karl

    2004-01-01

    Fibroblasts lose the ability to replicate in response to growth factors and become unable to express growth-associated immediate-early genes, including c-fos and egr-1, as they become senescent. The serum response factor (SRF), a major transcriptional activator of immediate-early gene promoters, loses the ability to bind to the serum response element (SRE) and becomes hyperphosphorylated in senescent cells. We identify protein kinase C delta (PKC?) as the kinase responsible for inactivation of SRF both in vitro and endogenously in senescent cells. This is due to a higher level of PKC? activity as cells age, production of the PKC? catalytic fragment, and its nuclear localization in senescent but not in low-passage-number cells. The phosphorylation of T160 of SRF by PKC? in vitro and in vivo led to loss of SRF DNA binding activity. Both the PKC? inhibitor rottlerin and ectopic expression of a dominant negative form of PKC? independently restored SRE-dependent transcription and immediate-early gene expression in senescent cells. Modulation of PKC? activity in vivo with rottlerin or bistratene A altered senescent- and young-cell morphology, respectively. These observations support the idea that the coordinate transcriptional inhibition of several growth-associated genes by PKC? contributes to the senescent phenotype. PMID:15282327

  14. Splitting Hares and Tortoises: A Classification of Neuronal Immediate Early Gene Transcription Based on Poised RNA Polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Ramendra N.; Dudek, Serena M.

    2013-01-01

    Immediate early transcription is an integral part of the neuronal response to environmental stimulation and serves many brain processes including development, learning, triggers of programmed cell death, and reaction to injury and drugs. Following a stimulus, neurons express a select few genes within a short period of time without undergoing de novo protein translation. Referred to as the gateway to genetic response, these immediate early genes (IEGs) are either expressed within a few minutes of stimulation or later within the hour. In neuronal IEGs that are expressed rapidly, productive elongation in response to neuronal activity is jump-started by constitutive transcription initiation together with RNA polymerase II stalling in the vicinity of the promoter. IEGs expressed later in the hour do not depend on this mechanism. On the basis of this Polymerase II poising, we propose that the immediate early genes can be grouped in two distinct classes: the rapid and the delayed IEGs. The possible biological relevance of these classes in neurons is discussed. PMID:23711585

  15. Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Malaria Diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon: Impact of pfhrp2 Gene Deletions and Cross-Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Maltha, Jessica; Gamboa, Dionicia; Bendezu, Jorge; Sanchez, Luis; Cnops, Lieselotte; Gillet, Philippe; Jacobs, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background In the Peruvian Amazon, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria are endemic in rural areas, where microscopy is not available. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) provide quick and accurate diagnosis. However, pfhrp2 gene deletions may limit the use of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) detecting RDTs. Further, cross-reactions of P. falciparum with P. vivax-specific test lines and vice versa may impair diagnostic specificity. Methods Thirteen RDT products were evaluated on 179 prospectively collected malaria positive samples. Species diagnosis was performed by microscopy and confirmed by PCR. Pfhrp2 gene deletions were assessed by PCR. Results Sensitivity for P. falciparum diagnosis was lower for PfHRP2 compared to P. falciparum-specific Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (Pf-pLDH)- detecting RDTs (71.6% vs. 98.7%, p<0.001). Most (19/21) false negative PfHRP2 results were associated with pfhrp2 gene deletions (25.7% of 74 P. falciparum samples). Diagnostic sensitivity for P. vivax (101 samples) was excellent, except for two products. In 10/12 P. vivax-detecting RDT products, cross-reactions with the PfHRP2 or Pf-pLDH line occurred at a median frequency of 2.5% (range 0%10.9%) of P. vivax samples assessed. In two RDT products, two and one P. falciparum samples respectively cross-reacted with the Pv-pLDH line. Two Pf-pLDH/pan-pLDH-detecting RDTs showed excellent sensitivity with few (1.0%) cross-reactions but showed faint Pf-pLDH lines in 24.7% and 38.9% of P. falciparum samples. Conclusion PfHRP2-detecting RDTs are not suitable in the Peruvian Amazon due to pfhrp2 gene deletions. Two Pf-pLDH-detecting RDTs performed excellently and are promising RDTs for this region although faint test lines are of concern. PMID:22952633

  16. MMP-9 gene deletion mitigates microvascular loss in a model of ischemic acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So-Young; Hrbelt, Markus; Mang, Henry E.; Knipe, Nicole L.; Bacallao, Robert L.; Sado, Yoshikazu

    2011-01-01

    Microvascular rarefaction following an episode of acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with renal hypoxia and progression toward chronic kidney disease. The mechanisms contributing to microvascular rarefaction are not well-understood, although disruption in local angioregulatory substances is thought to contribute. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 is an endopeptidase important in modifying the extracellular matrix (ECM) and remodeling the vasculature. We examined the role of MMP-9 gene deletion on microvascular rarefaction in a rodent model of ischemic AKI. MMP-9-null mice and background control (FVB/NJ) mice were subjected to bilateral renal artery clamping for 20 min followed by reperfusion for 14, 28, or 56 days. Serum creatinine level in MMP-9-null mice 24 h after injury [1.4 (SD 0.8) mg/dl] was not significantly different from FVB/NJ mice [1.5 (SD 0.6) mg/dl]. Four weeks after ischemic injury, FVB/NJ mice demonstrated a 3040% loss of microvascular density compared with sham-operated (SO) mice. In contrast, microvascular density was not significantly different in the MMP-9-null mice at this time following injury compared with SO mice. FVB/NJ mice had a 50% decrease in tissue vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) 2 wk after ischemic insult compared with SO mice. A significant difference in VEGF was not observed in MMP-9-null mice compared with SO mice. There was no significant difference in the liberation of angioinhibitory fragments from the ECM between MMP-9-null mice and FVB/NJ mice following ischemic injury. In conclusion, MMP-9 deletion stabilizes microvascular density following ischemic AKI in part by preserving tissue VEGF levels. PMID:21454251

  17. Functional profiling in Streptococcus mutans: construction and examination of a genomic collection of gene deletion mutants.

    PubMed

    Quivey, R G; Grayhack, E J; Faustoferri, R C; Hubbard, C J; Baldeck, J D; Wolf, A S; MacGilvray, M E; Rosalen, P L; Scott-Anne, K; Santiago, B; Gopal, S; Payne, J; Marquis, R E

    2015-12-01

    A collection of tagged deletion mutant strains was created in Streptococcus mutans UA159 to facilitate investigation of the aciduric capability of this oral pathogen. Gene-specific barcoded deletions were attempted in 1432 open reading frames (representing 73% of the genome), and resulted in the isolation of 1112 strains (56% coverage) carrying deletions in distinct non-essential genes. As S. mutans virulence is predicated upon the ability of the organism to survive an acidic pH environment, form biofilms on tooth surfaces, and out-compete other oral microflora, we assayed individual mutant strains for the relative fitness of the deletion strain, compared with the parent strain, under acidic and oxidative stress conditions, as well as for their ability to form biofilms in glucose- or sucrose-containing medium. Our studies revealed a total of 51 deletion strains with defects in both aciduricity and biofilm formation. We have also identified 49 strains whose gene deletion confers sensitivity to oxidative damage and deficiencies in biofilm formation. We demonstrate the ability to examine competitive fitness of mutant organisms using the barcode tags incorporated into each deletion strain to examine the representation of a particular strain in a population. Co-cultures of deletion strains were grown either in vitro in a chemostat to steady-state values of pH 7 and pH 5 or in vivo in an animal model for oral infection. Taken together, these data represent a mechanism for assessing the virulence capacity of this pathogenic microorganism and a resource for identifying future targets for drug intervention to promote healthy oral microflora. PMID:25973955

  18. Gene Deletion by Fluorescence-Reported Allelic Exchange Mutagenesis in Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Konrad E.; Wolf, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although progress in Chlamydia genetics has been rapid, genomic modification has previously been limited to point mutations and group II intron insertions which truncate protein products. The bacterium has thus far been intractable to gene deletion or more-complex genomic integrations such as allelic exchange. Herein, we present a novel suicide vector dependent on inducible expression of a chlamydial gene that renders Chlamydia trachomatis fully genetically tractable and permits rapid reverse genetics by fluorescence-reported allelic exchange mutagenesis (FRAEM). We describe the first available system of targeting chlamydial genes for deletion or allelic exchange as well as curing plasmids from C. trachomatis serovar L2. Furthermore, this approach permits the monitoring of mutagenesis by fluorescence microscopy without disturbing bacterial growth, a significant asset when manipulating obligate intracellular organisms. As proof of principle, trpA was successfully deleted and replaced with a sequence encoding both green fluorescent protein (GFP) and β-lactamase. The trpA-deficient strain was unable to grow in indole-containing medium, and this phenotype was reversed by complementation with trpA expressed in trans. To assess reproducibility at alternate sites, FRAEM was repeated for genes encoding type III secretion effectors CTL0063, CTL0064, and CTL0065. In all four cases, stable mutants were recovered one passage after the observation of transformants, and allelic exchange was limited to the specific target gene, as confirmed by whole-genome sequencing. Deleted sequences were not detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) from isogenic mutant populations. We demonstrate that utilization of the chlamydial suicide vector with FRAEM renders C. trachomatis highly amenable to versatile and efficient genetic manipulation. PMID:26787828

  19. A Next-generation Genetically Attenuated Plasmodium falciparum Parasite Created by Triple Gene Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Mikolajczak, Sebastian A; Lakshmanan, Viswanathan; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Camargo, Nelly; Harupa, Anke; Kaushansky, Alexis; Douglass, Alyse N; Baldwin, Michael; Healer, Julie; O'Neill, Matthew; Phuong, Thuan; Cowman, Alan; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2014-01-01

    Immunization with live-attenuated Plasmodium sporozoites completely protects against malaria infection. Genetic engineering offers a versatile platform to create live-attenuated sporozoite vaccine candidates. We previously generated a genetically attenuated parasite (GAP) by deleting the P52 and P36 genes in the NF54 wild-type (WT) strain of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf p52−/p36− GAP). Preclinical assessment of p52−/p36− GAP in a humanized mouse model indicated an early and severe liver stage growth defect. However, human exposure to >200 Pf p52−/p36− GAP-infected mosquito bites in a safety trial resulted in peripheral parasitemia in one of six volunteers, revealing that this GAP was incompletely attenuated. We have now created a triple gene deleted GAP by additionally removing the SAP1 gene (Pf p52−/p36−/sap1− GAP) and employed flippase (FLP)/flippase recognition target (FRT) recombination for drug selectable marker cassette removal. This next-generation GAP was indistinguishable from WT parasites in blood stage and mosquito stage development. Using an improved humanized mouse model transplanted with human hepatocytes and human red blood cells, we show that despite a high-dose sporozoite challenge, Pf p52−/p36−/sap1− GAP did not transition to blood stage infection and appeared to be completely attenuated. Thus, clinical testing of Pf p52−/p36−/sap1− GAP assessing safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy against sporozoite challenge is warranted. PMID:24827907

  20. The Rel/NF-?B pathway and transcription of immediate early genes in T cell activation are inhibited by microgravity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tammy T; Walther, Isabelle; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, Jim; Galleri, Grazia; Meloni, Maria Antonia; Pippia, Proto; Cogoli, Augusto; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2012-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that transcription of immediate early genes is inhibited in T cells activated in ?g. Immunosuppression during spaceflight is a major barrier to safe, long-term human space habitation and travel. The goals of these experiments were to prove that ?g was the cause of impaired T cell activation during spaceflight, as well as understand the mechanisms controlling early T cell activation. T cells from four human donors were stimulated with Con A and anti-CD28 on board the ISS. An on-board centrifuge was used to generate a 1g simultaneous control to isolate the effects of ?g from other variables of spaceflight. Microarray expression analysis after 1.5 h of activation demonstrated that ?g- and 1g-activated T cells had distinct patterns of global gene expression and identified 47 genes that were significantly, differentially down-regulated in ?g. Importantly, several key immediate early genes were inhibited in ?g. In particular, transactivation of Rel/NF-?B, CREB, and SRF gene targets were down-regulated. Expression of cREL gene targets were significantly inhibited, and transcription of cREL itself was reduced significantly in ?g and upon anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulation in simulated ?g. Analysis of gene connectivity indicated that the TNF pathway is a major early downstream effector pathway inhibited in ?g and may lead to ineffective proinflammatory host defenses against infectious pathogens during spaceflight. Results from these experiments indicate that ?g was the causative factor for impaired T cell activation during spaceflight by inhibiting transactivation of key immediate early genes. PMID:22750545

  1. The Rel/NF-?B pathway and transcription of immediate early genes in T cell activation are inhibited by microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tammy T.; Walther, Isabelle; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, Jim; Galleri, Grazia; Meloni, Maria Antonia; Pippia, Proto; Cogoli, Augusto; Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that transcription of immediate early genes is inhibited in T cells activated in ?g. Immunosuppression during spaceflight is a major barrier to safe, long-term human space habitation and travel. The goals of these experiments were to prove that ?g was the cause of impaired T cell activation during spaceflight, as well as understand the mechanisms controlling early T cell activation. T cells from four human donors were stimulated with Con A and anti-CD28 on board the ISS. An on-board centrifuge was used to generate a 1g simultaneous control to isolate the effects of ?g from other variables of spaceflight. Microarray expression analysis after 1.5 h of activation demonstrated that ?g- and 1g-activated T cells had distinct patterns of global gene expression and identified 47 genes that were significantly, differentially down-regulated in ?g. Importantly, several key immediate early genes were inhibited in ?g. In particular, transactivation of Rel/NF-?B, CREB, and SRF gene targets were down-regulated. Expression of cREL gene targets were significantly inhibited, and transcription of cREL itself was reduced significantly in ?g and upon anti-CD3/anti-CD28 stimulation in simulated ?g. Analysis of gene connectivity indicated that the TNF pathway is a major early downstream effector pathway inhibited in ?g and may lead to ineffective proinflammatory host defenses against infectious pathogens during spaceflight. Results from these experiments indicate that ?g was the causative factor for impaired T cell activation during spaceflight by inhibiting transactivation of key immediate early genes. PMID:22750545

  2. The 19S proteasome activator promotes human cytomegalovirus immediate early gene expression through proteolytic and nonproteolytic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Laura L; Kalejta, Robert F

    2014-10-01

    Proteasomes are large, multisubunit complexes that support normal cellular activities by executing the bulk of protein turnover. During infection, many viruses have been shown to promote viral replication by using proteasomes to degrade cellular factors that restrict viral replication. For example, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pp71 protein induces the proteasomal degradation of Daxx, a cellular transcriptional repressor that can silence viral immediate early (IE) gene expression. We previously showed that this degradation requires both the proteasome catalytic 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The 19S RP associates with the 20S CP to facilitate protein degradation but also plays a 20S CP-independent role promoting transcription. Here, we present a nonproteolytic role of the 19S RP in HCMV IE gene expression. We demonstrate that 19S RP subunits are recruited to the major immediate early promoter (MIEP) that directs IE transcription. Depletion of 19S RP subunits generated a defect in RNA polymerase II elongation through the MIE locus during HCMV infection. Our results reveal that HCMV commandeers proteasome components for both proteolytic and nonproteolytic roles to promote HCMV lytic infection. Importance: Proteasome inhibitors decrease or eliminate 20S CP activity and are garnering increasing interest as chemotherapeutics. However, an increasing body of evidence implicates 19S RP subunits in important proteolytic-independent roles during transcription. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of the 20S CP as a means to modulate proteasome function toward therapeutic effect is an incomplete capitalization on the potential of this approach. Here, we provide an additional example of nonproteolytic 19S RP function in promoting HCMV transcription. These data provide a novel system with which to study the roles of different proteasome components during transcription, a rationale for previously described shifts in 19S RP subunit localization during HCMV infection, and a potential therapeutic intervention point at a pre-immediate early stage for the inhibition of HCMV infection. PMID:25078702

  3. The 19S Proteasome Activator Promotes Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate Early Gene Expression through Proteolytic and Nonproteolytic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Proteasomes are large, multisubunit complexes that support normal cellular activities by executing the bulk of protein turnover. During infection, many viruses have been shown to promote viral replication by using proteasomes to degrade cellular factors that restrict viral replication. For example, the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) pp71 protein induces the proteasomal degradation of Daxx, a cellular transcriptional repressor that can silence viral immediate early (IE) gene expression. We previously showed that this degradation requires both the proteasome catalytic 20S core particle (CP) and the 19S regulatory particle (RP). The 19S RP associates with the 20S CP to facilitate protein degradation but also plays a 20S CP-independent role promoting transcription. Here, we present a nonproteolytic role of the 19S RP in HCMV IE gene expression. We demonstrate that 19S RP subunits are recruited to the major immediate early promoter (MIEP) that directs IE transcription. Depletion of 19S RP subunits generated a defect in RNA polymerase II elongation through the MIE locus during HCMV infection. Our results reveal that HCMV commandeers proteasome components for both proteolytic and nonproteolytic roles to promote HCMV lytic infection. IMPORTANCE Proteasome inhibitors decrease or eliminate 20S CP activity and are garnering increasing interest as chemotherapeutics. However, an increasing body of evidence implicates 19S RP subunits in important proteolytic-independent roles during transcription. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of the 20S CP as a means to modulate proteasome function toward therapeutic effect is an incomplete capitalization on the potential of this approach. Here, we provide an additional example of nonproteolytic 19S RP function in promoting HCMV transcription. These data provide a novel system with which to study the roles of different proteasome components during transcription, a rationale for previously described shifts in 19S RP subunit localization during HCMV infection, and a potential therapeutic intervention point at a pre-immediate early stage for the inhibition of HCMV infection. PMID:25078702

  4. PYRETHROID INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN TRANSCRIPTION OF CALCIUM RESPONSIVE AND IMMEDIATE EARLY GENES IN VIVO.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple molecular targets for pyrethroid insecticides have been evaluated in in vitro preparations, including but not limited to voltage-sensitive sodium channels (VSSCs), voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs), GABAergic receptors, ATPases and mitochondrial respiratory chai...

  5. Total beta-globin gene deletion has high frequency in Filipinos

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, N.; Miyakawa, F.; Hunt, J.A.

    1994-09-01

    The distribution of {beta}-thalassemia [{beta}{sup Th}] mutations is unique to each ethnic group. Most mutations affect one or a few bases; large deletions have been rare. Among families screened in Hawaii, [{beta}{sup Th}] heterozygotes were diagnosed by microcytosis, absence of abnormal hemoglobins on isoelectric focusing, and raised Hb A{sub 2} by chromatography. Gene frequency for {beta}{sup Th} was 0.02 in Filipinos. In Filipinos, polymerase chain reaction [PCR] with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis for {beta}{sup Th} mutations detected a mutation in only 6 of 42 {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes; an IVS2-666 C/T polymorphism showed non-heterozygosity in 37 and heterozygosity in only 5 of these {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes. One {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} major patient and his mother had no mutation detected by allele-specific oligomer hybridization; PCR failed to amplify any DNA from his {beta}-globin gene. After a total {beta}-globin gene deletion [{beta}{sup Del}] was found in a Filipino family in Ontario, specific PCR amplification for {beta}{sup Del} detected this in 43 of 53 {beta}{sup Th} Filipino samples tested; the above {beta}{sup Th}/{beta}{sup Th} patient was a ({beta}{sup Del}/{beta}{sup Del}) homozygote. The {beta}{sup Del} may account for over 60% of all {beta}{sup Th} alleles in Filipinos; this is the highest proportion of a deletion {beta}{sup Th} mutation reported from any population. Most but not all {beta}{sup Del} heterozygotes had high Hb F [5.13 {plus_minus} 3.94 mean {plus_minus} 1 s.d.] compared to the codon 41/42 four base deletion common in Chinese [2.30 {plus_minus} 0.86], or to {beta}{sup Th} heterozygotes with normal {alpha}-globin genes [2.23 {plus_minus} 0.80].

  6. EGR3, a novel member of the Egr family of genes encoding immediate-early transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, S; Gashler, A; Siegel, M G; Chang, L C; Joseph, L J; Shows, T B; Le Beau, M M; Sukhatme, V P

    1991-06-01

    We have previously described two cellular immediate-early genes, Egr-1 (mouse) and EGR2 (human) that encode zinc finger proteins. Here we report the characterization of a new member of the Egr family referred to as EGR3 (human). This cDNA clone was isolated using low stringency hybridization with the zinc finger domain of Egr-1. The EGR3 cDNA sequence predicts a 387 amino acid (a.a.) protein containing three Cys2-His2 zinc fingers nearly identical to those of Egr-1 and EGR2. This similarity has a functional consequence: EGR3 can activate transcription of a CAT gene linked to the sequence CGCCCCCGC, a cis element which is a target for Egr-1 and EGR2. We show that EGR3 is an immediate-early growth response gene induced by mitogenic stimulation of rodent and human fibroblasts and a monkey kidney epithelial cell line. The EGR3 gene has a single intron and maps to chromosome 8 at bands p21-23. PMID:1906159

  7. A Pre-Immediate-Early Role for Tegument ICP0 in the Proteasome-Dependent Entry of Herpes Simplex Virus?

    PubMed Central

    Delboy, Mark G.; Nicola, Anthony V.

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires host cell 26S proteasomal degradation activity at a postpenetration step. When expressed in the infected cell, the HSV immediate-early protein ICP0 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and interacts with the proteasome. The cell is first exposed to ICP0 during viral entry, since ICP0 is a component of the inner tegument layer of the virion. The function of tegument ICP0 is unknown. Deletion of ICP0 or mutations in the N-terminal RING finger domain of ICP0 results in the absence of ICP0 from the tegument. We show here that these mutations negatively influenced the targeting of incoming capsids to the nucleus. Inhibitors of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome the blocked entry of virions containing tegument ICP0, including ICP0 mutants that are defective in USP7 binding. However, ICP0-deficient virions were not blocked by proteasomal inhibitors and entered cells via a proteasome-independent mechanism. ICP0 appeared to play a postpenetration role in cells that supported either endocytosis or nonendosomal entry pathways for HSV. The results suggest that ICP0 mutant virions are defective upstream of viral gene expression at a pre-immediate-early step in infection. We propose that proteasome-mediated degradation of a virion or host protein is regulated by ICP0 to allow efficient delivery of entering HSV capsids to the nuclear periphery. PMID:21471243

  8. A requirement for the immediate early gene Zif268 in the expression of late LTP and long-term memories.

    PubMed

    Jones, M W; Errington, M L; French, P J; Fine, A; Bliss, T V; Garel, S; Charnay, P; Bozon, B; Laroche, S; Davis, S

    2001-03-01

    The induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is associated with a rapid and robust transcription of the immediate early gene Zif268. We used a mutant mouse with a targeted disruption of Zif268 to ask whether this gene, which encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, is required for the maintenance of late LTP and for the expression of long-term memory. We show that whereas mutant mice exhibit early LTP in the dentate gyrus, late LTP is absent when measured 24 and 48 hours after tetanus in the freely moving animal. In both spatial and non-spatial learning tasks, short-term memory remained intact, whereas performance was impaired in tests requiring long-term memory. Thus, Zif268 is essential for the transition from short- to long-term synaptic plasticity and for the expression of long-term memories. PMID:11224546

  9. Pattern of cerebrospinal immediate early gene c-fos expression in an ovine model of non-accidental head injury.

    PubMed

    Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Manavis, J; Vink, R

    2013-12-01

    Expression of the immediate early gene, c-fos, was examined in a large animal model of non-accidental head injury ("shaken baby syndrome"). Lambs were used because they have a relatively large gyrencephalic brain and weak neck muscles resembling a human infant. Neonatal lambs were manually shaken in a manner similar to that believed to occur with most abused human infants, but there was no head impact. The most striking c-fos expression was in meningothelial cells of the cranial cervical spinal cord and, to a lesser degree, in hemispheric, cerebellar, and brainstem meninges. Vascular endothelial cells also frequently showed c-fos immunopositivity in the meninges and hemispheric white matter. It was hypothesised that this c-fos immunoreactivity was due to mechanical stress induced by shaking, with differential movement of different craniospinal components. PMID:24035422

  10. Characterization of a Replication-Incompetent Pseudorabies Virus Mutant Lacking the Sole Immediate Early Gene IE180

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Brendan W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The alphaherpesvirus pseudorabies virus (PRV) encodes a single immediate early gene called IE180. The IE180 protein is a potent transcriptional activator of viral genes involved in DNA replication and RNA transcription. A PRV mutant with both copies of IE180 deleted was constructed 20years ago (S. Yamada and M. Shimizu, Virology 199:366375, 1994, doi:10.1006/viro.1994.1134), but propagation of the mutant depended on complementing cell lines that expressed the toxic IE180 protein constitutively. Recently, Oyibo et al. constructed a novel set of PRV IE180 mutants and a stable cell line with inducible IE180 expression (H. Oyibo, P. Znamenskiy, H. V. Oviedo, L. W. Enquist, A. Zador, Front. Neuroanat. 8:86, 2014, doi:10.3389/fnana.2014.00086), which we characterized further here. These mutants failed to replicate new viral genomes, synthesize immediate early, early, or late viral proteins, and assemble infectious virions. The PRV IE180-null mutant did not form plaques in epithelial cell monolayers and could not spread from primary infected neurons to second-order neurons in culture. PRV IE180-null mutants lacked the property of superinfection exclusion. When PRV IE180-null mutants infected cells first, subsequent superinfecting viruses were not blocked in cell entry and formed replication compartments in epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and neurons. Cells infected with PRV IE180-null mutants survived as long as uninfected cells in culture while expressing a fluorescent reporter gene. Transcomplementation with IE180 in epithelial cells restored all mutant phenotypes to wild type. The conditional expression of PRV IE180 protein enables the propagation of replication-incompetent PRV IE180-null mutants and will facilitate construction of long-term single-cell-infecting PRV mutants for precise neural circuit tracing and high-capacity gene delivery vectors. PMID:25389174

  11. Epstein-Barr Virus Immediate-Early Protein BZLF1 Is SUMO-1 Modified and Disrupts Promyelocytic Leukemia Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, Amy L.; Kenney, Shannon

    2001-01-01

    Although the immediate-early proteins of both herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) are known to modify promyelocytic leukemia (PML) (ND10) bodies in the nucleus of the host cell, it has been unclear whether lytic infection with gamma herpesviruses induces a similar effect. The PML protein is induced by interferon, involved in major histocompatibility complex class I presentation, and necessary for certain types of apoptosis. Therefore, it is likely that PML bodies function in an antiviral capacity. SUMO-1 modification of PML is known to be required for the formation of PML bodies. To examine whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lytic replication interferes with PML bodies, we expressed the EBV immediate-early genes BZLF1 (Z) and BRLF1 (R) in EBV-positive cell lines and examined PML localization. Both Z and R expression resulted in PML dispersion in EBV-positive cells. Z but not R expression is sufficient to disrupt PML bodies in EBV-negative cell lines. We show that dispersion of PML bodies by Z requires a portion of the transcriptional activation domain of Z but not the DNA-binding function. As was previously reported for the HSV-1 ICP0 and CMV IE1 proteins, Z reduces the amount of SUMO-1-modified PML. We also found that Z itself is SUMO-1 modified (through amino acid 12) and that Z competes with PML for limiting amounts of SUMO-1. These results suggest that disruption of PML bodies is important for efficient lytic replication of EBV. Furthermore, Z may potentially alter the function of a variety of cellular proteins by inhibiting SUMO-1 modification. PMID:11160742

  12. A novel 7-nucleotide motif located in 3' untranslated sequences of the immediate-early gene set mediates platelet-derived growth factor induction of the JE gene.

    PubMed Central

    Freter, R R; Irminger, J C; Porter, J A; Jones, S D; Stiles, C D

    1992-01-01

    A cohort of the serum and growth factor regulated immediate-early gene set is induced with slower kinetics than c-fos. Two of the first immediate-early genes characterized as such, c-myc and JE, are contained within this subset. cis-acting genomic elements mediating induction of the slower responding subset of immediate-early genes have never been characterized. Herein we characterize two widely separated genomic elements which are together essential for induction of the murine JE gene by platelet-derived growth factor, serum, interleukin-1, and double-stranded RNA. One of these elements is novel in several regards. It is a 7-mer, TTTTGTA, found in the proximal 3' sequences downstream of the JE stop codon. The 3' element is position dependent and orientation independent. It does not function in polyadenylation, splicing, or destabilization of the JE transcript. Copies of the 7-mer or its inverse are found at comparable 3' sites in 25 immediate-early genes that encode transcription factors or cytokines. Given its general occurrence, the 7-mer may be a required cis-acting control element mediating induction of the immediate-early gene set. Images PMID:1448065

  13. High-throughput genotyping method for glutathione S-transferase T1 and M1 gene deletions using TaqMan probes.

    PubMed

    Shi, M M; Myrand, S P; Bleavins, M R; de la Iglesia, F A

    1999-01-01

    A high-throughput genotyping method has been developed to detect gene deletion polymorphisms of glutathione-S-transferase theta and mu (GSTT1 and GSTM1). This method utilizes the 5'-nuclease activity of Taq polymerase in conjunction with fluorogenic TaqMan probes. In contrast to traditional allelic discrimination genotyping to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms, the current assay has been designed to detect gene deletion by utilizing custom-designed TaqMan probes in conjunction with an exogenous internal positive control probe. The TaqMan genotyping results were validated by a commonly used multiplex PCR technique. Screening of 71 unrelated individuals revealed gene deletion (null) genotype of 15.5% and 40.8% for GSTT1 and GSTM1, respectively. This TaqMan genotyping method is rapid, reproducible, and highly sensitive and could be applied toward fully automated large-scale genotyping. PMID:10440566

  14. Time Course of Immediate Early Gene Protein Expression in the Spinal Cord following Conditioning Stimulation of the Sciatic Nerve in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bojovic, Ognjen; Panja, Debabrata; Bittins, Margarethe; Bramham, Clive R.; Tjlsen, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Long-term potentiation induced by conditioning electrical stimulation of afferent fibers is a widely studied form of synaptic plasticity in the brain and the spinal cord. In the spinal cord dorsal horn, long-term potentiation is induced by a series of high-frequency trains applied to primary afferent fibers. Conditioning stimulation (CS) of sciatic nerve primary afferent fibers also induces expression of immediate early gene proteins in the lumbar spinal cord. However, the time course of immediate early gene expression and the rostral-caudal distribution of expression in the spinal cord have not been systematically studied. Here, we examined the effects of sciatic nerve conditioning stimulation (10 stimulus trains, 0.5 ms stimuli, 7.2 mA, 100 Hz, train duration 2 s, 8 s intervals between trains) on cellular expression of immediate early genes, Arc, c-Fos and Zif268, in anesthetized rats. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on sagittal sections obtained from Th13- L5 segments of the spinal cord at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 12 h post-CS. Strikingly, all immediate early genes exhibited a monophasic increase in expression with peak increases detected in dorsal horn neurons at 2 hours post-CS. Regional analysis showed peak increases at the location between the L3 and L4 spinal segments. Both Arc, c-Fos and Zif268 remained significantly elevated at 2 hours, followed by a sharp decrease in immediate early gene expression between 2 and 3 hours post-CS. Colocalization analysis performed at 2 hours post-CS showed that all c-Fos and Zif268 neurons were positive for Arc, while 30% and 43% of Arc positive neurons were positive for c-Fos and Zif268, respectively. The present study identifies the spinal cord level and time course of immediate early gene (IEGP) expression of relevance for analysis of IEGPs function in neuronal plasticity and nociception. PMID:25860146

  15. Central precocious puberty in a patient with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Ji Won; Kang, So Young; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook

    2013-01-01

    X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita is caused by the mutation of DAX-1 gene (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1), and can occur as part of a contiguous gene deletion syndrome in association with glycerol kinase (GK) deficiency, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and X-linked interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1) gene deficiency. It is usually associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, although in rare cases, it has been reported to occur in normal puberty or even central precocious puberty. This study addresses a case in which central precocious puberty developed in a boy with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita who had complete deletion of the genes DAX-1, GK and IL1RAPL1 (Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome). Initially he was admitted for the management of adrenal crisis at the age of 2 months, and managed with hydrocortisone and florinef. At 45 months of age, his each testicular volumes of 4 mL and a penile length of 5 cm were noted, with pubic hair of Tanner stage 2. His bone age was advanced and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test showed a luteinizing hormone peak of 8.26 IU/L, confirming central precocious puberty. He was then treated with a GnRH agonist, as well as steroid replacement therapy. In Korea, this is the first case of central precocious puberty developed in a male patient with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita. PMID:24904859

  16. Central precocious puberty in a patient with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita and Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ji Won; Kang, So Young; Kim, Gu Hwan; Yoo, Han Wook; Yu, Jeesuk

    2013-06-01

    X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita is caused by the mutation of DAX-1 gene (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1), and can occur as part of a contiguous gene deletion syndrome in association with glycerol kinase (GK) deficiency, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and X-linked interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1) gene deficiency. It is usually associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, although in rare cases, it has been reported to occur in normal puberty or even central precocious puberty. This study addresses a case in which central precocious puberty developed in a boy with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita who had complete deletion of the genes DAX-1, GK and IL1RAPL1 (Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome). Initially he was admitted for the management of adrenal crisis at the age of 2 months, and managed with hydrocortisone and florinef. At 45 months of age, his each testicular volumes of 4 mL and a penile length of 5 cm were noted, with pubic hair of Tanner stage 2. His bone age was advanced and a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test showed a luteinizing hormone peak of 8.26 IU/L, confirming central precocious puberty. He was then treated with a GnRH agonist, as well as steroid replacement therapy. In Korea, this is the first case of central precocious puberty developed in a male patient with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita. PMID:24904859

  17. Generation and Phenotyping of a Collection of sRNA Gene Deletion Mutants of the Haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii

    PubMed Central

    Jaschinski, Katharina; Babski, Julia; Lehr, Matthias; Burmester, Anna; Benz, Juliane; Heyer, Ruth; Dörr, Marcella; Marchfelder, Anita; Soppa, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    The haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii was shown to contain 145 intergenic and 45 antisense sRNAs. In a comprehensive approach to unravel various biological roles of haloarchaeal sRNAs in vivo, 27 sRNA genes were selected and deletion mutants were generated. The phenotypes of these mutants were compared to that of the parent strain under ten different conditions, i.e. growth on four different carbon sources, growth at three different salt concentrations, and application of four different stress conditions. In addition, cell morphologies in exponential and stationary phase were observed. Furthermore, swarming of 17 mutants was analyzed. 24 of the 27 mutants exhibited a difference from the parent strain under at least one condition, revealing that haloarchaeal sRNAs are involved in metabolic regulation, growth under extreme conditions, regulation of morphology and behavior, and stress adaptation. Notably, 7 deletion mutants showed a gain of function phenotype, which has not yet been described for any other prokaryotic sRNA gene deletion mutant. Comparison of the transcriptomes of one sRNA gene deletion mutant and the parent strain led to the identification of differentially expressed genes. Genes for flagellins and chemotaxis were up-regulated in the mutant, in accordance with its gain of function swarming phenotype. While the deletion mutant analysis underscored that haloarchaeal sRNAs are involved in many biological functions, the degree of conservation is extremely low. Only 3 of the 27 genes are conserved in more than 10 haloarchaeal species. 22 of the 27 genes are confined to H. volcanii, indicating a fast evolution of haloarchaeal sRNA genes. PMID:24637842

  18. The B-Cell-Specific Transcription Factor and Master Regulator Pax5 Promotes Epstein-Barr Virus Latency by Negatively Regulating the Viral Immediate Early Protein BZLF1

    PubMed Central

    Raver, Ryan M.; Panfil, Amanda R.; Hagemeier, Stacy R.

    2013-01-01

    The latent-to-lytic switch of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is mediated by the immediate early protein BZLF1 (Z). However, the cellular factors regulating this process remain incompletely characterized. In this report, we show that the B-cell-specific transcription factor Pax5 helps to promote viral latency in B cells by blocking Z function. Although Z was previously shown to directly interact with Pax5 and inhibit its activity, the effect of Pax5 on Z function has not been investigated. Here, we demonstrate that Pax5 inhibits Z-mediated lytic viral gene expression and the release of infectious viral particles in latently infected epithelial cell lines. Conversely, we found that shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous Pax5 in a Burkitt lymphoma B-cell line leads to viral reactivation. Furthermore, we show that Pax5 reduces Z activation of early lytic viral promoters in reporter gene assays and inhibits Z binding to lytic viral promoters in vivo. We confirm that Pax5 and Z directly interact and show that this interaction requires the carboxy-terminal DNA-binding/dimerization domain of Z and the amino-terminal DNA-binding domain of Pax5. A Pax5 DNA-binding mutant (V26G/P80R) that interacts with Z retains the ability to inhibit Z function, whereas a Pax5 mutant (?106-110) that is deficient for interaction with Z does not inhibit Z-mediated lytic viral reactivation. Since the B-cell-specific transcription factor Oct-2 also directly interacts with Z and inhibits its function, these results suggest that EBV uses multiple redundant mechanisms to establish and maintain viral latency in B cells. PMID:23678172

  19. Activation of immediate-early response gene c-Fos protein in the rat paralimbic cortices after myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Ji Yun; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Hong, Seongkweon; Lee, Jae-Chul; Seo, Jeong Yeol

    2015-01-01

    c-Fos is a good biological marker for detecting the pathogenesis of central nervous system disorders. Few studies are reported on the change in myocardial infarction-induced c-Fos expression in the paralimbic regions. Thus, in this study, we investigated the changes in c-Fos expression in the rat cingulate and piriform cortices after myocardial infarction. Neuronal degeneration in cingulate and piriform cortices after myocardial infarction was detected using cresyl violet staining, NeuN immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. c-Fos-immunoreactive cells were observed in cingulate and piriform cortices at 3 days after myocardial infarction and peaked at 7 and 14 days after myocardial infarction. But they were hardly observed at 56 days after myocardial infarction. The chronological change of c-Fos expression determined by western blot analysis was basically the same as that of c-Fos immunoreactivity. These results indicate that myocardial infarction can cause the chronological change of immediate-early response gene c-Fos protein expression, which might be associated with the neural activity induced by myocardial infarction. PMID:26487852

  20. How necessary is the activation of the immediate early gene zif268 in synaptic plasticity and learning?

    PubMed

    Davis, Sabrina; Bozon, Bruno; Laroche, Serge

    2003-06-16

    The immediate early genes (IEGs) are activated rapidly and transiently in response to a multitude of stimuli. The zif268 belongs to a category of regulatory IEGs that activate downstream target genes and is considered to be a triggering mechanism to activate the genomic response in neurons. Several studies have shown that zif268 mRNA is upregulated during different forms of associative learning, and following tetanic stimulation that induces long-lasting LTP. To date, there is a general consensus that zif268 activation may constitute a critical mechanism for the encoding of long-lasting memories, however this is based on relatively few studies. Given the fact that zif268 can be activated by a number of different types of stimuli, it becomes important to determine exactly how it may be implicated in memory. Examination of the current literature suggests that zif268 is necessary in the processing of several types of memory, however, it is not entirely clear what aspects of memory zif268 may be implicated in. Here, we review the existing literature and emphasise that understanding the signalling pathways that lead to activation of the IEGs and the downstream targets of these genes will advance our understanding of how functional activation of zif268 may be implicated in processing long-term memories. PMID:12798262

  1. Expression of Immediate-Early Genes in the Inferior Colliculus and Auditory Cortex in Salicylate-Induced Tinnitus in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Hu, S.S.; Mei, L.; Chen, J.Y.; Huang, Z.W.; Wu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus could be associated with neuronal hyperactivity in the auditory center. As a neuronal activity marker, immediate-early gene (IEG) expression is considered part of a general neuronal response to natural stimuli. Some IEGs, especially the activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arc) and the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1), appear to be highly correlated with sensory-evoked neuronal activity. We hypothesize, therefore, an increase of Arc and Egr-1 will be observed in a tinnitus model. In our study, we used the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm to confirm that salicylate induces tinnitus-like behavior in rats. However, expression of the Arc gene and Egr-1 gene were decreased in the inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex (AC), in contradiction of our hypothesis. Expression of N-methyl D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) was increased and all of these changes returned to normal 14 days after treatment with salicylate ceased. These data revealed long-time administration of salicylate induced tinnitus markedly but reversibly and caused neural plasticity changes in the IC and the AC. Decreased expression of Arc and Egr-1 might be involved with instability of synaptic plasticity in tinnitus. PMID:24704997

  2. Expression of immediate-early genes in the inferior colliculus and auditory cortex in salicylate-induced tinnitus in rat.

    PubMed

    Hu, S S; Mei, L; Chen, J Y; Huang, Z W; Wu, H

    2014-01-01

    Tinnitus could be associated with neuronal hyperactivity in the auditory center. As a neuronal activity marker, immediate-early gene (IEG) expression is considered part of a general neuronal response to natural stimuli. Some IEGs, especially the activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arc) and the early growth response gene-1 (Egr-1), appear to be highly correlated with sensory-evoked neuronal activity. We hypothesize, therefore, an increase of Arc and Egr-1 will be observed in a tinnitus model. In our study, we used the gap prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle (GPIAS) paradigm to confirm that salicylate induces tinnitus-like behavior in rats. However, expression of the Arc gene and Egr-1 gene were decreased in the inferior colliculus (IC) and auditory cortex (AC), in contradiction of our hypothesis. Expression of N-methyl d-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) was increased and all of these changes returned to normal 14 days after treatment with salicylate ceased. These data revealed long-time administration of salicylate induced tinnitus markedly but reversibly and caused neural plasticity changes in the IC and the AC. Decreased expression of Arc and Egr-1 might be involved with instability of synaptic plasticity in tinnitus. PMID:24704997

  3. Changes in neurotransmitter levels and expression of immediate early genes in brain of mice infected with Neospora caninum

    PubMed Central

    Ihara, Fumiaki; Nishimura, Maki; Muroi, Yoshikage; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes neurological disorders in dogs and cattle. The majority of host animals are asymptomatic at the chronic stage of infection. However, it remains unclear whether cerebral function is normal in asymptomatic animals. In this study, mice were infected with N. caninum (strain Nc-1) and their brains were examined to understand changes in cerebral function at the chronic stage of infection. Mice infected with N. caninum showed impaired locomotor activity, but no differences in clinical symptoms were observed. In the brains of infected mice, parasites were distributed throughout the brain and histological lesions were observed everywhere except for the cerebellum. Expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, were highly upregulated in several brain regions of infected mice. Additionally, the level of neurotransmitters glutamate, glycine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine, were altered in infected mice compared with those of uninfected mice. Interestingly, the expression levels of immediately early genes, c-Fos and Arc, in the brain of infected mice were lower than those of in uninfected mice. Our findings may provide insight into neurological disorders associated with N. caninum infection. PMID:26971577

  4. fra-1: a serum-inducible, cellular immediate-early gene that encodes a fos-related antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, D R; Curran, T

    1988-01-01

    A set of proteins antigenically related to the c-fos protein (Fos) are induced by serum in fibroblasts. To isolate cDNA clones of genes encoding such proteins, a lambda gt11 expression cDNA library constructed from serum-stimulated rat fibroblasts was screened with antibodies raised against a hydrophilic region (amino acids 127 to 152) of Fos. One of the positive clones identified, termed fra-1 (Fos-related antigen) was characterized. It encoded a protein that shared several regions of extensive amino acid homology with Fos (including the region that showed similarity to both the yeast GCN4 regulatory protein and the protein encoded by the jun oncogene), although its nucleotide sequence was considerably diverged from that of the c-fos gene. Only a subset of the agents and conditions that activated c-fos also induced fra-1. Induction of fra-1 expression following serum stimulation was delayed compared with that of c-fos. However, like c-fos, fra-1 was induced rapidly by serum in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitors. Thus, a family of Fos-related, inducible genes are involved in the cellular immediate-early transcriptional response to extracellular stimuli. Images PMID:3133553

  5. Saccule contribution to immediate early gene induction in the gerbil brainstem with posterior canal galvanic or hypergravity stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshburn, T. H.; Kaufman, G. D.; Purcell, I. M.; Perachio, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Immunolabeling patterns of the immediate early gene-related protein Fos in the gerbil brainstem were studied following stimulation of the sacculus by both hypergravity and galvanic stimulation. Head-restrained, alert animals were exposed to a prolonged (1 h) inertial vector of 2 G (19.6 m/s2) head acceleration directed in a dorso-ventral head axis to maximally stimulate the sacculus. Fos-defined immunoreactivity was quantified, and the results compared to a control group. The hypergravity stimulus produced Fos immunolabeling in the dorsomedial cell column (dmcc) of the inferior olive independently of other subnuclei. Similar dmcc labeling was induced by a 30 min galvanic stimulus of up to -100 microA applied through a stimulating electrode placed unilaterally on the bony labyrinth overlying the posterior canal (PC). The pattern of vestibular afferent firing activity induced by this galvanic stimulus was quantified in anesthetized gerbils by simultaneously recording from Scarpa's ganglion. Only saccular and PC afferent neurons exhibited increases in average firing rates of 200-300%, suggesting a pattern of current spread involving only PC and saccular afferent neurons at this level of stimulation. These results suggest that alteration in saccular afferent firing rates are sufficient to induce Fos-defined genomic activation of the dmcc, and lend further evidence to the existence of a functional vestibulo-olivary-cerebellar pathway of adaptation to novel gravito-inertial environments.

  6. Changes in neurotransmitter levels and expression of immediate early genes in brain of mice infected with Neospora caninum.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Fumiaki; Nishimura, Maki; Muroi, Yoshikage; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes neurological disorders in dogs and cattle. The majority of host animals are asymptomatic at the chronic stage of infection. However, it remains unclear whether cerebral function is normal in asymptomatic animals. In this study, mice were infected with N. caninum (strain Nc-1) and their brains were examined to understand changes in cerebral function at the chronic stage of infection. Mice infected with N. caninum showed impaired locomotor activity, but no differences in clinical symptoms were observed. In the brains of infected mice, parasites were distributed throughout the brain and histological lesions were observed everywhere except for the cerebellum. Expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, were highly upregulated in several brain regions of infected mice. Additionally, the level of neurotransmitters glutamate, glycine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine, were altered in infected mice compared with those of uninfected mice. Interestingly, the expression levels of immediately early genes, c-Fos and Arc, in the brain of infected mice were lower than those of in uninfected mice. Our findings may provide insight into neurological disorders associated with N. caninum infection. PMID:26971577

  7. Immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein regulates estradiol-induced lordosis behavior in female rats.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Amy; Dewing, Phoebe; Micevych, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Sensory feedback is an important component of any behavior, with each instance influencing subsequent activity. Female sexual receptivity is mediated both by the steroid hormone milieu and interaction with the male. We tested the influence of repeated mating on the level of sexual receptivity in ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol benzoate (EB) once every fourth day to mimic the normal phasic changes of circulating estradiol. Females were divided into two groups: nave, which were tested for lordosis behavior once, and experienced rats, which were tested for lordosis after each EB injection. To monitor the effect of mating, the number of neurons expressing the immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) were counted in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Females were unreceptive following the first EB treatment, but the mating induced Arc expression. In nave rats, each subsequent EB injection increased the levels of sexual receptivity. This ramping was not observed in experienced rats, which achieved only a moderate level of sexual receptivity. However, experienced females treated with EB and progesterone were maximally receptive and did not have Arc expression. To test whether the expression of Arc attenuated lordosis, Arc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (asODN) were microinjected into experienced females' arcuate nuclei. Arc expression was attenuated, and the experienced EB-treated females achieved maximal sexual receptivity. These results demonstrate that Arc expression in the hypothalamus might influence future sexual receptivity and provides evidence of learning in the arcuate nucleus. The loss of Arc results in unrestrained sexual receptivity. PMID:25088303

  8. Chronic morphine treatment enhances sciatic nerve stimulation-induced immediate early gene expression in the rat dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Bojovic, Ognjen; Bramham, Clive R; Tjlsen, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is a property of neurons that can be induced by conditioning electrical stimulation (CS) of afferent fibers in the spinal cord. This is a widely studied property of spinal cord and hippocampal neurons. CS has been shown to trigger enhanced expression of immediate early gene proteins (IEGPs), with peak increases observed 2 hour post stimulation. Chronic morphine treatment has been shown to promoteinduce opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and also to increase CS-induced central sensitization in the dorsal horn. As IEGP expression may contribute to development of chronic pain states, we aimed to determine whether chronic morphine treatment affects the expression of IEGPs following sciatic nerve CS. Changes in expression of the IEGPs Arc, c-Fos or Zif268 were determined in cells of the lumbar dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Chronic Morphine pretreatment over 7 days led to a significant increase in the number of IEGP positive cells observed at both 2 h and 6 h after CS. The same pattern of immunoreactivity was obtained for all IEGPs, with peak increases occurring at 2 h post CS. In contrast, morphine treatment alone in sham operated animals had no effect on IEGP expression. We conclude that chronic morphine treatment enhances stimulus-induced expression of IEGPs in the lumbar dorsal horn. These data support the notion that morphine alters gene expression responses linked to nociceptive stimulation and plasticity. PMID:26581386

  9. Microarray and RT-PCR screening for white spot syndrome virus immediate-early genes in cycloheximide-treated shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wangjing; Chang Yunshiang; Wang Chunghsiung; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Lo Chufang . E-mail: gracelow@ntu.edu.tw

    2005-04-10

    Here, we report for the first time the successful use of cycloheximide (CHX) as an inhibitor to block de novo viral protein synthesis during WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infection. Sixty candidate IE (immediate-early) genes were identified using a global analysis microarray technique. RT-PCR showed that the genes corresponding to ORF126, ORF242 and ORF418 in the Taiwan isolate were consistently CHX-insensitive, and these genes were designated ie1, ie2 and ie3, respectively. The sequences for these IE genes also appear in the two other WSSV isolates that have been sequenced. Three corresponding ORFs were identified in the China WSSV isolate, but only an ORF corresponding to ie1 was predicted in the Thailand isolate. In a promoter activity assay in Sf9 insect cells using EGFP (enhanced green fluorescence protein) as a reporter, ie1 showed very strong promoter activity, producing higher EGFP signals than the insect Orgyia pseudotsugata multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis virus (OpMNPV) ie2 promoter.

  10. Immediate Early Gene Activity-Regulated Cytoskeletal-Associated Protein Regulates Estradiol-Induced Lordosis Behavior in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Amy; Dewing, Phoebe; Micevych, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Sensory feedback is an important component of any behavior, with each instance influencing subsequent activity. Female sexual receptivity is mediated both by the steroid hormone milieu and interaction with the male. We tested the influence of repeated mating on the level of sexual receptivity in ovariectomized rats treated with estradiol benzoate (EB) once every fourth day to mimic the normal phasic changes of circulating estradiol. Females were divided into two groups: nave, which were tested for lordosis behavior once, and experienced rats, which were tested for lordosis after each EB injection. To monitor the effect of mating, the number of neurons expressing the immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) were counted in the mediobasal hypothalamus. Females were unreceptive following the first EB treatment, but the mating induced Arc expression. In nave rats, each subsequent EB injection increased the levels of sexual receptivity. This ramping was not observed in experienced rats, which achieved only a moderate level of sexual receptivity. However, experienced females treated with EB and progesterone were maximally receptive and did not have Arc expresion. To test whether the expression of Arc attenuated lordosis, Arc antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (asODN) were microinjected into experienced females arcuate nuclei. Arc expression was attenuated, and the experienced EB-treated females achieved maximal sexual receptivity. These results demonstrate that Arc expression in the hypothalamus might influence future sexual receptivity and provides evidence of learning in the arcuate nucleus. The loss of Arc results in unrestrained sexual receptivity. PMID:25088303

  11. Activation of immediate-early response gene c-Fos protein in the rat paralimbic cortices after myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ji Yun; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Kim, In Hye; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Park, Joon Ha; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Won, Moo-Ho; Hong, Seongkweon; Lee, Jae-Chul; Seo, Jeong Yeol

    2015-08-01

    c-Fos is a good biological marker for detecting the pathogenesis of central nervous system disorders. Few studies are reported on the change in myocardial infarction-induced c-Fos expression in the paralimbic regions. Thus, in this study, we investigated the changes in c-Fos expression in the rat cingulate and piriform cortices after myocardial infarction. Neuronal degeneration in cingulate and piriform cortices after myocardial infarction was detected using cresyl violet staining, NeuN immunohistochemistry and Fluoro-Jade B histofluorescence staining. c-Fos-immunoreactive cells were observed in cingulate and piriform cortices at 3 days after myocardial infarction and peaked at 7 and 14 days after myocardial infarction. But they were hardly observed at 56 days after myocardial infarction. The chronological change of c-Fos expression determined by western blot analysis was basically the same as that of c-Fos immunoreactivity. These results indicate that myocardial infarction can cause the chronological change of immediate-early response gene c-Fos protein expression, which might be associated with the neural activity induced by myocardial infarction. PMID:26487852

  12. Low-level laser therapy effectively prevents secondary brain injury induced by immediate early responsive gene X-1 deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Zhou, Chang; Hamblin, Michael R; Wu, Mei X

    2014-01-01

    A mild insult to the brain can sometimes trigger secondary brain injury, causing severe postconcussion syndrome, but the underlying mechanism is ill understood. We show here that secondary brain injury occurs consistently in mice lacking immediate early responsive gene X-1 (IEX-1), after a gentle impact to the head, which closely simulates mild traumatic brain injury in humans. The pathologic lesion was characterized by extensive cell death, widespread leukocyte infiltrates, and severe tissue loss. On the contrary, a similar insult did not induce any secondary injury in wild-type mice. Strikingly, noninvasive exposure of the injured head to a low-level laser at 4 hours after injury almost completely prevented the secondary brain injury in IEX-1 knockout mice. The low-level laser therapy (LLLT) suppressed proinflammatory cytokine expression like interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-6 but upregulated TNF-?. Moreover, although lack of IEX-1 compromised ATP synthesis, LLLT elevated its production in injured brain. The protective effect of LLLT may be ascribed to enhanced ATP production and selective modulation of proinflammatory mediators. This new closed head injury model provides an excellent tool to investigate the pathogenesis of secondary brain injury as well as the mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of LLLT. PMID:24849666

  13. Bovine herpesvirus 1 productive infection and immediate early transcription unit 1 promoter are stimulated by the synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Kook, Insun; Henley, Caitlin; Meyer, Florencia; Hoffmann, Federico G; Jones, Clinton

    2015-10-01

    The primary site for life-long latency of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) is sensory neurons. The synthetic corticosteroid dexamethasone consistently induces reactivation from latency; however the mechanism by which corticosteroids mediate reactivation is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that dexamethasone stimulates productive infection, in part, because the BHV-1 genome contains more than 100 potential glucocorticoid receptor (GR) response elements (GREs). Immediate early transcription unit 1 (IEtu1) promoter activity, but not IEtu2 or VP16 promoter activity, was stimulated by dexamethasone. Two near perfect consensus GREs located within the IEtu1 promoter were necessary for dexamethasone-mediated stimulation. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated that the GR interacts with IEtu1 promoter sequences containing the GREs. Although we hypothesize that DEX-mediated stimulation of IEtu1 promoter activity is important during productive infection and perhaps reactivation from latency, stress likely has pleiotropic effects on virus-infected cells. PMID:26226582

  14. Immediate-Early Gene Transcriptional Activation in Hippocampus Ca1 and Ca3 Does Not Accurately Reflect Rapid, Pattern Completion-Based Retrieval of Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevzner, Aleksandr; Guzowski, John F.

