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Sample records for multiple indicators multiple

  1. Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models

    PubMed Central

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  2. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.

    PubMed

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Carter, Randy L; Cullings, Harry M; Carroll, Raymond J

    2014-11-10

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  3. Should "Multiple Imputations" Be Treated as "Multiple Indicators"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    Multiple imputations for latent variables are constructed so that analyses treating them as true variables have the correct expectations for population characteristics. Analyzing multiple imputations in accordance with their construction yields correct estimates of population characteristics, whereas analyzing them as multiple indicators generally…

  4. Estimating differential expression from multiple indicators

    PubMed Central

    Ilmjrv, Sten; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Reimets, Riin; Niitsoo, Margus; Kolde, Raivo; Vilo, Jaak; Vasar, Eero; Luuk, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of the advent of high-throughput sequencing, microarrays remain central in current biomedical research. Conventional microarray analysis pipelines apply data reduction before the estimation of differential expression, which is likely to render the estimates susceptible to noise from signal summarization and reduce statistical power. We present a probe-level framework, which capitalizes on the high number of concurrent measurements to provide more robust differential expression estimates. The framework naturally extends to various experimental designs and target categories (e.g. transcripts, genes, genomic regions) as well as small sample sizes. Benchmarking in relation to popular microarray and RNA-sequencing data-analysis pipelines indicated high and stable performance on the Microarray Quality Control dataset and in a cell-culture model of hypoxia. Experimental-data-exhibiting long-range epigenetic silencing of gene expression was used to demonstrate the efficacy of detecting differential expression of genomic regions, a level of analysis not embraced by conventional workflows. Finally, we designed and conducted an experiment to identify hypothermia-responsive genes in terms of monotonic time-response. As a novel insight, hypothermia-dependent up-regulation of multiple genes of two major antioxidant pathways was identified and verified by quantitative real-time PCR. PMID:24586062

  5. Multiple system atrophy: prognostic indicators of survival.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Juan J; Singer, Wolfgang; Parsaik, Ajay; Benarroch, Eduardo E; Ahlskog, J Eric; Fealey, Robert D; Parisi, Joseph E; Sandroni, Paola; Mandrekar, Jay; Iodice, Valeria; Low, Phillip A; Bower, James H

    2014-08-01

    Neurological and autonomic presentation in multiple system atrophy (MSA) may predict early mortality. Quantification of early autonomic failure as a mortality predictor is lacking. Early neurological and autonomic clinical features were retrospectively reviewed in 49 MSA cases (median age at onset, 56.1 years; 16 women) confirmed by autopsy at Mayo Clinic. When available, the 10-point composite autonomic severity score derived from the autonomic reflex screen provided quantification of the degree of autonomic failure and thermoregulatory sweat test quantitated body surface anhidrosis. Symptoms at onset were autonomic in 50%, parkinsonian in 30%, and cerebellar in 20% of cases. Survival (median [95% confidence interval]) was 8.6 [6.7-10.2] years. Survival was shorter in patients with early laboratory evidence of generalized (composite autonomic severity score ≥ 6) autonomic failure (7.0 [3.9-9.8] vs. 9.8 [4.6-13.8] years; P = 0.036), and early requirement of bladder catheterization (7.3 [3.1-10.2] vs. 13.7 [8.5-14.9] years; P = 0.003) compared with those without these clinical features. On Cox proportional analysis, prognostic indicators of shorter survival were older age at onset (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval], 1.04 [1.01-1.08]; P = 0.03), early requirement of bladder catheterization (7.9 [1.88-38.63]; P = 0.004), and early generalized (composite autonomic severity score ≥ 6) autonomic failure (2.8 [1.01-9.26]; P = 0.047). Gender, phenotype, and early development of gait instability, aid-requiring ambulation, orthostatic symptoms, neurogenic bladder, or significant anhidrosis (thermoregulatory sweat test ≥ 40%) were not indicators of shorter survival. Our data suggest that early development of severe generalized autonomic failure more than triples the risk of shorter survival in patients with MSA. PMID:24909319

  6. Testing for Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    In extant literature, multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) models have been presented for identifying items that display uniform differential item functioning (DIF) only, not nonuniform DIF. This article addresses, for apparently the first time, the use of MIMIC models for testing both uniform and nonuniform DIF with categorical indicators. A…

  7. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  8. Estimating Consistency and Accuracy Indices for Multiple Classifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Won-Chan; Hanson, Bradley A.; Brennan, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    This article describes procedures for estimating various indices of classification consistency and accuracy for multiple category classifications using data from a single test administration. The estimates of the classification consistency and accuracy indices are compared under three different psychometric models: the two-parameter beta binomial,…

  9. Identifying node role in social network based on multiple indicators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role. PMID:25089823

  10. Identifying Node Role in Social Network Based on Multiple Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role. PMID:25089823

  11. Control region sequences indicate that multiple externae represent multiple infections by Sacculina carcini (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala).

    PubMed

    Rees, David; Glenner, Henrik

    2014-08-01

    The rhizocephalan barnacle, Sacculina carcini, is a common parasite of the European shore crab, Carcinus maenas, in which it causes significant detrimental physical and behavioral modifications. In the vast majority of cases, the external portion of the parasite is present in the form of a single sac-like externa; in rare cases, double or even triple externae may occur on the same individual host. Here, we use a highly variable DNA marker, the mitochondrial control region (CR), to investigate whether multiple externae in S. carcini represent infection by multiple parasites or asexual cloning developed by a single parasite individual. Sequences for multiple externae from C. maenas hosts from the Danish inlet, Limfjorden, and from the mud flates at Roscoff, France, were compared. In almost all cases, double or triple externae from an individual host yielded different haplotypes. In the few cases where identical haplotypes were identified from externae on a multiple-infected host, this always represented the most commonly found haplotype in the population. This indicates that in Sacculina carcini, the presence of multiple externae on a single host reflects infection by different individual parasites. A haplotype network of CR sequences also suggests a degree of geographical partitioning, with no shared haplotypes between the Limfjorden and Roscoff. Our data represent the first complete CR sequences for a rhizocephalan, and a unique gene order was also revealed. Although the utility of CR sequences for population-level work must be investigated further, the CR has proved a simple to use and highly variable marker for studies of S. carcini and can easily be applied to a variety of studies in this important parasite. PMID:25473481

  12. Control region sequences indicate that multiple externae represent multiple infections by Sacculina carcini (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)

    PubMed Central

    Rees, David; Glenner, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The rhizocephalan barnacle, Sacculina carcini, is a common parasite of the European shore crab, Carcinus maenas, in which it causes significant detrimental physical and behavioral modifications. In the vast majority of cases, the external portion of the parasite is present in the form of a single sac-like externa; in rare cases, double or even triple externae may occur on the same individual host. Here, we use a highly variable DNA marker, the mitochondrial control region (CR), to investigate whether multiple externae in S. carcini represent infection by multiple parasites or asexual cloning developed by a single parasite individual. Sequences for multiple externae from C. maenas hosts from the Danish inlet, Limfjorden, and from the mud flates at Roscoff, France, were compared. In almost all cases, double or triple externae from an individual host yielded different haplotypes. In the few cases where identical haplotypes were identified from externae on a multiple-infected host, this always represented the most commonly found haplotype in the population. This indicates that in Sacculina carcini, the presence of multiple externae on a single host reflects infection by different individual parasites. A haplotype network of CR sequences also suggests a degree of geographical partitioning, with no shared haplotypes between the Limfjorden and Roscoff. Our data represent the first complete CR sequences for a rhizocephalan, and a unique gene order was also revealed. Although the utility of CR sequences for population-level work must be investigated further, the CR has proved a simple to use and highly variable marker for studies of S. carcini and can easily be applied to a variety of studies in this important parasite. PMID:25473481

  13. The validity of well-being measures: a multiple-indicator-multiple-rater model.

    PubMed

    Zou, Christopher; Schimmack, Ulrich; Gere, Judith

    2013-12-01

    In the subjective indicators tradition, well-being is defined as a match between an individual's actual life and his or her ideal life. Common well-being indicators are life-satisfaction judgments, domain satisfaction judgments, and measures of positive and negative affect (hedonic balance). These well-being indicators are routinely used to study well-being, but a formal measurement model of well-being is lacking. This article introduces a measurement model of well-being and examines the validity of self-ratings and informant ratings of well-being. Participants were 335 families (1 student with 2 parents, N = 1,005). The main findings were that (a) self-ratings and informant ratings are equally valid, (b) global life-satisfaction judgments and averaged domain satisfaction judgments are about equally valid, and (c) about 1/3 of the variance in a single indicator is valid. The main implication is that researchers should demonstrate convergent validity across multiple indicators by multiple raters. PMID:23914958

  14. Multiple-input Multiple-output Ground Moving Target Indicator Radar: Theory and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliss, Dan

    2012-02-01

    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) extensions to radar systems enable a number of advantages compared to traditional approaches. These advantages include improved angle estimation and target detection. In this paper, an overview of MIMO radar is provided, and the concept of coherent MIMO radar is defined. The principle focus of the paper is the discussion of MIMO ground moving target indication (GMTI). For GMTI radar modes, the advantages of a coherent MIMO architecture include improved angle estimation and enhanced slow speed target detection. To illustrate this, the concept of coherent MIMO radar is introduced and performance comparisons made between MIMO GMTI and traditional radar GMTI. These comparisons are supported by theoretical bounds, simulations, and experimental results for GMTI angle estimation accuracy and minimum detectable target velocity. For some applications, these results indicate significant potential improvements in clutter-mitigation, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss, and reduction in angle-estimation error for slow-moving targets. The important effects of waveform characteristics is addressed.

  15. A multiple indicator, multiple cause method for representing social capital with an application to psychological distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Peter

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes a structural equation methodology for obtaining social capital scores for survey subjects from multiple indicators of social support, neighbourhood and trust perceptions, and memberships of organizations. It adjusts for variation that is likely to occur in levels of social capital according to geographic context (e.g. level of area deprivation, geographic region, level of urbanity) and demographic group. Social capital is used as an explanatory factor for psychological distress using data from the 2006 Health Survey for England. A highly significant effect of social capital in reducing the chance of psychiatric caseness is obtained after controlling for other individual and geographic risk factors. Allowing for social capital has considerable effects on the impacts on psychiatric health of other risk factors. In particular, the impact of area deprivation category is much reduced. There is also evidence of significant differentiation in social capital between population categories and geographic contexts.

  16. A multiple indicators multiple causes model of late-life depression in Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Brailean, Anamaria; Guerra, Mariella; Chua, Kia-Chong; Prince, Martin; Prina, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Euro-D depression scale consists of symptom clusters that may be differentially related to demographic and cognitive characteristics in older adults. This hypothesis needs further investigation and the role of measurement bias on substantive conclusions remains to be established. Method The study sample comprised 10,405 community-dwelling older adults from six Latin American countries. We applied a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model for a concurrent investigation of measurement bias and of the association between Euro-D symptom clusters and background variables. Results The factorial validity of Euro-D, with a two-dimensional structure – affective suffering and motivation disturbance, was consistently supported in all countries. Although complete measurement invariance could not be assumed across countries, measurement bias was minor. Both Euro-D factors were unrelated to age, but related to gender, as well as to impairment in memory and verbal fluency. Gender differences were larger for affective suffering than for motivation disturbance, whereas differences in verbal fluency impairment were more strongly related to motivation disturbance. Limitations Our analytic strategies could only examine invariance at the level of indicator thresholds. The generalisability of current findings needs to be examined in clinical populations. A wider set of cognitive tests is needed. We did not examine the compositional factors that could have accounted for the variation in Euro-D scores across countries, as this was beyond the aims of the paper. Conclusion The current study adds evidence for the construct validity of Euro-D and for the possible differential association of depression symptom-clusters with gender and verbal fluency in older adults. An understanding of the heterogeneity of late-life depression may carry clinical implications for the diagnosis and treatment of depression in old age. PMID:26092097

  17. Indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder for the Clinician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Thomas W.

    Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response

  18. Indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder for the Clinician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Thomas W.

    Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response…

  19. Multiple myeloma: clinical features and indications for therapy.

    PubMed

    Dispenzieri, Angela; Kyle, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a malignant plasma-cell proliferative disease with an expected 15,270 new cases and 11,070 deaths in the USA in 2004 alone. This accounts for 1% of all malignancies and slightly more than 10% of all hematologic malignancies in Caucasians and 20% in African Americans. The diagnosis is based on the presence of bone pain, anemia, and plasma-cell infiltrate in the bone marrow or within bone lesions. It is essential that the spectrum of plasma-cell proliferative disorders be recognized: monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM), and active (symptomatic) MM. These distinctions affect important management decisions. Other related disorders include primary systemic amyloidosis, POEMS syndrome, and acquired Fanconi syndrome. PMID:16026737

  20. Multiple uses of indicators and indices in cumulative effects assessment and management

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, L.W.; Atkinson, S.F.

    2011-09-15

    Both environmental indicators and multi-metric indices are useful for describing baseline conditions and qualitatively predicting the cumulative consequences of multiple actions. Several examples and case studies associated with indicators and/or indices are presented herein. They can be easily modified for usage in CEAM. Habitat suitability models reflect special indices related to habitat needs and quality for specific species or broad habitat types. Such models have been used to address direct and indirect effects, and with some modification, they can be also used to address cumulative effects of multiple actions. This review has indicated that there are numerous examples of such tools which have been or could be used in both EIA and CEAM. Some key lessons are: (1) in conducting CEAM studies, it is useful to think from the mindset that 'I am the VEC or indicator, and what is my historical and current condition and how have I, or will I, be affected by multiple past, present, and future actions?'; (2) due to the likely absence of detailed information on future actions, the described tools can still be used to 'predict' future conditions by focusing on qualitative up-or-down changes in individual indicators or indices with their aggregated displays; and (3) numerous regional and site-specific tools are currently available, with one example being indices of biological integrity for specific watersheds and water bodies. Such tools, even though they may not have been developed for CEAM usage, can certainly benefit CEAM studies and practice. Finally, usage of selected and appropriate tools as described herein can aid in conducting science-based, systematic, and documentable CEAM studies.

  1. [Virological and immunological indices in patients with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Agafonov, A P; Kameneva, S N; Agafonova, O A; Neverov, A A; Ignat'ev, G M

    2004-01-01

    The level of specific antibodies to viruses of measles, parotitis, type-6 herpes, Epstein-Barr, tick-borne encephalitis and Borrelia burgdorferi as well as presence of genetic samples and antigens of the above infectious antigens were studied in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). The cytokines Th1 and Th2 parameters were investigated in blood serum of patients at different MS stages. The titer of antibodies to measles virus was noted to be increasing in MS patients with age and disease aggravation. The level of antibodies to any of the studied infectious agents, except for the type-6 herpes virus, was not dynamically changing for as long as 9 months. The viral genetic samples (measles RNA) were detected just once in 2 patients; the detection time coincided in both cases with MS aggravation. The cytokines dynamics failed to correlate with MS aggravation or exacerbation while the total index of all studied cytokines was decreased. A high MMPw 9 content in blood serum correlated with MS exacerbation in 1 patient. PMID:15455682

  2. Multiple vulnerabilities and maternal healthcare in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Giang, Kim Bao; Kien, Vu Duy; Nam, You-Seon; Lee, Chul Ou; Huong, Tran Thi Giang; Hoat, Luu Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the aggregate effects of multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities is important for shedding light on the determinants of growing health inequalities and inequities in maternal healthcare. Objective This paper describes patterns of inequity in maternal healthcare utilization and analyzes associations between inequity and multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities among women in Vietnam. Design This is a repeated cross-sectional study using data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 2000, 2006, and 2011. Two maternal healthcare indicators were selected: (1) skilled antenatal care and (2) skilled delivery care. Four types of socioeconomic vulnerabilities – low education, ethnic minority, poverty, and rural location – were assessed both as separate explanatory variables and as composite indicators (combinations of three and four vulnerabilities). Pairwise comparisons and adjusted odds ratios were used to assess socioeconomic inequities in maternal healthcare. Results In all three surveys, there were increases across the survey years in both the proportions of women who received antenatal care by skilled staff (68.6% in 2000, 90.8% in 2006, and 93.7% in 2011) and the proportions of women who gave birth with assistance from skilled staff (69.9% in 2000, 87.7% in 2006, and 92.9% in 2011). The receipt of antenatal care by skilled staff and birth assistance from skilled health personnel were less common among vulnerable women, especially those with multiple vulnerabilities. Conclusions Even though Vietnam has improved its coverage of maternal healthcare on average, policies should target maternal healthcare utilization among women with multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities. Both multisectoral social policies and health policies are needed to tackle multiple vulnerabilities more effectively by identifying those who are poor, less educated, live in rural areas, and belong to ethnic minority groups. PMID:26950561

  3. Early sexual initiation and multiple sexual partners among Vietnamese women: analysis from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dinh Thai; Oh, Juhwan; Heo, Jongho; Van Huy, Nguyen; Van Minh, Hoang; Choi, Sugy; Hoat, Luu Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Under current HIV transmission mechanisms operating in Vietnam, women are seen as victims of their male partners. Having multiple sexual partners is one of the well-known risk factors for HIV infection. However, little is known about women's risky sexual behaviour and their vulnerability to HIV in Vietnam. This study aims to explore association between early sexual initiation and the number of lifetime sexual partners in Vietnamese women. Although the Vietnamese culture is socially conservative in this area, identifying women's risky sexual behaviour is important for the protection of women at risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Design A total of 8,791 women, who reported having had sexual intercourse, were included in this analysis of data from the 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Vietnam. Data were collected using two-stage strata sampling, first at the national level and second across six geographical regions (n=8,791). Multivariable logistic regressions describe association between early initiation of a sexual activity and lifetime multiple sexual partners. Results Early sexual intercourse was significantly associated with having lifetime multiple sexual partners. Women who were aged 19 or younger at first sexual intercourse were over five times more likely to have multiple sexual partners, compared with women whose first sexual intercourse was after marriage; aged 10–14 years (OR=5.9; 95% CI=1.9–18.8) at first intercourse; and aged 15–19 years (OR=5.4; 95% CI=4.0–7.2) at first intercourse. There was significant association with having multiple sexual partners for women of lower household wealth and urban residence, but the association with educational attainment was not strong. Conclusions The study results call for health and education policies to encourage the postponement of early sexual activity in young Vietnamese women as protection against risky sexual behaviour later in life. PMID:26950566

  4. Calls for Multiple Indices Incorporating Multiculturalism in Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong-gwi

    2005-01-01

    This reaction evaluates three content analyses that investigated separate aspects of research articles published in major counseling psychology journals: (a) institutional research productivity, (b) use of structural equation modeling, and (c) use of theory-driven research. The evaluation focuses on the adequacy of indices used in the content…

  5. Relations between virtues and positive mental health in a Korean population: a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model approach.

    PubMed

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2015-08-01

    A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) approach was applied to investigate the relationship between virtues and positive mental health as determined using the Character Strength Test and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. The study participants were 876 college students (54% women; overall mean age [SD] 21.50 years [2.35]) recruited from introductory psychology courses at two universities in Seoul. Findings revealed that the intellectual virtues of college students predicted subjective well-being according to all emotional, social and psychological measures. Results are discussed in the context of previous work using the Values in Action classification of virtues and character strengths. In addition, implications regarding understanding the nature and possible origins of positive mental health are outlined. PMID:25130769

  6. Convergent Evidence Scaling for Multiple Assessment Indicators: Conceptual Issues, Applications, and Technical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busse, R. T.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present Convergent Evidence Scaling (CES) as an emergent method for combining data from multiple assessment indicators. The CES method combines single-case assessment data by converging data gathered across multiple persons, settings, or measures, thereby providing an overall criterion-referenced outcome on which…

  7. Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... the birth of a child. So parents of twins or higher-order multiples (triplets or more) can ... the chances of having multiples. The incidence of twin and higher-order multiple births has climbed rapidly ...

  8. Middle school students' willingness to engage in activities with peers with ADHD symptoms: a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model.

    PubMed

    Ogg, Julia; McMahan, Melanie M; Dedrick, Robert F; Mendez, Linda Raffaele

    2013-06-01

    Researchers examining peers' behavioral intentions toward students diagnosed with ADHD have frequently used vignettes and asked students to indicate their willingness to engage with an individual described either with or without symptoms of ADHD. The Shared Activities Questionnaire (SAQ-B) is one instrument that has been used to measure students' intentions to engage with students represented in these vignettes. Confirmatory factor analysis results from 183 middle school students supported the three-factor model underlying the SAQ-B, although there were some areas of model misfit. To examine the effects of experimentally manipulating two vignette conditions (describing a peer displaying ADHD symptoms or a peer without these symptoms) on students' responses to items on the SAQ-B, a multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) analysis was used. Results of the MIMIC analyses identified 4 of the 24 SAQ-B items that exhibited statistically significant uniform differential item functioning between the experimental vignette conditions. Comparisons of the latent variable means between experimental conditions indicated that participants expressed greater willingness to engage with a peer without ADHD symptoms than with one with symptoms on academic activities; no differences were found on the latent variable means for social and recreational activities. Familiarity with ADHD did not have a significant relation to participants' willingness to engage in any of the three types of activities. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:23816232

  9. Control, compare and communicate: designing control charts to summarise efficiently data from multiple quality indicators.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, B; Love, T; Fahey, T; Morris, A; Sullivan, F

    2005-12-01

    Summarising the complex data generated by multiple cross sectional quality indicators in a way that patients, clinicians, managers and policymakers find useful is challenging. A common approach is aggregation to create summary measures such as star ratings and balanced score cards, but these may conceal the detail needed to focus quality improvement. We propose an alternative way of summarising and presenting multiple quality indicators, suitable for use for quality improvement and governance. This paper discusses (1) control charts for repeated measurements of single processes as used in industrial statistical process control (SPC); (2) control charts for cross sectional comparison of many institutions for a single quality indicator (rarely used in industry but commonly proposed for health care); and (3) small multiple graphics which combine control chart signal extraction with efficient graphical presentations for multiple indicators. PMID:16326793

  10. Occupational stress and psychopathology in health professionals: an explorative study with the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model approach.

    PubMed

    Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Ferracuti, Stefano; Erbuto, Denise; Lester, David; Candilera, Gabriella; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-03-01

    Occupational stress is a multivariate process involving sources of pressure, psycho-physiological distress, locus of control, work dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, mental health disorders, hopelessness, and suicide ideation. Healthcare professionals are known for higher rates of occupational-related distress (burnout and compassion fatigue) and higher rates of suicide. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationships between occupational stress and some psychopathological dimensions in a sample of health professionals. We investigated 156 nurses and physicians, 62 males and 94 females, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess occupational stress [occupational stress inventory (OSI)], temperament (temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire), and hopelessness (Beck hopelessness scale). The best Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model with five OSI predictors yielded the following results: χ2(9) = 14.47 (p = 0.11); χ2/df = 1.60; comparative fit index = 0.99; root mean square error of approximation = 0.05. This model provided a good fit to the empirical data, showing a strong direct influence of casual variables such as work dissatisfaction, absence of type A behavior, and especially external locus of control, psychological and physiological distress on latent variable psychopathology. Occupational stress is in a complex relationship with temperament and hopelessness and also common among healthcare professionals. PMID:22632290

  11. Occupational stress and psychopathology in health professionals: an explorative study with the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model approach.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Iliceto P; Pompili M; Spencer-Thomas S; Ferracuti S; Erbuto D; Lester D; Candilera G; Girardi P

    2013-03-01

    Occupational stress is a multivariate process involving sources of pressure, psycho-physiological distress, locus of control, work dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, mental health disorders, hopelessness, and suicide ideation. Healthcare professionals are known for higher rates of occupational-related distress (burnout and compassion fatigue) and higher rates of suicide. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationships between occupational stress and some psychopathological dimensions in a sample of health professionals. We investigated 156 nurses and physicians, 62 males and 94 females, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess occupational stress [occupational stress inventory (OSI)], temperament (temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire), and hopelessness (Beck hopelessness scale). The best Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model with five OSI predictors yielded the following results: χ2(9) = 14.47 (p = 0.11); χ2/df = 1.60; comparative fit index = 0.99; root mean square error of approximation = 0.05. This model provided a good fit to the empirical data, showing a strong direct influence of casual variables such as work dissatisfaction, absence of type A behavior, and especially external locus of control, psychological and physiological distress on latent variable psychopathology. Occupational stress is in a complex relationship with temperament and hopelessness and also common among healthcare professionals.

  12. Vascular Multiplicity Should Not Be a Contra-Indication for Live Kidney Donation and Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    van Bruggen, Mark; Kimenai, Hendrikus J. A. N.; Tran, Thi C. K.; Terkivatan, Türkan; Betjes, Michiel G. H.; IJzermans, Jan N. M.; Dor, Frank J. M. F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Whether vascular multiplicity should be considered as contraindication and therefore ‘extended donor criterion’ is still under debate. Methods Data from all live kidney donors from 2006–2013 (n = 951) was retrospectively reviewed. Vascular anatomy as imaged by MRA, CTA or other modalities was compared with intraoperative findings. Furthermore, the influence of vascular multiplicity on outcome of donors and recipients was studied. Results In 237 out of 951 donors (25%), vascular multiplicity was present. CTA had the highest accuracy levels regarding vascular anatomy assessment. Regarding outcome of donors with vascular multiplicity, warm ischemia time (WIT) and skin-to-skin time were significantly longer if arterial multiplicity (AM) was present (5.1 vs. 4.0 mins and 202 vs. 178 mins). Skin-to-skin time was significantly longer, and complication rates were higher in donors with venous multiplicity (203 vs. 180 mins and 17.2% vs. 8.4%). Outcome of renal transplant recipients showed a significantly increased WIT (30 vs. 26.7 minutes), higher rate of DGF (13.9% vs. 6.9%) and lower rate of BPAR (6.9% vs. 13.9%) in patients receiving a kidney with AM compared to kidneys with singular anatomy. Conclusions We conclude that vascular multiplicity should not be a contra-indication, since it has little impact on clinical outcome in the donor as well as in renal transplant recipients. PMID:27077904

  13. Single and Multiple Indicators of Physical Attractiveness and Psychosocial Behaviors among Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Lerner, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Examined relations among several indicators of physical attractiveness (PA): height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness. Appraised whether multiple PA indicators accounted for more variation in measures of psychosocial functioning than did single PA indexes. Facial attractiveness was the most frequent statistically significant predictor of…

  14. Procedures for Computing Classification Consistency and Accuracy Indices with Multiple Categories. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Won-Chan; Hanson, Bradley A.; Brennan, Robert L.

    This paper describes procedures for estimating various indices of classification consistency and accuracy for multiple category classifications using data from a single test administration. The estimates of the classification consistency and accuracy indices are compared under three different psychometric models: the two-parameter beta binomial,…

  15. Single and Multiple Indicators of Physical Attractiveness and Psychosocial Behaviors among Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Lerner, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Examined relations among several indicators of physical attractiveness (PA): height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness. Appraised whether multiple PA indicators accounted for more variation in measures of psychosocial functioning than did single PA indexes. Facial attractiveness was the most frequent statistically significant predictor of

  16. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  17. Multiple sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord ( central nervous system ). ... Multiple sclerosis (MS) affects women more than men. The disorder is most commonly diagnosed between ages 20 to ...

  18. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    MENU ... is multiple sclerosis (MS)? Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system. Normally, antibodies produced by the immune system help protect the body against viruses, bacteria and other foreign substances. In people who have MS, ...

  19. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Condensed from Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Multiple Sclerosis? An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, ...

  20. How teams use indicators for quality improvement - a multiple-case study on the use of multiple indicators in multidisciplinary breast cancer teams.

    PubMed

    Gort, Marjan; Broekhuis, Manda; Regts, Gerdien

    2013-11-01

    A crucial issue in healthcare is how multidisciplinary teams can use indicators for quality improvement. Such teams have increasingly become the core component in both care delivery and in many quality improvement methods. This study aims to investigate the relationships between (1) team factors and the way multidisciplinary teams use indicators for quality improvement, and (2) both team and process factors and the intended results. An in-depth, multiple-case study was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008 involving four breast cancer teams using six structure, process and outcome indicators. The results indicated that the process of using indicators involves several stages and activities. Two teams applied a more intensive, active and interactive approach as they passed through these stages. These teams were perceived to have achieved good results through indicator use compared to the other two teams who applied a simple control approach. All teams experienced some difficulty in integrating the new formal control structure, i.e. measuring and managing performance, in their operational task, and in using their 'new' managerial task to decide as a team what and how to improve. Our findings indicate the presence of a network of relationships between team factors, the controllability and actionability of indicators, the indicator-use process, and the intended results. PMID:24034953

  1. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  2. Gender and Perceived Illness Severity: Differential Indicators of Employment Concerns for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.; Turner, Ronna C.; Robertson, Judith L.; Rumrill,Phillip D.

    2005-01-01

    Although research has indicated a link between gender and perceived illness severity and the employment status of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), it has not addressed questions regarding the relationship between those variables and specific types of employment concerns. In this study, a sample of 1,310 adults with MS replied to a mail survey…

  3. Difficulty and Discriminating Indices of Three-Multiple Choice Tests Using the Confidence Scoring Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omirin, M. S.

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the comparison of the difficulty and discrimination incides of three multiple choice tests using the confidence scoring procedure (CSP). The study was also set to determine whether or not the difficulty and discrimination indices would be improved, if the tests were scored by the confidence scoring procedure. Two null…

  4. A Statistical Analysis of Infrequent Events on Multiple-Choice Tests that Indicate Probable Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sundermann, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    A statistical analysis of multiple-choice answers is performed to identify anomalies that can be used as evidence of student cheating. The ratio of exact errors in common (EEIC: two students put the same wrong answer for a question) to differences (D: two students get different answers) was found to be a good indicator of cheating under a wide…

  5. Human Health Risk Implications of Multiple Sources of Faecal Indicator Bacteria in a Recreational Waterbody

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluate the influence of multiple sources of faecal indicator bacteria in recreational water bodies on potential human health risk by considering waters impacted by human and animal sources, human and non-pathogenic sources, and animal and non-pathogenic sources. We illustrat...

  6. Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade…

  7. Multiple homicides.

    PubMed

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered. PMID:2782297

  8. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... myeloma most commonly causes a low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  9. Multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Peller, Patrick J

    2015-04-01

    This article presents a review of multiple myeloma, precursor states, and related plasma cell disorders. The clinical roles of fluorodeoxyglucose PET/computed tomography (CT) and the potential to improve the management of patients with multiple myeloma are discussed. The clinical and research data supporting the utility of PET/CT use in evaluating myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias continues to grow. PMID:25829088

  10. Therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okereke, Emmanuel O.

    2000-09-01

    This quasi-experiment study examined the therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress. By utilizing drug interventions that reduced cardiovascular distress through changes in the hypertensive indices, previous studies have shown that improvements in life expectancy, lowering of health care costs in later years, and reduction in all-cause mortality were achieved. In fact, individuals without risk factors or with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adulthood or middle age were healthier, had a greater life expectancy, and incurred lower health care costs in later years. The hypertensive indices of interest include elevated heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (Ps), diastolic blood pressure (PD), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), pulse pressure (PP), and mechanical disadvantages of the heart MDH. Mechanical disadvantage of the heart is a term that has been developed for the purposes of this study. The alternative hypotheses for this study proposed to show a significant change in the relevant hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress in volunteers after a minimum of 45 days treatment with multiple nutritional supplements. The target population was all middle-aged (30 to 65 years) volunteer hypertensives in Nigeria (West Africa), who were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or control group, controlling for individuals who were on any form of medication, smokers, alcoholics, and those who were pregnant or on contraceptives. Treatment involved multiple doses of the various vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and accessory nutrients in their complementary combinations that influence various levels of cardiovascular function. After 45 days of treatment, the differences between the mean sores of the experimental group and control group on Ps, PD, MABP, and PP were found to be statistically significant, at p ≤ .05 cut-off level for rejecting the null hypothesis for each dependent variable on a one-tailed student's t test. The same results were not demonstrated for HR and MDH. In summary, the therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress could provide a cost-effective, safe, healthy, and reliable way of preventing cardiovascular disease.

  11. Stellar Multiplicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchne, Gaspard; Kraus, Adam

    2013-08-01

    Stellar multiplicity is a ubiquitous outcome of the star-formation process. The frequency and main characteristics of multiple systems, and their dependence on primary mass and environment, are powerful tools to probe this process. Although early attempts were fraught with selection biases and limited completeness, instrumentation breakthroughs in the past two decades now enable robust statistical analyses. In this review, we summarize current empirical knowledge of stellar multiplicity for main sequence stars and brown dwarfs, as well as among populations of pre-main-sequence stars and embedded protostars. Among field objects, the multiplicity rate and breadth of the orbital period distribution are steep functions of the primary mass, whereas the mass ratio distribution is essentially flat for most populations other than the lowest mass objects. The time-variation of the frequency of visual companions follows two parallel, constant tracks corresponding to loose and dense stellar populations, although current observations do not yet distinguish whether initial multiplicity properties are universal or dependent on the physical conditions of the parent cloud. Nonetheless, these quantitative trends provide a rich comparison basis for numerical and analytical models of star formation.

  12. Using Indicators of Multiple Deprivation to Demonstrate the Spatial Legacy of Apartheid in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Wright, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial analysis of multiple deprivation in South Africa and demonstrates that the most deprived areas in the country are located in the rural former homeland areas. The analysis is undertaken using the datazone level South African Index of Multiple Deprivation which was constructed from the 2001 Census. Datazones are a new…

  13. Using Indicators of Multiple Deprivation to Demonstrate the Spatial Legacy of Apartheid in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Wright, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial analysis of multiple deprivation in South Africa and demonstrates that the most deprived areas in the country are located in the rural former homeland areas. The analysis is undertaken using the datazone level South African Index of Multiple Deprivation which was constructed from the 2001 Census. Datazones are a new

  14. Monitoring marine recreational water quality using multiple microbial indicators in an urban tropical environment

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Fleming, Lora E.; Elmir, Samir

    2008-01-01

    The microbial water quality at two beaches, Hobie Beach and Crandon Beach, in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA was measured using multiple microbial indicators for the purpose of evaluating correlations between microbes and for identifying possible sources of contamination. The indicator microbes chosen for this study (enterococci, Escherichia coli, fecal coliform, total coliform and C. perfringens) were evaluated through three different sampling efforts. These efforts included daily measurements at four locations during a wet season month and a dry season month, spatially intensive water sampling during low- and high-tide periods, and a sand sampling effort. Results indicated that concentrations did not vary in a consistent fashion between one indicator microbe and another. Daily water quality frequently exceeded guideline levels at Hobie Beach for all indicator microbes except for fecal coliform, which never exceeded the guideline. Except for total coliform, the concentrations of microbes did not change significantly between seasons in spite of the fact that the physicalchemical parameters (rainfall, temperature, pH, and salinity) changed significantly between the two monitoring periods. Spatially intense water sampling showed that the concentrations of microbes were significantly different with distance from the shoreline. The highest concentrations were observed at shoreline points and decreased at offshore points. Furthermore, the highest concentrations of indicator microbe concentrations were observed at high tide, when the wash zone area of the beach was submerged. Beach sands within the wash zone tested positive for all indicator microbes, thereby suggesting that this zone may serve as the source of indicator microbes. Ultimate sources of indicator microbes to this zone may include humans, animals, and possibly the survival and regrowth of indicator microbes due to the unique environmental conditions found within this zone. Overall, the results of this study indicated that the concentrations of indicator microbes do not necessarily correlate with one another. Exceedence of water quality guidelines, and thus the frequency of beach advisories, depends upon which indicator microbe is chosen. PMID:15261551

  15. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  16. Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Details the characteristics of Howard Gardner's seven multiple intelligences (MI): linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Discusses the implications of MI for instruction. Explores how students can study using their preferred learning style - visual, auditory, and physical study…

  17. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Bill

    2010-01-01

    The author has been prompted to write this article about finger multiplication for a number of reasons. Firstly there are a number of related articles in past issues of "Mathematics Teaching" ("MT") which have connections to this algorithm. Secondly, very few of his primary teaching students and professional colleagues appear to be aware of the…

  18. Molecular phylogenetic analyses indicate multiple independent emergences of parasitism in Myzostomida (Protostomia).

    PubMed

    Lanterbecq, Deborah; Rouse, Greg W; Milinkovitch, Michel C; Eeckhaut, Igor

    2006-04-01

    The fossil record indicates that Myzostomida, an enigmatic group of marine worms, traditionally considered as annelids, have exhibited a symbiotic relationship with echinoderms, especially crinoids, for nearly 350 million years. All known extant myzostomids are associated with echinoderms and infest their integument, gonads, celom, or digestive system. Using nuclear (18S rDNA) and mitochondrial (16S and COI) DNA sequence data from 37 myzostomid species representing nine genera, we report here the first molecular phylogeny of the Myzostomida and investigate the evolution of their various symbiotic associations. Our analyses indicate that the two orders Proboscidea and Pharyngidea do not constitute natural groupings. Character reconstruction analyses strongly suggest that (1) the ancestor of all extant myzostomids was an ectocommensal that first infested crinoids, and then asteroids and ophiuroids, and (2) parasitism in myzostomids emerged multiple times independently. PMID:16537291

  19. Myeloma (multiple)

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Multiple myeloma is the most common primary cancer of the bones in adults, representing about 1% of all cancers diagnosed in the US in 2004, and 14% of all haematological malignancies. In the UK, multiple myeloma accounts for 1% of all new cases of cancer diagnosed each year. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment in people with asymptomatic early stage multiple myeloma (stage I)? What are the effects of first-line treatments in people with advanced stage multiple myeloma (stages II and III)? What are the effect of salvage treatments, or supportive therapy, in people with advanced stage multiple myeloma (stages II and III)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November 2004 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: allogenic transplant (non-myeloablative), autologous stem cell transplant (early or late transplantation, double or single, purging of), bisphosphonates, bone marrow stem cells, bortezomib, chemotherapy (combination, conventional dose, intermediate dose plus stem cell rescue, high-dose plus stem cell rescue), combination chemotherapy plus corticosteroids, deferred treatment (in stage I disease), early chemotherapy plus corticosteroids (in stage I disease), epoetin alpha, first-line treatments, infection prophylaxis, interferon, maintenance therapy (in advanced multiple myeloma), melphalan (normal dose, high dose before autologous stem cell transplantation, plus total body irradiation), optimum priming regimen, peripheral blood stem cells, plasmapheresis, salvage therapy regimens, single-agent chemotherapy (adding prednisolone), single-agent chemotherapy (bendamustine, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, lomustine, carmustine) with or without corticosteroid (prednisolone, dexamethasone), syngeneic transplantation, and thalidomide (and derivatives).

  20. Using Support Vector Machines with Multiple Indices of Diffusion for Automated Classification of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O.; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Desmond; Bartley, Mirad; Collins, D. Rnn; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the potential of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in conjunction with machine learning algorithms in order to automate the classification of healthy older subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here we apply DTI to 40 healthy older subjects and 33 MCI subjects in order to derive values for multiple indices of diffusion within the white matter voxels of each subject. DTI measures were then used together with support vector machines (SVMs) to classify control and MCI subjects. Greater than 90% sensitivity and specificity was achieved using this method, demonstrating the potential of a joint DTI and SVM pipeline for fast, objective classification of healthy older and MCI subjects. Such tools may be useful for large scale drug trials in Alzheimer's disease where the early identification of subjects with MCI is critical. PMID:22384251

  1. A method for determining both multiple refractive indices and 3D substructure of a binucleate cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Xin, Zhiduo; Jin, Weifeng; Ji, Ying; Wang, Yawei

    2016-04-01

    A method is proposed in this paper that can determinate both multiple refractive indices and substructure of a binucleate cell. The method can overcome the shortcoming of the maximum entropy reconstruction method (MER) that is invalid for a multimedium sample. With the optimized algorithm using phase gradients and the relevant parameters, a well-bedded refractive index distribution can be obtained, and then the 3D substructure reconstruction can be realized for a multimedium sample. We demonstrated this method by the simulation of a binucleate cell model and some phase imaging experiments of neutrophils. Results show that the method is valid, and is very suitable for the 3D substructure imaging of cells with simple structure.

  2. In vivo determination of multiple indices of periodontal inflammation by optical spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, KZ; Xiang, XM; Man, A; Sowa, MG; Cholakis, N; Ghiabi, E; Singer, DL; Scott, DA

    2008-01-01

    Background and Objective Visible – near infrared (optical) spectroscopy can be used to measure regional tissue hemodynamics and edema and, therefore, may represent an ideal tool with which to non-invasively study periodontal inflammation. The study objective was to evaluate the ability of optical spectroscopy to simultaneously determine multiple inflammatory indices (tissue oxygenation, total tissue hemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, oxygenated hemoglobin, and tissue edema) in periodontal tissues in vivo. Material and Methods Spectra were obtained, processed, and evaluated from healthy, gingivitis, and periodontitis sites (n = 133) using a portable optical – near infrared spectrometer. A modified Beer-Lambert unmixing model that incorporates a nonparametric scattering loss function was used to determine the relative contribution of each inflammatory component to the overall spectrum. Results Optical spectroscopy was harnessed to successfully generate complex inflammatory profiles in periodontal tissues. Tissue oxygenation at periodontitis sites was significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared to gingivitis and healthy controls. This is largely due to an increase in deoxyhemoglobin in the periodontitis sites compared to healthy (p<0.01) and gingivitis (p=0.05) sites. Tissue water content per se showed no significant difference between the sites but a water index associated with tissue electrolyte levels and temperature differed was significantly between periodontitis sites when compared to both healthy and gingivitis sites (p<0.03). Conclusion This study establishes that optical spectroscopy can simultaneously determine multiple inflammatory indices directly in the periodontal tissues in vivo. Visible - near infrared spectroscopy has the potential to be developed into a simple, reagent-free, user friendly, chair-side, site-specific, diagnostic and prognostic test for periodontitis. PMID:18973538

  3. Large-Scale Diversity of Slope Fishes: Pattern Inconsistency between Multiple Diversity Indices

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Jean-Claude; Colloca, Francesco; Politou, Chrissi-Yianna; Gil De Sola, Luis; Bertrand, Jacques A.; Murenu, Matteo; Durbec, Jean-Pierre; Kallianiotis, Argyris; Mannini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale studies focused on the diversity of continental slope ecosystems are still rare, usually restricted to a limited number of diversity indices and mainly based on the empirical comparison of heterogeneous local data sets. In contrast, we investigate large-scale fish diversity on the basis of multiple diversity indices and using 1454 standardized trawl hauls collected throughout the upper and middle slope of the whole northern Mediterranean Sea (36°3′- 45°7′ N; 5°3′W - 28°E). We have analyzed (1) the empirical relationships between a set of 11 diversity indices in order to assess their degree of complementarity/redundancy and (2) the consistency of spatial patterns exhibited by each of the complementary groups of indices. Regarding species richness, our results contrasted both the traditional view based on the hump-shaped theory for bathymetric pattern and the commonly-admitted hypothesis of a large-scale decreasing trend correlated with a similar gradient of primary production in the Mediterranean Sea. More generally, we found that the components of slope fish diversity we analyzed did not always show a consistent pattern of distribution according either to depth or to spatial areas, suggesting that they are not driven by the same factors. These results, which stress the need to extend the number of indices traditionally considered in diversity monitoring networks, could provide a basis for rethinking not only the methodological approach used in monitoring systems, but also the definition of priority zones for protection. Finally, our results call into question the feasibility of properly investigating large-scale diversity patterns using a widespread approach in ecology, which is based on the compilation of pre-existing heterogeneous and disparate data sets, in particular when focusing on indices that are very sensitive to sampling design standardization, such as species richness. PMID:23843962

  4. Fingolimod for multiple sclerosis and emerging indications: appropriate patient selection, safety precautions, and special considerations.

    PubMed

    Ayzenberg, Ilya; Hoepner, Robert; Kleiter, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720), an immunotherapeutic drug targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, is a widely used medication for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Apart from the pivotal Phase III trials demonstrating efficacy against placebo and interferon-β-1a once weekly, sufficient clinical data are now available to assess its real-world efficacy and safety profile. Approved indications of fingolimod differ between countries. This discrepancy, to some extent, reflects the intermediate position of fingolimod in the expanding lineup of MS medications. With individualization of therapy, appropriate patient selection gets more important. We discuss various scenarios for fingolimod use in relapsing-remitting MS and their pitfalls: as first-line therapy, as escalation therapy after failure of previous immunotherapies, and as de-escalation therapy following highly potent immunotherapies. Potential side effects such as bradycardia, infections, macular edema, teratogenicity, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as well as appropriate safety precautions are outlined. Disease reactivation has been described upon fingolimod cessation; therefore, patients should be closely monitored for MS activity for several months after stopping fingolimod. Finally, we discuss preclinical and clinical data indicating neuroprotective effects of fingolimod, which might open the way to future indications such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26929636

  5. Accounting for the heterogeneity of capillary transit times in modeling multiple indicator dilution data.

    PubMed

    Audi, S H; Linehan, J H; Krenz, G S; Dawson, C A

    1998-01-01

    To mathematically model multiple indicator dilution (MID) data for the purpose of estimating parameters descriptive of indicator-tissue interactions, it is necessary to account for the effects of the distribution of capillary transit times, h(c)(t). In this paper, we present an efficient approach for incorporating h(c)(t) in the mathematical modeling of MID data. In this method, the solution of the model partial differential equations obtained at different locations along the model capillary having the longest transit time provides the outflow concentrations for all capillaries. When weighted by h(c)(t), these capillary outflow concentrations provide the outflow concentration versus time curve for the capillary bed. The method is appropriate whether the available data on capillary dispersion are in terms of capillary transit time or relative flow distributions, and whether the dispersion results from convection time differences among heterogeneous parallel pathways or axial diffusion along individual pathways. Finally, we show that the knowledge of a relationship among the moments of h(c)(t), rather than h(c)(t) per se, is sufficient information to account for the effect of h(c)(t) in the mathematical modeling interpretation of MID data. This relationship can be determined by including a flow-limited indicator in the injected bolus, thus providing an efficient means for obtaining the experimental data sufficient to account for capillary flow and transit time heterogeneity in MID modeling. PMID:9846931

  6. Effects of whole body vibration on hormonal & functional indices in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Eftekhari, Elham; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease, which affects the patients’ mobility, and exercise training is considered to be beneficial for these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 10 wk of low intensity exercise and whole body vibration (WBV) training on fatigue, quality of life, functional and physical indices, and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone in MS patients. Methods: Thirty four MS patients with mild to moderate disability were recruited and randomly divided into two groups, the training group (n=17) and control group (n=17). Patients in the training group did low intensity exercise and WBV training programme three times a week for 10 wk. The control group continued their routine life. Intended variables like expanded disability status scale (EDSS), fatigue, quality of life, functional and physical indices consisted of balance, walking speed, functional mobility, functional muscle endurance, and walking endurance, and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone were measured before and after the protocol. Results: Thirty subjects completed the study (23 females, 7 males; mean age =38.80 ± 9.50 yr). Statistical analysis demonstrated that EDSS in the WBV training group was significantly decreased (P=0.01), balance (P=0.01), and walking endurance significantly increased (P=0.01) in MS patients (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that low intensity exercise and WBV training have some beneficial impact on functional and physical indices of MS patients. PMID:26609037

  7. Fingolimod for multiple sclerosis and emerging indications: appropriate patient selection, safety precautions, and special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ayzenberg, Ilya; Hoepner, Robert; Kleiter, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Fingolimod (FTY720), an immunotherapeutic drug targeting the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, is a widely used medication for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS). Apart from the pivotal Phase III trials demonstrating efficacy against placebo and interferon-β-1a once weekly, sufficient clinical data are now available to assess its real-world efficacy and safety profile. Approved indications of fingolimod differ between countries. This discrepancy, to some extent, reflects the intermediate position of fingolimod in the expanding lineup of MS medications. With individualization of therapy, appropriate patient selection gets more important. We discuss various scenarios for fingolimod use in relapsing-remitting MS and their pitfalls: as first-line therapy, as escalation therapy after failure of previous immunotherapies, and as de-escalation therapy following highly potent immunotherapies. Potential side effects such as bradycardia, infections, macular edema, teratogenicity, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy as well as appropriate safety precautions are outlined. Disease reactivation has been described upon fingolimod cessation; therefore, patients should be closely monitored for MS activity for several months after stopping fingolimod. Finally, we discuss preclinical and clinical data indicating neuroprotective effects of fingolimod, which might open the way to future indications such as stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26929636

  8. Multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Nylander, Alyssa; Hafler, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifocal demyelinating disease with progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response to self-antigens in a genetically susceptible individual. While the formation and persistence of meningeal lymphoid follicles suggest persistence of antigens to drive the continuing inflammatory and humoral response, the identity of an antigen or infectious agent leading to the oligoclonal expansion of B and T cells is unknown. In this review we examine new paradigms for understanding the immunopathology of MS, present recent data defining the common genetic variants underlying disease susceptibility, and explore how improved understanding of immune pathway disruption can inform MS prognosis and treatment decisions. PMID:22466660

  9. Economic Adversity and Children’s Sleep Problems: Multiple Indicators and Moderation of Effects

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Bagley, Erika J.; Keiley, Margaret; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Chen, Edith; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Toward explicating relations between economic adversity and children’s sleep, we examined associations between multiple indicators of socioeconomic status (SES)/adversity and children’s objectively and subjectively derived sleep parameters; ethnicity was examined as potential moderator. Methods Participants were 276 third- and fourth-grade children and their families (133 girls; M age = 9.44 years; SD = .71): 66% European American (EA) and 34% African American (AA). Four SES indicators were used: income-to-needs ratio, perceived economic well-being, maternal education, and community poverty. Children wore actigraphs for 7 nights and completed a self-report measure to assess sleep problems. Results Objectively and subjectively assessed sleep parameters were related to different SES indicators, and overall worse sleep was evident for children from lower SES homes. Specifically, children from homes with lower income-to-needs ratios had higher levels of reported sleep/wake problems. Parental perceived economic well-being was associated with shorter sleep minutes and greater variability in sleep onset for children. Lower mother’s education was associated with lower sleep efficiency. Children who attended Title 1 schools had shorter sleep minutes. Ethnicity was a significant moderator of effects in the link between some SES indicators and children’s sleep. AA children’s sleep was more negatively affected by income-to-needs ratio and mother’s education than was the sleep of EA children. Conclusions The results advocate for the importance of specifying particular SES and sleep variables used because they may affect the ability to detect associations between sleep and economic adversity. PMID:23148451

  10. Uncertainties, Correlations, and Optimal Blends of Drought Indices from the NLDAS Multiple Land Surface Model Ensemble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Youlong; Ek, Michael B.; Mocko, David M.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Sheffield, Justin; Dong, Jiarui; Wood, Eric F.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed uncertainties and correlations over the United States among four ensemble-mean North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) percentile-based drought indices derived from monthly mean evapotranspiration ET, total runoff Q, top 1-m soil moisture SM1, and total column soil moisture SMT. The results show that the uncertainty is smallest for SM1, largest for SMT, and moderate for ET and Q. The strongest correlation is between SM1 and SMT, and the weakest correlation is between ET and Q. The correlation between ET and SM1 (SMT) is strongest in arid-semi-arid regions, and the correlation between Q and SM1 (SMT) is strongest in more humid regions in the Pacific Northwest and the Southeast. Drought frequency analysis shows that SM1 has the most frequent drought occurrence, followed by SMT, Q, and ET. The study compared the NLDAS drought indices (a research product) with the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM; an operational product) in terms of drought area percentage derived from each product. It proposes an optimal blend of NLDAS drought indices by searching for weights for each index that minimizes the RMSE between NLDAS and USDM drought area percentage for a 10-yr period (2000-09)with a cross validation. It reconstructed a 30-yr (1980-2009) Objective Blended NLDAS Drought Index (OBNDI) and monthly drought percentage. Overall, the OBNDI performs the best with the smallest RMSE, followed by SM1 and SMT. It should be noted that the contribution to OBNDI from different variables varies with region. So a single formula is probably not the best representation of a blended index. The representation of a blended index using the multiple formulas will be addressed in a future study.

  11. The Effects of Nonverbal and Verbal Immediacy on Recall and Multiple Student Learning Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodboy, Alan K.; Weber, Keith; Bolkan, San

    2009-01-01

    A 2 x 2 experiment was conducted in which instructor nonverbal immediacy and verbal immediacy were manipulated in a college classroom to examine causal links with cognitive and affective learning outcomes. Previous criticisms concerning immediacy and learning research were considered and multiple operationalizations of cognitive learning (i.e.,

  12. [Multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Kortüm, K M; Engelhardt, M; Rasche, L; Knop, S; Einsele, H

    2013-08-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a cancer originating from terminally differentiated B lymphocytes, the plasma cells and is classified as a B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. As clonal plasma cells secrete immunoglobulin molecules (lacking antigenic specificity), an "M component" can incidentally be detected. Besides intact immunoglobulin molecules, free light chains can be produced. Although there is no specific treatment for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), which is the defined as the presence of clonal bone marrow plasma cells and low levels (serum and/or urine) of the M component, it should be followed up in affected individuals. The symptoms of MM are numerous and often nonspecific. Diagnosis includes the quantification of monoclonal proteins in serum and urine, blood count, electrolytes and renal function, imaging of the skeleton and bone marrow puncture. The cornerstone of therapy includes melphalan- or cyclophosphamide-based regimens incorporating one of the "novel drugs" (i.e. bortezomib, thalidomide, or lenalidomide). PMID:23860514

  13. [Multiple apheresis].

    PubMed

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained. PMID:17521944

  14. Oliguria as an early indicator of mortality risk in patients with multiple myeloma and renal impairment

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Cho, Min-Seok; Kim, Jae-Yong; Ahn, Seo-Yeon; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background A change in urine output has been recently recognized as a valuable biomarker of acute kidney injury that is associated with mortality in critically ill patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of oliguria for survival outcomes in multiple myeloma (MM) patients presenting with renal impairment (RI). Methods Retrospective data on 98 patients with MM and RI, who received initial treatment with novel therapies, were analyzed. Oliguria was defined as a urine output of <0.5 mL/kg/h. Results The baseline median eGFR was 39.7 mL/min (range, 5.1-59.8). Achievement of renal complete response (CR) was observed in 39.8% of patients. Nine patients (9.2%) presented with oliguria at initial diagnosis, and 4 initially required dialysis. Over a median follow-up period of 17.1 months (range, 1.7-100.0), the median overall survival (OS) was 38.7 months (95% CI 25.0-52.5). Multivariate analyses indicated that oliguria at diagnosis [hazard ratio (HR) 3.628, 95% CI 1.366-9.849, P=0.011], and thrombocytopenia <100×109/L at diagnosis (HR 2.534, 95% CI 1.068-6.015, P=0.035), were significantly associated with overall survival. Conclusion Oliguria was significantly associated with higher mortality in MM patients with RI. Therefore, close monitoring of urine output could be important for these patients. PMID:26457284

  15. Structural brain indices and executive functioning in multiple sclerosis: A review.

    PubMed

    Roman, Cristina A F; Arnett, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease characterized by lesion-induced white matter deterioration. Brain atrophy and damage to normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and normal appearing gray matter (NAGM) have also been identified as consequences of MS. Neuroimaging has played an integral role in investigating the effects of white and gray matter damage across the three primary clinical phenotypes of the disease-primary progressive (PPMS), relapsing remitting (RRMS), and secondary progressive (SPMS) MS. Both conventional (e.g., T1-weighted imaged) and nonconventional (e.g., diffusion tensor imaging) neuroimaging methods have yielded important information regarding the structural integrity of the brain during the course of the disease. Moreover, it has provided the opportunity to explore the relationship between structural brain indices and cognitive functioning, such as executive functioning, in MS. In this paper, we provide a brief overview of executive functioning in MS, a general review of how structural damage presents in MS by way of sclerotic lesions, atrophy, and microstructural white matter damage, and, finally, how structural brain damage relates to executive dysfunction. PMID:26757595

  16. Multiple Episodes of Recent Gully Activity Indicated by Gully Fan Stratigraphy in Eastern Promethei Terra, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schon, S.; Head, J.; Fassett, C.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Gullies are considered among the youngest geomorphic features on Mars based upon their stratigraphic relationships, superposition on steep slopes and distinctive morphology in unconsolidated sediment. Multiple formation hypotheses have been proposed, which can be divided into three broad classes: entirely dry mechanisms (e.g., [1,2]), wet mechanisms invoking groundwater or ground ice (e.g., [3,4]) and wet mechanisms invoking surficial meltwater (e.g., [5,6,7,8]). It has been difficult to differentiate between these hypotheses based upon past observations and it remains possible that gullies are polygenetic landforms. This study presents stratigraphic relationships in the depositional fan of a crater wall gully system that suggest: (1) multiple episodes of alluvial fan-style deposition, (2) very recent depositional activity that is younger than a newly recognized rayed crater, and (3) surficial snowmelt as the most likely source of these multiple episodes of recent gully activity. Gully-Fan Stratigraphy In Eastern Promethei Terra an ~5 km-diameter crater is observed with a well-developed gully system (Fig. 1) and several smaller gullies in its northnortheast wall. The large gully system (composed of a small western gully and larger eastern gully) shows evidence for incision into the crater wall country rock and has multiple contributory sub-alcoves and channels. The depositional fan associated with this gully system is bounded on its western side by a small arcuate ridge swell that is not observed on the eastern side of the fan. This ridge is interpreted as a moraine-like structure that may have bounded a glacially-formed depression into which the fan is deposited [8]. Similar depressions with bounding ridges are commonly observed in this latitude band (~30-50°S) in association with deeply incised gully alcoves [9,10,11]. This gully fan is composed of multiple lobes with distinct lobe contacts, incised channels, and cut-andfill deposits - all features similar to those seen in terrestrial alluvial fans [12,13]. The western portion of the fan is contained within the depression, while the younger eastern portion overlies and obscures any potential evidence of the ridge structure. A very striking and unusual feature of this gully fan is the large number of superposed impact craters; due to their density and similar diameter, we interpret these to be secondary craters from a large nearby primary impact crater. The depositional lobes of the fan can be divided into two groups: 1) those that predate the secondary crater population and 2) younger lobes that are superposed on the secondary craters. Numerous secondary craters (~1-25 m-diameter) superpose the lowermost stratigraphic lobe (Fig. 1, A), while at least three younger lobes (Fig. 1, C1, D1, and D2) directly superpose the cratered lobe. The emplacement date of these secondaries provides a robust maximum age for the youngest lobes of this fan, and therefore the most recent fluvial activity of the gully. Most gullies either have no superposed impact craters [3,7] or are too small to date with any certainty using crater counts [14]. Therefore, locating and dating the parent impact crater of these secondaries is critical to constrain the chronology and origin of gully systems. Rayed-Crater Source of the Secondary Craters Regional reconnaissance for the origin of the secondary craters led to the discovery of a previously unidentified rayed crater complex (consisting of an ~18 km-diameter outer crater and an ~7 km-diameter inner crater) approximately 175 km southwest of the gully system. Distinctive rays are observed in THEMIS nighttime thermal inertia data, but are not observable as albedo contrasts in THEMIS visible data, consistent with other identifications of young rayed craters on Mars [15,16]. The rims of both craters are distinct and consistent with the morphology of very young impact craters on Mars. The inner crater has a greater depth to diameter ratio than the outer crater (0.121 compared to 0.073), consistent with young Martian craters [17]. Both the outer and inner craters have classically-defined gullies, preferentially developed on their pole-facing walls. Polygons are observed in gully alcoves of the outer crater, but not in alcoves of the inner crater, implying a difference in substrate or thermal cycling time [18]. The outer crater is floored by ejecta from the inner crater and mantling deposits. There is no evidence of an underlying concentric crater fill deposit or other altered fill unit typical of older Amazonian altered craters [19]. The inner crater is floored by unconsolidated sediment and contains a small collection of dunes. No evidence of pits, hummocky texture or other sublimation features are observed indicating that the crater interior is not a periglacial terrain. We interpret the inner crater as younger than the most recent episode of mantling deposition (~0.4Ma) [20] due to the exposed spur and talus slope development on the equator-facing wall, a slope and orientation that preferentially preserves smooth mantle texture in this latitude regime [21]. One superposed crater (~45 mdiameter) is observed in HiRISE coverage. Using the technique of Hartmann and Quantin-Nataf [22], who dated Gratteri crater by counting small craters superposed on the floor, the inner crater is on the order of 100Ka. Based upon these observations and the relative proximity of secondary craters to the outer crater rim (making it unlikely they originated from the outer crater), the 7 km-diameter inner crater is the likely source of the rays and secondary craters of interest on the gully fan lobe. Acknowledgments: Special thanks to the Mars Recognisance Orbiter and HiRISE teams as well as the Odyssey and THEMIS teams. This research was funded by NASA. Conclusions This study has identified a gully system fan in Eastern Promethei Terra with morphology requiring multiple periods of activity for its construction. At least one lobe of the fan has retained a dense secondary crater population, while at least two episodes of activity post-date emplacement of the secondary craters. Approximately 175 km to the southwest, the likely parent rayed crater was discovered using THEMIS thermal inertia data. This 7 km-diameter crater is located within a morphologically older 18 km-diameter crater. We interpret the source crater as younger than the most recent obliquity-controlled glacial period (~0.4Ma), which is consistent with crater age dating of the floor as well. The multiple episodes of alluvial fan activity mapped in this study imply that gullies are not catastrophic landforms that formed in single events. Rather, multiple episodes of fluvial activity in the gully system are required to deposit and rework the alluvial fan that is observed. The alluvial fan morphology [10, 11] and sedimentary channel structures make dry mass-wasting processes implausible for the formation of this gully system. The multiple episodes of activity required by the fan stratigraphy documented here cast serious doubt on catastrophic groundwater discharge scenarios that are unlikely to generate episodic releases. Small amounts of surficial meltwater derived from snow and ice accumulation is suggested by the insolation geometries of gully systems and most plausibly can account for multiple periods of recent (<0.4Ma) activity required by these observations. This chronology is consistent with other evidence [11] that places gully formation in the waning stages of the ice ages that produced the latiduedependent mantles. References [1] Treiman, A. (2003) JGR 108, doi: 10.1029/2002JE001900. [2] Shinbrot, T. et al. (2004) PNAS 101, doi: 10.1073/mnas.03082511 01. [3] Malin, M. and Edgett, K. (2000) Science 288, doi: 10.1126/ science.288.5475.2330. [4] Heldmann, J. et al. (2007) Icarus 188, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2006.12.010. [5] Costard, F. et al. (2001) Science 295, doi: 10.1126/science.1066698. [6] Christensen, P. (2003) Nature 422, doi: 10.1038/nature01436. [7] Dickson, J. et al. (2007) Icarus 188, doi: 10/1016/j.icarus.2006.11.020. [8] Head, J. et al. (2008) Workshop on Martian Gullies: Theories and Tests, LPI #1301. [9] Hartmann, W. et al. (2003) Icarus 162, doi: 10.1016/S00 19-1035(02)00065-9. [10] Berman, D. et al. (2005), Icarus 178, doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2005.05.011. [11] Head, J. et al. (2008) PNAS, in revision: 16 April 2008. [12] Blissenbach, E. (1954) GSA Bulletin 65, 175-190. [13] Blair, T. and McPherson, J. (1994) JSR 64, (3A) 450-489. [14] Hartmann, W. (2005), Icarus 174, doi: 10.1016/j.icar us.2004.11.023. [15] McEwen, A. et al. (2005) Icarus 176 doi: 10.1016/j.icarus.2005.02.009. [16] Tornabene, L. et al. (2006) JGR 111, doi: 10.1029/2005JE002600. [17] Garvin, J. et al. (2003) 6th International Conference on Mars, Abstract 3277. [18] Levy, J. et al. (2008) LPSC [CD-ROM], XXXIX, abstract 1171. [19] Kreslavsky, M. and Head, J. (2006) Meteoritics & Plan. Sci. 41, 1633-1646. [20] Head, J. et al. (2003) Nature 426, 797-802. [21] Schon, S. et al. (2008) LPSC [CD-ROM], XXXIX, abstract 1873. [22] Hartmann, W. and Quantin-Nataf, C. (2008) LPSC [CD-ROM], XXXIX, abstract 1844.