    2015-01-01

    No studies to date have examined whether immediate-early gene (IEG) activation is driven by context memory recall. To address this question, we utilized the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm. In CPFE, animals acquire contextual fear conditioning through hippocampus-dependent rapid retrieval of a previously formed contextual…

  15. Immediate-Early Gene Transcriptional Activation in Hippocampus Ca1 and Ca3 Does Not Accurately Reflect Rapid, Pattern Completion-Based Retrieval of Context Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pevzner, Aleksandr; Guzowski, John F.

    2015-01-01

    No studies to date have examined whether immediate-early gene (IEG) activation is driven by context memory recall. To address this question, we utilized the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE) paradigm. In CPFE, animals acquire contextual fear conditioning through hippocampus-dependent rapid retrieval of a previously formed contextual

  16. POLY I:C INHIBITS THE EXPRESSION OF CHANNEL CATFISH VIRUS IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENE ORF 1 AT EARLY TIMES AFTER INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish virus (CCV) is a herpes virus that infects channel catfish fry and fingerlings. Previous research has demonstrated that Type I interferons inhibit the expression of immediate-early (IE) genes of some mammalian herpesviruses. However, CCV is distantly related to the mammalian herpesvi...

  17. Human Daxx-mediated repression of human cytomegalovirus gene expression correlates with a repressive chromatin structure around the major immediate early promoter.

    PubMed

    Woodhall, David L; Groves, Ian J; Reeves, Matthew B; Wilkinson, Gavin; Sinclair, John H

    2006-12-01

    Upon herpesvirus infection, viral DNA becomes associated with nuclear structures known as nuclear domain 10 (ND10). The role of ND10 during herpesvirus infection has long been contentious; data arguing for a role for ND10 in repression of infection have been countered by other data showing little effect of ND10 on virus infection. Here we show that knockdown of human Daxx (hDaxx) expression, an important component of ND10, prior to infection with human cytomegalovirus resulted in increased levels of viral immediate early RNA and protein expression and that this correlated with an increased association of the major immediate early promoter with markers of transcriptionally active chromatin. Conversely, we also show that stable overexpression of hDaxx renders cells refractory to cytomegalovirus immediate early gene expression. Intriguingly, this hDaxx-mediated repression appears to be restricted to cells stably overexpressing hDaxx and is not recapitulated in transient transfection assays. Finally, hDaxx-mediated repression of cytomegalovirus major immediate early gene expression was overcome by infecting at higher virus titers, suggesting that an incoming viral structural protein or viral DNA is responsible for overcoming the repression of viral gene expression in hDaxx superexpressing cells. These data suggest that hDaxx in ND10 functions at the site of cytomegalovirus genome deposition to repress transcription of incoming viral genomes and that this repression is mediated by a direct and immediate effect of hDaxx on chromatin modification around the viral major immediate early promoter. PMID:17035242

  18. Small-molecule inhibitors of ERK-mediated immediate early gene expression and proliferation of melanoma cells expressing mutated BRaf

    PubMed Central

    Samadani, Ramin; Zhang, Jun; Brophy, Amanda; Oashi, Taiji; Priyakumar, U. Deva; Raman, E. Prabhu; St John, Franz J.; Jung, Kwan-Young; Fletcher, Steven; Pozharski, Edwin; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Shapiro, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive activation of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are central to regulating the proliferation and survival of many cancer cells. The current inhibitors of ERK1/2 target ATP binding or the catalytic site and are therefore limited in their utility for elucidating the complex biological roles of ERK1/2 through its phosphorylation and regulation of over 100 substrate proteins. To overcome this limitation, a combination of computational and experimental methods was used to identify low-molecular-mass inhibitors that are intended to target ERK1/2 substrate-docking domains and selectively interfere with ERK1/2 regulation of substrate proteins. In the present study, we report the identification and characterization of compounds with a thienyl benzenesulfonate scaffold that were designed to inhibit ERK1/2 substrates containing an F-site or DEF (docking site for ERK, FXF) motif. Experimental evidence shows the compounds inhibit the expression of F-site containing immediate early genes (IEGs) of the Fos family, including c-Fos and Fra1, and transcriptional regulation of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) complex. Moreover, this class of compounds selectively induces apoptosis in melanoma cells containing mutated BRaf and constitutively active ERK1/2 signalling, including melanoma cells that are inherently resistant to clinically relevant kinase inhibitors. These findings represent the identification and initial characterization of a novel class of compounds that inhibit ERK1/2 signalling functions and their potential utility for elucidating ERK1/2 and other signalling events that control the growth and survival of cancer cells containing elevated ERK1/2 activity. PMID:25695333

  19. Small-molecule inhibitors of ERK-mediated immediate early gene expression and proliferation of melanoma cells expressing mutated BRaf.

    PubMed

    Samadani, Ramin; Zhang, Jun; Brophy, Amanda; Oashi, Taiji; Priyakumar, U Deva; Raman, E Prabhu; St John, Franz J; Jung, Kwan-Young; Fletcher, Steven; Pozharski, Edwin; MacKerell, Alexander D; Shapiro, Paul

    2015-05-01

    Constitutive activation of the extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) are central to regulating the proliferation and survival of many cancer cells. The current inhibitors of ERK1/2 target ATP binding or the catalytic site and are therefore limited in their utility for elucidating the complex biological roles of ERK1/2 through its phosphorylation and regulation of over 100 substrate proteins. To overcome this limitation, a combination of computational and experimental methods was used to identify low-molecular-mass inhibitors that are intended to target ERK1/2 substrate-docking domains and selectively interfere with ERK1/2 regulation of substrate proteins. In the present study, we report the identification and characterization of compounds with a thienyl benzenesulfonate scaffold that were designed to inhibit ERK1/2 substrates containing an F-site or DEF (docking site for ERK, FXF) motif. Experimental evidence shows the compounds inhibit the expression of F-site containing immediate early genes (IEGs) of the Fos family, including c-Fos and Fra1, and transcriptional regulation of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) complex. Moreover, this class of compounds selectively induces apoptosis in melanoma cells containing mutated BRaf and constitutively active ERK1/2 signalling, including melanoma cells that are inherently resistant to clinically relevant kinase inhibitors. These findings represent the identification and initial characterization of a novel class of compounds that inhibit ERK1/2 signalling functions and their potential utility for elucidating ERK1/2 and other signalling events that control the growth and survival of cancer cells containing elevated ERK1/2 activity. PMID:25695333

  20. Effects of estradiol on immediate early gene expression associated with ovulation in lactating rats: role of nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Abizaid, Alfonso; Service, Garth; Woodside, Barbara C

    2004-03-19

    In rats, food restriction during lactation extends lactational infertility, an effect that is in part due to attenuated luteinizing hormone (LH) responses to the positive feedback effects of estradiol (E2). In cycling rats, rising endogenous E2 levels not only induce a surge in LH release, but also increase the expression of the immediate early gene Fos in the anteroventral preoptic area (AVPV) and within gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. This experiment examined whether the induction of Fos expression in the AVPV and within GnRH neurons after E2 treatment varied with stage of lactation and nutritional status. Brains of estrogen-treated ad lib fed and food-restricted lactating rats were processed for Fos or Fos/GnRH immunocytochemistry on days 15, 20, or 25 postpartum (pp). Cell counts from both labeling studies showed that on day 15 pp, neuronal activation in the AVPV and within GnRH neurons was low and did not differ between ad lib fed and food-restricted dams. On day 20 pp, levels of Fos-like immunoreactivity (FOS-IR) in the AVPV remained low in all dams but were significantly higher in ad lib fed dams. By day 25 pp, the ability of E2 to induce FOS-IR in the AVPV of food-restricted dams remained compromised. The proportion of GnRH cells expressing FOS-IR following E2 stimulation was restored to baseline levels by day 20 pp regardless of the nutritional status of the dam. These results show that the effects of E2 on neuronal events that correlate with the LH surge, are attenuated during lactation. Furthermore, food restriction during lactation selectively alters neuronal activation in the AVPV suggesting that this area integrates nutritional information to regulate LH release. PMID:14972655

  1. Identification of Cellular Proteins that Interact with Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early Protein 1 by Protein Array Assay

    PubMed Central

    Puerta Martnez, Francisco; Tang, Qiyi

    2013-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene expression during infection is characterized as a sequential process including immediate-early (IE), early (E), and late (L)-stage gene expression. The most abundantly expressed gene at the IE stage of infection is the major IE (MIE) gene that produces IE1 and IE2. IE1 has been the focus of study because it is an important protein, not only for viral gene expression but also for viral replication. It is believed that IE1 plays important roles in viral gene regulation by interacting with cellular proteins. In the current study, we performed protein array assays and identified 83 cellular proteins that interact with IE1. Among them, seven are RNA-binding proteins that are important in RNA processing; more than half are nuclear proteins that are involved in gene regulations. Tumorigenesis-related proteins are also found to interact with IE1, implying that the role of IE1 in tumorigenesis might need to be reevaluated. Unexpectedly, cytoplasmic proteins, such as Golgi autoantigen and GGA1 (both related to the Golgi trafficking protein), are also found to be associated with IE1. We also employed a coimmunoprecipitation assay to test the interactions of IE1 and some of the proteins identified in the protein array assays and confirmed that the results from the protein array assays are reliable. Many of the proteins identified by the protein array assay have not been previously reported. Therefore, the functions of the IE1-protein interactions need to be further explored in the future. PMID:24385082

  2. Sex and strategy use matters for pattern separation, adult neurogenesis, and immediate early gene expression in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Shunya; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M

    2016-01-01

    Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) plays a crucial role for pattern separation, and there are sex differences in the regulation of neurogenesis. Although sex differences, favoring males, in spatial navigation have been reported, it is not known whether there are sex differences in pattern separation. The current study was designed to determine whether there are sex differences in the ability for separating similar or distinct patterns, learning strategy choice, adult neurogenesis, and immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the DG in response to pattern separation training. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats received a single injection of the DNA synthesis marker, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), and were tested for the ability of separating spatial patterns in a spatial pattern separation version of delayed nonmatching to place task using the eight-arm radial arm maze. Twenty-seven days following BrdU injection, rats received a probe trial to determine whether they were idiothetic or spatial strategy users. We found that male spatial strategy users outperformed female spatial strategy users only when separating similar, but not distinct, patterns. Furthermore, male spatial strategy users had greater neurogenesis in response to pattern separation training than all other groups. Interestingly, neurogenesis was positively correlated with performance on similar pattern trials during pattern separation in female spatial strategy users but negatively correlated with performance in male idiothetic strategy users. These results suggest that the survival of new neurons may play an important positive role for pattern separation of similar patterns in females. Furthermore, we found sex and strategy differences in IEG expression in the CA1 and CA3 regions in response to pattern separation. These findings emphasize the importance of studying biological sex on hippocampal function and neural plasticity. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26179150

  3. Roles of polypyrimidine tract binding proteins in major immediate-early gene expression and viral replication of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Ruth S Cruz; Yamamura, Yasuhiro; Tang, Qiyi

    2009-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a member of the beta subgroup of the family Herpesviridae, causes serious health problems worldwide. HCMV gene expression in host cells is a well-defined sequential process: immediate-early (IE) gene expression, early-gene expression, DNA replication, and late-gene expression. The most abundant IE gene, major IE (MIE) gene pre-mRNA, needs to be spliced before being exported to the cytoplasm for translation. In this study, the regulation of MIE gene splicing was investigated; in so doing, we found that polypyrimidine tract binding proteins (PTBs) strongly repressed MIE gene production in cotransfection assays. In addition, we discovered that the repressive effects of PTB could be rescued by splicing factor U2AF. Taken together, the results suggest that PTBs inhibit MIE gene splicing by competing with U2AF65 for binding to the polypyrimidine tract in pre-mRNA. In intron deletion mutation assays and RNA detection experiments (reverse transcription [RT]-PCR and real-time RT-PCR), we further observed that PTBs target all the introns of the MIE gene, especially intron 2, and affect gene splicing, which was reflected in the variation in the ratio of pre-mRNA to mRNA. Using transfection assays, we demonstrated that PTB knockdown cells induce a higher degree of MIE gene splicing/expression. Consistently, HCMV can produce more viral proteins and viral particles in PTB knockdown cells after infection. We conclude that PTB inhibits HCMV replication by interfering with MIE gene splicing through competition with U2AF for binding to the polypyrimidine tract in MIE gene introns. PMID:19144709

  4. Identification of immediate early gene X-1 as a cellular target gene of hcmv-mir-UL148D.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Ping; Qi, Ying; Huang, Yu-Jing; Qi, Man-Long; Ma, Yan-Ping; He, Rong; Ji, Yao-Hua; Sun, Zheng-Rong; Ruan, Qiang

    2013-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a herpesvirus that causes congenital diseases and opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals. Its functional proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) facilitate efficient viral propagation by altering host cell behavior. The identification of functional target genes of miRNAs is an important step in the study of HCMV pathogenesis. HCMV encodes at least 14 miRNAs, including hcmv-mir-UL148D, which resides in the HCMV UL/b' region. hcmv-mir-UL148D is the only miRNA encoded by the HCMV UL/b' region; however, its targets and functional effects have not yet been eludidated. In this study, hybrid-PCR screening was used to identify target genes and dual luciferase reporter assay was used to evaluate the binding effect of hcmv-miR-UL148D to the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of IEX-1. In addition, western blot analysis was used to detect the expression kinetics of IEX-1 protein and apoptosis assay was used to identify the effects of hcmv-miR-UL148D on cell apoptosis. The hybrid-PCR results showed that only one binding site in the 3'UTR of the cellular gene, human immediate early gene X-1 (IEX-1), was completely complementary to an 11 nucleotide (nt) sequence in the 5' terminus of hcmv-mir-UL148D, including the entire seed region. The binding site was demonstrated to be functional by dual luciferase reporter assay with a 47% repression of the relative luciferase activity. In an in vitro system of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, the ectopically expressed hcmv-mir-UL148D exhibited a downregulatory effect on IEX-1 expression, and decreased the cell apoptosis induced by transfected IEX-1. Our data demonstrate that hcmv-mir-UL148D targets the cellular gene, IEX-1, downregulating its expression and thus results in anti-apoptotic effects. PMID:23403649

  5. Evaluation of two set of primers for detection of immediate early gene UL123 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV).

    PubMed

    Bergallo, Massimiliano; Costa, Cristina; Terlizzi, Maria Elena; Margio, Samuela; Sidoti, Francesca; Sinesi, Franca; Cavallo, Rossana

    2008-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a widespread agent causing a life-long persistent and generally asymptomatic infection in immunocompetent individuals. In contrast, immunocompromised subjects are the most susceptible group to experience HCMV disease. First genes to be expressed during the replication cycle are the immediate early (IE) genes, the products of which have pleiotropic effects on host cell metabolism. Aim of this study was to compare two set of primers in the optimization and standardization of a RT-PCR assay for qualitative detection of mRNA encoded by the IE gene UL123 (IE1). The RT-PCR assays were then used to evaluate the UL123 gene expression in 29 peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL) samples obtained from 14 renal transplant recipients. In particular, 21/29 (72.4%) were positive with set A of primers vs. 24/29 (82.8%) with set B. Only one sample were negative with set B and positive with set A. Twenty-four of 29 samples (82.8%) were pp65-antigaenemia positive: 21 mRNA-UL123 positive with set A vs. 22 with set B; all viraemia-positive patients were mRNA-UL123 positive with both set A and B. Five of 29 samples were pp65-antigaenemia negative: 1 mRNA-UL 123 positive with set A vs. 2 with set B; all of them were viraemia-negative. These two RT-PCR assays could provide a reliable, rapid and sensitive system enabling the detection and identification of UL123 transcripts and could be usefully employed to study the pathogenesis of HCMV-related diseases. PMID:18095191

  6. Identification of cellular proteins that interact with human cytomegalovirus immediate-early protein 1 by protein array assay.

    PubMed

    Martnez, Francisco Puerta; Tang, Qiyi

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene expression during infection is characterized as a sequential process including immediate-early (IE), early (E), and late (L)-stage gene expression. The most abundantly expressed gene at the IE stage of infection is the major IE (MIE) gene that produces IE1 and IE2. IE1 has been the focus of study because it is an important protein, not only for viral gene expression but also for viral replication. It is believed that IE1 plays important roles in viral gene regulation by interacting with cellular proteins. In the current study, we performed protein array assays and identified 83 cellular proteins that interact with IE1. Among them, seven are RNA-binding proteins that are important in RNA processing; more than half are nuclear proteins that are involved in gene regulations. Tumorigenesis-related proteins are also found to interact with IE1, implying that the role of IE1 in tumorigenesis might need to be reevaluated. Unexpectedly, cytoplasmic proteins, such as Golgi autoantigen and GGA1 (both related to the Golgi trafficking protein), are also found to be associated with IE1. We also employed a coimmunoprecipitation assay to test the interactions of IE1 and some of the proteins identified in the protein array assays and confirmed that the results from the protein array assays are reliable. Many of the proteins identified by the protein array assay have not been previously reported. Therefore, the functions of the IE1-protein interactions need to be further explored in the future. PMID:24385082

  7. Human Cytomegalovirus Major Immediate Early 1 Protein Targets Host Chromosomes by Docking to the Acidic Pocket on the Nucleosome Surface

    PubMed Central

    Mcke, Katrin; Paulus, Christina; Bernhardt, Katharina; Gerrer, Katrin; Schn, Kathrin; Fink, Alina; Sauer, Eva-Maria; Asbach-Nitzsche, Alexandra; Harwardt, Thomas; Kieninger, Brbel; Kremer, Werner; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert

    2014-01-01

    The 72-kDa immediate early 1 (IE1) protein encoded by human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) is a nuclearly localized promiscuous regulator of viral and cellular transcription. IE1 has long been known to associate with host mitotic chromatin, yet the mechanisms underlying this interaction have not been specified. In this study, we identify the cellular chromosome receptor for IE1. We demonstrate that the viral protein targets human nucleosomes by directly binding to core histones in a nucleic acid-independent manner. IE1 exhibits two separable histone-interacting regions with differential binding specificities for H2A-H2B and H3-H4. The H2A-H2B binding region was mapped to an evolutionarily conserved 10-amino-acid motif within the chromatin-tethering domain (CTD) of IE1. Results from experimental approaches combined with molecular modeling indicate that the IE1 CTD adopts a ?-hairpin structure, docking with the acidic pocket formed by H2A-H2B on the nucleosome surface. IE1 binds to the acidic pocket in a way similar to that of the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. Consequently, the IE1 and LANA CTDs compete for binding to nucleosome cores and chromatin. Our work elucidates in detail how a key viral regulator is anchored to human chromosomes and identifies the nucleosomal acidic pocket as a joint target of proteins from distantly related viruses. Based on the striking similarities between the IE1 and LANA CTDs and the fact that nucleosome targeting by IE1 is dispensable for productive replication even in clinical strains of hCMV, we speculate that the two viral proteins may serve analogous functions during latency of their respective viruses. PMID:24227840

  8. Downregulation of immediate-early genes linking to suppression of neuronal plasticity in rats after 28-day exposure to glycidol

    SciTech Connect

    Akane, Hirotoshi; Saito, Fumiyo; Shiraki, Ayako; Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Itahashi, Megu; Murakami, Tomoaki; Shibutani, Makoto

    2014-09-01

    We previously found that the 28-day oral toxicity study of glycidol at 200 mg/kg/day in rats resulted in axonopathy in both the central and peripheral nervous systems and aberrations in the late-stage of hippocampal neurogenesis targeting the process of neurite extension. To capture the neuronal parameters in response to glycidol toxicity, these animals were subjected to region-specific global gene expression profiling in four regions of cerebral and cerebellar architectures, followed by immunohistochemical analysis of selected gene products. Expression changes of genes related to axonogenesis and synaptic transmission were observed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis at 200 mg/kg showing downregulation in most genes. In the corpus callosum, genes related to growth, survival and functions of glial cells fluctuated their expression. Immunohistochemically, neurons expressing gene products of immediate-early genes, i.e., Arc, Fos and Jun, decreased in their number in the dentate granule cell layer, cingulate cortex and cerebellar vermis. We also applied immunohistochemical analysis in rat offspring after developmental exposure to glycidol through maternal drinking water. The results revealed increases of Arc{sup +} neurons at 1000 ppm and Fos{sup +} neurons at ≥ 300 ppm in the dentate granule cell layer of offspring only at the adult stage. These results suggest that glycidol suppressed neuronal plasticity in the brain after 28-day exposure to young adult animals, in contrast to the operation of restoration mechanism to increase neuronal plasticity at the adult stage in response to aberrations in neurogenesis after developmental exposure. - Highlights: • Neuronal toxicity parameters after 28-day glycidol treatment were examined in rats. • Region-specific global gene expression profiling was conducted in brain regions. • Cortical tissues downregulated genes on axonogenesis and synaptic transmission. • Cortical tissues decreased immunoreactive neurons for Arc, Fos or Jun. • The results suggest that 28-day glycidol treatment suppressed neuronal plasticity.

  9. Topographical evaluation of behavioural phenotype in a line of mice with targeted gene deletion of the D2 dopamine receptor.

    PubMed

    Clifford, J J; Usiello, A; Vallone, D; Kinsella, A; Borrelli, E; Waddington, J L

    2000-01-28

    The phenotype of spontaneous and dopamine D2-like agonist-induced behaviour was assessed topographically in a line of mice with targeted gene deletion of the D1 receptor. An ethologically-based, rapid time-sampling behavioural check-list technique was used to resolve and quantify all behaviours in the natural repertoire of the mouse. Relative to wildtypes [D2+/+], D2-null [D2-/-] mice evidenced over a 1 h period of initial exploration modest but significant reductions in locomotion, grooming, rearing free and rearing to wall; rearing seated, sniffing, sifting and stillness were not altered. Individual elements of behaviour habituated similarly over a 6 h period for both genotypes. The dose-dependent induction of stereotyped sniffing and ponderous locomotion by the D2-like agonist RU 24213 (0.1-12.5 mg/kg) in wildtypes was essentially absent in D2-null mice. The ethogram of spontaneous behaviour in D2-null mice was characterised by only modest reductions in, and topographical shifts between, certain individual elements of behaviour. Essential abolition of D2-like agonist responsivity in D2-null mice vis--vis considerable preservation of spontaneous behavioural topography suggests compensatory processes subsequent to developmental absence of the D2 receptor that are able to sustain function under naturalistic, tonic conditions but not during phasic challenge. PMID:10698004

  10. The Contribution of Whole Gene Deletions and Large Rearrangements to the Mutation Spectrum in Inherited Tumor Predisposing Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Miriam J; Urquhart, Jill E; Harkness, Elaine F; Miles, Emma K; Bowers, Naomi L; Byers, Helen J; Bulman, Michael; Gokhale, Carolyn; Wallace, Andrew J; Newman, William G; Evans, D Gareth

    2016-03-01

    Heterozygous whole gene deletions (WGDs), and intragenic microdeletions, account for a significant proportion of mutations underlying cancer predisposition syndromes. We analyzed the frequency and genotype-phenotype correlations of microdeletions in 12 genes (BRCA1, BRCA2, TP53, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, PMS2, NF1, NF2, APC, PTCH1, and VHL) representing seven tumor predisposition syndromes in 5,897 individuals (2,611 families) from our center. Overall, microdeletions accounted for 14% of identified mutations. As expected, smaller deletions or duplications were more common (12%) than WGDs (2.2%). Where a WGD was identified in the germline in NF2, the mechanism of somatic second hit was not deletion, as previously described for NF1. For neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2, we compared the mechanism of germline deletion. Unlike NF1, where three specific deletion sizes account for most germline WGDs, NF2 deletion breakpoints were different across seven samples tested. One of these deletions was 3.93 Mb and conferred a severe phenotype, thus refining the region for a potential NF2 modifier gene to a 2.04-Mb region on chromosome 22. The milder phenotype of NF2 WGDs may be due to the apparent absence of chromosome 22 loss as the second hit. These observations of WGD phenotypes will be helpful for interpreting incidental findings from microarray analysis and next-generation sequencing. PMID:26615784

  11. Double gene deletion reveals the lack of cooperation between PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta} in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Bedu, E.; Desplanches, D.; Pequignot, J.; Bordier, B.; Desvergne, B. . E-mail: beatrice.desvergne@unil.ch

    2007-06-15

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in the regulation of most of the pathways linked to lipid metabolism. PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{beta} isotypes are known to regulate muscle fatty acid oxidation and a reciprocal compensation of their function has been proposed. Herein, we investigated muscle contractile and metabolic phenotypes in PPAR{alpha}-/-, PPAR{beta}-/-, and double PPAR{alpha}-/- {beta}-/- mice. Heart and soleus muscle analyses show that the deletion of PPAR{alpha} induces a decrease of the HAD activity ({beta}-oxidation) while soleus contractile phenotype remains unchanged. A PPAR{beta} deletion alone has no effect. However, these mild phenotypes are not due to a reciprocal compensation of PPAR{beta} and PPAR{alpha} functions since double gene deletion PPAR{alpha}-PPAR{beta} mostly reproduces the null PPAR{alpha}-mediated reduced {beta}-oxidation, in addition to a shift from fast to slow fibers. In conclusion, PPAR{beta} is not required for maintaining skeletal muscle metabolic activity and does not compensate the lack of PPAR{alpha} in PPAR{alpha} null mice.

  12. RCSD1-ABL1 Translocation Associated with IKZF1 Gene Deletion in B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kamran, Shawana; Raca, Gordana; Nazir, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    The RCSD1 gene has recently been identified as a novel gene fusion partner of the ABL1 gene in cases of B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL). The RCSD1 gene is located at 1q23 and ABL1 is located at 9q34, so that the RCSD1-ABL1 fusion typically arises through a rare reciprocal translocation t(1;9)(q23;q34). Only a small number of RCSD1-ABL1 positive cases of B-ALL have been described in the literature, and the full spectrum of clinical, morphological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features associated with this genetic abnormality has not been defined. We describe extensive genetic characterization of a case of B-ALL with RCSD1-ABL1 fusion, by using conventional cytogenetic analysis, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) studies, and Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA). The use of CMA resulted in detection of an approximately 70?kb deletion at 7p12.2, which caused a disruption of the IKZF1 gene. Deletions and mutations of IKZF1 are recurring abnormalities in B-ALL and are associated with a poor prognosis. Our findings highlight the association of the deletion of IKZF1 gene with the t(1;9)(q24;q34) and illustrate the importance of comprehensive cytogenetic and molecular evaluation for accurate prediction of prognosis in patients with B-cell ALL. PMID:26600955

  13. In-Frame and Unmarked Gene Deletions in Burkholderia cenocepacia via an Allelic Exchange System Compatible with Gateway Technology

    PubMed Central

    Fazli, Mustafa; Harrison, Joe J.; Gambino, Michela; Givskov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia cenocepacia is an emerging opportunistic pathogen causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals and in patients with cystic fibrosis, which are often difficult, if not impossible, to treat. Understanding the genetic basis of virulence in this emerging pathogen is important for the development of novel treatment regimes. Generation of deletion mutations in genes predicted to encode virulence determinants is fundamental to investigating the mechanisms of pathogenesis. However, there is a lack of appropriate selectable and counterselectable markers for use in B. cenocepacia, making its genetic manipulation problematic. Here we describe a Gateway-compatible allelic exchange system based on the counterselectable pheS gene and the I-SceI homing endonuclease. This system provides efficiency in cloning homology regions of target genes and allows the generation of precise and unmarked gene deletions in B. cenocepacia. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate its utility by deleting the Bcam1349 gene, encoding a cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP)-responsive regulator protein important for biofilm formation. PMID:25795676

  14. RCSD1-ABL1 Translocation Associated with IKZF1 Gene Deletion in B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kamran, Shawana; Raca, Gordana; Nazir, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    The RCSD1 gene has recently been identified as a novel gene fusion partner of the ABL1 gene in cases of B-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL). The RCSD1 gene is located at 1q23 and ABL1 is located at 9q34, so that the RCSD1-ABL1 fusion typically arises through a rare reciprocal translocation t(1;9)(q23;q34). Only a small number of RCSD1-ABL1 positive cases of B-ALL have been described in the literature, and the full spectrum of clinical, morphological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features associated with this genetic abnormality has not been defined. We describe extensive genetic characterization of a case of B-ALL with RCSD1-ABL1 fusion, by using conventional cytogenetic analysis, Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) studies, and Chromosomal Microarray Analysis (CMA). The use of CMA resulted in detection of an approximately 70?kb deletion at 7p12.2, which caused a disruption of the IKZF1 gene. Deletions and mutations of IKZF1 are recurring abnormalities in B-ALL and are associated with a poor prognosis. Our findings highlight the association of the deletion of IKZF1 gene with the t(1;9)(q24;q34) and illustrate the importance of comprehensive cytogenetic and molecular evaluation for accurate prediction of prognosis in patients with B-cell ALL. PMID:26600955

  15. Genotype-phenotype correlation of contiguous gene deletions of SLC6A8, BCAP31 and ABCD1.

    PubMed

    van de Kamp, J M; Errami, A; Howidi, M; Anselm, I; Winter, S; Phalin-Roque, J; Osaka, H; van Dooren, S J M; Mancini, G M; Steinberg, S J; Salomons, G S

    2015-02-01

    The BCAP31 gene is located between SLC6A8, associated with X-linked creatine transporter deficiency, and ABCD1, associated with X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy. Recently, loss-of-function mutations in BCAP31 were reported in association with severe developmental delay, deafness and dystonia. We characterized the break points in eight patients with deletions of SLC6A8, BCAP31 and/or ABCD1 and studied the genotype-phenotype correlations. The phenotype in patients with contiguous gene deletions involving BCAP31 overlaps with the phenotype of isolated BCAP31 deficiency. Only deletions involving both BCAP31 and ABCD1 were associated with hepatic cholestasis and death before 1 year, which might be explained by a synergistic effect. Remarkably, a patient with an isolated deletion at the 3'-end of SLC6A8 had a similar severe phenotype as seen in BCAP31 deficiency but without deafness. This might be caused by the disturbance of a regulatory element between SLC6A8 and BCAP31. PMID:24597975

  16. A new method for simultaneous gene deletion and down-regulation in Brucella melitensis Rev.1.

    PubMed

    Saeedinia, Ali Reza; Zeinoddini, Mehdi; Soleimani, Masoud; Sadeghizadeh, Majid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, our aim was to integrate an antisense expression cassette in bacterial chromosome for providing a long-term expression down-regulation in a bid to develop a new approach for simultaneous deletion and down-regulation of target genes in bacterial system. Therefore, we were used this approach for simultaneous deletion of the perosamine synthetase (per) gene and down-regulation of the virB1 expression in Brucella melitensis Rev.1. The per gene, which is one of the LPS O-chain coding genes, was replaced by homologous recombination with an antisense virB1 expression cassette together with kanamycin resistance cassette (kan(R)). Deletion of the per gene was characterized by PCR analysis and DNA sequencing. The expression of antisense virB1 cassette was confirmed by RT-PCR. Down-regulation of the virB1 mRNA expression was quantified by real-time RT-PCR using virB1 specific primers relative to the groEL reference gene. The survival rate of mutant strain was evaluated by CFU count in the BALB/c mice. The virB1 mRNA expression was down-regulated on average 10-fold in mutant strain as compared to parental strain. The loss of per gene function and decrease of the virB1 mRNA expression resulted in reduced entry and survival of the mutant Rev.1 strain in BALB/c mice splenocytes. We propose that this method can be used for simultaneous regulation of multiple genes expression. PMID:25249309

  17. Is NF-1 gene deletion the molecular mechanism of neurofibromatosis type 1 with destinctive facies?

    SciTech Connect

    Leppig, K.A.; Stephens, K.G.; Viskochill, D.; Kaplan, P.

    1994-09-01

    We have studied a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 and unusual facial features using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and found that the patient had a deletion that minimially encompasses exon 2-11 of the NF-1 gene. The patient was one of two individuals initially described by Kaplan and Rosenblatt who suggested that another condition aside from neurofibromatosis type 1 may account for the unusual facial features observed in these patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. FISH studies were performed using a P1 clone probe, P1-9, which contains exons 2-11 of the NF-1 gene on chromosomes prepared from the patients. In all 20 metaphase cells analyzed, one of the chromosome 17 homologues was deleted for the P1-9 probe. Therefore, this patient had neurofibromatosis type 1 and unusual facial features as the result of a deletion which minimally includes exons 2-11 of the NF-1 gene. The extent of the deletion is being mapped by FISH and somatic cell hybrid analysis. The patient studied was a 7-year-old male with mild developmental delays, normal growth parameters, and physical findings consistent with neurofibromatosis type 1, including multiple cafe au lait spots, several curaneous neurofibroma, and speckling of the irises. In addition, his unusual facial features consisted of telecanthus, antimongoloid slant of the palpebral fissures, a broad base of the nose, low set and mildly posteriorly rotated ears, thick helices, high arched palate, short and pointed chin, and low posterior hairline. We propose that deletions of the NF-1 gene and/or contiguous genes are the etiology of neurofibromatosis type 1 and unusual facial features. This particular facial appearance was inherited from the patient`s mother and has been described in other individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1. We are using FISH to rapidly screen patients with this phenotype for large deletions involving the NF-1 gene and flanking DNA sequences.

  18. Immediate early gene expression in the vestibular nuclei and related vegetative areas in rats during space flight.

    PubMed

    Pompeiano, O; d'Ascanio, P; Centini, C; Pompeiano, M; Cirelli, C; Tononi, G

    2001-01-01

    Changes in neuronal activity resulting in somatic and vegetative deficits occur during different space flight conditions. Immediate early genes (IEGs: c-fos and Fos-related antigen [FRA]) are useful indicators of changes in neuronal activity and plasticity. They are induced within minutes of several extracellular stimulations, while the corresponding proteins persist for hours (Fos) or days (FRAs). Changes in IEG expression are likely to contribute to adaptation to microgravity and readaptation to the terrestrial environment. During the NASA Neurolab Mission (STS-90), changes in IEG expression were studied in adult male albino rats (Fisher 344) sacrificed at flight day (FD) 2 (24 h after launch), FD14 and at similar time points after re-entry (R + 1, 24 h after re-entry, and R + 13). These time points were chosen to maximize the probability of detecting changes in IEG expression related to changes in gravitational fields occurring during the mission, e.g. (i) increase in gravitational force from 1 to 3 g during the launch, before reaching about 0 g at FD2; (ii) adaptation to 0 g at FD14; (iii) increase in gravity from 0 to approximately 1.5-1.8 g before reaching 1 g at R + 1; and (iv) readaptation to 1 g at R + 13. Fos- and FRA-positive cells were identified in the brainstem of flight rats and ground-based controls using immunocytochemistry. With respect to control rats, the number of labeled cells increased in flight animals in the medial and spinal vestibular nuclei (but not in the lateral vestibular nucleus) at FD2, decreased at FD14, greatly increased at R + 1 and returned to baseline levels at R + 13. Similar changes in IEG expression were also observed in the nucleus of the solitary tract, the area postrema and the central nucleus of the amygdala. In particular, in these vegetative areas the number of Fos-positive cells decreased in flight rats with respect to controls at FD14, i.e. after exposure to 0 g, but significantly increased at R + 1, i.e. after return to 1 g. Thus, altered gravitational fields produced molecular changes in vestibular nuclei controlling somatic functions, as well as in related medullary and basal forebrain structures regulating vegetative functions. PMID:11677724

  19. In vivo and in vitro analysis of transcriptional activation mediated by the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Klucher, K M; Sommer, M; Kadonaga, J T; Spector, D H

    1993-01-01

    To define mechanistically how the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major immediate-early (IE) proteins induce early-gene transcription, the IE1 72-kDa protein, the IE2 55-kDa protein, and the IE2 86-kDa protein were analyzed for their ability to activate transcription from an HCMV early promoter in vivo and in vitro. In transient-expression assays in U373MG astrocytoma/glioblastoma and HeLa cells, only the IE2 86-kDa protein was able to activate the HCMV early promoter to high levels. In HeLa cells, the IE1 72-kDa protein was able to activate the promoter to a low but detectable level, and the level of promoter activity observed in response to the IE2 86-kDa protein was increased synergistically following cotransfection of the constructs expressing both IE proteins. To examine the interaction of the HCMV IE proteins with the RNA polymerase II transcription machinery, we assayed the ability of Escherichia coli-synthesized proteins to activate the HCMV early promoter in nuclear extracts prepared from U373MG cells, HeLa cells, and Drosophila embryos. The results of the in vitro experiments correlated well with those obtained in vivo. The basal activity of the promoter was minimal in both the HeLa and U373MG extracts but was stimulated 6- to 10-fold by the IE2 86-kDa protein. With a histone H1-deficient extract from Drosophila embryos, the HCMV early promoter was quite active and was stimulated two- to fourfold by the IE2 86-kDa protein. Addition of histone H1 at 1 molecule per 40 to 50 bp of DNA template significantly repressed basal transcription from this promoter. However, the IE2 86-kDa protein, but none of the other IE proteins, was able to counteract the H1-mediated repression and stimulate transcription at least 10- to 20-fold. The promoter specificity of the activation was demonstrated by the inability of the IE2 86-kDa protein to activate the Drosophila Krppel promoter in either the presence or absence of histone H1. These results suggest that one mechanism of transcription activation by the IE2 86-kDa protein involves antirepression. Images PMID:8423789

  20. A novel comparative pattern count analysis reveals a chronic ethanol-induced dynamic shift in immediate early NF-?B genome-wide promoter binding during liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Kuttippurathu, Lakshmi; Patra, Biswanath; Hoek, Jan B; Vadigepalli, Rajanikanth

    2016-02-23

    Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is a clinically important process that is impaired by adaptation to chronic alcohol intake. We focused on the initial time points following partial hepatectomy (PHx) to analyze the genome-wide binding activity of NF-?B, a key immediate early regulator. We investigated the effect of chronic alcohol intake on immediate early NF-?B genome-wide localization, in the adapted state as well as in response to partial hepatectomy, using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by promoter microarray analysis. We found many ethanol-specific NF-?B binding target promoters in the ethanol-adapted state, corresponding to the regulation of biosynthetic processes, oxidation-reduction and apoptosis. Partial hepatectomy induced a diet-independent shift in NF-?B binding loci relative to the transcription start sites. We employed a novel pattern count analysis to exhaustively enumerate and compare the number of promoters corresponding to the temporal binding patterns in ethanol and pair-fed control groups. The highest pattern count corresponded to promoters with NF-?B binding exclusively in the ethanol group at 1 h post PHx. This set was associated with the regulation of cell death, response to oxidative stress, histone modification, mitochondrial function, and metabolic processes. Integration with the global gene expression profiles to identify putative transcriptional consequences of NF-?B binding patterns revealed that several of ethanol-specific 1 h binding targets showed ethanol-specific differential expression through 6 h post PHx. Motif analysis yielded co-incident binding loci for STAT3, AP-1, CREB, C/EBP-?, PPAR-? and C/EBP-?, likely participating in co-regulatory modules with NF-?B in shaping the immediate early response to PHx. We conclude that adaptation to chronic ethanol intake disrupts the NF-?B promoter binding landscape with consequences for the immediate early gene regulatory response to the acute challenge of PHx. PMID:26847025

  1. Negative and positive regulation by a short segment in the 5'-flanking region of the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early gene

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, J.A.; Reynolds-Kohler, C.; Smith, B.A.

    1987-11-01

    To analyze the significance of inducible DNase I-hypersensitive sites occurring in the 5'-flanking sequence of the major immediate-early gene of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), various deleted portions of the HCMV immediate-early promoter regulatory region were attached to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene and assayed for activity in transiently transfected undifferentiated and differentiated human teratocarcinoma cells, Tera-2. Assays of progressive deletions in the promoter regulatory region indicated that removal of a 395-base-pair portion of this element (nucleotides -750 to -1145) containing two inducible DNase I sites which correlate with gene expression resulted in a 7.5-fold increase in CAT activity in undifferentiated cells. However, in permissive differentiated Tera-2, human foreskin fibroblast, and HeLa cells, removal of this regulatory region resulted in decreased activity. In addition, attachment of this HCMV upstream element to a homologous or heterologous promoter increased activity three-to fivefold in permissive cells. Therefore, a cis regulatory element exists 5' to the enhancer of the major immediate-early gene of HCMV. This element negatively modulates expression in nonpermissive cells but positively influences expression in permissive cells.

  2. Bovine Herpes Virus 1 Major Immediate Early Transcription Unit 1 (IETU-1) Uses Alternative Promoters to Transcribe BICP0 and BICP4 Transcripts.

    PubMed

    Pokhriyal, Mayank; Verma, O P; Ratta, Barkha; Kumar, Ajay; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2016-04-01

    Immediate early (IE) genes are transcribed immediately after infection in BHV1 from two different immediate early transcription units. It is reported that the immediate early transcription unit I (IE TU1) of Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) transcribes two proteins BICP0 and BICP4 from a single promoter by alternative splicing but with identical 5'UTR. We found that the transcripts of BICP0 and BICP4 have different 5'UTRs. The bioinformatics analysis shows two similar spatially arranged TATA less promoter for the two transcripts. The bioinformatics analysis also showed a similar promoter for the IE TU2 which transcribes BICP22. The data strongly suggest that BICP0 and BICP4 are transcribed from two different promoters. The transcript produced by each promoter is spliced specifically as opposed to what has been reported earlier. The BICP0 and BICP4 also show different levels of expression. The expression level of BICP4 continuously declines after attaining a peak level at 1 h, while BICP0 shows biphasic expression supporting the earlier observation that it is expressed from two different promoters. PMID:26719189

  3. RNA from an immediate early region of the type 1 herpes simplex virus genome is present in the trigeminal ganglia of latently infected mice

    SciTech Connect

    Deatly, A.M.; Spivack, J.G.; Lavi, E.; Fraser, N.W.

    1987-05-01

    Transcription of the type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) genome in trigeminal ganglia of latently infected mice was studied using in situ hybridization. Probes representative of each temporal gene class were used to determine the regions of the genome that encode the transcripts present in latently infected cells. Probes encoding HSV-1 sequences of the five immediate early genes and representative early (thymidine kinase), early-late (major capsid protein), and late (glycoprotein C) genes were used in these experiments. Of the probes tested, only those encoding the immediate early gene product infected-cell polypeptide (ICP) 0 hybridized to RNA in latently infected tissues. Probes containing the other immediate early genes (ICP4, ICP22, ICP27, and ICP47) and the representative early, early-late, and late genes did not hybridize. Two probes covering approx. = 30% of the HSV-1 genome and encoding over 20 early and late transcripts also did not hybridize to RNA in latently infected tissues. These results, with probes spanning > 60% of the HSV-1 genome, suggest that transcription of the HSV-1 genome is restricted to one region in latently infected mouse trigeminal ganglia.

  4. A severe alpha thalassemia case compound heterozygous for Hb Adana in alpha1 gene and 20.5 kb double gene deletion.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Asude Alpman; Akin, Haluk; Ekmekci, Aslihan Yilmaz; Onay, Huseyin; Durmaz, Burak; Cogulu, Ozgur; Aydinok, Yesim; Ozkinay, Ferda

    2009-08-01

    We report a 6-year-old boy diagnosed as transfusion dependent chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia since 40 days old. Hemoglobin H inclusions were detected with brilliant cresyl blue preparation. His parents were found to be normal on physical examination. His mother had hemoglobin level of 9.34 g/dL, accompanied by typical thalassemic changes of the red cells, and inclusion bodies were also detected with brilliant cresyl blue staining. His father had normal hemoglobin level and borderline red cell indices. Mutation analysis using strip assay capable of detecting 22 mutations within the alpha genes was performed for the proband and the parents which revealed that the case was compound heterozygous for Hb Adana in alpha1 gene and 20.5 kb double gene deletion. The father was found to be heterozygous for Hb Adana alpha1 gene whereas the mother was found to be compound heterozygous for 20.5 kb double gene deletion and 3.7 kb single gene deletion. It is well known that non deletional forms of HbH disease are more severe than the deletional forms. This case represents another example of the nondeletional mutation underlying Hb Adana, which is rarely seen in alpha1 gene, and illustrates the distinctive phenotypes of both the deletional and nondeletional forms of hemoglobin H disease within the same family. PMID:19636270

  5. Tph2 gene deletion enhances amphetamine-induced hypermotility: effect of 5-HT restoration and role of striatal noradrenaline release.

    PubMed

    Carli, Mirjana; Kostoula, Chrysaugi; Sacchetti, Giuseppina; Mainolfi, Pierangela; Anastasia, Alessia; Villani, Claudia; Invernizzi, Roberto William

    2015-11-01

    Variants of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (Tph2), the gene encoding enzyme responsible for the synthesis of brain serotonin (5-HT), have been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, substance abuse and addiction. This study assessed the effect of Tph2 gene deletion on motor behavior and found that motor activity induced by 2.5 and 5 mg/kg amphetamine was enhanced in Tph2(-/-) mice. Using the in vivo microdialysis technique we found that the ability of amphetamine to stimulate noradrenaline (NA) release in the striatum was reduced by about 50% in Tph2(-/-) mice while the release of dopamine (DA) was not affected. Tph2 deletion did not affect the release of NA and DA in the prefrontal cortex. The role of endogenous 5-HT in enhancing the effect of amphetamine was confirmed showing that treatment with the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (10 mg/kg) restored tissue and extracellular levels of brain 5-HT and the effects of amphetamine on striatal NA release and motor activity in Tph2(-/-) mice. Treatment with the NA precursor dihydroxyphenylserine (400 mg/kg) was sufficient to restore the effect of amphetamine on striatal NA release and motor activity in Tph2(-/-) mice. These findings indicate that amphetamine-induced hyperactivity is attenuated by endogenous 5-HT through the inhibition of striatal NA release. Tph2(-/-) mice may be a useful preclinical model to assess the role of 5-HT-dependent mechanisms in the action of psychostimulants. Acute sensitivity to the motor effects of amphetamine has been associated to increased risk of psychostimulant abuse. Here, we show that deletion of Tph2, the gene responsible for brain 5-HT synthesis, enhances the motor effect of amphetamine in mice through the inhibition of striatal NA release. This suggests that Tph2(-/-) mice is a useful preclinical model to assess the role of 5-HT-dependent mechanisms in psychostimulants action. Tph2, tryptophan hydroxylase-2. PMID:26259827

  6. Development of a markerless gene deletion system for Bacillus subtilis based on the mannose phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Marian; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2015-10-01

    To optimize Bacillus subtilis as a production strain for proteins and low molecular substances by genome engineering, we developed a markerless gene deletion system. We took advantage of a general property of the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS), in particular the mannose PTS. Mannose is phosphorylated during uptake by its specific transporter (ManP) to mannose 6-phosphate, which is further converted to fructose 6-phosphate by the mannose-6-phosphate isomerase (ManA). When ManA is missing, accumulation of the phosphorylated mannose inhibits cell growth. This system was constructed by deletion of manP and manA in B. subtilis ?6, a 168 derivative strain with six large deletions of prophages and antibiotic biosynthesis genes. The manP gene was inserted into an Escherichia coli plasmid together with a spectinomycin resistance gene for selection in B. subtilis. To delete a specific region, its up- and downstream flanking sites (each of approximately 700?bp) were inserted into the vector. After transformation, integration of the plasmid into the chromosome of B. subtilis by single cross-over was selected by spectinomycin. In the second step, excision of the plasmid was selected by growth on mannose. Finally, excision and concomitant deletion of the target region were verified by colony PCR. In this way, all nine prophages, seven antibiotic biosynthesis gene clusters and two sigma factors for sporulation were deleted and the B. subtilis genome was reduced from 4215 to 3640?kb. Despite these extensive deletions, growth rate and cell morphology remained similar to the B. subtilis 168 parental strain. PMID:26238998

  7. Relaxin-3 receptor (Rxfp3) gene deletion reduces operant sucrose- but not alcohol-responding in mice.

    PubMed

    Walker, A W; Smith, C M; Gundlach, A L; Lawrence, A J

    2015-11-01

    The pervasive use of refined sugars in highly accessible, palatable foods and persistent exposure to reinforcing food-associated cues has contributed to overconsumption of sugar-rich diets and the current obesity epidemic in Western society. We have shown previously that brain relaxin-3 mRNA levels positively correlate with sucrose and alcohol intake, and that central antagonism of relaxin-3 receptors (RXFP3) attenuates alcohol self-administration and alcohol-seeking in rats, but food-seeking behaviour and palatable food consumption in mice. To further examine the relationship between motivated appetitive behaviours and relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling, we investigated the effect of Rxfp3 gene deletion in C57BL/6J mice on sucrose and alcohol self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement (RNST) of sucrose- and alcohol-seeking. Acquisition and maintenance of sucrose and alcohol self-administration was assessed in male wild-type (WT) and Rxfp3 knockout (KO) (C57BL/6J(RXFP3TM1) (/) (DGen) ) littermate mice using fixed ratio (FR) schedules of reinforcement. Mice were subsequently challenged with a progressive ratio (PR) test to measure motivation and, following extinction training, re-exposed to reward-associated cues to evaluate RNST of active lever-responding. Wild-type and Rxfp3 KO mice displayed similar acquisition of FR1 sucrose self-administration, but Rxfp3 KO mice responded less when the instrumental requirement was increased to FR3. These mice also showed a lower breakpoint for sucrose and attenuated cue-induced RNST of sucrose-seeking. Notably, no marked genotype differences in alcohol-responding were observed. In mice, endogenous relaxin-3/RXFP3 signalling promotes self-administration of sucrose under high response requirements and cue-induced RNST of sucrose-seeking, but does not apparently regulate motivation to consume alcohol or alcohol-seeking behaviour. PMID:26278401

  8. Analysis of BIM (BCL-2 like 11 gene) deletion polymorphism in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jia; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Zhao, Jun; Duan, Jian-Chun; Bai, Hua; An, Tong-Tong; Yang, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug resistance significantly weakens the efficacy of cancer treatment, and the BIM (also known as the BCL2L11 gene) deletion polymorphism has been identified as a potential biomarker for drug resistance. In this retrospective study, we included a total of 290 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and chemotherapy. Methods The BIM deletion polymorphism of each patient was detected by polymerase chain reaction. EGFR mutations were detected by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography methods and the amplification refractory mutation system. Results The BIM deletion polymorphism was detected in 45/290 (15.5%) Chinese NSCLC patients. No associations were observed between the BIM deletion and clinic-pathologic characteristics of patients. The BIM deletion polymorphism was predictive of shorter progression-free survival in Chinese patients with EGFR-mutant adenocarcinoma and who were treated with EGFR-TKIs (7.30 vs. 9.53 months, P = 0.034). Additionally, we found that the BIM deletion polymorphism was an effective predictor of short progression-free survival in individuals with EGFR-mutant NSCLC and treated with chemotherapy containing pemetrexed (3.32 vs. 5.30, P = 0.012) or second-/beyond-line chemotherapy containing taxanes (1.53 vs. 2.61 months, P = 0.025). The BIM deletion was not correlated with overall survival. Conclusion The BIM deletion polymorphism occurs in 15.5% of Chinese NSCLC patients, and is a biomarker for resistance to TKIs and chemotherapy. However, BIM deletion was not a decisive factor in overall survival.

  9. Inducible gene deletion reveals different roles for B-Raf and Raf-1 in B-cell antigen receptor signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brummer, Tilman; Shaw, Peter E.; Reth, Michael; Misawa, Yukiko

    2002-01-01

    Engagement of the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) leads to activation of the RafMEKERK pathway and Raf kinases play an important role in the modulation of ERK activity. B lymphocytes express two Raf isoforms, Raf-1 and B-Raf. Using an inducible deletion system in DT40 cells, the contribution of Raf-1 and B-Raf to BCR signalling was dissected. Loss of Raf-1 has no effect on BCR-mediated ERK activation, whereas B-Raf-deficient DT40 cells display a reduced basal ERK activity as well as a shortened BCR-mediated ERK activation. The Raf-1/B-Raf double deficient DT40 cells show an almost complete block both in ERK activation and in the induction of the immediate early gene products c-Fos and Egr-1. In contrast, BCR-mediated activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) relies predominantly on B-Raf. Furthermore, complementation of Raf-1/B-Raf double deficient cells with various Raf mutants demonstrates a requirement for Ras-GTP binding in BCR-mediated activation of both Raf isoforms and also reveals the important role of the S259 residue for the regulation of Raf-1. Our study shows that BCR-mediated ERK activation involves a cooperation of both B-Raf and Raf-1, which are activated specifically in a temporally distinct manner. PMID:12411479

  10. Genome-scale analysis to the impact of gene deletion on the metabolism of E. coli: constraint-based simulation approach

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zixiang; Sun, Xiao; Yu, Shihai

    2009-01-01

    Background Genome-scale models of metabolism have only been analyzed with the constraint-based modelling philosophy. Some gene deletion studies on in silico organism models at genome-scale have been made, but most of them were from the aspects of distinguishing lethal and non-lethal genes or growth rate. The impact of gene deletion on flux redistribution, the functions and characters of key genes, and the performance of different reactions in entire gene deletion still lack research. Results Three main researches have been done into the metabolism of E. coli in gene deletion. The first work was about finding key genes and subsystems: First, by calculating the deletion impact p of whole 1261 genes, one by one, on the metabolic flux redistribution of E. coli_iAF1260, we can find that p is more detailed in describing the change of organism's metabolism. Next, we sought out 195 important (high-p) genes, and they are more than essential genes (growth rate f becomes zero if deleting). So we speculated that under some circumstances and when an important gene is deleted, a big change in the metabolic system of E. coli has taken place and E. coli may use other reaction ways to strive to live. Further, by determining the functional subsystems to which 195 key genes belong, we found that their distribution to subsystems was not even and most of them were related to just three subsystems and that all of the 8 important but not essential genes appear just in "Oxidative Phosphorylation". Our second work was about p's three characters: We analyzed the correlation between p and d (connection degree of one gene) and the correlation between p and vgene (flux sum controlled by one gene), and found that both of them are not of linear correlation, but the correlation between p and f is of highly linear correlation. The third work was about highly-affected reactions: We found 16 reactions with more than 2000 Rg value (measuring the impact that a reaction is gotten in the whole 1261 gene deletion). We speculated that highly-affected reactions involve in the metabolism of basic biomasses. Conclusion To sum up, these results we obtained have biological significances and our researches will shed new light on the future researches. PMID:19208166

  11. Na(+) dependent acid-base transporters in the choroid plexus; insights from slc4 and slc9 gene deletion studies.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Henriette L; Nguyen, An T; Pedersen, Fredrik D; Damkier, Helle H

    2013-01-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is located in the ventricular system of the brain, where it secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricular system and surrounds the central nervous system. The CPE is a highly vascularized single layer of cuboidal cells with an unsurpassed transepithelial water and solute transport rate. Several members of the slc4a family of bicarbonate transporters are expressed in the CPE. In the basolateral membrane the electroneutral Na(+) dependent Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger, NCBE (slc4a10) is expressed. In the luminal membrane, the electrogenic Na(+):HCO3 (-) cotransporter, NBCe2 (slc4a5) is expressed. The electroneutral Na(+):HCO3 (-) cotransporter, NBCn1 (slc4a7), has been located in both membranes. In addition to the bicarbonate transporters, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, NHE1 (slc9a1), is located in the luminal membrane of the CPE. Genetically modified mice targeting slc4a2, slc4a5, slc4a7, slc4a10, and slc9a1 have been generated. Deletion of slc4a5, 7 or 10, or slc9a1 has numerous impacts on CP function and structure in these mice. Removal of the transporters affects brain ventricle size (slc4a5 and slc4a10) and intracellular pH regulation (slc4a7 and slc4a10). In some instances, removal of the proteins from the CPE (slc4a5, 7, and 10) causes changes in abundance and localization of non-target transporters known to be involved in pH regulation and CSF secretion. The focus of this review is to combine the insights gathered from these knockout mice to highlight the impact of slc4 gene deletion on the CSF production and intracellular pH regulation resulting from the deletion of slc4a5, 7 and 10, and slc9a1. Furthermore, the review contains a comparison of the described human mutations of these genes to the findings in the knockout studies. Finally, the future perspective of utilizing these proteins as potential targets for the treatment of CSF disorders will be discussed. PMID:24155723

  12. Na+ dependent acid-base transporters in the choroid plexus; insights from slc4 and slc9 gene deletion studies

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Henriette L.; Nguyen, An T.; Pedersen, Fredrik D.; Damkier, Helle H.