  17. Assessment of lung injury in the adult respiratory distress syndrome using multiple indicator dilution curves

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldo, J.E.; Borovetz, H.S.; Mancini, M.C.; Hardesty, R.L.; Griffith, B.P.

    1986-06-01

    To assess its usefulness as an index of lung injury in critically ill patients with respiratory failure, the lung microvascular permeability surface area product for urea (/sup 14/C-PSu) was measured using a multiple radioisotopic indicator dilution technique in 10 patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and in a control population of 5 patients without ARDS. The mean values for /sup 14/C-PSu and for extravascular lung water (EVLW) were both significantly elevated in patients with ARDS compared with those in control patients (/sup 14/C-PSu: 18.7 +/- 4.4 versus 7.6 +/- 0.7, p less than 0.05; EVLW: 676 +/- 55 versus 269 +/- 53, p less than 0.001); /sup 14/C-PSu and EVLW were significantly correlated (R = 0.52, p less than 0.001). In the patients with ARDS, /sup 14/C-PSu and oxygenation, assessed as the alveolar-arterial oxygen difference, did not appear to be correlated. Repeated measurements of /sup 14/C-PSu were variable in the 3 control patients in whom 4 or more measurements were obtained (SD = 50, 57, and 54% of the mean values, respectively); /sup 14/C-PSu did not predict clinical outcome assessed by survival of individual patients with ARDS. These data suggest that measurement of /sup 14/C-PSu in critically ill patients is a clinically applicable parameter that reflects the degree of microvascular injury in groups of patients. However, our study did not indicate a clear advantage of /sup 14/C-PSu over EVLW in assessing lung injury in this patient population. The variability in /sup 14/C-PSu control patients also suggests that directional changes in /sup 14/C-PSu, as a measure of changes in the degree of lung microvascular dysfunction, should be interpreted with caution.

  18. Multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Harousseau, Jean-Luc; Shaughnessy, John; Richardson, Paul

    2004-01-01

    High-dose therapy with stem cell transplantation (SCT) and novel targeted therapies (thalidomide, its more potent analogues, and bortezomib) represent two approaches for overcoming resistance of multiple myeloma (MM) cells to conventional therapies. While it is now clear that dose-intensification improves the outcome in younger patients, long-term remissions are obtained in a minority of patients. Therefore, the impact of novel agents as part of front-line therapy is the objective of ongoing trials. Gene expression profiling (GEP) will help to improve the management of MM not only by identifying prognostic subgroups but also by defining molecular pathways that are associated with these subgroups and that are possible targets for future therapies. In Section I, Dr. John Shaughnessy describes recent data obtained with GEP of CD138-purified plasma cells from patients with MM. His group has already shown that overexpression of the Wnt signaling inhibitor DKK1 by MM plasma cells blocks osteoblast differentiation and contributes to the development of osteolytic bone lesions. Recent data allow identification of four subgroups of MM in which GEP is highly correlated not only with different clinical characteristics and outcome but also with different cytogenetic abnormalities. In addition, abnormal expression of only three genes (RAN, ZHX-2, CHC1L) is associated with rapid relapses. In the context of intensive therapy with tandem autotransplantations, this model appears to be more powerful than current prognostic models based on standard biologic variables and cytogenetics. Understanding why the dysregulation of these three genes is associated with a more aggressive behavior of the disease will help to define new therapeutic strategies. In Section II, Dr. Jean-Luc Harousseau presents recent results achieved with tandem autologous SCT (ASCT) and with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic SCT. ASCT is now considered as the standard of care in patients up to 65 years of age. The IFM (Intergroupe Francophone du Myelome) has recently shown that double ASCT is superior to single ASCT. Current results of three other randomized trials confirm that double ASCT is superior, at least in terms of event-free survival. However, patients with poor prognostic features do poorly even after tandem ASCT. Strategies to further improve the outcome of ASCT include more intensive therapies and the use of novel agents such as thalidomide and immunomodulatory analogs (IMiDs) or bortezomib. Results of allogeneic SCT remain disappointing in MM even with T cell-depleted grafts. Preliminary results of a strategy combining ASCT to reduce tumor burden and RIC allogeneic SCT are encouraging, although the follow-up is still short. However, again, patients with chromosome 13 deletions have poor results with RIC. Longer follow-up of ongoing multicentric studies will help to clarify the indications of RIC. In Section III, Dr. Paul Richardson summarizes current knowledge of novel targeted therapies in MM. A better understanding of interactions between MM cells and bone marrow stromal cells and of the signaling cascades whereby cytokines mediate proliferation, survival, drug resistance and migration of MM cells provide the rationale for testing novel agents in relapsed/refractory MM. Increased angiogenesis coupled with the known anti-angiogenesis activity of thalidomide justified its use in refractory MM. The remarkable responses initially achieved prompted a number of clinical studies in different indications and the development of more potent IMIDs. Among them CC-5013 (Revlimid) has been tested in Phase I/II studies and a randomized Phase III study has just been completed. Blockade of NF-kappa B using the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (Velcade) may mediate anti-MM activity by inhibiting interleukin (IL)-6 production in stromal cells and other mechanisms of action have been shown in preclinical studies. Based on the promising results of the Phase II trial, a large randomized trial of bortezomib versus dexamethasone has been completed. Studies of bortezomib combined with other drugs are ongoing. Arsenic trioxide has a number of properties showing that it targets MM cells interacting with the microenvironment. Clinical studies are ongoing as well. Other agents in MM have already been or will probably be translated soon from the bench to the bedside. PMID:15561686

  19. The receiver operational characteristic for binary classification with multiple indices and its application to the neuroimaging study of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Li, Juan; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Protas, Hillary; Jagust, William; Fleisher, Adam; Reiman, Eric; Yao, Li; Chen, Kewei

    2013-01-01

    Given a single index, the receiver operational characteristic (ROC) curve analysis is routinely utilized for characterizing performances in distinguishing two conditions/groups in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Given the availability of multiple data sources (referred to as multi-indices), such as multimodal neuroimaging data sets, cognitive tests, and clinical ratings and genomic data in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) studies, the single-index-based ROC underutilizes all available information. For a long time, a number of algorithmic/analytic approaches combining multiple indices have been widely used to simultaneously incorporate multiple sources. In this study, we propose an alternative for combining multiple indices using logical operations, such as “AND,” “OR,” and “at least n” (where n is an integer), to construct multivariate ROC (multiV-ROC) and characterize the sensitivity and specificity statistically associated with the use of multiple indices. With and without the “leave-one-out” cross-validation, we used two data sets from AD studies to showcase the potentially increased sensitivity/specificity of the multiV-ROC in comparison to the single-index ROC and linear discriminant analysis (an analytic way of combining multi-indices). We conclude that, for the data sets we investigated, the proposed multiV-ROC approach is capable of providing a natural and practical alternative with improved classification accuracy as compared to univariate ROC and linear discriminant analysis. PMID:23702553

  20. [Therapeutic indications in symptomatic cognitive and psychopathological disorders in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Lebrun, C

    2001-09-01

    Cognitive impairment and psychiatric disorders occur in about 60 p. cent of multiple sclerosis patients. In general, impairment develops in established cases, although it can present early in the disease course. The pattern of neuropsychological deficits is characterized by deficits in attention, memory and executive functions; No specific treatment seems to be effective in cognitive impairment but appropriate strategies could limit the negative impact on this disease. Depressive states are twice frequent and usual antidepressant drugs seems to demonstrate some efficacy. PMID:11787341

  1. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple electroconvulsive therapy sessions: characteristics, indications, and results

    PubMed Central

    Iancu, Iulian; Pick, Nimrod; Seener-Lorsh, Orit; Dannon, Pinhas

    2015-01-01

    Background While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used for many years, there is insufficient research regarding the indications for continuation/maintenance (C/M)-ECT, its safety and efficacy, and the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple ECT sessions. The aims of this study were to characterize a series of patients who received 30 ECT sessions or more, to describe treatment regimens in actual practice, and to examine the results of C/M-ECT in terms of safety and efficacy, especially the effect on aggression and functioning. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients (mean age 64.6 years) with schizophrenia (n=16) or schizoaffective disorder (n=4) who received at least 30 ECT sessions at our ECT unit, and also interviewed the treating physician and filled out the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised. Results Patients received a mean of 91.3 ECT sessions at a mean interval of 2.6 weeks. All had been hospitalized for most or all of the previous 3 years. There were no major adverse effects, and cognitive side effects were relatively minimal (cognitive deficit present for several hours after treatment). We found that ECT significantly reduced scores on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised subscales for verbal aggression and self-harm, and improved Global Assessment of Functioning scores. There were reductions in total aggression scores, subscale scores for harm to objects and to others, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores, these were not statistically significant. Conclusion C/M-ECT is safe and effective for chronically hospitalized patients. It improves general functioning and reduces verbal aggression and self-harm. More research using other aggression tools is needed to determine its effects and to reproduce our findings in prospective and controlled studies. PMID:25848283

  2. Multiple osteochondromas

    PubMed Central

    Bovée, Judith VMG

    2008-01-01

    Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is characterised by development of two or more cartilage capped bony outgrowths (osteochondromas) of the long bones. The prevalence is estimated at 1:50,000, and it seems to be higher in males (male-to-female ratio 1.5:1). Osteochondromas develop and increase in size in the first decade of life, ceasing to grow when the growth plates close at puberty. They are pedunculated or sessile (broad base) and can vary widely in size. The number of osteochondromas may vary significantly within and between families, the mean number of locations is 15–18. The majority are asymptomatic and located in bones that develop from cartilage, especially the long bones of the extremities, predominantly around the knee. The facial bones are not affected. Osteochondromas may cause pain, functional problems and deformities, especially of the forearm, that may be reason for surgical removal. The most important complication is malignant transformation of osteochondroma towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma, which is estimated to occur in 0.5–5%. MO is an autosomal dominant disorder and is genetically heterogeneous. In almost 90% of MO patients germline mutations in the tumour suppressor genes EXT1 or EXT2 are found. The EXT genes encode glycosyltransferases, catalyzing heparan sulphate polymerization. The diagnosis is based on radiological and clinical documentation, supplemented with, if available, histological evaluation of osteochondromas. If the exact mutation is known antenatal diagnosis is technically possible. MO should be distinguished from metachondromatosis, dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica and Ollier disease. Osteochondromas are benign lesions and do not affect life expectancy. Management includes removal of osteochondromas when they give complaints. Removed osteochondromas should be examined for malignant transformation towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma. Patients should be well instructed and regular follow-up for early detection of malignancy seems justified. For secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma, en-bloc resection of the lesion and its pseudocapsule with tumour-free margins, preferably in a bone tumour referral centre, should be performed. PMID:18271966

  3. Using Multiple Calibration Indices in Order to Capture the Complex Picture of What Affects Students' Accuracy of Feeling of Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekaerts, Monique; Rozendaal, Jeroen S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used multiple calibration indices to capture the complex picture of fifth graders' calibration of feeling of confidence in mathematics. Specifically, the effects of gender, type of mathematical problem, instruction method, and time of measurement (before and after problem solving) on calibration skills were investigated. Fourteen…

  4. Effects of Microswitch-Based Programs on Indices of Happiness of Students with Multiple Disabilities: A New Research Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta; Severini, Laura; Smaldone, Angela; Tota, Alessia; Lamartire, Maria L.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of microswitch-based programs on indices of happiness were evaluated with 9 students who had profound multiple disabilities. Each student received an ABAB sequence in which A represented baseline phases and B, intervention phases. During the latter phases, microswitches were used to enable the students to control preferred…

  5. Impact of Melatonin on Motor, Cognitive and Neuroimaging Indices in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Roostaei, Tina; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Hajeaghaee, Sara; Gholipour, Taha; Togha, Mansoureh; Siroos, Bahaadin; Mansouri, Sepideh; Mohammadshirazi, Zahra; Aghazadeh Alasti, Maryam; Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-11-01

    A series of preclinical and clinical studies have shown the immunomodulatory effect of  melatonin, especially in the state of chronic inflammation. A double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled clinical trial was designed to study the tolerability and efficacy of supplemental therapy with melatonin (3 mg/day) in comparison to placebo in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients receiving once weekly interferon beta. Patients were followed up for 12 months. Primary outcomes consisted of the number of relapses, change in Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and the number and volume of new T2 and gadolinium-enhancing brain lesions. Secondary outcomes included change in performance on Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) as well as change in fatigue and depression. The outcomes were evaluated every three months. Twenty-six patients (13 in each group) were recruited in the study. All participants, except for one patient in the placebo group, completed the study. No patient reported serious adverse events. There was no significant difference either in primary or secondary outcomes between melatonin and placebo arm. However, a trend for beneficial effect was observed for melatonin on change in MSFC performance and the cognitive subscore of the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (p=0.05 and 0.006, respectively, not corrected for multiple comparisons). We found no significant effect for treatment with melatonin on measures of clinical and functional disability and development of brain lesions in our small sample-size study. Studies with higher statistical power and longer follow up are needed to further evaluate the potential immunomodulatory effect of melatonin in RRMS treatment. PMID:26725556

  6. Gender as a differential indicator of the employment discrimination experiences of Americans with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rumrill, Phillip D; Roessler, Richard T; McMahon, Brian T; Hennessey, Mary L; Neath, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    Information from the Integrated Mission System of the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was used to investigate the employment discrimination experiences of women and men with multiple sclerosis (MS). Spanning the years 1992 to 2003, the EEOC database included 3,663 allegations of discrimination filed by 2,167 adults with MS. With respect to women and men with MS, the researchers examined the comparability of a) demographic characteristics; b) industry designations, locations, and size of employers; c) the nature of discrimination alleged; and d) the legal outcome or resolution of those allegations. On average, women and men with MS were in their early forties, with the majority of both groups being Caucasian. Both women and men were most likely to allege discrimination related to discharge and reasonable accommodations, although women were more likely to file harassment charges than men. Men with MS were more likely to allege discrimination regarding hiring and reinstatement. Women with MS were more likely to file allegations against employers in the service industries, and men were more likely to file allegations against employers in the construction, manufacturing, and wholesale industries. No gender differences were found in the geographic distribution of allegations. Both groups had comparable rates of merit closures (23% vs. 27%) as a result of the EEOC's investigatory process. Implications for rehabilitation counseling and employer-oriented interventions are discussed. PMID:18057570

  7. Ischemia modified albumin is an indicator of oxidative stress in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ozgur; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Eren, Esin; Kurtulus, Fatma; Yaman, Aylin; Yılmaz, Necat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oligodendrocytes need iron in processes of energy generation and myelination. However, excessive levels of iron may exert iron induced oxidative stress and thus lead to tissue degeneration. Monitoring oxidative stress will be of paramount importance in follow-up of patients with many diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to measure total anti-oxidative status (TAS), total oxidative status (TOS) and ischemia modified albumin (IMA) in stable relapse remitting MS (RRMS) patients. Materials and methods: Thirty-five RRMS patients (15 males and 20 females; median age 42 (20–55) years) and thirty-five age-sex matched healthy controls (13 males and 22 females; median age 37 (21–60) years) were included in this study. All patients were diagnosed with MS according to the criteria of McDonald. Results: IMA levels were significantly higher in RRMS patients (P < 0.001), while TAS and TOS did not show any significant difference between groups (P = 0.870 and P = 0.460, respectively). Conclusions: Our results suggest IMA as a more efficient serum marker than TAS and TOS in detecting the oxidative stress in MS patients. Serum oxidative stress markers should be included in future study protocols besides clinical and radiological parameters. PMID:25351357

  8. Multiple Assessments for Multiple Intelligences. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellanca, James; Chapman, Carolyn; Swartz, Elizabeth

    This book is designed to align assessment with instructional practices that promote the development of the multiple intelligences outlined by Howard Gardner. To facilitate the use of multiple assessments for the multiple intelligences, the information in this book is transferable to the classroom. The book explains how a teacher can design…

  9. Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students

    PubMed Central

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade level. This model included latent predictor constructs of decoding, verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory and accounted for a large portion of the reading comprehension variance (73% to 87%) across grade levels. Verbal reasoning contributed the most unique variance to reading comprehension at all grade levels. In addition, we fit a multiple group 4-factor MIMIC model to investigate the relative stability (or variability) of the predictor contributions to reading comprehension across development (i.e., grade levels). The results revealed that the contributions of verbal reasoning, nonverbal reasoning, and working memory to reading comprehension were stable across the three grade levels. Decoding was the only predictor that could not be constrained to be equal across grade levels. The contribution of decoding skills to reading comprehension was higher in third grade and then remained relatively stable between seventh and tenth grade. These findings illustrate the feasibility of using MIMIC models to explain individual differences in reading comprehension across the development of reading skills. PMID:25821346

  10. Reproducibility of multiple breath washout indices in the unsedated preterm neonate.

    PubMed

    Sinhal, Sanjay; Galati, John; Baldwin, David N; Stocks, Janet; Pillow, J Jane

    2010-01-01

    Multiple breath inert gas washout (MBW) is gaining popularity for measurements of resting lung volume and ventilation inhomogeneity. Test reproducibility is an important determinant of the clinical applicability of diagnostic tests. The between-test reproducibility of variables derived from MBW tests in newborn infants is unknown. We aimed to determine the within-test repeatability and short-term between-test reproducibility of MBW variables in unsedated preterm infants. We hypothesized that measurements obtained within a 3-day interval in clinically stable preterm infants would be reproducible and suitable for use as an objective clinical outcome measurement. In this cross-sectional observational study, clinically stable hospitalized preterm infants whose parents had given informed consent for MBW studies were tested twice within 72 hr during quiet, unsedated sleep. Functional residual capacity (FRC), lung clearance index (LCI), and the first and second to zeroeth moment ratios (M(1):M(0); M(2):M(0)) were computed from MBW traces obtained using a mainstream ultrasonic flowmeter and 4% sulphur hexafluoride (MBW(SF6)). Within-test repeatability and between-test reproducibility were determined. Within-test repeatability (expressed as a coefficient of variability (C(v))) for differences between two and four replicate measurements on the same test occasion, were 9.3% (FRC), 9.0% (LCI), 7.6% (M(1):M(0)), and 15.6% (M(2):M(0)), respectively. The within-test C(v)'s were not statistically different to the between-tests C(v)'s, which were 7.7% (FRC), 10.3% (LCI), 6.1% (M(1):M(0)), and 13.0% (M(2):M(0)), respectively. Among unsedated preterm infants, between-test reproducibility over a 3-day interval was similar to within-test repeatability. The wide limits of agreement may limit the application of these measures to detect a clinically significant change in condition in small preterm infants. PMID:20025050

  11. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Honorees Education Programs ABOUT MMRF About MMRF MMRF Leadership The MMRF Blog Staff Directory Create a Tribute Financial Reports Careers ABOUT MULTIPLE MYELOMA What is Multiple Myeloma Definition of Multiple Myeloma Blood Cancers Plasma Cell Neoplasms ...

  12. Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... a surprise. Now, most women know about a multiple pregnancy early. Women with multiple pregnancies should see their health care providers more often than women who are expecting one baby. Multiple pregnancy babies have a much higher risk of being ...

  13. Challenges of Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... many psychological, social, and economic issues associated with multiple pregnancies. These issues should be given the same amount ... treatment makes you more likely to have a multiple pregnancy. If you are currently pregnant with multiples (more ...

  14. Preparing for Multiple Births

    MedlinePlus

    ... multiple births. previous continue Staying Healthy During a Multiple Pregnancy Eating properly, getting enough rest, and making regular ... to stay healthy . And a woman with a multiple pregnancy might be scheduled for more frequent appointments with ...

  15. Multiple myeloma precursor disease.

    PubMed

    Landgren, Ola; Waxman, Adam Justin

    2010-12-01

    Recent data indicate that multiple myeloma is consistently preceded by the precursor states of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma. Currently, multiple myeloma is a clinical diagnosis based on manifestations including hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and bone lesions, whereas MGUS and smoldering myeloma are diagnosed based on laboratory abnormalities. Current clinical markers allow for more individualized risk stratification and counseling of these patients. However, there is a dearth of biomarkers and molecular imaging techniques capable of (1) accurately identifying patients with disease biology corresponding with high risk of progression; (2) elucidating the mechanism of transformation to multiple myeloma; and (3) forming a framework for development of targeted therapies. This case presentation and review discusses the current understanding of myeloma precursor disease and future opportunities for improving personalized management of patients with MGUS or smoldering myeloma, as well as the potential for developing early treatment strategies designed to delay and prevent development of multiple myeloma. PMID:21119086

  16. Evaluating multiple indices of agricultural water use efficiency and productivity to improve comparisons between sites and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 70% of global available freshwater supplies are used in the agricultural sector. Increased demands for water to meet growing population food requirements, and expected changes in the reliability of freshwater supplies due to climate change, threaten the sustainability of water supplies worldwide - not only on farms, but in connected cities and industries. Researchers concerned with agricultural water use sustainability use a variety of theoretical and empirical measures of efficiency and productivity to gain insight into the sustainability of agricultural water use. However, definitions of measures, or indices, vary between different natural and political boundaries, across regions, states and nations and between their respective research, industry, and environmental groups. Index development responds to local data availability and local agendas, and there is debate about the validity of various indices. However, real differences in empirical index measures are not well-understood across the multiple disciplines that study agricultural water use, including engineering and hydrology, agronomy, climate and soil sciences, and economics. Nevertheless reliable, accessible, and generalizable indices are required for planners and policymakers to promote sustainable water use systems. This study synthesizes a set of water use efficiency and productivity indices based on academic, industry and government literature in California and Australia, two locations with similarly water-stressed and valuable agricultural industries under pressure to achieve optimal water use efficiency and productivity. Empirical data at the irrigation district level from the California San Joaquin Valley and Murray Darling Basin states of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia are used to compute indices that estimate efficiency, yield productivity, and economic productivity of agricultural water use. Multiple index estimates of same time-series data demonstrate historical spread in efficiency and productivity measures in different agricultural regions. Individual indices consistently over- or under- estimate trends in efficiency and productivity by their construction, and may provide inaccurate results in years with extreme climatic events, such as droughts. By treating multiple indices as an "ensemble" of measures, analogous to the treatment of multiple climate model predictions, this study quantifies likely "true" states of efficiency and productivity in the selected agricultural regions, and error in individual indices. While different individual indices are preferable at different scales, and relative to the quality of available input data, ensemble indices can be more reliably used in comparative study across different agricultural regions, and for prediction.

  17. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... Transplants Autologous Stem Cell Transplants Bisphosphonates Radiation Therapy Surgery Alternative Therapies Treatment by Stage Treatment FAQs Clinical Trials Multiple Myeloma Cure Treatment Center Finder Home » About Multiple ...

  18. Obtaining appropriate interval estimates for age when multiple indicators are used: evaluation of an ad-hoc procedure.

    PubMed

    Fieuws, Steffen; Willems, Guy; Larsen-Tangmose, Sara; Lynnerup, Niels; Boldsen, Jesper; Thevissen, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    When an estimate of age is needed, typically multiple indicators are present as found in skeletal or dental information. There exists a vast literature on approaches to estimate age from such multivariate data. Application of Bayes' rule has been proposed to overcome drawbacks of classical regression models but becomes less trivial as soon as the number of indicators increases. Each of the age indicators can lead to a different point estimate ("the most plausible value for age") and a prediction interval ("the range of possible values"). The major challenge in the combination of multiple indicators is not the calculation of a combined point estimate for age but the construction of an appropriate prediction interval. Ignoring the correlation between the age indicators results in intervals being too small. Boldsen et al. (2002) presented an ad-hoc procedure to construct an approximate confidence interval without the need to model the multivariate correlation structure between the indicators. The aim of the present paper is to bring under attention this pragmatic approach and to evaluate its performance in a practical setting. This is all the more needed since recent publications ignore the need for interval estimation. To illustrate and evaluate the method, Köhler et al. (1995) third molar scores are used to estimate the age in a dataset of 3200 male subjects in the juvenile age range. PMID:26024791

  19. Factorial Invariance in Multiple Populations: A Multiple Testing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple testing method for examining factorial invariance for latent constructs evaluated by multiple indicators in distinct populations is outlined. The procedure is based on the false discovery rate concept and multiple individual restriction tests and resolves general limitations of a popular factorial invariance testing approach. The

  20. Factorial Invariance in Multiple Populations: A Multiple Testing Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2013-01-01

    A multiple testing method for examining factorial invariance for latent constructs evaluated by multiple indicators in distinct populations is outlined. The procedure is based on the false discovery rate concept and multiple individual restriction tests and resolves general limitations of a popular factorial invariance testing approach. The…

  1. Defining, Validating, and Increasing Indices of Happiness among People with Profound Multiple Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Carolyn W.; Reid, Dennis H.

    1996-01-01

    This study attempted to operationalize, measure, and increase happiness among five adults with profound mental and physical disabilities. Happiness indices were defined and observed. Most preferred stimuli-produced increases in happiness indices, and practitioner ratings of participant happiness coincided with observed indices. Discussion focuses…

  2. Support vector data description for fusion of multiple health indicators for enhancing gearbox fault diagnosis and prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Tse, Peter W.; Guo, Wei; Miao, Qiang

    2011-02-01

    A novel method for enhancing gearbox fault diagnosis and prognosis is developed by fusion of multiple health indicators through support vector data description. First, the Comblet transform is used to identify gear residual error signals from the raw signal. Second, based on the observation of gear residual error signals, a total of 11 gear health indicators are identified, and are categorized into two types of indicators. The first and second types of indicators are for fault diagnosis and prognosis, respectively. The first type has six indicators, which are sensitive to impulsive signals triggered by anomalous impacts. The second type has five indicators, which are suitable for tracking degradation of faults. Third, through the support vector data description, the first six health indicators are fused into type one indicators for fault diagnosis. The remaining five indicators are fused into type two indicators for fault prognosis. Finally, a Gaussian kernel is designed to enhance the performance of type one and two indicators by optimal range of width size. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through experiments. The new method has been proven to be superior to methods that use unfused indicators individually.

  3. An Evaluation of Multiple Single-Case Outcome Indicators Using Convergent Evidence Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.; Busse, R. T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the consistency of five single-case outcome indicators, used to assess response-to-intervention data from a pilot Tier 2 reading intervention that was implemented at an elementary school. Using convergent evidence scaling, the indicators were converted onto a common interpretive scale for each case…

  4. Testing congruence among multiple grazing indicators: a multi-site study across the Tibetan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Lehnert, Lukas; Holzapfel, Maika; Schultz, Roland; Heberling, Gwendolyn; Görzen, Eugen; Meyer, Hanna; Seeber, Elke; Pinkert, Stefan; Ritz, Markus; Ansorge, Hermann; Bendix, Jörg; Seifert, Bernhard; Miehe, Georg; Long, Ruijun; Yang, Yongping; Wesche, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Aim Animal husbandry is one of the most widespread land use types, and grazing is a key topic in grassland management. A wide range of indicators are employed in grazing assessments and they often yield widely differing estimates on the associated level of degradation threat. Covering Tibet as a large grassland region with long history of pastoralism, we selected representative indicators to test: (1) how grazing responses change along large-scale climatic gradients, and (2) whether their responses to both grazing intensities and local abiotic conditions are congruent. Location Tibetan Plateau Methods Biotic indicators including species and growth form compositions of vascular plants, richness and abundance of small mammals and ants, together with soil nutrients and field spectra were compared in pairs of high and low grazing intensity at 18 sites across large climatic gradients. Altitude, temperature, and precipitation were considered as potentially influential abiotic factors. Responses of indicators to grazing intensity and environmental gradients were explored by multivariate and univariate analyses. Results All indicators responded strongly to environmental changes, but the response patterns and the most influential abiotic factors varied among indicators. Grazing responses showed low overall congruence. Only vegetation cover, soil nutrient concentrations, and spectral indices were sensitive to grazing across large spatial scales. Grazing effects were significant only when local abiotic factors were taken into account. Main conclusions The results imply that grazing assessments require both appropriate indicators and local calibration. Overall, the threat of grassland degradation across the Tibetan Plateau is not as severe as is commonly assumed.

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life and Functional Status Quality Indicators for Older Persons with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Dy, Sydney M.; Pfoh, Elizabeth R.; Salive, Marcel E.; Boyd, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To explore central challenges with translating self-reported measurement tools for functional status and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) into ambulatory quality indicators for older people with multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). DESIGN Review. SETTING Sources including the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse and National Quality Forum were reviewed for existing ambulatory quality indicators relevant to functional status, HRQOL, and people with MCCs. PARTICIPANTS Seven informants with expertise in indicators using functional status and HRQOL. MEASUREMENTS Informant interviews were conducted to explore knowledge about these types of indicators, particularly usability and feasibility. RESULTS Nine important existing indicators were identified in the review. For process, identified indicators addressed whether providers assessed functional status; outcome indicators addressed quality of life. In interviews, informants agreed that indicators using self-reported data were important in this population. Challenges identified included concerns about usability due to inability to discriminate quality of care adequately between organizations and feasibility concerns regarding high data collection burden, with a correspondingly low response rate. Validity was also a concern because evidence is mixed that healthcare interventions can improve HRQOL or functional status for this population. As a possible first step, a structural standard could be systematic collection of these measures in a specific setting. CONCLUSION Although functional status and HRQOL are important outcomes for older people with MCCs, few relevant ambulatory quality indicators exist, and there are concerns with usability, feasibility, and validity. Further research is needed on how best to incorporate these outcomes into quality indicators for people with MCCs. PMID:24320819

  6. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  7. In Australia: Multiple Intelligences in Multiple Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vialle, Wilma

    1997-01-01

    In Australia, Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory has strongly influenced primary, preschool, and special education. A survey of 30 schools revealed that teachers use two basic approaches: teaching to, and teaching through, multiple intelligences. The first approach might develop children's music skills via playing an instrument. The second…

  8. A consistent picture of the hydroclimatic response to global warming from multiple indices: Models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, F.; Coppola, E.; Raffaele, F.

    2014-10-01

    We analyze trends of six daily precipitation-based and physically interconnected hydroclimatic indices in an ensemble of historical and 21st century climate projections under forcing from increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP)8.5), along with gridded (land only) observations for the late decades of the twentieth century. The indices include metrics of intensity (SDII) and extremes (R95) of precipitation, dry (DSL), and wet spell length, the hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT), and a newly introduced index of precipitation area (PA). All the indices in both the 21st century and historical simulations provide a consistent picture of a predominant shift toward a hydroclimatic regime of more intense, shorter, less frequent, and less widespread precipitation events in response to GHG-induced global warming. The trends are larger and more spatially consistent over tropical than extratropical regions, pointing to the importance of tropical convection in regulating this response, and show substantial regional spatial variability. Observed trends in the indices analyzed are qualitatively and consistently in line with the simulated ones, at least at the global and full tropical scale, further supporting the robustness of the identified prevailing hydroclimatic responses. The HY-INT, PA, and R95 indices show the most consistent response to global warming, and thus offer the most promising tools for formal hydroclimatic model validation and detection/attribution studies. The physical mechanism underlying this response and some of the applications of our results are also discussed.

  9. Comparison of drought indicators derived from multiple data sets over Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, G.; Dutra, E.; Barbosa, P.; Pappenberger, F.; Wetterhall, F.; Vogt, J. V.