    2013-01-01

    The choroid plexus epithelium (CPE) is located in the ventricular system of the brain, where it secretes the majority of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that fills the ventricular system and surrounds the central nervous system. The CPE is a highly vascularized single layer of cuboidal cells with an unsurpassed transepithelial water and solute transport rate. Several members of the slc4a family of bicarbonate transporters are expressed in the CPE. In the basolateral membrane the electroneutral Na+ dependent Cl?/HCO3? exchanger, NCBE (slc4a10) is expressed. In the luminal membrane, the electrogenic Na+:HCO3? cotransporter, NBCe2 (slc4a5) is expressed. The electroneutral Na+:HCO3? cotransporter, NBCn1 (slc4a7), has been located in both membranes. In addition to the bicarbonate transporters, the Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE1 (slc9a1), is located in the luminal membrane of the CPE. Genetically modified mice targeting slc4a2, slc4a5, slc4a7, slc4a10, and slc9a1 have been generated. Deletion of slc4a5, 7 or 10, or slc9a1 has numerous impacts on CP function and structure in these mice. Removal of the transporters affects brain ventricle size (slc4a5 and slc4a10) and intracellular pH regulation (slc4a7 and slc4a10). In some instances, removal of the proteins from the CPE (slc4a5, 7, and 10) causes changes in abundance and localization of non-target transporters known to be involved in pH regulation and CSF secretion. The focus of this review is to combine the insights gathered from these knockout mice to highlight the impact of slc4 gene deletion on the CSF production and intracellular pH regulation resulting from the deletion of slc4a5, 7 and 10, and slc9a1. Furthermore, the review contains a comparison of the described human mutations of these genes to the findings in the knockout studies. Finally, the future perspective of utilizing these proteins as potential targets for the treatment of CSF disorders will be discussed. PMID:24155723

  13. Human cytomegalovirus UL28 and UL29 open reading frames encode a spliced mRNA and stimulate accumulation of immediate-early RNAs.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Dora P; Savaryn, John P; Moorman, Nathaniel J; Shenk, Thomas; Terhune, Scott S

    2009-10-01

    We have identified a spliced transcript that contains sequences from the HCMV UL29 and UL28 open reading frames. It contains amino-terminal UL29 sequences followed by UL28 sequences, and it includes a poly(A) signal derived from the 3'-untranslated region following the UL26 open reading frame. UL29/28 RNA is expressed with early kinetics, and a virus containing a FLAG epitope inserted at the amino terminus of UL29 expressed a tagged approximately 79-kDa protein, pUL29/28, that was detected at 6 h postinfection. The virus also expressed a less-abundant tagged 41-kDa protein, which corresponds in size to a protein that could be produced by translation of an unspliced UL29/28 transcript. Consistent with this prediction, both unspliced and spliced UL29/28 transcript was present in RNA isolated from polysomes. FLAG-tagged protein from the UL29/28 locus accumulated within nuclear viral replication centers during the early phase of infection. Late after infection it was present in the cytoplasm as well, and the protein was present and resistant to proteinase treatment in partially purified preparations of viral particles. Disruption of the UL29/28 locus by mutation resulted in a 10-fold decrease in the levels of DNA replication along with a similar reduction in virus yield. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed an approximately 2-fold decrease in immediate-early gene expression at 4 to 10 h postinfection compared to the wild-type virus, and transient expression of pUL29/28 activated the major immediate-early promoter. Our results argue that the UL29/28 locus contributes to activation of immediate-early gene expression. PMID:19625400

  14. Identification of kakusei, a Nuclear Non-Coding RNA, as an Immediate Early Gene from the Honeybee, and Its Application for Neuroethological Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiya, Taketoshi; Ugajin, Atsushi; Kunieda, Takekazu; Kubo, Takeo

    2012-01-01

    The honeybee is a social insect that exhibits various social behaviors. To elucidate the neural basis of honeybee behavior, we detected neural activity in freely-moving honeybee workers using an immediate early gene (IEG) that is expressed in a neural activity-dependent manner. In European honeybees (Apis mellifera), we identified a novel nuclear non-coding RNA, termed kakusei, as the first insect IEG, and revealed the neural activity pattern in foragers. In addition, we isolated a homologue of kakusei, termed Acks, from the Japanese honeybee (Apis cerana), and detected active neurons in workers fighting with the giant hornet. PMID:23443077

  15. Characterization of a herpes simplex virus type 1 deletion variant (1703) which under-produces Vmw63 during immediate early conditions of infection.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, M C; McLauchlan, J; Marsden, H; Brown, S M

    1994-05-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 deletion variant 1703 apparently fails to synthesize the essential IE2 gene product Vmw63 despite the deletion leaving the gene intact. Sequence analysis revealed that the deletion removes a region to the right of IE2 comprising the 3' end of IE1, UL56 and the 3' part of UL55, stopping 555 bp downstream of the IE2 polyadenylation signal. Further DNA sequencing has shown that there is no secondary mutation in the IE2 gene. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Vmw63 is made at reduced levels compared to that produced by the wild-type virus during immediate early conditions of infection. S1 nuclease protection mapping has revealed that this reduction is also apparent at the level of mRNA synthesis. A direct link between the deletion and the change in mRNA synthesis was provided by the insertion of a deletion-spanning fragment from 1703 into a 17+ genome, which resulted in the recombinant having a 1703-like phenotype. Evidence that down-regulation of IE2 mRNA during immediate early conditions of infection could be due to antisense RNA initiating from the IE1 promoter was obtained by the insertion of a novel transcriptional termination signal between IE1 and IE2 in the variant and the subsequent detection of wild-type levels of IE2 mRNA and protein. PMID:7909833

  16. Object-Place Recognition Learning Triggers Rapid Induction of Plasticity-Related Immediate Early Genes and Synaptic Proteins in the Rat Dentate Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Soul, Jonathan; Penke, Zsuzsa; Kanhema, Tambudzai; Alme, Maria Nordheim; Laroche, Serge; Bramham, Clive R.

    2008-01-01

    Long-term recognition memory requires protein synthesis, but little is known about the coordinate regulation of specific genes. Here, we examined expression of the plasticity-associated immediate early genes (Arc, Zif268, and Narp) in the dentate gyrus following long-term object-place recognition learning in rats. RT-PCR analysis from dentate gyrus tissue collected shortly after training did not reveal learning-specific changes in Arc mRNA expression. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were therefore used to assess possible sparse effects on gene expression. Learning about objects increased the density of granule cells expressing Arc, and to a lesser extent Narp, specifically in the dorsal blade of the dentate gyrus, while Zif268 expression was elevated across both blades. Thus, object-place recognition triggers rapid, blade-specific upregulation of plasticity-associated immediate early genes. Furthermore, Western blot analysis of dentate gyrus homogenates demonstrated concomitant upregulation of three postsynaptic density proteins (Arc, PSD-95, and ?-CaMKII) with key roles in long-term synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. PMID:19190776

  17. Activation of the Epstein-Barr virus DNA polymerase promoter by the BRLF1 immediate-early protein is mediated through USF and E2F.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C; Sista, N D; Pagano, J S

    1996-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA polymerase (pol) is essential for the replication of viral genomes during productive EBV infection. We have previously reported that the EBV DNA pol promoter, which is TATA-less and constitutively inactive, is activated by a genomic clone expressing both immediate-early viral transactivators, BZLF1Z and BRLF1 (R), in EBV-infected lymphoid cells. Here we demonstrate that R alone is sufficient to activate the pol promoter in EBV-negative B cells. Unlike other early promoters to which the R protein binds directly, its effect on the pol promoter does not appear to involve a direct DNA-binding mechanism. Instead, we found that two cellular transcription factors, an upstream stimulatory factor USF, and a member of the E2F family of proteins, bind directly to the pol promoter at positions -795 to -786 and -186 to -170, respectively, regions previously identified as important for activation of the pol promoter. These two sites contribute to or are essential for transactivation of the pol promoter by R in EBV-noninfected B cells. These data suggest that the R immediate-early protein may activate a key early EBV promoter (pol) through both USF and E2F. PMID:8642684

  18. The promoter of the white spot syndrome virus immediate-early gene WSSV108 is activated by the cellular KLF transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wang-Jing; Lo, Chu-Fang; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Lai, Ying-Jang; Chang, Li-Kwan; Chang, Yun-Shiang

    2015-03-01

    A series of deletion and mutation assays of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) immediate-early gene WSSV108 promoter showed that a Krüppel-like factor (KLF) binding site located from -504 to -495 (relative to the transcription start site) is important for the overall level of WSSV108 promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays further showed that overexpressed recombinant Penaeus monodon KLF (rPmKLF) formed a specific protein-DNA complex with the (32)P-labeled KLF binding site of the WSSV108 promoter, and that higher levels of Litopenaeus vannamei KLF (LvKLF) were expressed in WSSV-infected shrimp. A transactivation assay indicated that the WSSV108 promoter was strongly activated by rPmKLF in a dose-dependent manner. Lastly, we found that specific silencing of LvKLF expression in vivo by dsRNA injection dramatically reduced both WSSV108 expression and WSSV replication. We conclude that shrimp KLF is important for WSSV genome replication and gene expression, and that it binds to the WSSV108 promoter to enhance the expression of this immediate-early gene. PMID:25445906

  19. Prenatal diagnosis of Nager syndrome in a 12-week-old fetus with a whole gene deletion of SF3B4 by chromosomal microarray.

    PubMed

    Lund, Ida Charlotte Bay; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Christensen, Rikke; Uldbjerg, Niels; Becher, Naja

    2016-01-01

    Less than one hundred cases of the acrofacial dysostosis, Nager syndrome, have been described. The cardinal features of Nager syndrome are micrognathia, midface retrusion and limb malformations, predominately of the radial ray of upper extremities. Within the past three years haploinsufficiency of SF3B4 has been confirmed as the major cause of Nager syndrome. Different loss-of-function point-mutations in SF3B4 have been found in approximately 2/3 of patients diagnosed with Nager syndrome. Whole gene deletions of SF3B4 have also been suggested to be the cause of Nager syndrome in SF3B4 point mutation negative patients. Only four prenatal cases displaying Nager-like features in the 2nd or 3rd trimester which have been genetically confirmed with SF3B4 point-mutation after birth have been described. We report a case of a 12-week-old fetus with micrognathia, malformed wrists, bilateral club foot and short long bones diagnosed prenatally by chromosomal microarray with a de novo 0.4Mb deletion at chromosome 1q21.2 involving SF3B4. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Nager syndrome caused by a SF3B4 whole gene deletion. The case presented also shows that high-resolution chromosomal microarray in early pregnancy can confirm Nager syndrome caused by SF3B4-deletion prenatally. PMID:26679067

  20. Impact of alg3 gene deletion on growth, development, pigment production, protein secretion, and functions of recombinant Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases in Aspergillus niger

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Ziyu; Aryal, Uma K.; Shukla, Anil K.; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Adney, William S.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Ju, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiao; Baker, Scott E.

    2013-09-25

    ALG3 is a Family 58 glycosyltransferase enzyme involved in early N-linked glycan synthesis. Here, we investigated the effect of the alg3 gene disruption on growth, development, metabolism, and protein secretion in Aspergillus niger. The alg3 gene deletion resulted in a significant reduction of growth on complete (CM) and potato dextrose agar (PDA) media and a substantial reduction of spore production on CM. It also delayed spore germination in the liquid cultures of both CM and PDA media, but led to a significant accumulation of red pigment on both CM and liquid modified minimal medium (MM) supplemented with yeast extract. The relative abundance of 55 proteins of the total 190 proteins identified in the secretome was significantly different as a result of alg3 gene deletion. Comparison of a Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A) heterologously expressed in A. niger parental and ∆alg3 strains showed that the recombinant Cel7A expressed in the mutant background was smaller in size than that from the parental strains. This study suggests that ALG3 is critical for growth and development, pigment production, and protein secretion in A. niger. Functional analysis of recombinant Cel7A with aberrant glycosylation demonstrates the feasibility of this alternative approach to evaluate the role of N-linked glycosylation in glycoprotein secretion and function.

  1. [THE EFFECT OF waaL LIGASE GENES DELETION ON MOTILITY AND STRESS ADAPTATION REACTIONS OF YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA 6471/76].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, J I; Shilina, J V; Pozur, V K; Skurnik, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of current study was to estimate the influence of waaL(OS) and waaL(PS) genes deletion on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis, bacterial motility and stress resistance of bacteria Yersinia enterocolitica 6471/76. Single and double waaL mutants were created by replacing the wild-type alleles in bacterial chromosome for mutant ones. The phenotypes of mutants were visualized by DOC-PAGE gels stained with silver and immunoblot with specific to O-polysaccharide and outer core monoclonal antibodies. Bacterial motility was evaluated by the diameter of the migration zone. Wild type bacteria and mutants were analyzed by bacterial growth curves in a hypertonic medium. Participation of WaaL ligases in resistance to osmotic pressure was found only in case of both ligese genes deletion. Also the YeO3_os_ps mutants showed motility decreasing, which recovered after adding a functionally active gene. Thus, deletion of both waaL ligase genes lead to a drastic reduction in bacterial motility and increase their sensitivity to hypertonic medium that can indirectly characterize biological role of WaaL ligases. PMID:26841489

  2. Label-free luminescent detection of LMP1 gene deletion using an intermolecular G-quadruplex-based switch-on probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Modi; He, Bingyong; Lu, Lihua; Leung, Chung-Hang; Mergny, Jean-Louis; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-08-15

    We have synthesized a series of luminescent iridium(III) complexes and investigated their ability to act as luminescent split G-quadruplex probes. After screening, the iridium(III) complex 1 [Ir(2-phenylquinoline)2(3,4,7,8-tetramethyl-1,10-phenanthroline)]PF6 was validated as a highly-selective G-quadruplex probe and was utilized to construct a label-free intermolecular G-quadruplex-based assay for the selective and sensitive detection of LMP1 gene deletion. This "mix-and-detect" assay is simple and selective, and could detect down to 10 nM of the target gene in aqueous solution with a linear range from 10 to 500 nM. We also investigated the performance of our split G-quadruplex-based sensing platform for LMP1 gene deletion in the presence of cellular debris, demonstrating the robustness of this sensing system in biological samples. Comparative assays were also performed using either organic dyes or labeled oligonucleotides as signal-transducing agents. PMID:25840020

  3. Cellular homeoproteins, SATB1 and CDP, bind to the unique region between the human cytomegalovirus UL127 and major immediate-early genes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Jialing; Klase, Zachary; Gao Xiaoqi; Caldwell, Jeremy S.; Stinski, Mark F.; Kashanchi, Fatah; Chao, S.-H.

    2007-09-15

    An AT-rich region of the human cytomegalovirus (CMV) genome between the UL127 open reading frame and the major immediate-early (MIE) enhancer is referred to as the unique region (UR). It has been shown that the UR represses activation of transcription from the UL127 promoter and functions as a boundary between the divergent UL127 and MIE genes during human CMV infection [Angulo, A., Kerry, D., Huang, H., Borst, E.M., Razinsky, A., Wu, J., Hobom, U., Messerle, M., Ghazal, P., 2000. Identification of a boundary domain adjacent to the potent human cytomegalovirus enhancer that represses transcription of the divergent UL127 promoter. J. Virol. 74 (6), 2826-2839; Lundquist, C.A., Meier, J.L., Stinski, M.F., 1999. A strong negative transcriptional regulatory region between the human cytomegalovirus UL127 gene and the major immediate-early enhancer. J. Virol. 73 (11), 9039-9052]. A putative forkhead box-like (FOX-like) site, AAATCAATATT, was identified in the UR and found to play a key role in repression of the UL127 promoter in recombinant virus-infected cells [Lashmit, P.E., Lundquist, C.A., Meier, J.L., Stinski, M.F., 2004. Cellular repressor inhibits human cytomegalovirus transcription from the UL127 promoter. J. Virol. 78 (10), 5113-5123]. However, the cellular factors which associate with the UR and FOX-like region remain to be determined. We reported previously that pancreatic-duodenal homeobox factor-1 (PDX1) bound to a 45-bp element located within the UR [Chao, S.H., Harada, J.N., Hyndman, F., Gao, X., Nelson, C.G., Chanda, S.K., Caldwell, J.S., 2004. PDX1, a Cellular Homeoprotein, Binds to and Regulates the Activity of Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate Early Promoter. J. Biol. Chem. 279 (16), 16111-16120]. Here we demonstrate that two additional cellular homeoproteins, special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) and CCAAT displacement protein (CDP), bind to the human CMV UR in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, CDP is identified as a FOX-like binding protein and a repressor of the UL127 promoter, while SATB1 has no effect on UL127 expression. Since CDP is known as a transcription repressor and a nuclear matrix-associated region binding protein, CDP may have a role in the regulation of human CMV transcription.

  4. Immediate-early response 5 (IER5) interacts with protein phosphatase 2A and regulates the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase and heat shock factor 1.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Shotaro; Ishita, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Yukio; Sakurai, Hiroshi

    2015-11-30

    Immediate-early response 5 (IER5) is a growth factor-inducible protein with homology to the N-terminus of IER2. Deletion analysis shows that a large region of IER5, including the N-terminal region, is involved in cell growth and stress resistance. The N-terminal region mediates IER5 oligomerization and binding to the B55 regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). IER5 physically interacts with the PP2A target proteins ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K) and heat shock factor 1 (HSF1), and the interactions are essential for the reduced phosphorylation of S6K and HSF1. Our data indicate that oligomeric IER5 regulates PP2A activity and cell growth. PMID:26496226

  5. Intranasal application of vasopressin fails to elicit changes in brain immediate early gene expression, neural activity and behavioral performance of rats

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Mike; Tobin, Vicky A.; Callahan, Michael F.; Papadaki, Eirini; Becker, Axel; Engelmann, Mario; Leng, Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Intranasal administration has been widely used to investigate effects of the neuropeptides vasopressin and oxytocin on human behaviors and neurological disorders, but exactly what happens when these neuropeptides are administered intranasally is far from clear. In particular, it is not clear whether a physiological significant amount of peptide enters the brain to account for the observed effects. Here, we investigated whether intranasal administration of vasopressin and oxytocin to rats induces expression of the immediate-early gene product Fos in brain areas that are sensitive to centrally administered peptide, whether it alters neuronal activity in the way that centrally administered peptide does, and whether it affects behavior in ways expected from studies of centrally administered peptide. We found that, whereas intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of very low doses of vasopressin or oxytocin increased Fos expression in several distinct brain regions, intranasal administration of large doses of the peptides had no significant effect. In contrast to the effects of vasopressin applied topically to the main olfactory bulb, we saw no changes in the electrical activity of olfactory bulb mitral cells after intranasal vasopressin administration. In addition, vasopressin given intranasally had no significant effects on social recognition or short-term recognition memory. Finally, intranasal infusions of vasopressin had no significant effects on the parameters monitored on the elevated plus maze, a rodent model of anxiety. Our data in rats suggest that, after intranasal administration, significant amounts of vasopressin and oxytocin do not reach areas in the brain at levels sufficient to change immediate early gene expression, neural activity or behavior in the ways described for central administration of the peptides. PMID:23656518

  6. The 6-Aminoquinolone WC5 Inhibits Different Functions of the Immediate-Early 2 (IE2) Protein of Human Cytomegalovirus That Are Essential for Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Mercorelli, Beatrice; Luganini, Anna; Muratore, Giulia; Massari, Serena; Terlizzi, Maria Elena; Tabarrini, Oriana

    2014-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate-early 2 (IE2) protein is a multifunctional factor essential for viral replication. IE2 modulates both viral and host gene expression, deregulates cell cycle progression, acts as an immunomodulator, and antagonizes cellular antiviral responses. Based on these facts, IE2 has been proposed as an important target for the development of innovative antiviral approaches. We previously identified the 6-aminoquinolone WC5 as a promising inhibitor of HCMV replication, and here, we report the dissection of its mechanism of action against the viral IE2 protein. Using glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown assays, mutagenesis, cell-based assays, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we demonstrated that WC5 does not interfere with IE2 dimerization, its interaction with TATA-binding protein (TBP), and the expression of a set of cellular genes that are stimulated by IE2. On the contrary, WC5 targets the regulatory activity exerted by IE2 on different responsive viral promoters. Indeed, WC5 blocked the IE2-dependent negative regulation of the major immediate-early promoter by preventing IE2 binding to the crs element. Moreover, WC5 reduced the IE2-dependent transactivation of a series of indicator constructs driven by different portions of the early UL54 gene promoter, and it also inhibited the transactivation of the murine CMV early E1 promoter by the IE3 protein, the murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) IE2 homolog. In conclusion, our results indicate that the overall anti-HCMV activity of WC5 depends on its ability to specifically interfere with the IE2-dependent regulation of viral promoters. Importantly, our results suggest that this mechanism is conserved in murine CMV, thus paving the way for further preclinical evaluation in an animal model. PMID:25155603

  7. In vivo imaging of immediate early gene expression reveals layer-specific memory traces in the mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hong; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Youzhi; Ding, Xinlu; Yang, Yuhao; Guan, Ji-Song

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic processes of formatting long-term memory traces in the cortex are poorly understood. The investigation of these processes requires measurements of task-evoked neuronal activities from large numbers of neurons over many days. Here, we present a two-photon imaging-based system to track event–related neuronal activity in thousands of neurons through the quantitative measurement of EGFP proteins expressed under the control of the EGR1 gene promoter. A recognition algorithm was developed to detect GFP-positive neurons in multiple cortical volumes and thereby to allow the reproducible tracking of 4,000 neurons in each volume for 2 mo. The analysis revealed a context-specific response in sparse layer II neurons. The context-evoked response gradually increased during several days of training and was maintained 1 mo later. The formed traces were specifically activated by the training context and were linearly correlated with the behavioral response. Neuronal assemblies that responded to specific contexts were largely separated, indicating the sparse coding of memory-related traces in the layer II cortical circuit. PMID:24550309

  8. Congenital adrenal hypoplasia, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and glycerol kinase deficiency: importance of laboratory investigations in delineating a contiguous gene deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cole, D E; Clarke, L A; Riddell, D C; Samson, K A; Seltzer, W K; Salisbury, S

    1994-11-01

    We describe an infant with adrenal insufficiency who was subsequently diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and hyperglycerolemia due to glycerol kinase deficiency. Karyotyping showed a deletion on the short arm of the X chromosome (p21.1 to p22.1). Molecular mapping revealed that the deletion extended from the 3' end of the DMD gene to a site telomeric to the loci for X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia and glycerol kinase deficiency. These results are diagnostic for an Xp21 contiguous gene deletion syndrome--so named because the deletion manifests as a distinctive cluster of otherwise unrelated single-gene disorders in the same individual. The Xp21 syndrome should be considered in any infant with adrenal insufficiency. Measurement of serum triglycerides (without glycerol blanking) and creatine kinase activity are simple screening tests that may facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate genetic counseling about risks of recurrence in subsequent offspring. PMID:7955386

  9. Regulated transcription of the immediate-early gene Zif268: mechanisms and gene dosage-dependent function in synaptic plasticity and memory formation.

    PubMed

    Bozon, Bruno; Davis, Sabrina; Laroche, Serge

    2002-01-01

    The immediate-early gene Zif268 is a member of the Egr family of inducible transcription factors. Data from gene expression studies have suggested that this gene may play a critical role in initial triggering of the genetic machinery that has long been considered a necessary mechanism for maintenance of the later phases of LTP and also for the consolidation or stabilization of long-lasting memories. Until recently, however, the data supporting this assumption have been based primarily on circumstantial evidence, with no direct evidence to suggest that Zif268 is required for long-lasting synaptic plasticity and memory. In this report, we review our own data using Zif268 mutant mice; we show that although the early phase of dentate gyrus LTP is normal in these mice, the later phases are not present, and the ability of the mice to maintain learned information over a 24-h period is deficient. In addition, we present new information showing a task-dependent gene dosage effect in Zif268 heterozygous mice. We show that spatial learning is particularly sensitive to reduced levels of Zif268, as one-half of the complement of Zif268 in heterozygous mice is insufficient to maintain spatial long-term memories. PMID:12440572

  10. Voxel-based analysis of the immediate early gene, c-jun, in the honey bee brain after a sucrose stimulus.

    PubMed

    McNeill, M S; Robinson, G E

    2015-06-01

    Immediate early genes (IEGs) have served as useful markers of brain neuronal activity in mammals, and more recently in insects. The mammalian canonical IEG, c-jun, is part of regulatory pathways conserved in insects and has been shown to be responsive to alarm pheromone in honey bees. We tested whether c-jun was responsive in honey bees to another behaviourally relevant stimulus, sucrose, in order to further identify the brain regions involved in sucrose processing. To identify responsive regions, we developed a new method of voxel-based analysis of c-jun mRNA expression. We found that c-jun is expressed in somata throughout the brain. It was rapidly induced in response to sucrose stimuli, and it responded in somata near the antennal and mechanosensory motor centre, mushroom body calices and lateral protocerebrum, which are known to be involved in sucrose processing. c-jun also responded to sucrose in somata near the lateral suboesophageal ganglion, dorsal optic lobe, ventral optic lobe and dorsal posterior protocerebrum, which had not been previously identified by other methods. These results demonstrate the utility of voxel-based analysis of mRNA expression in the insect brain. PMID:25773289

  11. Immediate-early protein of equid herpesvirus type 1 as a target for cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in the Thoroughbred horse.

    PubMed

    Kydd, Julia H; Case, Ruth; Minke, Julius; Audonnet, Jean-Christophe; Wagner, Bettina; Antczak, Douglas F

    2014-08-01

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) are associated with protective immunity against disease caused by equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1). However, the EHV-1 target proteins for CTLs are poorly defined. This limits the development of vaccine candidates designed to stimulate strong CTL immunity. Here, classical CTL assays using lymphocytes from horses of three defined MHC class I types that experienced natural infection with EHV-1 and a modified vaccinia virus construct containing an EHV-1 gene encoding the immediate-early (IE) protein are reported. Horses homozygous for the equine leukocyte antigen (ELA)-A2 haplotype, but not the ELA-A5 haplotype, produced MHC-restricted CTL responses against the IE protein. Previously, horses homozygous for the ELA-A3 haplotype also mounted CTL responses against the IE protein. Both haplotypes are common in major horse breeds, including the Thoroughbred. Thus, the IE protein is an attractive candidate molecule for future studies of T-cell immunity to EHV-1 in the horse. PMID:24836672

  12. Full trans-activation mediated by the immediate-early protein of equine herpesvirus 1 requires a consensus TATA box, but not its cognate binding sequence.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seong K; Shakya, Akhalesh K; O'Callaghan, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    The immediate-early protein (IEP) of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) has extensive homology to the IEP of alphaherpesviruses and possesses domains essential for trans-activation, including an acidic trans-activation domain (TAD) and binding domains for DNA, TFIIB, and TBP. Our data showed that the IEP directly interacted with transcription factor TFIIA, which is known to stabilize the binding of TBP and TFIID to the TATA box of core promoters. When the TATA box of the EICP0 promoter was mutated to a nonfunctional TATA box, IEP-mediated trans-activation was reduced from 22-fold to 7-fold. The IEP trans-activated the viral promoters in a TATA motif-dependent manner. Our previous data showed that the IEP is able to repress its own promoter when the IEP-binding sequence (IEBS) is located within 26-bp from the TATA box. When the IEBS was located at 100bp upstream of the TATA box, IEP-mediated trans-activation was very similar to that of the minimal IE(nt -89 to +73) promoter lacking the IEBS. As the distance from the IEBS to the TATA box decreased, IEP-mediated trans-activation progressively decreased, indicating that the IEBS located within 100bp from the TATA box sequence functions as a distance-dependent repressive element. These results indicated that IEP-mediated full trans-activation requires a consensus TATA box of core promoters, but not its binding to the cognate sequence (IEBS). PMID:26541315

  13. Roles of mechano-sensitive ion channels, cytoskeleton, and contractile activity in stretch-induced immediate-early gene expression and hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sadoshima, J; Takahashi, T; Jahn, L; Izumo, S

    1992-01-01

    Mechanical loading of cardiac and skeletal muscles in vivo and in vitro causes rapid activation of a number of immediate-early (IE) genes and hypertrophy of muscle cells. However, little is known as to how muscle cells sense mechanical load and transduce it into intracellular signals of gene regulation. We examined roles of putative cellular mechanotransducers, mechanosensitive ion channels, the cytoskeleton, and contractile activity in stretch-induced hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes grown on a deformable silicone sheet. Using the patch-clamp technique, we found a single class of stretch-activated cation channel that was completely blocked by gadolinium (Gd3+). Inhibition of this channel by Gd3+ did not affect either the stretch-induced expression of IE genes or the increase in protein synthesis. Neither disruption of microtubules with colchicine nor that of actin microfilaments by cytochalasin D prevented the stretch-induced IE gene expression and increase in protein synthesis. Arresting contractile activity of myocytes by high K+, tetrodotoxin, or Ba2+ did not affect the stretch-induced IE gene expression. Tetrodotoxin-arrested myocytes could increase protein synthesis in response to stretch. These results suggest that Gd(3+)-sensitive ion channels, microtubules, microfilaments, and contractile activity may not be necessary for transduction of mechanical stretch into the IE gene expression and hypertrophy. The stimulus of membrane stretch may be transmitted to the cell nucleus through some mechanisms other than electrical or direct mechanical transduction in cardiac myocytes. Images PMID:1384064

  14. CAMKII-conditional deletion of histone deacetylase 2 potentiates acute methamphetamine-induced expression of immediate early genes in the mouse nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Oscar V.; McCoy, Michael T.; Ladenheim, Bruce; Jayanthi, Subramaniam; Brannock, Christie; Tulloch, Ingrid; Krasnova, Irina N.; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) produces increases in the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs) and of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the rat nucleus accumbens (NAc). Here, we tested whether HDAC2 deletion influenced the effects of METH on IEG expression in the NAc. Microarray analyses showed no baseline differences in IEG expression between wild-type (WT) and HDAC2 knockout (KO) mice. Quantitative-PCR analysis shows that an acute METH injection produced time-dependent increases in mRNA levels of several IEGs in both genotypes. Interestingly, HDAC2KO mice displayed greater METH-induced increases in Egr1 and Egr2 mRNA levels measured at one hour post-injection. The levels of Fosb, Fra2, Egr1, and Egr3 mRNAs stayed elevated in the HDAC2KO mice 2 hours after the METH injection whereas these mRNAs had normalized in the WT mice. In WT mice, METH caused increased HDAC2 recruitment to the promoters some IEGs at 2 hours post injection. METH-induced prolonged increases in Fosb, Fra2, Egr1, and Egr3 mRNA levels in HDAC2KO mice were associated with increased enrichment of phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) on the promoters of these genes. Based on our observations, we hypothesize that HDAC2 may regulate the expression of these genes, in part, by prolonging the actions of pCREB in the mouse NAc. PMID:26300473

  15. Noncanonical expression of a murine cytomegalovirus early protein CD8 T-cell epitope as an immediate early epitope based on transcription from an upstream gene.

    PubMed

    Fink, Annette; Bttner, Julia K; Thomas, Doris; Holtappels, Rafaela; Reddehase, Matthias J; Lemmermann, Niels A W

    2014-02-01

    Viral CD8 T-cell epitopes, represented by viral peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class-I (MHC-I) glycoproteins, are often identified by "reverse immunology", a strategy not requiring biochemical and structural knowledge of the actual viral protein from which they are derived by antigen processing. Instead, bioinformatic algorithms predicting the probability of C-terminal cleavage in the proteasome, as well as binding affinity to the presenting MHC-I molecules, are applied to amino acid sequences deduced from predicted open reading frames (ORFs) based on the genomic sequence. If the protein corresponding to an antigenic ORF is known, it is usually inferred that the kinetic class of the protein also defines the phase in the viral replicative cycle during which the respective antigenic peptide is presented for recognition by CD8 T cells. We have previously identified a nonapeptide from the predicted ORFm164 of murine cytomegalovirus that is presented by the MHC-I allomorph H-2 Dd and that is immunodominant in BALB/c (H-2d haplotype) mice. Surprisingly, although the ORFm164 protein gp36.5 is expressed as an Early (E) phase protein, the m164 epitope is presented already during the Immediate Early (IE) phase, based on the expression of an upstream mRNA starting within ORFm167 and encompassing ORFm164. PMID:24535000

  16. Hippocampus and medial striatum dissociation during goal navigation by geometry or features in the domestic chick: An immediate early gene study.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Uwe; Pecchia, Tommaso; Bingman, Verner Peter; Flore, Michele; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    We employed a standard reference memory task to study the involvement of the hippocampal formation (HF) of domestic chicks that used the boundary geometry of a test environment to orient to and locate a reward. Using the immediate early gene product c-Fos as a neuronal activity marker, we found enhanced HF activation in chicks that learned to locate rewarded corners using the shape of a rectangular arena compared to chicks trained to solve the task by discriminating local features in a square-shaped arena. We also analyzed neuronal activity in the medial part of the medial striatum (mMSt). Surprisingly, in mMSt we observed a reverse pattern, with higher activity in the chicks that were trained to locate the goal by local features. Our results identify two seemingly parallel, memory systems in chicks, with HF central to the processing of spatial-geometrical information and mMSt important in supporting local feature discrimination. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26135386

  17. Curcumin inhibits herpes simplex virus immediate-early gene expression by a mechanism independent of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Kutluay, Sebla B; Doroghazi, James; Roemer, Martha E; Triezenberg, Steven J

    2008-04-10

    Curcumin, a phenolic compound from the curry spice turmeric, exhibits a wide range of activities in eukaryotic cells, including antiviral effects that are at present incompletely characterized. Curcumin is known to inhibit the histone acetyltransferase activity of the transcriptional coactivator proteins p300 and CBP, which are recruited to the immediate early (IE) gene promoters of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) by the viral transactivator protein VP16. We tested the hypothesis that curcumin, by inhibiting these coactivators, would block viral infection and gene expression. In cell culture assays, curcumin significantly decreased HSV-1 infectivity and IE gene expression. Entry of viral DNA to the host cell nucleus and binding of VP16 to IE gene promoters was not affected by curcumin, but recruitment of RNA polymerase II to those promoters was significantly diminished. However, these effects were observed using lower curcumin concentrations than those required to substantially inhibit global H3 acetylation. No changes were observed in histone H3 occupancy or acetylation at viral IE gene promoters. Furthermore, p300 and CBP recruitment to IE gene promoters was not affected by the presence of curcumin. Finally, disruption of p300 expression using a short hairpin RNA did not affect viral IE gene expression. These results suggest that curcumin affects VP16-mediated recruitment of RNA polymerase II to IE gene promoters by a mechanism independent of p300/CBP histone acetyltransferase activity. PMID:18191976

  18. ATM regulates NF-κB-dependent immediate-early genes via RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation coupled to CDK9 promoter recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ling; Choudhary, Sanjeev; Zhao, Yingxin; Edeh, Chukwudi B; Yang, Chunying; Boldogh, Istvan; Brasier, Allan R.

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-like kinase family, is a master regulator of the double strand DNA break-repair pathway after genotoxic stress. Here, we found ATM serves as an essential regulator of TNF-induced NF-kB pathway. We observed that TNF exposure of cells rapidly induced DNA double strand breaks and activates ATM. TNF-induced ROS promote nuclear IKKγ association with ubiquitin and its complex formation with ATM for nuclear export. Activated cytoplasmic ATM is involved in the selective recruitment of the E3-ubiquitin ligase β-TrCP to phospho-IκBα proteosomal degradation. Importantly, ATM binds and activates the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc), ribosmal S6 kinase that controls RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation. In ATM knockdown cells, TNF-induced RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation is significantly decreased. We further observed decreased binding and recruitment of the transcriptional elongation complex containing cyclin dependent kinase-9 (CDK9; a kinase necessary for triggering transcriptional elongation) to promoters of NF-κB-dependent immediate-early cytokine genes, in ATM knockdown cells. We conclude that ATM is a nuclear damage-response signal modulator of TNF-induced NF-κB activation that plays a key scaffolding role in IκBα degradation and RelA Ser 276 phosphorylation. Our study provides a mechanistic explanation of decreased innate immune response associated with A-T mutation. PMID:24957606

  19. Transcriptional activation and repression by Fos are independent functions: the C terminus represses immediate-early gene expression via CArG elements.

    PubMed Central

    Gius, D; Cao, X M; Rauscher, F J; Cohen, D R; Curran, T; Sukhatme, V P

    1990-01-01

    The Fos-Jun complex has been shown to activate transcription through the regulatory element known as the AP-1 binding site. We show that Fos down regulates several immediate-early genes (c-fos, Egr-1, and Egr-2) after mitogenic stimulation. Specifically, we demonstrate that the target for this repression is a sequence of the form CC(A/T)6GG, also known as a CArG box. Whereas Fos bound to the AP-1 site through a domain rich in basic amino acids and associated with Jun via a leucine zipper interaction, mutant Fos proteins lacking these structures were still capable of causing repression. Furthermore, Jun neither enhanced nor inhibited down regulation by Fos. Critical residues required for repression are located within the C-terminal 27 amino acids of c-Fos, since v-Fos and C-terminal truncations of c-Fos did not down regulate. In addition, transfer of 180 c-Fos C-terminal amino acids to Jun conferred upon it the ability to repress. Finally, Fra-1, a Fos-related protein which has striking similarity to Fos in its C-terminal 40 amino acids, also down regulated Egr-1 expression. Thus, Fos is a transcriptional regulator that can activate or repress gene expression by way of two separate functional domains that act on distinct regulatory elements. Images PMID:2115122

  20. Differential effects of vocalization type, singer and listener on ZENK immediate early gene response in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus).

    PubMed

    Avey, M T; Kanyo, R A; Irwin, E L; Sturdy, C B

    2008-03-17

    Here we examined immediate early gene (ZENK) induction to vocalizations in the ascending auditory pathway of black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) to assess the impact that the sex of the producer and perceiver has on ZENK induction. We manipulated the playback by both the vocal type (song/call) and sex of producer (male/female), and then presented these stimuli classes to either male or female black-capped chickadees. Neural response to the stimulus was quantified by the amount of protein of the IEG ZENK (also known as zif-268, egr-1, ngf-Ia and krox-24) in the caudal medial nidopallium (NCM) and caudomedial mesopallium (CMM). Overall, there was more ZENK induction in CMM and the dorsal parts of the caudal medial nidopallium (NCMd) than in the ventral parts of the caudal medial nidopallium (NCMv) and males had more ZENK induction than females. CMM had the most complex responding of ZENK induction to stimuli such that vocalization type, sex of producer, and sex of perceiver all affected ZENK induction. The silence controls had the least ZENK induction compared to any other group. PMID:18077008

  1. Glucocorticoids facilitate the transcription from the human cytomegalovirus major immediate early promoter in glucocorticoid receptor- and nuclear factor-I-like protein-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Inoue-Toyoda, Maki; Kato, Kohsuke; Nagata, Kyosuke; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-02-27

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a common and usually asymptomatic virus agent in healthy individuals. Initiation of HCMV productive infection depends on expression of the major immediate early (MIE) genes. The transcription of HCMV MIE genes is regulated by a diverse set of transcription factors. It was previously reported that productive HCMV infection is triggered probably by elevation of the plasma hydroxycorticoid level. However, it is poorly understood whether the transcription of MIE genes is directly regulated by glucocorticoid. Here, we found that the dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid, facilitates the transcription of HCMV MIE genes through the MIE promoter and enhancer in a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-dependent manner. By competitive EMSA and reporter assays, we revealed that an NF-I like protein is involved in DEX-mediated transcriptional activation of the MIE promoter. Thus, this study supports a notion that the increased level of hydroxycorticoid in the third trimester of pregnancy reactivates HCMV virus production from the latent state. - Highlights: • DEX facilitates the transcription from the HCMV MIE promoter. • GR is involved in DEX-dependent transcription from the HCMV MIE promoter. • A 17 bp repeat is responsible for the HCMV MIE promoter activation by DEX. • An NF-I-like protein is involved in the HCMV MIE promoter activation by DEX.

  2. A discrete cis element in the human immunodeficiency virus long terminal repeat mediates synergistic trans activation by cytomegalovirus immediate-early proteins.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, P; Young, J; Giulietti, E; DeMattei, C; Garcia, J; Gaynor, R; Stenberg, R M; Nelson, J A

    1991-12-01

    The major immediate-early (IE) promoter of human cytomegalovirus directs the expression of several differentially spliced and polyadenylated mRNAs that encode isoformic proteins with apparent molecular masses of 55, 72, and 86 kDa. All of these proteins are potent transcriptional regulatory proteins. We are interested in the collateral interactions between human cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the context of dual infection of a cell. The roles of the specific IE protein isoforms and their respective response elements involved in trans activation of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) are not known. Here we present evidence that major IE proteins IE86, IE72, and IE55 are capable of trans-activating the HIV LTR in a T-cell line, HUT-78. The IE55 isoform noncooperatively stimulates the HIV LTR in the presence of either isoform IE72 or IE86. Interactions between isoforms IE72 and IE86, however, result in strong synergistic activation of the LTR. Our results suggest that a specific 155-amino-acid protein domain that is unique for the IE86 protein participates in this synergic interaction. Point mutational analysis of the LTR identified a distinct cis-acting target site, located between nucleotide positions -174 and -163, that mediates exclusively synergistic trans activation by the IE72 and IE86 proteins. Finally, this study underscores the role of a cellular intermediate(s) for communicating the synergic interactions between two IE trans activators. PMID:1682509

  3. Enhancement of RNA polymerase II initiation complexes by a novel DNA control domain downstream from the cap site of the cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoter.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, P; Nelson, J A

    1991-05-01

    The major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) of human cytomegalovirus is a remarkably strong RNA polymerase II transcription control unit. We have identified and characterized a novel regulatory domain associated with MIEP downstream from the initiation site of transcription. The downstream regulatory region was first identified by analyzing a series of mutations in the 5' untranslated leader exon. This regulatory domain was shown to enhance the number of functional initiation complexes without significantly altering the apparent elongation rate by RNA polymerase II transcription. In addition, run-off in vitro transcription and DNA-binding experiments identified two distinct downstream elements that specify the interaction of cellular transcription factors. One of these elements contains a reiterated sequence motif, present twice within the leader exon. The second element is an 18-bp sequence located at approximately nucleotide position +33 that is conserved between strains of cytomegalovirus from different species. On the basis of two criteria, an oligonucleotide competition assay and oligomerization upstream of the promoter, the binding of factors to the conserved box was shown to be critical for mediating the level of transcription from MIEP. Two discrete cellular nuclear proteins, designated LTF A and B (for leader transcription factor A and B binding factors), were found to specifically recognize the conserved element. This study of promoter-proximal elements within transcribed sequences demonstrates the recognition of the control domain at the DNA level that functions to increase the number of committed RNA polymerase II transcription complexes. PMID:1850012

  4. Activity-dependent expression of miR-132 regulates immediate-early gene induction during olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx.

    PubMed

    Mukilan, Murugan; Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Sudhakar, Sivasubramaniam; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2015-04-01

    The activity-dependent expression of immediate-early genes (IEGs) and microRNA (miR)-132 has been implicated in synaptic plasticity and the formation of long-term memory (LTM). In the present study, we show that olfactory training induces the expression of IEGs (EGR-1, C-fos, C-jun) and miR-132 at similar time scale in olfactory bulb (OB) of Cynopterus sphinx. We examined the role of miR-132 in the OB using antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (AS-ODN) and demonstrated that a local infusion of AS-ODN in the OB 2h prior to training impaired olfactory memory formation in C. sphinx. However, the infusion of AS-ODN post-training did not cause a deficit in memory formation. Furthermore, the inhibition of miR-132 reduced the olfactory training-induced expression of IEGs and post synaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) in the OB. Additionally, we show that miR-132 regulates the activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase-II (CaMKII) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), possibly through miR-148a. These data suggest that olfactory training induces the expression of miR-132 and IEGs, which in turn activates post-synaptic proteins that regulate olfactory memory formation. PMID:25725166

  5. Vasopressin up-regulates the expression of growth-related immediate-early genes via two distinct EGF receptor transactivation pathways.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Lida Q; Reyes, Carlos E; Sarmiento, Jos M; Villanueva, Carolina I; Figueroa, Carlos D; Navarro, Javier; Gonzlez, Carlos B

    2008-09-01

    Activation of V(1a) receptor triggers the expression of growth-related immediate-early genes (IEGs), including c-Fos and Egr-1. We found that pre-treatment of rat vascular smooth muscle A-10 cell line with the EGF receptor inhibitor AG1478 or the over-expression of an EGFR dominant negative mutant (HEBCD533) blocked the vasopressin-induced expression of IEGs, suggesting that activation of these early genes mediated by V(1a) receptor is via transactivation of the EGF receptor. Importantly, the inhibition of the metalloproteinases, which catalyzed the shedding of the EGF receptor agonist HB-EGF, selectively blocked the vasopressin-induced expression c-Fos. On the other hand, the inhibition of c-Src selectively blocked the vasopressin-induced expression of Egr-1. Interestingly, in contrast to the expression of c-Fos, the expression of Egr-1 was mediated via the Ras/MEK/MAPK-dependent signalling pathway. Vasopressin-triggered expression of both genes required the release of intracellular calcium, activation of PKC and beta-arrestin 2. These findings demonstrated that vasopressin up-regulated the expression of c-Fos and Erg-1 via transactivation of two distinct EGF receptor-dependent signalling pathways. PMID:18571897

  6. Seven gene deletions in seven days: Fast generation of Escherichia coli strains tolerant to acetate and osmotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Sheila I.; Lennen, Rebecca M.; Herrgård, Markus J.; Nielsen, Alex T.

    2015-01-01

    Generation of multiple genomic alterations is currently a time consuming process. Here, a method was established that enables highly efficient and simultaneous deletion of multiple genes in Escherichia coli. A temperature sensitive plasmid containing arabinose inducible lambda Red recombineering genes and a rhamnose inducible flippase recombinase was constructed to facilitate fast marker-free deletions. To further speed up the procedure, we integrated the arabinose inducible lambda Red recombineering genes and the rhamnose inducible FLP into the genome of E. coli K-12 MG1655. This system enables growth at 37 °C, thereby facilitating removal of integrated antibiotic cassettes and deletion of additional genes in the same day. Phosphorothioated primers were demonstrated to enable simultaneous deletions during one round of electroporation. Utilizing these methods, we constructed strains in which four to seven genes were deleted in E. coli W and E. coli K-12. The growth rate of an E. coli K-12 quintuple deletion strain was significantly improved in the presence of high concentrations of acetate and NaCl. In conclusion, we have generated a method that enables efficient and simultaneous deletion of multiple genes in several E. coli variants. The method enables deletion of up to seven genes in as little as seven days. PMID:26643270

  7. Prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol alters social behavior in adult rats: Relationship to structural plasticity and immediate early gene expression in frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Derek A.; Akers, Katherine G.; Rice, James P.; Johnson, Travis E.; Candelaria-Cook, Felicha T.; Maes, Levi I.; Rosenberg, Martina; Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Savage, Daniel D.

    2009-01-01

    The goals of the present study were to characterize the effects of prenatal exposure to moderate levels of ethanol on adult social behavior, and to evaluate fetal-ethanol-related effects on dendritic morphology, structural plasticity and activity-related immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the agranular insular (AID) and prelimbic (Cg3) regions of frontal cortex. Baseline fetal-ethanol-related alterations in social behavior were limited to reductions in social investigation in males. Repeated experience with novel cage-mates resulted in comparable increases in wrestling and social investigation among saccharin- and ethanol-exposed females, whereas social behavioral effects among males were more evident in ethanol-exposed animals. Male ethanol-exposed rats also displayed profound increases in wrestling when social interaction was motivated by 24 hours of isolation. Baseline decreases in dendritic length and spine density in AID were observed in ethanol-exposed rats that were always housed with the same cage-mate. Modest experience-related decreases in dendritic length and spine density in AID were observed in saccharin-exposed rats housed with various cage-mates. In contrast, fetal-ethanol-exposed rats displayed experience-related increases in dendritic length in AID, and no experience-related changes in spine density. The only effect observed in Cg3 was a baseline increase in basilar dendritic length among male ethanol-exposed rats. Robust increases in activity-related IEG expression in AID (c-fos and Arc) and Cg3 (c-fos) were observed following social interaction in saccharin-exposed rats, however, activity-related increases in IEG expression were not observed in fetal-ethanol-exposed rats in either region. The results indicate that deficits in social behavior are among the long-lasting behavioral consequences of moderate ethanol exposure during brain development, and implicate AID, and to a lesser degree Cg3, in fetal-ethanol-related social behavior abnormalities. PMID:19852984

  8. Chronic co-administration of nicotine and methamphetamine causes differential expression of immediate early genes in the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens of rats.

    PubMed

    Saint-Preux, F; Bores, L R; Tulloch, I; Ladenheim, B; Kim, R; Thanos, P K; Volkow, N D; Cadet, J L

    2013-07-23

    Nicotine and methamphetamine (METH) cause addiction by triggering neuroplastic changes in brain reward pathways though they each engage distinct molecular targets (nicotine receptors and dopamine transporters respectively). Addiction to both drugs is very prevalent, with the vast majority of METH users also being smokers of cigarettes. This co-morbid occurrence thus raised questions about potential synergistic rewarding effects of the drugs. However, few studies have investigated the chronic neurobiological changes associated with co-morbid nicotine and METH addiction. Here we investigated the effects of these two drugs alone and in combination on the expression of several immediate early genes (IEGs) that are sensitive to drug exposures. Chronic exposure to either nicotine or METH caused significant decreases in the expression of fosb, fra1, and fra2 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) but not in the dorsal striatum whereas the drug combination increased fra2 expression in both structures. Except for junB mRNA levels that were decreased by the three drug treatments in the NAc, there were no significant changes in the Jun family members. Of the Egr family members, NAc egr2 expression was decreased after nicotine and the drug combination whereas NAc egr3 was decreased after METH and the drug combination. The drug combination also increased striatal egr3 expression. The Nr4a family member, nr4a2/nurr1, showed increased striatal expression after all three drug treatments, while striatal nr4a3/nor-1 expression was increased by the drug combination whereas NAc nr4a1/nurr77 was decreased by nicotine and the drug combination. These observations suggest that, when given in combination, the two drugs exert distinct effects on the expression of IEGs in dopaminergic projection areas from those elicited by each drug alone. The significance of these changes in IEG expression and in other molecular markers in fostering co-morbid METH and nicotine abuse needs to be further evaluated. PMID:23562942

  9. The time course of systems consolidation of spatial memory from recent to remote retention: A comparison of the Immediate Early Genes Zif268, c-Fos and Arc.

    PubMed

    Barry, Daniel N; Coogan, Andrew N; Commins, Sean

    2016-02-01

    Systems consolidation is a process involving the stabilisation of memory traces in the neocortex over time. The medial prefrontal cortex becomes increasingly important during the retrieval of older memories, however the timescale of its involvement is unclear, and the contribution of other neocortical brain regions to remote memory have received little attention. The Immediate Early Genes (IEGs) Zif268, c-Fos and Arc have been utilised as markers of neural activity during spatial memory retrieval, however the lack of a direct comparison between them hinders the interpretation of results. To address these questions, we examined the expression of Zif268, Arc and c-Fos protein in the medial prefrontal cortex, as well as the hippocampus, and the entorhinal, perirhinal, retrosplenial and parietal cortices of male Wistar rats following a probe trial of the Morris water maze either one day, seven days, 14days or 30days after acquisition. Activity of the medial prefrontal cortex during retrieval, as measured by all three IEGs, increased in correspondence with the age of the memory, reaching significance between 14 and 30days. Similar increases in c-Fos and Arc were observed over the course of consolidation in other neocortical and parahippocampal areas, however this pattern was not observed with Zif268. Activity of the hippocampus remained largely unchanged across retention intervals. These findings suggest that systems consolidation of spatial memory takes at least two weeks, are consistent with an ongoing role for the hippocampus in the retrieval of spatial memory, and suggest that c-Fos and Arc may be a more sensitive measure of neural activity in response to behavioural tasks than Zif268. PMID:26748021

  10. RNA Interference-Mediated Targeting of Human Cytomegalovirus Immediate-Early or Early Gene Products Inhibits Viral Replication with Differential Effects on Cellular Functions

    PubMed Central

    E, Xiaofei; Stadler, Bradford M.; Debatis, Michelle; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2012-01-01

    Viral drug toxicity, resistance, and an increasing immunosuppressed population warrant continued research into new avenues for limiting diseases associated with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In this study, a small interfering RNA (siRNA), siX3, was designed to target coding sequences within shared exon 3 of UL123 and UL122 transcripts encoding IE1 and IE2 immediate-early proteins of HCMV. Pretreatment of cells with siX3 reduced the levels of viral protein expression, DNA replication, and progeny virus production compared to control siRNA. Two siRNAs against UL54 and overlapping transcripts (UL55-57) were compared to siX3 in HCMV infection and were also found to be effective at inhibiting HCMV replication. Further investigation into the effects of the siRNAs on viral replication showed that pretreatment with each of the siRNAs resulted in an inhibition in the formation of mature replication compartments. The ability of these siRNAs to prevent or reduce certain cytopathic effects associated with HCMV infection was also examined. Infected cells pretreated with siX3, but not siUL54, retained promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein in cellular PML bodies, an essential component of this host intrinsic antiviral defense. DNA damage response proteins, which are localized in nuclear viral replication compartments, were reduced in the siX3- and siUL54-treated cells. siX3, but not siUL54, prevented DNA damage response signaling early after infection. Therapeutic efficacy was demonstrated by treating cells with siRNAs after HCMV replication had commenced. Together, these findings suggest that siRNAs targeting exon 3 of the major IE genes or the UL54-57 transcripts be further studied for their potential development into anti-HCMV therapeutics. PMID:22438545

  11. Repression of gene expression upon infection of cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 mutants impaired for immediate-early protein synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Preston, C M; Nicholl, M J

    1997-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) mutants defective in immediate-early (IE) gene expression do not readily enter productive replication after infection of tissue culture cells. Instead, their genomes are retained in a quiescent, nonreplicating state in which the production of viral gene products cannot be detected. To investigate the block to virus replication, we used the HSV-1 triple mutant in1820K, which, under appropriate conditions, is effectively devoid of the transactivators VP16 (a virion protein), ICP0, and ICP4 (both IE proteins). Promoters for the HSV-1 IE ICP0 gene or the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) major IE gene, cloned upstream of the Escherichia coli lacZ coding sequences, were introduced into the in1820K genome. The regulation of these promoters and of the endogenous HSV-1 IE promoters was investigated upon conversion of the virus to a quiescent state. Within 24 h of infection, the ICP0 promoter became much less sensitive to transactivation by VP16 whereas the same element, when used to transform Vero cells, retained its responsiveness. The HCMV IE promoter, which is not activated by VP16, also became less sensitive to the HCMV functional homolog of VP16. Both elements remained available for transactivation by HSV-1 IE proteins at 24 h postinfection, showing that the in1820K genome was not irreversibly inactivated. The promoters controlling the HSV-1 ICP4, ICP22, and ICP27 genes also became essentially unresponsive to transactivation by VP16. The ICP0 promoter was induced when hexamethylene bisacetamide was added to cultures at the time of infection, but the response to this agent was also lost by 24 h after infection. Therefore, promoter elements within the HSV-1 genome are actively repressed in the absence of IE gene expression, and repression is not restricted specifically to HSV-1 IE promoters. PMID:9311867

  12. BZLF1, an Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early protein, induces p65 nuclear translocation while inhibiting p65 transcriptional function

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Thomas E.; Kenney, Shannon C. . E-mail: shann@med.unc.edu

    2004-10-25

    We have previously demonstrated that the Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early BZLF1 protein interacts with, and is inhibited by, the NF-{kappa}B family member p65. However, the effects of BZLF1 on NF-{kappa}B activity have not been intensively studied. Here we show that BZLF1 inhibits p65-dependent gene expression. BZLF1 inhibited the ability of IL-1, as well as transfected p65, to activate the expression of two different NF-{kappa}B-responsive genes, ICAM-1 and I{kappa}B-{alpha}. BZLF1 also reduced the constitutive level of I{kappa}B-{alpha} protein in HeLa and A549 cells, and increased the amount of nuclear NF-{kappa}B to a similar extent as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) treatment. In spite of this BZLF1-associated increase in the nuclear form of NF-{kappa}B, BZLF1 did not induce binding of NF-{kappa}B to NF-{kappa}B responsive promoters (as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay) in vivo, although TNF-{alpha} treatment induced NF-{kappa}B binding as expected. Overexpression of p65 dramatically inhibited the lytic replication cycle of EBV in 293-EBV cells, confirming that NF-{kappa}B also inhibits BZLF1 transcriptional function. Our results are consistent with a model in which BZLF1 inhibits the transcriptional function of p65, resulting in decreased transcription of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, decreased expression of I{kappa}B-{alpha} protein, and subsequent translocation of NF-{kappa}B to the nucleus. This nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B may promote viral latency by negatively regulating BZLF1 transcriptional activity. In situations where p65 activity is limiting in comparison to BZLF1, the ability of BZLF1 to inhibit p65 transcriptional function may protect the virus from the host immune system during the lytic form of infection.