    2014-05-01

    Drought monitoring is a key component to mitigate impacts of droughts. Lack of reliable and up-to-date precipitation data sets is a common challenge across the globe. This study investigates different data sets and drought indicators on their capability to improve drought monitoring in Africa. The study was performed for four river basins located in different climatic regions (the Oum er-Rbia in Morocco, the Blue Nile in eastern Africa, the Upper Niger in western Africa, and the Limpopo in southeastern Africa) as well as the Greater Horn of Africa. The five precipitation data sets compared are the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite monthly rainfall product 3B-43, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre gridded precipitation data set, the Global Precipitation Climatology Project Global Monthly Merged Precipitation Analyses, and the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation. The set of drought indicators used includes the Standardized Precipitation Index, the Standardized Precipitation-Evaporation Index, and Soil Moisture Anomalies. A comparison of the annual cycle and monthly precipitation time series shows a good agreement in the timing of the rainy seasons. The main differences between the data sets are in the ability to represent the magnitude of the wet seasons and extremes. Moreover, for the areas affected by drought, all the drought indicators agree on the time of drought onset and recovery although there is disagreement on the extent of the affected area. In regions with limited rain gauge data the estimation of the different drought indicators is characterized by a higher uncertainty. Further comparison suggests that the main source of differences in the computation of the drought indicators is the uncertainty in the precipitation data sets rather than the estimation of the distribution parameters of the drought indicators.

  10. Weighting and Aggregation in Composite Indicator Construction: A Multiplicative Optimization Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, P.; Ang, B. W.; Zhou, D. Q.

    2010-01-01

    Composite indicators (CIs) have increasingly been accepted as a useful tool for benchmarking, performance comparisons, policy analysis and public communication in many different fields. Several recent studies show that as a data aggregation technique in CI construction the weighted product (WP) method has some desirable properties. However, a…

  11. Evaluating Multiple Indices from a Canopy Reflectance Sensor to Estimate Corn N Requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increasing cost of fertilizer N, there is a renewed emphasis on developing new technologies for quantifying in-season N requirements for corn. The objectives of this research are (i) to evaluate different vegetative indices derived from an active reflectance sensor in estimating in-season N...

  12. Weighting and Aggregation in Composite Indicator Construction: A Multiplicative Optimization Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, P.; Ang, B. W.; Zhou, D. Q.

    2010-01-01

    Composite indicators (CIs) have increasingly been accepted as a useful tool for benchmarking, performance comparisons, policy analysis and public communication in many different fields. Several recent studies show that as a data aggregation technique in CI construction the weighted product (WP) method has some desirable properties. However, a

  13. Multiple convergent evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites indicates the primacy of ecology

    PubMed Central

    Maraun, Mark; Erdmann, Georgia; Schulz, Garvin; Norton, Roy A.; Scheu, Stefan; Domes, Katja

    2009-01-01

    Frequent convergent evolution in phylogenetically unrelated taxa points to the importance of ecological factors during evolution, whereas convergent evolution in closely related taxa indicates the importance of favourable pre-existing characters (pre-adaptations). We investigated the transitions to arboreal life in oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari), a group of mostly soil-living arthropods. We evaluated which general forceecological factors, historical constraints or chancewas dominant in the evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites. A phylogenetic study of 51 oribatid mite species and four outgroup taxa, using the ribosomal 18S rDNA region, indicates that arboreal life evolved at least 15 times independently. Arboreal oribatid mite species are not randomly distributed in the phylogenetic tree, but are concentrated among strongly sclerotized, sexual and evolutionary younger taxa. They convergently evolved a capitate sensillus, an anemoreceptor that either precludes overstimulation in the exposed bark habitat or functions as a gravity receptor. Sexual reproduction and strong sclerotization were important pre-adaptations for colonizing the bark of trees that facilitated the exploitation of living resources (e.g. lichens) and served as predator defence, respectively. Overall, our results indicate that ecological factors are most important for the observed pattern of convergent evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites, supporting an adaptationist view of evolution. PMID:19535377

  14. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  15. Neural network models for earthquake magnitude prediction using multiple seismicity indicators.

    PubMed

    Panakkat, Ashif; Adeli, Hojjat

    2007-02-01

    Neural networks are investigated for predicting the magnitude of the largest seismic event in the following month based on the analysis of eight mathematically computed parameters known as seismicity indicators. The indicators are selected based on the Gutenberg-Richter and characteristic earthquake magnitude distribution and also on the conclusions drawn by recent earthquake prediction studies. Since there is no known established mathematical or even empirical relationship between these indicators and the location and magnitude of a succeeding earthquake in a particular time window, the problem is modeled using three different neural networks: a feed-forward Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation (LMBP) neural network, a recurrent neural network, and a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. Prediction accuracies of the models are evaluated using four different statistical measures: the probability of detection, the false alarm ratio, the frequency bias, and the true skill score or R score. The models are trained and tested using data for two seismically different regions: Southern California and the San Francisco bay region. Overall the recurrent neural network model yields the best prediction accuracies compared with LMBP and RBF networks. While at the present earthquake prediction cannot be made with a high degree of certainty this research provides a scientific approach for evaluating the short-term seismic hazard potential of a region. PMID:17393560

  16. Expression analysis and binding experiments of chemosensory proteins indicate multiple roles in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Hui-Li; Deng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Dan-Dan; Chen, Min; Jiao, Zhu-Jin; Liu, Zong-Cai; Zhang, Yan-Zhou; Kan, Yun-Chao

    2013-07-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are a family of small soluble proteins that, in addition to the odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), are involved in chemical communication. To understand the physiological function of the 16 known CSPs in the silkworm Bombyx mori, we investigated the expression patterns in different tissues and developmental stages using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (Q-PCR) and Western blot analysis. The results indicated that most CSPs were widely expressed in embryos, larvae, pupae and adults but were developmentally regulated. Such broad spatial and temporal expression was inconsistent with a specific association with chemosensory function. We conclude that CSPs are multifunctional proteins that are involved in diverse cellular processes and that can play non-chemosensory as well as chemosensory roles. Binding experiments revealed different binding characteristics of CSP1 and CSP2, with retinal being the best ligand, suggesting a putative function of these CSPs as carriers. PMID:23624070

  17. Evaluation of ecological instream flow using multiple ecological indicators with consideration of hydrological alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    Dam-induced hydrological alterations and related ecological problems have been arousing considerable concern from hydrologists, ecologists, and policy-makers. The East River basin in China is the major provider of water resources for mega-cities within the Pearl River Delta and meets 80% of annual water demand of Hong Kong. In this study, ecodeficit and ecosurplus were analyzed to determine the ecological impact of water impoundments. Also, Do and DHRAM were employed to evaluate the degree of alteration of hydrological regimes, and ERHIs were analyzed to evaluate the influence of hydrological alterations on ecological diversity. Results indicate that: (1) the magnitude and frequency of high flows decrease and those of low flows increase due to the regulation of reservoirs; (2) variations of annual ecosurplus are mainly the result of precipitation changes and the annual ecodeficit is significantly influenced by reservoirs. However, ecodeficit and ecosurplus in other seasons, particularly autumn and winter, are more influenced by reservoir regulation; (3) impacts of reservoirs on hydrological regimes and eco-flow regimes are different from one station to another due to different degrees of influence of reservoirs on hydrological processes at different stations. The longer the distance between a reservoir and a hydrological station is, the weaker the influence the water reservoir has on the hydrological processes; (4) ecodeficit and ecosurplus can be accepted in the evaluation of alterations of hydrological processes at annual and seasonal time scales. Results of Shannon Index indicate decreasing biological diversity after the construction of water reservoirs, implying negative impacts of water reservoirs on biological diversity of a river basin and this should arouse considerable human concerns. This study provides a theoretical background for water resources management with consideration of eco-flow variations due to reservoir regulation in other highly-regulated river basins of the globe.

  18. Indication of colloidal calcium in freshwaters using multiple processing and analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlqvist, R.; Benedetti, M.; Andersson, K.; Ingri, J.

    2003-04-01

    Studies of freshwaters indicate that Ca is retained during ultrafiltration together with colloidal material. It has been uncertain however if the retained fraction of Ca is actually associated with the colloidal material or if the enrichment is an artefact. Experimental studies have clearly shown that free Ca ions can be retained during ultrafiltration. This retention is claimed to originate from electrostatic repulsion of sulphate ions by the filtration membrane, with subsequent retention of cations (including Ca) to maintain charge balance in the solution. But other studies of natural freshwaters suggest that there might also be a true colloidal fraction of Ca present. An obvious problem would be to distinguish the two causes of retention from each other. The Ca speciation in the Amazon/Purús rivers and the Kalix river (a boreal river in northern Sweden) was compared using combined analysis with ICP-MS and Ca ISE (ion-selective electrode). Analysis was performed on unfiltered samples and on solutions from cross-flow ultrafiltration experiments. Results obtained from this combined analysis of unfiltered samples from the Amazon/Púrus and Kalix rivers are in excellent agreement with each other and indicate that on average about 84% of the total Ca is in true dissolved form. The newly developed combination of flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) coupled on-line to ICP-MS has been used to study the size distribution and nature of colloidal material in the Kalix river. Mainly two types of colloids are present in this river. A carbon rich form, probably consisting of humic substances, and a Fe-rich form which is larger. Size distribution spectra produced with FlFFF ICP-MS show that a fraction of Ca is associated with the smaller organic rich colloidal phase. ICP-MS and ISE analysis from ultrafiltered retentate fractions show that colloidal Ca as well as free Ca2+ ions are enriched during cross-flow ultrafiltration. The results give important information about how ultrafiltration affects the sample during processing and has implications for the quantification of the colloidal fraction. The use of ISE makes colloidal quantification of Ca possible.

  19. Evaluation of daily precipitation indices over North America in multiple datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaconescu, Emilia Paula; Gachon, Philippe; Scinocca, John; Laprise, René

    2015-04-01

    The study presents a regional analysis and evaluation of simulations from two Canadian regional climate models (RCMs), CanRCM4 and CRCM5 developed respectively at EC-CCCma and UQAM/ESCER, participating in the CORDEX-North America experiment. The focus is on the models' skill in simulating daily precipitation indices with respect to several sets of gridded observations. The Canadian RCMs are also compared against four reanalyses and six other RCMs that take part to the NARCCAP program. The different configurations of Canadian RCM simulations allow also to evaluate the respective effects of different spatial resolutions, driving fields and nudging procedures on the simulated fields. Results show that, for the winter season, the 0.44 degree CanRCM4 and CRCM5 reproduce quite accurately the cumulative total amount of precipitation, as well as the occurrence of wet days and the 90th, 95th and 99th percentiles of daily precipitation. The increase in resolution is associated with an increase in precipitation of high intensity, while the use of interior spectral nudging or different driving fields influences the dry spells' occurrence, especially over Mexico and central US.

  20. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles Indicate CD8+ T Cell Hypermethylation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Steffan D.; Page, Christian M.; Andreassen, Bettina K.; Elboudwarej, Emon; Gustavsen, Marte W.; Briggs, Farren; Quach, Hong; Leikfoss, Ingvild S.; Bjølgerud, Anja; Berge, Tone; Harbo, Hanne F.; Barcellos, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether MS-specific DNA methylation profiles can be identified in whole blood or purified immune cells from untreated MS patients. Methods Whole blood, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell DNA from 16 female, treatment naïve MS patients and 14 matched controls was profiled using the HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. Genotype data were used to assess genetic homogeneity of our sample and to exclude potential SNP-induced DNA methylation measurement errors. Results As expected, significant differences between CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and whole blood DNA methylation profiles were observed, regardless of disease status. Strong evidence for hypermethylation of CD8+ T cell, but not CD4+ T cell or whole blood DNA in MS patients compared to controls was observed. Genome-wide significant individual CpG-site DNA methylation differences were not identified. Furthermore, significant differences in gene DNA methylation of 148 established MS-associated risk genes were not observed. Conclusion While genome-wide significant DNA methylation differences were not detected for individual CpG-sites, strong evidence for DNA hypermethylation of CD8+ T cells for MS patients was observed, indicating a role for DNA methylation in MS. Further, our results suggest that large DNA methylation differences for CpG-sites tested here do not contribute to MS susceptibility. In particular, large DNA methylation differences for CpG-sites within 148 established MS candidate genes tested in our study cannot explain missing heritability. Larger studies of homogenous MS patients and matched controls are warranted to further elucidate the impact of CD8+ T cell and more subtle DNA methylation changes in MS development and pathogenesis. PMID:25734800

  1. The Effects of Multiple Cold Water Immersions on Indices of Muscle Damage

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Stuart; Howatson, Glyn

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to elucidate the efficacy of repeated cold water immersions (CWI) in the recovery of exercise induced muscle damage. A randomised group consisting of eighteen males, mean ± s age, height and body mass were 24 ± 5 years, 1.82 ± 0.06 m and 85.7 ± 16.6 kg respectively, completed a bout of 100 drop jumps. Following the bout of damaging exercise, participants were randomly but equally assigned to either a 12 min CWI (15 ± 1 °C; n = 9) group who experienced immersions immediately post-exercise and every 24 h thereafter for the following 3 days, or a control group (no treatment; n = 9). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors, creatine kinase activity (CK), muscle soreness (DOMS), range of motion (ROM) and limb girth were measured pre-exercise and then for the following 96 h at 24 h increments. In addition MVC was also recorded immediately post-exercise. Significant time effects were seen for MVC, CK, DOMS and limb girth (p < 0.05) indicating muscle damage was evident, however there was no group effect or interaction observed showing that CWI did not attenuate any of the dependent variables (p > 0.05). These results suggest that repeated CWI do not enhance recovery from a bout of damaging eccentric contractions. Key pointsCryotherapy, particularly cold water immersions are one of the most common interventions used in order to enhance recovery post-exercise.There is little empirical evidence demonstrating benefits from cold water immersions. Research evidence is equivocal, probably due to methodological inconsistencies.Our results show that the cryotherapy administered did not attenuate any markers of EIMD or enhance the recovery of function.We conclude that repeated cold water immersions are ineffective in the recovery from heavy plyometric exercise and suggest athletes and coaches should use caution before using this intervention as a recovery strategy PMID:24149455

  2. Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    1992-01-01

    Optical-fiber digital communication network to support data-acquisition and control functions of electric-power-distribution networks. Optical-fiber links of communication network follow power-distribution routes. Since fiber crosses open power switches, communication network includes multiple interconnected loops with occasional spurs. At each intersection node is needed. Nodes of communication network include power-distribution substations and power-controlling units. In addition to serving data acquisition and control functions, each node acts as repeater, passing on messages to next node(s). Multiple-ring communication network operates on new AbNET protocol and features fiber-optic communication.

  3. Multiple Applications of Alamar Blue as an Indicator of Metabolic Function and Cellular Health in Cell Viability Bioassays

    PubMed Central

    Rampersad, Sephra N.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate prediction of the adverse effects of test compounds on living systems, detection of toxic thresholds, and expansion of experimental data sets to include multiple toxicity end-point analysis are required for any robust screening regime. Alamar Blue is an important redox indicator that is used to evaluate metabolic function and cellular health. The Alamar Blue bioassay has been utilized over the past 50 years to assess cell viability and cytotoxicity in a range of biological and environmental systems and in a number of cell types including bacteria, yeast, fungi, protozoa and cultured mammalian and piscine cells. It offers several advantages over other metabolic indicators and other cytotoxicity assays. However, as with any bioassay, suitability must be determined for each application and cell model. This review seeks to highlight many of the important considerations involved in assay use and design in addition to the potential pitfalls. PMID:23112716

  4. Multiple sclerosis - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Your doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis. This disease affects the brain and spinal cord ( ... your doctor may prescribe medicine. Some people with multiple sclerosis need to use a urinary catheter . This is ...

  5. MultipleColposcopyJCO

    Cancer.gov

    Performing multiple biopsies during a procedure known as colposcopy—visual inspection of the cervix—is more effective than performing only a single biopsy of the worst-appearing area for detecting cervical cancer precursors. This multiple biopsy approach

  6. Multiple Myeloma Section

    Cancer.gov

    The Multiple Myeloma Section currently has several ongoing and upcoming protocols related to the molecular Natural History and novel treatments for Multiple Myeloma and its precursors - Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) and Smolder

  7. Practice Parameters for the Non-Respiratory Indications for Polysomnography and Multiple Sleep Latency Testing for Children

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Lamm, Carin I.; Zak, Rochelle S.; Kristo, David A.; Bista, Sabin R.; Rowley, James A.; Casey, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although a level 1 nocturnal polysomnogram (PSG) is often used to evaluate children with non-respiratory sleep disorders, there are no published evidence-based practice parameters focused on the pediatric age group. In this report, we present practice parameters for the indications of polysomnography and the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) in the assessment of non-respiratory sleep disorders in children. These practice parameters were reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). Methods: A task force of content experts was appointed by the AASM to review the literature and grade the evidence according to the American Academy of Neurology grading system. Recommendations For PSG and MSLT Use: PSG is indicated for children suspected of having periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) for diagnosing PLMD. (STANDARD) The MSLT, preceded by nocturnal PSG, is indicated in children as part of the evaluation for suspected narcolepsy. (STANDARD) Children with frequent NREM parasomnias, epilepsy, or nocturnal enuresis should be clinically screened for the presence of comorbid sleep disorders and polysomnography should be performed if there is a suspicion for sleep-disordered breathing or periodic limb movement disorder. (GUIDELINE) The MSLT, preceded by nocturnal PSG, is indicated in children suspected of having hypersomnia from causes other than narcolepsy to assess excessive sleepiness and to aid in differentiation from narcolepsy. (OPTION) The polysomnogram using an expanded EEG montage is indicated in children to confirm the diagnosis of an atypical or potentially injurious parasomnia or differentiate a parasomnia from sleep-related epilepsy (OPTION) Polysomnography is indicated in children suspected of having restless legs syndrome (RLS) who require supportive data for diagnosing RLS. (OPTION) Recommendations Against PSG Use: Polysomnography is not routinely indicated for evaluation of children with sleep-related bruxism. (STANDARD) Conclusions: The nocturnal polysomnogram and MSLT are useful clinical tools for evaluating pediatric non-respiratory sleep disorders when integrated with the clinical evaluation. Citation: Aurora RN; Lamm CI; Zak RS; Kristo DA; Bista SR; Rowley JA; Casey KR. Practice parameters for the non-respiratory indications for polysomnography and multiple sleep latency testing for children. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1467-1473. PMID:23115395

  8. Multiple Myeloma Section

    Cancer.gov

    The Multiple Myeloma Section The mission of the Multiple Myeloma Section of the NCI is to... Ola Landgren, M.D., Ph.D. Dr. Landgren is the director of the Clinical Program in the Multiple Myeloma Research Section.  He received his M.D. in 1995 and Ph.D. i

  9. Temporal variation (seasonal and interannual) of vegetation indices of maize and soybeans across multiple years in central Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prueger, J. H.; Hatfield, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Remotely sensed reflectance parameters from corn and soybean surfaces can be correlated to crop production. Surface reflectance of a typical Upper Midwest corn /soybean region in central Iowa across multiple years reveal subtle dynamics in vegetative surface response to a continually varying climate. From 2006 through 2014 remotely sensed data have been acquired over production fields of corn and soybeans in central IA, U.S.A. with the fields alternating between corn and soybeans. The data have been acquired using ground-based radiometers with 16 wavebands covering the visible, near infrared, shortwave infrared wavebands and combined into a series of vegetative indices. These data were collected on clear days with the goal of collecting data at a minimum of once per week from prior to planting until after fall tillage operations. Within each field, five sites were established and sampled during the year to reduce spatial variation and allow for an assessment of changes in the vegetative indices throughout the growing season. Ancillary data collected for each crop included the phenological stage at each sampling date along with biomass sampled at the onset of the reproductive stage and at physiological maturity. Evaluation of the vegetative indices for the different years revealed that patterns were related to weather effects on corn and soybean growth. Remote sensing provides a method to evaluate changes within and among growing seasons to assess crop growth and development as affected by differences in weather variability.

  10. Multiple emulsions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Khan, Azhar Yaqoob; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Iqbal, Zeenat; Ahmed, Farhan Jalees; Khar, Roop Krishan

    2006-10-01

    Multiple emulsions are complex polydispersed systems where both oil in water and water in oil emulsion exists simultaneously which are stabilized by lipophillic and hydrophilic surfactants respectively. The ratio of these surfactants is important in achieving stable multiple emulsions. Among water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) and oil-in-water-in-oil (o/w/o) type multiple emulsions, the former has wider areas of application and hence are studied in great detail. Formulation, preparation techniques and in vitro characterization methods for multiple emulsions are reviewed. Various factors affecting the stability of multiple emulsions and the stabilization approaches with specific reference to w/o/w type multiple emulsions are discussed in detail. Favorable drug release mechanisms and/or rate along with in vivo fate of multiple emulsions make them a versatile carrier. It finds wide range of applications in controlled or sustained drug delivery, targeted delivery, taste masking, bioavailability enhancement, enzyme immobilization, etc. Multiple emulsions have also been employed as intermediate step in the microencapsulation process and are the systems of increasing interest for the oral delivery of hydrophilic drugs, which are unstable in gastrointestinal tract like proteins and peptides. With the advancement in techniques for preparation, stabilization and rheological characterization of multiple emulsions, it will be able to provide a novel carrier system for drugs, cosmetics and pharmaceutical agents. In this review, emphasis is laid down on formulation, stabilization techniques and potential applications of multiple emulsion system. PMID:17076645

  11. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics. PMID:21599254

  12. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes “bad news” for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  13. [Physical trauma and multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Weilbach, F X; Hartung, H P

    1997-12-01

    Without a more detailed knowledge of etiology and pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis final conclusions regarding an association between physical trauma and the onset or course of multiple sclerosis cannot be drawn. Only a few prospective studies which are appropriately designed to prove a putative correlation have been published. A critical review of these studies and some case reports, in the light of the current pathophysiological concepts of multiple sclerosis, does not indicate a causal relationship between physical trauma and onset of multiple sclerosis or exacerbations. PMID:9465335

  14. Creating Multiple Processes from Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolffe, Robert; Robinson, Helja; Grant, Jean Marie

    1998-01-01

    Howard Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory stresses that all humans possess the various intelligences (linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist) to differing degrees, and most people can attain adequate competency levels. This article provides a sample checklist for…

  15. Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis in R--A Tutorial in Measurement Invariance with Continuous and Ordinal Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; von Brachel, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) is among the most productive extensions of structural equation modeling. Many researchers conducting cross-cultural or longitudinal studies are interested in testing for measurement and structural invariance. The aim of the present paper is to provide a tutorial in MG-CFA using the freely

  16. Long-Term Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on Multiple Indicators of Grief in Parentally Bereaved Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Ma, Yue; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.; Wolchik, Sharlene; Kennedy, Cara; Millsap, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports on results from a randomized experimental trial of the effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on multiple measures of grief experienced by parentally bereaved children and adolescents over a 6-year period. Method: Participants were 244 youths (ages 8-16, mean age = 11.4 years) from 156 families that had…

  17. Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis in R--A Tutorial in Measurement Invariance with Continuous and Ordinal Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; von Brachel, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) is among the most productive extensions of structural equation modeling. Many researchers conducting cross-cultural or longitudinal studies are interested in testing for measurement and structural invariance. The aim of the present paper is to provide a tutorial in MG-CFA using the freely…

  18. The use of multiple indices of physiological activity to access viability in chlorine disinfected Escherichia coli O157:H7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisle, J. T.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    A suite of fluorescent intracellular stains and probes was used, in conjunction with viable plate counts, to assess the effect of chlorine disinfection on membrane potential (rhodamine 123; Rh123 and bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol; DiBAC4(3)), membrane integrity (LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit), respiratory activity (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride; CTC) and substrate responsiveness (direct viable counts; DVC) in the commensal pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. After a 5 min exposure to the disinfectant, physiological indices were affected in the following order: viable plate counts > substrate responsiveness > membrane potential > respiratory activity > membrane integrity. In situ assessment of physiological activity by examining multiple targets, as demonstrated in this study, permits a more comprehensive determination of the site and extent of injury in bacterial cells following sublethal disinfection with chlorine. This approach to assessing altered bacterial physiology has application in various fields where detection of stressed bacteria is of interest.

  19. [Oligoclonal IgG bands in the cerebrospinal fluid of portuguese patients with multiple sclerosis: negative results indicate benign disease].

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria José; Sequeira, Lucinda; Rio, Maria Edite; Thompson, Edward J

    2005-06-01

    We assessed the frequency of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) restricted oligoclonal IgG bands (IgG-OCB) in Portuguese multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and its relationship with outcome. Paired CSF/serum samples of 406 patients with neurological disorders were submitted to isoelectric focusing with immunodetection of IgG. Ninety-two patients had definite MS; non-MS cases were assembled in groups inflammatory/infectious diseases (ID, n=141) and other/controls (OD, n=173). We found in the MS group: mean duration, 38.9 months; clinically isolated syndromes, 24%; relapsing/remitting course (RR), 65%; in RR patients the mean EDSS was 2.1 and the mean index of progression was 0.31. Positive patterns significantly predominated in MS (82.6%; ID, 40.4%; OD, 3.5%). The sensitivity and the specificity of positive IgG-OCB for MS diagnosis was 82.6% and 79.9%, respectively. The sole statistically significant difference in the MS group was the lower progression index observed in negative cases. We conclude that the frequency of positive IgG-OCB patterns in our MS patients fits most values reported in the literature, and that negative results indicate benign disease. PMID:16059582

  20. Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

  1. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  2. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  3. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  4. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a

  5. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  6. The Receiver Operational Characteristic for Binary Classification with Multiple Indices and Its Application to the Neuroimaging Study of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Li, Juan; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Protas, Hillary; Jagust, William; Fleisher, Adam; Reiman, Eric; Yao, Li; Chen, Kewei

    2014-01-01

    Given a single index, the receiver operational characteristic (ROC) curve analysis is routinely utilized for characterizing performances in distinguishing two conditions/groups in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Given the availability of multiple data sources (referred to as multi-indices), such as multimodal neuroimaging data sets, cognitive tests, and clinical ratings and genomic data in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) studies, the single-index-based ROC underutilizes all available information. For a long time, a number of algorithmic/analytic approaches combining multiple indices have been widely used to simultaneously incorporate multiple sources. In this study, we propose an alternative for combining multiple indices using logical operations, such as “AND,” “OR,” and “at least n” (where n is an integer), to construct multivariate ROC (multiV-ROC) and characterize the sensitivity and specificity statistically associated with the use of multiple indices. With and without the “leave-one-out” cross-validation, we used two data sets from AD studies to showcase the potentially increased sensitivity/specificity of the multiV-ROC in comparison to the single-index ROC and linear discriminant analysis (an analytic way of combining multi-indices). We conclude that, for the data sets we investigated, the proposed multiV-ROC approach is capable of providing a natural and practical alternative with improved classification accuracy as compared to univariate ROC and linear discriminant analysis. PMID:23702553

  7. Using multiple chemical indicators to assess sources of nitrate and age of groundwater in a karstic spring basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.; Copeland, R.; Greenhalgh, T.; Ceryak, R.; Zwanka, W.

    2005-01-01

    Human health and ecological concerns have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations during the past 40 years in Fannin Springs (0.3-4.7 mg/L), a regional discharge point with an average flow of >2.8 m3/second (>100 ft3/second) for water from the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple chemical indicators (major dissolved species, 15N and 18O of nitrate, dissolved gases, 78 pesticides and degradates, and 67 organic compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater) and transient tracers (3H/3He, chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs], sulfur hexafluoride [SF6]) were analyzed in water samples from nine wells along three transects and in spring water to assess groundwater age and potential contaminant sources. Land use is predominantly agricultural (52 percent) and forest (31 percent) in the 320 km2 (124 mi2) spring basin, which was delineated from a potentiometric-surface map of the UFA using high-resolution water-level data. Nitrate-N concentrations were highly variable in the oxic UFA and ranged from <0.02 to 4.7 mg/L. ?? 15N-NO3 values (3.4-9.9 per mil) indicated that nitrate contamination originated from inorganic sources (synthetic fertilizer) and organic sources (manure spreading or waste disposal). Higher nitrate concentrations and the younger age of spring water relative to water from upgradient wells indicate better communication with N sources at the surface. Apparent ages of groundwater correlated positively with well depth (P < 0.05) and were younger in water from wells nearer to the spring (<8 years) compared with other wells (10-50 years). Most transient tracer concentrations were consistent with binary mixing curves representing mixtures of water recharged during the past 10 years and older water (recharged before 1940). Young water mixing fractions ranged from 0.07 to 0.90. Trace levels of herbicides found in groundwater and spring water were indicative of applications for vegetative control in agricultural and other land-use types.

  8. On Multiple-Layered Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to find ways to make vortex flow fields decompose more quickly, photographs and observations are presented of vortex flow fields that indicate the presence of multiple layers of fluid rotating about a common axis. A survey of the literature indicates that multiple-layered vortices form in waterspouts, tornadoes and lift-generated vortices of aircraft. An explanation for the appearance of multiple-layered structures in vortices is suggested. The observations and data presented are intended to improve the understanding of the formation and persistence of vortex flow fields.

  9. [Current therapy of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Antonio García Merino, J

    2014-12-01

    Since the introduction of interferon beta 1 b for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, there has been a progressive increase in the number of drugs available for this disease. Currently, 11 drugs have been approved in Spain, and their indications depend on specific clinical characteristics. The present article reviews these indications and also discusses other medications without official approval that have also been used in multiple sclerosis. PMID:25732945

  10. Trends in socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Kien, Vu Duy; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Oh, Juhwan; Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background Child malnutrition is not only a major contributor to child mortality and morbidity, but it can also determine socioeconomic status in adult life. The rate of under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam has significantly decreased, but associated inequality issues still need attention. Objective This study aims to explore trends, contributing factors, and changes in inequalities for under-five child malnutrition in Vietnam between 2000 and 2011. Design Data were drawn from the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for the years 2000 and 2011. The dependent variables used for the study were stunting, underweight, and wasting of under-five children. The concentration index was calculated to see the magnitude of child malnutrition, and the inequality was decomposed to understand the contributions of determinants to child malnutrition. The total differential decomposition was used to identify and explore factors contributing to changes in child malnutrition inequalities. Results Inequality in child malnutrition increased between 2000 and 2011, even though the overall rate declined. Most of the inequality in malnutrition was due to ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The total differential decomposition showed that the biggest and second biggest contributors to the changes in underweight inequalities were age and socioeconomic status, respectively. Socioeconomic status was the largest contributor to inequalities in stunting. Conclusions Although the overall level of child malnutrition was improved in Vietnam, there were significant differences in under-five child malnutrition that favored those who were more advantaged in socioeconomic terms. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities in child malnutrition has increased over time. Multifaceted approaches, connecting several relevant ministries and sectors, may be necessary to reduce inequalities in childhood malnutrition. PMID:26950558

  11. Estimation of the rate of Ca/sup 2 +/ influx in perfused rat liver using the multiple indicator dilution technique

    SciTech Connect

    Lapointe, D.S.; Olson, M.S.

    1987-05-01

    The multiple indicator dilution technique provides a useful mechanism for the determination of the rates of processes involved in the uptake and subsequent release of substances between an organ, such as the liver, and the vasculature. They have used this technique to investigate the uptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ into the perfused rat liver at a number of different perfusate Ca/sup 2 +/ concentrations. Each perfused liver is calibrated using reference injections of a mixture of /sup 3/H-sucrose and /sup 14/C-urea to determine parameters of a microcirculatory model of the liver, such as the characteristic transit times through vascular spaces and the ratio of tissue volume to extracellular volume. Using a single injection of a mixture of /sup 3/H-sucrose and /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/, the profiles of the efflux of the injected tracers are analyzed to estimate the rate constant for uptake of /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. The estimated rate constant for uptake decreases with increasing perfusate Ca/sup 2 +/ concentration (kin = 0.155 +/- 0.036, 0.0896 +/- 0.024, 0.0713 +/- 0.009 for (Ca/sup 2 +/) = 0.05, 0.5, 1.25 mM; n=5). From these data, estimates for the maximum velocity of uptake of Ca/sup 2 +/ and the Ca/sup 2 +/ concentration for half maximal uptake are calculated to be 0.1208 mM/sec and 0.7278 mM respectively.

  12. Aging in place: multiple options, multiple choices.

    PubMed

    Wick, Jeannette Y; Zanni, Guido R

    2009-11-01

    The transition from one's own home into institutional settings is often difficult for residents and families. Historically, dependent elders wishing to remain in their communities had few options. Seniors now have multiple aging-in-place options that support their significant lifestyle demands and allow them to live with other like-minded individuals. These include privately developed age-restricted, gated retirement communities; continuing-care retirement communities; and naturally occurring retirement communities. Housing concerns include design elements that make homes more accessible for elders and people with disabilities, but also make the home more functional for others ("universal design"). PMID:20092218

  13. Lenalidomide in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Paul G; Mitsiades, Constantine; Hideshima, Teru; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2006-08-01

    Current therapies for multiple myeloma include steroids, alkylating agents and high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplant. These approaches are typically associated with initially good response rates, but they ultimately fail as a result of disease progression. New therapies that overcome resistance, lower toxicity and maintain remission are needed. Recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma include bortezomib and thalidomide. Lenalidomide (Revlimid) is an immunomodulatory drug that has undergone rapid clinical development in multiple myeloma and was recently approved by the US FDA for use in patients with relapsed disease. Clinical trials demonstrate that lenalidomide, particularly in combination with dexamethasone, produces durable clinical responses in patients with relapsed and refractory disease and is generally well tolerated, with manageable toxicities. This review summarizes the profile of lenalidomide and the current evidence for its efficacy in multiple myeloma. PMID:16925483

  14. The Multiplicative Situation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between three critical elements, and the associated mathematical language, to assist students to make the critical transition from additive to multiplicative thinking are examined in this article by Chris Hurst.

  15. Multiple Myeloma: Patient Handbook

    MedlinePlus

    ... contact us TEXT SIZE IMF Multiple Myeloma Patient Handbook 2016 One of the most daunting aspects of ... with each of these steps. The IMF’s Patient Handbook is meant to furnish you with the tools ...

  16. Multiple shell fusion targets

    DOEpatents

    Lindl, J.D.; Bangerter, R.O.

    1975-10-31

    Multiple shell fusion targets for use with electron beam and ion beam implosion systems are described. The multiple shell targets are of the low-power type and use a separate relatively low Z, low density ablator at large radius for the outer shell, which reduces the focusing and power requirements of the implosion system while maintaining reasonable aspect ratios. The targets use a high Z, high density pusher shell placed at a much smaller radius in order to obtain an aspect ratio small enough to protect against fluid instability. Velocity multiplication between these shells further lowers the power requirements. Careful tuning of the power profile and intershell density results in a low entropy implosion which allows breakeven at low powers. For example, with ion beams as a power source, breakeven at 10-20 Terrawatts with 10 MeV alpha particles for imploding a multiple shell target can be accomplished.

  17. Caring for Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICU families. Mothering Multiples: Breastfeeding and Caring for Twins or More, by Karen Kerkhoff Gromada (La Leche League International, 1999). Mothers of Super Twins (MOST) A support network of families who have ...

  18. Pomalidomide for Multiple Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a phase III trial that compared the combination of pomalidomide (Pomalyst®) and low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone alone in patients with multiple myeloma that has progressed despite other treatments.

  19. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  20. Sarcoidosis with multiple calcification.

    PubMed

    Ishizaki, T; Kuroda, H; Kuroda, T; Nakai, T; Miyabo, S

    1988-05-01

    Sarcoidosis, having a twenty-nine years of clinical course, associated with multiple calcified deposits in neck, mediastinum, liver, spleen, kidney, abdominal lymphnodes and lung was reported. Calcified opacity, which was firstly detected during initial two years on plain chest and abdominal x-ray films, increased in calcified mass insidiously. Though, the examination on this admission failed to reveal pathogenesis of multiple calcification, immunological derangement seemed to initiate and promote the calcification. PMID:3418985

  1. Indication of change of phase in high-multiplicity proton-proton events at LHC in string percolation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, I.; Téllez, A. Fernandez; Ghosh, Premomoy

    2015-10-01

    We analyze high-multiplicity proton-proton (p p ) collision data in the framework of the string percolation model that has been successful in describing several phenomena of multiparticle production, including the signatures of recent discovery of strongly interacting partonic matter, the quark-gluon plasma, in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Our study in terms of the ratio of shear viscosity and entropy density (η /s ) and the [Lattice Quantum Chromodinamics (LQCD)] predicted signature of QCD change of phase, in terms of the effective number of degrees of freedom (ɛ /T4), reiterates the possibility of a strongly interacting collective medium in these events.

  2. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, H.K. Jr.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means for separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means. 7 figs.

  3. Metabolic gene expression changes in astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis cerebral cortex are indicative of immune-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Zeis, T; Allaman, I; Gentner, M; Schroder, K; Tschopp, J; Magistretti, P J; Schaeren-Wiemers, N

    2015-08-01

    Emerging as an important correlate of neurological dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), extended focal and diffuse gray matter abnormalities have been found and linked to clinical manifestations such as seizures, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. To investigate possible underlying mechanisms we analyzed the molecular alterations in histopathological normal appearing cortical gray matter (NAGM) in MS. By performing a differential gene expression analysis of NAGM of control and MS cases we identified reduced transcription of astrocyte specific genes involved in the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) and the glutamate-glutamine cycle (GGC). Additional quantitative immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating a CX43 loss in MS NAGM confirmed a crucial involvement of astrocytes and emphasizes their importance in MS pathogenesis. Concurrently, a Toll-like/IL-1β signaling expression signature was detected in MS NAGM, indicating that immune-related signaling might be responsible for the downregulation of ANLS and GGC gene expression in MS NAGM. Indeed, challenging astrocytes with immune stimuli such as IL-1β and LPS reduced their ANLS and GGC gene expression in vitro. The detected upregulation of IL1B in MS NAGM suggests inflammasome priming. For this reason, astrocyte cultures were treated with ATP and ATP/LPS as for inflammasome activation. This treatment led to a reduction of ANLS and GGC gene expression in a comparable manner. To investigate potential sources for ANLS and GGC downregulation in MS NAGM, we first performed an adjuvant-driven stimulation of the peripheral immune system in C57Bl/6 mice in vivo. This led to similar gene expression changes in spinal cord demonstrating that peripheral immune signals might be one source for astrocytic gene expression changes in the brain. IL1B upregulation in MS NAGM itself points to a possible endogenous signaling process leading to ANLS and GGC downregulation. This is supported by our findings that, among others, MS NAGM astrocytes express inflammasome components and that astrocytes are capable to release Il-1β in-vitro. Altogether, our data suggests that immune signaling of immune- and/or central nervous system origin drives alterations in astrocytic ANLS and GGC gene regulation in the MS NAGM. Such a mechanism might underlie cortical brain dysfunctions frequently encountered in MS patients. PMID:25937052

  4. Hand washing behavior and associated factors in Vietnam based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    To, Kien Gia; Lee, Jong-Koo; Nam, You-Seon; Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Handwashing is a cost-effective way of preventing communicable diseases such as respiratory and food-borne illnesses. However, handwashing rates are low in developing countries. Target 7C of the seventh Millennium Development Goals was to increase by half the proportion of people with sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. Studies have found that better access to improved water sources and sanitation is associated with higher rates of handwashing. Objective Our goal was to describe handwashing behaviour and identify the associated factors in Vietnamese households. Design Data from 12,000 households participating in the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 were used. The survey used a multistage sampling method to randomly select 100 clusters and 20 households per cluster. Self-administered questionnaires were used to collect data from a household representative. Demographic variables, the presence of a specific place for handwashing, soap and water, access to improved sanitation, and access to improved water sources were tested for association with handwashing behaviour in logistic regression. Results Almost 98% of households had a specific place for handwashing, and 85% had cleansing materials and water at such a place. The prevalence of handwashing in the sample was almost 85%. Educational level, ethnicity of the household head, and household wealth were factors associated with handwashing practice (p<0.05). Those having access to an improved sanitation facility were more likely to practise handwashing [odds ratio (OR)=1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.37–2.09, p<0.001], as were those with access to improved water sources (OR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.37–2.21, p<0.001). Conclusions Households with low education, low wealth, belonging to ethnic minorities, and with low access to improved sanitation facilities and water sources should be targeted for interventions implementing handwashing practice. In addition, the availability of soap and water at handwashing sites should be increased and practical teaching programs should be deployed in order to increase handwashing rates. PMID:26950556

  5. Optical-biophysical relationships and validation of MODIS vegetation indices with multiple fine spatial resolution data in semiarid rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiang

    The vegetation index products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) are designed to provide consistent, spatial and temporal comparisons of global vegetation conditions. The objective of this dissertation was to validate the robustness and global implementation of two MODIS VI algorithms, including the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and "enhanced" vegetation index (EVI). Their performances have been evaluated in: (1) the normalization of canopy background (brightness) variations and the extraction of biophysical parameters across different canopy structures; (2) the characterization of seasonal vegetation profiles (phenological, intra-annual); and (3) spatial and temporal discrimination of vegetation differences (inter-annual). The validation was accomplished through multiple means, including canopy radiative transfer models which were utilized to extract pure vegetation spectra and "true" VI value free of background contamination for varying canopy structures and vegetation amount. The experimental field- and airborne-based radiometry and satellite imagery at multiple spatial resolutions were also coupled and scaled-up for comparison with coarse spatial resolution MODIS VI products to quantify characteristics of semiarid rangeland vegetation. The results showed that NDVI was advantageous in yielding biophysical relationships applicable across varying canopy types, but required knowledge of soils for biophysical estimations. The EVI provided biophysical relationships sensitive to canopy structure, thus requiring knowledge of canopy type for biophysical assessments. The MODIS VI products were successfully validated, radiometrically, by coupling field and the MODLAND Quick Airborne Looks (MQUALS) observations to high spatial resolution imagery (AVIRIS and ETM+), and appeared robust across the two parallel sites for depicting their ecological equivalents. MODIS multitemporal VI profiles were able to depict phenological activity, length of the growing season, peak and onset of greenness, and leaf turnover. Among the sensors tested, spatial resolution was found to be most important for discriminating the major land cover subtypes within the two parallel semiarid rangelands, and spectral resolution had major effects on capturing seasonal contrast due to atmosphere influences. The validation strategy utilized in this study to successively aggregate the integrity-inherent multiple fine spatial resolution data to the coarse MODIS pixel sizes appeared to perform well, thus showing potentials in the validation of other satellite products.

  6. Multiple Sclerosis: Hope through Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through Research See a list of all ... ways to prevent MS from developing. What is Multiple Sclerosis? Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory disease that ...

  7. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    PubMed Central

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Checa, Miguel A.; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Amengual, María J.; Abad, Carlos; Benet, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient's fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA) were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment). TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele. PMID:24967335

  8. Multiple sclerosis and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bodiguel, E; Bensa, C; Brassat, D; Laplaud, D; Le Page, E; Ouallet, J-C; Zephir, H; De Seze, J

    2014-04-01

    The question of pregnancy in patients with multiple sclerosis is regularly raised due to the prevalence of the disease in middle age women. The multiple sclerosis think tank (Groupe de Réflexion sur la Sclérose en Plaques [GRESEP]) decided to develop recommendations on this issue, with consideration to both the impact of multiple sclerosis on pregnancy, and that of pregnancy on the disease. As with topics of previous works, the formal expert consensus method was used. The working group was composed of hospital-based and private practice neurologists. The reading group was composed of neurologists, anaesthetists and obstetricians. Each recommendation is presented with the relevant level of consensus. PMID:24684929

  9. Enhancing multiple disciplinary teamwork.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri E

    2008-01-01

    Multiple disciplinary research provides an opportunity to bring together investigators across disciplines to provide new views and develop innovative approaches to important questions. Through this shared experience, novel paradigms are formed, original frameworks are developed, and new language is generated. Integral to the successful construction of effective cross-disciplinary teams is the recognition of antecedent factors that affect the development of the team such as intrapersonal, social, physical environmental, organizational, and institutional influences. Team functioning is enhanced with well-developed behavioral, affective, interpersonal, and intellectual processes. Outcomes of effective multiple disciplinary research teams include novel ideas, integrative models, new training programs, institutional change, and innovative policies that can also influence the degree to which antecedents and processes contribute to team performance. Ongoing evaluation of team functioning and achievement of designated outcomes ensures the continued development of the multiple disciplinary team and confirmation of this approach as important to the advancement of science. PMID:18501748

  10. Neutron multiplicity counter development

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, D.G.; Krick, M.S.; Ensslin, N.; Bosler, G.E.; Dytlewski, N.

    1991-01-01

    We have designed and built two multiplicity counters to test the usefulness of multiplicity counting for the safeguards assay of plutonium-bearing materials. The first prototype counter has been characterized and a variety of plutonium-bearing materials have been measured with it. Assays accurate to {approximately}0.7% have been obtained for both pure and impure plutonium oxide samples in reasonable measurement times. Assays accurate to {approximately}5% have been obtained for metal samples. A second multiplicity counter has been designed using experience gained from the first as well as Monte Carlo simulations. The second counter was designed to be more suitable for in-plant measurement of pyrochemical process materials. This paper presents the results of characterization studies of the two instruments. 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Carrier multiplication in graphene.

    PubMed

    Winzer, Torben; Knorr, Andreas; Malic, Ermin

    2010-12-01

    Graphene as a zero-bandgap semiconductor is an ideal model structure to study the carrier relaxation channels, which are inefficient in conventional semiconductors. In particular, it is of fundamental interest to address the question whether Auger-type processes significantly influence the carrier dynamics in graphene. These scattering channels bridge the valence and conduction band allowing carrier multiplication, a process that generates multiple charge carriers from the absorption of a single photon. This has been suggested in literature for improving the efficiency of solar cells. Here we show, based on microscopic calculations within the density matrix formalism, that Auger processes do play an unusually strong role for the relaxation dynamics of photoexcited charge carriers in graphene. We predict that a considerable carrier multiplication takes place, confirming the potential of graphene as a new material for high-efficiency photodevices. PMID:21053963

  12. Multiple Intelligences and Business Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Results from 97 business students with substantial work histories indicate that the Multiple Intelligence Preference Inventory gives a valid and reliable indication of their preferred intelligences. Awareness of these results is associated with assessments of self and others as knowledge sources. This information can help in recognizing,…

  13. Trauma and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kurland, L T

    1994-01-01

    The belief that trauma may precede or exacerbate multiple sclerosis (MS) has come primarily from anecdotal reports and case series that provide no rates and no basis for critical comparison. Each year in the United States, approximately 10,000 persons develop MS. A high proportion of the estimated 250,000 prevalence cases have one or more exacerbations, whereas one-third (or 83,000,000 persons in the United States) suffer a memorable injury; therefore, when trauma precedes MS onset or exacerbation, coincidence, as well as causal association, must be considered. For many patients, MS disability may have precipitated an injury, rather than follow one. Two major prospective cohort studies of MS indicate that physical trauma is not responsible for onset or exacerbation. A prospective cohort of patients with MS followed for eight years at the University of Arizona has failed to demonstrate an association between physical trauma and exacerbation. At the Mayo Clinic, cohorts identified in the Olmsted County, Minnesota population with MS, head injury (819), and lumbar disk surgery (942) demonstrated no correlation between onset or exacerbation of MS. Thus, on the basis of credible epidemiological studies, and particularly the studies of cohorts with MS and with trauma, there is no indication that either onset or exacerbation of MS is the result of physical trauma. PMID:8017887

  14. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  15. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Van den Engh, Ger; Esposito, Richard J.

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  16. Immunopathology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dendrou, Calliope A; Fugger, Lars; Friese, Manuel A

    2015-09-15

    Two decades of clinical experience with immunomodulatory treatments for multiple sclerosis point to distinct immunological pathways that drive disease relapses and progression. In light of this, we discuss our current understanding of multiple sclerosis immunopathology, evaluate long-standing hypotheses regarding the role of the immune system in the disease and delineate key questions that are still unanswered. Recent and anticipated advances in the field of immunology, and the increasing recognition of inflammation as an important component of neurodegeneration, are shaping our conceptualization of disease pathophysiology, and we explore the potential implications for improved healthcare provision to patients in the future. PMID:26250739

  17. Neutron multiplicity analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Scott L

    2010-01-01

    I describe the capabilities of the EXCOM (EXcel based COincidence and Multiplicity) calculation tool which is used to analyze experimental data or simulated neutron multiplicity data. The input to the program is the count-rate data (including the multiplicity distribution) for a measurement, the isotopic composition of the sample and relevant dates. The program carries out deadtime correction and background subtraction and then performs a number of analyses. These are: passive calibration curve, known alpha and multiplicity analysis. The latter is done with both the point model and with the weighted point model. In the current application EXCOM carries out the rapid analysis of Monte Carlo calculated quantities and allows the user to determine the magnitude of sample perturbations that lead to systematic errors. Neutron multiplicity counting is an assay method used in the analysis of plutonium for safeguards applications. It is widely used in nuclear material accountancy by international (IAEA) and national inspectors. The method uses the measurement of the correlations in a pulse train to extract information on the spontaneous fission rate in the presence of neutrons from ({alpha},n) reactions and induced fission. The measurement is relatively simple to perform and gives results very quickly ({le} 1 hour). By contrast, destructive analysis techniques are extremely costly and time consuming (several days). By improving the achievable accuracy of neutron multiplicity counting, a nondestructive analysis technique, it could be possible to reduce the use of destructive analysis measurements required in safeguards applications. The accuracy of a neutron multiplicity measurement can be affected by a number of variables such as density, isotopic composition, chemical composition and moisture in the material. In order to determine the magnitude of these effects on the measured plutonium mass a calculational tool, EXCOM, has been produced using VBA within Excel. This program was developed to help speed the analysis of Monte Carlo neutron transport simulation (MCNP) data, and only requires the count-rate data to calculate the mass of material using INCC's analysis methods instead of the full neutron multiplicity distribution required to run analysis in INCC. This paper describes what is implemented within EXCOM, including the methods used, how the program corrects for deadtime, and how uncertainty is calculated. This paper also describes how to use EXCOM within Excel.

  18. Multiple cystic swelling: Initial presentation of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Jain, A. P.; Waghmare, Swati

    2010-01-01

    Multiple myeloma, a disease allied to malignancy of reticuloendothelial cells, is not an uncommon condition. However, the diagnosis is often made quite late because the disease has multiple modes of presentation. We are reporting a case of multiple myeloma in a 55-year-old male who presented with multiple cystic swellings on the chest. PMID:20931018

  19. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Cancer.gov

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  20. The Multiple Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J. M.; Ulich, B. L.; Shannon, R. R.; Carleton, N. P.; Geary, J. C.; Latham, D. W.; Angel, J. R. P.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Low, F. J.; Weymann, R. J.

    The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), located on top of Mount Hopkins (2600 m) in Arizona, consists of six main telescope systems, each of which is a classical Cassegrain with a 1.8 m diameter parabolic primary with focal ratio f/2.7, and a hyperbolic secondary producing a final f/31.6 for each of the individual telescopes. The most significant departures of the MMT from conventional optical telescope technology are (1) the use of light-weight 'egg-crate' mirrors, which reduced the telescope weight, (2) the use of an alt-azimuth mount, which simplifies the gravitational effects on the structure, (3) the use of a ball-bearing support rather than hydrostatic bearings, resulting in cost savings and less maintenance, (4) the use of spur gear drives rather than worm gears, and (5) the use of multiple coaligned light collectors rather than a single monolithic mirror. Early multiple objective telescopes are discussed, and the early history of the MMT project is given. The design and performance of the telescope are explained, and MMT instrumentation (spectrograph, optical design, detector, infrared photometer, SAO CCD camera) is given. Astronomical research with the telescope is discussed, along with plans for future multiple objective telescopes.

  1. Core Multiplication in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrink, Koleen; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2010-01-01

    A dedicated, non-symbolic, system yielding imprecise representations of large quantities (approximate number system, or ANS) has been shown to support arithmetic calculations of addition and subtraction. In the present study, 5-7-year-old children without formal schooling in multiplication and division were given a task requiring a scalar…

  2. Universality of particle multiplicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goulianos, K.

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e(+)e(-) interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  3. Assessing Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William C.

    This paper explains Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) and discusses questions raised about MI theory in regard to validity, assessment, and implications for instructional activities. MI theory asserts that human cognitive competence is best described in terms of a set of abilities, talents, and mental skills that each child…

  4. A Multiple Intelligence Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuzzi, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    Describes multiple intelligence instruction (MII), based on the theory that humans possess seven intelligences: visual, musical, logical-mathematical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, linguistic, and bodily-kinesthetic. Argues that current methods of assessment are deficit-based and, therefore, not helpful in assessing MII students. Describes an…

  5. Multiple sclerosis: early management.

    PubMed

    Zajicek, J

    The management of multiple sclerosis (MS) is changing, and for the first time treatments which appear to influence the course of the disease are becoming available. This article examines our current understanding of MS pathogenesis and assesses which, if any, of the emerging therapies are likely to make an impact on this potentially disabling condition. PMID:9166373

  6. Multiple Docking Adapter Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This cutaway drawing details the major characteristics of the Skylab Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA). The MDA, built under the direction of the Marshall Space Flight Center, housed the control units for the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP), and Zero-Gravity Materials Processing Facility, and provided a docking port for the Apollo Command Module (CM).

  7. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  8. Managing advanced multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Teasell, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common neurologic conditions in Canada. Many individuals with MS eventually develop the progressive form of the disease. The neurologic and psychosocial manifestations of the later stages of MS are numerous. Family physicians ought to have some understanding of patients with advanced MS and some knowledge of how to manage them. PMID:8499793

  9. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  10. Multiple gap photovoltaic device

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A multiple gap photovoltaic device having a transparent electrical contact adjacent a first cell which in turn is adjacent a second cell on an opaque electrical contact, includes utilizing an amorphous semiconductor as the first cell and a crystalline semiconductor as the second cell.

  11. Multiple listerial liver abscesses.

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, D; Richards, J E; Rees, Y; Wicks, A C

    1987-01-01

    Hepatic involvement in listeriosis is uncommon in adults. Cases previously reported include three presenting as acute hepatitis and three of listerial liver abscesses found at necropsy. We report a case of multiple listerial liver abscesses. We believe this to be the first time this diagnosis has been made in a living patient. PMID:3428693

  12. Multiple Cutaneous Reticulohistiocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Hemmady, Karishma D; Someshwar, Shylaja S; Jerajani, Hemangi R

    2016-01-01

    Multicentric reticulohistiocytosis is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized in its full form by severe destructive arthritis, cutaneous nodules, and systemic manifestations. Cutaneous lesions may precede, accompany, or more commonly develop later than other features in this disease. We describe a case of multiple cutaneous reticulohistiocytoma without any systemic associations after thorough investigations. PMID:26955136

  13. Mastering the Multiplication Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ettorre, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

  14. Multiple sclerosis: changing times.

    PubMed

    Kurtzke, J F

    1991-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is distributed about the world in three zones of high, medium, and low frequency. All high- and medium-risk areas are among predominantly white populations. Migration studies indicate MS is already acquired by age 15 in high-risk endemic areas and that low-to-high migrants increase their risk from age 11 years. Therefore MS is an environmental disease ordinarily acquired in adolescence with a long incubation before symptom onset. Susceptibility is limited to the period from about age 11 to 47. In general, MS death rates have been declining over time while prevalence rates have increased. Incidence rates have also increased, however, in: northeastern Scotland; Turku, Finland; Hordaland, Norway; Rochester, Minn.; Lower Saxony; several areas of Italy. Incidence was unchanged in northernmost Norway. Conversely, incidence and prevalence rates have decreased in the Shetland-Orkneys; there was a cyclical pattern in incidence in Rostock, GDR; and there was a transient doubling of incidence in Iceland in the post-World War II decade. In the Faroe Islands, MS was absent before 1943 when a major point-source epidemic began, reaching an incidence rate of 10 per 100,000 population in 1945. This was followed by two consecutively smaller epidemics with respective peaks each about 12 years later, and there is now a new epidemic IV on these islands. Explanations for changing incidence of MS over time should bring us closer to solving the etiology of this disease. PMID:2062411

  15. Geography in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kurtzke, J F

    1977-04-28

    Both mortality and morbidity data indicate quite clearly that multiple sclerosis is a geographically-related disease, and thus MS can be thought of as an acquired environmental (exogenous) illness. High frequency parts of the world for MS are Europe between 65 degrees and 45 degrees north latitude, northern United States and southern Canada, New Zealand, and southern Australia. These regions are bounded by medium frequency MS regions: in Europe to the north, east, and south; in America for southern U.S.; and the remainder of Australia. Latin America, Asia and Africa are essentially of low frequency from present data. Latitude is not a sufficient criterion: at 40 degrees north latitude, MS is high in America, medium in Europe, and low in Asia. All high and medium risk areas therefore are in Europe or European colonies; thus MS is the white man's burden spread from western Europe. Within the U.S., MS is less common among Negroes, Japanese, and possibly Amerindians than in whites regardless of geography. Migration studies among risk areas indicate that migrants keep much of the risk of their birthplace, but also that overall the risk is decreased by high-to-low migration, and probably increased by low-to-high. For the former, it seems that adolescence is the age critical for retention of birthplace risk. Some preliminary data on a possible epidemic of MS are also presented. All the epidemiologic information would be most easily explained if MS were an infectious (viral) illness with prolonged latency. The proof of this though must come from the laboratory. PMID:67196

  16. Multiplicative Calculus and Student Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Duff

    1999-01-01

    Multiplicative calculus is based on a multiplicative rate of change whereas the usual calculus is based on an additive rate of change. Describes some student investigations into multiplicative calculus, including an original student idea about multiplicative Euler's Method. (Author/ASK)

  17. [Sensitivity and efficiency of intrathecal IgG secretion in multiple sclerosis. Comparison of several indices and formulas using pre-established values of specificity].

    PubMed

    Cordero, M; Viñuela, F; Angulo, S; Martínez-Parra, C; Izquierdo, G

    1997-01-01

    To furnish greater specificity in the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid from patients suspected of having multiple sclerosis, we studied the sensitivity and efficiency of indices and formulas used to calculate intrathecal IgG synthesis in a group of 49 patients with clinically defined multiple sclerosis, using cutoff values based on preestablished levels of specificity (75 and 90%), and compared the findings to those for a control group of patients with other neurological diseases. The best results were obtained with the indices and formulas based on computer models of brain-blood barrier function set forth most recently, namely Reiber's formula and Ohman's index, which had the highest specificity with the least loss of sensitivity. PMID:9432195

  18. Progression of a Fracture Site Impaction as a Prognostic Indicator of Impacted Femoral Neck Fracture Treated with Multiple Pinning

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Shin, Young Ho; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluated the clinical and radiologic results of impacted femoral neck fractures treated with multiple pinning and determined the influence of the progression of impaction at the fracture site on clinical outcome. Methods There were 34 patients with a mean age of 65.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. Progression of fracture site impaction was measured using an articulo-trochanteric distance index and the percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between follow-up intervals. The failure of treatment was clarified as non-union and avascular necrosis. Other characteristics of the patients, including mean waiting time for surgery, preoperative Singh index score, and body mass index, were also measured to evaluate the influence on the clinical outcome of surgery. Results There were 6 fractures which were not treated successfully (3 non-union, 8.8% and 3 avascular necrosis, 8.8%). The mean percentage decrease of the articulo-trochanteric distance index within the first 6 weeks after surgery was 4.5% in the successful group and 25.1% in the failure group (p < 0.001). There was also a significant mean percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between 6 weeks and 3 months (p < 0.001). Conclusions Primary stabilization with Knowles pins for impacted femoral neck fractures had a reasonable clinical outcome with low morbidity. Despite a significant difference of a mean percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between the successful group and the failure group, we could not verify it as a risk factor for failure of treatment because the odds ratio was not statistically significant. PMID:22379557

  19. Individual Differences and Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasko, Daniel, Jr.

    Recent educational research indicates that learners differ in their preferences for learning mode and strategies. Implications for instruction and assessment are discussed as they relate to the Theory of Multiple Intelligences of H. Gardner (1983). One of the principles of the "Learner Centered Psychological Principles" of the American…

  20. Dynamic determination of kinetic parameters for the interaction between polypeptide hormones and cell-surface receptors in the perfused rat liver by the multiple-indicator dilution method

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Sakamoto, S.; Fuwa, T.; Hanano, M. )

    1988-11-01

    Hepatic elimination of epidermal growth factor (EGF) via receptor-mediated endocytosis was studied by a multiple-indicator dilution method in the isolated perfused rat liver, in which cell polarity and spatial organization are maintained. In this method EGF was given with inulin, an extracellular reference, as a bolus into the portal vein, and dilution curves of both compounds in the hepatic vein effluent were analyzed. Analysis of the dilution curve for EGF, compared with that for somatostatin, which showed no specific binding to isolated liver plasma membranes, resulted as follows: (i) both extraction ratio and distribution volume of {sup 125}I-labeled EGF decreased as the injected amount of unlabeled EGF increased; (ii) the ratio plot of the dilution curve for EGF exhibited an upward straight line initially for a short period of time, whereas the ratio plot of somatostatin gradually decreased. The multiple-indicator dilution method was used for other peptides also. Insulin and glucagon, known to have hepatocyte receptors, behaved similarly to EGF in shape of their ratio plots. The kinetic parameters calculated by this analysis were comparable with reported values obtained by in vitro direct binding measurements at equilibrium using liver homogenates. They conclude that the multiple-indicator dilution method is a good tool for analyzing the dynamics of peptide hormones-cell-surface receptor interaction under a condition in which spatial architecture of the liver is maintained.

  1. Treatment of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2011-08-01

    The treatment of multiple myeloma has changed dramatically in the past decade. The increase in the number of active agents has generated numerous possible drug combinations that can be used in the first-line and relapsed settings. As a result, there is considerable confusion about the choice of regimens for initial therapy, role of transplantation in the era of new drugs, end points for therapy, and the role of maintenance therapy. A hotly debated area is whether treatment approaches should achieve cure or disease control, which impacts greatly on the treatment strategy employed. This article provides an update on the treatment of multiple myeloma, with a focus on recent advances, newly diagnosed disease, role of transplantation and maintenance therapy. A synthesized approach to the treatment of myeloma is presented, along with a discussion of key paradigms that need to be challenged. PMID:21522124

  2. Multiple-element transducers.

    PubMed

    Kremkau, F W

    1993-09-01

    Multiple-element transducers, commonly called arrays, contain groups of transducer elements. The complete name of an array, such as the linear sequenced array, describes both how the array is constructed (linear) and how it is operated (sequenced); however, the names most often used are incomplete descriptions, such as the commonly used linear array. The arrays are arranged as a straight or a curved line of rectangular elements (linear or convex array) or concentric rings (annular array). Except for the annular array, which focuses the beam two-dimensionally but cannot steer it, the arrays electronically scan the ultrasound beam without mechanical movement. The image formats produced are a rectangle, parallelogram, and sector. To improve image quality, arrays can electronically focus the transmitted beam at a desired depth or at multiple depths to, in effect, achieve a long focal region. Focusing of received echoes is also accomplished electronically. Dynamic aperture and apodization also improve image quality with arrays. PMID:8210599

  3. Portable multiplicity counter

    DOEpatents

    Newell, Matthew R.; Jones, David Carl

    2009-09-01

    A portable multiplicity counter has signal input circuitry, processing circuitry and a user/computer interface disposed in a housing. The processing circuitry, which can comprise a microcontroller integrated circuit operably coupled to shift register circuitry implemented in a field programmable gate array, is configured to be operable via the user/computer interface to count input signal pluses receivable at said signal input circuitry and record time correlations thereof in a total counting mode, coincidence counting mode and/or a multiplicity counting mode. The user/computer interface can be for example an LCD display/keypad and/or a USB interface. The counter can include a battery pack for powering the counter and low/high voltage power supplies for biasing external detectors so that the counter can be configured as a hand-held device for counting neutron events.