  13. Structural Characterization of Interaction between Human Ubiquitin-specific Protease 7 and Immediate-Early Protein ICP0 of Herpes Simplex Virus-1.

    PubMed

    Pozhidaeva, Alexandra K; Mohni, Kareem N; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Weller, Sandra K; Korzhnev, Dmitry M; Bezsonova, Irina

    2015-09-18

    Human ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) is a deubiquitinating enzyme that prevents protein degradation by removing polyubiquitin chains from its substrates. It regulates the stability of a number of human transcription factors and tumor suppressors and plays a critical role in the development of several types of cancer, including prostate and small cell lung cancer. In addition, human USP7 is targeted by several viruses of the Herpesviridae family and is required for effective herpesvirus infection. The USP7 C-terminal region (C-USP7) contains five ubiquitin-like domains (UBL1-5) that interact with several USP7 substrates. Although structures of the USP7 C terminus bound to its substrates could provide vital information for understanding USP7 substrate specificity, no such data has been available to date. In this work we have demonstrated that the USP7 ubiquitin-like domains can be studied in isolation by solution NMR spectroscopy, and we have determined the structure of the UBL1 domain. Furthermore, we have employed NMR and viral plaque assays to probe the interaction between the C-USP7 and HSV-1 immediate-early protein ICP0 (infected cell protein 0), which is essential for efficient lytic infection and virus reactivation from latency. We have shown that depletion of the USP7 in HFF-1 cells negatively affects the efficiency of HSV-1 lytic infection. We have also found that USP7 directly binds ICP0 via its C-terminal UBL1-2 domains and mapped the USP7-binding site for ICP0. Therefore, this study represents a first step toward understanding the molecular mechanism of C-USP7 specificity toward its substrates and may provide the basis for future development of novel antiviral and anticancer therapies. PMID:26224631

  14. SUMO-Conjugating Enzyme E2 UBC9 Mediates Viral Immediate-Early Protein SUMOylation in Crayfish To Facilitate Reproduction of White Spot Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, An-Jing; Gao, Lu; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2013-01-01

    Successful viruses have evolved superior strategies to escape host defenses or exploit host biological pathways. Most of the viral immediate-early (ie) genes are essential for viral infection and depend solely on host proteins; however, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we focused on the modification of viral IE proteins by the crayfish small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) and investigated the role of SUMOylation during the viral life cycle. SUMO and SUMO ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9) involved in SUMOylation were identified in red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii). Both SUMO and UBC9 were upregulated in crayfish challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Replication of WSSV genes increased in crayfish injected with recombinant SUMO or UBC9, but injection of mutant SUMO or UBC9 protein had no effect. Subsequently, we analyzed the mechanism by which crayfish SUMOylation facilitates WSSV replication. Crayfish UBC9 bound to all three WSSV IE proteins tested, and one of these IE proteins (WSV051) was covalently modified by SUMO in vitro. The expression of viral ie genes was affected and that of late genes was significantly inhibited in UBC9-silenced or SUMO-silenced crayfish, and the inhibition effect was rescued by injection of recombinant SUMO or UBC9. The results of this study demonstrate that viral IE proteins can be modified by crayfish SUMOylation, prompt the expression of viral genes, and ultimately benefit WSSV replication. Understanding of the mechanisms by which viruses exploit host components will greatly improve our knowledge of the virus-host arms race and contribute to the development of novel methods against virulent viruses. PMID:23097446

  15. Varicella-Zoster Virus Immediate-Early Protein ORF61 Abrogates the IRF3-Mediated Innate Immune Response through Degradation of Activated IRF3 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huifang; Zheng, Chunfu; Xing, Junji; Wang, Shuai; Li, Shuping; Lin, Rongtuan; Mossman, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of differentiated cells within the host and establishment of latency likely requires evasion of innate immunity and limits secretion of antiviral cytokines. Here we report that its immediate-early protein ORF61 antagonizes the beta interferon (IFN-β) pathway. VZV infection down-modulated the Sendai virus (SeV)-activated IFN-β pathway, including mRNA of IFN-β and its downstream interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), ISG54 and ISG56. Through a primary screening of VZV genes, we found that ORF61 inhibited SeV-mediated activation of IFN-β and ISRE (IFN-stimulated response element) promoter activities but only slightly affected NF-κB promoter activity, implying that the IFN-β pathway may be blocked in the IRF3 branch. An indirect immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that ectopic expression of ORF61 abrogated the detection of IRF3 in SeV-infected cells; however, it did not affect endogenous dormant IRF3 in noninfected cells. Additionally, ORF61 was shown to be partially colocalized with activated IRF3 in the nucleus upon treatment with MG132, an inhibitor of proteasomes, and the direct interaction between ORF61 and activated IRF3 was confirmed by a coimmunoprecipitation assay. Furthermore, Western blot analysis demonstrated that activated IRF3 was ubiquitinated in the presence of ORF61, suggesting that ORF61 degraded phosphorylated IRF3 via a ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that the level of ISG54 and ISG56 mRNAs was also downregulated by ORF61. Taken together, our results convincingly demonstrate that ORF61 down-modulates the IRF3-mediated IFN-β pathway by degradation of activated IRF3 via direct interaction, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of VZV infection. PMID:21835786

  16. Motor-Coordination-Dependent Learning, More than Others, Is Impaired in Transgenic Mice Expressing Pseudorabies Virus Immediate-Early Protein IE180

    PubMed Central

    Lpez-Ramos, Juan C.; Tomioka, Yukiko; Morimatsu, Masami; Yamamoto, Sayo; Ozaki, Kinuyo; Ono, Etsuro; Delgado-Garca, Jos M.

    2010-01-01

    The cerebellum in transgenic mice expressing pseudorabies virus immediate-early protein IE180 (TgIE96) was substantially diminished in size, and its histoarchitecture was severely disorganized, resulting in severe ataxia. TgIE96 mice can therefore be used as an experimental model to study the involvement of cerebellar circuits in different learning tasks. The performance of three-month-old TgIE96 mice was studied in various behavioral tests, including associative learning (classical eyeblink conditioning), object recognition, spatial orientation (water maze), startle response and prepulse inhibition, and passive avoidance, and compared with that of wild-type mice. Wild-type and TgIE96 mice presented similar reflexively evoked eyeblinks, and acquired classical conditioned eyelid responses with similar learning curves for both trace and delay conditioning paradigms. The two groups of mice also had similar performances during the object recognition test. However, they showed significant differences for the other three tests included in this study. Although both groups of animals were capable of swimming, TgIE96 mice failed to learn the water maze task during the allowed time. The startle response to a severe tone was similar in both control and TgIE96 mice, but the latter were unable to produce a significant prepulse inhibition. TgIE96 mice also presented evident deficits for the proper accomplishment of a passive avoidance test. These results suggest that the cerebellum is not indispensable for the performance of classical eyeblink conditioning and for object recognition tasks, but seems to be necessary for the proper performance of water maze, prepulse inhibition, and passive avoidance tests. PMID:20711341

  17. Modulation of Nuclear Factor E2-related Factor-2 (Nrf2) Activation by the Stress Response Gene Immediate Early Response-3 (IER3) in Colonic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Stachel, Imke; Geismann, Claudia; Aden, Konrad; Deisinger, Florian; Rosenstiel, Philip; Schreiber, Stefan; Sebens, Susanne; Arlt, Alexander; Schfer, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    Although nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) protects from carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, underlying the rationale for using Nrf2 inducers in chemoprevention, this antioxidative transcription factor may also act as a proto-oncogene. Thus, an enhanced Nrf2 activity promotes formation and chemoresistance of colon cancer. One mechanism causing persistent Nrf2 activation is the adaptation of epithelial cells to oxidative stress during chronic inflammation, e.g. colonocytes in inflammatory bowel diseases, and the multifunctional stress response gene immediate early response-3 (IER3) has a crucial role under these conditions. We now demonstrate that colonic tissue from Ier3?/? mice subject of dextran sodium sulfate colitis exhibit greater Nrf2 activity than Ier3+/+ mice, manifesting as increased nuclear Nrf2 protein level and Nrf2 target gene expression. Likewise, human NCM460 colonocytes subjected to shRNA-mediated IER3 knockdown exhibit greater Nrf2 activity compared with control cells, whereas IER3 overexpression attenuated Nrf2 activation. IER3-deficient NCM460 cells exhibited reduced reactive oxygen species levels, indicating increased antioxidative protection, as well as lower sensitivity to TRAIL or anticancer drug-induced apoptosis and greater clonogenicity. Knockdown of Nrf2 expression reversed these IER3-dependent effects. Further, the enhancing effect of IER3 deficiency on Nrf2 activity relates to the control of the inhibitory tyrosine kinase Fyn by the PI3K/Akt pathway. Thus, the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 or knockdown of Akt or Fyn expression abrogated the impact of IER3 deficiency on Nrf2 activity. In conclusion, the interference of IER3 with the PI3K/Akt-Fyn pathway represents a novel mechanism of Nrf2 regulation that may get lost in tumors and by which IER3 exerts its stress-adaptive and tumor-suppressive activity. PMID:24311782

  18. RNA interference-mediated targeting of human cytomegalovirus immediate-early or early gene products inhibits viral replication with differential effects on cellular functions.

    PubMed

    Xiaofei, E; Stadler, Bradford M; Debatis, Michelle; Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan; Kowalik, Timothy F

    2012-05-01

    Viral drug toxicity, resistance, and an increasing immunosuppressed population warrant continued research into new avenues for limiting diseases associated with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). In this study, a small interfering RNA (siRNA), siX3, was designed to target coding sequences within shared exon 3 of UL123 and UL122 transcripts encoding IE1 and IE2 immediate-early proteins of HCMV. Pretreatment of cells with siX3 reduced the levels of viral protein expression, DNA replication, and progeny virus production compared to control siRNA. Two siRNAs against UL54 and overlapping transcripts (UL55-57) were compared to siX3 in HCMV infection and were also found to be effective at inhibiting HCMV replication. Further investigation into the effects of the siRNAs on viral replication showed that pretreatment with each of the siRNAs resulted in an inhibition in the formation of mature replication compartments. The ability of these siRNAs to prevent or reduce certain cytopathic effects associated with HCMV infection was also examined. Infected cells pretreated with siX3, but not siUL54, retained promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein in cellular PML bodies, an essential component of this host intrinsic antiviral defense. DNA damage response proteins, which are localized in nuclear viral replication compartments, were reduced in the siX3- and siUL54-treated cells. siX3, but not siUL54, prevented DNA damage response signaling early after infection. Therapeutic efficacy was demonstrated by treating cells with siRNAs after HCMV replication had commenced. Together, these findings suggest that siRNAs targeting exon 3 of the major IE genes or the UL54-57 transcripts be further studied for their potential development into anti-HCMV therapeutics. PMID:22438545

  19. Differential regulation of immediate-early gene expression in the prefrontal cortex of rats with a high vs low behavioral response to methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Shilling, Paul D; Kuczenski, Ronald; Segal, David S; Barrett, Thomas B; Kelsoe, John R

    2006-11-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) administration mimics many of the symptoms of mania and can produce psychosis after chronic use. Both rodents and man display interindividual variation in response to METH. The molecular mechanisms underlying these differences might be relevant to both stimulant addiction and endogenous psychosis. We treated 50 Sprague-Dawley rats acutely with METH (4.0 mg/kg) and 10 control rats with saline, and measured their behavior for 3 h after drug administration. Animals were divided into high responders (HR) (top 20%) and low responders (LR) (lowest 20%) based on their stereotypy response. They were killed 24 h after injection. Total RNA was extracted from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the expression of approximately 30 000 transcripts were analyzed using Affymetrix 230 2.0 GeneChips. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to validate the expression of a select group of genes. Forty-three genes exhibited significant differences in expression in HR vs LR 24 h after METH treatment including a group of immediate-early genes (IEGs) (eg, c-fos, junB, NGFI-B, serum-regulated glucocorticoid kinase). These IEG expression differences were accompanied by the significant downregulation of many of these genes compared to saline in the HR but not LR, suggesting a differential responsiveness of signal transduction pathways in these two groups of rats. In addition, the expression of other transcription factors in the PFC was significantly different in HR compared to LR. These gene expression changes may contribute to individual differences in responsiveness to stimulants and the development of mania and psychosis. PMID:16855532

  20. Contrasting role of phospholipase C-{gamma}1 in the expression of immediate early genes induced by epidermal or platelet-derived growth factors

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Hongjun; Santos, Josue de los; Carpenter, Graham . E-mail: graham.carpenter@vanderbilt.edu

    2006-04-01

    While significant progress has been achieved in identifying the signal transduction elements that operate downstream of activated receptor tyrosine kinases, it remains unclear how different receptors utilize these signaling elements to achieve a common response. This study compares the capacity of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) to elicit the induction of immediate early gene (IEG) mRNAs in the presence or absence of phospholipase C-{gamma}1 (PLC-{gamma}1). The results show that while PDGF induction of nearly all IEG mRNAs is abrogated in plcg1 null cells, EGF induction of the same genes is variable in the null cells and exhibits three distinct responses. Five IEG mRNAs (Nup475, Cyr61, TF, Gly, TS7) are completely inducible by EGF in the presence or absence of PLC-{gamma}1, while three others (JE, KC, FIC) exhibit a stringent requirement for the presence of PLC-{gamma}1. The third type of response is exhibited by c-fos and COX-2. While these mRNAs are completely induced by EGF in the absence of PLC-{gamma}1, the time course of their accumulation is significantly delayed. No IEG was identified as completely inducible by EGF and PDGF in the absence of PLC-{gamma}1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) demonstrate that PLC-{gamma}1 is necessary for nuclear extracts from PDGF-treated cells, but not EGF-treated cells, to interact with probes for AP-1 or NF-{kappa}B.

  1. The Varicella-Zoster Virus Immediate-Early 63 protein affects chromatin controlled gene transcription in a cell-type dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Habran, Lionel; El Mjiyad, Nadia; Di Valentin, Emmanuel; Sadzot-Delvaux, Catherine; Bontems, Sbastien; Piette, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Background Varicella Zoster Virus Immediate Early 63 protein (IE63) has been shown to be essential for VZV replication, and critical for latency establishment. The activity of the protein as a transcriptional regulator is not fully clear yet. Using transient transfection assays, IE63 has been shown to repress viral and cellular promoters containing typical TATA boxes by interacting with general transcription factors. Results In this paper, IE63 regulation properties on endogenous gene expression were evaluated using an oligonucleotide-based micro-array approach. We found that IE63 modulates the transcription of only a few genes in HeLa cells including genes implicated in transcription or immunity. Furthermore, we showed that this effect is mediated by a modification of RNA POL II binding on the promoters tested and that IE63 phosphorylation was essential for these effects. In MeWo cells, the number of genes whose transcription was modified by IE63 was somewhat higher, including genes implicated in signal transduction, transcription, immunity, and heat-shock signalling. While IE63 did not modify the basal expression of several NF-?B dependent genes such as IL-8, ICAM-1, and I?B?, it modulates transcription of these genes upon TNF? induction. This effect was obviously correlated with the amount of p65 binding to the promoter of these genes and with histone H3 acetylation and HDAC-3 removal. Conclusion While IE63 only affected transcription of a small number of cellular genes, it interfered with the TNF-inducibility of several NF-?B dependent genes by the accelerated resynthesis of the inhibitor I?B?. PMID:17971236

  2. The Murine Gammaherpesvirus Immediate-Early Rta Synergizes with IRF4, Targeting Expression of the Viral M1 Superantigen to Plasma Cells

    PubMed Central

    O'Flaherty, Brigid M.; Soni, Tanushree; Wakeman, Brian S.; Speck, Samuel H.

    2014-01-01

    MHV68 is a murine gammaherpesvirus that infects laboratory mice and thus provides a tractable small animal model for characterizing critical aspects of gammaherpesvirus pathogenesis. Having evolved with their natural host, herpesviruses encode numerous gene products that are involved in modulating host immune responses to facilitate the establishment and maintenance of lifelong chronic infection. One such protein, MHV68 M1, is a secreted protein that has no known homologs, but has been shown to play a critical role in controlling virus reactivation from latently infected macrophages. We have previous demonstrated that M1 drives the activation and expansion of Vβ4+ CD8+ T cells, which are thought to be involved in controlling MHV68 reactivation through the secretion of interferon gamma. The mechanism of action and regulation of M1 expression are poorly understood. To gain insights into the function of M1, we set out to evaluate the site of expression and transcriptional regulation of the M1 gene. Here, using a recombinant virus expressing a fluorescent protein driven by the M1 gene promoter, we identify plasma cells as the major cell type expressing M1 at the peak of infection in the spleen. In addition, we show that M1 gene transcription is regulated by both the essential viral immediate-early transcriptional activator Rta and cellular interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), which together potently synergize to drive M1 gene expression. Finally, we show that IRF4, a cellular transcription factor essential for plasma cell differentiation, can directly interact with Rta. The latter observation raises the possibility that the interaction of Rta and IRF4 may be involved in regulating a number of viral and cellular genes during MHV68 reactivation linked to plasma cell differentiation. PMID:25101696

  3. Abundant constitutive expression of the immediate-early 94K protein from cytomegalovirus (Colburn) in a DNA-transfected mouse cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Jeang, K.T.; Cho, M.S.; Hayward, G.S.

    1984-10-01

    A 94-kilodalton phosphoprotein known as IE94 is the only viral polypeptide synthesized in abundance under immediate-early conditions after infection by cytomegalovirus (CMV) strain Colburn in either permissive primate or nonpermissive rodent cells. The authors isolated a clonal Ltk/sup +/ cell line which expressed the /sup 35/methionine-labeled IE94 polypeptide in sufficient abundance to be visualized directly in autoradiographs after gel electrophoresis of total-cell-culture protein extracts. The IE94 polypeptide synthesized in the transfected cells was indistinguishable in size and overall net charge from that produced in virus-infected cells. In addition, the IE94 protein expressed in LH/sub 2/p198-3 cells was phosphorylated (presumably by a cellular protein kinase) and generated similar phosphopeptide patterns after partial tryptic digestion to those obtained with the CMV IE94 protein from infected cells. The cell line contained two to four stably integrated copies of the IE94 gene and synthesized a single virus-specific mRNA of 2.5 kilobases detectable on Northern blots. A new antigen, detectable by indirect anticomplement immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibody against the human CMV IE68 protein, was present in the nuclei of more than 95% of the LH/sub 2/l198-3 cells. This evidence suggests that (unlike most herpesvirus genes) the CMV IE94 gene, together with its complex promoter and spliced mRNA structure, may contain all of the regulatory elements necessary for strong constitutive expression in mammalian cells in the absence of other viral factors.

  4. Characterization of xylan utilization and discovery of a new endoxylanase in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum through targeted gene deletions

    SciTech Connect

    Podkaminer, Kara K; Guss, Adam M; McKenzie, Heather; Hogsett, David; Lynd, Lee R

    2012-01-01

    The economical production of fuels and commodity chemicals from lignocellulose requires the utilization of both the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions. Xylanase enzymes allow greater utilization of hemicellulose while also increasing cellulose hydrolysis. Recent metabolic engineering efforts have resulted in a strain of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum that can convert C(5) and C(6) sugars, as well as insoluble xylan, into ethanol at high yield. To better understand the process of xylan solubilization in this organism, a series of targeted deletions were constructed in the homoethanologenic T. saccharolyticum strain M0355 to characterize xylan hydrolysis and xylose utilization in this organism. While the deletion of -xylosidase xylD slowed the growth of T. saccharolyticum on birchwood xylan and led to an accumulation of short-chain xylo-oligomers, no other single deletion, including the deletion of the previously characterized endoxylanase XynA, had a phenotype distinct from that of the wild type. This result indicates a multiplicity of xylanase enzymes which facilitate xylan degradation in T. saccharolyticum. Growth on xylan was prevented only when a previously uncharacterized endoxylanase encoded by xynC was also deleted in conjunction with xynA. Sequence analysis of xynC indicates that this enzyme, a low-molecular-weight endoxylanase with homology to glycoside hydrolase family 11 enzymes, is secreted yet untethered to the cell wall. Together, these observations expand our understanding of the enzymatic basis of xylan hydrolysis by T. saccharolyticum.

  5. Analysis of Two Complementary Single-Gene Deletion Mutant Libraries of Salmonella Typhimurium in Intraperitoneal Infection of BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Valenzuela, Cecilia A.; Molina-Quiroz, Roberto C.; Desai, Prerak; Valenzuela, Camila; Porwollik, Steffen; Zhao, Ming; Hoffman, Robert M.; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene; Contreras, Inés; Santiviago, Carlos A.; McClelland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Two pools of individual single gene deletion (SGD) mutants of S. Typhimurium 14028s encompassing deletions of 3,923 annotated non-essential ORFs and sRNAs were screened by intraperitoneal (IP) injection in BALB/c mice followed by recovery from spleen and liver 2 days post infection. The relative abundance of each mutant was measured by microarray hybridization. The two mutant libraries differed in the orientation of the antibiotic resistance cassettes (either sense-oriented KanR, SGD-K, or antisense-oriented CamR, SGD-C). Consistent systemic colonization defects were observed in both libraries and both organs for hundreds of mutants of genes previously reported to be important after IP injection in this animal model, and for about 100 new candidate genes required for systemic colonization. Four mutants with a range of apparent fitness defects were confirmed using competitive infections with the wild-type parental strain: ΔSTM0286, ΔSTM0551, ΔSTM2363, and ΔSTM3356. Two mutants, ΔSTM0286 and ΔSTM2363, were then complemented in trans with a plasmid encoding an intact copy of the corresponding wild-type gene, and regained the ability to fully colonize BALB/c mice systemically. These results suggest the presence of many more undiscovered Salmonella genes with phenotypes in IP infection of BALB/c mice, and validate the libraries for application to other systems. PMID:26779130

  6. Association of GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene deletions with susceptibility to DNA damage in the pesticide-exposed workers of Punjab.

    PubMed

    Abhishek, S; Kaur, N; Kaur, S; Lata, M; Sharma, J K; Sharma, A

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxic effects of pesticides in association with glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphism. To achieve this aim, DNA damage and the genotypes of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes were studied from blood lymphocytes of pesticide-exposed and unexposed (control) agricultural workers of the Punjab region of northwestern India. The blood samples were collected from 40 exposed and 27 unexposed subjects from the Kakrala and Sanour villages of Patiala district. DNA damage was evaluated by using an alkaline comet assay. The analysis of the comets was done through visual scoring and image analysis software (Tritek's CometScore). Damage Index (DI), Damage Frequency (DF) (calculated by visual scoring method), and % DNA in tail (measured by image analysis software) were considered for assessing DNA damage. The DNA extraction from blood cells was done using proteinase K and the phenol-chloroform method, and genotyping of GSTM1 and GSTT1 was done using multiplex PCR. It was found that all the pesticide-exposed subjects showed higher DI, DF, and % DNA in tail in comparison to the controls. The statistical comparison of DNA damage between the exposed group and unexposed group revealed highly significant differences (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). In addition, the GSTT1 gene deletion and simultaneous deletions of GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes in increasing DNA damage were observed in the exposed group. PMID:20370484

  7. Lister strain vaccinia virus with thymidine kinase gene deletion is a tractable platform for development of a new generation of oncolytic virus.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J; Wang, P; Alusi, G; Shi, H; Chu, Y; Wang, J; Bhakta, V; McNeish, I; McCart, A; Lemoine, N R; Wang, Y

    2015-06-01

    Vaccinia virus (VV) has many attractive characteristics as a potential cancer therapeutic. There are several strains of VV. The nonvaccine strain Western Reserve VV with deletion of both the thymidine kinase and the viral growth factor genes (known as WRDD) has been reported as the most potent tumor-targeted oncolytic VV. Other strains, such as the European vaccine Lister strain, are largely untested. This study evaluated the antitumor potency and biodistribution of different VV strains using in vitro and in vivo models of cancer. Lister strain virus with thymidine kinase gene deletion (VVΔTK) demonstrated superior antitumor potency and cancer-selective replication in vitro and in vivo, compared with WRDD, especially in human cancer cell lines and immune-competent hosts. Further investigation of functional mechanisms revealed that Lister VVΔTK presented favorable viral biodistribution within the tumors, with lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines compared with WRDD, suggesting that Lister strain may induce a diminished host inflammatory response. This study indicates that the Lister strain VVΔTK may be a particularly promising VV strain for the development of the next generation of tumor-targeted oncolytic therapeutics. PMID:25876464

  8. Homozygous deletion of TRMT10A as part of a contiguous gene deletion in a syndrome of failure to thrive, delayed puberty, intellectual disability and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zung, Amnon; Kori, Michal; Burundukov, Ella; Ben-Yosef, Tamar; Tatoor, Yasmin; Granot, Esther

    2015-12-01

    Two recent reports describe a new syndrome of intellectual disability, short stature, microcephaly, and young onset diabetes or disturbed glucose metabolism in association with inactivating mutations in the TRMT10A gene. We investigated the clinical spectrum presented by a 17-year-old female with a homozygous contiguous gene deletion involving the TRMT10A gene. From infancy, she presented with failure to thrive and microcephaly. Puberty was characterized by a slow and an inconsistent course of progression. Concomitantly, gonadotropin levels fluctuated between low and high levels which were compatible with gonadal failure. Unlike the previous reports, the patient had ketoacidosis at onset of diabetes and islet cell autoantibodies. Nevertheless, glycemic control was excellent (HbA1C 5.0%-6.2%). RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated a complete abolishment of TRMT10A mRNA and its translated protein. In order to elucidate the nature of diabetes in this patient, endogenous insulin secretion and glycemic control were evaluated by a glucagon stimulation test and continuous glucose monitoring both during insulin treatment and off therapy. Endogenous insulin secretion still persisted 22 months after onset of diabetes and relatively normal glucose levels were kept over 3 days without insulin treatment. The fluctuating course of puberty and diabetes may reflect intermittent apoptotic damages due to sensitization of the relevant cells to various stress agents in the absence of functional TRMT10A. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26297882

  9. PU.1 is a suppressor of myeloid leukemia, inactivated in mice by gene deletion and mutation of its DNA binding domain.

    PubMed

    Cook, Wendy D; McCaw, Benjamin J; Herring, Christopher; John, Deborah L; Foote, Simon J; Nutt, Stephen L; Adams, Jerry M

    2004-12-01

    In most myeloid leukemias induced in mice by gamma-radiation, one copy of chromosome 2 has suffered a deletion. To search for a potential tumor suppressor gene in that region, we have delineated the deletions in a panel of these tumors. A commonly deleted region of 2 megabase pairs (Mbp) includes the gene encoding the PU.1 transcription factor, a powerful inducer of granulocytic/monocytic differentiation. Significantly, in 87% of these tumors the remaining PU.1 allele exhibited point mutations in the PU.1 DNA binding domain. Surprisingly, 86% of these mutations altered a single CpG, implicating deamination of deoxycytidine, a common mutational mechanism, as the origin of this lesion. The "hot spot" resides in the codon for a contact residue essential for DNA binding by PU.1. In keeping with a tumor suppressor role for PU.1, enforced expression of wild-type PU.1 in the promyelocytic leukemia cells inhibited their clonogenic growth, induced monocytic differentiation, and elicited apoptosis. The mutant PU.1 found in tumors retained only minimal growth suppressive function. The results suggest that PU.1 normally suppresses development of myeloid leukemia by promoting differentiation and that the combination of gene deletion and a point mutation that impairs its ability to bind DNA is particularly leukemogenic. PMID:15304397

  10. Dataset for genotyping validation of cytochrome P450 2A6 whole-gene deletion (CYP2A6*4) by real-time polymerase chain reaction platforms

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Makiko; Koyama, Tomoki; Kishimoto, Izumi; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    This data article contains a supplementary figure and validation data relating to the research article entitled Genotyping of wild-type cytochrome P450 2A6 and whole-gene deletion using human blood samples and a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction method with dual-labeled probes (Shimizu et al., Clinica Chimica Acta 441, 7174, 2015), which presents a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction method with dual-labeled probes for human P450 2A6 wild-type and whole-gene deletion. Real-time methods have dramatically improved the speed of complex genetic diagnostics compared to conventional assays based on restriction enzyme digestion. Here, we show the basic assay validation data by single and multiplex determinations in comparison with commercial TaqMan copy number assays for P450 2A6.

  11. E2F/Rb Family Proteins Mediate Interferon Induced Repression of Adenovirus Immediate Early Transcription to Promote Persistent Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yueting; Stamminger, Thomas; Hearing, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines that have pleiotropic effects and play important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. IFNs have broad antiviral properties and function by different mechanisms. IFNs fail to inhibit wild-type Adenovirus (Ad) replication in established cancer cell lines. In this study, we analyzed the effects of IFNs on Ad replication in normal human cells. Our data demonstrate that both IFNα and IFNγ blocked wild-type Ad5 replication in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBEC) and TERT-immortalized normal human diploid fibroblasts (HDF-TERT). IFNs inhibited the replication of divergent adenoviruses. The inhibition of Ad5 replication by IFNα and IFNγ is the consequence of repression of transcription of the E1A immediate early gene product. Both IFNα and IFNγ impede the association of the transactivator GABP with the E1A enhancer region during the early phase of infection. The repression of E1A expression by IFNs requires a conserved E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer, and IFNs increased the enrichment of the E2F-associated pocket proteins, Rb and p107, at the E1A enhancer in vivo. PD0332991 (Pabociclib), a specific CDK4/6 inhibitor, dephosphoryles pocket proteins to promote their interaction with E2Fs and inhibited wild-type Ad5 replication dependent on the conserved E2F binding site. Consistent with this result, expression of the small E1A oncoprotein, which abrogates E2F/pocket protein interactions, rescued Ad replication in the presence of IFNα or IFNγ. Finally, we established a persistent Ad infection model in vitro and demonstrated that IFNγ suppresses productive Ad replication in a manner dependent on the E2F binding site in the E1A enhancer. This is the first study that probes the molecular basis of persistent adenovirus infection and reveals a novel mechanism by which adenoviruses utilize IFN signaling to suppress lytic virus replication and to promote persistent infection. PMID:26809031

  12. Immediate-early RNA 2.9 and early RNA 2.6 of bovine herpesvirus 1 are 3' coterminal and encode a putative zinc finger transactivator protein.

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, U V; Fraefel, C; Vogt, B; Vlcek, C; Paces, V; Schwyzer, M

    1992-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) contains three major immediate-early (IE) genes involved in regulation of the productive cycle of replication. Two spliced IE RNAs, IER4.2 (4.2 kb) and IER2.9 (2.9 kb), are under the control of a single promoter; IER1.7 (1.7 kb) is transcribed from a different promoter in the opposite direction. Examining the kinetics of transcription, we found that the IER4.2/2.9 promoter was turned off at the end of the IE period. An alternative promoter became active, directing synthesis of an unspliced early RNA, ER2.6 (2.6 kb), which was colinear with the second exon of IER2.9 except for its 5' end in the intron about 10 bases upstream of the splice site. Sequence analysis revealed a single open reading frame common to IER2.9 and ER2.6 with a coding potential of 676 amino acids. The putative protein, named p135, contained a cysteine-rich zinc finger domain near the N terminus with homology to ICP0 of herpes simplex virus type 1, to protein 61 of varicella-zoster virus, to early protein 0 of pseudorabies virus, and to other viral and cellular proteins. The remaining parts of p135 exhibited only limited homology, mainly with pseudorabies virus protein 0, but the entire sequence was highly conserved between two strains of BHV-1 (K22 and Jura). The latency-related antisense transcript covered a large portion of ER2.6 excluding the zinc finger coding region. In transient expression assays, p135 activated a variety of promoters, including that for ER2.6, but repressed the IER1.7 promoter. Thus, p135 combines functional characteristics of ICP0, a strong transactivator, and of protein 61, a repressor. BHV-1 seems to have evolved a subtle mechanism to ensure the continued synthesis of p135 while turning off IER4.2, which encodes p180, the herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP4 homolog. Images PMID:1313901

  13. Structural Organization of the Spliced Immediate-Early Gene Complex that Encodes the Major Acidic Nuclear (IE1) and Transactivator (IE2) Proteins of African Green Monkey Cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y.-N.; Jeang, K.-T.; Lietman, T.; Hayward, G.S.

    1995-04-01

    Total immediate-early (IE) RNA synthesized after infection with African green monkey cytomegalovirus (SCMV) in the presence of cycloheximide contained a major 2.3-kb mRNA species that acted as template for in vitro synthesis of a single 94-kD nuclear protein. The same IE RNA hybridized predominantly to a 1.8-kb subregion of the 220-kb genome which mapped 1.5 kb to the left of the in vitro transcription start site and TATATAA motif previously associated with the powerful MIE (IE94) enhancer region. However, DNA sequence and S1-mapping analysis of a 5-kb region downstream from the promoter revealed the existence of a far upstream noncoding first exon and four additional spliced exons capable of encoding two alternative protein products with shared N-terminal domains. This region is similar in structure to that of the MIE gene complex of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), including being highly CpG suppressed. Exons 2, 3, and 4 encode an acidic protein equivalent to the 68-kD IE1 protein (UL123) of HCMV and exons 2, 3, and 5 encode a protein equivalent to the 80-kD IE2 (UL122) DNA-binding protein of HCMV. Transcripts from across the IE2 region were detected within the cycloheximide RNA, but they were present at 10- to 20-fold lower abundance than IE1 transcripts. The proposed 547-codon IE1 (IE94) acidic phosphoprotein of SCMV displays minimal residual homology with the IE1 protein of HCMV, but both associate with metaphase chromosomes and have large C-terminal glutamic-acid-rich domains. In contrast, the proposed 583-codon IE2 protein of SCMV displays extensive amino acid similarity to the HCMV IE2 transcriptional regulatory protein especially within C-terminal domains that are known to play a major role in promoter targeting for both transactivation and negative autoregulation functions. Copyright 1995 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:11725047

  14. Detection of the Human Cytomegalovirus 2.0-kb Immediate Early Gene 1 Transcripts in Permissive and Nonpermissive Infections by RNA in situ Hybridization.

    PubMed

    Wu, T.C.; Fuentes-Bernardo, D.A.; Chan, Y.-J.; Au, W.C.; Chiou, C.-J.; Fox, W.M.; Hruban, R.H.; Hayward, G.S.; Kurman, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The immediate early gene 1 (IE1) is the first gene to be expressed following the entry of the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) into the cell and it does not require prior protein synthesis for its expression. Therefore, the IE1 gene is a potential candidate for the development of probes to detect HCMV in various states of infection. Using strand-specific (32)P- or digoxigenin-labeled riboprobes derived from an exon-specific subgenomic fragment of the HCMV Towne IE1 gene, we performed Northern blot analysis and RNA in situ hybridization on HCMV-infected human (permissive cells) and mouse (nonpermissive cells) fibroblasts and on 10 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human tissue. By Northern blot analysis and by in situ hybridization, expression of the 2.0-kb IE1 gene was found in permissive as well as in nonpermissive infections. Specific nuclear and cytoplasmic hybridization was found at 5, 10, 24 and 72 h after infection in human fibroblasts. In comparison, hybridization was first detected at 10 h after infection in mouse fibroblasts. Hybridization with the IE1 probe was detected in cells with and without cytopathic changes in the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded HCMV-infected human tissues. Hybridization patterns of the IE1 riboprobe were compared to those of the HCMV 2.7-kb major early beta-riboprobe which we have previously described [Am J Pathol 141:1247-1254;1992]. Although both riboprobes hybridize to their respective target sequences in the consecutive tissue sections, the patterns of hybridization are different. On occasion, sections of HCMV-infected human tissue showing no specific hybridization for the 2.7-kb riboprobe will show specific in situ hybridization when using the IE1 riboprobe. Our results suggest that RNA in situ hybridization with a probe directed at the IE1 transcripts is an effective method of detecting early and late stages of both permissive and nonpermissive HCMV infections. Copyright 1997 S. Karger AG, Basel PMID:11725129

  15. Deletion mutants in the gene encoding the herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate-early protein ICP0 exhibit impaired growth in cell culture.

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, W R; Schaffer, P A

    1987-01-01

    We report the construction and characterization of deletion mutants in the herpes simplex virus type 1 gene encoding the immediate-early protein ICP0. In the event that ICP0 proved to play an essential role in virus replication, ICP0-transformed Vero cells were generated to serve as permissive hosts for such mutants. Two mutants, dlX0.7 and dlX3.1, were isolated in these cells by a marker rescue-transfer procedure involving the rescue of an ICP4 deletion mutant and the simultaneous insertion of a linked deletion in the ICP0 gene. Mutant dlX0.7 contained a 700-base-pair deletion in both copies of ICP0. The deletion lay entirely within the transcript specified by the gene. dlX0.7 induced the synthesis of an ICP0-specific mRNA that was approximately 0.7 kilobases smaller than the corresponding mRNA specified by wild-type virus. The 3.1-kilobase deletion in both copies of the ICP0 gene in mutant dlX3.1 removed the majority of the transcriptional-regulatory signals and coding sequences, retaining only sequences at the 3' end of the gene. As expected, no ICP0-specific mRNA was detected in dlX3.1-infected Nero cells (G418-resistant Vero cells). Both mutants grew in all cells tested, although their burst sizes were 10- to 100-fold lower than that of wild-type virus. Although the plaque sizes of dlX0.7 and dlX3.1 were equally small on Nero and ICP0-transformed cells, the plating efficiency of the mutants was 15- to 50-fold greater on ICP0-transformed cells than on Nero cells. The mutants exhibited modest interference with the growth of wild-type virus in mixed infections, an effect that was abolished by UV irradiation of the mutants, implying that interference required viral gene expression. Polypeptide profiles generated by the mutants in Nero cells were qualitatively similar to that of wild-type virus. Quantitatively, only slight reductions in the levels of certain late viral polypeptides were observed, a phenomenon also borne out by analysis of viral glycoproteins. Both mutants induced the synthesis of significant, although reduced, levels of viral DNA relative to wild-type virus. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ICP0 is not essential for productive infection in cell culture but that this protein plays a significant role in viral growth, as indicated by the impaired abilities of the mutants to replicate. Images PMID:3027408

  16. Screening of High-Level 4-Hydroxy-2 (or 5)-Ethyl-5 (or 2)-Methyl-3(2H)-Furanone-Producing Strains from a Collection of Gene Deletion Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun; Akao, Takeshi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Mogi, Yoshinobu; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2 (or 5)-ethyl-5 (or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF) is an important flavor compound that contributes to the sensory properties of many natural products, particularly soy sauce and soybean paste. The compound exhibits a caramel-like aroma and several important physiological activities, such as strong antioxidant activity. HEMF is produced by yeast species in soy sauce manufacturing; however, the enzymes involved in HEMF production remain unknown, hindering efforts to breed yeasts with high-level HEMF production. In this study, we identified high-level HEMF-producing mutants among a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion mutant collection. Fourteen deletion mutants were screened as high-level HEMF-producing mutants, and the ADH1 gene deletion mutant (adh1?) exhibited the maximum HEMF production capacity. Further investigations of the adh1? mutant implied that acetaldehyde accumulation contributes to HEMF production, agreeing with previous findings. Therefore, acetaldehyde might be a precursor for HEMF. The ADH1 gene deletion mutant of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, which is the dominant strain of yeast found during soy sauce fermentation, also produces HEMF effectively, suggesting that acetaldehyde accumulation might be a benchmark for breeding industrial yeasts with excellent HEMF production abilities. PMID:25362059

  17. Screening of high-level 4-hydroxy-2 (or 5)-ethyl-5 (or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone-producing strains from a collection of gene deletion mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Kenji; Watanabe, Jun; Akao, Takeshi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Mogi, Yoshinobu; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    4-Hydroxy-2 (or 5)-ethyl-5 (or 2)-methyl-3(2H)-furanone (HEMF) is an important flavor compound that contributes to the sensory properties of many natural products, particularly soy sauce and soybean paste. The compound exhibits a caramel-like aroma and several important physiological activities, such as strong antioxidant activity. HEMF is produced by yeast species in soy sauce manufacturing; however, the enzymes involved in HEMF production remain unknown, hindering efforts to breed yeasts with high-level HEMF production. In this study, we identified high-level HEMF-producing mutants among a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion mutant collection. Fourteen deletion mutants were screened as high-level HEMF-producing mutants, and the ADH1 gene deletion mutant (adh1?) exhibited the maximum HEMF production capacity. Further investigations of the adh1? mutant implied that acetaldehyde accumulation contributes to HEMF production, agreeing with previous findings. Therefore, acetaldehyde might be a precursor for HEMF. The ADH1 gene deletion mutant of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, which is the dominant strain of yeast found during soy sauce fermentation, also produces HEMF effectively, suggesting that acetaldehyde accumulation might be a benchmark for breeding industrial yeasts with excellent HEMF production abilities. PMID:25362059

  18. Microcephaly, Intellectual Impairment, Bilateral Vesicoureteral Reflux, Distichiasis and Glomuvenous Malformations Associated with a 16q24.3 Contiguous Gene Deletion and a Glomulin Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Matthew G.; Dagenais, Susan L.; Garcia-Perez, Jos L.; Brouillard, Pascal; Vikkula, Miikka; Strouse, Peter; Innis, Jeffrey W.; Glover, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Two hereditary syndromes, lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome (LD) and blepharo-chelio-dontic (BCD) syndrome include the aberrant growth of eyelashes from the meibomian glands, known as distichiasis. LD is an autosomal dominant syndrome primarily characterized by distichiasis and the onset of lymphedema usually during puberty. Mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXC2 are the only known cause of LD. BCD syndrome consists of autosomal dominant abnormalities of the eyelid, lip, and teeth, and the etiology remains unknown. In this report, we describe a proband that presented with distichiasis, microcephaly, bilateral grade IV vesicoureteral reflux requiring ureteral re-implantation, mild intellectual impairment and apparent glomuvenous malformations. Distichiasis was present in three generations of the probands maternal side of the family. The glomuvenous malformations were severe in the proband, and maternal family members exhibited lower extremity varicosities of variable degree. A GLMN (glomulin) gene mutation was identified in the proband that accounts for the observed glomuvenous malformations; no other family member could be tested. TIE2 sequencing revealed no mutations. In the proband, an additional submicroscopic 265 kb contiguous gene deletion was identified in 16q24.3, located 609 kb distal to the FOXC2 locus, which was inherited from the probands mother. The deletion includes the C16ORF95, FBXO31, MAP1LC3B, and ZCCHC14 loci and 115 kb of a gene desert distal to FOXC2 and FOXL1. Thus, it is likely that the microcephaly, distichiasis, vesicoureteral and intellectual impairment in this family may be caused by the deletion of one or more of these genes and/or deletion of distant cis-regulatory elements of FOXC2 expression. PMID:22407726

  19. Microcephaly, intellectual impairment, bilateral vesicoureteral reflux, distichiasis, and glomuvenous malformations associated with a 16q24.3 contiguous gene deletion and a Glomulin mutation.

    PubMed

    Butler, Matthew G; Dagenais, Susan L; Garcia-Perez, Jos L; Brouillard, Pascal; Vikkula, Miikka; Strouse, Peter; Innis, Jeffrey W; Glover, Thomas W

    2012-04-01

    Two hereditary syndromes, lymphedema-distichiasis (LD) syndrome and blepharo-chelio-dontic (BCD) syndrome include the aberrant growth of eyelashes from the meibomian glands, known as distichiasis. LD is an autosomal dominant syndrome primarily characterized by distichiasis and the onset of lymphedema usually during puberty. Mutations in the forkhead transcription factor FOXC2 are the only known cause of LD. BCD syndrome consists of autosomal dominant abnormalities of the eyelid, lip, and teeth, and the etiology remains unknown. In this report, we describe a proband that presented with distichiasis, microcephaly, bilateral grade IV vesicoureteral reflux requiring ureteral re-implantation, mild intellectual impairment and apparent glomuvenous malformations (GVM). Distichiasis was present in three generations of the proband's maternal side of the family. The GVMs were severe in the proband, and maternal family members exhibited lower extremity varicosities of variable degree. A GLMN (glomulin) gene mutation was identified in the proband that accounts for the observed GVMs; no other family member could be tested. TIE2 sequencing revealed no mutations. In the proband, an additional submicroscopic 265?kb contiguous gene deletion was identified in 16q24.3, located 609?kb distal to the FOXC2 locus, which was inherited from the proband's mother. The deletion includes the C16ORF95, FBXO31, MAP1LC3B, and ZCCHC14 loci and 115?kb of a gene desert distal to FOXC2 and FOXL1. Thus, it is likely that the microcephaly, distichiasis, vesicoureteral, and intellectual impairment in this family may be caused by the deletion of one or more of these genes and/or deletion of distant cis-regulatory elements of FOXC2 expression. PMID:22407726

  20. CDKN2 Gene Deletion as Poor Prognosis Predictor Involved in the Progression of Adult B-Lineage Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Na; Li, Yu-ling; Zhou, Xuan; Cao, Rui; Li, Huan; Lu, Qi-si; Li, Lin; Lu, Zi-yuan; Huang, Ji-xian; Sun, Jing; Liu, Qi-fa; Du, Qing-feng; Liu, Xiao-li

    2015-01-01

    Deletion of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/B (CDKN2A/B) is well known in many hematologic malignancies, but only few reports have investigated this deletion effect on clinical prognosis. This study performed analysis of the CDKN2 deletion in 215 adult B- lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients, and related cytogenetic prognostic factors (BCR/ABL; E2A/PBXl; TEL/AML1; Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) rearrangement; MYC, Immunoglobulin heavy locus (IGH) translocation). The prevalence of CDKN2 deletions in all study populations was 28.4%. There is no difference between patients with CDKN2 deletion and wild-type patients in sex, age, white blood cells (WBC) count, BM blast percentage, extra infiltration and induction complete remission (CR) rate. Analysis in relapse patients revealed that the distribution of CDKN2 deletion is higher in relapse patients (44.6%) than all patients (28.4%, P=0.006). Deletion of CDKN2 was significantly associated with poor outcomes including decreased overall survival (OS) (P<0.001), lower disease free-survival (DFS) (P<0.001), and increased cumulative incidence of relapse (P=0.002); Also, CDKN2 deletion was strongly associated with IGH translocation (P=0.021); and had an adverse effect on patients with BCR-ABL fusion gene or with MLL rearrangement. Patients with CDKN2 gene deletion benefited from allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT). Deletion of CDKN2 gene was commonly observed through leukemia progression and was poor prognostic marker in long-term outcomes. PMID:26516359

  1. From Whole Gene Deletion to Point Mutations of EP300-Positive Rubinstein-Taybi Patients: New Insights into the Mutational Spectrum and Peculiar Clinical Hallmarks.

    PubMed

    Negri, Gloria; Magini, Pamela; Milani, Donatella; Colapietro, Patrizia; Rusconi, Daniela; Scarano, Emanuela; Bonati, Maria Teresa; Priolo, Manuela; Crippa, Milena; Mazzanti, Laura; Wischmeijer, Anita; Tamburrino, Federica; Pippucci, Tommaso; Finelli, Palma; Larizza, Lidia; Gervasini, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare congenital neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by growth deficiency, skeletal abnormalities, dysmorphic features, and intellectual disability. Causative mutations in CREBBP and EP300 genes have been identified in ∼55% and ∼8% of affected individuals. To date, only 28 EP300 alterations in 29 RSTS clinically described patients have been reported. EP300 analysis of 22 CREBBP-negative RSTS patients from our cohort led us to identify six novel mutations: a 376-kb deletion depleting EP300 gene; an exons 17-19 deletion (c.(3141+1_3142-1)_(3590+1_3591-1)del/p.(Ile1047Serfs*30)); two stop mutations, (c.3829A>T/p.(Lys1277*) and c.4585C>T/p.(Arg1529*)); a splicing mutation (c.1878-12A>G/p.(Ala627Glnfs*11)), and a duplication (c.4640dupA/p.(Asn1547Lysfs*3)). All EP300-mutated individuals show a mild RSTS phenotype and peculiar findings including maternal gestosis, skin manifestation, especially nevi or keloids, back malformations, and a behavior predisposing to anxiety. Furthermore, the patient carrying the complete EP300 deletion does not show a markedly severe clinical picture, even if a more composite phenotype was noticed. By characterizing six novel EP300-mutated patients, this study provides further insights into the EP300-specific clinical presentation and expands the mutational repertoire including the first case of a whole gene deletion. These new data will enhance EP300-mutated cases identification highlighting distinctive features and will improve the clinical practice allowing a better genotype-phenotype correlation. PMID:26486927

  2. Gene deletion speeds mutation rate.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    The APOBEC proteins fight off viruses by editing their genomes. A deletion that removes one of the proteins produces large numbers of mutations in the human genome, potentially leading to cancer. PMID:25002600

  3. The Canonical Immediate Early 3 Gene Product pIE611 of Mouse Cytomegalovirus Is Dispensable for Viral Replication but Mediates Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation of Viral Gene Products

    PubMed Central

    Rattay, Stephanie; Trilling, Mirko; Megger, Dominik A.; Sitek, Barbara; Meyer, Helmut E.; Hengel, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Transcription of mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) immediate early ie1 and ie3 is controlled by the major immediate early promoter/enhancer (MIEP) and requires differential splicing. Based on complete loss of genome replication of an MCMV mutant carrying a deletion of the ie3-specific exon 5, the multifunctional IE3 protein (611 amino acids; pIE611) is considered essential for viral replication. Our analysis of ie3 transcription resulted in the identification of novel ie3 isoforms derived from alternatively spliced ie3 transcripts. Construction of an IE3-hemagglutinin (IE3-HA) virus by insertion of an in-frame HA epitope sequence allowed detection of the IE3 isoforms in infected cells, verifying that the newly identified transcripts code for proteins. This prompted the construction of an MCMV mutant lacking ie611 but retaining the coding capacity for the newly identified isoforms ie453 and ie310. Using Δie611 MCMV, we demonstrated the dispensability of the canonical ie3 gene product pIE611 for viral replication. To determine the role of pIE611 for viral gene expression during MCMV infection in an unbiased global approach, we used label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to delineate pIE611-dependent changes of the MCMV proteome. Interestingly, further analysis revealed transcriptional as well as posttranscriptional regulation of MCMV gene products by pIE611. IMPORTANCE Cytomegaloviruses are pathogenic betaherpesviruses persisting in a lifelong latency from which reactivation can occur under conditions of immunosuppression, immunoimmaturity, or inflammation. The switch from latency to reactivation requires expression of immediate early genes. Therefore, understanding of immediate early gene regulation might add insights into viral pathogenesis. The mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) immediate early 3 protein (611 amino acids; pIE611) is considered essential for viral replication. The identification of novel protein isoforms derived from alternatively spliced ie3 transcripts prompted the construction of an MCMV mutant lacking ie611 but retaining the coding capacity for the newly identified isoforms ie453 and ie310. Using Δie611 MCMV, we demonstrated the dispensability of the canonical ie3 gene product pIE611 for viral replication and delineated pIE611-dependent changes of the MCMV proteome. Our findings have fundamental implications for the interpretation of earlier studies on pIE3 functions and highlight the complex orchestration of MCMV gene regulation. PMID:26063418

  4. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) Gene Deletion Enhances MMP-9 Activity, Impairs PARP-1 Degradation, and Exacerbates Hepatic Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Duarte, Sergio; Liu, Daniel; Busuttil, Ronald W.; Coito, Ana J.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) is an inflammatory condition and a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after surgery. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been widely implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Among the different MMPs, gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) are within the most prominent MMPs detected during liver IRI. While the role of MMP-9 in liver damage has been fairly documented, direct evidence of the role for MMP-2 activity in hepatic IRI remains to be established. Due to the lack of suitable inhibitors to target individual MMPs in vivo, gene manipulation is as an essential tool to assess MMP direct contribution to liver injury. Hence, we used MMP-2-/- deficient mice and MMP-2+/+ wild-type littermates to examine the function of MMP-2 activity in hepatic IRI. MMP-2 expression was detected along the sinusoids of wild-type livers before and after surgery and in a small population of leukocytes post-IRI. Compared to MMP-2+/+ mice, MMP-2 null (MMP-2-/-) mice showed exacerbated liver damage at 6, 24, and 48 hours post-reperfusion, which was fatal in some cases. MMP-2 deficiency resulted in upregulation of MMP-9 activity, spontaneous leukocyte infiltration in nave livers, and amplified MMP-9-dependent transmigration of leukocytes in vitro and after hepatic IRI. Moreover, complete loss of MMP-2 activity impaired the degradation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) in extensively damaged livers post-reperfusion. However, the administration of a PARP-1 inhibitor to MMP-2 null mice restored liver preservation to almost comparable levels of MMP-2+/+ mice post-IRI. Deficient PARP-1 degradation in MMP-2-null sinusoidal endothelial cells correlated with their increased cytotoxicity, evaluated by the measurement of LDH efflux in the medium. In conclusion, our results show for the first time that MMP-2 gene deletion exacerbates liver IRI. Moreover, they offer new insights into the MMP-2 modulation of inflammatory responses, which could be relevant for the design of new pharmacological MMP-targeted agents to treat hepatic IRI. PMID:26355684

  5. CCR2 Gene Deletion and Pharmacologic Blockade Ameliorate a Severe Murine Experimental Autoimmune Neuritis Model of Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Furong; Yosef, Nejla; Lakshmana Reddy, Chetan; Huang, Ailing; Chiang, Sharon C.; Tithi, Hafiza Rahman; Ubogu, Eroboghene E.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular determinants and signaling pathways responsible for hematogenous leukocyte trafficking during peripheral neuroinflammation are incompletely elucidated. Chemokine ligand/receptor pair CCL2/CCR2 has been pathogenically implicated in the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We evaluated the role of CCR2 in peripheral neuroinflammation utilizing a severe murine experimental autoimmune neuritis (sm-EAN) model. Sm-EAN was induced in 8–12 week old female SJL CCR2 knockout (CCR2KO), heterozygote (CCR2HT) and wild type (CCR2WT) mice, and daily neuromuscular severity scores and weights recorded. In vitro and in vivo splenocyte proliferation and cytokine expression assays, and sciatic nerve Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4 and CCL2 expression assays were performed to evaluate systemic and local innate immune activation at disease onset. Motor nerve electrophysiology and sciatic nerve histology were also performed to characterize the inflammatory neuropathy at expected peak severity. To further determine the functional relevance of CCR2 in sm-EAN, 20 mg/kg CCR2 antagonist, RS 102895 was administered daily for 5 days to a cohort of CCR2WT mice following sm-EAN disease onset, with efficacy compared to 400 mg/kg human intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). CCR2KO mice were relatively resistant to sm-EAN compared to CCR2WT and CCR2HT mice, associated with attenuated peripheral nerve demyelinating neuritis. Partial CCR2 gene deletion did not confer any protection against sm-EAN. CCR2KO mice demonstrated similar splenocyte activation or proliferation profiles, as well as TLR2, TLR4 and CCL2 expression to CCR2WT or CCR2HT mice, implying a direct role for CCR2 in sm-EAN pathogenesis. CCR2 signaling blockade resulted in rapid, near complete recovery from sm-EAN following disease onset. RS 102895 was significantly more efficacious than IVIg. CCR2 mediates pathogenic hematogenous monocyte trafficking into peripheral nerves, with consequential demyelination in sm-EAN. CCR2 is amenable to pharmacologic blockade, making it a plausible drug target for GBS. PMID:24632828

  6. Sleep research in space: expression of immediate early genes in forebrain structures of rats during the nasa neurolab mission (STS-90).