  4. Multiple zeros of polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    For polynomials of higher degree, iterative numerical methods must be used. Four iterative methods are presented for approximating the zeros of a polynomial using a digital computer. Newton's method and Muller's method are two well known iterative methods which are presented. They extract the zeros of a polynomial by generating a sequence of approximations converging to each zero. However, both of these methods are very unstable when used on a polynomial which has multiple zeros. That is, either they fail to converge to some or all of the zeros, or they converge to very bad approximations of the polynomial's zeros. This material introduces two new methods, the greatest common divisor (G.C.D.) method and the repeated greatest common divisor (repeated G.C.D.) method, which are superior methods for numerically approximating the zeros of a polynomial having multiple zeros. These methods were programmed in FORTRAN 4 and comparisons in time and accuracy are given.

  5. Multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Magill, M K; Suruda, A

    1998-09-01

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a syndrome in which multiple symptoms reportedly occur with low-level chemical exposure. Several theories have been advanced to explain the cause of MCS, including allergy, toxic effects and neurobiologic sensitization. There is insufficient scientific evidence to confirm a relationship between any of these possible causes and symptoms. Patients with MCS have high rates of depression, anxiety and somatoform disorders, but it is unclear if a causal relationship or merely an association exists between MCS and psychiatric problems. Physicians should compassionately evaluate and care for patients who have this distressing condition, while avoiding the use of unproven, expensive or potentially harmful tests and treatments. The first goal of management is to establish an effective physician-patient relationship. The patient's efforts to return to work and to a normal social life should be encouraged and supported. PMID:9750540

  6. Multiple booster spaceports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Alan W.

    The need for building a new multiple booster spaceport as a more cost-effective alternative to the currently used vehicle-specific launch facilities is demonstrated. Despite the differences, the current space boosters have a number of systems in common. They all use propellants, require communication systems, launch processing systems, electrical power distribution and control systems, and have structural as well as access requirements. These systems, engineered generically, will form the core of any new spaceport.

  7. Multiple muons in MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  8. Multiple Osteolytic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Several systemic diseases initially present with various oral manifestations. Investigation of these oral symptoms may at times lead to the diagnosis of grave underlying life-threatening conditions. We present one such case, where the patient manifested with gross enlargement of the mandible, along with lesions in the lower limbs. These lesions were the initial manifestation and on further investigations the patient was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. PMID:24516769

  9. Universality of particle multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K. |

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  10. Benign multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Glad, S; Nyland, H; Myhr, K-M

    2006-01-01

    A small fraction of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have a benign course of the disease. The definition of benign MS has been heavily weighted towards physical disability and in particular ambulation. However, patients who are fully ambulatory may still be heavily disabled by non-motor symptoms like fatigue, pain, depression and cognitive dysfunction. These non-motor symptoms should be considered when defining benign MS. PMID:16637931

  11. Multiple Miniature Avionic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rye, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Dorneich, Michael C. (Inventor); Gannon, Aaron J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A display screen for displaying multiple sets of information is provided. In one embodiment, an aviation display screen includes a main window and a plurality of miniature windows. The main window is adapted to illustrate one set of information. Each miniature window is adapted to display a set of avionic information. The avionic display is further adapted to toggle a select set of avionic information in one of the miniature windows into the main window.

  12. Multiple myeloma: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Slovak, Marilyn L

    2011-12-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells characterized by complex genetic aberrations and heterogeneous outcomes. Over the past 25 years, cytogenetic analysis has played a key role in the diagnosis and management of MM. This article reviews the conventional cytogenetics, molecular cytogenetics, and genomic diagnostics of MM and highlights a few recent clinical trials that demonstrate the impact of genetic risk stratification on the treatment of this plasma cell malignancy. PMID:22118745

  13. Lipedema with multiple lipomas.

    PubMed

    Pascucci, Anabella; Lynch, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    Lipedema is an underdiagnosed syndrome of unclear etiology, characterized by symmetric painful enlargement of the buttocks and lower extremities, which spares the feet. This enlargement is caused by the deposition of adipose tissue. It was first described by Allen and Hines in 1940, who observed that it had a female predilection; patients commonly had an associated family history. We describe a patient with classic lipedema and multiple lipomas of her arms and trunk. PMID:20875325

  14. Asymptomatic Nonsyndromic Multiple Supernumerary Premolars

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Mridula

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The apparently morphologically normal finding of multiple supernumerary teeth in absence of an associated systemic condition or syndrome is an uncommon phenomenon. Surgical removal of supernumerary teeth is indicated if eruption of the adjacent teeth has been delayed; altered eruption, displacement of adjacent teeth is evident or pathologies such as cystic lesion and resorption of adjacent tooth have occurred. If the risks of surgery outweigh the benefits of removal, the teeth may be left in situ and a regular radiographic monitoring should be made. How to cite this article: Gupta S, Goswami M. Asymptomatic Nonsyndromic Multiple Supernumerary Premolars. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2012;5(1):84-86. PMID:25206142

  15. Multiple myeloma: evaluation by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiman, J.S.; McLeod, R.A.; Kyle, R.A.; Beabout, J.W.

    1985-02-01

    Although patients who have multiple myeloma usually have straightforward clinical symptoms and corroborative radiographs, in some instances, these patients will present atypically, with symptoms suggesting active disease but radiographs that are normal or nonspecific. The authors reviewed the records of 32 patients who had documented multiple myeloma and had undergone CT examinations, assessing the value of those examinations. Although CT is not indicated in all patients who have multiple myeloma, it is especially useful in patients who have bone pain and normal or nonspecific radiographs. CT provided confirmatory information in all cases in which lesions were seen on radiographs. CT also frequently demonstrated a greater extent of disease than could be appreciated on the radiographs.

  16. A comparison of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging for mapping patterns of herbivore species abundance in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Smit, Izak P.J.; Ingram, Ben R.

    2015-01-01

    Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, provides protected habitats for the unique animals of the African savannah. For the past 40 years, annual aerial surveys of herbivores have been conducted to aid management decisions based on (1) the spatial distribution of species throughout the park and (2) total species populations in a year. The surveys are extremely time consuming and costly. For many years, the whole park was surveyed, but in 1998 a transect survey approach was adopted. This is cheaper and less time consuming but leaves gaps in the data spatially. Also the distance method currently employed by the park only gives estimates of total species populations but not their spatial distribution. We compare the ability of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging to accurately map species distribution in the park. A leave-one-out cross-validation approach indicates that multiple indicator kriging makes poor estimates of the number of animals, particularly the few large counts, as the indicator variograms for such high thresholds are pure nugget. Poisson kriging was applied to the prediction of two types of abundance data: spatial density and proportion of a given species. Both Poisson approaches had standardized mean absolute errors (St. MAEs) of animal counts at least an order of magnitude lower than multiple indicator kriging. The spatial density, Poisson approach (1), gave the lowest St. MAEs for the most abundant species and the proportion, Poisson approach (2), did for the least abundant species. Incorporating environmental data into Poisson approach (2) further reduced St. MAEs. PMID:25729318

  17. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification.

    PubMed

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan; Klein, Stefan S; Niessen, Wiro J; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and sparsity level. PMID:26177106

  18. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    PubMed Central

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and sparsity level. PMID:26177106

  19. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) is a term used to describe a group of hereditary carcinoma syndromes. Patients carrying a characteristic autosomal dominant gene aberration exhibit various endocrine carcinomas, as well as other anatomical abnormalities. Unfortunately, familial endocrine carcinoma patients are too often unrecognized by primary care providers, resulting in delayed diagnosis and treatment, with profound consequences related to morbidity and mortality. This article will introduce the various MEN syndromes and the infusion nurse's role in the care of these individuals and their families. PMID:26536410

  20. Multiple sclerosis and viruses.

    PubMed

    Brahic, Michel

    2010-07-01

    Discussing the problem of multiple sclerosis and viruses should not be limited to reviewing the epidemiological evidence in favor, or against, a particular candidate, such as Epstein-Barr virus or human herpes virus 6. In this text, I discuss the difficulty of going from association to causation in human epidemiology; the fact that viruses can trigger or prevent autoimmunity; the problem of our very limited knowledge of the viruses that we harbor as part of our metagenome; and the role of such viral flora in multifactorial diseases and also, possibly, in health. PMID:20582990

  1. Complex Gaussian Multiplicative Chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoin, Hubert; Rhodes, Rémi; Vargas, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    In this article, we study complex Gaussian multiplicative chaos. More precisely, we study the renormalization theory and the limit of the exponential of a complex log-correlated Gaussian field in all dimensions (including Gaussian Free Fields in dimension 2). Our main working assumption is that the real part and the imaginary part are independent. We also discuss applications in 2 D string theory; in particular we give a rigorous mathematical definition of the so-called Tachyon fields, the conformally invariant operators in critical Liouville Quantum Gravity with a c = 1 central charge, and derive the original KPZ formula for these fields.

  2. [Multiple sclerosis--update].

    PubMed

    Mattle, H P

    2005-07-27

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Its etiology is not known, but it is well established that auto-reactive T-cells and monocytes play an important pathogenetic role. The inflammation causes focal demyelination and loss of axons, neurons and glial cells. Typical symptoms and signs are monocular blurred vision, double vision, sensory symptoms and motor weakness, and eventually also cognitive deficits and a disturbed micturition. In younger patients the neurological deficits tend to be present for a limited time and then to improve and disappear, only to be followed by new and different deficits later on. Each relapse may leave neurological deficits which in a later course tend to progress slowly, uninterrupted by remissions. When older patients present for the first time with MS, they tend to present with primary progressive spasticity. Important ancillary tests and findings to confirm the diagnosis are multiple focal lesions on MR images, oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid, and slowed evoked potentials. Relapses are treated with corticosteroids. Immunomodulation with beta-interferons or glatiramer acetate reduce the number and severity of relapses and long-term disability. Very active forms can be treated with immunosuppression using mitoxantrone. Individual manifestations such as urinary tract infections or paroxysmal phenomena should be treated accordingly with medication. PMID:16117472

  3. Multiple symbol differential detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

  4. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  5. Multiple Intestinal Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Mastalier, B; Deaconescu, Violeta; Elaiah, W; Drăghici, C; Popp, Cristiana; Zurac, Sabina; Balea, M; Tevet, Mihaela; Botezatu, C

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract is the most common location for extralymphonodular lymphomas. The small intestine is affected only in 9% of the cases. Intestinal lymphoma may have single or multiple location. This paper describes a case of multiple location in the small intestine of a non-Hodgkin B-cell in a 53 years old patient, who was initially diagnosed with bilateral pneumonia with pleurisy with E. coli, steeper on the right side, but the persistence of symptoms as fever, malaise, despite appropriate treatment, required further investigation. The CT exam observed fluid collection in the hypogastrium around a digestive loop. The patient underwent surgery, the intraoperative foundings being: a large mesenteric tumor - 5 cm in diameter, a terminal ileal mesenteric tumor, a mesenteric tumor - 6 cm in diameter, omentum with nodular formations, a tumor - 3.3/2.5.1 cm in the abdominal wall, pseudotumoral appendix. Segmental. enterectomy with entero-enterostomy, excision of mesenteric tumors, appendectomy and omentectomy were performed. Pathological diagnosis was non-Hodgkin marginal zone B-cell MALT type lymphoma of the small intestine with extension to the appendix, meso, omentum and abdominal wall. Postoperatively, the patient received chemotherapy for remission. PMID:26076564

  6. Smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent; Landgren, Ola; Mateos, Mara-Victoria

    2015-05-14

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder. SMM is distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by a much higher risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM). There have been major advances in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of SMM in the last few years. These include a revised disease definition, identification of several new prognostic factors, a classification based on underlying cytogenetic changes, and new treatment options. Importantly, a subset of patients previously considered SMM is now reclassified as MM on the basis of biomarkers identifying patients with an ?80% risk of progression within 2 years. SMM has assumed greater significance on the basis of recent trials showing that early therapy can be potentially beneficial to patients. As a result, there is a need to accurately diagnose and risk-stratify patients with SMM, including routine incorporation of modern imaging and laboratory techniques. In this review, we outline current concepts in diagnosis and risk stratification of SMM, and provide specific recommendations on the management of SMM. PMID:25838344

  7. [Treatment of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Terriou, L; Leleu, X; Yakoub-Agha, I

    2006-01-01

    Treatment of patients with multiple myeloma has shown considerable progress these last two decades. While autologous stem cell transplantation seems to be agreed as the "gold standard" of front-line treatment in the young patients, the result of IFM99-06 prospective study would probably lead to a change regarding treatment of elderly as patients who received the thalidomide-melphalan-prednison association had better overall survival than those who received either the standard melphalan-prednison association or an intensive treatment. The best innovative therapeutic concept is illustrated by the new molecules that target both the myeloma cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Thus, thalidomide and derivatives (Revlimid and the Actimid) and Velcade have transformed considerably the history of multiple myeloma. They have not to be considered as competitors but rather complementary whose impact will probably come of their combination and their association with the intensive treatments. The issues of maintenance therapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the treatment of patients with myeloma remain to be addressed. PMID:16455512

  8. Phase-multiplication holography

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, H.D.; Prince, J.M.; Davis, T.J.

    1982-01-25

    This disclosure relates generally to nondestructive testing for identifying structural characteristics of an object by scanned holographic techniques using a known source of radiation, such as electromagnetic or acoustical radiation. It is an object of this invention to provide an apparatus and method for synthetic aperture expansion in holographic imaging applications to construct fringe patterns capable of holographic reproduction where aperture restrictions in nondestructive testing applications would conventionally make such imaging techniques impossible. The apparatus and method result in the production of a sharply defined frontal image of structural characteristics which could not otherwise be imaged because they occur either near the surface of the object or are confined by geometry restricting aperture dimensions available for scanning purposes. The depth of the structural characteristic below the surface of the object can also be determined by the reconstruction parameters which produce the sharpest focus. Lateral resolution is established by simulated reduction in the radiation wavelength and may easily be an order of magnitude less than the electromagnetic wavelength in the material or 2 times the standard depth of penetration. Since the phase multiplication technique is performed on the detected data, the penetration depth available due to the longer wavelength signals applied to the test object remains unchanged. The phase multiplication technique can also be applied to low frequency acoustic holography, resulting in a test which combines excellent penetration of difficult materials with high resolution images.

  9. Management of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Perrin Ross, Amy

    2013-11-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), a disease of the central nervous system that disrupts signals within the brain and also the signals between the brain and body, will likely experience symptoms that may negatively impact their quality of life (QOL). Due to the complexity of MS and its disease burden, multidisciplinary management that combines pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic strategies with patient education is necessary. Diagnosing relapses of MS in clinical practice can be difficult due to the multiple subtypes of MS, variations of symptomatology, and pseudo-relapses. Managing relapses also presents its own set of challenges, for example, evaluating if treatment is appropriate and determining which agent would be most effective for a patient if treatment is recommended. Patient education is essential for achieving optimal outcomes for patients with MS and improving patient QOL, and should increase awareness of: (1) the disease itself and its progression; (2) the signs and symptoms of MS; (3) current treatment strategies and plan of care; (4) the recognition and management of relapses; (5) the value of treatment adherence and impact of nonadherence; and (6) hope for the future. The management of active MS may be further complicated by the complex variety of pharmacotherapeutic options, and in some instances, by having to switch between agents and drug classes. Newer agents in development (eg, alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab, laquinimod) offer the opportunity to expand the therapeutic armamentarium, although further long-term data are required to evaluate any safety concerns associated with newer agents. PMID:24494619

  10. Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Y; Chitnis, Tanuja

    2016-04-01

    Pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory neurologic disease that is challenging to diagnose and treat. Although there are many clinical parallels between pediatric-onset MS and adult-onset MS, there is also accumulating evidence of distinguishing clinical features that may, in part, arise from development-specific, neuroimmune processes governing MS pathogenesis in children. Here the authors describe the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric MS, with a particular focus on describing clinical features and highlighting new developments that promise a better understanding of pediatric MS pathogenesis. An important task that lies ahead for pediatric neurologists is better understanding the early gene-environment interaction that precipitates the first demyelinating event in pediatric MS. This area is of particular importance for understanding the MS etiology and the natural history of pediatric MS. Such understanding should in turn inform new developments in diagnostic tools, long-term therapies, and much-needed biomarkers. Such biomarkers are not only valuable for defining the disease onset, but also for monitoring both the treatment response and a disease evolution that spans multiple decades in children with MS. PMID:27116721

  11. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, Norman J.; Zhang, Jian Z.

    1995-01-01

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibres to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands.

  12. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth. PMID:27067000

  13. Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D

    MedlinePlus

    ... Editors David C. Spencer, MD Steven Karceski, MD Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D Andrew J. Solomon, MD WHAT ... caused by improper immune responses (autoimmune diseases), including multiple sclerosis (MS). A recent Patient Page in Neurology provided ...

  14. Reflections from Multiple Teacher Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, J. Darrell

    1977-01-01

    Based on personal experience, the author suggests some common sense rules to follow in setting up a multiple teacher vocational agriculture program and concludes with a list of seven advantages of multiple teacher departments. (BM)

  15. Multiple mandibular fractures. Treatment outlines.

    PubMed

    Elia, Giovanni; Franco, Elena; Clauser, Luigi C

    2016-02-01

    Multiple mandibular comminuted fractures usually occur in high energy traumas. The authors describe the management and treatment of multiple mandibular fractures in a young patient after a suicide attempt. PMID:26862697

  16. Genetics Home Reference: multiple sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pericak-Vance MA, Haines JL; Multiple Sclerosis Genetics Group. Interleukin 7 receptor alpha chain (IL7R) shows allelic and functional association with multiple sclerosis. Nat Genet. 2007 Sep; ...

  17. Input Multiplicities in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppel, Lowell B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes research investigating potential effect of input multiplicity on multivariable chemical process control systems. Several simple processes are shown to exhibit the possibility of theoretical developments on input multiplicity and closely related phenomena are discussed. (JN)

  18. Twins, Triplets, and Other Multiples

    MedlinePlus

    ... what? Pregnancy This information in Spanish ( en español ) Twins, triplets, and other multiples How twins are formed ... can increase the likelihood of multiple births. How twins are formed Twins form in one of two ...

  19. Multiple-Trellis-Coded Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Simon, M. K.

    1990-01-01

    Theoretical gain over simple multiple-phase-shift keying at least 2 to 3 decibels. Multiple-trellis-coded modulation scheme combined with M-ary modulation shows theoretically to yield asymptotic gains in performance over uncoded multiple-phase-shift keying, while employing symmetric multiple-phase-shift signal constellations and avoiding code catastrophe. Suitable for satellite and terrestrial-mobile/satellite communications or other communications requiring burst-error correction. Extended to such higher dimensional modulations as quadrature amplitude modulation.

  20. Teaching EFL to Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosn, Irma K.

    This paper is in large part a critique of Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences presented in his 1983 book "Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences," and asserts that the multiple intelligences (MI) concept has been widely misinterpreted. The paper outlines some of the misconceptions of Gardner's theory as identified by…

  1. Bayes multiple decision functions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting through simulation studies. The procedure is also applied to a subset of a microarray data set from a colon cancer study. PMID:25414762

  2. Development of multiple linear regression models as predictive tools for fecal indicator concentrations in a stretch of the lower Lahn River, Germany.

    PubMed

    Herrig, Ilona M; Ber, Simone I; Brennholt, Nicole; Manz, Werner

    2015-11-15

    Since rivers are typically subject to rapid changes in microbiological water quality, tools are needed to allow timely water quality assessment. A promising approach is the application of predictive models. In our study, we developed multiple linear regression (MLR) models in order to predict the abundance of the fecal indicator organisms Escherichia coli (EC), intestinal enterococci (IE) and somatic coliphages (SC) in the Lahn River, Germany. The models were developed on the basis of an extensive set of environmental parameters collected during a 12-months monitoring period. Two models were developed for each type of indicator: 1) an extended model including the maximum number of variables significantly explaining variations in indicator abundance and 2) a simplified model reduced to the three most influential explanatory variables, thus obtaining a model which is less resource-intensive with regard to required data. Both approaches have the ability to model multiple sites within one river stretch. The three most important predictive variables in the optimized models for the bacterial indicators were NH4-N, turbidity and global solar irradiance, whereas chlorophyll a content, discharge and NH4-N were reliable model variables for somatic coliphages. Depending on indicator type, the extended mode models also included the additional variables rainfall, O2 content, pH and chlorophyll a. The extended mode models could explain 69% (EC), 74% (IE) and 72% (SC) of the observed variance in fecal indicator concentrations. The optimized models explained the observed variance in fecal indicator concentrations to 65% (EC), 70% (IE) and 68% (SC). Site-specific efficiencies ranged up to 82% (EC) and 81% (IE, SC). Our results suggest that MLR models are a promising tool for a timely water quality assessment in the Lahn area. PMID:26318647

  3. Multiple-scale study of fracture indicators at eight sites across the Appalachian orogen in Pennsylvania: Summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, C.A. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    Four scales of remote sensing were used to investigate fracture indicators (lineaments and fracture traces) at 8 study areas: (1) 1:500,000 Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper; (2) 1:250,000 Side-Looking Airborne Radar mosaics; (3) 1:80,000 National High-Altitude Program aerial photographs; and (4) 1:20,000 Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service aerial photographs. To allow for inter-comparison of results, two traverses of four study areas were arranged across the four major physiographic regions in the Appalachian orogen, (1) Plateau, (2) Ridge and Valley, (3) Great Valley; and (4) Piedmont. The remote sensing results for the Plateau and Ridge and Valley areas indicate that observed orientations are concentrated in the NW to NNW. Orientation peaks for the areas are less well defined but tend to be parallel and perpendicular to Mesozoic features. These findings indicate that causal relationships exist between bedrock paleo-stress trajectories and observed fracture indicator maxima. The results of the geomorphic parameter studies indicate that these features are complexly controlled by factors other than bedrock fracture fabric, most notably bedrock strike. Other findings of this study may generally characterize relationships between classes of fracture indicators. As imagery scale number increases: the average degree of expression of lineament features decreases; lineament frequency over each study area decreases in a decay curve; plots of average lineament length show a positive trend for the three larger scales; and total lineament length over the study area shows a decay curve. Other results define potentially useful relationships between feature length, type, and degree of expression.

  4. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  5. Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

  6. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  7. Social Support and Well-Being in Contemporary Greek Society: Examination of Multiple Indicators at Different Levels of Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafetsios, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    An extensive and coherent body of social and psychological research has identified social ties and supportive relationships as important predictors of well-being and quality of life. This paper examines the relationships between structural and functional indicators of supportive relations and well-being in Greece at different levels of analysis…

  8. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the

  9. Multiple-port valve

    DOEpatents

    Doody, Thomas J.

    1978-08-22

    A multiple-port valve assembly is designed to direct flow from a primary conduit into any one of a plurality of secondary conduits as well as to direct a reverse flow. The valve includes two mating hemispherical sockets that rotatably receive a spherical valve plug. The valve plug is attached to the primary conduit and includes diverging passageways from that conduit to a plurality of ports. Each of the ports is alignable wih one or more of a plurality of secondary conduits fitted into one of the hemispherical sockets. The other hemispherical socket includes a slot for the primary conduit such that the conduit's motion along that slot with rotation of the spherical plug about various axes will position the valve-plug ports in respect to the secondary conduits.

  10. MULTIPLE SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Schofield, A.E.

    1958-07-22

    A multiple spark gap switch of unique construction is described which will permit controlled, simultaneous discharge of several capacitors into a load. The switch construction includes a disc electrode with a plurality of protuberances of generally convex shape on one surface. A firing electrode is insulatingly supponted In each of the electrode protuberances and extends substantially to the apex thereof. Individual electrodes are disposed on an insulating plate parallel with the disc electrode to form a number of spark gaps with the protuberances. These electrodes are each connected to a separate charged capacitor and when a voltage ls applied simultaneously between the trigger electrodes and the dlsc electrode, each spark gap fires to connect its capacitor to the disc electrode and a subsequent load.

  11. Vaccines in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Eric M L; Chahin, Salim; Berger, Joseph R

    2016-04-01

    Vaccinations help prevent communicable disease. To be valuable, a vaccine's ability to prevent disease must exceed the risk of adverse effects from administration. Many vaccines present no risk of infection as they are comprised of killed or non-infectious components while other vaccines consist of live attenuated microorganisms which carry a potential risk of infection-particularly, in patients with compromised immunity. There are several unique considerations with respect to vaccination in the multiple sclerosis (MS) population. First, there has been concern that vaccination may trigger or aggravate the disease. Second, disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) employed in the treatment of MS may increase the risk of infectious complications from vaccines or alter their efficacy. Lastly, in some cases, vaccination strategies may be part of the treatment paradigm in attempts to avoid complications of therapy. PMID:26922172

  12. Multiple detectors "Influence Method".

    PubMed

    Rios, I J; Mayer, R E

    2016-05-01

    The "Influence Method" is conceived for the absolute determination of a nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency and without the need to register coincidences of any kind. This method exploits the influence of the presence of one detector in the count rate of another detector, when they are placed one behind the other and define statistical estimators for the absolute number of incident particles and for the efficiency (Rios and Mayer, 2015a). Its detailed mathematical description was recently published (Rios and Mayer, 2015b) and its practical implementation in the measurement of a moderated neutron flux arising from an isotopic neutron source was exemplified in (Rios and Mayer, 2016). With the objective of further reducing the measurement uncertainties, in this article we extend the method for the case of multiple detectors placed one behind the other. The new estimators for the number of particles and the detection efficiency are herein derived. PMID:26943904

  13. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  14. Multiple stage railgun

    SciTech Connect

    Aaland, K.; Hawke, R.S.; Scudder, J.K.

    1982-08-10

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator for accelerating a projectile by movement of a plasma arc along the rails. The railgun is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources as the projectile moves through the bore of the railgun. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can be prevented by connection of the energy sources to the rails through isolation diodes. Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails into electrically isolated rail sections. In such case means are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse or laser device is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  15. Multiple Sclerosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    INALOO, Soroor; HAGHBIN, Saideh

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most important immune-mediated demyelinated disease of human which is typically the disease of young adults. A total of 4% to 5% of MS population are pediatric. Pediatric MS is defined as the appearance of MS before the age of sixteen. About 80% of the pediatric cases and nearly all adolescent onset patients present with attacks typical to adult MS. Approximately 97% to 99% of the affected children have relapsing-remitting MS, while 85% to 95% of the adults experience such condition. MS in children is associated with more frequent and severe relapses. Treatment is the same as adults. We aimed to review the epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MS in children. PMID:24665290

  16. Metabolomics in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Pavan; Calabresi, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system with inflammatory and degenerative components. The cause of MS remains unknown although genetic and environmental factors appear to play a role in its etiopathogenesis. Metabolomics is a new "omics" technology that aims at measuring small molecules in various biological matrices and can provide information that is not readily obtained from genomics, transcriptomics, or proteomics. Currently, several different analytical platforms exist for metabolomics, and both untargeted and targeted approaches are being employed. Methods of analysis of metabolomics data are also being developed and no consensus currently exists on the optimal approach to analysis and interpretation of these data. Metabolomics has the potential to provide putative biomarkers, insights into the pathophysiology of the disease, and to aid in precision medicine for patients with MS. PMID:26754801

  17. Immunology of Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sospedra, Mireia; Martin, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered a prototypic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). A complex genetic background with the HLA-DR15 haplotype as the main genetic risk factor and over 100 mostly immune-related minor risk alleles as well as several environmental factors contribute to the etiology of MS. With respect to pathomechanisms, autoimmune inflammation in early MS is primarily mediated by adaptive immune responses and involves autoreactive T cells, B cells, and antibodies, while the later, chronic stages of MS are characterized by a compartmentalized immune response in the CNS with activated microglia and macrophages. A host of immune cells and mediators can contribute to the autoimmune process, but CNS-related factors such as localization of lesions, vulnerability of oligodendrocytes, neurons/axons, and secondary metabolic changes all play a role in the heterogeneous expression of the disease, including different pathologic lesion patterns, neuroimaging findings, disease courses, and severity and response to treatment. PMID:27116718

  18. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J.; Donohoe, Anthony J.

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  19. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  20. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.; Schuler, Jason M.; Chandler, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that utilized multiple fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, for the design and assembly of a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, for the design and assembly of a portable four monitor hyper wall strip that could extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill that could be utilized on a next generation robot or rover, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and creation of a new outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory.

  1. Tremor in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marcus; Mostert, Jop; Heersema, Dorothea; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-02-01

    Tremor is estimated to occur in about 25 to 60 percent of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). This symptom, which can be severely disabling and embarrassing for patients, is difficult to manage. Isoniazid in high doses, carbamazepine, propranolol and gluthetimide have been reported to provide some relief, but published evidence of effectiveness is very limited. Most trials were of small size and of short duration. Cannabinoids appear ineffective. Tremor reduction can be obtained with stereotactic thalamotomy or thalamic stimulation. However, the studies were small and information on long-term functional outcome is scarce. Physiotherapy, tremor reducing orthoses, and limb cooling can achieve some functional improvement. Tremor in MS remains a significant challenge and unmet need, requiring further basic and clinical research. PMID:17318714

  2. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output OFDM with Index Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basar, Ertugrul

    2015-12-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing with index modulation (OFDM-IM) is a novel multicarrier transmission technique which has been proposed as an alternative to classical OFDM. The main idea of OFDM-IM is the use of the indices of the active subcarriers in an OFDM system as an additional source of information. In this work, we propose multiple-input multiple-output OFDM-IM (MIMO-OFDM-IM) scheme by combining OFDM-IM and MIMO transmission techniques. The low complexity transceiver structure of the MIMO-OFDM-IM scheme is developed and it is shown via computer simulations that the proposed MIMO-OFDM-IM scheme achieves significantly better error performance than classical MIMO-OFDM for several different system configurations.