    PubMed

    Centini, C; Pompeiano, O

    2007-05-01

    1. Electrophysiological and behavioural observations have shown that changes in the sleep-waking activity occur in astronauts during the space flight. Experiments performed in ground-based experiments have previously shown that the immediate early gene (IEG) c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, can be used as a molecular correlate of sleep and waking. However, while Fos expression peaks within 2-4 hours after the stimulus and returns to baseline within 6-8 hours, other IEGs as the FRA proteins which are also synthetized soon after their induction, persist in the cell nuclei for longer periods of time, ranging from 1-2 days to weeks. 2. Both Fos and FRA expression were evaluated in several adult albino rats sacrificed at different time points of the space flight, i.e. either at FD2 and FD14, i.e. at launch and about two weeks after launch, respectively, or at R + 1 and R + 13, i.e. at the reentry and about two weeks after landing. The changes in Fos and FRA expression were then compared with those obtained in ground controls. These experiments demonstrate activation of several brain areas which varies during the different phases of the space flight. Due to their different time of persistence, Fos and FRA immunohistochemistry can provide only correlative observations. In particular, FRA expression has been quite helpful to identify the occurrence of short-lasting events such as those related either to stress or to REM-sleep, whose episodes last in the rat only a few min and could hardly be detected by using only Fos expression. 3. Evidence was presented indicating that at FD2 and FD14 Fos-labeled cells were observed in several brain areas in which Fos had been previously identified as being induced by spontaneous or forced waking in ground-based experiments. In contrast to these findings FLT rats sacrificed at R + 1 showed low levels of Fos immunostaining in the cerebral cortex (neocortex) and several forebrain structures such as the hypothalamus and thalamus. Some Fos staining was also present in limbic cortical areas, the septum, and the hippocampus. The main area of the forebrain of FLT rats sacrificed at R + 1, showing an increased expression of Fos, was the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) (cf. 127), as well as the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) nucleus (cf. 122). At R + 13 Fos immunostaining was variable among FLT rats. However, none of these rats showed a significant number of Fos-positive cells in CeA. 4. Most of the rats studied for Fos expression were also tested for FRA expression. In particular, a scattered amount of FRA expression occurred at FD14 in different areas of the neocortex and in limbic forebrain regions (such as the cingulate, retrosplenial and entorhinal cortex). It included also the hippocampus, the lateral septum, the caudate/putamen, as well as some hypothalamic regions. At the reentry (R + 1) it was previously shown that a prominent increase in FRA expression occurred in the LC of FLT rats (cf. 122). This finding was associated with an increase in FRA expression which affected not only the nucleus paragigantocellularis lateralis of the medulla, which sends excitatory glutamatergic afferents to the LC (cf. 31 for ref.), but also structures which are known to produce corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a neuropeptide which activates the noradrenergic LC neurons during stress. 5. These findings which result from acceleration stress were followed by REMS episodes, which probably occurred after a long period of sleep deprivation following exposure to microgravity. It was previously shown that an increase in Fos and FRA expression occurred at the reentry in some pontine and medullary reticular structures (cf. 128), which are likely to be involved in both the descending (postural atonia) and the ascending manifestations of PS. These findings can be integrated by results of the present experiments showing that at the reentry high levels of FRA expression occurred in the hippocampus and the limbic system, i.e. in structures which are involved in the generalized pattern of EEG desynchronization and the theta activity, typical of REMS (cf. 83, 84). A prominent increase in FRA expression also affected at the reentry some components of the amygdaloid complex, particularly the CeA. as well as some related structures, such as the lateral parabrachial nucleus (cf. 122) and the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (cf. 127). These structures are known to contribute to the PGO waves, which drive the oculomotor system either directly or through the medial vestibular nuclei (128, cf. also 126). Unfortunately due to our brainstem transections we were unable to evaluate the changes in gene expression which could affect the dorsolateral pontine structures during the occurrence of REMS episodes. Further experiments are thus required to investigate the role that these pontine structures exert in determining adaptive changes following exposure to microgravity after launch as well as readaptation to the terrestrial environment after landing. PMID:17639784

  7. The Elk-1 and Serum Response Factor Binding Sites in the Major Immediate-Early Promoter of Human Cytomegalovirus Are Required for Efficient Viral Replication in Quiescent Cells and Compensate for Inactivation of the NF-?B Sites in Proliferating Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Caposio, Patrizia; Luganini, Anna; Bronzini, Matteo; Landolfo, Santo; Gribaudo, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    The major immediate-early promoter (MIEP) region of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) plays a critical role in the regulation of lytic and latent infections by integrating multiple signals supplied by the infecting virus, the type and physiological state of the host cell, and its extracellular surroundings. The interaction of cellular transcription factors with their cognate binding sites, which are present at high densities within the enhancer upstream from the MIEP core promoter, regulate the rate of IE gene transcription and thus affect the outcome of HCMV infection. We have shown previously that the NF-?B binding sites within the MIEP enhancer and cellular NF-?B activity induced by HCMV infection are required for efficient MIEP activity and viral replication in quiescent cells (P. Caposio, A. Luganini, G. Hahn, S. Landolfo, and G. Gribaudo, Cell. Microbiol. 9:2040-2054, 2007). We now show that the inactivation of either the Elk-1 or serum response factor (SRF) binding site within the enhancer also reduces MIEP activation and viral replication of recombinant HCMV viruses in quiescent fibroblasts. In these cells, we show that the expression of either Elk-1 or SRF is required for optimal IE gene expression, and that the HCMV-stimulated activation of the MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling axis leads to Elk-1 transcriptional competency. Furthermore, the replication kinetics of recombinant viruses in which NF-?B, Elk-1, and SRF binding sites all are inactivated demonstrate that the higher levels of Elk-1 and SRF binding to MIEP in proliferating cells can compensate even for a lack of HCMV-induced NF-?B-mediated MIEP transactivation. These observations highlight the importance of the combination of different MIEP binding sites to optimize IE gene expression in cells in different physiological states. PMID:20147408

  8. Expression of the immediate early IE180 protein under the control of the hTERT and CEA tumor-specific promoters in recombinant pseudorabies viruses: Effects of IE180 protein on promoter activity and apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Lerma, L; Alcal, S; Piero, C; Torres, M; Martin, B; Lim, F; Sainz, B; Tabars, E

    2016-01-15

    Since the pseudorabies virus (PRV) genome encodes for a single immediate-early protein, IE180, we reasoned that this strong transactivating protein could represent a key regulatory switch that could be genetically manipulated in order to alter its tropism towards cancer cells. We therefore initiated studies to test whether the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) tumor promoters could functionally replace the IE180 promoter. We show that both promoters can functionally substitute the IE180 promoter in plasmid constructs and recombinant viruses, and observed that IE180 differentially auto-regulated each promoter tested, with PRV IE180 negatively regulating the hTERT promoter but positively hyper-activating the CEA promoter. Interestingly, we also observed that the recombinant PRV-TER and PRV-CEA viruses preferentially replicated in diverse cancer cell lines compared to control non-cancer cells, and the PRV-CEA was capable of additionally inducing a profound apoptotic phenotype which we correlated to the overexpression of IE180. PMID:26590793

  9. Breaking Human Cytomegalovirus Major Immediate-Early Gene Silence by Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Stimulation of the Protein Kinase A-CREB-TORC2 Signaling Cascade in Human Pluripotent Embryonal NTera2 Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jinxiang; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Wu, Allen W.; McGonagill, Patrick W.; Keller, Michael J.; Galle, Courtney S.; Meier, Jeffery L.

    2009-01-01

    The triggering mechanisms underlying reactivation of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in latently infected persons are unclear. During latency, HCMV major immediate-early (MIE) gene expression breaks silence to initiate viral reactivation. Using quiescently HCMV-infected human pluripotent embryonal NTera2 cells (NT2) to model HCMV reactivation, we show that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), an immunomodulatory neuropeptide, immediately and dose-dependently (1 to 500 nM) activates HCMV MIE gene expression. This response requires the MIE enhancer cyclic AMP response elements (CRE). VIP quickly elevates CREB Ser133 and ATF-1 Ser63 phosphorylation levels, although the CREB Ser133 phosphorylation level is substantial at baseline. VIP does not change the level of HCMV genomes in nuclei, Oct4 (pluripotent cell marker), or hDaxx (cellular repressor of HCMV gene expression). VIP-activated MIE gene expression is mediated by cellular protein kinase A (PKA), CREB, and TORC2. VIP induces PKA-dependent TORC2 Ser171 dephosphorylation and nuclear entry, which likely enables MIE gene activation, as TORC2 S171A (devoid of Ser171 phosphorylation) exhibits enhanced nuclear entry and desilences the MIE genes in the absence of VIP stimulation. In conclusion, VIP stimulation of the PKA-CREB-TORC2 signaling cascade activates HCMV CRE-dependent MIE gene expression in quiescently infected NT2 cells. We speculate that neurohormonal stimulation via this signaling cascade is a possible means for reversing HCMV silence in vivo. PMID:19369332

  10. Two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB proteins interact with transcription factors LvSTAT and LvDorsal to activate the promoter of white spot syndrome virus immediate-early gene ie1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Hong; Jia, Xiao-Ting; Huang, Xian-De; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Mei; Xie, Jun-Feng; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2011-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused great economic damage to shrimp aquaculture. Previous studies have shown that WSSV successfully usurps the immunity system of the host for its own gene regulation. To investigate the role of shrimp high mobility group box (HMGB) proteins in WSSV gene regulation, two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB genes, LvHMGBa and LvHMGBb, were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Recombinant LvHMGBa/b proteins were present in the nucleus of transfected Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that LvHMGBa/b upregulated the WSSV immediate-early (IE) gene (ie1) in a NF-?B and STAT binding site-dependent manner. GST pull-down assays demonstrated that LvHMGBa/b interacted with L. vannamei Dorsal (LvDorsal) and L. vannamei STAT (LvSTAT), respectively. LvHMGBa was highly expressed in hepatopancreas while HMGBb was highly expressed in stomach, intestine, heart, antennal gland, and epidermis. Moreover, an immune challenge assay demonstrated that the expression of LvHMGBa/b was upregulated by WSSV infection and that both mRNAs reached peak values at 24 h post-infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report that invertebrate HMGB proteins participates in viral gene regulation. PMID:21186060

  11. Combinatorial Strategies for Improving Multiple-Stress Resistance in Industrially Relevant Escherichia coli Strains

    PubMed Central

    Herrgård, Markus J.

    2014-01-01

    High-cell-density fermentation for industrial production of chemicals can impose numerous stresses on cells due to high substrate, product, and by-product concentrations; high osmolarity; reactive oxygen species; and elevated temperatures. There is a need to develop platform strains of industrial microorganisms that are more tolerant toward these typical processing conditions. In this study, the growth of six industrially relevant strains of Escherichia coli was characterized under eight stress conditions representative of fed-batch fermentation, and strains W and BL21(DE3) were selected as platforms for transposon (Tn) mutagenesis due to favorable resistance characteristics. Selection experiments, followed by either targeted or genome-wide next-generation-sequencing-based Tn insertion site determination, were performed to identify mutants with improved growth properties under a subset of three stress conditions and two combinations of individual stresses. A subset of the identified loss-of-function mutants were selected for a combinatorial approach, where strains with combinations of two and three gene deletions were systematically constructed and tested for single and multistress resistance. These approaches allowed identification of (i) strain-background-specific stress resistance phenotypes, (ii) novel gene deletion mutants in E. coli that confer single and multistress resistance in a strain-background-dependent manner, and (iii) synergistic effects of multiple gene deletions that confer improved resistance over single deletions. The results of this study underscore the suboptimality and strain-specific variability of the genetic network regulating growth under stressful conditions and suggest that further exploration of the combinatorial gene deletion space in multiple strain backgrounds is needed for optimizing strains for microbial bioprocessing applications. PMID:25085490

  12. Inhibition of iridovirus protein synthesis and virus replication by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeted to the major capsid protein, the 18 kDa immediate-early protein, and a viral homolog of RNA polymerase II

    SciTech Connect

    Sample, Robert; Bryan, Locke; Long, Scott; Majji, Sai; Hoskins, Glenn; Sinning, Allan; Olivier, Jake; Chinchar, V. Gregory . E-mail: vchinchar@microbio.umsmed.edu

    2007-02-20

    Frog virus 3 (FV3) is a large DNA virus that encodes {approx} 100 proteins. Although the general features of FV3 replication are known, the specific roles that most viral proteins play in the virus life cycle have not yet been elucidated. To address the question of viral gene function, antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (asMOs) were used to transiently knock-down expression of specific viral genes and thus infer their role in virus replication. We designed asMOs directed against the major capsid protein (MCP), an 18 kDa immediate-early protein (18K) that was thought to be a viral regulatory protein, and the viral homologue of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (vPol-II{alpha}). All three asMOs successfully inhibited translation of the targeted protein, and two of the three asMOs resulted in marked phenotypic changes. Knock-down of the MCP resulted in a marked reduction in viral titer without a corresponding drop in the synthesis of other late viral proteins. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that in cells treated with the anti-MCP MO assembly sites were devoid of viral particles and contained numerous aberrant structures. In contrast, inhibition of 18K synthesis did not block virion formation, suggesting that the 18K protein was not essential for replication of FV3 in fathead minnow (FHM) cells. Finally, consistent with the view that late viral gene expression is catalyzed by a virus-encoded or virus-modified Pol-II-like protein, knock-down of vPol-II{alpha} triggered a global decline in late gene expression and virus yields without affecting the synthesis of early viral genes. Collectively, these results demonstrate the utility of using asMOs to elucidate the function of FV3 proteins.

  13. Induction of the immediate early gene c-jun in human spinal cord in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with concomitant loss of NMDA receptor NR-1 and glycine transporter mRNA.

    PubMed

    Virgo, L; de Belleroche, J

    1995-04-01

    The aetiology of the sporadic form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is poorly understood although abnormalities in glutamate and glycine transport have been implicated which both could contribute to a neurodegenerative process mediated through the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. In this study we have used in situ hybridization to investigate whether any changes in the expression of NMDA receptors, the glycine transporter or glutamate-mediated injury responses are detectable in ALS. Two immediate early genes were investigated as markers of neuronal injury responses, c-jun and zif-268, both constitutively expressed in the spinal cord. Levels of c-jun mRNA were most abundant in intermediate grey and layer IX of the ventral horn containing motor neurones. This pattern was markedly changed in ALS with large increases (2-3 fold) in c-jun mRNA occurring in dorsal and ventral horn. The marked increase in c-jun mRNA was also substantiated by slot blot analysis of tissue homogenates of spinal cord and a parallel induction of zif-268 mRNA was also seen. NMDA receptor NR-1 mRNA was widely distributed in control spinal cord with the highest concentrations occurring in layers IX, X, intermediate grey and dorsal horn. The ALS cases showed a selective decrease in the level of NR-1 mRNA in the ventral region (50%) whilst no significant decrease was detected in the dorsal region. Quantitation of tissue homogenates with dorsal and ventral regions combined also yielded a significant decrease of 40% which supports the analysis from in situ hybridization densitometry.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7796170

  14. The activator protein 1 binding motifs within the human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early enhancer are functionally redundant and act in a cooperative manner with the NF-{kappa}B sites during acute infection.

    PubMed

    Isern, Elena; Gustems, Montse; Messerle, Martin; Borst, Eva; Ghazal, Peter; Angulo, Ana

    2011-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection causes a rapid induction of c-Fos and c-Jun, the major subunits of activator protein 1 (AP-1), which in turn have been postulated to activate the viral immediate-early (IE) genes. Accordingly, the major IE promoter (MIEP) enhancer, a critical control region for initiating lytic HCMV infection and reactivation from the latent state, contains one well-characterized AP-1 site and a second candidate interaction site. In this study we explored the role of these AP-1 elements in the context of the infection. We first show that the distal candidate AP-1 motif binds c-Fos/c-Jun heterodimers (AP-1 complex) and confers c-Fos/c-Jun-mediated activity to a core promoter. Site-directed mutagenesis studies indicate that both AP-1 response elements are critical for 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-enhanced MIEP activity in transient-transfection assays. In marked contrast to the results obtained with the isolated promoter, disruption of the AP-1 recognition sites of the MIEP in the context of the infectious HCMV genome has no significant influence on the expression of the MIE protein IE1 or viral replication in different cell types. Moreover, a chimeric murine CMV driven by the HCMV MIEP (hMCMV-ES) with the two AP-1 binding sites mutated is not compromised in virulence, is able to grow and disseminate to different organs of the newborn mice as efficiently as the parental virus, and is competent in reactivation. We show, however, that combined inactivation of the enhancer AP-1 and NF-?B recognition sites leads to an attenuation of the hMCMV-ES in the neonatal murine infection model, not observed when each single element is abolished. Altogether, these results underline the functional redundancy of the MIEP elements, highlighting the plasticity of this region, which probably evolved to ensure maximal transcriptional performance across many diverse environments. PMID:21106746

  15. Immediate early gene-X1 interferes with 26S proteasome activity by attenuating expression of the 19 S proteasomal components S5a/Rpn10 and S1/Rpn2

    PubMed Central

    Arlt, Alexander; Minkenberg, Jrg; Kruse, Marie-Luise; Grohmann, Frauke; Flsch, UlrichR.; Schfer, Heiner

    2006-01-01

    The stress response gene IEX-1 (immediate early gene-X-1) is involved in the regulation of cell growth and cellular viability. To some extent, these effects include an interference with the proteasomal turnover of certain regulatory proteins. Here, we show that IEX-1 directly attenuates the activity and formation of the 26S proteasome in HEK-293 cells (human embryonic kidney cells). We further demonstrate that IEX-1 reduces the overall expression levels of certain protein components of the 19S proteasomal subunit such as S5a/Rpn10 and S1/Rpn2, whereas the expression of other proteasomal proteins was less or not affected. In contrast with direct apoptotic stimuli, such as the anti-cancer drug etoposide, leading to caspase-dependent degradation of S1 and S5a, the effect of IEX-1 is independent of proteolytic cleavage of these proteins. Furthermore, the decreasing effect of IEX-1 on S5a and S1 expression is still seen in the presence of cycloheximide, but not in the presence of actinomycin D, and quantitative real-time PCR revealed lower mRNA levels of S5a and S1 in IEX-1-overexpressing cells, suggesting an interference of IEX-1 with the gene transcription of S5a and S1. Additionally, luciferase assays confirmed an interference of IEX-1 with the activity of the S5a promoter. These findings indicate a role of IEX-1 in the maintenance and assembly of the 26S proteasome, obviously involving an altered gene expression of certain proteasomal proteins. Thereby, IEX-1 may essentially modulate signalling pathways related to 26 S proteasome activity and involved in cellular growth control and apoptosis. PMID:17107344

  16. Enrichment of Immediate-Early 1 (m123/pp89) Peptide-Specific CD8 T Cells in a Pulmonary CD62Llo Memory-Effector Cell Pool during Latent Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection of the Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Holtappels, Rafaela; Pahl-Seibert, Marcus-Folker; Thomas, Doris; Reddehase, Matthias J.

    2000-01-01

    Interstitial cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is a clinically relevant complication in recipients of bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Recent data for a model of experimental syngeneic BMT and concomitant infection of BALB/c mice with murine CMV (mCMV) have documented the persistence of tissue-resident CD8 T cells after clearance of productive infection of the lungs (J. Podlech, R. Holtappels, M.-F. Pahl-Seibert, H.-P. Steffens, and M. J. Reddehase, J. Virol. 74:74967507, 2000). It was proposed that these cells represent antiviral standby memory cells whose functional role might be to help prevent reactivation of latent virus. The pool of pulmonary CD8 T cells was composed of two subsets defined by the T-cell activation marker L-selectin (CD62L): a CD62Lhi subset of quiescent memory cells, and a CD62Llo subset of recently resensitized memory-effector cells. In this study, we have continued this line of investigation by quantitating CD8 T cells specific for the three currently published antigenic peptides of mCMV: peptide YPHFMPTNL processed from the immediate-early protein IE1 (pp89), and peptides YGPSLYRRF and AYAGLFTPL, derived from the early proteins m04 (gp34) and M84 (p65), respectively. IE1-specific CD8 T cells dominated in acute-phase pulmonary infiltrates and were selectively enriched in latently infected lungs. Notably, most IE1-specific CD8 T cells were found to belong to the CD62Llo subset representing memory-effector cells. This finding is in accordance with the interpretation that IE1-specific CD8 T cells are frequently resensitized during latent infection of the lungs and may thus be involved in the maintenance of mCMV latency. PMID:11090146

  17. Detection of phase-dependent transcriptomic changes and Rubisco-mediated CO2 fixation into poly (3-hydroxybutyrate) under heterotrophic condition in Ralstonia eutropha H16 based on RNA-seq and gene deletion analyses

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ralstonia eutropha H16 is well known to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), which are potential bio-based biodegradable plastics, in an efficient manner as an energy storage material under unbalanced growth conditions. To obtain further knowledge of PHA biosynthesis, this study performed a quantitative transcriptome analysis based on deep sequencing of the complementary DNA generated from the RNA (RNA-seq) of R. eutropha H16. Results Total RNAs were extracted from R. eutropha cells in growth, PHA production, and stationary phases on fructose. rRNAs in the preparation were removed by repeated treatments with magnetic beads specific to bacterial rRNAs, and then the 36 bp sequences were determined using an Illumina high-throughput sequencer. The RNA-seq results indicated the induction of gene expression for transcription, translation, cell division, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, pilus and flagella assembly, energy conservation, and fatty acid biosynthesis in the growth phase; and the repression trends of genes involved in central metabolisms in the PHA production phase. Interestingly, the transcription of genes for Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle and several genes for β-oxidation were significantly induced in the PHA production phase even when the cells were grown on fructose. Moreover, incorporation of 13C was observed in poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) synthesized by R. eutropha H16 from fructose in the presence of NaH13CO3, and further gene deletion analyses revealed that both of the two ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubiscos) in CBB cycle were actually functional in CO2 fixation under the heterotrophic condition. Conclusions The results revealed the phase-dependent transcriptomic changes and a CO2 fixation capability under heterotrophic conditions by PHA-producing R. eutropha. PMID:23879744

  18. The equine herpesvirus-1 IR3 gene that lies antisense to the sole immediate-early (IE) gene is trans-activated by the IE protein, and is poorly expressed to a protein

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Byung Chul; Breitenbach, Jonathan E.; Kim, Seong K.; O'Callaghan, Dennis J. . E-mail: docall@lsuhsc.edu

    2007-06-20

    The unique IR3 gene of equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is expressed as a late 1.0-kb transcript. Previous studies confirmed the IR3 transcription initiation site and tentatively identified other cis-acting elements specific to IR3 such as a TATA box, a 443 base pair 5'untranslated region (UTR), a 285 base pair open reading frame (ORF), and a poly adenylation (A) signal [Holden, V.R., Harty, R.N., Yalamanchili, R.R., O'Callaghan, D.J., 1992. The IR3 gene of equine herpesvirus type 1: a unique gene regulated by sequences within the intron of the immediate-early gene. DNA Seq. 3, 143-152]. Transient transfection assays revealed that the IR3 promoter is strongly trans-activated by the IE protein (IEP) and that coexpression of the IEP with the early EICP0 and IR4 regulatory proteins results in maximal trans-activation of the IR3 promoter. Gel shift assays revealed that the IEP directly binds to the IR3 promoter region. Western blot analysis showed that the IR3 protein produced in E. coli was detected by antibodies to IR3 synthetic peptides; however, the IR3 protein was not detected in EHV-1 infected cell extracts by these same anti-IR3 antibodies, even though the IR3 transcript was detected by northern blot. These findings suggest that the IR3 may not be expressed to a protein. Expression of an IR3/GFP fusion gene was not observed, but expression of a GFP/IR3 fusion gene was detected by fluorescent microscopy. In further attempts to detect the IR3/GFP fusion protein using anti-GFP antibody, western blot analysis showed that the IR3/GFP fusion protein was not detected in vivo. Interestingly, a truncated form of the GFP/IR3 protein was synthesized from the GFP/IR3 fusion gene. However, GFP/IR3 and IR3/GFP fusion proteins of the predicted sizes were synthesized by in vitro coupled transcription and translation of the fusion genes, suggesting poor expression of the IR3 protein in vivo. The possible role of the IR3 transcript in EHV-1 infection is discussed.

  19. Extracellular-signal regulated kinase (Erk1/2), mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) and tristetraprolin (TTP) comprehensively regulate injury-induced immediate early gene (IEG) response in in vitro liver organ culture.

    PubMed

    Tran, Doan Duy Hai; Koch, Alexandra; Saran, Shashank; Armbrecht, Marcel; Ewald, Florian; Koch, Martina; Wahlicht, Tom; Wirth, Dagmar; Braun, Armin; Nashan, Björn; Gaestel, Matthias; Tamura, Teruko

    2016-05-01

    Differentiated hepatocytes are long-lived and normally do not undergo cell division, however they have the unique capacity to autonomously decide their replication fate after liver injury. In this context, the key players of liver regeneration immediately after injury have not been adequately studied. Using an in vitro liver culture system, we show that after liver injury, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (Erk)1/2 were activated within 15min and continued to be phosphorylated for more than 2h. Both p38MAPK and Erk1/2 were activated at the edge of the cut as well as on the liver surface where the mesothelial cell sheet expresses several cytokines. Notably, in human liver Erk1/2 was also activated under the mesothelial cell sheet shortly after liver resections. Furthermore, in in vitro liver slice culture immediate early genes (IEGs) were upregulated within 1-2h and the S phase marker proliferation-cell-nuclear-antigen (PCNA) appeared 24h after injury. Although Erk1/2 was activated after injury, in MK2 depleted liver a set of IEGs, such as Dusp1, Cox2, or c-Myc and proliferation marker gene Ki67 were not induced. In addition, in immortalized hepatocyte cells, THLE-2, the same subset of genes was upregulated upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), but not in the presence of MK2 inhibitor. The protein level of tristetraprolin (TTP), a substrate for MK2 that plays a role in mRNA degradation, was increased in the presence of MK2 inhibitor. In this context, the depletion of TTP gene rescued Dusp1, Cox2, or c-Myc upregulation in the presence of MK2 inhibitor. These data imply that MK2 pathway is positively involved in Erk1/2 induced IEG response after liver injury. These data also suggest that in vitro liver culture may be a useful tool for measuring the proliferation potential of hepatocytes in individual liver. PMID:26876787

  20. Multiplex PCR for identifying DMD gene deletions.

    PubMed

    den Dunnen, Johan T; Beggs, Alan H

    2006-05-01

    The identification of dystrophin as the defective protein in patients with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies (DMD and BMD) has allowed the development of sensitive and specific tests to establish a diagnosis and to aid in genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis. The Basic Protocol describes three complementary multiplex PCR assays that detect 26 dystrophin gene exons. The multiplex nature of these assays allows the detection of up to ten different exons in a single reaction. At least one of these exons is missing in >95% of deletions. The Support Protocol describes preparation and storage of stock PCR reaction mixes with primers for each of the three diagnostic assays. The Alternate Protocol is a modification of the Basic Protocol for radioactive detection of duplications in males and deletions in carrier females. PMID:18428400

  1. The major immediate-early proteins IE1 and IE2 of human cytomegalovirus colocalize with and disrupt PML-associated nuclear bodies at very early times in infected permissive cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, J H; Hayward, G S

    1997-01-01

    The major immediate-early (MIE) gene products of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) are nuclear phosphoproteins that are thought to play key roles in initiating lytic cycle gene regulation pathways. We have examined the intranuclear localization pattern of both the IE1 and IE2 proteins in virus-infected and DNA-transfected cells. When HCMV-infected human diploid fibroblast (HF) cells were stained with specific monoclonal antibodies, IE1 localized as a mixture of nuclear diffuse and punctate patterns at very early times (2 h) but changed to an exclusively nuclear diffuse pattern at later times. In contrast, IE2 was distributed predominantly in nuclear punctate structures continuously from 2 to at least 12 h after infection. These punctate structures resembled the preexisting PML-associated nuclear bodies (ND10 or PML oncogenic domains [PODs]) that are disrupted and dispersed by the IE110 protein as a very early event in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. However, HCMV differed from HSV by leading instead to a change in both the PML and SP100 protein distribution from punctate bodies to uniform diffuse patterns, a process that was complete in 50% of the cells at 2 h and in 90% of the cells by 4 h after infection. Confocal double-label indirect immunofluorescence assay analysis confirmed that both IE1 and IE2 colocalized transiently with PML in punctate bodies at very early times after infection. In transient expression assays, introduction of IE1-encoding plasmid DNA alone into Vero or HF cells produced the typical total redistribution of PML into a uniform nuclear diffuse pattern together with the IE1 protein, whereas introduction of IE2-encoding plasmid DNA alone resulted in stable colocalization of the IE2 protein with PML in the PODs. A truncated mutant form of IE1 gave large nuclear aggregates and failed to redistribute PML, and similarly a deleted mutant form of IE2 failed to colocalize with the punctate PML bodies, confirming the specificity of these effects. Furthermore, both Vero and U373 cell lines constitutively expressing IE1 also showed total PML relocalization together with the IE1 protein into a nuclear diffuse pattern, although a very small percentage of the cells which failed to express IE1 reverted to a punctate PML pattern. Finally, the PML redistribution activity of IE1 and the direct association of IE2 with PML punctate bodies were both confirmed by infection with E1A-negative recombinant adenovirus vectors expressing either IE1 or IE2 alone. These results confirm that transient colocalization with and disruption of PML-associated nuclear bodies by IE1 and continuous targeting to PML-associated nuclear bodies by IE2 are intrinsic properties of these two MIE regulatory proteins, which we suggest may represent critical initial events for efficient lytic cycle infection by HCMV. PMID:9151854

  2. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA lyase (HL): Mouse and human HL gene (HMGCL) cloning and detection of large gene deletions in two unrelated HL-deficient patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.P.; Robert, M.F.; Mitchell, G.A.

    1996-04-01

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA lyase (HL, EC 4.1.3.4) catalyzes the cleavage of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA to acetoacetic acid and acetyl CoA, the final reaction of both ketogenesis and leucine catabolism. Autosomal-recessive HL deficiency in humans results in episodes of hypoketotic hypoglycemia and coma. Using a mouse HL cDNA as a probe, we isolated a clone containing the full-length mouse HL gene that spans about 15 kb of mouse chromosome 4 and contains nine exons. The promoter region of the mouse HL gene contains elements characteristic of a housekeeping gene: a CpG island containing multiple Sp1 binding sites surrounds exon 1, and neither a TATA nor a CAAT box are present. We identified multiple transcription start sites in the mouse HL gene, 35 to 9 bases upstream of the translation start codon. We also isolated two human HL genomic clones that include HL exons 2 to 9 within 18 kb. The mouse and human HL genes (HGMW-approved symbol HMGCL) are highly homologous, with identical locations of intron-exon junctions. By genomic Southern blot analysis and exonic PCR, was found 2 of 33 HL-deficient probands to be homozygous for large deletions in the HL gene. 26 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. An Obligatory Role of NF-?B in Mediating Bone Marrow Derived Endothelial Progenitor Cell Recruitment and Proliferation Following Endotoxemic Multiple Organ Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Sun-Zhong; Ye, Xiaobing; Liu, Gang; Song, Dongmei; Liu, Shu Fang

    2014-01-01

    Background Recruitment of bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells (BMDEPCs) alleviates multiple organ injury (MOI) and improves outcomes. However, mechanisms mediating BMDEPC recruitment following septic MOI remain largely unknown. This study characterized the kinetics of BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation and defined the role of NF-?B in regulating BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation. Methods and Main Findings Chimeric mice with an intact or disrupted NF-?B p50 gene and BMDEPC-restricted expression of green fluorescent protein were created and injected with LPS (2 mg/kg, i.p.). BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation in multiple organs were quantified. BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation are highly organ-dependent. Lungs had the highest number of BMDEPC recruitment, whereas heart, liver and kidney had only a small fraction of the number of BMDEPCs in lungs. Number of proliferating BMDEPCs was several-fold higher in lungs than in other 3 organs. Kinetically, BMDEPC recruitment into different organs showed different time course profiles. NF-?B plays obligatory roles in mediating BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation. Universal deletion of NF-?B p50 gene inhibited LPS-induced BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation by 95% and 69% in heart. However, the contribution of NF-?B to these regulations varies significantly between organs. In liver, universal p50 gene deletion reduced LPS-induced BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation only by 49% and 35%. NF-?B activities in different tissue compartments play distinct roles. Selective p50 gene deletion either in stromal/parenchymal cells or in BM/blood cells inhibited BMDEPC recruitment by a similar extent. However, selective p50 gene deletion in BM/blood cells inhibited, but in stromal/parenchymal cells augmented BMDEPC proliferation. Conclusions BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation display different kinetics in different organs following endotoxemic MOI. NF-?B plays obligatory and organ-dependent roles in regulating BMDEPC recruitment and proliferation. NF-?B activities in different tissue compartments play distinct roles in regulating BMDEPC proliferation. PMID:25333282

  4. Trehalose-related gene deletions in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a widespread corn pathogen that causes root, stalk, and ear rot and produces fumonisins, toxic secondary metabolites associated with disease in livestock and humans. Our goal is to assess the feasibility of exploiting trehalose metabolism as a target for F. verticillioide...

  5. Frequent gene deletions in potentially malignant oral lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Emilion, G.; Langdon, J. D.; Speight, P.; Partridge, M.

    1996-01-01

    Some oral cancers are preceded by premalignant lesions which include leucoplakia and erythroplakia. At present there are no reliable markers to identify lesions that may progress to malignancy. We have analysed 30 potentially malignant oral lesions for deletions at chromosomal regions that harbour tumour-suppressor genes for oral cancer. A total of 16 of 30 cases (53%) showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or allele imbalance at TP53, DCC, 3p21.3-22.1 or 3p12.1-13. These genetic alterations were detected in dysplastic lesions but not in histologically normal mucosa and may be early events in the carcinogenic process. A total of 64% of dysplastic lesions that recurred during the study showed LOH or allele imbalance in the initial biopsy and the number of genetic abnormalities increased in the tumours that developed. This type of molecular profiling may help to identify patients with lesions that may recur or acquire additional genetic events and progress to malignancy. Images Figure 2 PMID:8611386

  6. Glucocerebrosidase 2 gene deletion rescues type 1 Gaucher disease

    PubMed Central

    Mistry, Pramod K.; Liu, Jun; Sun, Li; Chuang, Wei-Lien; Yuen, Tony; Yang, Ruhua; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Kate; Li, Jianhua; Keutzer, Joan; Stachnik, Agnes; Mennone, Albert; Boyer, James L.; Jain, Dhanpat; Brady, Roscoe O.; New, Maria I.; Zaidi, Mone

    2014-01-01

    The inherited deficiency of the lysosomal glucocerebrosidase (GBA) due to mutations in the GBA gene results in Gaucher disease (GD). A vast majority of patients present with nonneuronopathic, type 1 GD (GD1). GBA deficiency causes the accumulation of two key sphingolipids, glucosylceramide (GL-1) and glucosylsphingosine (LysoGL-1), classically noted within the lysosomes of mononuclear phagocytes. How metabolites of GL-1 or LysoGL-1 produced by extralysosomal glucocerebrosidase GBA2 contribute to the GD1 pathophysiology is not known. We recently recapitulated hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia, hypercytokinemia, and the bone-formation defect of human GD1 through conditional deletion of Gba in Mx1–Cre+:GD1 mice. Here we show that the deletion of Gba2 significantly rescues the GD1 clinical phenotype, despite enhanced elevations in GL-1 and LysoGL-1. Most notably, the reduced bone volume and bone formation rate are normalized. These results suggest that metabolism of GL-1 or LysoGL-1 into downstream bioactive lipids is a major contributor to the bone-formation defect. Direct testing revealed a strong inhibition of osteoblast viability by nanomolar concentrations of sphingosine, but not of ceramide. These findings are consistent with toxicity of high circulating sphingosine levels in GD1 patients, which decline upon enzyme-replacement therapy; serum ceramide levels remain unchanged. Together, complementary results from mice and humans affected with GD1 not only pinpoint sphingosine as being an osteoblast toxin, but also set forth Gba2 as a viable therapeutic target for the development of inhibitors to ameliorate certain disabling consequences of GD1. PMID:24639522

  7. Gene Deletion and Functional Analysis of Fusarium verticillioides Trehalose Metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a species of fungus that causes stalk, ear, and kernel rot of corn and produces fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins that have dangerous health effects. We have observed previously that the intracellular concentration of trehalose, a disaccharide involved in resistance to st...

  8. PHLPP1 gene deletion protects the brain from ischemic injury

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Van Winkle, Jessica A; Lyden, Patrick D; Brown, Joan H; Purcell, Nicole H

    2013-01-01

    A recently discovered protein phosphatase PHLPP (PH domain Leucine-rich repeat Protein Phosphatase) has been shown to dephosphorylate Akt on its hydrophobic motif (Ser473) thereby decreasing Akt kinase activity. We generated PHLPP1 knockout (KO) mice and used them to explore the ability of enhanced in vivo Akt signaling to protect the brain against ischemic insult. Brains from KO mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2?hours showed significantly greater increases in Akt activity and less neurovascular damage after reperfusion than wild-type (WT) mice. Remarkably, infarct volume in the PHLPP1 KO was significantly reduced compared with WT (12.72.7% versus 22.93.1%) and this was prevented by Akt inhibition. Astrocytes from KO mice and neurons in which PHLPP1 was downregulated showed enhanced Akt activation and diminished cell death in response to oxygen-glucose deprivation. Thus, deletion of PHLPP1 can enhance Akt activation in neurons and astrocytes, and can significantly increase cell survival and diminish infarct size after MCAO. Inhibition of PHLPP could be a therapeutic approach to minimize damage after focal ischemia. PMID:23072745

  9. Trehalose-related Gene Deletions in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a widespread corn pathogen that causes root, stalk and ear rot and produces fumonisins, toxic secondary metabolites associated with disease in livestock and humans. Our goal is to assess the feasibility of exploiting trehalose metabolism as a target for F. verticillioides...

  10. CHARACTERIZING FUMONISIN BIOSYNTHESIS THROUGH ANALYSIS OF FUM GENE DELETION MUTANTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are produced by Gibberella moniliformis, a causal agent of maize ear and stalk rot, and pose a health risk to humans and livestock alike. Recently, a fumonisin biosynthetic gene cluster was described in G. moniliformis. The cluster consists of 15 co-regulated genes (FUM1 and FUM6 throug...

  11. Multiple replication origins with diverse control mechanisms in Haloarcula hispanica

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhenfang; Liu, Jingfang; Yang, Haibo; Liu, Hailong; Xiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    The use of multiple replication origins in archaea is not well understood. In particular, little is known about their specific control mechanisms. Here, we investigated the active replication origins in the three replicons of a halophilic archaeon, Haloarcula hispanica, by extensive gene deletion, DNA mutation and genome-wide marker frequency analyses. We revealed that individual origins are specifically dependent on their co-located cdc6 genes, and a single active origin/cdc6 pairing is essential and sufficient for each replicon. Notably, we demonstrated that the activities of oriC1 and oriC2, the two origins on the main chromosome, are differently controlled. A G-rich inverted repeat located in the internal region between the two inverted origin recognition boxes (ORBs) plays as an enhancer for oriC1, whereas the replication initiation at oriC2 is negatively regulated by an ORB-rich region located downstream of oriC2-cdc6E, likely via Cdc6E-titrating. The oriC2 placed on a plasmid is incompatible with the wild-type (but not the ΔoriC2) host strain, further indicating that strict control of the oriC2 activity is important for the cell. This is the first report revealing diverse control mechanisms of origins in haloarchaea, which has provided novel insights into the use and coordination of multiple replication origins in the domain of Archaea. PMID:24271389

  12. Multiple replication origins with diverse control mechanisms in Haloarcula hispanica.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenfang; Liu, Jingfang; Yang, Haibo; Liu, Hailong; Xiang, Hua

    2014-02-01

    The use of multiple replication origins in archaea is not well understood. In particular, little is known about their specific control mechanisms. Here, we investigated the active replication origins in the three replicons of a halophilic archaeon, Haloarcula hispanica, by extensive gene deletion, DNA mutation and genome-wide marker frequency analyses. We revealed that individual origins are specifically dependent on their co-located cdc6 genes, and a single active origin/cdc6 pairing is essential and sufficient for each replicon. Notably, we demonstrated that the activities of oriC1 and oriC2, the two origins on the main chromosome, are differently controlled. A G-rich inverted repeat located in the internal region between the two inverted origin recognition boxes (ORBs) plays as an enhancer for oriC1, whereas the replication initiation at oriC2 is negatively regulated by an ORB-rich region located downstream of oriC2-cdc6E, likely via Cdc6E-titrating. The oriC2 placed on a plasmid is incompatible with the wild-type (but not the ?oriC2) host strain, further indicating that strict control of the oriC2 activity is important for the cell. This is the first report revealing diverse control mechanisms of origins in haloarchaea, which has provided novel insights into the use and coordination of multiple replication origins in the domain of Archaea. PMID:24271389

  13. Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Allergy Emergency Cerebral Palsy: Caring for Your Child Parenting Multiples KidsHealth > For Parents > Parenting Multiples Print A ... to take care of your babies. previous continue Parenting Issues With Multiples It can be impossible to ...

  14. Multiple sclerosis associates with LILRA3 deletion in Spanish patients.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, D; Sánchez, A J; Martínez-Rodríguez, J E; Cisneros, E; Ramil, E; Romo, N; Moraru, M; Munteis, E; López-Botet, M; Roquer, J; García-Merino, A; Vilches, C

    2009-09-01

    The genetic susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) is only partially explained, and it shows geographic variations. We analyse here two series of Spanish patients and healthy controls and show that relapsing MS (R-MS) is associated with a gene deletion affecting the hypothetically soluble leukocyte immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptor A3 (LILRA3, 19q13.4), in agreement with an earlier finding in German patients. Our study points to a gene-dose-dependent, protective role for LILRA3, the deletion of which synergizes with HLA-DRB1(*)1501 to increase the risk of R-MS. We also investigated whether the risk of suffering R-MS might be influenced by the genotypic diversity of killer-cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs), located only approximately 400 kb telomeric to LILRA3, and implicated in autoimmunity and defence against viruses. The relationship of LILRA3 deletion with R-MS is not secondary to linkage disequilibrium with a KIR gene, but we cannot exclude some contributions of KIR to the genetic susceptibility to R-MS. PMID:19421224

  15. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  16. Multiple Myeloma

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Multiple Myeloma Overview What is multiple myeloma? Multiple myeloma (say: my-a-low-ma) is a kind of ... greater risk due to exposure to chemicals. Diagnosis & Tests How does my doctor know if I have ...

  17. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger

  18. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  19. Multiple homicides.

    PubMed

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered. PMID:2782297

  20. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePLUS

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... National Cancer Institute: PDQ Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including ... Institute. Date last modified: June 24, 2014. Available at: www. ...

  1. Stellar Multiplicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchne, Gaspard; Kraus, Adam

    2013-08-01

    Stellar multiplicity is a ubiquitous outcome of the star-formation process. The frequency and main characteristics of multiple systems, and their dependence on primary mass and environment, are powerful tools to probe this process. Although early attempts were fraught with selection biases and limited completeness, instrumentation breakthroughs in the past two decades now enable robust statistical analyses. In this review, we summarize current empirical knowledge of stellar multiplicity for main sequence stars and brown dwarfs, as well as among populations of pre-main-sequence stars and embedded protostars. Among field objects, the multiplicity rate and breadth of the orbital period distribution are steep functions of the primary mass, whereas the mass ratio distribution is essentially flat for most populations other than the lowest mass objects. The time-variation of the frequency of visual companions follows two parallel, constant tracks corresponding to loose and dense stellar populations, although current observations do not yet distinguish whether initial multiplicity properties are universal or dependent on the physical conditions of the parent cloud. Nonetheless, these quantitative trends provide a rich comparison basis for numerical and analytical models of star formation.

  2. A human cytomegalovirus-encoded microRNA regulates expression of multiple viral genes involved in replication.

    PubMed

    Grey, Finn; Meyers, Heather; White, Elizabeth A; Spector, Deborah H; Nelson, Jay

    2007-11-01

    Although multiple studies have documented the expression of over 70 novel virus-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs), the targets and functions of most of these regulatory RNA species are unknown. In this study a comparative bioinformatics approach was employed to identify potential human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) mRNA targets of the virus-encoded miRNA miR-UL112-1. Bioinformatics analysis of the known HCMV mRNA 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) revealed 14 potential viral transcripts that were predicted to contain functional target sites for miR-UL112-1. The potential target sites were screened using luciferase reporters that contain the HCMV 3'UTRs in co-transfection assays with miR-UL112-1. Three of the 14 HCMV miRNA targets were validated, including the major immediate early gene encoding IE72 (UL123, IE1), UL112/113, and UL120/121. Further analysis of IE72 regulation by miR-UL112-1 with clones encoding the complete major immediate early region revealed that the IE72 3'UTR target site is necessary and sufficient to direct miR-UL112-1-specific inhibition of expression in transfected cells. In addition, miR-UL112-1 regulation is mediated through translational inhibition rather than RNA degradation. Premature expression of miR-UL112-1 during HCMV infection resulted in a significant decrease in genomic viral DNA levels, suggesting a functional role for miR-UL112-1 in regulating the expression of genes involved in viral replication. This study demonstrates the ability of a viral miRNA to regulate multiple viral genes. PMID:17983268

  3. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then

  4. Myeloma (multiple)

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Multiple myeloma is the most common primary cancer of the bones in adults, representing about 1% of all cancers diagnosed in the US in 2004, and 14% of all haematological malignancies. In the UK, multiple myeloma accounts for 1% of all new cases of cancer diagnosed each year. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment in people with asymptomatic early stage multiple myeloma (stage I)? What are the effects of first-line treatments in people with advanced stage multiple myeloma (stages II and III)? What are the effect of salvage treatments, or supportive therapy, in people with advanced stage multiple myeloma (stages II and III)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November 2004 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: allogenic transplant (non-myeloablative), autologous stem cell transplant (early or late transplantation, double or single, purging of), bisphosphonates, bone marrow stem cells, bortezomib, chemotherapy (combination, conventional dose, intermediate dose plus stem cell rescue, high-dose plus stem cell rescue), combination chemotherapy plus corticosteroids, deferred treatment (in stage I disease), early chemotherapy plus corticosteroids (in stage I disease), epoetin alpha, first-line treatments, infection prophylaxis, interferon, maintenance therapy (in advanced multiple myeloma), melphalan (normal dose, high dose before autologous stem cell transplantation, plus total body irradiation), optimum priming regimen, peripheral blood stem cells, plasmapheresis, salvage therapy regimens, single-agent chemotherapy (adding prednisolone), single-agent chemotherapy (bendamustine, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, lomustine, carmustine) with or without corticosteroid (prednisolone, dexamethasone), syngeneic transplantation, and thalidomide (and derivatives).

  5. SAMSN1 Is a Tumor Suppressor Gene in Multiple Myeloma12

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Jacqueline E.; Hewett, Duncan R.; Williams, Sharon A.; Vandyke, Kate; Kok, Chung; To, Luen B.; Zannettino, Andrew C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM), a hematological malignancy characterized by the clonal growth of malignant plasma cells (PCs) in the bone marrow, is preceded by the benign asymptomatic condition, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Several genetic abnormalities have been identified as critical for the development of MM; however, a number of these abnormalities are also found in patients with MGUS, indicating that there are other, as yet unidentified, factors that contribute to the onset of MM disease. In this study, we identify a Samsn1 gene deletion in the 5TGM1/C57BL/KaLwRij murine model of myeloma. In addition, SAMSN1 expression is reduced in the malignant CD138+ PCs of patients with MM and this reduced expression correlates to total PC burden. We identify promoter methylation as a potential mechanism through which SAMSN1 expression is modulated in human myeloma cell lines. Notably, re-expression of Samsn1 in the 5TGM1 murine PC line resulted in complete inhibition of MM disease development in vivo and decreased proliferation in stromal cellPC co-cultures in vitro. This is the first study to identify deletion of a key gene in the C57BL/KaLwRij mice that also displays reduced gene expression in patients with MM and is therefore likely to play an integral role in MM disease development. PMID:25117979

  6. CRISPR/Cas9: a molecular Swiss army knife for simultaneous introduction of multiple genetic modifications in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Mans, Robert; van Rossum, Harmen M.; Wijsman, Melanie; Backx, Antoon; Kuijpers, Niels G.A.; van den Broek, Marcel; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J.A.; Daran, Jean-Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of techniques for strain engineering in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have recently been developed. However, especially when multiple genetic manipulations are required, strain construction is still a time-consuming process. This study describes new CRISPR/Cas9-based approaches for easy, fast strain construction in yeast and explores their potential for simultaneous introduction of multiple genetic modifications. An open-source tool (http://yeastriction.tnw.tudelft.nl) is presented for identification of suitable Cas9 target sites in S. cerevisiae strains. A transformation strategy, using in vivo assembly of a guideRNA plasmid and subsequent genetic modification, was successfully implemented with high accuracies. An alternative strategy, using in vitro assembled plasmids containing two gRNAs, was used to simultaneously introduce up to six genetic modifications in a single transformation step with high efficiencies. Where previous studies mainly focused on the use of CRISPR/Cas9 for gene inactivation, we demonstrate the versatility of CRISPR/Cas9-based engineering of yeast by achieving simultaneous integration of a multigene construct combined with gene deletion and the simultaneous introduction of two single-nucleotide mutations at different loci. Sets of standardized plasmids, as well as the web-based Yeastriction target-sequence identifier and primer-design tool, are made available to the yeast research community to facilitate fast, standardized and efficient application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. PMID:25743786

  7. Multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nylander, Alyssa; Hafler, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifocal demyelinating disease with progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response to self-antigens in a genetically susceptible individual. While the formation and persistence of meningeal lymphoid follicles suggest persistence of antigens to drive the continuing inflammatory and humoral response, the identity of an antigen or infectious agent leading to the oligoclonal expansion of B and T cells is unknown. In this review we examine new paradigms for understanding the immunopathology of MS, present recent data defining the common genetic variants underlying disease susceptibility, and explore how improved understanding of immune pathway disruption can inform MS prognosis and treatment decisions. PMID:22466660

  8. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a clonal plasma cell malignancy that accounts for slightly more than 10% of all hematologic cancers. In this paper, we present a historically focused review of the disease, from the description of the first case in 1844 to the present. The evolution of drug therapy and stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of myeloma, as well as the development of new agents, is discussed. We also provide an update on current concepts of diagnosis and therapy, with an emphasis on how treatments have emerged from a historical perspective after certain important discoveries and the results of experimental studies. PMID:18332230

  9. Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Files, Daniel Kane; Jausurawong, Tani; Katrajian, Ruba; Danoff, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, debilitating disease that can have devastating effects. Presentation varies widely in symptoms, pace, and progression. In addition to a thorough history and physical examination, diagnostic tools required to diagnose MS and exclude other diagnoses include MRI, evoked potential testing, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Although the disease is not curable presently, quality of life can be improved by minimizing the frequency and severity of disease burden. Disease modification, symptom management, preservation of function, and treatment of psychosocial issues are paramount to enhance the quality of life for the patient affected with MS. PMID:25979578

  10. [Multiple apheresis].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained. PMID:17521944

  11. Water deprivation-induced sodium appetite: humoral and cardiovascular mediators and immediate early genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Luca, Laurival A Jr; Xu, Zhice; Schoorlemmer, Guus H M.; Thunhorst, Robert L.; Beltz, Terry G.; Menani, Jose V.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2002-01-01

    Adult rats deprived of water for 24-30 h were allowed to rehydrate by ingesting only water for 1-2 h. Rats were then given access to both water and 1.8% NaCl. This procedure induced a sodium appetite defined by the operational criteria of a significant increase in 1.8% NaCl intake (3.8 +/- 0.8 ml/2 h; n = 6). Expression of Fos (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) was increased in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), subfornical organ (SFO), and supraoptic nucleus (SON) after water deprivation. After rehydration with water but before consumption of 1.8% NaCl, Fos expression in the SON disappeared and was partially reduced in the OVLT and MnPO. However, Fos expression did not change in the SFO. Water deprivation also 1) increased plasma renin activity (PRA), osmolality, and plasma Na+; 2) decreased blood volume; and 3) reduced total body Na+; but 4) did not alter arterial blood pressure. Rehydration with water alone caused only plasma osmolality and plasma Na+ concentration to revert to euhydrated levels. The changes in Fos expression and PRA are consistent with a proposed role for ANG II in the control of the sodium appetite produced by water deprivation followed by rehydration with only water.

  12. Immediate early responses of avian tracheal epithelial cells to infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) present an on going threat to the U.S. poultry industry. In order to develop new AIV control strategies it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanism of viral infection. Because the early events of AIV infection can occur on tracheal ep...

  13. Immediate early responses of avian tracheal epithelial cells to infection with highly pathogenic avian invluenza virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza viruses (AIV) present an ongoing threat to the world poultry industry. In order to develop new AIV control strategies it is necessary to understand the underlying mechanism of viral infection at mucosal respiratory sites. Chicken and duck tracheal epithelial ...

  14. Rodent cell transformation and immediate early gene expression following 60-Hz magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Balcer-Kubiczek, E K; Zhang, X F; Harrison, G H; McCready, W A; Shi, Z M; Han, L H; Abraham, J M; Ampey, L L; Meltzer, S J; Jacobs, M C; Davis, C C

    1996-01-01

    Some epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to power frequency magnetic fields (MFs) may be associated with an elevated risk of human cancer, but the experimental database remains limited and controversial. We investigated the hypothesis that 60-Hz MF action at the cellular level produces changes in gene expression that can result in neoplastic transformation. Twenty-four hour 200 microT continuous MF exposure produced negative results in two standard transformation systems (Syrian hamster embryo cells and C3H/10T1/2 murine fibroblasts) with or without postexposure to a chemical promoter. This prompted a reexamination of previously reported MF-induced changes in gene expression in human HL60 cells. Extensive testing using both coded and uncoded analyses was negative for an MF effect. Using the same exposure conditions as in the transformation studies, no MF-induced changes in ornithine decarboxylase expression were observed in C3H/10T1/2 cells, casting doubt on a promotional role of MF for the tested cells and experimental conditions. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 2. C Figure 2. D Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C Figure 5. D Figure 5. E Figure 6. A Figure 6. B Figure 6. C Figure 6. D Figure 6. E Figure 7. Figure 8. A Figure 8. B Figure 8. C Figure 9. Figure 10. A Figure 10. B PMID:8959408

  15. Current aspects of therapeutic reduction mammaplasty for immediate early breast cancer management: An update

    PubMed Central

    Munhoz, Alexandre Mendona; Montag, Eduardo; Gemperli, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Breast-conservation surgery (BCS) is established as a safe surgical treatment for most patients with early breast cancer. Recently, advances in oncoplastic techniques are capable of preserving the breast form and quality of life. Although most BCS defects can be managed with primary closure, the aesthetic outcome may be unpredictable. Among technical options, therapeutic reduction mammaplasty (TRM) remains a useful procedure since the BCS defect can be repaired and the preoperative appearance can be improved, resulting in more proportional breasts. As a consequence of rich breast tissue vascularization, the greater part of reduction techniques have based their planning on preserving the pedicle of the nipple-areola complex after tumor removal. Reliable circulation and improvement of a conical shape to the breast are commonly described in TRM reconstructions. With an immediate approach, the surgical process is smooth since both procedures can be carried out in one operative setting. Additionally, it permits wider excision of the tumor, with a superior mean volume of the specimen and potentially reduces the incidence of margin involvement. Regardless of the fact that there is no consensus concerning the best TRM technique, the criteria is determined by the surgeons experience, the extent/location of glandular tissue resection and the size of the defect in relation to the size of the remaining breast. The main advantages of the technique utilized should include reproducibility, low interference with the oncological treatment and long-term results. The success of the procedure depends on patient selection, coordinated planning and careful intra-operative management. PMID:24527398

  16. Integrins as a primary signal transduction molecule regulating monocyte immediate-early gene induction.

    PubMed Central

    Yurochko, A D; Liu, D Y; Eierman, D; Haskill, S

    1992-01-01

    Integrins are cell surface receptors found on monocytes that facilitate adhesion to both cellular and extracellular substrates. These integrins are thought to be involved in the selective gene induction observed after monocyte adhesion to various extracellular matrices. To investigate this hypothesis, we stimulated monocytes with monoclonal antibodies to different integrin receptors to specifically mimic the integrin receptor-ligand interactions. Engagement of the common beta chain of the beta 1 subfamily of integrins resulted in expression of the inflammatory mediator genes, interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, and monocyte adherence-derived inflammatory gene 6 (MAD-6), whereas engagement of the common beta chain of the beta 2 family did not. Furthermore, to characterize integrin-mediated gene induction, we examined the ability of antibodies to the alpha chain of integrin receptors to regulate gene expression. Engagement of the very late antigen 4 (VLA-4) receptor resulted in induction of all the mediator genes. Receptor crosslinking was required because individual Fab fragments were unable to stimulate gene induction whereas the divalent F(ab')2 fragment and the whole IgG molecule could. Interleukin 1 beta secretion was dependent on the anti-integrin antibody used. Some antibodies required a second signal and, for others, direct engagement was sufficient for protein production. In conclusion, engagement of integrin receptors regulated the production of both inflammatory mediator mRNA and protein. These results suggest that integrin-dependent recognition and adherence may provide the key signals for initiation of the inflammatory response during monocyte diapedesis. Images PMID:1384041

  17. Immediate, Early, and Conventional Implant Placement in a Patient with History of Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Alessandro; Scognamiglio, Fabio; Femiano, Felice; Lanza, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a case of implant-prosthetic rehabilitation in a patient with periodontitis, focusing on the different timing of implant placement. After initial periodontal treatment, teeth with advanced mobility degree and severe bone resorption were extracted. At different healing time oral implants were placed in a prosthetic-guided position. After osseointegration period the implants were loaded and the results at one year of follow-up are presented. PMID:25949833

  18. Sustained transcription of the immediate early gene Arc in the dentate gyrus after spatial exploration.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Amaya, Victor; Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Chawla, Monica K; Barnes, Carol A; Rosi, Susanna

    2013-01-23

    After spatial exploration in rats, Arc mRNA is expressed in ∼2% of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells, and this proportion of Arc-positive neurons remains stable for ∼8 h. This long-term presence of Arc mRNA following behavior is not observed in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. We report here that in rats ∼50% of granule cells with cytoplasmic Arc mRNA, induced some hours previously during exploration, also show Arc expression in the nucleus. This suggests that recent transcription can occur long after the exploration behavior that elicited it. To confirm that the delayed nuclear Arc expression was indeed recent transcription, Actinomycin D was administered immediately after exploration. This treatment resulted in inhibition of recent Arc expression both when evaluated shortly after exploratory behavior as well as after longer time intervals. Together, these data demonstrate a unique kinetic profile for Arc transcription in hippocampal granule neurons following behavior that is not observed in other cell types. Among a number of possibilities, this sustained transcription may provide a mechanism that ensures that the synaptic connection weights in the sparse population of granule cells recruited during a given behavioral event are able to be modified. PMID:23345235

  19. Multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Boster, Aaron L.; Racke, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preliminary studies have suggested that a high salt diet may play a role in the development of autoimmune disease and possibly multiple sclerosis (MS). Promising clinical trial results for 2 new therapies for MS have been reported. Dimethyl fumarate, also known by its investigational name BG-12, became the third oral disease-modifying therapy for MS to be Food and Drug Administration (FDA)approved in March 2013. Interestingly, dimethyl fumarate served as the active compound used for the treatment of psoriasis for decades. Alemtuzumab remains under investigation and is not currently FDA-approved for treatment of MS. Other drugs currently approved for alternative indications are being investigated for use in MS. Additionally, an investigation of alternative dosing strategies for glatiramer acetate suggests that patients may benefit from a higher dose formulation and less frequent medication administration. Advances in basic science research have identified another potential autoantigenic target in MS, KIR4.1, which may provide further insight into MS pathophysiology. PMID:24175156

  20. Screening of point mutations by multiple SSCP analysis in the dystrophin gene

    SciTech Connect

    Lasa, A.; Baiget, M.; Gallano, P.

    1994-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, X-linked neuromuscular disorder. The population frequency of DMD is one in approximately 3500 boys, of which one third is thought to be a new mutant. The DMD gene is the largest known to date, spanning over 2,3 Mb in band Xp21.2; 79 exons are transcribed into a 14 Kb mRNA coding for a protein of 427 kD which has been named dystrophin. It has been shown that about 65% of affected boys have a gene deletion with a wide variation in localization and size. The remaining affected individuals who have no detectable deletions or duplications would probably carry more subtle mutations that are difficult to detect. These mutations occur in several different exons and seem to be unique to single patients. Their identification represents a formidable goal because of the large size and complexity of the dystrophin gene. SSCP is a very efficient method for the detection of point mutations if the parameters that affect the separation of the strands are optimized for a particular DNA fragment. The multiple SSCP allows the simultaneous study of several exons, and implies the use of different conditions because no single set of conditions will be optimal for all fragments. Seventy-eight DMD patients with no deletion or duplication in the dystrophin gene were selected for the multiple SSCP analysis. Genomic DNA from these patients was amplified using the primers described for the diagnosis procedure (muscle promoter and exons 3, 8, 12, 16, 17, 19, 32, 45, 48 and 51). We have observed different mobility shifts in bands corresponding to exons 8, 12, 43 and 51. In exons 17 and 45, altered electrophoretic patterns were found in different samples identifying polymorphisms already described.

  1. Multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Shaughnessy, John; Richardson, Paul

    2004-01-01

    High-dose therapy with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and novel targeted therapies (thalidomide, its more potent analogues, and bortezomib) represent two approaches for overcoming resistance of multiple myeloma (MM) cells to conventional therapies. While it is now clear that dose-intensification improves the outcome in younger patients, long-term remissions are obtained in a minority of patients. Therefore, the impact of novel agents as part of front-line therapy is the objective of ongoing trials. Gene expression profiling (GEP) will help to improve the management of MM not only by identifying prognostic subgroups but also by defining molecular pathways that are associated with these subgroups and that are possible targets for future therapies. In Section I, Dr. John Shaughnessy describes recent data obtained with GEP of CD138-purified plasma cells from patients with MM. His group has already shown that overexpression of the Wnt signaling inhibitor DKK1 by MM plasma cells blocks osteoblast differentiation and contributes to the development of osteolytic bone lesions. Recent data allow identification of four subgroups of MM in which GEP is highly correlated not only with different clinical characteristics and outcome but also with different cytogenetic abnormalities. In addition, abnormal expression of only three genes (RAN, ZHX-2, CHC1L) is associated with rapid relapses. In the context of intensive therapy with tandem autotransplantations, this model appears to be more powerful than current prognostic models based on standard biologic variables and cytogenetics. Understanding why the dysregulation of these three genes is associated with a more aggressive behavior of the disease will help to define new therapeutic strategies. In Section II, Dr. Jean-Luc Harousseau presents recent results achieved with tandem autologous SCT (ASCT) and with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic SCT. ASCT is now considered as the standard of care in patients up to 65 years of age. The IFM (Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome) has recently shown that double ASCT is superior to single ASCT. Current results of three other randomized trials confirm that double ASCT is superior, at least in terms of event-free survival. However, patients with poor prognostic features do poorly even after tandem ASCT. Strategies to further improve the outcome of ASCT include more intensive therapies and the use of novel agents such as thalidomide and immunomodulatory analogs (IMiDs) or bortezomib. Results of allogeneic SCT remain disappointing in MM even with T cell-depleted grafts. Preliminary results of a strategy combining ASCT to reduce tumor burden and RIC allogeneic SCT are encouraging, although the follow-up is still short. However, again, patients with chromosome 13 deletions have poor results with RIC. Longer follow-up of ongoing multicentric studies will help to clarify the indications of RIC. In Section III, Dr. Paul Richardson summarizes current knowledge of novel targeted therapies in MM. A better understanding of interactions between MM cells and bone marrow stromal cells and of the signaling cascades whereby cytokines mediate proliferation, survival, drug resistance and migration of MM cells provide the rationale for testing novel agents in relapsed/refractory MM. Increased angiogenesis coupled with the known anti-angiogenesis activity of thalidomide justified its use in refractory MM. The remarkable responses initially achieved prompted a number of clinical studies in different indications and the development of more potent IMIDs. Among them CC-5013 (Revlimid) has been tested in Phase I/II studies and a randomized Phase III study has just been completed. Blockade of NF-kappa B using the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade) may mediate anti-MM activity by inhibiting interleukin (IL)-6 production in stromal cells and other mechanisms of action have been shown in preclinical studies. Based on the promising results of the Phase II trial, a large randomized trial of bortezomib versus dexamethasone has been completed. Studies of bortezomib combined with other drugs are ongoing. Arsenic trioxide has a number of properties showing that it targets MM cells interacting with the microenvironment. Clinical studies are ongoing as well. Other agents in MM have already been or will probably be translated soon from the bench to the bedside. PMID:15561686

  2. Multiple Assessments for Multiple Intelligences. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellanca, James; Chapman, Carolyn; Swartz, Elizabeth

    This book is designed to align assessment with instructional practices that promote the development of the multiple intelligences outlined by Howard Gardner. To facilitate the use of multiple assessments for the multiple intelligences, the information in this book is transferable to the classroom. The book explains how a teacher can design

  3. Parathyroid hormone ablation alters erythrocyte parameters that are rescued by calcium-sensing receptor gene deletion.

    PubMed

    Romero, Jose R; Youte, Rodeler; Brown, Edward M; Pollak, Martin R; Goltzman, David; Karaplis, Andrew; Pong, Lie-Chin; Chien, Lawrence; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Rivera, Alicia

    2013-07-01

    The mechanisms by which parathyroid hormone (PTH) produces anemia are unclear. Parathyroid hormone secretion is regulated by the extracellular Ca2+ -sensing receptor. We investigated the effects of ablating PTH on hematological indices and erythrocytes volume regulation in wild-type, PTH-null, and Ca2+ -sensing receptor-null/PTH-null mice. The erythrocyte parameters were measured in whole mouse blood, and volume regulatory systems were determined by plasma membrane K+ fluxes, and osmotic fragility was measured by hemoglobin determination at varying osmolarities. We observed that the absence of PTH significantly increases mean erythrocyte volume and reticulocyte counts, while decreasing erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration. These changes were accompanied by increases in erythrocyte cation content, a denser cell population, and increased K+ permeability, which were in part mediated by activation of the K+ /Cl- cotransporter and Gardos channel. In addition we observed that erythrocyte osmotic fragility in PTH-null compared with wild-type mice was enhanced. When Ca2+ -sensing receptor gene was deleted on the background of PTH-null mice, we observed that several of the alterations in erythrocyte parameters of PTH-null mice were largely rescued, particularly those related to erythrocyte volume, K+ fluxes and osmotic fragility, and became similar to those observed in wild-type mice. Our results demonstrate that Ca2+ -sensing receptor and parathyroid hormone are functionally coupled to maintain erythrocyte homeostasis. PMID:23528155

  4. Gene Deletions in Mycobacterium bovis BCG Stimulate Increased CD8+ T Cell Responses

    PubMed Central

    Panas, Michael W.; Sixsmith, Jaimie D.; White, KeriAnn; Korioth-Schmitz, Birgit; Shields, Shana T.; Moy, Brian T.; Lee, Sunhee; Schmitz, Joern E.; Jacobs, William R.; Porcelli, Steven A.; Haynes, Barton F.; Letvin, Norman L.

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacteria, the etiological agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, have coevolved with mammals for millions of years and have numerous ways of suppressing their host's immune response. It has been suggested that mycobacteria may contain genes that reduce the host's ability to elicit CD8+ T cell responses. We screened 3,290 mutant Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) strains to identify genes that decrease major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation of mycobacterium-encoded epitope peptides. Through our analysis, we identified 16 mutant BCG strains that generated increased transgene product-specific CD8+ T cell responses. The genes disrupted in these mutant strains had disparate predicted functions. Reconstruction of strains via targeted deletion of genes identified in the screen recapitulated the enhanced immunogenicity phenotype of the original mutant strains. When we introduced the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag gene into several of these novel BCG strains, we observed enhanced SIV Gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses in vivo. This study demonstrates that mycobacteria carry numerous genes that act to dampen CD8+ T cell responses and suggests that genetic modification of these genes may generate a novel group of recombinant BCG strains capable of serving as more effective and immunogenic vaccine vectors. PMID:25287928

  5. Prevalence of the Prefoldin Subunit 5 Gene Deletion in Canine Mammary Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Bornemann-Kolatzki, Kirsten; Neumann, Stephan; Escobar, Hugo Murua; Nolte, Ingo; Hammer, Susanne Conradine; Hewicker-Trautwein, Marion; Junginger, Johannes; Kaup, Franz-Josef; Brenig, Bertram; Schtz, Ekkehard

    2015-01-01

    Background A somatic deletion at the proximal end of canine chromosome 27 (CFA27) was recently reported in 50% of malignant mammary tumors. This region harbours the tumor suppressor gene prefoldin subunit 5 (PFDN5) and the deletion correlated with a higher Ki-67 score. PFDN5 has been described to repress c-MYC and is, therefore, a candidate tumor-suppressor and cancer-driver gene in canine mammary cancer. Aim of this study was to confirm the recurrent deletion in a larger number of tumors. Methods Droplet digital PCR for PFDN5 was performed in DNA from 102 malignant, 40 benign mammary tumors/dysplasias, 11 non-neoplastic mammary tissues and each corresponding genomic DNA from leukocytes. The copy number of PFDN5 was normalized to a reference amplicon on canine chromosome 32 (CFA32). Z-scores were calculated, based on Gaussian distributed normalized PFDN5 copy numbers of the leukocyte DNA. Z-scores ? -3.0 in tissue were considered as being indicative of the PFDN5 deletion and called as such. The Ki-67 proliferation index was assessed in a subset of 79 tissue samples by immunohistochemistry. Results The deletion was confirmed in 24% of all malignant tumors, detected in only 7.5% of the benign tumors and was not present in any normal mammary tissue sample. The subgroup of solid carcinomas (n = 9) showed the highest frequency of the deletion (67%) and those malignomas without microscopical high fraction of benign tissue (n = 71) had a 32% frequency (p<0.01 vs. benign samples). The Ki-67 score was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) in the PFDN5-deleted group compared to malignant tumors without the deletion. Conclusions A somatic deletion of the PFDN5 gene is recurrently present in canine mammary cancer, supporting a potential role in carcinogenesis. The association of this deletion with higher Ki-67 indicates an increased proliferation rate and thus a link to tumor aggressiveness can be hypothesized. The confirmation of earlier results warrants further studies on PFDN5 as cancer-driver gene. PMID:26132936

  6. A partial gene deletion of SLC45A2 causes oculocutaneous albinism in Doberman pinscher dogs.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Paige A; Gornik, Kara R; Ramsey, David T; Dubielzig, Richard R; Venta, Patrick J; Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Bartoe, Joshua T

    2014-01-01

    The first white Doberman pinscher (WDP) dog was registered by the American Kennel Club in 1976. The novelty of the white coat color resulted in extensive line breeding of this dog and her offspring. The WDP phenotype closely resembles human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and clinicians noticed a seemingly high prevalence of pigmented masses on these dogs. This study had three specific aims: (1) produce a detailed description of the ocular phenotype of WDPs, (2) objectively determine if an increased prevalence of ocular and cutaneous melanocytic tumors was present in WDPs, and (3) determine if a genetic mutation in any of the genes known to cause human OCA is causal for the WDP phenotype. WDPs have a consistent ocular phenotype of photophobia, hypopigmented adnexal structures, blue irides with a tan periphery and hypopigmented retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. WDPs have a higher prevalence of cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms compared with control standard color Doberman pinschers (SDPs); cutaneous tumors were noted in 12/20 WDP (<5 years of age: 4/12; >5 years of age: 8/8) and 1/20 SDPs (p<0.00001). Using exclusion analysis, four OCA causative genes were investigated for their association with WDP phenotype; TYR, OCA2, TYRP1 and SLC45A2. SLC45A2 was found to be linked to the phenotype and gene sequencing revealed a 4,081 base pair deletion resulting in loss of the terminus of exon seven of SLC45A2 (chr4?77,062,968-77,067,051). This mutation is highly likely to be the cause of the WDP phenotype and is supported by a lack of detectable SLC45A2 transcript levels by reverse transcriptase PCR. The WDP provides a valuable model for studying OCA4 visual disturbances and melanocytic neoplasms in a large animal model. PMID:24647637

  7. Neurofibromatosis-1 gene deletions and mutations in de novo adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Boudry-Labis, Elise; Roche-Lestienne, Catherine; Nibourel, Olivier; Boissel, Nicolas; Terre, Christine; Perot, Christine; Eclache, Virginie; Gachard, Nathalie; Tigaud, Isabelle; Plessis, Ghislaine; Cuccuini, Wendy; Geffroy, Sandrine; Villenet, Cline; Figeac, Martin; Leprtre, Frederic; Renneville, Aline; Cheok, Meyling; Soulier, Jean; Dombret, Herv; Preudhomme, Claude

    2013-04-01

    Germline heterozygous alterations of the tumor-suppressor gene neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1) lead to neurofibromatosis type 1, a genetic disorder characterized by a higher risk to develop juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and/or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). More recently, somatic 17q11 deletions encompassing NF1 have been described in many adult myeloid malignancies. In this context, we aimed to define NF1 involvement in AML. We screened a total of 488 previously untreated de novo AML patients for the NF1 deletion using either array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) or real-time quantitative PCR/fluorescence in situ hybridization approaches. We also applied massively parallel sequencing for in depth mutation analysis of NF1 in 20 patients including five NF1-deleted patients. We defined a small ?0.3 Mb minimal deleted region involving NF1 by aCGH and an overall frequency of NF1 deletion of 3.5% (17/485). NF1 deletion is significantly associated with unfavorable cytogenetics and with monosomal karyotype notably. We discovered six NF1 variants of unknown significance in 7/20 patients of which only one out of four disappeared in corresponding complete remission sample. In addition, only one out of five NF1-deleted patients has an acquired coding mutation in the remaining allele. In conclusion, direct NF1 inactivation is infrequent in de novo AML and may be a secondary event probably involved in leukemic progression. PMID:23460398

  8. Relatively low proportion of dystrophin gene deletions in Israeili Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients

    SciTech Connect

    Shomrat, R.; Gluck, E.; Legum, C.; Shiloh, Y.

    1994-02-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) are allelic disorders caused by mutations in the X-linked dystrophin gene. The most common mutations in western populations are deletions that are spread non-randomly throughout the gene. Molecular analysis of the dystrophin gene structure by hybridization of the full length cDNA to Southern blots and by PCR in 62 unrelated Israeli male DMD/BMD patients showed deletions in 23 (37%). This proportion is significantly lower than that found in European and North American populations (55-65%). Seventy-eight percent of the deletions were confined to exons 44-52, half of these exons 44-45, and the remaining 22% to exons 1 and 19. There was no correlation between the size of the deletion and the severity of the disease. All the deletions causing frameshift resulted in the DMD phenotypes. 43 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Nociceptor-specific gene deletion using heterozygous NaV1.8-Cre recombinase mice.

    PubMed

    Stirling, L Caroline; Forlani, Greta; Baker, Mark D; Wood, John N; Matthews, Elizabeth A; Dickenson, Anthony H; Nassar, Mohammed A

    2005-01-01

    NaV1.8 is a voltage-gated sodium channel expressed only in a subset of sensory neurons of which more than 85% are nociceptors. In order to delete genes in nociceptive neurons, we generated heterozygous transgenic mice expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the NaV1.8 promoter. Functional Cre recombinase expression replicated precisely the expression pattern of NaV1.8. Cre expression began at embryonic day 14 in small diameter neurons in dorsal root, trigeminal and nodose ganglia, but was absent in non-neuronal or CNS tissues into adulthood. Sodium channel subtypes were normal in isolated DRG neurons. Pain behaviour in response to mechanical or thermal stimuli, and in acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain was also normal. These data demonstrate that the heterozygous NaV1.8-Cre mouse line is a useful tool to analyse the effects of deleting floxed genes on pain behaviour. PMID:15621361

  10. Structural Consequences of Kcna1 Gene Deletion and Transfer in the Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, H. Jrgen; Vacher, Helene; Clark, Eliana; Trimmer, James S.; Lee, Angela L.; Sapolsky, Robert M.; Tempel, Bruce L; Schwartzkroin, Philip A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Mice lacking the Kv1.1 potassium channel ? subunit encoded by the Kcna1 gene develop recurrent behavioral seizures early in life. We examined the neuropathological consequences of seizure activity in the Kv1.1?/? (knock-out) mouse, and explored the effects of injecting a viral vector carrying the deleted Kcna1 gene into hippocampal neurons. Methods Morphological techniques were used to assess neuropathological patterns in hippocampus of Kv1.1?/? animals. Immunohistochemical and biochemical techniques were used to monitor ion channel expression in Kv1.1?/? brain. Both wild-type and knockout mice were injected (bilaterally into hippocampus) with an HSV1 amplicon vector that contained the rat Kcna1 subunit gene and/or the E.coli lacZ reporter gene. Vector-injected mice were were examined to determine the extent of neuronal infection. Results Video/EEG monitoring confirmed interictal abnormalities and seizure occurrence in Kv1.1?/? mice. Neuropathological assessment suggested that hippocampal damage (silver stain) and reorganization (Timm stain) occurred only after animals had exhibited severe prolonged seizures (status epilepticus). Ablation of Kcna1 did not result in compensatory changes in expression levels of other related ion channel subunits. Vector injection resulted in infection primarily of granule cells in hippocampus, but the number of infected neurons was quite variable across subjects. Kcna1 immunocytochemistry showed ectopic Kv1.1 ? channel subunit expression. Conclusions Kcna1 deletion in mice results in a seizure disorder that resembles electrographically and neuropathologically the patterns seen in rodent models of temporal lobe epilepsy. HSV1 vector-mediated gene transfer into hippocampus yielded variable neuronal infection PMID:17651419

  11. Gene Deletions Resulting in Increased Nitrogen Release by Azotobacter vinelandii: Application of a Novel Nitrogen Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Barney, Brett M; Eberhart, Lauren J; Ohlert, Janet M; Knutson, Carolann M; Plunkett, Mary H

    2015-07-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii is a widely studied model diazotrophic (nitrogen-fixing) bacterium and also an obligate aerobe, differentiating it from many other diazotrophs that require environments low in oxygen for the function of the nitrogenase. As a free-living bacterium, A. vinelandii has evolved enzymes and transporters to minimize the loss of fixed nitrogen to the surrounding environment. In this study, we pursued efforts to target specific enzymes and further developed screens to identify individual colonies of A. vinelandii producing elevated levels of extracellular nitrogen. Targeted deletions were done to convert urea into a terminal product by disrupting the urease genes that influence the ability of A. vinelandii to recycle the urea nitrogen within the cell. Construction of a nitrogen biosensor strain was done to rapidly screen several thousand colonies disrupted by transposon insertional mutagenesis to identify strains with increased extracellular nitrogen production. Several disruptions were identified in the ammonium transporter gene amtB that resulted in the production of sufficient levels of extracellular nitrogen to support the growth of the biosensor strain. Further studies substituting the biosensor strain with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana confirmed that levels of nitrogen produced were sufficient to support the growth of this organism when the medium was supplemented with sufficient sucrose to support the growth of the A. vinelandii in coculture. The nature and quantities of nitrogen released by urease and amtB disruptions were further compared to strains reported in previous efforts that altered the nifLA regulatory system to produce elevated levels of ammonium. These results reveal alternative approaches that can be used in various combinations to yield new strains that might have further application in biofertilizer schemes. PMID:25888177

  12. Gene Deletions Resulting in Increased Nitrogen Release by Azotobacter vinelandii: Application of a Novel Nitrogen Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Lauren J.; Ohlert, Janet M.; Knutson, Carolann M.; Plunkett, Mary H.

    2015-01-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii is a widely studied model diazotrophic (nitrogen-fixing) bacterium and also an obligate aerobe, differentiating it from many other diazotrophs that require environments low in oxygen for the function of the nitrogenase. As a free-living bacterium, A. vinelandii has evolved enzymes and transporters to minimize the loss of fixed nitrogen to the surrounding environment. In this study, we pursued efforts to target specific enzymes and further developed screens to identify individual colonies of A. vinelandii producing elevated levels of extracellular nitrogen. Targeted deletions were done to convert urea into a terminal product by disrupting the urease genes that influence the ability of A. vinelandii to recycle the urea nitrogen within the cell. Construction of a nitrogen biosensor strain was done to rapidly screen several thousand colonies disrupted by transposon insertional mutagenesis to identify strains with increased extracellular nitrogen production. Several disruptions were identified in the ammonium transporter gene amtB that resulted in the production of sufficient levels of extracellular nitrogen to support the growth of the biosensor strain. Further studies substituting the biosensor strain with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana confirmed that levels of nitrogen produced were sufficient to support the growth of this organism when the medium was supplemented with sufficient sucrose to support the growth of the A. vinelandii in coculture. The nature and quantities of nitrogen released by urease and amtB disruptions were further compared to strains reported in previous efforts that altered the nifLA regulatory system to produce elevated levels of ammonium. These results reveal alternative approaches that can be used in various combinations to yield new strains that might have further application in biofertilizer schemes. PMID:25888177

  13. Coexistence of two ?-globin gene deletions in a Chinese girl with ?-thalassemia minor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ge; Li, Ping; Li, Yun-Xiong; Ye, Lian-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a rare case of ?(41/42,Cap)/?(A) genotype in a girl with ?-thalassemia (?-thal) minor. The 13-month-old Chinese proband suffered anemia, diarrhea, stunted growth and emaciation. The routine polymerase chain reaction-reverse dot-blot (PCR-RDB) test result for ?-thal mutations indicated that she was a compound heterozygote for ?(41/42) and ?(Cap). However, the complete blood cell (CBC) test gave the following results: mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 79.8 fL, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) 19.9 pg, with a Hb A2 value of 5.66%, suggesting that the proband also was ?-thal minor. The proband's father showed typical microcytic hypochromic anemia characteristics with a decreased MCV and MCH (63.1 fL and 20.9 pg, respectively) and an increased level of Hb A2 (5.60%), while the proband's mother had normal levels of MCV, MCH and Hb A2. The PCR-RDB test result showed her father was also a compound heterozygote for the ?(41/42) (HBB: c.126_129delCTTT) and ?(Cap) (HBB: c.-11_-8delAAAC) mutations and her mother was normal. Finally, DNA sequencing identified that the ?(41/42) and ?(Cap) mutations of the proband were inherited from her father and located on one ?-globin gene, suggesting that the proband's genotype is ?(41/42,Cap)/?(A). PMID:24200214

  14. Development of an Unmarked Gene Deletion System for the Filamentous Fungi Aspergillus niger and Talaromyces versatilis

    PubMed Central

    Delmas, Stphane; Llanos, Agustina; Parrou, Jean-Luc; Kokolski, Matthew; Pullan, Steven T.; Shunburne, Lee

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a method to delete genes in filamentous fungi that allows recycling of the selection marker and is efficient in a nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ)-proficient strain. We exemplify the approach by deletion of the gene encoding the transcriptional regulator XlnR in the fungus Aspergillus niger. To show the efficiency and advantages of the method, we deleted 8 other genes and constructed a double mutant in this species. Moreover, we showed that the same principle also functions in a different genus of filamentous fungus (Talaromyces versatilis, basionym Penicillium funiculosum). This technique will increase the versatility of the toolboxes for genome manipulation of model and industrially relevant fungi. PMID:24682295

  15. Extensive gene deletions in Japanese patients with Diamond-Blackfan anemia.

    PubMed

    Kuramitsu, Madoka; Sato-Otsubo, Aiko; Morio, Tomohiro; Takagi, Masatoshi; Toki, Tsutomu; Terui, Kiminori; Wang, RuNan; Kanno, Hitoshi; Ohga, Shouichi; Ohara, Akira; Kojima, Seiji; Kitoh, Toshiyuki; Goi, Kumiko; Kudo, Kazuko; Matsubayashi, Tadashi; Mizue, Nobuo; Ozeki, Michio; Masumi, Atsuko; Momose, Haruka; Takizawa, Kazuya; Mizukami, Takuo; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Ogawa, Seishi; Ito, Etsuro; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2012-03-01

    Fifty percent of Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) patients possess mutations in genes coding for ribosomal proteins (RPs). To identify new mutations, we investigated large deletions in the RP genes RPL5, RPL11, RPL35A, RPS7, RPS10, RPS17, RPS19, RPS24, and RPS26. We developed an easy method based on quantitative-PCR in which the threshold cycle correlates to gene copy number. Using this approach, we were able to diagnose 7 of 27 Japanese patients (25.9%) possessing mutations that were not detected by sequencing. Among these large deletions, similar results were obtained with 6 of 7 patients screened with a single nucleotide polymorphism array. We found an extensive intragenic deletion in RPS19, including exons 1-3. We also found 1 proband with an RPL5 deletion, 1 patient with an RPL35A deletion, 3 with RPS17 deletions, and 1 with an RPS19 deletion. In particular, the large deletions in the RPL5 and RPS17 alleles are novel. All patients with a large deletion had a growth retardation phenotype. Our data suggest that large deletions in RP genes comprise a sizable fraction of DBA patients in Japan. In addition, our novel approach may become a useful tool for screening gene copy numbers of known DBA genes. PMID:22262766

  16. Proteomics and bioinformatics analysis of mouse hypothalamic neurogenesis with or without EPHX2 gene deletion

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Lijun; Zhou, Juntuo; Wang, Dawei; Zou, Xiajuan; Lou, Yaxin; Liu, Dan; Yang, Bin; Zhu, Yi; Li, Xiaoxia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify differently expressed proteins in the presence and absence of EPHX2 gene in mouse hypothalamus using proteomics profiling and bioinformatics analysis. This study was performed on 3 wild type (WT) and 3 EPHX2 gene global knockout (KO) mice (EPHX2 -/-). Using the nano- electrospray ionization (ESI)-LC-MS/MS detector, we identified 31 over-expressed proteins in WT mouse hypothalamus compared to the KO counterparts. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation in terms of the protein-protein interaction network indicated that cellular metabolic process, protein metabolic process, signaling transduction and protein post-translation biological processes involved in EPHX2 -/- regulatory network. In addition, signaling pathway enrichment analysis also highlighted chronic neurodegenerative diseases and some other signaling pathways, such as TGF-beta signaling pathway, T cell receptor signaling pathway, ErbB signaling pathway, Neurotrophin signaling pathway and MAPK signaling pathway, were strongly coupled with EPHX2 gene knockout. Further studies into the molecular functions of EPHX2 gene in hypothalamus will help to provide new perspective in neurogenesis. PMID:26722453

  17. Dystrophin Dp71 gene deletion induces retinal vascular inflammation and capillary degeneration.

    PubMed

    El Mathari, Brahim; Sene, Abdoulaye; Charles-Messance, Hugo; Vacca, Ophlie; Guillonneau, Xavier; Grepin, Claudine; Sennlaub, Florian; Sahel, Jos-Alain; Rendon, Alvaro; Tadayoni, Ramin

    2015-07-15

    We have previously shown that the deletion of the dystrophin Dp71 gene induces a highly permeable blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Given that BRB breakdown is involved in retinal inflammation and the pathophysiology of many blinding eye diseases, here we investigated whether the absence of Dp71 brings out retinal vascular inflammation and vessel loss by using specific Dp71-null mice. The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods, was higher in the retina of Dp71-null mice than in wild-type mice. In contrast, no differences were observed in VEGFR-2 and tumor necrosis factor-? expression. Moreover, mRNA expression of water channel, aquaporin 4 (AQP4) was increased after Dp71 deletion. The Dp71 deletion was also associated with the overexpression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1, which is expressed on endothelial cells surface to recruit leukocytes. Consistent with these findings, the total number of adherent leukocytes per retina, assessed after perfusion with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated concanavalin A, was increased in the absence of Dp71. Finally, a significant increase in capillary degeneration quantified after retinal trypsin digestion was observed in mice lacking Dp71. These data illustrate for the first time that the deletion of Dp71 was associated with retinal vascular inflammation, vascular lesions with increased leukocyte adhesion and capillary degeneration. Thus, dystrophin Dp71 could play a critical role in retinal vascular inflammation disease, and therefore represent a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25901007

  18. Markerless Gene Deletion with Cytosine Deaminase in Thermus thermophilus Strain HB27.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Hoffmann, Jana; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2015-01-01

    We developed a counterselectable deletion system for Thermus thermophilus HB27 based on cytosine deaminase (encoded by codA) from Thermaerobacter marianensis DSM 12885 and the sensitivity of T. thermophilus HB27 to the antimetabolite 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC). The deletion vector comprises the pUC18 origin of replication, a thermostable kanamycin resistance marker functional in T. thermophilus HB27, and codA under the control of a constitutive putative trehalose promoter from T. thermophilus HB27. The functionality of the system was demonstrated by deletion of the bglT gene, encoding a ?-glycosidase, and three carotenoid biosynthesis genes, CYP175A1, crtY, and crtI, from the genome of T. thermophilus HB27. PMID:26655764

  19. Genome-Wide Analysis of Syntenic Gene Deletion in the Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Schnable, James C.; Freeling, Michael; Lyons, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The grasses, Poaceae, are one of the largest and most successful angiosperm families. Like many radiations of flowering plants, the divergence of the major grass lineages was preceded by a whole-genome duplication (WGD), although these events are not rare for flowering plants. By combining identification of syntenic gene blocks with measures of gene pair divergence and different frequencies of ancient gene loss, we have separated the two subgenomes present in modern grasses. Reciprocal loss of duplicated genes or genomic regions has been hypothesized to reproductively isolate populations and, thus, speciation. However, in contrast to previous studies in yeast and teleost fishes, we found very little evidence of reciprocal loss of homeologous genes between the grasses, suggesting that post-WGD gene loss may not be the cause of the grass radiation. The sets of homeologous and orthologous genes and predicted locations of deleted genes identified in this study, as well as links to the CoGe comparative genomics web platform for analyzing pan-grass syntenic regions, are provided along with this paper as a resource for the grass genetics community. PMID:22275519

  20. Molecular Cytogenetic Study of the NF2 Gene Deletion in Meningioma in Sudanese Patients

    PubMed Central

    AbdElmontalab, Farah Y; Fadl, Elmula I; Abushama, HM; Kreskowski, K; Liehr, T

    2013-01-01

    Meningioma is the second most common adult central nervous system tumor. Mutations and/or deletions within the tumor suppressor gene neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) are associated with meningioma development and progression. We studied 29 meningioma samples by cytogenetic analysis and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) using a locus-specific probe for the NF2 gene region. We detected loss of the NF2 gene in all samples except for one. In 10 of the 29 samples, karyotypic analyses confirmed the I-FISH results and revealed additional numerical and/or structural rearrangements in nine of them. Our study confirmed: i) the limited role of banding cytogenetics in assessing chromosomal rearrangements in meningioma, as this tumor is hard to be grown in cell culture; ii) we could show that two-color I-FISH is well-suited for NF2-deletion screening. Our results were in accordance with those of comparable studies, even though the frequency of 97.0% of meningiomas with NF2 deletions is exceptionally high in the studied Sudanese patients. PMID:24778560

  1. TIM2 Gene Deletion Results in Susceptibility to Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamoorthy, Aparna; Clement, Matthew E.; O'leary, Eileen; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Vaidya, Vishal S.

    2010-01-01

    T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin domain 2 (TIM2) belongs to the receptor family of cell surface molecules expressed on kidney, liver, and T cells. Previous studies have revealed that TIM2-deficient mice (TIM2?/?) are more susceptible to the Th2-mediated immune response in an airway inflammation model. Here, we investigated the phenotypic response of TIM2?/? mice to cisplatin-induced kidney toxicity. A lethality study in male BALB/c wild-type (TIM2+/+) and TIM2?/? mice, administered with 20 mg/kg cisplatin ip, resulted in 80% mortality of TIM2?/? mice as compared with 30% mortality in the TIM2+/+ group by day 5. The TIM2?/? mice showed approximately fivefold higher injury as estimated by blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine at 48 h that was confirmed by significantly increased proximal tubular damage assessed histologically (H & E staining). A significantly higher expression of Th2-associated cytokines, TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-6, and TGF?, with a significant reduction of Th1-associated cytokines, RANTES and MCP-1, by 72 h was observed in the TIM2?/? mice as compared with TIM2+/+ mice. A higher baseline protein expression of caspase-3 (approximately twofold) coupled with an early onset of p53 protein activation by 48 h resulted in an increased apoptosis by 4872 h in TIM2?/? compared with TIM2+/+. In conclusion, the increased expression of the proinflammatory and proapoptotic genes, with a higher number of apoptotic cells, and a pronounced increase in injury and mortality of the TIM2-deficient mice collectively suggest a protective role of TIM2 in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:20702592

  2. PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1993-04-01

    From 1971 to 1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF{sub 1} mice irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons; normal and tumor tissues from mice in these studies were preserved in paraffin blocks. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been developed to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene in the paraffin-embedded tissues. Microtomed sections were used as the DNA source in PCR reaction mixtures. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. The absence of any of these fragments (relative to control PCR products) on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. The tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice (569 cGy of {sup 60}Co {gamma} rays or 60 cGy of JANUS neutrons, doses that have been found to have approximately equal biological effectiveness in the BCF, mouse) were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies, all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southem blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, I of 6 tumors from {gamma}-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice had a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5{prime} region of the mRb gene.

  3. PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1993-01-01

    From 1971 to 1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF[sub 1] mice irradiated with [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons; normal and tumor tissues from mice in these studies were preserved in paraffin blocks. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been developed to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene in the paraffin-embedded tissues. Microtomed sections were used as the DNA source in PCR reaction mixtures. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. The absence of any of these fragments (relative to control PCR products) on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. The tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice (569 cGy of [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays or 60 cGy of JANUS neutrons, doses that have been found to have approximately equal biological effectiveness in the BCF, mouse) were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies, all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southem blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, I of 6 tumors from [gamma]-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice had a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5[prime] region of the mRb gene.

  4. Gene Deletion of VIP Leads to Increased Mortality Associated with Progressive Right Ventricular Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Szema, Anthony M.; Hamidi, Sayyed A.

    2014-01-01

    Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) knockout mice exhibit asthma, pulmonary hypertension, and left ventricular wall thinning. Humans with these disorders have premature death. We show here that VIP KO mice have reduced survival (100% mortality at 20 months), vs. 100% survival among WT C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, the ratios of weights of right ventricle divided by left ventricle plus septum were progressively increased in VIP KO mice with age. Core temperatures were lower in VIP KO mice when compared to WT littermates, with an associated pro-inflammatory cytokine milieu. Overall, our results indicate that VIP is important for survival in mice. Its absence leads to increased mortality, with progressive right ventricular hypertrophy as a surrogate of pulmonary hypertension, lower body weight, hypothermia, and pro-inflammatory milieu. These studies support VIP as a novel therapeutic agent in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:24860842

  5. Adenylate kinase1 gene deletion disrupts muscle energetic economy despite metabolic rearrangement

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Edwin; Dzeja, Petras P.; Oerlemans, Frank; Simonetti, Arjan W.; Heerschap, Arend; Haan, Arnold de; Rush, Paula S.; Terjung, Ronald R.; Wieringa, B; Terzic, Andre

    2000-01-01

    Efficient cellular energy homeostasis is a critical determinant of muscle performance, providing evolutionary advantages responsible for species survival. Phosphotransfer reactions, which couple ATP production and utilization, are thought to play a central role in this process. Here, we provide evidence that genetic disruption of AK1-catalyzed ?-phosphoryl transfer in mice decreases the potential of myofibers to sustain nucleotide ratios despite up-regulation of high-energy phosphoryl flux through glycolytic, guanylate and creatine kinase phosphotransfer pathways. A maintained contractile performance of AK1-deficient muscles was associated with higher ATP turnover rate and larger amounts of ATP consumed per contraction. Metabolic stress further aggravated the energetic cost in AK1/ muscles. Thus, AK1-catalyzed phosphotransfer is essential in the maintenance of cellular energetic economy, enabling skeletal muscle to perform at the lowest metabolic cost. PMID:11101510

  6. Mutation mismatch repair gene deletions in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Couronn, Lucile; Ruminy, Philippe; Waultier-Rascalou, Agathe; Rainville, Vinciane; Cornic, Marie; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Figeac, Martin; Bastard, Christian; Tilly, Herv; Jardin, Fabrice

    2013-05-01

    To further unravel the molecular pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), we performed high-resolution comparative genomic hybridization on lymph node biopsies from 70 patients. With this strategy, we identified microdeletions of genes involved in the mutation mismatch repair (MMR) pathway in two samples. The first patient presented with a homozygous deletion of MSH2-MSH6 due to duplication of an unbalanced pericentric inversion of chromosome 2. The other case showed a PMS2 heterozygous deletion. PMS2 and MSH2-MSH6 abnormalities, respectively, resulted in a decrease and complete loss of gene expression. However, unlike tumors associated with the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer syndrome or immunodeficiency-related lymphomas, no microsatellite instability was detected. Mutational profiles revealed especially in one patient an aberrant hypermutation without a clear activation-induced cytidine deaminase signature, indicating a breakdown of the high-fidelity repair in favor of the error-prone repair pathway. Our findings suggest that in a rare subset of patients, inactivation of the genes of the MMR pathway is likely an important step in the molecular pathogenesis of DLBCL and does not involve the same molecular mechanisms as other common neoplasms with MMR deficiency. PMID:23066952

  7. Gene-deleted live-attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as vaccines to protect against Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Valdéz, Fernando J; Pérez Brandán, Cecilia; Ferreira, Arturo; Basombrío, Miguel Ángel

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This illness is now becoming global, mainly due to congenital transmission, and so far, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines available to either prevent or treat Chagas disease. Therefore, different approaches aimed at identifying new protective immunogens are urgently needed. Live vaccines are likely to be more efficient in inducing protection, but safety issues linked with their use have been raised. The development of improved protozoan genetic manipulation tools and genomic and biological information has helped to increase the safety of live vaccines. These advances have generated a renewed interest in the use of genetically attenuated parasites as vaccines against Chagas disease. This review discusses the protective capacity of genetically attenuated parasite vaccines and the challenges and perspectives for the development of an effective whole-parasite Chagas disease vaccine. PMID:25496192

  8. A glycoprotein E gene-deleted bovine herpesvirus 1 as a candidate vaccine strain

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, M.; Brum, M.C.S.; Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R.; Flores, E.F.

    2015-01-01

    A bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) defective in glycoprotein E (gE) was constructed from a Brazilian genital BoHV-1 isolate, by replacing the full gE coding region with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene for selection. Upon co-transfection of MDBK cells with genomic viral DNA plus the GFP-bearing gE-deletion plasmid, three fluorescent recombinant clones were obtained out of approximately 5000 viral plaques. Deletion of the gE gene and the presence of the GFP marker in the genome of recombinant viruses were confirmed by PCR. Despite forming smaller plaques, the BoHV-1?gE recombinants replicated in MDBK cells with similar kinetics and to similar titers to that of the parental virus (SV56/90), demonstrating that the gE deletion had no deleterious effects on replication efficacy in vitro. Thirteen calves inoculated intramuscularly with BoHV-1?gE developed virus neutralizing antibodies at day 42 post-infection (titers from 2 to 16), demonstrating the ability of the recombinant to replicate and to induce a serological response in vivo. Furthermore, the serological response induced by recombinant BoHV-1?gE could be differentiated from that induced by wild-type BoHV-1 by the use of an anti-gE antibody ELISA kit. Taken together, these results indicated the potential application of recombinant BoHV-1 ?gE in vaccine formulations to prevent the losses caused by BoHV-1 infections while allowing for differentiation of vaccinated from naturally infected animals. PMID:26200229

  9. A glycoprotein E gene-deleted bovine herpesvirus 1 as a candidate vaccine strain.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M; Brum, M C S; Anziliero, D; Weiblen, R; Flores, E F

    2015-09-01

    A bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) defective in glycoprotein E (gE) was constructed from a Brazilian genital BoHV-1 isolate, by replacing the full gE coding region with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene for selection. Upon co-transfection of MDBK cells with genomic viral DNA plus the GFP-bearing gE-deletion plasmid, three fluorescent recombinant clones were obtained out of approximately 5000 viral plaques. Deletion of the gE gene and the presence of the GFP marker in the genome of recombinant viruses were confirmed by PCR. Despite forming smaller plaques, the BoHV-1?gE recombinants replicated in MDBK cells with similar kinetics and to similar titers to that of the parental virus (SV56/90), demonstrating that the gE deletion had no deleterious effects on replication efficacy in vitro. Thirteen calves inoculated intramuscularly with BoHV-1?gE developed virus neutralizing antibodies at day 42 post-infection (titers from 2 to 16), demonstrating the ability of the recombinant to replicate and to induce a serological response in vivo. Furthermore, the serological response induced by recombinant BoHV-1?gE could be differentiated from that induced by wild-type BoHV-1 by the use of an anti-gE antibody ELISA kit. Taken together, these results indicated the potential application of recombinant BoHV-1 ?gE in vaccine formulations to prevent the losses caused by BoHV-1 infections while allowing for differentiation of vaccinated from naturally infected animals. PMID:26200229

  10. A Partial Gene Deletion of SLC45A2 Causes Oculocutaneous Albinism in Doberman Pinscher Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Paige A.; Gornik, Kara R.; Ramsey, David T.; Dubielzig, Richard R.; Venta, Patrick J.; Petersen-Jones, Simon M.; Bartoe, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    The first white Doberman pinscher (WDP) dog was registered by the American Kennel Club in 1976. The novelty of the white coat color resulted in extensive line breeding of this dog and her offspring. The WDP phenotype closely resembles human oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and clinicians noticed a seemingly high prevalence of pigmented masses on these dogs. This study had three specific aims: (1) produce a detailed description of the ocular phenotype of WDPs, (2) objectively determine if an increased prevalence of ocular and cutaneous melanocytic tumors was present in WDPs, and (3) determine if a genetic mutation in any of the genes known to cause human OCA is causal for the WDP phenotype. WDPs have a consistent ocular phenotype of photophobia, hypopigmented adnexal structures, blue irides with a tan periphery and hypopigmented retinal pigment epithelium and choroid. WDPs have a higher prevalence of cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms compared with control standard color Doberman pinschers (SDPs); cutaneous tumors were noted in 12/20 WDP (<5 years of age: 4/12; >5 years of age: 8/8) and 1/20 SDPs (p<0.00001). Using exclusion analysis, four OCA causative genes were investigated for their association with WDP phenotype; TYR, OCA2, TYRP1 and SLC45A2. SLC45A2 was found to be linked to the phenotype and gene sequencing revealed a 4,081 base pair deletion resulting in loss of the terminus of exon seven of SLC45A2 (chr4?77,062,96877,067,051). This mutation is highly likely to be the cause of the WDP phenotype and is supported by a lack of detectable SLC45A2 transcript levels by reverse transcriptase PCR. The WDP provides a valuable model for studying OCA4 visual disturbances and melanocytic neoplasms in a large animal model. PMID:24647637

  11. 5S RRNA GENE DELETIONS CAUSE AN UNEXPECTEDLY HIGH FITNESS LOSS IN ESCHERICHIA COLI. (R825354)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. Increased biomass production and glycogen accumulation in apcE gene deleted Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The effect of phycobilisome antenna-truncation in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 on biomass production and glycogen accumulation have not yet been fully clarified. To investigate these effects here, the apcE gene, which encodes the anchor protein linking the phycobilisome to the thylakoid membrane, was deleted in a glucose tolerant strain of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Biomass production of the apcE-deleted strain under photoautotrophic and atmospheric air conditions was 1.6 times higher than that of strain PCC 6803 (1.32 ± 0.01 versus 0.84 ± 0.07 g cell-dry weight L−1, respectively) after 15 days of cultivation. In addition, the glycogen content of the apcE-deleted strain (24.2 ± 0.7%) was also higher than that of strain PCC 6803 (11.1 ± 0.3%). Together, these results demonstrate that antenna truncation by deleting the apcE gene was effective for increasing biomass production and glycogen accumulation under photoautotrophic and atmospheric air conditions in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. PMID:24949254

  13. Partial Gene Deletions of PMP22 Causing Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Hong, Bo Young; Kim, Yoonjung; Lee, Sang Guk; Yang, Jin-Young; Kim, Juwon; Lee, Kyung-A

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal neuropathy that is commonly caused by a reciprocal 1.5 Mb deletion on chromosome 17p11.2, at the site of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. Other patients with similar phenotypes have been shown to harbor point mutations or small deletions, although there is some clinical variation across these patients. In this report, we describe a case of HNPP with copy number changes in exon or promoter regions of PMP22. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe analysis revealed an exon 1b deletion in the patient, who had been diagnosed with HNPP in the first decade of life using molecular analysis. PMID:25506001

  14. Partial Gene Deletions of PMP22 Causing Hereditary Neuropathy with Liability to Pressure Palsies

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sun-Mi; Kim, Yoonjung; Lee, Sang Guk; Yang, Jin-Young

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal neuropathy that is commonly caused by a reciprocal 1.5 Mb deletion on chromosome 17p11.2, at the site of the peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) gene. Other patients with similar phenotypes have been shown to harbor point mutations or small deletions, although there is some clinical variation across these patients. In this report, we describe a case of HNPP with copy number changes in exon or promoter regions of PMP22. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe analysis revealed an exon 1b deletion in the patient, who had been diagnosed with HNPP in the first decade of life using molecular analysis. PMID:25506001

  15. PCR detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E.

    1994-05-01

    From 1971--1986, Argonne National Laboratory conducted a series of large-scale studies of tumor incidence in 40,000 BCF{sub 1} mice irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays or JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma (mRb) gene. Six mRb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. Absence of any of these fragments on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mRb gene. Tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death in post-mortem analyses. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice were analyzed for mRb deletions. In all normal mouse tissues studies all six mRb exon fragments were present on Southern blots. Tumors in six neutron-irradiated mice also had no mRb deletions. However, 1 of 6 tumors from {gamma}-irradiated mice and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice showed a deletion in one or both mRb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5{prime} region of the mRb gene.

  16. Partial gene deletion in LEC rat: An animal model for Wilson disease

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.; Forbes, J.R.; Cox, D.W.

    1994-09-01

    Wilson disease is an inherited disorder of copper transport in which incorporation of copper into ceruloplasmin and excretion of copper into bile are greatly reduced. Copper accumulates to a toxic level in the liver and also in the brain and kidney, causing a spectrum of hepatic and neurological abnormalities. We have recently cloned the gene for Wilson disease (designated ATP7B), which encodes a putative copper-transporting P-type ATPase. The inbred mutant Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rat strain shows similarity to Wilson disease in many clinical and biochemical features. We have cloned cDNAs for the rat homologue (Atp7b) of the human Wilson disease gene (ATP7B) and have shown that the two genes have {approximately}82% identity at the amino acid sequence level. Rat cDNA sequences were used to identify a partial deletion in the Atp7b gene in the LEC rat. The deletion removes at least 750 bp of the coding region at the 3{prime} end, which includes the crucial ATP binding domain and extends downstream of the gene. The proximal breakpoint has been precisely localized at the cDNA level. Our results provide convincing evidence that the LEC rat is an animal model for Wilson disease. This model will be important for studying liver pathophysiology, for developing therapy for Wilson disease, and for studying the pathway of copper transport and its possible interaction with other heavy metals.

  17. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Honorees Education Programs ABOUT MMRF About MMRF MMRF Leadership The MMRF Blog Staff Directory Create a Tribute Financial Reports Careers ABOUT MULTIPLE MYELOMA What is Multiple Myeloma Definition of Multiple Myeloma Blood Cancers Plasma Cell Neoplasms ...