  3. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  4. Molecular screening of microbial communities for candidate indicators of multiple metal impacts in marine sediments from northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Cornall, Alyssa; Rose, Alea; Streten, Claire; McGuinness, Keith; Parry, David; Gibb, Karen

    2016-02-01

    Coastal sediments accumulate metals from anthropogenic sources and as a consequence industry is required to monitor sediment health. The total concentration of a metal does not necessarily reflect its potential toxicity or biological impact, so biological assessment tools are useful for monitoring. Rapid biological assessment tools sensitive enough to detect relatively small increases in metal concentrations would provide early warning of future ecosystem impact. The authors investigated in situ populations of Archaea and Bacteria as potential tools for rapid biological assessment in sediment at 4 northern Australian coastal locations over 2 yr, in both wet and dry seasons. The 1 M HCl-extractable concentrations of metals in sediment were measured, and Archaeal and Bacterial community profiles were obtained by next-generation sequencing of sediment deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Species response curves were used to identify several taxonomic groups with potential as biological indicators of metal impact. Spatial variation, sediment grain size, water depth, and dissolved oxygen also correlated with microbial population shifts. Seasonal variation was less important than geographic location. Metal-challenge culture trials supported the identification of metal-resistant and -sensitive taxa. In situ Archaea and Bacteria are potentially sensitive indicators for changes in bioavailable concentrations of metals; however, the complexity of the system suggests it is important to identify metal-specific functional genes that may be informed by these sequencing surveys, and thus provide a useful addition to identity-based assays. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:468-484. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26274631

  5. Phylogeographical Analysis of mtDNA Data Indicates Postglacial Expansion from Multiple Glacial Refugia in Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    PubMed Central

    Klütsch, Cornelya F. C.; Manseau, Micheline; Wilson, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ∼1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544–22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record that caribou were distributed in these areas during the Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the last glacial maximum substantially shaped the phylogeographical structure of this large mammalian North American species that will be affected by climatic change. Therefore, the presented results will be essential for future conservation planning in woodland caribou. PMID:23285137

  6. Individual classification of children with epilepsy using support vector machine with multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Amarreh, Ishmael; Meyerand, Mary E.; Stafstrom, Carl; Hermann, Bruce P.; Birn, Rasmus M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Support vector machines (SVM) have recently been demonstrated to be useful for voxel-based MR image classification. In the present study we sought to evaluate whether this method is feasible in the classification of childhood epilepsy intractability based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), with adequate accuracy. We applied SVM in conjunction DTI indices of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). DTI studies have reported white matter abnormalities in childhood-onset epilepsy, but the mechanisms underlying these abnormalities are not well understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between epileptic seizures and cerebral white matter abnormalities identified by DTI in children with active compared to remitted epilepsy utilizing an automated and unsupervised classification method. Methods The DTI data were tensor-derived indices including FA, MD, AD and RD in 49 participants including 20 children with epilepsy 5–6 years after seizure onset as compared to healthy controls. To determine whether there was normalization of white matter diffusion behavior following cessation of seizures and treatment, the epilepsy subjects were grouped into those with active versus remitted epilepsy. Group comparisons were previously made examining FA, MD and RD via whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). The SVM analysis was undertaken with the WEKA software package with 10-fold cross validation. Weighted sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were measured for all the DTI indices for two classifications: (1) controls vs. all children with epilepsy and (2) controls vs. children with remitted epilepsy vs. children with active epilepsy. Results Using TBSS, significant differences were identified between controls and all children with epilepsy, between controls and children with active epilepsy, and also between the active and remitted epilepsy groups. There were no significant differences between the remitted epilepsy and controls on any DTI measure. In the SVM analysis, the best predictor between controls and all children with epilepsy was MD, with a sensitivity of 90–100% and a specificity between 96.6 and 100%. For the three-way classification, the best results were for FA with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion DTI-based SVM classification appears promising for distinguishing children with active epilepsy from either those with remitted epilepsy or controls, and the question that arises is whether it will prove useful as a prognostic index of seizure remission. While SVM can correctly identify children with active epilepsy from other groups' diagnosis, further research is needed to determine the efficacy of SVM as a prognostic tool in longitudinal clinical studies. PMID:24936426

  7. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the most sensitive to toxic air contaminants in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region.

  8. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Jenny C.; Eren, A. Murat; Green, Hyatt C.; Shanks, Orin C.; Morrison, Hilary G.; Vineis, Joseph H.; Sogin, Mitchell L.

    2015-01-01

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts. PMID:26231648

  9. Expression Analysis and Binding Assays in the Chemosensory Protein Gene Family Indicate Multiple Roles in Helicoverpa armigera.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Qun; Zhang, Shuai; Luo, Jun-Yu; Zhu, Jing; Cui, Jin-Jie; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2015-05-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) have been proposed to capture and transport hydrophobic chemicals to receptors on sensory neurons. We identified and cloned 24 CSP genes to better understand the physiological function of CSPs in Helicoverpa armigera. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays indicate that CSP genes are ubiquitously expressed in adult H. armigera tissues. Broad expression patterns in adult tissues suggest that CSPs are involved in a diverse range of cellular processes, including chemosensation as well as other functions not related to chemosensation. The H. armigera CSPs that were highly transcribed in sensory organs or pheromone glands (HarmCSPs 6, 9, 18, 19), were recombinantly expressed in bacteria to explore their function. Fluorescent competitive binding assays were used to measure the binding affinities of these CSPs against 85 plant volatiles and 4 pheromone components. HarmCSP6 displays high binding affinity for pheromone components, whereas the other three proteins do not show affinities for any of the compounds tested. HarmCSP6 is expressed in numerous cells located in or close to long sensilla trichodea on the antennae of both males and females. These results suggest that HarmCSP6 may be involved in transporting female sex pheromones in H. armigera. PMID:25893790

  10. A multiple indicator, residue detection method for measurement of amino acid transport in skeletal muscle in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Bading, J.R.; Ekman, L.G.; Roh, M.S.; Gelbard, A.; Brennan, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    The authors' aim is to develop a method, applicable to man, for quantitative study of amino acid transport in skeletal muscle using tracer amino acids labeled with N-13 or C-11. Fasted, barbiturate-anesthetized dogs were catheterized for femoral artery injection. A mixture of N-13 L-glutamate (Glu) and Tc-99m HSA in 0.5-1.0 ml of saline was bolus injected, and radiolabel kinetics recorded over superficial thigh muscle with a collimated detector. Data for recirculation correction were simultaneously recorded over the contralateral site. The extracellular agent EDTA, labeled with In-113m, was used in the same manner to study molecular kinetics in the interstitial fluid. Regional tissue masses were measured with transmission scans, and regional blood plasma volumes were determined from equilibrium plasma concentrations and quantitative scans of HSA. Plasma mean transit times were computed from HSA kinetics (height/area method) and used with the plasma volume and tissue mass data to determine regional plasma flow/tissue mass. Values ranged from 2 to 22 ml/min/100g. Extraction efficiencies E were determined graphically from the kinetic data. Measured capillary E's for both Glu and EDTA are directly related to the plasma mean transmit times. The data indicate the capillary wall to be the primary barrier to passage of glutamate into muscle cells; the interstitium-intracellular E is nearly unity. Capillary permeability-surface area products were computed (Renkin-Crone model) to be 4.6 +- 0.9 and 2.1 +- 0.5 ml/min/100g for Glu and EDTA respectively. This relatively simple method provides reproducible values of transport parameters which are consistent with published values.

  11. Reduction in C-reactive protein indicates successful targeting of the IL-1/IL-6 axis resulting in improved survival in early stage multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Lust, John A; Lacy, Martha Q; Zeldenrust, Steven R; Witzig, Thomas E; Moon-Tasson, Laurie L; Dinarello, Charles A; Donovan, Kathleen A

    2016-06-01

    We report the long-term follow-up results of a phase II trial of IL-1 receptor antagonist and low-dose dexamethasone for early stage multiple myeloma (MM). Patients were eligible if they had smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or indolent multiple myeloma (IMM) without the need for immediate therapy. Forty seven patients were enrolled and subsequently treated with IL-1Ra; in 25/47 low-dose dexamethasone (20 mg weekly) was added. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). In the clinical trial, three patients achieved a minor response (MR) to IL-1Ra alone; five patients a partial response (PR) and four patients an MR after addition of dexamethasone. Seven patients showed a decrease in the plasma cell labeling index (PCLI) which paralleled a decrease in the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). The median PFS for the 47 patients was 1116 days (37.2 months). The median PFS for patients without (n = 22) and with (n = 25) a decrease in their baseline hs-CRP was 326 days (11 months) vs. 3139 days (104 months) respectively (P <0.0001). The median overall survival (OS) for the 47 patients was 3482 days (9.5 years). The median OS for patients without and with a decrease in their baseline hs-CRP was 2885 days (7.9 years) vs. median not reached, respectively (P = 0.001). In SMM/IMM patients at risk for progression to active myeloma, reduction in the hs-CRP indicates successful targeting of the IL-1/IL-6 axis resulting in improved PFS and OS. (Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT00635154) Am. J. Hematol. 91:571-574, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26945843

  12. Multiple tree-ring isotopes as environmental indicators of diffuse atmospheric pollution in a peri-urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucet, A.; Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Ouarda, T. B.; Marion, J.

    2010-12-01

    The combined analyses of tree-ring δ13C, δ18O, δ15N, 206Pb/207Pb, 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/208Pb isotope ratios of three red spruce specimens from the Tantaré ecological reserve located 40 km northwest of Québec City (Canada) were studied with the aim of reconstructing environmental conditions and unravel past air-quality changes of the 1880-2007 period. To separate the tree-ring δ18O and δ13C patterns induced by natural conditions from those generated by anthropogenic perturbations, a linear regression was applied between the most explicative meteorological parameters and the isotopic series for the period of low pollution (1880 to 1909). The model equations were then applied to the most recent part of the series (1910-2007) to verify if climatic conditions have remained the main driver of the tree-ring isotopic variations. The good fit between the modeled and measured δ18O series for the entire studied period suggests that the assimilation of oxygen by red spruce trees is not significantly affected by pollution stress near Québec City. However, the deviation between the measured and modeled δ13C values for the 1944-2007 period indicates that diffuse pollution affected carbon assimilation by the investigated trees. To independently validate if atmospheric pollution could have generated the deviation between the measured and the estimated δ13C values, a linear regression was applied between the portion of the residual δ13C values and atmospheric pollution (Canadian fossil fuel proxy from 1958 to 2000). The nice fit between the modeled δ13C values from the combination of the two regression analyses based on climate and emission proxy strongly supports the hypothesis that there is a natural and an anthropogenic portion in the δ13C variations of the studied specimens. The short-term variations of the red spruce δ15N series are correlated with the instrumentally measured amounts of provincial N emissions for the 1990 to 2006 period (longest measurements available). Additionally, the long-term decrease of the δ15N series after 1956 is linked to the low isotopic values of NOx emitted by car exhausts, as expressed by the provincial number of cars which reflect the amount of transport-related N deposition at the provincial scale. The 208Pb/206Pb and 204Pb/206Pb ratios as a function of 206Pb/207Pb of the 1880-1919 period reflect a mixture of natural lead from the mineral soil horizon and mainly anthropogenic lead from north-eastern American coal combustion. The lower Pb ratios of the 1920-1989 period correlate well with the introduction of leaded additives to gasoline characterized by lower ratios relative to coal combustion. Inferring the lead sources of the 1990-2008 period is not as straightforward because lead can potentially derive from three main sources: coal combustion, burnt recycled material and natural lead present in soils. Our results show the great potential of tree-ring stable isotopes to record pollution events in the context of peri-urban diffuse pollution, and to prolong the pollution history in regions where direct measurements of pollutants only covers a relatively short period.

  13. Current progress in using multiple electromagnetic indicators to determine location, time, and magnitude of earthquakes in California and Peru (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleier, T. E.; Dunson, C.; Roth, S.; Heraud, J.; Freund, F. T.; Dahlgren, R.; Bryant, N.; Bambery, R.; Lira, A.

    2010-12-01

    Since ultra-low frequency (ULF) magnetic anomalies were discovered prior to the 1989 Loma Prieta, Ca. M7.0 earthquake, QuakeFinder, a small R&D group based in Palo Alto California has systematically monitored ULF magnetic signals with a network of 3-axis induction magnetometers since 2000 in California. This raw magnetometer data was collected at 20-50 samples per sec., with no preprocessing, in an attempt to collect an accurate time history of electromagnetic waveforms prior to, during, and after large earthquakes within 30 km. of these sensors. Finally in October 2007, the QuakeFinder team observed a series of strange magnetic pulsations at the Alum Rock, California site, 14 days prior to M5.4 earthquake. These magnetic signals observed were relatively short, random pulsations, not continuous waveform signals like Pc1 or Pc3 micropulsations. The magnetic pulses have a characteristic uni-polar shapes and 0.5 sec. to 30 sec. durations, much longer than lightning signals. In May of 2010, very similar pulses were observed at Tacna, Peru, 13 days prior to a M6.2 earthquake, using a QuakeFinder station jointly operated under collaboration with the Catholic University in Lima Peru (PUCP). More examples of these pulsations were sought, and a historical review of older California magnetic data discovered fewer but similar pulsations occurred at the Hollister, Ca. site operated by UC Berkeley (e.g. San Juan Bautista M5.1 earthquake on August 12, 1998). Further analysis of the direction of arrival of the magnetic pulses showed an interesting “azimuth clustering” observed in both Alum Rock, Ca. and Tacna, Peru data. The complete time series of the Alum Rock data allowed the team to analyze subsequent changes observed in magnetometer “filter banks” (0.001 Hz to 10 Hz filter bands, similar to those used by Fraser-Smith in 1989), but this time using time-adjusted limits based on time of day, time of year, Kp, and site background noise. These site-customized limits showed similar increases in 30 minute averaged energy excursions, but the 30 minute averages had a disadvantage in that they reduced the signal to noise ratio over the individual pulse counting method. In other electromagnetic monitoring methods, air conductivity instrumentation showed major changes in positive air-borne ions observed near the Alum Rock and Tacna sites, peaking during the 24 hours prior to the earthquake. The use of GOES (geosynchronous) satellite infra red (IR) data showed that an unusual apparent “night time heating” occurred in an extended area within 40+ km. of the Alum Rock site, and this IR signature peaked around the time of the magnetic pulse count peak. The combination of these 3 indicators (magnetic pulse counts, air conductivity, and IR night time heating) may be the start in determining the time (within 1-2 weeks), location (within 20-40km) and magnitude (within +/- 1 increment of Richter magnitude) of earthquake greater than M5.4

  14. Multiple Beam Klystrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besov, Y.

    1999-05-01

    The Multiple Beam Klystron (MBK) is really exploited in the USSR only. In recent years, there has arisen interest in the other countries. At present, the MBK with fundamental mode cavities are predominate, recently there is renewed interest in more complicated schemes. The advantages of MBK for the designer are low individual beam perveance, together with low total electron stream resistance and high total power. That helps obtain the high electronic and circuit efficiency and contributes to high gain, all of which are very important for broadening of instantaneous operating band. Of course, the MBK creates some difficulties for the designer. They are the non-uniformity of cavity rf field distribution and the transverse contributions of focusing magnetic field. There are remedies, but they lead to some complications. The broadening of instantaneous operating band requires tight drift channels packing, and also klystron life depends strongly on cathode-state-of-the-art. In spite of these difficulties, we have very successful low-voltage MBKs for various radar and communication applications in the frequency ranges from 1 to 10 GHz, with high peak and average power, and bandwidths up to 5-10%. In Russia today, single-beam klystrons are limited primarily to the mm-range.

  15. Sphingolipids in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Arundhati; Pahan, Kalipada

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease of the CNS. Oligodendrocytes, the myelin forming cells of the central nervous system (CNS), are target cells in MS. Although the etiology of MS is poorly known, new insights suggest oligodendrocyte apoptosis as one of the critical events followed by glial activation and infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages. A major breakthrough in delineation of the mechanism of cell death, perivascular cuffing and glial activation came from elucidation of the sphingolipid signal transduction pathway. The sphingolipid signal transduction pathway induces apoptosis, differentiation, proliferation, and growth arrest depending upon cell and receptor types, and downstream targets. Sphingomyelin, a major component of myelin membrane formed by mature oligodendrocytes, is abundant in the CNS and ceramide, its primary catabolic product released by activation of either neutral or acidic sphingomyelinase, serves as a potential lipid second messenger or mediator molecule modulating diverse cellular signaling pathways. Similarly, under certain conditions, sphingosine produced from ceramide by ceramidase is phosphorylated by sphingosine kinases to sphingosine-1 phosphate, another potent second messenger molecule. Both ceramide and sphingosine-1 phosphate regulate life and death of many cell types including brain cells and participate in pathogenic processes of MS. In this review, we have made an honest attempt to compile recent findings made by others and us relating to the role of sphingolipids in the disease process of MS. PMID:20607622

  16. Immunology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pender, Michael P; Greer, Judith M

    2007-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) leading to demyelination, axonal damage, and progressive neurologic disability. The development of MS is influenced by environmental factors, particularly the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and genetic factors, which include specific HLA types, particularly DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602, and a predisposition to autoimmunity in general. MS patients have increased circulating T-cell and antibody reactivity to myelin proteins and gangliosides. It is proposed that the role of EBV is to infect autoreactive B cells that then seed the CNS and promote the survival of autoreactive T cells there. It is also proposed that the clinical attacks of relapsing-remitting MS are orchestrated by myelin-reactive T cells entering the white matter of the CNS from the blood, and that the progressive disability in primary and secondary progressive MS is caused by the action of autoantibodies produced in the CNS by -meningeal lymphoid follicles with germinal centers. PMID:17547851

  17. Viruses and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2012-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  18. Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Steven; Munk, Richard; Skakun, William; Masini, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia is a genotypically and phenotypically heterogeneous disorder affecting the epiphysis of long bones. Inheritance may be autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive. Autosomal dominant variants include mutations of the collagen oligomeric matrix protein, collagen type IX α-1, collagen type IX α-2, collagen type IX α-3, and matrilin-3 genes. The autosomal recessive variant is caused by a mutation of the sulfate transporter gene SLC26A2. These mutations cause disorganized endochondral ossification of the epiphysis, ultimately leading to destruction of the articular cartilage. Patients typically present in childhood, but some may not present until early adulthood. A presumptive diagnosis can be made with clinical history, physical examination, detailed family history, and radiographic findings. Definitive diagnosis requires genetic testing. Treatment is based on the age of the patient, the amount of limb deformity, the level of joint destruction, and the needs of the patient. Children can greatly benefit from limb realignment procedures, and adults can have excellent outcomes with joint arthroplasty. PMID:25667404

  19. Multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Peeraully, Tasneem

    2014-04-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare adult-onset synucleinopathy associated with dysautonomia and the variable presence of poorly levodopa-responsive parkinsonism and/or cerebellar ataxia. Other clinical symptoms that can be associated with MSA include hyperreflexia, stridor, sleep apnea, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Mean survival from time of diagnosis ranges between 6 to 10 years, and definitive diagnosis is made on autopsy with demonstration of oligodendroglial cytoplasmic inclusions consisting of fibrillar α-synuclein. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be positive for cruciform T2 hyperintensity within the pons (the "hot cross bun sign"), volume loss in the pons and cerebellum, and T2 signal loss in the dorsolateral putamen with hyperintense rim on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequencing. Although most cases are sporadic, genetic polymorphisms have been identified both in familial and sporadic cases of MSA, and influence observed phenotypes. Treatment is symptomatic, with both pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies. There are currently no consensus guidelines on management. Current and future research is aimed at identifying biomarkers and developing disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24963676

  20. Multiple valence superatoms.

    PubMed

    Reveles, J U; Khanna, S N; Roach, P J; Castleman, A W

    2006-12-01

    We recently demonstrated that, in gas phase clusters containing aluminum and iodine atoms, an Al(13) cluster behaves like a halogen atom, whereas an Al(14) cluster exhibits properties analogous to an alkaline earth atom. These observations, together with our findings that Al(13)(-) is inert like a rare gas atom, have reinforced the idea that chosen clusters can exhibit chemical behaviors reminiscent of atoms in the periodic table, offering the exciting prospect of a new dimension of the periodic table formed by cluster elements, called superatoms. As the behavior of clusters can be controlled by size and composition, the superatoms offer the potential to create unique compounds with tailored properties. In this article, we provide evidence of an additional class of superatoms, namely Al(7)(-), that exhibit multiple valences, like some of the elements in the periodic table, and hence have the potential to form stable compounds when combined with other atoms. These findings support the contention that there should be no limitation in finding clusters, which mimic virtually all members of the periodic table. PMID:17121987

  1. Multiple valence superatoms

    PubMed Central

    Reveles, J. U.; Khanna, S. N.; Roach, P. J.; Castleman, A. W.

    2006-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that, in gas phase clusters containing aluminum and iodine atoms, an Al13 cluster behaves like a halogen atom, whereas an Al14 cluster exhibits properties analogous to an alkaline earth atom. These observations, together with our findings that Al13− is inert like a rare gas atom, have reinforced the idea that chosen clusters can exhibit chemical behaviors reminiscent of atoms in the periodic table, offering the exciting prospect of a new dimension of the periodic table formed by cluster elements, called superatoms. As the behavior of clusters can be controlled by size and composition, the superatoms offer the potential to create unique compounds with tailored properties. In this article, we provide evidence of an additional class of superatoms, namely Al7−, that exhibit multiple valences, like some of the elements in the periodic table, and hence have the potential to form stable compounds when combined with other atoms. These findings support the contention that there should be no limitation in finding clusters, which mimic virtually all members of the periodic table. PMID:17121987

  2. Multiple stage railgun

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Scudder, Jonathan K.; Aaland, Kristian

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  3. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  4. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  5. Multiple thermocouple testing device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, J. R.; Sobanski, K. J.

    1986-02-01

    An automated multiple thermocouple testing device determines short and open circuits in a thermocouple system. The thermocouple system that has a plurality of temperature probes, each probe has a first thermocouple. The device applies a direct current voltage to the first thermocouple to cause heating in the second thermocouple and a second thermocouple and then reads the temperature response of the second thermocouple. The first thermocouples have a common lead and the second thermocouples are connected in two parallel groups. The temperature output of the second thermocouple is digitized and read by a computer. These readings are compared to criteria which determine if there is an open circuit. Before the open circuit test is applied, the device also determines which thermocouple probe has a possible short circuit. This device can automatically test for short and open circuits in a thermocouple system within a few minutes without the necessity of removing the probes from their installed position. This device was adapted to perform the above testing on a F100 fan turbine inlet temperature (FTIT) system.

  6. The Distributive Property: The Core of Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Cathy J.; Stanford, Ted

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a sequence of learning activities that lead to using the area model of multiplication to understand the distributive property (DP). The connection between area and multiplication is an important one, both for algebraic thinking and for geometry, as indicated in two of the critical areas for the third grade in the Common Core…

  7. Multiplicative Vs. Arbitrary Gene Action in Heterosis

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, F. W.; Cockerham, C. C.

    1992-01-01

    In this article we investigate multiplicative effects between genes in relation to heterosis. The extensive literature on heterosis due to multiplicative effects between characters is reviewed, as is earlier work on the genetic description of heterosis. A two-locus diallelic model of arbitrary gene action is used to derive linear parameters for two multiplicative models. With multiplicative action between loci, epistatic effects are nonlinear functions of one-locus effects and the mean. With completely multiplicative action, the mean and additive effects form similar restrictions for all the rest of the effects. Extensions to more than two loci are indicated. The linear parameters of various models are then used to describe heterosis, which is taken as the difference between respective averages of a cross (F(1)) and its two parent populations (P). The difference (F(2) - P) is also discussed. Two parts of heterosis are distinguished: part I arising from dominance, and part II due to additive X additive (a X a)-epistasis. Heterosis with multiplicative action between loci implies multiplicative accumulation of heterosis present at individual loci in part I, in addition to multiplicative (a X a)-interaction in part II. Heterosis with completely multiplicative action can only be negative (i.e., the F(1) values must be less than the midparent), but the difference (F(2) - P) can be positive under certain conditions. Heterosis without dominance can arise from multiplicative as well as any other nonadditive action between loci, as is exemplified by diminishing return interaction. The discussion enlarges the scope in various directions: the genetic significance of multiplicative models is considered. The description of heterosis is extended to three loci to show that multiplicative action between loci can make part I very large, but not part II. The genetic role of part II is explained. Finally, we compare multiplicative to arbitrary gene action in general, suggesting that the former may serve to measure nonadditivity of gene interactions in the latter. PMID:1644280

  8. Midkine and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hideyuki

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disease characterized by inflammatory demyelination with subsequent neuronal damage in the CNS. MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), have been thought as autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated diseases. CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T-cell (Treg) plays a pivotal role in autoimmune tolerance, and tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCreg) drive the development of inducible Treg cells. Thus, a dysfunction in the development of Treg and DCreg leads to the development of autoimmune diseases. However, the factors that regulate Treg and DCreg are largely unknown. We recently showed that removal of midkine (MK) suppressed EAE due to an expansion of the Treg cell population as well as a decrease in the numbers of autoreactive Th1 and Th17 cells. MK decreased the Treg cell population by suppressing the phosphorylation of STAT5, which is essential for the expression of Foxp3, the master transcriptional factor of Treg cell differentiation. Furthermore, MK reduces the DCreg cell population by inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT3, which is critical for DCreg development. Blockade of MK signalling by a specific RNA aptamer significantly elevated the population of DCreg and Treg cells and ameliorated EAE without detectable adverse effects. Therefore, the inhibition of MK may provide an effective therapeutic strategy against autoimmune diseases including MS. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Midkine. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-4 PMID:24460675

  9. Multiple sclerosis update.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Clyde E

    2013-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic but incurable disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is often diagnosed in the second or third decade of life. It is more common among women than men, significantly impairs patient quality of life, and is associated with substantial costs to patients, healthcare systems, and society. Of the approximately 2.3 million individuals worldwide that have MS, more than 400,000 reside in the United States. Although the etiology of MS is not completely understood, a great deal of evidence suggests a complex relationship between environmental and genetic factors. The pathophysiology of MS involves an aberrant attack by the host immune system on oligodendrocytes, which synthesize and maintain myelin sheaths in the CNS. There are 4 identified disease courses in MS, and approximately 85% of people with MS present with relapsing-remitting MS, which is characterized by discrete acute attacks followed by periods of remission. Signs and symptoms of MS are dependent on the demyelinated area(s) of the CNS and often involve sensory disturbances, limb weakness, fatigue, and increased body temperature. The criteria for a diagnosis of MS include evidence of damage in at least 2 separate areas of the CNS, evidence that the damage occurred at different time points, and the ruling out of other possible diagnoses. Diseasemodifying drugs (DMDs) that reduce the frequency of relapses, development of brain lesions, and progression of disability are the standard of care for relapsing forms of MS, and the use of DMDs should be initiated as early as possible. PMID:24494618

  10. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that ranged multiple aspects and fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, a design and build for a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, a design for a portable four monitor hyper wall that can extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill for a next generation robot, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and implementation of a new weekly outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory. The objectives for the command center were to create a central computer controlled area for the still in production lunar regolith bin. It needed to be easy to use and the operating systems had to be Linux. The objectives for the hyper wall were to build a mobile transport of monitors that could potentially attach to one another. It needed to be light but sturdy, and have the ability to last. The objectives for the blast shield included a robust design that could withstand a small equipment malfunction, while also being convenient for use. The objectives for the nano-drill included the research and implementation of programming for vertical and horizontal movement. The hyper wall and blasts shield project were designed by me in the Pro/Engineer/Creo2 software. Each project required a meeting with the Swamp Works engineers and was declared successful.

  11. Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Montalverne, F.; Tournade, A.; Riquelme, C.; Musacchio, M.

    2002-01-01

    Summary We evaluate endovascular treatment (EVT) as an option to deal with multiple intracranial aneurysms(MA). From 1994 to 2001,24 patients underwent EVT for 59 MA. Patients were followed-up clinically and angiographically in a period ranging from 6 to 93 months (mean time of 22.2) and from 4 to 69 months (mean time of 19.3), respectively. Ten patients (41.6%) were treated either by EVT (n=7, 29,16%) or by mixed treatment (EVT and surgery; n=3, 12.5%). Reasons for treating just ruptured aneurysms: six (25%) had aneurysms smaller than 5 mm; three (12.5%) deaths; two (8.33%) were in the subacute period; two (8.33%) lost to follow-up; one (4.17%) authorised no procedure. No rebleeding was detected at the clinical follow-up, but there were five deaths. At immediate arteriographic control: 28 (85%) aneurysms were fully occluded, four (12%) with neck flow and one (03%) with sac flow. For 20 aneurysms followed-up: stability of occlusion was reached in seven cases (35%) and repermeabilization in 13 (65%). Management of recanalization was close arteriography in seven (54%), re-embolization in five (38%) and surgery in one (08%). When treating MA, EVT is advisable either alone or in mixed therapy. As a high degree of repermeabilization was disclosed, strict arteriographic control is required. The mechanisms underlying aneurysmal formation may be also involved in the recanalization phenomenon , a possible new manifestation of the fragility of the arterial wall. PMID:20594518

  12. [Multiple system atrophy].