  18. In Australia: Multiple Intelligences in Multiple Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vialle, Wilma

    1997-01-01

    In Australia, Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory has strongly influenced primary, preschool, and special education. A survey of 30 schools revealed that teachers use two basic approaches: teaching to, and teaching through, multiple intelligences. The first approach might develop children's music skills via playing an instrument. The second…

  19. Absence of IE1 p72 protein function during low-multiplicity infection by human cytomegalovirus results in a broad block to viral delayed-early gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gawn, Jonathan M; Greaves, Richard F

    2002-05-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) ie1 deletion mutant CR208 is profoundly growth deficient after low-multiplicity infection of primary fibroblasts. Previously, we showed that many fewer cells infected with CR208 at low multiplicity accumulated the delayed-early (DE) protein ppUL44 than accumulated the immediate-early 2 (IE2) p86 protein, indicating a high frequency of abortive infections. We now demonstrate that accumulation of all DE proteins tested was defective after low-multiplicity infection in the absence of IE1 p72. Accumulation of the DE proteins pUL57, pUL98, and pUL69 followed a pattern very similar to that of ppUL44 during low-multiplicity CR208 infection. Accumulation of the ppUL112-113 proteins occurred in a greater proportion of cells than other DE proteins during low-multiplicity CR208 infection, but was still deficient relative to wild-type virus. We also show for the first time that steady-state levels of many DE RNAs were reduced during low-multiplicity CR208 infection and that by in situ hybridization of the abundant cytoplasmic 2.7-kb TRL4 DE (beta2.7) RNA, a viral DE RNA followed a defective pattern of accumulation similar to that of ppUL44. Furthermore, transfected DE promoter-reporter constructs were found in transient assays to be considerably less responsive to CR208 infection than to infection by wild-type Towne virus. Our results indicate a general defect in DE gene expression following low-multiplicity HCMV infection in the absence of functional IE1 p72, most probably mediated by reduced transcription of DE genes and by the reduced accumulation of DE RNAs. PMID:11932411

  20. Multiple Sclerosis International Federation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of it Find out how What is MS? Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive disease of the nervous ... more Radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS) and primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) People with RIS evolve to PPMS at ...

  1. MultipleColposcopyJCO

    Cancer.gov

    Performing multiple biopsies during a procedure known as colposcopy—visual inspection of the cervix—is more effective than performing only a single biopsy of the worst-appearing area for detecting cervical cancer precursors. This multiple biopsy approach

  2. Depression and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Depression - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society ... Twitter Email Home Symptoms & Diagnosis MS Symptoms Depression Depression Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print In this ...

  3. Multiple Myeloma Section

    Cancer.gov

    The Multiple Myeloma Section currently has several ongoing and upcoming protocols related to the molecular Natural History and novel treatments for Multiple Myeloma and its precursors - Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) and Smolder

  4. Varicella Viruses Inhibit Interferon-Stimulated JAK-STAT Signaling through Multiple Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, Marieke C.; Wellish, Mary; Whitmer, Travis; Malouli, Daniel; Lapel, Martin; Jonjić, Stipan; Haas, Juergen G.; DeFilippis, Victor R.; Mahalingam, Ravi; Früh, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes chickenpox in humans and, subsequently, establishes latency in the sensory ganglia from where it reactivates to cause herpes zoster. Infection of rhesus macaques with simian varicella virus (SVV) recapitulates VZV pathogenesis in humans thus representing a suitable animal model for VZV infection. While the type I interferon (IFN) response has been shown to affect VZV replication, the virus employs counter mechanisms to prevent the induction of anti-viral IFN stimulated genes (ISG). Here, we demonstrate that SVV inhibits type I IFN-activated signal transduction via the JAK-STAT pathway. SVV-infected rhesus fibroblasts were refractory to IFN stimulation displaying reduced protein levels of IRF9 and lacking STAT2 phosphorylation. Since previous work implicated involvement of the VZV immediate early gene product ORF63 in preventing ISG-induction we studied the role of SVV ORF63 in generating resistance to IFN treatment. Interestingly, SVV ORF63 did not affect STAT2 phosphorylation but caused IRF9 degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner, suggesting that SVV employs multiple mechanisms to counteract the effect of IFN. Control of SVV ORF63 protein levels via fusion to a dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR)-degradation domain additionally confirmed its requirement for viral replication. Our results also show a prominent reduction of IRF9 and inhibition of STAT2 phosphorylation in VZV-infected cells. In addition, cells expressing VZV ORF63 blocked IFN-stimulation and displayed reduced levels of the IRF9 protein. Taken together, our data suggest that varicella ORF63 prevents ISG-induction both directly via IRF9 degradation and indirectly via transcriptional control of viral proteins that interfere with STAT2 phosphorylation. SVV and VZV thus encode multiple viral gene products that tightly control IFN-induced anti-viral responses. PMID:25973608

  5. Multiple Myeloma Section

    Cancer.gov

    The Multiple Myeloma Section The mission of the Multiple Myeloma Section of the NCI is to... Ola Landgren, M.D., Ph.D. Dr. Landgren is the director of the Clinical Program in the Multiple Myeloma Research Section.  He received his M.D. in 1995 and Ph.D. i

  6. Temporal Association of Herpes Simplex Virus ICP4 with Cellular Complexes Functioning at Multiple Steps in PolII Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Lauren M.; DeLuca, Neal A.

    2013-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) immediate early protein, ICP4, participates in the regulation of viral gene expression by both activating and repressing RNA polII transcription. We used affinity purification of ICP4 expressed in infected cells followed by mass spectrometry and western blot analysis to determine the composition of cellular complexes associated with ICP4 throughout infection. ICP4 was associated with TFIID complexes containing a distinct set of TAFs. These complexes were most abundant early, but were detected throughout infection, whereas Mediator was found in ICP4 containing complexes later in infection, indicating a temporal pattern for the utilization of these complexes for the transcription of the viral genome. The form of Mediator copurifying with ICP4 was enriched for the kinase domain and also lacked the activator-specific component, Med26, suggesting that Mediator-ICP4 interactions may be involved in repression of viral transcription. The N-terminal 774 amino acids of ICP4, which retains partial function, were sufficient to form complexes with TFIID and Mediator, although these interactions were not as strong as with full-length ICP4. Additionally, components involved in transcription elongation, chromatin remodeling, and mRNA processing were isolated with ICP4. Together our data indicate that ICP4 plays a more integrated role in mediating HSV transcription, possibly affecting multiple steps in transcription and gene expression. PMID:24147125

  7. Multiple emulsions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Khan, Azhar Yaqoob; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Iqbal, Zeenat; Ahmed, Farhan Jalees; Khar, Roop Krishan

    2006-10-01

    Multiple emulsions are complex polydispersed systems where both oil in water and water in oil emulsion exists simultaneously which are stabilized by lipophillic and hydrophilic surfactants respectively. The ratio of these surfactants is important in achieving stable multiple emulsions. Among water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) and oil-in-water-in-oil (o/w/o) type multiple emulsions, the former has wider areas of application and hence are studied in great detail. Formulation, preparation techniques and in vitro characterization methods for multiple emulsions are reviewed. Various factors affecting the stability of multiple emulsions and the stabilization approaches with specific reference to w/o/w type multiple emulsions are discussed in detail. Favorable drug release mechanisms and/or rate along with in vivo fate of multiple emulsions make them a versatile carrier. It finds wide range of applications in controlled or sustained drug delivery, targeted delivery, taste masking, bioavailability enhancement, enzyme immobilization, etc. Multiple emulsions have also been employed as intermediate step in the microencapsulation process and are the systems of increasing interest for the oral delivery of hydrophilic drugs, which are unstable in gastrointestinal tract like proteins and peptides. With the advancement in techniques for preparation, stabilization and rheological characterization of multiple emulsions, it will be able to provide a novel carrier system for drugs, cosmetics and pharmaceutical agents. In this review, emphasis is laid down on formulation, stabilization techniques and potential applications of multiple emulsion system. PMID:17076645

  8. Choristoneura fumiferana multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus LEF-3-P143 complex can complement DNA replication and budded virus in an AcMNPV LEF-3-P143 double knockout bacmid.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mei; Carstens, Eric B

    2012-02-01

    Transient replication assays using Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Choristoneura fumiferana multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (CfMNPV) genes suggested that the interactions between P143, the viral helicase and LEF-3, a ssDNA-binding protein, may represent virus species specificity determinants. P143 and LEF-3 are essential for DNA replication in these assays and together with IE-1, the major immediate-early transcription factor, may be part of the viral replisome. In the current report, a lef-3/p143 double-knockout AcMNPV bacmid was constructed that was defective for viral DNA replication and late gene expression. When the homologous lef-3/p143 CfMNPV genes were introduced into this double-knockout bacmid, DNA replication was restored but the level of replication was lower, budded virus production was delayed, and the yields were reduced from those in an AcMNPV-rescue bacmid. These results suggest that to maximize virus replication, baculovirus replisome assembly and function requires protein-protein interactions between P143 and LEF-3, and other viral proteins. PMID:22049089

  9. Multiple Scattering Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modregger, Peter; Kagias, Matias; Peter, Silvia; Abis, Matteo; Guzenko, Vitaliy A.; David, Christian; Stampanoni, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Multiple scattering represents a challenge for numerous modern tomographic imaging techniques. In this Letter, we derive an appropriate line integral that allows for the tomographic reconstruction of angular resolved scattering distributions, even in the presence of multiple scattering. The line integral is applicable to a wide range of imaging techniques utilizing various kinds of probes. Here, we use x-ray grating interferometry to experimentally validate the framework and to demonstrate additional structural sensitivity, which exemplifies the impact of multiple scattering tomography.

  10. Highly Divergent Strains of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Incorporate Multiple Isoforms of Nonstructural Protein 2 into Virions

    PubMed Central

    Kappes, Matthew A.; Miller, Cathy L.

    2013-01-01

    Viral structural proteins form the critical intermediary between viral infection cycles within and between hosts, function to initiate entry, participate in immediate early viral replication steps, and are major targets for the host adaptive immune response. We report the identification of nonstructural protein 2 (nsp2) as a novel structural component of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) particle. A set of custom ?-nsp2 antibodies targeting conserved epitopes within four distinct regions of nsp2 (the PLP2 protease domain [OTU], the hypervariable domain [HV], the putative transmembrane domain [TM], and the C-terminal region [C]) were obtained commercially and validated in PRRSV-infected cells. Highly purified cell-free virions of several PRRSV strains were isolated through multiple rounds of differential density gradient centrifugation and analyzed by immunoelectron microscopy (IEM) and Western blot assays using the ?-nsp2 antibodies. Purified viral preparations were found to contain pleomorphic, predominantly spherical virions of uniform size (57.9 nm 8.1 nm diameter; n = 50), consistent with the expected size of PRRSV particles. Analysis by IEM indicated the presence of nsp2 associated with the viral particle of diverse strains of PRRSV. Western blot analysis confirmed the presence of nsp2 in purified viral samples and revealed that multiple nsp2 isoforms were associated with the virion. Finally, a recombinant PRRSV genome containing a myc-tagged nsp2 was used to generate purified virus, and these particles were also shown to harbor myc-tagged nsp2 isoforms. Together, these data identify nsp2 as a virion-associated structural PRRSV protein and reveal that nsp2 exists in or on viral particles as multiple isoforms. PMID:24089566

  11. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  12. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  13. Prediction in Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.

    2000-01-01

    Presents the concept of prediction via multiple regression (MR) and discusses the assumptions underlying multiple regression analyses. Also discusses shrinkage, cross-validation, and double cross-validation of prediction equations and describes how to calculate confidence intervals around individual predictions. (SLD)

  14. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and

  15. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence

  16. Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have to go on bed rest to delay labor. Finally, they may deliver by C-section, especially if there are three babies or more. Parenting multiples can be a challenge. Volunteer help and support groups for parents of multiples can help. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health

  17. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a

  18. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  19. Elk-1 a transcription factor with multiple facets in the brain.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Antoine; Galan-Rodriguez, Beatriz; Vanhoutte, Peter; Caboche, Jocelyne

    2011-01-01

    The ternary complex factor (TCF) Elk-1 is a transcription factor that regulates immediate early gene (IEG) expression via the serum response element (SRE) DNA consensus site. Elk-1 is associated with a dimer of serum response factor (SRF) at the SRE site, and its phosphorylation occurs at specific residues in response to mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun-N terminal kinase (JNK), p38/MAPK, and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK). This phosphorylation event is critical for triggering SRE-dependent transcription. Although MAPKs are fundamental actors for the instatement and maintenance of memory, and much investigation of their downstream signaling partners have been conducted, no data yet clearly implicate Elk-1 in these processes. This is partly due to the complexity of Elk-1 sub-cellular localization, and hence functions, within neurons. Elk-1 is present in its resting state in the cytoplasm, where it colocalizes with mitochondrial proteins or microtubules. In this particular sub-cellular compartment, overexpression of Elk-1 is toxic for neuronal cells. When phosphorylated by the MAPK/ERK, Elk-1 translocates to the nucleus where it is implicated in regulating chromatin remodeling, SRE-dependent transcription, and neuronal differentiation. Another post-translational modification is the conjugation to SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier), which relocalizes Elk-1 in the cytoplasm. Thus, Elk-1 plays a dual role in neuronal functions: pro-apoptotic within the cytoplasm, and pro-differentiation within the nucleus. To address the role of Elk-1 in the brain, one must be aware of its multiple facets, and design molecular tools that will shut down Elk-1 expression, trafficking, or activation, in specific neuronal compartments. We summarize in this review the known molecular functions of Elk-1, its regulation in neuronal cells, and present evidence of its possible implication in model systems of synaptic plasticity, learning, but also in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21441990

  20. Reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in multiple avian species.

    PubMed

    Olias, Philipp; Adam, Iris; Meyer, Anne; Scharff, Constance; Gruber, Achim D

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ) on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common crane (Grus grus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica), cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti), ostrich (Struthio camelus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ) that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species. PMID:24926893

  1. Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Multiple Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Anne; Scharff, Constance; Gruber, Achim D.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ) on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common crane (Grus grus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica), cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti), ostrich (Struthio camelus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ) that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species. PMID:24926893

  2. Characterization of baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus infection in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kitajima, Masayuki; Hamazaki, Hiroyuki; Miyano-Kurosaki, Naoko; Takaku, Hiroshi . E-mail: hiroshi.takaku@it-chiba.ac.jp

    2006-05-05

    The baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV) is used as a vector in many gene therapy studies. Wild-type AcMNPV infects many mammalian cell types in vitro, but does not replicate. We investigated the dynamics of AcMNPV genomic DNA in infected mammalian cells and used flow cytometric analysis to demonstrate that recombinant baculovirus containing a cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter/enhancer with green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressed high levels of GFP in Huh-7 cells, but not B16, Raw264.7, or YAC-1 cells. The addition of butyrate, a deacetylase inhibitor, markedly enhanced the percentage of GFP-expressing Huh-7 and B16 cells, but not Raw264.7 and YAC-1 cells. The addition of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a DNA methylation inhibitor, had no enhancing effect. Polymerase chain reaction analysis using AcMNPV-gp64-specific primers indicated that AcMNPV infected not only Huh-7 and B16 cells, but also Raw264.7 and YAC-1 cells in vitro. The genomic DNA was detected in Huh-7 and B16 cells 96 h after infection. Genomic AcMNPV DNA in YAC-1 cells was not transported to the nucleus. Luciferase assay indicated that AcMNPV p35 gene mRNA and p35 promoter activity were clearly expressed only in Huh-7 and B16 cells. These results suggest that viral genomic DNA expression is restricted by different host cell factors, such as degradation, deacetylation, and inhibition of nuclear transport, depending on the mammalian cell type.

  3. Syngeneic Marek's disease virus (MDV)-specific cell-mediated immune responses against immediate early, late, and unique MDV proteins.

    PubMed

    Omar, A R; Schat, K A

    1996-08-01

    Marek's disease (MD) infection has been controlled effectively by vaccination using nononcogenic and/or attenuated oncogenic Marek's disease virus (MDV) vaccines. Thus far, there is little knowledge on the role of cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses during MDV infection or vaccination. To elucidate the importance of MDV proteins in CMI responses, the pp38, Meq, ICP4, or ICP22 genes of an oncogenic strain, GA and the gB, ORF A, A41, or L1 genes of a highly oncogenic strain, RB1B were stably transfected into reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cells, CU-91 (MHC: B19B19) and CU-205 (MHC: B21B21). Cell lines positive for MDV gene transcription and/or protein expression were used in a standard 4-hr chromium release assay. Effector cells for this assay were obtained from splenocytes of chickens infected with the oncogenic strain, JM-16/13 or the nononcogenic vaccine strain, SB-1/12. Cell lines expressing MDV pp38, Meq, or gB were lysed by syngeneic but not allogeneic MDV-sensitized splenocytes obtained from chickens of B19B19 and B21B21 haplotypes. However, syngeneic CMI responses against ICP4 were detected only in B21B21 chickens. CMI responses were not detected against B19B19 and B21B21 cell lines expressing A41, L1, ORF A, or ICP22. This report suggests that syngeneic CMI responses against pp38, Meq, ICP4, and gB of GA and RB1B strains, respectively, can be induced in chickens inoculated with JM16/13 or SB-1/12. The difference in CMI response to ICP4 in genetically susceptible (B19B19) and genetically resistant (B21B21) chickens may be an important factor in genetic resistance. PMID:8806490

  4. Group 2 coronaviruses prevent immediate early interferon induction by protection of viral RNA from host cell recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Versteeg, Gijs A.; Bredenbeek, Peter J.; Worm, Sjoerd H.E. van den; Spaan, Willy J.M. . E-mail: w.j.m.spaan@lumc.nl

    2007-04-25

    Many viruses encode antagonists to prevent interferon (IFN) induction. Infection of fibroblasts with the murine hepatitis coronavirus (MHV) and SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) did not result in nuclear translocation of interferon-regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), a key transcription factor involved in IFN induction, and induction of IFN mRNA transcription. Furthermore, MHV and SARS-CoV infection could not prevent IFN induction by poly (I:C) or Sendai virus, suggesting that these CoVs do not inactivate IRF3-mediated transcription regulation, but apparently prevent detection of replicative RNA by cellular sensory molecules. Our data indicate that shielding of viral RNA to host cell sensors might be the main general mechanism for coronaviruses to prevent IFN induction.

  5. AMPK-mediated inhibition of mTOR kinase is circumvented during immediate-early times of human cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Kudchodkar, Sagar B; Del Prete, Gregory Q; Maguire, Tobi G; Alwine, James C

    2007-04-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection increases synthetic rates in infected cells. The resulting increase in energy utilization could potentially increase the AMP:ATP ratio, causing activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activated AMPK promotes inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, which could be deleterious to the viral infection. Using the AMPK-activating drug 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribose (AICAR), we showed that, by 12 h post-HCMV infection, inhibition of mTOR by AMPK is circumvented. However, growth curves showed that progeny virion production is inhibited when AICAR is added, suggesting other inhibitory effects of AICAR or activated AMPK. PMID:17215282

  6. Multiple Myeloma and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Zeinab A.; Zantout, Mira S.; Azar, Sami T.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell disorder that accounts for approximately 10% of all hematologic cancers. It is characterized by accumulation of clonal plasma cells, predominantly in the bone marrow. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing; therefore, it is expected that there will be an increase in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma with concomitant diabetes mellitus. The treatment of multiple myeloma and diabetes mellitus is multifaceted. The coexistence of the two conditions in a patient forms a major challenge for physicians. PMID:22363889

  7. Multiple myeloma and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Issa, Zeinab A; Zantout, Mira S; Azar, Sami T

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma cell disorder that accounts for approximately 10% of all hematologic cancers. It is characterized by accumulation of clonal plasma cells, predominantly in the bone marrow. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing; therefore, it is expected that there will be an increase in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma with concomitant diabetes mellitus. The treatment of multiple myeloma and diabetes mellitus is multifaceted. The coexistence of the two conditions in a patient forms a major challenge for physicians. PMID:22363889

  8. Challenges of Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePLUS

    ... signs in yourself or your partner. You should work as a team to overcome these difficulties. Postpartum depression (PPD) appears to be more likely in mothers of multiples. Depression can also occur in fathers. ...

  9. Multiple sclerosis (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Multiple sclerosis is a central nervous system disorder marked by decreased nerve function with initial inflammation of the protective myelin nerve covering and eventual scarring. Symptoms and severity of ...

  10. Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... conducted. MMRF, a 501(c)(3), is the number one private funder of multiple myeloma research in the United States. More Stay on top of the news that affects you. Discoveries, trials, research and more. ...

  11. Pomalidomide for Multiple Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a phase III trial that compared the combination of pomalidomide (Pomalyst®) and low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone alone in patients with multiple myeloma that has progressed despite other treatments.

  12. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gland The thyroid gland (less often affected) The adrenal glands (less often affected) Almost all people with multiple ... of pituitary tumors produce corticotropin , which overstimulates the adrenal glands, leading to high levels of corticosteroid hormones and ...

  13. Multiple Turbo Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    A description is given of multiple turbo codes and a suitable decoder structure derived from an approximation to the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decision rule, which is substantially different from the decoder for two-code-based encoders.

  14. Multiple myeloma precursor disease.

    PubMed

    Landgren, Ola; Waxman, Adam Justin

    2010-12-01

    Recent data indicate that multiple myeloma is consistently preceded by the precursor states of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma. Currently, multiple myeloma is a clinical diagnosis based on manifestations including hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and bone lesions, whereas MGUS and smoldering myeloma are diagnosed based on laboratory abnormalities. Current clinical markers allow for more individualized risk stratification and counseling of these patients. However, there is a dearth of biomarkers and molecular imaging techniques capable of (1) accurately identifying patients with disease biology corresponding with high risk of progression; (2) elucidating the mechanism of transformation to multiple myeloma; and (3) forming a framework for development of targeted therapies. This case presentation and review discusses the current understanding of myeloma precursor disease and future opportunities for improving personalized management of patients with MGUS or smoldering myeloma, as well as the potential for developing early treatment strategies designed to delay and prevent development of multiple myeloma. PMID:21119086

  15. Rituximab and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kitsos, Dimitrios K; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Stamboulis, Eleftherios; Voumvourakis, Konstantine I

    2012-01-01

    B lymphocytes seem to have a fundamental role in multiple sclerosis, acting as sensors, coordinators, and regulators of the immune response. Furthermore, they are important in activating T cells and they can mediate tissue injury through diverse mechanisms. Such findings have important therapeutic implications in autoimmune central nervous system diseases in a fashion similar to other autoimmune processes. The best known monoclonal antibody targeting B cells that has been used as a novel therapy for various autoimmune conditions, as well as multiple sclerosis, is rituximab. This review summarizes the available data on the role of B cell in multiple sclerosis and further reports on current knowledge on the B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody rituximab, its mechanism of action, and its efficacy on multiple sclerosis. Data presented were categorized in 3 groups based on the nature of data presented (radiological, clinical, and immunological data). Both case-control studies and case reports were included, while table classification was in chronological order. PMID:22421587

  16. What Is Multiple Myeloma?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multiple myeloma is a cancer formed by malignant plasma cells. Normal plasma cells are found in the bone marrow and ... to an infection, they mature and change into plasma cells. Plasma cells make the antibodies (also called ...

  17. Photovoltaics: Separating Multiple Excitons

    SciTech Connect

    Nozik, A. J.

    2012-05-01

    Scientists have demonstrated an efficient process for generating multiple excitons in adjacent silicon nanocrystals from a single high-energy photon. Their findings could prove useful for a wide range of photovoltaic applications.

  18. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  19. Lenalidomide in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Paul G; Mitsiades, Constantine; Hideshima, Teru; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2006-08-01

    Current therapies for multiple myeloma include steroids, alkylating agents and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant. These approaches are typically associated with initially good response rates, but they ultimately fail as a result of disease progression. New therapies that overcome resistance, lower toxicity and maintain remission are needed. Recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma include bortezomib and thalidomide. Lenalidomide (Revlimid) is an immunomodulatory drug that has undergone rapid clinical development in multiple myeloma and was recently approved by the US FDA for use in patients with relapsed disease. Clinical trials demonstrate that lenalidomide, particularly in combination with dexamethasone, produces durable clinical responses in patients with relapsed and refractory disease and is generally well tolerated, with manageable toxicities. This review summarizes the profile of lenalidomide and the current evidence for its efficacy in multiple myeloma. PMID:16925483

  20. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  1. Breast-feeding multiples.

    PubMed

    Flidel-Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S

    2002-06-01

    Human breast milk is the best nutrition for human infants. Its advantages over the milk of other species, such as cows, include both a reduced risk for infections, allergies and chronic diseases, together with the full nutritional requirements for growth and development. Breast-feeding is as important for multiples as for singletons. Despite the advantages, multiples receive less breast-feeding than singletons. Common reasons for not breast-feeding multiples include the fear of not fulfilling the infants' needs and the difficulty of coping with the demands on the mother's time. In addition, many multiples are delivered prematurely and by Caesarean section. Maternal pain and discomfort together with anxiety over the infants' condition are not conducive to successful breast-feeding. During lactation, the mother needs to add calories to her daily diet. It has been recommended to add approximately 500-600 kcal/day for each infant. Thus, between eating, nursing and sleeping, life is very busy for the mother of multiples. However, there is evidence that, with appropriate nutrition, one mother can nourish more than one infant. Also, simultaneous breast-feeding can save much time. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast-feeding of multiples possible. However, when breast-feeding is not possible, health care workers need to carefully avoid judgmental approaches that may induce feelings of guilt. PMID:12234747

  2. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, H.K. Jr.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means for separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means. 7 figs.

  3. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K. (Birmingham, MI)

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means or separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means.

  4. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.

    PubMed

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Carter, Randy L; Cullings, Harry M; Carroll, Raymond J

    2014-11-10

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  5. Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models

    PubMed Central

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  6. Multiple stat complexes interact at the interferon regulatory factor-1 interferon-gamma activation sequence in prolactin-stimulated Nb2 T cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y F; Yu-Lee, L Y

    1996-07-23

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is a major immediate early gene induced by prolactin (PRL) in a biphasic, cell cycle-dependent manner in Nb2 T cells. This biphasic expression (30 min and 10 h) is mediated in part by an interferon-gamma activation sequence (GAS) in the IRF-1 promoter which binds factors belonging to the Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription (Stat) family. By electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA), Stat1 alpha was found to be the major and Stat5a a minor component of the 30 min complex. At 10 h, Stat-like factors were again found at the IRF-1 GAS. Western blot analyses show that Stat5a was rapidly induced by PRL to enter the nucleus, but unexpectedly, Stat1 alpha and the alternatively-spliced Stat1 beta were already present in the uninduced nucleus. Further, Stat1 alpha but not Stat1 beta is preferentially tyrosine phosphorylated in response to PRL stimulation. Our studies suggest that multiple Stat complexes may contribute to the biphasic transcription of the IRF-1 gene in PRL-stimulated T cells. PMID:8865162

  7. The role of the PI3K-Akt signal transduction pathway in Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus infection of Spodoptera frugiperda cells

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao Wei; Yang Yi; Weng Qingbei; Lin Tiehao; Yuan Meijin; Yang Kai; Pang Yi

    2009-08-15

    Many viruses activate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, thereby modulating diverse downstream signaling pathways associated with antiapoptosis, proliferation, cell cycling, protein synthesis and glucose metabolism, in order to augment their replication. To date, the role of the PI3K-Akt pathway in Baculovirus replication has not been defined. In the present study, we demonstrate that infection of Sf9 cells with Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) elevated cellular Akt phosphorylation at 1 h post-infection. The maximum Akt phosphorylation occurred at 6 h post-infection and remained unchanged until 18 h post-infection. The PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, suppressed Akt phosphorylation in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that AcMNPV-induced Akt phosphorylation is PI3K-dependent. The inhibition of PI3K-Akt activation by LY294002 significantly reduced the viral yield, including a reduction in budded viruses and occlusion bodies. The virus production was reduced only when the inhibitor was added within 24 h of infection, implying that activation of PI3K occurred early in infection. Correspondingly, both viral DNA replication and late (VP39) and very late (POLH) viral protein expression were impaired by LY294002 treatment; LY294002 had no effect on immediate-early (IE1) and early-late (GP64) protein expression. These results demonstrate that the PI3K-Akt pathway is required for efficient Baculovirus replication.

  8. Multiple sclerosis and glutamate.

    PubMed

    Groom, Anthony J; Smith, Terence; Turski, Lechoslaw

    2003-05-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis reproduces in rodents the features of multiple sclerosis, an immune-mediated, disabling disorder of the human nervous system. No adequate therapy is available for multiple sclerosis, despite anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunomodulatory measures. Increasingly glutamate is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we (1) review changes in the glutamatergic system in multiple sclerosis and (2) reveal the effects of glutamate AMPA antagonists in acute and chronic rodent models of multiple sclerosis. Administration of structurally diverse competitive and non-competitive AMPA antagonists reduces neurologic disability in rodents subjected to acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, AMPA antagonists are active in both the adoptive transfer and in chronic models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats and mice and affect both the acute and chronic relapsing phases. Moreover, short-term therapy with AMPA antagonists leads to sustained benefit well into the progressive phases. These results imply that therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis should be complemented by glutamate AMPA antagonists to reduce neurologic disability. PMID:12853317

  9. Carrier multiplication in graphene.

    PubMed

    Winzer, Torben; Knorr, Andreas; Malic, Ermin

    2010-12-01

    Graphene as a zero-bandgap semiconductor is an ideal model structure to study the carrier relaxation channels, which are inefficient in conventional semiconductors. In particular, it is of fundamental interest to address the question whether Auger-type processes significantly influence the carrier dynamics in graphene. These scattering channels bridge the valence and conduction band allowing carrier multiplication, a process that generates multiple charge carriers from the absorption of a single photon. This has been suggested in literature for improving the efficiency of solar cells. Here we show, based on microscopic calculations within the density matrix formalism, that Auger processes do play an unusually strong role for the relaxation dynamics of photoexcited charge carriers in graphene. We predict that a considerable carrier multiplication takes place, confirming the potential of graphene as a new material for high-efficiency photodevices. PMID:21053963

  10. Enhancing multiple disciplinary teamwork.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri E

    2008-01-01

    Multiple disciplinary research provides an opportunity to bring together investigators across disciplines to provide new views and develop innovative approaches to important questions. Through this shared experience, novel paradigms are formed, original frameworks are developed, and new language is generated. Integral to the successful construction of effective cross-disciplinary teams is the recognition of antecedent factors that affect the development of the team such as intrapersonal, social, physical environmental, organizational, and institutional influences. Team functioning is enhanced with well-developed behavioral, affective, interpersonal, and intellectual processes. Outcomes of effective multiple disciplinary research teams include novel ideas, integrative models, new training programs, institutional change, and innovative policies that can also influence the degree to which antecedents and processes contribute to team performance. Ongoing evaluation of team functioning and achievement of designated outcomes ensures the continued development of the multiple disciplinary team and confirmation of this approach as important to the advancement of science. PMID:18501748

  11. Immunopathology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dendrou, Calliope A; Fugger, Lars; Friese, Manuel A

    2015-09-15

    Two decades of clinical experience with immunomodulatory treatments for multiple sclerosis point to distinct immunological pathways that drive disease relapses and progression. In light of this, we discuss our current understanding of multiple sclerosis immunopathology, evaluate long-standing hypotheses regarding the role of the immune system in the disease and delineate key questions that are still unanswered. Recent and anticipated advances in the field of immunology, and the increasing recognition of inflammation as an important component of neurodegeneration, are shaping our conceptualization of disease pathophysiology, and we explore the potential implications for improved healthcare provision to patients in the future. PMID:26250739

  12. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  13. [Multiple intracranial arteriovenous malformation].

    PubMed

    Gelabert-Gonzlez, Miguel; Santin-Amo, Jos Mara; Romn-Pena, Paula; Vzquez Herrero, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Multiple cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are thought to be exceedingly rare lesions and have usually been reported as single cases. The incidence of multiple cerebral AVMs in major series ranges from 0.3% to 9% and, in the majority of cases, these malformations are associated with other vascular anomalies of the brain or soft tissues. We report a 62-year-old woman that presented with a left temporal haemorrhage. Angiography showed 3 AVMs located in the left temporal lobe, left cerebellar hemisphere and right temporal lobe. The lesions were treated with radiosurgery. PMID:25596643

  14. Neutron multiplicity analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Scott L

    2010-01-01

    I describe the capabilities of the EXCOM (EXcel based COincidence and Multiplicity) calculation tool which is used to analyze experimental data or simulated neutron multiplicity data. The input to the program is the count-rate data (including the multiplicity distribution) for a measurement, the isotopic composition of the sample and relevant dates. The program carries out deadtime correction and background subtraction and then performs a number of analyses. These are: passive calibration curve, known alpha and multiplicity analysis. The latter is done with both the point model and with the weighted point model. In the current application EXCOM carries out the rapid analysis of Monte Carlo calculated quantities and allows the user to determine the magnitude of sample perturbations that lead to systematic errors. Neutron multiplicity counting is an assay method used in the analysis of plutonium for safeguards applications. It is widely used in nuclear material accountancy by international (IAEA) and national inspectors. The method uses the measurement of the correlations in a pulse train to extract information on the spontaneous fission rate in the presence of neutrons from ({alpha},n) reactions and induced fission. The measurement is relatively simple to perform and gives results very quickly ({le} 1 hour). By contrast, destructive analysis techniques are extremely costly and time consuming (several days). By improving the achievable accuracy of neutron multiplicity counting, a nondestructive analysis technique, it could be possible to reduce the use of destructive analysis measurements required in safeguards applications. The accuracy of a neutron multiplicity measurement can be affected by a number of variables such as density, isotopic composition, chemical composition and moisture in the material. In order to determine the magnitude of these effects on the measured plutonium mass a calculational tool, EXCOM, has been produced using VBA within Excel. This program was developed to help speed the analysis of Monte Carlo neutron transport simulation (MCNP) data, and only requires the count-rate data to calculate the mass of material using INCC's analysis methods instead of the full neutron multiplicity distribution required to run analysis in INCC. This paper describes what is implemented within EXCOM, including the methods used, how the program corrects for deadtime, and how uncertainty is calculated. This paper also describes how to use EXCOM within Excel.

  15. Multiple Hereditary Exostoses.

    PubMed

    DuBose, Cheryl O

    2016-01-01

    Multiple hereditary exostoses (MHE), also known as multiple osteochondromas, is an autosomal dominant disease that results in the development of osteochondromas throughout the body. The disease typically is diagnosed during childhood and requires lifelong monitoring and treatment of painful osteochondromas. Individuals with MHE must be monitored for complications that can arise and the potential malignant transformation of an osteochondroma into a chondrosarcoma. This article discusses the basic characteristics of MHE, genetic links, the role of medical imaging in diagnosis, and treatment options. PMID:26721841

  16. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA); Esposito, Richard J. (Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  17. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  18. Multiple cystic swelling: Initial presentation of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Jain, A. P.; Waghmare, Swati

    2010-01-01

    Multiple myeloma, a disease allied to malignancy of reticuloendothelial cells, is not an uncommon condition. However, the diagnosis is often made quite late because the disease has multiple modes of presentation. We are reporting a case of multiple myeloma in a 55-year-old male who presented with multiple cystic swellings on the chest. PMID:20931018

  19. ?Teriflunomide for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    ?Teriflunomide (Aubagio-Genzyme Therapeutics), the main metabolite of the disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug leflunomide,1 is an immunomodulatory agent with anti-inflammatory properties.2 It is a new oral treatment licensed for adults with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Here we discuss the evidence for its effectiveness and safety, and consider its place in therapy. PMID:25012149

  20. Core Multiplication in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2010-01-01

    A dedicated, non-symbolic, system yielding imprecise representations of large quantities (approximate number system, or ANS) has been shown to support arithmetic calculations of addition and subtraction. In the present study, 5-7-year-old children without formal schooling in multiplication and division were given a task requiring a scalar…

  1. Multiple Cutaneous Reticulohistiocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Hemmady, Karishma D; Someshwar, Shylaja S; Jerajani, Hemangi R

    2016-01-01

    Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized in its full form by severe destructive arthritis, cutaneous nodules, and systemic manifestations. Cutaneous lesions may precede, accompany, or more commonly develop later than other features in this disease. We describe a case of multiple cutaneous reticulohistiocytoma without any systemic associations after thorough investigations. PMID:26955136

  2. Multiple sclerosis: early management.

    PubMed

    Zajicek, J

    The management of multiple sclerosis (MS) is changing, and for the first time treatments which appear to influence the course of the disease are becoming available. This article examines our current understanding of MS pathogenesis and assesses which, if any, of the emerging therapies are likely to make an impact on this potentially disabling condition. PMID:9166373

  3. The Multiple Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J. M.; Ulich, B. L.; Shannon, R. R.; Carleton, N. P.; Geary, J. C.; Latham, D. W.; Angel, J. R. P.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Low, F. J.; Weymann, R. J.

    The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), located on top of Mount Hopkins (2600 m) in Arizona, consists of six main telescope systems, each of which is a classical Cassegrain with a 1.8 m diameter parabolic primary with focal ratio f/2.7, and a hyperbolic secondary producing a final f/31.6 for each of the individual telescopes. The most significant departures of the MMT from conventional optical telescope technology are (1) the use of light-weight 'egg-crate' mirrors, which reduced the telescope weight, (2) the use of an alt-azimuth mount, which simplifies the gravitational effects on the structure, (3) the use of a ball-bearing support rather than hydrostatic bearings, resulting in cost savings and less maintenance, (4) the use of spur gear drives rather than worm gears, and (5) the use of multiple coaligned light collectors rather than a single monolithic mirror. Early multiple objective telescopes are discussed, and the early history of the MMT project is given. The design and performance of the telescope are explained, and MMT instrumentation (spectrograph, optical design, detector, infrared photometer, SAO CCD camera) is given. Astronomical research with the telescope is discussed, along with plans for future multiple objective telescopes.

  4. Unfolding Fraction Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyberg, Terry; Whitney, Stephanie R.; Cramer, Kathleen A.; Monson, Debra S.; Leavitt, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Students often have difficulty understanding fractions, in general, and understanding how to multiply fractions, in particular. To move past this potential problem area, students need to develop a deeper understanding of multiplication and connect the ideas to fractions. In this article, the authors share their insights into teaching fraction

  5. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L. (Newark, DE)

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  6. Multiple access trade study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-09-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  7. Managing advanced multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Teasell, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common neurologic conditions in Canada. Many individuals with MS eventually develop the progressive form of the disease. The neurologic and psychosocial manifestations of the later stages of MS are numerous. Family physicians ought to have some understanding of patients with advanced MS and some knowledge of how to manage them. PMID:8499793

  8. From Disjunction to Multiplicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Maxine

    1972-01-01

    A discussion in reaction to Bell's thesis (AA 511 929) of the reflection of, and influence on, culture in art. The author focuses on literature and argues that the function of literature is to provide multiple perspectives and to influence the reader, and that this it to the good. (Author/JB)

  9. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  10. Mastering the Multiplication Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ettorre, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

  11. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include

  12. Immunotherapy for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Jacalyn; Bar-Natan, Michal; Munshi, Nikhil C; Avigan, David E

    2014-02-01

    The potential potency of the immune system in targeting malignant plasma cells in multiple myeloma is best demonstrated in the allogeneic transplant setting, where durable responses can be achieved. However, allogeneic transplantation is associated with significant morbidity and mortality related to graft versus host disease, due to the non-specific nature of allo-reactive T cell responses mediated by donor lymphocytes. Immunotherapeutic approaches that more specifically target the malignant plasma cells have the potential to improve outcomes in multiple myeloma. The development of clinically efficacious immunotherapy in multiple myeloma is dependent on achieving a greater understanding of the complex interactions between the immunologic milieu and the growth of the malignant plasma cell clone. A number of antigens have been identified on malignant plasma cells that may be targeted by both humoral and cell mediated immunotherapeutic strategies. Encouraging results have been demonstrated both pre-clinically and in clinical trials. In this review, we summarize the clinical data evaluating immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of multiple myeloma. PMID:24417573

  13. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Cancer.gov

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  14. Multiple listerial liver abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, D; Richards, J E; Rees, Y; Wicks, A C

    1987-01-01

    Hepatic involvement in listeriosis is uncommon in adults. Cases previously reported include three presenting as acute hepatitis and three of listerial liver abscesses found at necropsy. We report a case of multiple listerial liver abscesses. We believe this to be the first time this diagnosis has been made in a living patient. PMID:3428693

  15. Multiplicative Calculus and Student Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Duff

    1999-01-01

    Multiplicative calculus is based on a multiplicative rate of change whereas the usual calculus is based on an additive rate of change. Describes some student investigations into multiplicative calculus, including an original student idea about multiplicative Euler's Method. (Author/ASK)

  16. Treatment of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2011-08-01

    The treatment of multiple myeloma has changed dramatically in the past decade. The increase in the number of active agents has generated numerous possible drug combinations that can be used in the first-line and relapsed settings. As a result, there is considerable confusion about the choice of regimens for initial therapy, role of transplantation in the era of new drugs, end points for therapy, and the role of maintenance therapy. A hotly debated area is whether treatment approaches should achieve cure or disease control, which impacts greatly on the treatment strategy employed. This article provides an update on the treatment of multiple myeloma, with a focus on recent advances, newly diagnosed disease, role of transplantation and maintenance therapy. A synthesized approach to the treatment of myeloma is presented, along with a discussion of key paradigms that need to be challenged. PMID:21522124

  17. Portable multiplicity counter

    DOEpatents

    Newell, Matthew R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jones, David Carl (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-09-01

    A portable multiplicity counter has signal input circuitry, processing circuitry and a user/computer interface disposed in a housing. The processing circuitry, which can comprise a microcontroller integrated circuit operably coupled to shift register circuitry implemented in a field programmable gate array, is configured to be operable via the user/computer interface to count input signal pluses receivable at said signal input circuitry and record time correlations thereof in a total counting mode, coincidence counting mode and/or a multiplicity counting mode. The user/computer interface can be for example an LCD display/keypad and/or a USB interface. The counter can include a battery pack for powering the counter and low/high voltage power supplies for biasing external detectors so that the counter can be configured as a hand-held device for counting neutron events.

  18. Interference multiple access communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, L. Reggie; DeBardelaben, James A.; Niedzwiecki, Joshua; Learned, Rachel E.; Eisenberg, Yiftach; Cooper, David M.

    2007-04-01

    The implementation of network centric warfare on the battlefield has driven the growing demand for high capacity warfighter communication systems. Although new high capacity SATCOM systems such as WGS are being introduced in the near term, these systems use the interference avoidance paradigm, which fundamentally limits overall network performance. This paper introduces a new wireless networking paradigm called Interference Multiple Access (IMA), developed under the auspices of DARPA. The interference multiple access paradigm exploits multi-access interference to enable revolutionary improvements in wireless communication capacity and latency without the need for infrastructure, coordination, or spectrum preplanning. Simulation and over-the-air test results suggest that greater than 3X increases in network throughput (especially in low SNR scenarios) can be achieved over traditional contention and scheduled-based spectrum access approaches when applied to WIN-T NCW terminals communicating in a mesh topology over the WGS constellation.

  19. Multiple zeros of polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    For polynomials of higher degree, iterative numerical methods must be used. Four iterative methods are presented for approximating the zeros of a polynomial using a digital computer. Newton's method and Muller's method are two well known iterative methods which are presented. They extract the zeros of a polynomial by generating a sequence of approximations converging to each zero. However, both of these methods are very unstable when used on a polynomial which has multiple zeros. That is, either they fail to converge to some or all of the zeros, or they converge to very bad approximations of the polynomial's zeros. This material introduces two new methods, the greatest common divisor (G.C.D.) method and the repeated greatest common divisor (repeated G.C.D.) method, which are superior methods for numerically approximating the zeros of a polynomial having multiple zeros. These methods were programmed in FORTRAN 4 and comparisons in time and accuracy are given.

  20. Multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Magill, M K; Suruda, A

    1998-09-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a syndrome in which multiple symptoms reportedly occur with low-level chemical exposure. Several theories have been advanced to explain the cause of MCS, including allergy, toxic effects and neurobiologic sensitization. There is insufficient scientific evidence to confirm a relationship between any of these possible causes and symptoms. Patients with MCS have high rates of depression, anxiety and somatoform disorders, but it is unclear if a causal relationship or merely an association exists between MCS and psychiatric problems. Physicians should compassionately evaluate and care for patients who have this distressing condition, while avoiding the use of unproven, expensive or potentially harmful tests and treatments. The first goal of management is to establish an effective physician-patient relationship. The patient's efforts to return to work and to a normal social life should be encouraged and supported. PMID:9750540

  1. Core Multiplication in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2011-01-01

    A dedicated, non-symbolic, system yielding imprecise representations of large quantities (Approximate Number System, or ANS) has been shown to support arithmetic calculations of addition and subtraction. In the present study, 57-year-old children without formal schooling in multiplication and division were given a task requiring a scalar transformation of large approximate numerosities, presented as arrays of objects. In different conditions, the required calculation was doubling, quadrupling, or increasing by a fractional factor (2.5). In all conditions, participants were able to represent the outcome of the transformation at above-chance levels, even on the earliest training trials. Their performance could not be explained by processes of repeated addition, and it showed the critical ratio signature of the ANS. These findings provide evidence for an untrained, intuitive process of calculating multiplicative numerical relationships, providing a further foundation for formal arithmetic instruction. PMID:20537618

  2. Analysis of multiple orientations.

    PubMed

    Muhlich, Matthias; Aach, Til

    2009-07-01

    Estimation of local orientations in multivariate signals is an important problem in image processing and computer vision. This general problem formulation also covers optical flow estimation, which can be regarded as orientation estimation in space-time-volumes. Modelling a signal using only a single orientation, however, is often too restrictive, since occlusions and transparencies occur frequently, thus necessitating the modelling and analysis of multiple orientations. We, therefore, develop a unifying mathematical model for multiple orientations: Beyond describing an arbitrary number of orientations in scalar- and vector-valued image data such as color image sequences, it allows the unified treatment of additively and occludingly superimposed oriented structures as well as of combinations of these. Based on this model, we describe estimation schemes for an arbitrary number of additively or occludingly superimposed orientations in images. We confirm the performance of our framework on both synthetic and real image data. PMID:19447708

  3. Benign multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Glad, S; Nyland, H; Myhr, K-M

    2006-01-01

    A small fraction of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a benign course of the disease. The definition of benign MS has been heavily weighted towards physical disability and in particular ambulation. However, patients who are fully ambulatory may still be heavily disabled by non-motor symptoms like fatigue, pain, depression and cognitive dysfunction. These non-motor symptoms should be considered when defining benign MS. PMID:16637931

  4. Multiple myeloma: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Slovak, Marilyn L

    2011-12-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells characterized by complex genetic aberrations and heterogeneous outcomes. Over the past 25 years, cytogenetic analysis has played a key role in the diagnosis and management of MM. This article reviews the conventional cytogenetics, molecular cytogenetics, and genomic diagnostics of MM and highlights a few recent clinical trials that demonstrate the impact of genetic risk stratification on the treatment of this plasma cell malignancy. PMID:22118745

  5. Multiple booster spaceports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Alan W.

    The need for building a new multiple booster spaceport as a more cost-effective alternative to the currently used vehicle-specific launch facilities is demonstrated. Despite the differences, the current space boosters have a number of systems in common. They all use propellants, require communication systems, launch processing systems, electrical power distribution and control systems, and have structural as well as access requirements. These systems, engineered generically, will form the core of any new spaceport.

  6. Universality of particle multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K. |

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  7. Multiple Miniature Avionic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rye, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Dorneich, Michael C. (Inventor); Gannon, Aaron J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A display screen for displaying multiple sets of information is provided. In one embodiment, an aviation display screen includes a main window and a plurality of miniature windows. The main window is adapted to illustrate one set of information. Each miniature window is adapted to display a set of avionic information. The avionic display is further adapted to toggle a select set of avionic information in one of the miniature windows into the main window.

  8. Multiple muons in MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  9. Multiple Osteolytic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Several systemic diseases initially present with various oral manifestations. Investigation of these oral symptoms may at times lead to the diagnosis of grave underlying life-threatening conditions. We present one such case, where the patient manifested with gross enlargement of the mandible, along with lesions in the lower limbs. These lesions were the initial manifestation and on further investigations the patient was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. PMID:24516769

  10. Effects of Early or Overexpression of the Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus orf94 (ODV-e25) on Virus Replication

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiao-Chun; Wang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Jie; Qian, Duo-Duo; Wang, Si-Min; Li, Lu-Lin

    2013-01-01

    odv-e25(e25) is one of the core genes of baculoviruses. To investigate how it functions in the replication cycle of a baculovirus, a number of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus recombinants with e25 under control of the promoter of immediate early gene ie1, or the promoter of the very late hyperexpressed gene p10, were constructed using a bacmid system, and the effects of early expression or overexpression of e25 on replication of the virus were evaluated. Microscopy and titration assays demonstrated that bacmids with e25 under control of ie1 promoter were unable to produce budded viruses; and that the recombinant viruses with e25 under control of p10 promoter generated budded virus normally, but formation of occlusion bodies were dramatically reduced and delayed in the infected cells. Electron microscopy showed that there were no mature virions or intact nucleocapsids present in the cells transfected with a recombinant bacmid with e25 under control of ie1 promoter. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that alteration of the e25 promoter did not affect viral DNA synthesis. The reporter gene expression from the promoter of the major capsid protein gene vp39 was reduced 63% by early expression of e25. Confocal microscopy revealed that E25 was predominantly localized in nuclei by 24 hours post infection with wild-type virus, but it remained in the cytoplasm in the cells transfected with a recombinant bacmid with e25 under control of the ie1 promoter, suggesting that the transport of E25 into nuclei was regulated in a specific and strict time dependent manner. PMID:23825525

  11. MULTIPLE OSCILLATION STABILIZING CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect

    YUE,M.; SCHLUETER,R.; AZARM,M.; BARI,R.

    2004-07-23

    This paper presents a strategy that may be used to guide stabilizing control design for multiple oscillations, which are difficult to control using conventional control design procedures. A multiple oscillation phenomena is observed in an example power system. A local bifurcation and an interarea bifurcation develop in an example power system due to multiple bifurcation parameter variations. The dynamic behaviors of the bifurcating system are complex due to the overlapping of the two different bifurcation subsystems and are shown to be difficult to control. The double bifurcations are studied in this paper and in order to stabilize them, three kind of {mu}-synthesis robust controls are designed, (a) {mu}-synthesis power system stabilizer (MPSS); (b) {mu}-synthesis SVC control (MSVC); and (c) a mixed MPSS/MSVC control. Based on the bifurcation subsystem analysis, the measurement signals and locations of the controls are selected. The control performances of three kind of controls are evaluated and compared. The conclusions are given according to the analysis and time simulation results.

  12. Single Gene Deletions of Orexin, Leptin, Neuropeptide Y, and Ghrelin Do Not Appreciably Alter Food Anticipatory Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gunapala, Keith M.; Gallardo, Christian M.; Hsu, Cynthia T.; Steele, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Timing activity to match resource availability is a widely conserved ability in nature. Scheduled feeding of a limited amount of food induces increased activity prior to feeding time in animals as diverse as fish and rodents. Typically, food anticipatory activity (FAA) involves temporally restricting unlimited food access (RF) to several hours in the middle of the light cycle, which is a time of day when rodents are not normally active. We compared this model to calorie restriction (CR), giving the mice 60% of their normal daily calorie intake at the same time each day. Measurement of body temperature and home cage behaviors suggests that the RF and CR models are very similar but CR has the advantage of a clearly defined food intake and more stable mean body temperature. Using the CR model, we then attempted to verify the published result that orexin deletion diminishes food anticipatory activity (FAA) but observed little to no diminution in the response to CR and, surprisingly, that orexin KO mice are refractory to body weight loss on a CR diet. Next we tested the orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and ghrelin and the anorexigenic hormone, leptin, using mouse mutants. NPY deletion did not alter the behavior or physiological response to CR. Leptin deletion impaired FAA in terms of some activity measures, such as walking and rearing, but did not substantially diminish hanging behavior preceding feeding time, suggesting that leptin knockout mice do anticipate daily meal time but do not manifest the full spectrum of activities that typify FAA. Ghrelin knockout mice do not have impaired FAA on a CR diet. Collectively, these results suggest that the individual hormones and neuropepetides tested do not regulate FAA by acting individually but this does not rule out the possibility of their concerted action in mediating FAA. PMID:21464907

  13. A gene-deleted adenoviral vector results in phenotypic correction of canine hemophilia B without liver toxicity or thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Ehrhardt, Anja; Xu, Hui; Dillow, Aaron M; Bellinger, Dwight A; Nichols, Timothy C; Kay, Mark A

    2003-10-01

    Many approaches for treating hemophilia via gene transfer have been attempted in large animal models but all have potential drawbacks. Recombinant adenoviral vectors offer high-efficiency transfer of an episomal vector but have been plagued by the cytotoxicity/immunogenicity of early-generation vectors that contain viral genes. In our current study, we have used a nonintegrating helper-dependent (HD) adenoviral vector for liver-directed gene transfer to achieve hemostatic correction in a dog with hemophilia B. We measured plasma canine factor IX (cFIX) concentrations at a therapeutic range for up to 2.5 months and normalization of the whole blood clotting time (WBCT) for about a month. This was followed by a decrease and stabilized partial correction for 4.5 months. Hepatic gene transfer of a slightly lower dose of the HD vector resulted in WBCTs that were close to normal for 2 weeks, suggesting a dose threshold effect in dogs. In sharp contrast to other studies using first- or second-generation adenoviral vectors, we observed no vector-related elevation of liver enzymes, no fall in platelet counts, and normal liver histology. Taken together, this study demonstrates that injection of an adenoviral HD vector results in complete but transient phenotypic correction of FIX deficiency in canine models with no detectable toxicity. PMID:12805062

  14. Entire CAPN3 gene deletion in a patient with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A.

    PubMed

    Jaka, Oihane; Azpitarte, Margarita; Paisn-Ruiz, Coro; Zulaika, Miren; Casas-Fraile, Leire; Sanz, Ral; Trevisiol, Nathalie; Levy, Nicolas; Bartoli, Marc; Krahn, Martin; Lpez de Munain, Adolfo; Senz, Amets

    2014-09-01

    Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) due to mutations in the CAPN3 gene is one of the most common of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies. We describe a patient who had a typical LGMD2A phenotype and posterior compartment involvement on MRI. Different genetic analyses were performed, including microarray analysis. There was an apparently homozygous mutation in exon 24, c.2465G>T, p.(*822Leuext62*), and a lack of correlation in the disease segregation analyses. This suggested the presence of a genomic rearrangement. In fact, a heterozygous deletion of the entire CAPN3 gene was found. This novel deletion comprised the terminal region of the GANC gene and the entire CAPN3 gene. This finding points out the need to reconsider and adapt our current strategy of molecular diagnosis in order to detect these types of genomic rearrangements that escape standard mutation screening procedures. PMID:24715573

  15. Detection of an atypical teratoid rhabdoid brain tumor gene deletion in circulating blood using next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Chakravadhanula, Madhavi; Tembe, Waibhav; Legendre, Christophe; Carpentieri, David; Liang, Winnie S; Bussey, Kimberly J; Carpten, John; Berens, Michael E; Bhardwaj, Ratan D

    2014-09-01

    Circulating biomarkers such as somatic chromosome mutations are novel diagnostic tools to detect cancer noninvasively. We describe focal deletions found in a patient with atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, a highly aggressive early childhood pediatric tumor. First, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology to study the tumor anatomy. Next, we used whole genome sequencing (Next Gen Sequencing) and Bioinformatics interrogation to discover the presence of 3 focal deletions in tumor tissue and 2 of these 3 focal deletions in patient's blood also. About 20% of the blood DNA sequencing reads matched the tumor DNA reads at the SMARCB1 gene locus. Circulating, tumor-specific DNA aberrations are a promising biomarker for atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor patients. The high percentage of tumor DNA detected in blood indicates that either circulating brain tumor cells lyse in the blood or that contents of brain tumor cells traverse a possibly compromised blood-brain barrier in this patient. PMID:24141276

  16. Combined cardiomyocyte PKC? and PKC? gene deletion uncovers their central role in restraining developmental and reactive heart growth

    PubMed Central

    Song, Moshi; Matkovich, Scot J.; Zhang, Yan; Hammer, Daniel J.; Dorn, Gerald W.

    2015-01-01

    Cell growth is orchestrated by changes in gene expression that respond to developmental and environmental cues. Among the signaling pathways that direct growth are enzymes of the protein kinase C (PKC) family, which are ubiquitous proteins belonging to three distinct subclasses: conventional PKCs, novel PKCs, and atypical PKCs. Functional overlap makes determining the physiological actions of different PKC isoforms difficult. We showed that two novel PKC isoforms, PKC? and PKC?, redundantly govern stress-reactive and developmental heart growth by modulating the expression of cardiac genes central to stress-activated protein kinase and periostin signaling. Mice with combined postnatal cardiomyocyte-specific genetic ablation of PKC? and germline deletion of PKC? (DCKO) had normally sized hearts, but their hearts had transcriptional changes typical of pathological hypertrophy. Cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction induced by hemodynamic overloading were greater in DCKO mice than in mice with a single deletion of either PKC? or PKC?. Furthermore, gene expression analysis of the hearts of DCKO mice revealed transcriptional derepression of the genes encoding the kinase ERK (extracellular signalregulated kinase) and periostin. Mice with combined embryonic ablation of PKC? and PKC? showed enhanced growth and cardiomyocyte hyperplasia that induced pathological ventricular stiffening and early lethality, phenotypes absent in mice with a single deletion of PKC? or PKC?. Our results indicate that novel PKCs provide retrograde feedback inhibition of growth signaling pathways central to cardiac development and stress adaptation. These growth-suppressing effects of novel PKCs have implications for therapeutic inhibition of PKCs in cancer, heart, and other diseases. PMID:25900833

  17. CONSTRUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PTA GENE DELETED MUTANT OF C CLOSTRIDIUM TYROBUTYRICUM FOR BUTYRIC ACID FERMENTATION. (R829479C016)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Systematic gene deletion and functional characterization of histidine kinase phosphorelay receptors (HKRs) in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Chapeland-Leclerc, F; Dilmaghani, A; Ez-Zaki, L; Boisnard, S; Da Silva, B; Gaslonde, T; Pore, F H; Ruprich-Robert, G

    2015-11-01

    Histidine kinase receptors (HKRs) appear to be a common strategy for model and pathogenic fungi to sense and respond to environmental stresses. In the human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, which is responsible for invasive aspergillosis, 13 genes potentially encoding HKRs have been identified. Until now, only three HKRs have been functionally characterized. The aim of this study was to perform the systematic invalidation of A. fumigatus HKR genes and the careful phenotypic characterization of the relevant mutants. This study notably allowed to gain new important insights into the role of HKRs in physiology of A. fumigatus. Actually, we showed that (i) NikA/TcsC could be involved in the cell wall integrity pathway, (ii) Fhk6 and PhkA were involved in the regulation of the "fluffy" developmental program, (iii) PhkB could participate in the regulation of conidiation and (iv) PhkA was implied in the resistance of oxidative stresses. PMID:26365385

  19. Avoidance of Transient Cardiomyopathy in Cardiomyocyte-Targeted Tamoxifen-Induced MerCreMer Gene Deletion Models

    PubMed Central

    Koitabashi, Norimichi; Bedja, Djahida; Zaiman, Ari L.; Pinto, Yigal M.; Zhang, Manling; Gabrielson, Kathleen L.; Takimoto, Eiki; Kass, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac myocyte targeted MerCreMer transgenic mice expressing tamoxifen-inducible Cre driven by the ?-myosin heavy chain promoter are increasingly used to control gene expression in the adult heart. Here we show tamoxifen-mediated MerCreMer nuclear translocation can induce severe transient dilated cardiomyopathy in mice with or without loxP transgenes. The cardiomyopathy is accompanied by marked reduction of energy/metabolism and calcium handling gene expression (e.g. PGC1-?, PPAR-?, SERCA2A); all fully normalized with recovery. MCM-negative/flox-positive controls display no dysfunction with tamoxifen. Nuclear Cre translocation and equally effective gene knockdown without cardiomyopathy is achievable with raloxifene, suggesting toxicity is not simply from Cre. Careful attention to controls, reduced tamoxifen dosing and/or use of raloxifene is advised with this model. PMID:19520971

  20. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of a gE/gI/TK gene-deleted pseudorabies virus variant in susceptible animals.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xin; Lei, Jian-Lin; Xia, Shui-Li; Wang, Yi-Min; Li, Yongfeng; Li, Su; Luo, Yuzi; Sun, Yuan; Qiu, Hua-Ji

    2016-01-15

    A pseudorabies virus (PRV) variant with enhanced pathogenicity has emerged in many vaccinated swine herds in China since 2011. rPRVTJ-delgE/gI, a previously described gE/gI-deleted PRV based on the PRV variant TJ strain, has been shown to be avirulent to pigs yet virulent to sheep. To ensure desirable biosafety, we further deleted the thymidine kinase (TK) gene of rPRVTJ-delgE/gI to generate a gE/gI/TK-deleted mutant rPRVTJ-delgE/gI/TK, and evaluated its pathogenicity and immunogenicity in susceptible animals. Groups of mice (n=5), sheep (n=3), and pigs (n=4) were inoculated with different doses of rPRVTJ-delgE/gI/TK or rPRVTJ-delgE/gI, and clinical signs, viral shedding, pathological changes, and serum antibodies were examined following inoculation. The results showed that rPRVTJ-delgE/gI/TK displayed higher safety than rPRVTJ-delgE/gI for mice (10(3)-10(6) TCID50) and sheep (10(5) TCID50), and pigs inoculated with rPRVTJ-delgE/gI/TK (10(5) TCID50) induced PRV-specific antibodies and protection against lethal PRV challenge comparable to those immunized with rPRVTJ-delgE/gI. In conclusion, rPRVTJ-delgE/gI/TK has the potential to be developed as a vaccine for controlling the currently prevalent PR in China. PMID:26711045

  1. CD36 gene deletion reduces fat preference and intake but not post-oral fat conditioning in mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Ackroff, K; Abumrad, N A

    2007-11-01

    Several findings suggest the existence of a "fatty" taste, and the CD36 fatty acid translocase is a candidate taste receptor. The present study compared fat preference and acceptance in CD36 knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice using nutritive (triglyceride and fatty acid) and nonnutritive (Sefa Soyate oil) emulsions. In two-bottle tests (24 h/day) naive KO mice, unlike WT mice, displayed little or no preference for dilute soybean oil, linoleic acid, or Sefa Soyate emulsions. At high concentrations (2.5-20%), KO mice developed significant soybean oil preferences, although they consumed less oil than WT mice. The postoral actions of fat likely conditioned these preferences. KO mice, like WT mice, learned to prefer a flavored solution paired with intragastric soybean oil infusions. These findings support CD36 mediation of a gustatory component to fat preference but demonstrate that it is not essential for fat-conditioned flavor preferences. The finding that oil-naive KO mice failed to prefer a nonnutritive oil, assumed to provide texture rather than taste cues, requires explanation. Finally, CD36 deletion decreased fat consumption and enhanced the ability of the mice to compensate for the calories provided by their optional fat intake. PMID:17804586

  2. In ovo vaccination of commercial broilers with a glycoprotein J gene-deleted strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Mashchenko, Anna; Riblet, Sylva M; Zavala, Guillermo; Garca, Maricarmen

    2013-06-01

    Conventional live attenuated vaccines have been used as the main tool worldwide for the control of infectious laryngotracheitis. However, their suboptimal attenuation combined with poor mass administration practices allowed chicken embryo origin vaccine-derived isolates to circulate in the field, regain virulence, and be the cause of continuous outbreaks of the disease. Previous studies indicated that stable attenuation of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) can be achieved by the deletion of individual viral genes that are not essential for viral replication in vitro. One of these genes is the glycoprotein J (gJ) gene. Its deletion provided significant attenuation to virulent ILTV strains from Europe and the United States. The objective of this study was to construct an attenuated gJ-deleted ILTV strain and evaluate its safety and efficacy for in ovo (IO) administration of commercial broilers. A novel gJ-deleted virus (N(delta)gJ) was constructed, and a 10(3) median tissue culture infective dose administered at 18 days of embryo age was considered safe because it did not affect hatchability or survivability of chickens during the first week posthatch. Broilers vaccinated IO and IO + eye drop at 14 days of age presented a significant reduction in clinical signs and reduction of virus loads after challenge, as compared with the nonvaccinated challenged group of chickens. Therefore, this study presents initial proof that the N(delta)gJ strain is a potential ILTV live-attenuated vaccine candidate suitable for IO vaccination of commercial broilers. PMID:23901771

  3. ?2?-1 Gene Deletion Affects Somatosensory Neuron Function and Delays Mechanical Hypersensitivity in Response to Peripheral Nerve Damage

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ryan; Bauer, Claudia S.; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Margas, Wojciech; Ferron, Laurent; Chaggar, Kanchan; Crews, Kasumi; Ramirez, Juan D.; Bennett, David L. H.; Schwartz, Arnold; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2013-01-01

    The ?2?-1 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels is upregulated after sensory nerve injury and is also the therapeutic target of gabapentinoid drugs. It is therefore likely to play a key role in the development of neuropathic pain. In this study, we have examined mice in which ?2?-1 gene expression is disrupted, to determine whether ?2?-1 is involved in various modalities of nociception, and for the development of behavioral hypersensitivity after partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). We find that naive ?2?-1?/? mice show a marked behavioral deficit in mechanical and cold sensitivity, but no change in thermal nociception threshold. The lower mechanical sensitivity is mirrored by a reduced in vivo electrophysiological response of dorsal horn wide dynamic range neurons. The CaV2.2 level is reduced in brain and spinal cord synaptosomes from ?2?-1?/? mice, and ?2?-1?/? DRG neurons exhibit lower calcium channel current density. Furthermore, a significantly smaller number of DRG neurons respond to the TRPM8 agonist menthol. After PSNL, ?2?-1?/? mice show delayed mechanical hypersensitivity, which only develops at 11 d after surgery, whereas in wild-type littermates it is maximal at the earliest time point measured (3 d). There is no compensatory upregulation of ?2?-2 or ?2?-3 after PSNL in ?2?-1?/? mice, and other transcripts, including neuropeptide Y and activating transcription factor-3, are upregulated normally. Furthermore, the ability of pregabalin to alleviate mechanical hypersensitivity is lost in PSNL ?2?-1?/? mice. Thus, ?2?-1 is essential for rapid development of mechanical hypersensitivity in a nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. PMID:24133248

  4. Effect of EPS1 gene deletion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the secretion of foreign proteins which have disulfide bridges.

    PubMed

    He, Jianwei; Sakamoto, Takashi; Song, Youtao; Saito, Akira; Harada, Akihito; Azakami, Hiroyuki; Kato, Akio

    2005-04-25

    Both amyloid-prone cystatin and unstable mutant C94A lysozyme were secreted in wild-type and Deltaeps1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. Amyloid-prone cystatin secreted at much higher level in Deltaeps1 cells than that in wild-type yeast. In parallel, the secretion amount of disulfide bond disrupted mutant C94A lysozyme greatly increased in Deltaeps1 cells although that was apparently low in wild-type yeast cells compared with the secretion amount of wild-type lysozyme. It is interesting that neither the unstable mutant C94A lysozyme nor amyloid-prone cystatin secreted in Deltaeps1 cells maintained their specific activities. These observations lead to the supposition that yeast cells deficient for the protein disulfide isomerase-family-member EPS1 locus secrete more of labile disulfide-containing model proteins. PMID:15848158

  5. Gene deletions force nonsecretory alpha-chain disease plasma cells to produce membrane-form alpha-chain only.

    PubMed

    Cogné, M; Preud'homme, J L

    1990-10-15

    We studied a case of nonsecretory alpha-chain disease. The proliferating plasma cells contained a short transcript coding for a truncated membrane-form alpha 1-chain. The productive alpha-gene bore several noncontiguous deletions affecting the VHDJH and CH1 regions. Two deletions were accompanied with peculiar insertions containing duplications. The first insertion contained an acceptor splice site and was present in part in the mature transcript, thus coding for an abnormal aminoterminal peptide. Another deletion located 3' to CH3 eliminated the polyadenylation site of secreted-form alpha-mRNA. As a result, only membrane-form alpha mRNA was present in the tumoral plasma cells, thus explaining the nonsecretory phenotype of the disease. Comparison of cDNA and genomic sequences showed that the previously undescribed human alpha membrane region is encoded by a single exon, beginning with two alternate acceptor splice sites, and comprises either 65 or 71 amino acids. PMID:2120331

  6. Rosuvastatin reduced deep vein thrombosis in ApoE gene deleted mice with hyperlipidemia through non-lipid lowering effects

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, K.A.; Zhang, X.; Wrobleski, S.K.; Hawley, A.E.; Lawrence, D. A.; Wakefield, T.W.; Myers, D.D.; Diaz, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Statins, particularly rosuvastatin, have recently become relevant in the setting of venous thrombosis. The objective of this study was to study the non-lipid lowering effects of rosuvastatin in venous thrombosis in mice with hyperlipidemia. Materials and Methods An inferior vena cava ligation model of venous thrombosis in mice was utilized. Saline or 5mg/kg of rosuvastatin was administered by gavage 48hs previous thrombosis. Blood, the inferior vena cava, thrombus, and liver were harvested 3, 6 hours, and 2 days post-thrombosis. Thrombus weight, inflammatory markers, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression and plasma levels were measured and neutrophil migration to the IVC was assessed. Results Rosuvastatin significantly decreased thrombus weight, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 expression and plasma levels, expression of molecules related to the interleukin-6 pathway, and neutrophil migration into the vein wall. Conclusions This work supports the beneficial effects of rosuvastatin on venous thrombosis in mice with hyperlipidemia due to its non-lipid lowering effects. PMID:23276528

  7. Bone marrow-specific Cap gene deletion protects against high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Lesniewski, Lisa A; Hosch, Sarah E; Neels, Jaap G; de Luca, Carl; Pashmforoush, Mohammad; Lumeng, Carey N; Chiang, Shian-Huey; Scadeng, Miriam; Saltiel, Alan R; Olefsky, Jerrold M

    2007-04-01

    Cbl-associated protein (Cap) is a member of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway for insulin-stimulated translocation of the glucose transporter GLUT4. Despite this positive role of Cap in glucose uptake, here we show that deletion of the gene encoding Cap (official gene name: Sorbs1) protects against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance in mice while also having an opposite, insulin-sensitizing effect, accompanied by reduced tissue markers of inflammation. Given the emerging role of chronic inflammation in insulin resistance and the macrophage in initiating this inflammatory process, we considered that Sorbs1 deletion from macrophages may have resulted in the observed protection from HFD-induced insulin resistance. Using bone marrow transplantation to generate functional Sorbs1-null macrophages, we show that the insulin-sensitive phenotype can be transferred to wild-type mice by transplantation of Sorbs1-null bone marrow. These studies show that macrophages are an important cell type in the induction of insulin resistance and that Cap has a modulatory role in this function. PMID:17351624

  8. Unexpected effects of gene deletion on mercury interactions with the methylation-deficient mutant hgcAB

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hui; Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Johs, Alexander; Parks, Jerry M; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Liang, Liyuan; Elias, Dwayne A; Gu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    The hgcA and hgcB gene pair is essential for mercury (Hg) methylation by certain anaerobic bacteria,1 but little is known about how deletion of hgcAB affects cell surface interactions and intracellular uptake of Hg. Here, we compare hgcAB mutants with the wild-type (WT) strains of both Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132 and observe differences in Hg redox transformations, adsorption, and uptake in laboratory incubation studies. In both strains, deletion of hgcAB increased the reduction of Hg(II) but decreased the oxidation of Hg(0) under anaerobic conditions. The measured cellular thiol content in hgcAB mutants was lower than the WT, accounting for decreased adsorption and uptake of Hg. Despite the lack of methylation activity, Hg uptake by the hgcAB continued, albeit at a slower rate than the WT. These findings demonstrate that deletion of the hgcAB gene not only eliminates Hg methylation but also alters cell physiology, resulting in changes to Hg redox reactions, sorption, and uptake by cells.

  9. Gene Deletion Mutants Reveal a Role for Semaphorin Receptors of the Plexin-B Family in Mechanisms Underlying Corticogenesis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirschberg, A.; Deng, S.; Korostylev, A.; Paldy, E.; Costa, M. R.; Worzfeld, T.; Vodrazka, P.; Wizenmann, A.; Götz, M.; Offermanns, S.; Kuner, R.

    2010-01-01

    Semaphorins and their receptors, plexins, are emerging as key regulators of various aspects of neural and nonneural development. Semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) and B-type plexins demonstrate distinct expression patterns over critical time windows during the development of the murine neocortex. Here, analysis of mice genetically lacking plexin-B1 or plexin-B2 revealed the significance of Sema4D-plexin-B signaling in cortical development. Deficiency of plexin-B2 resulted in abnormal cortical layering and defective migration and differentiation of several subtypes of cortical neurons, including Cajal-Retzius cells, GABAergic interneurons, and principal cells in vivo. In contrast, a lack of plexin-B1 did not impact on cortical development in vivo. In various ex vivo assays on embryonic forebrain, Sema4D enhanced the radial and tangential migration of developing neurons in a plexin-B2-dependent manner. These results suggest that Sema4D-plexin-B2 interactions regulate mechanisms underlying cell specification, differentiation, and migration during corticogenesis. PMID:19948886

  10. Single-Gene Deletion Mutants of Escherichia coli with Altered Sensitivity to Bicyclomycin, an Inhibitor of Transcription Termination Factor Rho?

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Lillian; van Baarsel, Joshua A.; Washburn, Robert S.; Gottesman, Max E.; Miller, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    We have screened the entire KEIO collection of 3,985 single-gene knockouts in Escherichia coli for increased susceptibility or resistance to the antibiotic bicyclomycin (BCM), a potent inhibitor of the transcription termination factor Rho. We also compared the results to those of a recent study we conducted with a large set of antibiotics (A. Liu et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54:1393-1403, 2010). We find that deletions of many different types of genes increase sensitivity to BCM. Some of these are involved in multidrug sensitivity/resistance, whereas others are specific for BCM. Mutations in a number of DNA recombination and repair genes increase BCM sensitivity, indicating that DNA damage leading to single- and double-strand breaks is a downstream effect of Rho inhibition. MDS42, which is deleted for all cryptic prophages and insertion elements (G. Posfai et al., Science 312:1044-1046, 2006), or W3102 deleted for the rac prophage-encoded kil gene, are partially resistant to BCM (C. J. Cardinale et al., Science 230:935-938, 2008). Deletion of cryptic prophages also overcomes the increased BCM sensitivity in some but not all mutants examined here. Deletion of the hns gene renders the cell more sensitive to BCM even in the ?kil or MDS42 background. This suggests that BCM activates additional modes of cell death independent of Kil and that these could provide a target to potentiate BCM killing. PMID:21357484

  11. Characterization and cross-protection evaluation of M949_1603 gene deletion Riemerella anatipestifer mutant RA-M1.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jiechi; Wang, Xiaolan; Ding, Chan; Tian, Mingxing; Han, Xiangan; Wang, Shaohui; Yu, Shengqing

    2015-12-01

    Riemerella anatipestifer infection causes high mortality for ducks which results in major economic losses in the duck industry. In this study, we identified a mutant strain RA-M1 by Tn4351 transposon mutagenesis, in which the M949_1603 gene encoding glycosyl transferase was inactivated. PCR analysis revealed that M949_1603 gene is specifically existed in R. anatipestifer serotype 1 strains. RA-M1 presented no reactivity to the anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) MAb in an indirect ELISA. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by Western blotting demonstrated that RA-M1 LPS had a deficiency in ladder-like binding pattern to rabbit antiserum against R. anatipestifer serotype 1 strain CH3, indicating that the O-antigen structure of RA-M1 was changed. RA-M1 showed significant attenuated virulence in ducks and higher sensitivity to normal duck serum, compared with its parent strain CH3. Furthermore, cross-protection of RA-M1 for R. anatipestifer serotypes 1, 2, and 10 strains was evaluated. Ducks that received two immunizations with inactivated RA-M1 vaccine were 100% protected from challenge with R. anatipestifer serotype 1 strain WJ4, serotype 2 strain Yb2, and serotype 10 strain HXb2. No changes were observed in the liver, heart, or spleen samples from the protected ducks during autopsy and histological examination. Furthermore, vaccination generated high antibody titers of 1:12,800 against serotypes 1, 2, and 10 strains and enhanced production of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and IL-4 in ducks. These results suggested that M949_1603 gene is associated with serotype 1 O-antigen biosynthesis, and mutant RA-M1 could be used as a novel cross-protection vaccine candidate to protect ducks against R. anatipestifer infection. PMID:26266750

  12. Fluid reabsorption in proximal convoluted tubules of mice with gene deletions of claudin-2 and/or aquaporin1

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yuning; Mizel, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Deletions of claudin-2 (Cldn2) and aquaporin1 (AQP1) reduce proximal fluid reabsorption (PFR) by about 30% and 50%, respectively. Experiments were done to replicate these observations and to determine in AQP1/claudin-2 double knockout mice (DKO) if the effects of deletions of these established water pores are additive. PFR was determined in inactin/ketamine-anesthetized mice by free-flow micropuncture using single-nephron I125-iothalamate (io) clearance. Animal means of PFR [% of glomerular filtration rate (GFR)] derived from TF/Piothalamate ratios in 12 mice in each of four groups [wild type (WT), Cldn2−/−, AQP1−/−, and DKO) were 45.8 ± 0.85 (51 tubules), 35.4 ± 1 (54 tubules; P < 0.01 vs. WT), 36.8 ± 1 (63 tubules; P < 0.05 vs. WT), and 33.9 ± 1.4 (69 tubules; P < 0.01 vs. WT). Kidney and single-nephron GFRs (SNGFR) were significantly reduced in all mutant strains. The direct relationship between PFR and SNGFR was maintained in mutant mice, but the slope of this relationship was reduced in the absence of Cldn2 and/or AQP1. Transtubular osmotic pressure differences were not different between WT and Cldn2−/− mice, but markedly increased in DKO. In conclusion, the deletion of Cldn2, AQP1, or of both Cldn2 and AQP1 reduces PFR by 22.7%, 19.6%, and 26%, respectively. Our data are consistent with an up to 25% paracellular contribution to PFR. The reduced osmotic water permeability caused by absence of AQP1 augments luminal hypotonicity. Aided by a fall in filtered load, the capacity of non-AQP1-dependent transcellular reabsorption is sufficient to maintain PFR without AQP1 and claudin-2 at 75% of control. PMID:24049145

  13. A Tailored galK Counterselection System for Efficient Markerless Gene Deletion and Chromosomal Tagging in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense

    PubMed Central

    Raschdorf, Oliver; Plitzko, Jrgen M.; Schler, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria have emerged as excellent model systems to study bacterial cell biology, biomineralization, vesicle formation, and protein targeting because of their ability to synthesize single-domain magnetite crystals within unique organelles (magnetosomes). However, only few species are amenable to genetic manipulation, and the limited methods for site-specific mutagenesis are tedious and time-consuming. Here, we report the adaptation and application of a fast and convenient technique for markerless chromosomal manipulation of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense using a single antibiotic resistance cassette and galK-based counterselection for marker recycling. We demonstrate the potential of this technique by genomic excision of the phbCAB operon, encoding enzymes for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthesis, followed by chromosomal fusion of magnetosome-associated proteins to fluorescent proteins. Because of the absence of interfering PHA particles, these engineered strains are particularly suitable for microscopic analyses of cell biology and magnetosome biosynthesis. PMID:24814778

  14. Activation of Inflammasomes in Podocyte Injury of Mice on the High Fat Diet: Effects of ASC Gene Deletion and Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Boini, Krishna M.; Xia, Min; Abais, Justin M.; Li, Guangbi; Pitzer, Ashley L.; Gehr, Todd W. B.; Zhang, Yang; Li, Pin-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Inflammasome, an intracellular inflammatory machinery, has been reported to be involved in a variety of chronic degenerative diseases such as atherosclerosis, autoinflammatory diseases and Alzheimers disease. The present study hypothesized that the formation and activation of inflammasomes associated with apoptosis associated speck-like protein (ASC) are an important initiating mechanism resulting in obesity-associated podocyte injury and consequent glomerular sclerosis. To test this hypothesis, Asc gene knockout (Asc?/?), wild type (Asc+/+) and intrarenal Asc shRNA-transfected wild type (Asc shRNA) mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) or normal diet (ND) for 12 weeks to produce obesity and associated glomerular injury. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that renal tissue Asc expression was lacking in Asc?/? mice or substantially reduced in Asc shRNA transfected mice compared to Asc+/+ mice. Confocal microscopic and co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that the HFD enhanced the formation of inflammasome associated with Asc in podocytes as shown by colocalization of Asc with Nod-like receptor protein 3 (Nalp3). This inflammasome complex aggregation was not observed in Asc?/? and local Asc shRNA-transfected mice. The caspase-1 activity, IL-1? production and glomerular damage index (GDI), were also significantly attenuated in Asc?/? and Asc shRNA-transfected mice fed the HFD. This decreased GDI in Asc?/? and Asc shRNA transfected mice on the HFD was accompanied by attenuated proteinuria, albuminuria, foot process effacement of podocytes and loss of podocyte slit diaphragm molecules. In conclusion, activation and formation of inflammasomes in podocytes are importantly implicated in the development of obesity-associated glomerular injury. PMID:24508291

  15. Targeted Gene Deletion Demonstrates that Cell Adhesion MoleculeICAM-4 is Critical for Erythroblastic Island Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Gloria; Lo, Annie; Short, Sarah A.; Mankelow, Tosti J.; Spring, Frances; Parsons, Stephen F.; Mohandas, Narla; Anstee, David J.; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2006-02-15

    Erythroid progenitors differentiate in erythroblastic islands, bone marrow niches composed of erythroblasts surrounding a central macrophage. Evidence suggests that within islands adhesive interactions regulate erythropoiesis and apoptosis. We are exploring whether erythroid intercellular adhesion molecule-4 (ICAM-4), animmunoglobulin superfamily member, participates in island formation. Earlier, we identified alpha V integrins as ICAM-4 counter receptors. Since macrophages express alpha V, ICAM-4 potentially mediates island attachments. To test this, we generated ICAM-4 knockout mice and developed quantitative, live cell techniques for harvesting intact islands and for reforming islands in vitro. We observed a 47 percent decrease in islands reconstituted from ICAM-4 null marrow compared to wild type. We also found a striking decrease in islands formed in vivo in knockout mice. Further, peptides that block ICAM-4 alpha V adhesion produced a 53-57 percent decrease in reconstituted islands, strongly suggesting that ICAM-4 binding to macrophage alpha V functions in island integrity. Importantly, we documented that alpha V integrin is expressed in macrophages isolated from erythro blastic islands. Collectively, these data provide convincing evidence that ICAM-4 is critical in erythroblastic island formation via ICAM-4/alpha V adhesion and also demonstrate that the novel experimental strategies we developed will be valuable in exploring molecular mechanisms of erythroblastic island formation and their functional role in regulating erythropoiesis.

  16. Detection of retinoblastoma gene deletions in spontaneous and radiation-induced mouse lung adenocarcinomas by polymerase chain reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, M.E.; Gemmell, M.A.; Woloschak, G.E. )

    1994-03-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been developed to detect deletions in the mouse retinoblastoma gene using histological sections from radiation-induced and spontaneous tumors as the DNA source. Six mouse Rb gene exon fragments were amplified in a 40-cycle, 3-temperature PCR protocol. The absence of any of these fragments relative to control PCR products on a Southern blot indicated a deletion of that portion of the mouse Rb gene. Tumors chosen for analysis were lung adenocarcinomas that were judged to be the cause of death. Spontaneous tumors as well as those from irradiated mice (5.69 Gy [sup 60]Co [gamma] rays or 0.6 Gy JANUS neutrons, which have been found to have approximately equal radiobiological effectiveness) were analyzed for mouse Rb deletions. Tumors in 6 neutron-irradiated mice had no mouse Rb deletions. However, 1 of 6 tumors from [gamma]-irradiated mice (17%) and 6 of 18 spontaneous tumors from unirradiated mice (33%) showed a deletion in one or both mouse Rb alleles. All deletions detected were in the 5[prime] region of the mouse Rb gene. 36 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Effects of estrogen receptor ? and ? gene deletion on estrogenic induction of progesterone receptors in the locus coeruleus in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Helena, Cleyde; Gustafsson, Jan-ke; Korach, Kenneth; Pfaff, Donald; Ogawa, Sonoko

    2016-01-01

    Locus coeruleus (LC) is involved in the LHRH regulation by gonadal steroids. We investigated the expression of progesterone and estrogen receptors (PR; ER) in LC neurons of ER? (?ERKO) or ER? (?ERKO) knockout mice, and their wild-type (?WT and ?WT). Immunocytochemical studies showed that LC expresses PR and both ERs, although ER? was more abundant. Estradiol benzoate (EB) decreased ER?-positive cells in WT and ?ERKO mice, and progesterone caused a further reduction, whereas none of the steroids influenced ER? expression. ER? deletion increased ER? while ER? deletion did not alter ER? expression. In both WT mice, EB increased PR expression, which was diminished by progesterone. These steroid effects were also observed in ?ERKO animals but to a lesser extent, suggesting that ER? is partially responsible for the estrogenic induction of PR in LC. Steroid effects on PR in ?ERKO mice were similar to those in the ?ERKO but to a lesser extent, probably because PR expression was already high in the oil-treated group. This expression seems to be specific of LC neurons, since it was not observed in other areas studied, the preoptic area and ventromedial nucleus of hypothalamus. These findings show that LC in mice expresses ?ER, ?ER, and PR, and that a balance between them may be critical for the physiological control of reproductive function. PMID:19551522

  18. ?2?-1 gene deletion affects somatosensory neuron function and delays mechanical hypersensitivity in response to peripheral nerve damage.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ryan; Bauer, Claudia S; Nieto-Rostro, Manuela; Margas, Wojciech; Ferron, Laurent; Chaggar, Kanchan; Crews, Kasumi; Ramirez, Juan D; Bennett, David L H; Schwartz, Arnold; Dickenson, Anthony H; Dolphin, Annette C

    2013-10-16

    The ?2?-1 subunit of voltage-gated calcium channels is upregulated after sensory nerve injury and is also the therapeutic target of gabapentinoid drugs. It is therefore likely to play a key role in the development of neuropathic pain. In this study, we have examined mice in which ?2?-1 gene expression is disrupted, to determine whether ?2?-1 is involved in various modalities of nociception, and for the development of behavioral hypersensitivity after partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSNL). We find that naive ?2?-1(-/-) mice show a marked behavioral deficit in mechanical and cold sensitivity, but no change in thermal nociception threshold. The lower mechanical sensitivity is mirrored by a reduced in vivo electrophysiological response of dorsal horn wide dynamic range neurons. The CaV2.2 level is reduced in brain and spinal cord synaptosomes from ?2?-1(-/-) mice, and ?2?-1(-/-) DRG neurons exhibit lower calcium channel current density. Furthermore, a significantly smaller number of DRG neurons respond to the TRPM8 agonist menthol. After PSNL, ?2?-1(-/-) mice show delayed mechanical hypersensitivity, which only develops at 11 d after surgery, whereas in wild-type littermates it is maximal at the earliest time point measured (3 d). There is no compensatory upregulation of ?2?-2 or ?2?-3 after PSNL in ?2?-1(-/-) mice, and other transcripts, including neuropeptide Y and activating transcription factor-3, are upregulated normally. Furthermore, the ability of pregabalin to alleviate mechanical hypersensitivity is lost in PSNL ?2?-1(-/-) mice. Thus, ?2?-1 is essential for rapid development of mechanical hypersensitivity in a nerve injury model of neuropathic pain. PMID:24133248

  19. A familial contiguous gene deletion syndrome at Xp22.3 characterized by severe learning disabilities and ADHD.

    PubMed

    Boycott, Kym M; Parslow, Malcolm I; Ross, Judith L; Miller, Ivan P; Bech-Hansen, N Torben; MacLeod, Patrick M

    2003-10-01

    We describe a mother and two sons with a 6-Mb terminal deletion of the short arm of the X chromosome. The breakpoint was localized to a region between DXS6837 and sAJ243947 in Xp22.33. The two boys were shown to be deleted for the SHOX and ARSE genes on their X chromosome. Both sons were short in stature and showed mild to moderate skeletal abnormalities. The most significant findings in the younger son were severe learning disabilities and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The older son tested in the mild mental retardation range and was also affected by ADHD. The VCX-A gene, implicated recently in X-linked nonspecific mental retardation, was found to be present in both boys. The mother's stature was greater than one standard deviation below her target height and she had only subtle radiographic evidence of Madelung deformity. Our findings indicate that loss of the Xp22.3 region is not always associated with the classic presentations of Lri-Weill syndrome, or chondrodysplasia punctata, and that one or more genes involved in learning and attention may reside in Xp22.3. PMID:12955766

  20. Correlations between long inverted repeat (LIR) features, deletion size and distance from breakpoint in human gross gene deletions

    PubMed Central

    Aygun, Nevim

    2015-01-01

    Long inverted repeats (LIRs) have been shown to induce genomic deletions in yeast. In this study, LIRs were investigated within ±10 kb spanning each breakpoint from 109 human gross deletions, using Inverted Repeat Finder (IRF) software. LIR number was significantly higher at the breakpoint regions, than in control segments (P < 0.001). In addition, it was found that strong correlation between 5′ and 3′ LIR numbers, suggesting contribution to DNA sequence evolution (r = 0.85, P < 0.001). 138 LIR features at ±3 kb breakpoints in 89 (81%) of 109 gross deletions were evaluated. Significant correlations were found between distance from breakpoint and loop length (r = −0.18, P < 0.05) and stem length (r = −0.18, P < 0.05), suggesting DNA strands are potentially broken in locations closer to bigger LIRs. In addition, bigger loops cause larger deletions (r = 0.19, P < 0.05). Moreover, loop length (r = 0.29, P < 0.02) and identity between stem copies (r = 0.30, P < 0.05) of 3′ LIRs were more important in larger deletions. Consequently, DNA breaks may form via LIR-induced cruciform structure during replication. DNA ends may be later repaired by non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), with following deletion. PMID:25657065

  1. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    PubMed Central

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and sparsity level. PMID:26177106

  2. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) is a term used to describe a group of hereditary carcinoma syndromes. Patients carrying a characteristic autosomal dominant gene aberration exhibit various endocrine carcinomas, as well as other anatomical abnormalities. Unfortunately, familial endocrine carcinoma patients are too often unrecognized by primary care providers, resulting in delayed diagnosis and treatment, with profound consequences related to morbidity and mortality. This article will introduce the various MEN syndromes and the infusion nurse's role in the care of these individuals and their families. PMID:26536410

  3. Multiple gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottale, L.; Chauvineau, B.

    1986-07-01

    The authors develop a new approach for solving the Optical Scalar Equations in inhomogeneous cosmology. In terms of the "optical distance" (Nottale and Hammer, 1984), the propagation of a light beam diameter is linear in a Friedmann universe, while it is given by a simple equation in regions of higher or lower density than the mean cosmological density. This formalism is used to find a general formula for the global Ricci amplification by multiple gravitational lenses: In most situations, this differs significantly from the product of the amplifications by each individual lens.

  4. Psychopathology in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Brne, Martin; Juckel, Georg

    2009-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Demyelinization of nerve fibres not only affects the motor and sensory systems functionally, but may also cause psychopathological signs and symptoms. In addition to the psychiatric manifestations of MS, many patients have reactive psychological problems that are often hard to distinguish from the organic causation of psychopathology. In any event, psychiatric comorbidity in MS deserves greater clinical attention than has been previously paid, because the presence of psychopathology may have deleterious effects on the disease process and impair coping with disability. PMID:21180640

  5. Multiple sclerosis and viruses.

    PubMed

    Brahic, Michel

    2010-07-01

    Discussing the problem of multiple sclerosis and viruses should not be limited to reviewing the epidemiological evidence in favor, or against, a particular candidate, such as Epstein-Barr virus or human herpes virus 6. In this text, I discuss the difficulty of going from association to causation in human epidemiology; the fact that viruses can trigger or prevent autoimmunity; the problem of our very limited knowledge of the viruses that we harbor as part of our metagenome; and the role of such viral flora in multifactorial diseases and also, possibly, in health. PMID:20582990

  6. Factorial Invariance in Multiple Populations: A Multiple Testing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple testing method for examining factorial invariance for latent constructs evaluated by multiple indicators in distinct populations is outlined. The procedure is based on the false discovery rate concept and multiple individual restriction tests and resolves general limitations of a popular factorial invariance testing approach. The

  7. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  8. Smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Minjie; Yang, Guang; Kong, Yuanyuan; Wu, Xiaosong; Shi, Jumei

    2015-01-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic precursor stage of multiple myeloma (MM) characterized by clonal bone marrow plasma cells (BMPC) ? 10% and/or M protein level ? 30?g/L in the absence of end organ damage. It represents an intermediate stage between monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and symptomatic MM. The risk of progression to symptomatic MM is not uniform, and several parameters have been reported to predict the risk of progression. These include the level of M protein and the percentage of BMPC, the proportion of immunophenotypically aberrant plasma cells, and the presence of immunoparesis, free light-chain (FLC) ratio, peripheral blood plasma cells (PBPC), pattern of serum M protein evolution, abnormal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cytogenetic abnormalities, IgA isotype, and Bence Jones proteinuria. So far treatment is still not recommended for SMM, because several trials suggested that patients with SMM do not benefit from early treatment. However, the Mateos et al. trial showed a survival benefit after early treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone in patients with high-risk SMM. This trial has prompted a reevaluation of early treatment in an asymptomatic patient population. PMID:26000300

  9. Smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent; Landgren, Ola; Mateos, Mara-Victoria

    2015-05-14

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder. SMM is distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by a much higher risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM). There have been major advances in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of SMM in the last few years. These include a revised disease definition, identification of several new prognostic factors, a classification based on underlying cytogenetic changes, and new treatment options. Importantly, a subset of patients previously considered SMM is now reclassified as MM on the basis of biomarkers identifying patients with an ?80% risk of progression within 2 years. SMM has assumed greater significance on the basis of recent trials showing that early therapy can be potentially beneficial to patients. As a result, there is a need to accurately diagnose and risk-stratify patients with SMM, including routine incorporation of modern imaging and laboratory techniques. In this review, we outline current concepts in diagnosis and risk stratification of SMM, and provide specific recommendations on the management of SMM. PMID:25838344

  10. Phase-multiplication holography

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, H.D.; Prince, J.M.; Davis, T.J.

    1982-01-25

    This disclosure relates generally to nondestructive testing for identifying structural characteristics of an object by scanned holographic techniques using a known source of radiation, such as electromagnetic or acoustical radiation. It is an object of this invention to provide an apparatus and method for synthetic aperture expansion in holographic imaging applications to construct fringe patterns capable of holographic reproduction where aperture restrictions in nondestructive testing applications would conventionally make such imaging techniques impossible. The apparatus and method result in the production of a sharply defined frontal image of structural characteristics which could not otherwise be imaged because they occur either near the surface of the object or are confined by geometry restricting aperture dimensions available for scanning purposes. The depth of the structural characteristic below the surface of the object can also be determined by the reconstruction parameters which produce the sharpest focus. Lateral resolution is established by simulated reduction in the radiation wavelength and may easily be an order of magnitude less than the electromagnetic wavelength in the material or 2 times the standard depth of penetration. Since the phase multiplication technique is performed on the detected data, the penetration depth available due to the longer wavelength signals applied to the test object remains unchanged. The phase multiplication technique can also be applied to low frequency acoustic holography, resulting in a test which combines excellent penetration of difficult materials with high resolution images.

  11. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, Norman J. (Edmonton, CA); Zhang, Jian Z. (Edmonton, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibres to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands.

  12. Multiple Intestinal Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mastalier, B; Deaconescu, Violeta; Elaiah, W; Drăghici, C; Popp, Cristiana; Zurac, Sabina; Balea, M; Tevet, Mihaela; Botezatu, C

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract is the most common location for extralymphonodular lymphomas. The small intestine is affected only in 9% of the cases. Intestinal lymphoma may have single or multiple location. This paper describes a case of multiple location in the small intestine of a non-Hodgkin B-cell in a 53 years old patient, who was initially diagnosed with bilateral pneumonia with pleurisy with E. coli, steeper on the right side, but the persistence of symptoms as fever, malaise, despite appropriate treatment, required further investigation. The CT exam observed fluid collection in the hypogastrium around a digestive loop. The patient underwent surgery, the intraoperative foundings being: a large mesenteric tumor - 5 cm in diameter, a terminal ileal mesenteric tumor, a mesenteric tumor - 6 cm in diameter, omentum with nodular formations, a tumor - 3.3/2.5.1 cm in the abdominal wall, pseudotumoral appendix. Segmental. enterectomy with entero-enterostomy, excision of mesenteric tumors, appendectomy and omentectomy were performed. Pathological diagnosis was non-Hodgkin marginal zone B-cell MALT type lymphoma of the small intestine with extension to the appendix, meso, omentum and abdominal wall. Postoperatively, the patient received chemotherapy for remission. PMID:26076564

  13. Management of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Perrin Ross, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease of the central nervous system that disrupts signals within the brain and also the signals between the brain and body, will likely experience symptoms that may negatively impact their quality of life (QOL). Due to the complexity of MS and its disease burden, multidisciplinary management that combines pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies with patient education is necessary. Diagnosing relapses of MS in clinical practice can be difficult due to the multiple subtypes of MS, variations of symptomatology, and pseudo-relapses. Managing relapses also presents its own set of challenges, for example, evaluating if treatment is appropriate and determining which agent would be most effective for a patient if treatment is recommended. Patient education is essential for achieving optimal outcomes for patients with MS and improving patient QOL, and should increase awareness of: (1) the disease itself and its progression; (2) the signs and symptoms of MS; (3) current treatment strategies and plan of care; (4) the recognition and management of relapses; (5) the value of treatment adherence and impact of nonadherence; and (6) hope for the future. The management of active MS may be further complicated by the complex variety of pharmacotherapeutic options, and in some instances, by having to switch between agents and drug classes. Newer agents in development (eg, alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab, laquinimod) offer the opportunity to expand the therapeutic armamentarium, although further long-term data are required to evaluate any safety concerns associated with newer agents. PMID:24494619

  14. Twins, Triplets, and Other Multiples

    MedlinePLUS

    ... no more alike than they are to their siblings from different pregnancies. Fraternal twins tend to run in some families. Multiple births can be fraternal, identical, or a combination. Multiples ...

  15. Multiple mandibular fractures. Treatment outlines.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giovanni; Franco, Elena; Clauser, Luigi C

    2016-02-01

    Multiple mandibular comminuted fractures usually occur in high energy traumas. The authors describe the management and treatment of multiple mandibular fractures in a young patient after a suicide attempt. PMID:26862697

  16. Ninlaro Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Ninlaro Approved for Multiple Myeloma Blocks certain enzymes, hindering cancer-cell growth To use the sharing ... drugs called proteasome inhibitors, is designed to block enzymes that spur the growth and survival of multiple ...

  17. Marijuana (Cannabis) and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Marijuana - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society ... Email Home Treating MS Complementary & Alternative Medicines Marijuana Marijuana Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print In this ...

  18. Reflections from Multiple Teacher Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, J. Darrell

    1977-01-01

    Based on personal experience, the author suggests some common sense rules to follow in setting up a multiple teacher vocational agriculture program and concludes with a list of seven advantages of multiple teacher departments. (BM)

  19. Identification of multiple proteins that interact with functional regions of the human cardiac alpha-actin promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, T A; Kedes, L

    1989-01-01

    5' Sequences of the human cardiac alpha-actin gene are involved in the tissue-specific and developmental regulation of the gene. Deletion analyses combined with transient expression experiments in muscle cells have demonstrated three primary regions of functional importance (A. Minty and L. Kedes, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:2125-2136, 1986; T. Miwa and L. Kedes, Mol. Cell. Biol. 7:2803-2813, 1987), and we have previously demonstrated binding of a protein indistinguishable from serum response factor (SRF) to the most proximal region (T.A. Gustafson, T. Miwa, L.M. Boxer, and L. Kedes, Mol. Cell. Biol. 8:4110-4119, 1988). In this report, we examine protein interaction with the remainder of the promoter. Gel shift and footprinting assays revealed that at least seven distinct nuclear proteins interacted with known and putative regulatory regions of the promoter. The transcription factor Sp1 bound to eight sites, as demonstrated by footprinting assays and gel shift analysis with purified Sp1. Purified CCAAT box-binding transcription factor CTF/NF-I and Sp1 were shown to interact with the far-upstream regulatory element at -410, and footprint analysis showed extensive overlap of these two sites. Two unidentified proteins with similar but distinct footprints interacted with the second region of functional importance at -140, which contains the second CArG motif [CC(A + T rich)6GG], and these proteins were shown to be distinct from SRF. SRF was found to bind to the remaining three CArG boxes, two of which were closely interdigitated with Sp1 sites. In addition, CArG box 4 was found to interact with SRF and another distinct protein whose footprint was contained within the SRF-binding site. Sequences surrounding the TATA box were also shown to bind proteins. Sp1 was shown to bind to a site immediately downstream from the TATA box and to a site within the first exon. Thus, each of the three functional upstream regions, as defined by transfection assays, was shown to interact with five factors: Sp1 and CTF/NF-I at the upstream site, two unidentified proteins at the central site, and SRF at the most proximal site. These results suggest that expression of the cardiac actin gene in muscle cells is controlled by complex interactions among multiple upstream and intragenic elements. Images PMID:2796988

  20. Highly divergent strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus incorporate multiple isoforms of nonstructural protein 2 into virions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Viral structural proteins formulate the critical intermediary between viral infection cycles within and between hosts, function to initiate entry, participate in immediate-early viral replication steps, and are major targets for the host adaptive immune response. We report the identification of nons...

  1. Modeling Multiple Information Seeking Episodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shin-jeng; Belkin, Nicholas J.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of information retrieval and information seeking behavior focuses on a multi-dimensional conceptual model called MISE (multiple information-seeking episodes). Identifies eight different reasons why people engage in multiple information-seeking episodes, characterizes them in terms of traits of Multiple Information Seeking Episode

  2. Bayes multiple decision functions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting through simulation studies. The procedure is also applied to a subset of a microarray data set from a colon cancer study. PMID:25414762

  3. Immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meuth, Sven G; Bittner, Stefan; Wiendl, Heinz

    2009-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is regarded as a prototypic inflammatory autoimmune central nervous system disorder causing neurological disability in young adults. Recommended basic immunomodulatory therapies of MS are currently interferon beta and glatiramer acetate. Both have proven to be clinically and paraclinically effective and clinical evidence suggests that treatment should be initiated as early as possible. However, despite the fact that therapeutic options for MS have significantly been widened over the past decade there is still tremendous activity in the search for new treatment options for MS. One important development in the field is reflected by the substantial number of promising results for oral therapies. Various phase III clinical trials are currently being initiated or are already underway evaluating the efficacy of a variety of orally administered agents, including cladribine, teriflunomide, laquinimod, fingolimod and fumaric acid. It is hoped that these oral therapies for MS further broaden our armament for MS therapy. PMID:25384864

  4. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  5. Multiple Sclerosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    INALOO, Soroor; HAGHBIN, Saideh

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most important immune-mediated demyelinated disease of human which is typically the disease of young adults. A total of 4% to 5% of MS population are pediatric. Pediatric MS is defined as the appearance of MS before the age of sixteen. About 80% of the pediatric cases and nearly all adolescent onset patients present with attacks typical to adult MS. Approximately 97% to 99% of the affected children have relapsing-remitting MS, while 85% to 95% of the adults experience such condition. MS in children is associated with more frequent and severe relapses. Treatment is the same as adults. We aimed to review the epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MS in children. PMID:24665290

  6. Tremor in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marcus; Mostert, Jop; Heersema, Dorothea; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-02-01

    Tremor is estimated to occur in about 25 to 60 percent of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This symptom, which can be severely disabling and embarrassing for patients, is difficult to manage. Isoniazid in high doses, carbamazepine, propranolol and gluthetimide have been reported to provide some relief, but published evidence of effectiveness is very limited. Most trials were of small size and of short duration. Cannabinoids appear ineffective. Tremor reduction can be obtained with stereotactic thalamotomy or thalamic stimulation. However, the studies were small and information on long-term functional outcome is scarce. Physiotherapy, tremor reducing orthoses, and limb cooling can achieve some functional improvement. Tremor in MS remains a significant challenge and unmet need, requiring further basic and clinical research. PMID:17318714

  7. Metabolomics in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Pavan; Calabresi, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system with inflammatory and degenerative components. The cause of MS remains unknown although genetic and environmental factors appear to play a role in its etiopathogenesis. Metabolomics is a new "omics" technology that aims at measuring small molecules in various biological matrices and can provide information that is not readily obtained from genomics, transcriptomics, or proteomics. Currently, several different analytical platforms exist for metabolomics, and both untargeted and targeted approaches are being employed. Methods of analysis of metabolomics data are also being developed and no consensus currently exists on the optimal approach to analysis and interpretation of these data. Metabolomics has the potential to provide putative biomarkers, insights into the pathophysiology of the disease, and to aid in precision medicine for patients with MS. PMID:26754801

  8. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  9. Multiple primary prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lanesky, J; Opipari, M I; McKenzie, M

    1979-06-01

    Although increasing reports are noted of apparent endometrial carcinoma of prostatic origin, the controversy is present of the actual existence of such an entity. The association of papillary prostatic cancer (endometrial or ductal) with the typical microacinar variety has also been previously presented. This report is an account of 2 cases of multiple prostatic primary tumors. The first case is the twelfth reported case of endometrial (utricular) carcinoma not only simultaneously associated with microacinar type carcinoma, but also with a previous transitional carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The second case is a papillary carcinoma and associated microacinar type with the papillary component responding dramatically to chemotherapy. Significant aspects of interest in this case include the site of papillary metastasis to the lungs, elevated estrogen levels with normalization after treatment, and finally response to chemotherapy. PMID:452201

  10. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy. PMID:26922172

  11. Multiple detectors "Influence Method".

    PubMed

    Rios, I J; Mayer, R E

    2016-05-01

    The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived. PMID:26943904

  12. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  13. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.; Schuler, Jason M.; Chandler, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that utilized multiple fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, for the design and assembly of a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, for the design and assembly of a portable four monitor hyper wall strip that could extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill that could be utilized on a next generation robot or rover, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and creation of a new outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory.

  14. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  15. Multiple sclerosis: changing times.

    PubMed

    Kurtzke, J F

    1991-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is distributed about the world in three zones of high, medium, and low frequency. All high- and medium-risk areas are among predominantly white populations. Migration studies indicate MS is already acquired by age 15 in high-risk endemic areas and that low-to-high migrants increase their risk from age 11 years. Therefore MS is an environmental disease ordinarily acquired in adolescence with a long incubation before symptom onset. Susceptibility is limited to the period from about age 11 to 47. In general, MS death rates have been declining over time while prevalence rates have increased. Incidence rates have also increased, however, in: northeastern Scotland; Turku, Finland; Hordaland, Norway; Rochester, Minn.; Lower Saxony; several areas of Italy. Incidence was unchanged in northernmost Norway. Conversely, incidence and prevalence rates have decreased in the Shetland-Orkneys; there was a cyclical pattern in incidence in Rostock, GDR; and there was a transient doubling of incidence in Iceland in the post-World War II decade. In the Faroe Islands, MS was absent before 1943 when a major point-source epidemic began, reaching an incidence rate of 10 per 100,000 population in 1945. This was followed by two consecutively smaller epidemics with respective peaks each about 12 years later, and there is now a new epidemic IV on these islands. Explanations for changing incidence of MS over time should bring us closer to solving the etiology of this disease. PMID:2062411

  16. [Therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Sim, Magdolna

    2009-03-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the most frequent neuroimmunological disorders of the central nervous system. It is a multifactorial disease with possible causes including genetic and environmental factors. MS is characterized in essence by an autoimmune inflammation in the central nervous system, resulting in the damage of the myelin sheath and the axons. There are four pathological subtypes of the disease. Its clinical course can either be of the relapsing-remitting or primary and secondary progressive type. All structures of the central nervous system may be involved, but the longest tracts are affected the most often. According to the revised McDonald criteria, the diagnosis of MS is based on the clinical course and the MRI findings. Its therapy can be divided into the acute treatment of relapses, symptomatic relief and long-term immunomodulatory treatment. With respect to differential diagnosis, it is of special concern to distinguish between MS and neuromyelitis optica, as early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of the latter may prevent the development of severe residual symptoms associated with this disease. PMID:19731815

  17. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  18. Multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Peeraully, Tasneem

    2014-04-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare adult-onset synucleinopathy associated with dysautonomia and the variable presence of poorly levodopa-responsive parkinsonism and/or cerebellar ataxia. Other clinical symptoms that can be associated with MSA include hyperreflexia, stridor, sleep apnea, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Mean survival from time of diagnosis ranges between 6 to 10 years, and definitive diagnosis is made on autopsy with demonstration of oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions consisting of fibrillar α-synuclein. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be positive for cruciform T2 hyperintensity within the pons (the "hot cross bun sign"), volume loss in the pons and cerebellum, and T2 signal loss in the dorsolateral putamen with hyperintense rim on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequencing. Although most cases are sporadic, genetic polymorphisms have been identified both in familial and sporadic cases of MSA, and influence observed phenotypes. Treatment is symptomatic, with both pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies. There are currently no consensus guidelines on management. Current and future research is aimed at identifying biomarkers and developing disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24963676

  19. Multiple stage railgun

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Scudder, Jonathan K. (Pleasanton, CA); Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  20. Pediatric multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Yashma; Bhise, Vikram; Krupp, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) represents a particular MS subgroup with unique diagnostic challenges and many unanswered questions. Due to the narrow window of environmental exposures and clinical disease expression, children with MS may represent a particularly important group to study to gain a better understanding of MS pathogenesis. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is more common in children than in adults, often making the differential diagnosis of MS, particularly a clinically isolated syndrome, quite difficult. Although both disorders represent acute inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system and have overlapping symptoms, ADEM is typically (not always) self-limiting. The presence of encephalopathy is much more characteristic of ADEM and may help in distinguishing between the two. Young children (under ten years old) with MS differ the most from adults. They have a lower frequency of oligoclonal bands in their cerebrospinal fluid and are less likely to have discrete lesions on MRI. Problems of cognitive dysfunction and psychosocial adjustment have particularly serious implications in both children and teenagers with MS. Increased awareness of these difficulties and interventions are needed. While clinical research on therapies to alter the disease course is limited, the available data fortunately suggests that disease-modifying therapy is well tolerated and likely to be effective. Ultimately, multinational research studies are necessary to advance our knowledge of the causes, symptoms, and treatment of pediatric MS and such collaborations are currently underway. PMID:20182571