    PubMed

    Damon-Perrière, Nathalie; Tison, François; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2010-09-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. It is the most frequent disorder among atypical parkinsonism with an estimated prevalence of 2 to 5 per 100 000 inhabitants. The clinical symptoms are rapidly progressing with a mean survival ranging between 6 to 9 years. The diagnosis is based on consensus criteria that have been revised in 2008. The diagnostic criteria allow defining "possible", "probable" and "definite" MSA. The latter requires post mortem confirmation of striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar degeneration with alpha-synuclein containing glial cytoplasmic inclusions. The diagnosis of "possible" and "probable" MSA is based on the variable presence and severity of parkinsonism, cerebellar dysfunction, autonomic failure and pyramidal signs. According to the revised criteria, atrophy of putamen, pons, middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) or cerebellum on brain magnetic resonance imaging are considered to be additional features for the diagnosis of "possible" MSA. T2-weighted brain imaging may further reveal a putaminal hypointensity, a hyperintense lateral putaminal rim, the so called "hot cross bun sign" and MCP hyperintensities. Cardiovascular examination, urodynamic testing and anal sphincter electromyography may be helpful for the diagnosis of autonomic failure. Some patients may respond to levodopa, but usually to a lesser extent than those suffering from Parkinson's disease, and high doses are already required in early disease stages. No specific therapy is available for cerebellar dysfunction, while effective treatments exist for urinary and cardiovascular autonomic failure. Physical therapy may help to improve the difficulties of gait and stance, and to prevent their complications. In later disease stages, speech therapy becomes necessary for the treatment of dysarthria and dysphagia. Percutaneous gastrostomy is sometimes necessary in patients with severe dysphagia. Beyond these strategies, psychological support, social care and occupational therapy to adapt the environment to the patient's disability are prerequisites for improving the quality of life in MSA patients. PMID:20739256

  13. Multiple-image radiography.

    PubMed

    Wernick, Miles N; Wirjadi, Oliver; Chapman, Dean; Zhong, Zhong; Galatsanos, Nikolas P; Yang, Yongyi; Brankov, Jovan G; Oltulu, Oral; Anastasio, Mark A; Muehleman, Carol

    2003-12-01

    Conventional radiography produces a single image of an object by measuring the attenuation of an x-ray beam passing through it. When imaging weakly absorbing tissues, x-ray attenuation may be a suboptimal signature of disease-related information. In this paper we describe a new phase-sensitive imaging method, called multiple-image radiography (MIR), which is an improvement on a prior technique called diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI). This paper elaborates on our initial presentation of the idea in Wernick et al (2002 Proc. Int. Symp. Biomed. Imaging pp 129-32). MIR simultaneously produces several images from a set of measurements made with a single x-ray beam. Specifically, MIR yields three images depicting separately the effects of refraction, ultra-small-angle scatter and attenuation by the object. All three images have good contrast, in part because they are virtually immune from degradation due to scatter at higher angles. MIR also yields a very comprehensive object description, consisting of the angular intensity spectrum of a transmitted x-ray beam at every image pixel, within a narrow angular range. Our experiments are based on data acquired using a synchrotron light source; however, in preparation for more practical implementations using conventional x-ray sources, we develop and evaluate algorithms designed for Poisson noise, which is characteristic of photon-limited imaging. The results suggest that MIR is capable of operating at low photon count levels, therefore the method shows promise for use with conventional x-ray sources. The results also show that, in addition to producing new types of object descriptions, MIR produces substantially more accurate images than its predecessor, DEI. MIR results are shown in the form of planar images of a phantom and a biological specimen. A preliminary demonstration of the use of MIR for computed tomography is also presented. PMID:14703164

  14. Exciton multiplication from first principles.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Heather M; Hyeon-Deuk, Kim; Prezhdo, Oleg V

    2013-06-18

    Third-generation photovolatics require demanding cost and power conversion efficiency standards, which may be achieved through efficient exciton multiplication. Therefore, generating more than one electron-hole pair from the absorption of a single photon has vast ramifications on solar power conversion technology. Unlike their bulk counterparts, irradiated semiconductor quantum dots exhibit efficient exciton multiplication, due to confinement-enhanced Coulomb interactions and slower nonradiative losses. The exact characterization of the complicated photoexcited processes within quantum-dot photovoltaics is a work in progress. In this Account, we focus on the photophysics of nanocrystals and investigate three constituent processes of exciton multiplication, including photoexcitation, phonon-induced dephasing, and impact ionization. We quantify the role of each process in exciton multiplication through ab initio computation and analysis of many-electron wave functions. The probability of observing a multiple exciton in a photoexcited state is proportional to the magnitude of electron correlation, where correlated electrons can be simultaneously promoted across the band gap. Energies of multiple excitons are determined directly from the excited state wave functions, defining the threshold for multiple exciton generation. This threshold is strongly perturbed in the presence of surface defects, dopants, and ionization. Within a few femtoseconds following photoexcitation, the quantum state loses coherence through interactions with the vibrating atomic lattice. The phase relationship between single excitons and multiple excitons dissipates first, followed by multiple exciton fission. Single excitons are coupled to multiple excitons through Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions, and as a consequence, single excitons convert to multiple excitons and vice versa. Here, exciton multiplication depends on the initial energy and coupling magnitude and competes with electron-phonon energy relaxation. Multiple excitons are generated through impact ionization within picoseconds. The basis of exciton multiplication in quantum dots is the collective result of photoexcitation, dephasing, and nonadiabatic evolution. Each process is characterized by a distinct time-scale, and the overall multiple exciton generation dynamics is complete by about 10 ps. Without relying on semiempirical parameters, we computed quantum mechanical probabilities of multiple excitons for small model systems. Because exciton correlations and coherences are microscopic, quantum properties, results for small model systems can be extrapolated to larger, realistic quantum dots. PMID:23459543

  15. Thalamic neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cifelli, Alberto; Arridge, Marzena; Jezzard, Peter; Esiri, Margaret M; Palace, Jacqueline; Matthews, Paul M

    2002-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis is still regarded primarily as a disease of the white matter. However, recent evidence suggests that there may be significant involvement of gray matter. Here, we have used magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo and histopathology postmortem to estimate thalamic neuronal loss in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our results show that neuronal loss in multiple sclerosis can be substantial (30-35% reduction). We conclude that a neurodegenerative pathology may make a major contribution to the genesis of symptoms in multiple sclerosis. PMID:12402265

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of the Australian trans-Bass Strait millipede genus Pogonosternum (Carl, 1912) (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae) indicates multiple glacial refugia in southeastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study documents the first detailed phylogenetic analysis of an Australian paradoxosomatid millipede genus. Two mitochondrial genes (partial COI and 16S) as well as partial nuclear 28S rDNA were amplified and sequenced for 41 individuals of the southeastern Australian genus Pogonosternum Jeekel, 1965. The analysis indicates that five species groups of Pogonosternum occur across New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania: Pogonosternum nigrovirgatum (Carl, 1912), Pogonosternum adrianae Jeekel, 1982, Pogonosternum laetificum Jeekel, 1982 and two undescribed species. Pogonosternum coniferum (Jeekel, 1965) specimens cluster within Pogonosternum nigrovirgatum. Most of these five species groups exhibit a pattern of high intraspecific genetic variability and highly localized haplotypes, suggesting that they were confined to multiple Pleistocene refugia on the southeastern Australian mainland. The phylogenetic data also show that northwestern Tasmania was colonized by Pogonosternum nigrovirgatum, probably from central Victoria, and northeastern Tasmania by an as yet undescribed species from eastern Victoria. PMID:27110194

  17. Use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam: a multilevel analysis using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (2011) and the Vietnam Population and Housing Census (2009)

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Lan Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Bui, Quyen Thi-Tu; Le, Anh Thi-Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of modern contraceptive use is an important indicator that reflects accessibility to reproductive health services. Satisfying unmet needs for family planning alone could reduce the number of maternal deaths by almost a third. This study uses multiple data sources to examine multilevel factors associated with the use of modern contraceptives among married women in Vietnam aged 15–49 years. Design Data from different national surveys (Vietnam Population and Housing Census, Vietnam Living Standard Survey, and Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey) were linked to create a dataset including individual and contextual (provincial) variables (N=8,341). Multilevel modeling was undertaken to examine the impact of both individual and provincial characteristics on modern contraceptive use. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. Results Individual factors significantly associated with the use of modern contraceptives were age 30–34 years (reference 15–19 years) (OR=1.63); high socioeconomic status (SES) (OR=0.8); having two living children (OR=2.4); and having a son (OR=1.4). The provincial poverty rate mediated the association between the individual's SES and the likelihood of using modern contraceptives. Conclusions The proportion of women in Vietnam using modern contraceptive methods has remained relatively high in recent years with significant variation across Vietnam's 63 provinces. Women of lower SES are more likely to use modern contraceptive methods, especially in the poorer provinces. Achieving access to universal reproductive health is one of the Millennium Development Goals. Vietnam must continue to make progress in this area. PMID:26950565

  18. Symptomatic therapy in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Frohman, Teresa C.; Castro, Wanda; Shah, Anjali; Courtney, Ardith; Ortstadt, Jeffrey; Davis, Scott L.; Logan, Diana; Abraham, Thomas; Abraham, Jaspreet; Remington, Gina; Treadaway, Katherine; Graves, Donna; Hart, John; Stuve, Olaf; Lemack, Gary; Greenberg, Benjamin; Frohman, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common disabling neurological disease of young adults. The ability to impact the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis should not only incorporate therapies that are disease modifying, but should also include a course of action for the global multidisciplinary management focused on quality of life and functional capabilities. PMID:21694806

  19. Bent Bonds and Multiple Bonds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.

    1980-01-01

    Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of Pauling's bent bond model, which allows direct calculation of double and triple bonds from the length of a CC single bond. Lengths of these multiple bonds are estimated from direct measurements on "bent-bond" models constructed of plastic tubing and standard kits. (CS)

  20. Multiple Intelligences and Lab Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colannino, Noreen M.; Hoyt, William L.; Murray, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Science teachers who are committed to excellence in the classroom continually seek ways to improve teaching and learning, and the concept of multiple intelligences holds promise as a method for accomplishing this. The essence of the theory of multiple intelligences is to understand the many differences among students, the variations in the ways…

  1. Multiple Intelligences for Differentiated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    There is an intricate literacy to Gardner's multiple intelligences theory that unlocks key entry points for differentiated learning. Using a well-articulated framework, rich with graphic representations, Williams provides a comprehensive discussion of multiple intelligences. He moves the teacher and students from curiosity, to confidence, to…

  2. Multiplication Fact Fluency Using Doubles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Judith M.; Rubenstein, Rheta N.

    2010-01-01

    Not knowing multiplication facts creates a gap in a student's mathematics development and undermines confidence and disposition toward further mathematical learning. Learning multiplication facts is a first step in proportional reasoning, "the capstone of elementary arithmetic and the gateway to higher mathematics" (NRC 2001, p. 242). Proportional…

  3. The etiology of multiple personalities.

    PubMed

    Stern, C R

    1984-03-01

    This article reviews the four major categories of explanations into the etiology of multiple personality disorder including supernatural, physiologic, psychologic, and sociologic. From these categories and their subdivisions, a series of hypotheses was developed. A paradigmatic description of a typical case of multiple personality was then created from a synthesis of the findings of case history and interview analyses. PMID:6718265

  4. Multiple True-False Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, G. C.; Woods, G. T.

    1974-01-01

    Two types of objective questions are compared: the multiple choice item, in which one and only one of several stated alternatives is correct for a given initial statement, and the multiple true-false item, where the stem is followed by several completions of which one or more can be correct. (DT)

  5. Multiple Intelligences Centers and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Carolyn; Freeman, Lynn

    Based upon Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, this book guides elementary school teachers through the process of using classroom learning centers and projects by providing choices for students. The guide is divided into two sections, providing the theoretical background and information on how to develop multiple intelligences learning

  6. The Multiplication of Signed Numbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zlot, William; Roberts, Ralph E.

    1982-01-01

    Certain properties of lenses provide a physical model of the mathematical concepts of multiplication of integral numbers and of similarity transformations in geometry. Further, they can provide a realistic concrete representation for rules governing multiplication of signed numbers. Suggestions for problems and classroom demonstrations involving…

  7. Generalized Constrained Multiple Correspondence Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Takane, Yoshio

    2002-01-01

    Proposes a comprehensive approach, generalized constrained multiple correspondence analysis, for imposing both row and column constraints on multivariate discrete data. Each set of discrete data is decomposed into several submatrices and then multiple correspondence analysis is applied to explore relationships among the decomposed submatrices.…

  8. Multiple Intelligences Centers and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Carolyn; Freeman, Lynn

    Based upon Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, this book guides elementary school teachers through the process of using classroom learning centers and projects by providing choices for students. The guide is divided into two sections, providing the theoretical background and information on how to develop multiple intelligences learning…

  9. The problem with multiple robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Marcus J.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The issues that can arise in research associated with multiple, robotic agents are discussed. Two particular multi-robot projects are presented as examples. This paper was written in the hope that it might ease the transition from single to multiple robot research.

  10. Multiple Indicators of Poor Diet Quality in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Are Associated with Higher Body Mass Index Percentile but not Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Haynie, Denise L.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Laffel, Lori M. B.; Mehta, Sanjeev N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet is a cornerstone of type 1 diabetes treatment, and poor diet quality may affect glycemic control and other health outcomes. Yet diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes remains understudied. Objective To evaluate multiple indicators of diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their associations with hemoglobin A1c and body mass index percentile. Design In this cross-sectional study, participants completed 3-day diet records, and data were abstracted from participants’ medical records. Diet quality indicators included servings of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains; Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) score; Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 score (NRF 9.3); and glycemic index. Participants/setting Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes ≥1 year, aged 8 to 18 years, were recruited at routine clinic visits. Of 291 families enrolled, 252 provided diet data. Statistical analyses Associations of diet quality indicators to HbA1c and body mass index percentile were examined using analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression. Results Participants demonstrated low adherence to dietary guidelines; mean HEI-2005 score was 53.4±11.0 (range = 26.7 to 81.2). Intake of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains was less than half the recommended amount. Almost half of the participants’ daily energy intake was derived from refined-grain products, desserts, chips, and sweetened beverages. Higher fruit (P=0.04) and whole-grain (P=0.03) intake were associated with lower HbA1c in unadjusted, but not adjusted analyses; vegetable intake, HEI-2005 score, NRF 9.3 score, and glycemic index were not associated with HbA1c. Higher fruit (P=0.01) and whole-grain (P=0.04) intake and NRF 9.3 score (P=0.02), but not other diet quality indicators, were associated with lower body mass index percentile in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Data demonstrate poor diet quality in youth with type 1 diabetes and provide support for the importance of diet quality for weight management. Future research on determinants of dietary intake and methods to promote improved diet quality would be useful to inform clinical care. PMID:23102173

  11. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  12. Sarcoidosis presenting with multiple tattoo granulomata

    PubMed Central

    Iveson, J. M. I.; Cotterill, J. A.; Wright, V.

    1975-01-01

    A patient with sarcoidosis, multiple tattoo granulomata and arthritis is described. A combination of tattoo granulomata unrelated to any one colour in the tattoo and granulomatous inflammation elsewhere is indicative of sarcoidosis. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:1197172

  13. Subclinical circulation of avian hepatitis E virus within a multiple-age rearing and broiler breeder farm indicates persistence and vertical transmission of the virus.

    PubMed

    Troxler, Salome; Pać, Krzysztof; Prokofieva, Irina; Liebhart, Dieter; Chodakowska, Beata; Furmanek, Danuta; Hess, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal study, a broiler breeder flock and its progeny were monitored for the presence of avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA and antibodies. The flock was part of a multiple-age farm where the presence of avian HEV with clinical signs (increased mortality and decreased egg production) was demonstrated in several previous production cycles. Samples were taken twice at the rearing site and several times at the production site from broiler breeders including cockerels and day-old chicks. The samples were investigated by conventional and real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and histological methods. At all time points, samples from the hens were positive for avian HEV RNA. The birds did not show any clinical signs, even though histopathological lesions of non-specific aetiology in the liver and spleen could be demonstrated. A significant increase in the number of positive birds and viral load was seen in week 45, in accordance with an increase in antibody titres. In comparison, cockerels investigated in week 62 tested negative by RT-PCR and ELISA. Avian HEV RNA was also detected in day-old chicks hatched from eggs laid in week 25, indicating vertical transmission. All partial helicase and capsid sequences retrieved within this study clustered together and were identical to previous sequences obtained from the same multiple-age farm. In conclusion, avian HEV persisted on the farm over years and circulated between the rearing and the production sites without causing any clinical signs although high viral loads in the adult hens were observed. PMID:24828493

  14. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leray, E; Moreau, T; Fromont, A; Edan, G

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequently seen demyelinating disease, with a prevalence that varies considerably, from high levels in North America and Europe (>100/100,000 inhabitants) to low rates in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (2/100,000 population). Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the disease and its survival data, and a better understanding of the natural history of the disease, have improved our understanding of the respective roles of endogenous and exogenous causes of MS. Concerning mortality, in a large French cohort of 27,603 patients, there was no difference between MS patients and controls in the first 20 years of the disease, although life expectancy was reduced by 6-7 years in MS patients. In 2004, the prevalence of MS in France was 94.7/100,000 population, according to data from the French National Health Insurance Agency for Salaried Workers (Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie des travailleurs Salariés [CNAM-TS]), which insures 87% of the French population. This prevalence was higher in the North and East of France. In several countries, including France, the gender ratio for MS incidence (women/men) went from 2/1 to 3/1 from the 1950s to the 2000s, but only for the relapsing-remitting form. As for risk factors of MS, the most pertinent environmental factors are infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), especially if it arises after childhood and is symptomatic. The role of smoking in MS risk has been confirmed, but is modest. In contrast, vaccines, stress, traumatic events and allergies have not been identified as risk factors, while the involvement of vitamin D has yet to be confirmed. From a genetic point of view, the association between HLA-DRB1*15:01 and a high risk of MS has been known for decades. More recently, immunogenetic markers have been identified (IL2RA, IL7RA) and, in particular thanks to studies of genome-wide associations, more than 100 genetic variants have been reported. Most of these are involved in the immune response and often associated with other autoimmune diseases. Studies of the natural history of MS suggest it is a two-phase disease: in the first phase, inflammation is focal with flares; and in the second phase, disability progresses independently of focal inflammation. This has clear implications for therapy. Age may also be a key factor in the phenotype of the disease. In conclusion, France is a high-risk country for MS, but it only slightly reduces life expectancy. MS is a multifactorial disease and the implications of immunogenetics are major. Preventative approaches might be derived from knowledge of the risk factors and natural history of the disease (smoking, vitamin D). PMID:26718593

  15. Multiple antibiotic resistance of heterotrophic bacteria in the littoral zone of Lake Shira as an indicator of human impact on the ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Lobova, Tatiana I; Barkhatov, Yuri V; Salamatina, Ol'ga V; Popova, Lyudmila Yu

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to Ampicillin and Kanamycin displayed by heterotrophic bacteria isolated in Summer and in Spring from the littoral and the central parts of Lake Shira (a therapeutic lake in the Khakasia Republic, Russia) has been investigated. It has been found that in Summer, human and animal microflora featuring multiple antibiotic resistance (to Ampicillin and Kanamycin) predominates in all the studied stations of the littoral zone of the lake. In Spring, concentrations of bacteria featuring multiple antibiotic resistance decrease significantly and bacteria sensitive to antibiotics predominate in the lake. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance in bacteria of Lake Shira is caused by the input of allochthonous bacteria into the lake; this feature of heterotrophic bacteria of Lake Shira can be used to monitor the impact on the ecosystem made by health resorts. PMID:16762536

  16. Flood/drought event identification using an effective indicator based on the correlations between multiple time scales of the Standardized Precipitation Index and river discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuefeng; Chen, Xingwei; Chen, Ying; Liu, Meibing; Gao, Lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to further investigate the capability of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) to identify flood/drought events, monthly precipitation data from 26 precipitation stations and monthly discharge data from four hydrological stations from 1960 to 2006 in the Minjiang River basin were used to analyze the correlations between multiple time scales of the SPI and river discharge. The SPI series that had a maximum correlation with discharge was chosen to detect flood/drought events in the basin, and the results were compared to historical flood/drought events. The results indicated the following. (1) High Pearson correlations between the SPI and discharge were identified at shorter time scales (1 to 3 months), and the maximum correlation was found on the time scale of 2 months. (2) Five floods among the six largest historical flood events in the Minjiang River basin were identified with the 2-month SPI, but the SPI does have shortcomings in identifying more general floods. The SPI also identified major drought events that were consistent with historical data. This demonstrates that the 2-month SPI is an effective indicator for the identification of major flood/drought events in the Minjiang River basin.

  17. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the silver springs group, Central Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, L., Jr.; Katz, B.G.; Toth, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched ??15N and ??18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

  18. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the Silver Springs Group, central Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Leel; Katz, Brian G.; Toth, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8 mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched δ15N and δ18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5 mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age.

  19. Multiple births in Hausa women.

    PubMed

    Rehan, N; Tafida, D S

    1980-11-01

    The incidence of multiple births was studied using the maternity records of 5750 Hausa women living in the savannah zone of Nigeria. There were 40 twins and 2 triplets/1000 births. Twenty six per cent of twins were monozygous. The incidence of multiple births, which was about five times higher than that observed in any western population, was significantly lower than that of other ethnic groups, who live in the hot and humid climate of the southern pat of country. The incidence of multiple births was related to maternal age but did not bear any association to the climate or prevalence of malaria. PMID:7437372

  20. Phenomenology of high multiplicity events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokoulina, E. S.; SVD Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    Study of high multiplicity events in proton-proton (nucleus) interactions is carried out at U-70 accelerator of IHEP, Protvino. These events are extremely rare. Usually, MC codes underestimate topological cross sections in this region. Gluon dominance model has been offered to describe them. Some collective phenomena can be observed in high multiplicity events. SVD-2 Collaboration has obtained the evidence of pion condensate formation at high total multiplicity. Our future program is aimed at studying soft photon yield puzzle at U-70 and Nuclotronfacility at JINR, Dubna.

  1. [Future challenges in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Óscar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis occurs in genetically susceptible individuals, in whom an unknown environmental factor triggers an immune response, giving rise to a chronic and disabling autoimmune disease. Currently, significant progress is being made in our knowledge of the frequency and distribution of multiple sclerosis and its risk factors, genetics, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and prognostic markers, and treatment. This has radically changed patients' and clinicians' expectations of multiple sclerosis and has raised hope that there will soon be a way to control the disease. PMID:25732950

  2. Multiplicative processes in visual cognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Credidio, H. F.; Teixeira, E. N.; Reis, S. D. S.; Moreira, A. A.; Andrade, J. S.

    2014-03-01

    The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) is certainly one of the most important results in the field of statistics. The simple fact that the addition of many random variables can generate the same probability curve, elucidated the underlying process for a broad spectrum of natural systems, ranging from the statistical distribution of human heights to the distribution of measurement errors, to mention a few. An extension of the CLT can be applied to multiplicative processes, where a given measure is the result of the product of many random variables. The statistical signature of these processes is rather ubiquitous, appearing in a diverse range of natural phenomena, including the distributions of incomes, body weights, rainfall, and fragment sizes in a rock crushing process. Here we corroborate results from previous studies which indicate the presence of multiplicative processes in a particular type of visual cognition task, namely, the visual search for hidden objects. Precisely, our results from eye-tracking experiments show that the distribution of fixation times during visual search obeys a log-normal pattern, while the fixational radii of gyration follow a power-law behavior.

  3. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN,M.T; PONCE,D; GRUNLOH,H.J; ELLIS,R.A; GROSNICKLE,W.H; HUMPHREY,R.L

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future.

  4. Spearfishing Regulation Benefits Artisanal Fisheries: The ReGS Indicator and Its Application to a Multiple-Use Mediterranean Marine Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Rocklin, Delphine; Tomasini, Jean-Antoine; Culioli, Jean-Michel; Pelletier, Dominique; Mouillot, David

    2011-01-01

    The development of fishing efficiency coupled with an increase of fishing effort led to the overexploitation of numerous natural marine resources. In addition to this commercial pressure, the impact of recreational activities on fish assemblages remains barely known. Here we examined the impact of spearfishing limitation on resources in a marine protected area (MPA) and the benefit it provides for the local artisanal fishery through the use of a novel indicator. We analysed trends in the fish assemblage composition using artisanal fisheries data collected in the Bonifacio Strait Natural Reserve (BSNR), a Mediterranean MPA where the spearfishing activity has been forbidden over 15% of its area. Fish species were pooled into three response groups according to their target level by spearfishing. We developed the new flexible ReGS indicator reflecting shifts in species assemblages according to the relative abundance of each response group facing external pressure. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) increased by ca. 60% in the BSNR between 2000 and 2007, while the MPA was established in 1999. The gain of CPUE strongly depended on the considered response group: for the highly targeted group, the CPUE doubled while the CPUE of the untargeted group increased by only 15.5%. The ReGS value significantly increased from 0.31 to 0.45 (on a scale between 0 and 1) in the general perimeter of this MPA while it has reached a threshold of 0.43, considered as a reference point, in the area protected from spearfishing since 1982. Our results demonstrated that limiting recreational fishing by appropriate zoning in multiple-use MPAs represents a real benefit for artisanal fisheries. More generally we showed how our new indicator may reveal a wide range of impacts on coastal ecosystems such as global change or habitat degradation. PMID:21966357

  5. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2003 in Afghanistan: Outdated Sampling Frame and the Effect of Sampling Weights on Estimates of Maternal and Child Health Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Shuaib, Muhammad; Becker, Stan; Rahman, Md. Mokhlesur; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to an urgent need for information on the coverage of health service for women and children after the fall of Taliban regime in Afghanistan, a multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS) was conducted in 2003 using the outdated 1979 census as the sampling frame. When 2004 pre-census data became available, population-sampling weights were generated based on the survey-sampling scheme. Using these weights, the population estimates for seven maternal and child healthcare-coverage indicators were generated and compared with the unweighted MICS 2003 estimates. The use of sample weights provided unbiased estimates of population parameters. Results of the comparison of weighted and unweighted estimates showed some wide differences for individual provincial estimates and confidence intervals. However, the mean, median and absolute mean of the differences between weighted and unweighted estimates and their confidence intervals were close to zero for all indicators at the national level. Ranking of the five highest and the five lowest provinces on weighted and unweighted estimates also yielded similar results. The general consistency of results suggests that outdated sampling frames can be appropriate for use in similar situations to obtain initial estimates from household surveys to guide policy and programming directions. However, the power to detect change from these estimates is lower than originally planned, requiring a greater tolerance for error when the data are used as a baseline for evaluation. The generalizability of using outdated sampling frames in similar settings is qualified by the specific characteristics of the MICS 2003low replacement rate of clusters and zero probability of inclusion of clusters created after the 1979 census. PMID:21957678

  6. Changes and inequalities in early birth registration and childhood care and education in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006 and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Kim Bao; Oh, Juhwan; Kien, Vu Duy; Hoat, Luu Ngoc; Choi, Sugy; Lee, Chul Ou; Van Minh, Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Early birth registration, childhood care, and education are essential rights for children and are important for their development and education. This study investigates changes and socioeconomic inequalities in early birth registration and indicators of care and education in children aged under 5 years in Vietnam. Design The analyses reported here used data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) in 2006 and 2011. The sample sizes in 2006 and 2011 were 2,680 and 3,678 for children under 5 years of age. Four indicators of childcare and preschool education were measured: birth registration, possession of books, preschool education attendance, and parental support for early childhood education. The concentration index (CI) was used to measure inequalities in gender, maternal education, geographical area, place of residence, ethnicity, and household wealth. Results There were some improvements in birth registration (86.4% in 2006; 93.8% in 2011), preschool education attendance (57.1% in 2006; 71.9% in 2011), and parental support for early childhood education (68.9 and 76.8%, respectively). However, the possession of books was lower (24.7% in 2006; 19.6% in 2011) and became more unequal over time (i.e. CI=0.370 in 2006; CI=0.443 in 2011 in wealth inequality). Inequalities in the care and education of children were still persistent. The largest inequalities were for household wealth and rural versus urban areas. Conclusion Although there have been some improvements in this area, inequalities still exist. Policy efforts in Vietnam should be directed towards closing the gap between different socioeconomic groups for the care and education of children under 5 years old. PMID:26950564

  7. Using d15 N in Fish Larvae as an Indicator of Watershed Sources of Anthropogenic Nitrogen: Response at Multiple Spatial Scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nitrogen stable isotope, 15N, is an effective tool to track anthropogenic N sources to aquatic ecosystems. It may be difficult to identify potential N sources, however, where 15N responds similarly to multiple, concurrent activities in the watershed that cause higher nutrient...

  8. The multiple birth epidemic: revisited.

    PubMed

    Avraham, Sarit; Seidman, Daniel S

    2012-08-01

    The modern era of infertility treatment was heralded over half a century ago with the introduction of new hormonal drugs that could effectively induce ovarian ovulation. However, it was quickly recognized that the birth of these new "miracle drugs" was associated with a remarkable increase in the incidence of high-order multiple births. Despite the fantastic improvement in our ability to monitor ovarian response during ovulation induction, and our power to control the number of embryos introduced into the womb through IVF, multiple births remain a leading cause of long-term child morbidity among infertility patients. Efforts to prevent what was coined in the 1960s as the "multiple birth epidemic" remain an urgent concern. A new body of research clearly points at our capacity to reduce the risk of multiple births and their associated long term morbidity without diminishing current high success rates of infertility treatment. PMID:23904695

  9. Multiple myeloma. Houses and spouses

    SciTech Connect

    Kyle, R.A.; Greipp, P.R.

    1983-02-15

    Two families in which successive spouses who lived in the same house developed multiple myeloma are reported. In the first instance, a man whose first wife died of multiple myeloma remarried, and his second wife also developed myeloma. In the second family, a woman's first husband died of multiple myeloma and her second husband did too. Radiation studies of the houses and yards showed no increased radioactivity. No evidence was found for excessive exposure to chemicals or other environmental agents, for contact with other patients having similar malignancies, or for exposure to viruses or other transmissible factors. The significance of the occurrence of multiple myeloma in subsequent spouses is unknown. It is hoped that this report will stimulate research for other instances and lead to careful epidemiologic, radiologic, and virologic studies.

  10. Multiplicities in high energy interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.

    1985-05-13

    This paper reviews the data on multiplicities in high energy interactions. Results from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, from neutrino interactions, and from hadronic collisions, both diffractive and nondiffractive, are compared and contrasted. The energy dependence of the mean charged multiplicity, , as well as the rapidity density at Y = 0 are presented. For hadronic collisions, the data on neutral pion production shows a strong correlation with . The heavy particle fractions increase with ..sqrt..s up to the highest energies. The charged particle multiplicity distributions for each type of reaction show a scaling behavior when expressed in terms of the mean. Attempts to understand this behavior, which was first predicted by Koba, Nielsen, and Olesen, are discussed. The multiplicity correlations and the energy variation of the shape of the KNO scaling distribution provide important constraints on models. Some extrapolations to the energies of the Superconducting Super Collider are made. 51 refs., 27 figs.

  11. Multiple test tubes stirred mechanically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. J.; Strong, I. J.

    1965-01-01

    Mechanical device simultaneously stirs multiple test tubes under controlled laboratory conditions. The invention provides a variable stirring rate, minimal amount of contamination of tube contents, unattended and simple operation, and easy maintenance and cleaning.

  12. Multiple Regression and Its Discontents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.; Marsh, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Multiple regression is part of a larger statistical strategy originated by Gauss. The authors raise questions about the theory and suggest some changes that would make room for Mandelbrot and Serendipity.

  13. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  14. Humanizing Outgroups Through Multiple Categorization

    PubMed Central

    Prati, Francesca; Crisp, Richard J.; Meleady, Rose; Rubini, Monica

    2016-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the impact of multiple categorization on intergroup dehumanization. Study 1 showed that perceiving members of a rival university along multiple versus simple categorical dimensions enhanced the tendency to attribute human traits to this group. Study 2 showed that multiple versus simple categorization of immigrants increased the attribution of uniquely human emotions to them. This effect was explained by the sequential mediation of increased individuation of the outgroup and reduced outgroup threat. Study 3 replicated this sequential mediation model and introduced a novel way of measuring humanization in which participants generated attributes corresponding to the outgroup in a free response format. Participants generated more uniquely human traits in the multiple versus simple categorization conditions. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and consider their role in informing and improving efforts to ameliorate contemporary forms of intergroup discrimination. PMID:26984016

  15. Multiple tumours in survival estimates.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Stefano; De Angelis, Roberta; Ciccolallo, Laura; Carrani, Eugenio; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Grande, Enrico; Zigon, Giulia; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-04-01

    In international comparisons of cancer registry based survival it is common practice to restrict the analysis to first primary tumours and exclude multiple cancers. The probability of correctly detecting subsequent cancers depends on the registry's running time, which results in different proportions of excluded patients and may lead to biased comparisons. We evaluated the impact on the age-standardised relative survival estimates of also including multiple primary tumours. Data from 2,919,023 malignant cancers from 69 European cancer registries participating in the EUROCARE-4 collaborative study were used. A total of 183,683 multiple primary tumours were found, with an overall proportion of 6.3% over all the considered cancers, ranging from 0.4% (Naples, Italy) to 12.9% (Iceland). The proportion of multiple tumours varied greatly by type of tumour, being higher for those with high incidence and long survival (breast, prostate and colon-rectum). Five-year relative survival was lower when including patients with multiple cancers. For all cancers combined the average difference was -0.4 percentage points in women and -0.7 percentage points in men, and was greater for older registries. Inclusion of multiple tumours led to lower survival in 44 out of 45 cancer sites analysed, with the greatest differences found for larynx (-1.9%), oropharynx (-1.5%), and penis (-1.3%). Including multiple primary tumours in survival estimates for international comparison is advisable because it reduces the bias due to different observation periods, age, registration quality and completeness of registration. The general effect of inclusion is to reduce survival estimates by a variable amount depending on the proportion of multiple primaries and cancer site. PMID:19121933

  16. New Perspectives in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Paty, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis, a potentially disabling disease of young adults, is caused by as yet unknown agents. Recent studies suggest a genetic susceptibility factor with a superimposed environmental triggering or causative agent. New methods of diagnosing and monitoring multiple sclerosis, such as magnetic resonance imaging, are providing new insights into pathogenesis. Important new classes of drugs on the horizon may well help to retard the disease process. PMID:21249093

  17. Multiple Warty Dyskeratomas: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    UGRAS, Nesrin; ADIM, Saduman Balaban; KILICOGLU, Mehtap; BASKAN, Emel Bülbül

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Warty dyskeratoma is a rare tumor that presents mainly as an isolated papule or nodule on the scalp, face or neck in the adults. Warty dyskeratoma frequently arises as a single lesion with a central keratotic plug on the skin of middle-aged or elderly people. Multiple warty dyskeratomas are very rare cutaneous lesions which are mostly seen on the scalp. We herein report a multiple warty dyskeratoma in a female patient. PMID:25927045

  18. Multiple aperture imager component development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, David E.; Henshaw, Philip D.

    1991-03-01

    This final report presents results of an experimental and analytical effort to develop multiple aperture imagers built from unphased, direct-detection subapertures. An object was imaged using wave length shift instead of object motion to create multiple speckle pattern realizations. An analysis of subaperture geometry effects of autocorrelation estimate was performed. Experimental measurements of detector modulator transfer function were made. Finally, a new algorithm to reconstruct imagery with improved signal-to-noise ratio was developed.

  19. Progress in Multiple Sclerosis Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Goris, An; Pauwels, Ine; Dubois, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    A genetic component in the susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) has long been known, and the first and major genetic risk factor, the HLA region, was identified in the 1970’s. However, only with the advent of genome-wide association studies in the past five years did the list of risk factors for MS grow from 1 to over 50. In this review, we summarize the search for MS risk genes and the latest results. Comparison with data from other autoimmune and neurological diseases and from animal models indicates parallels and differences between diseases. We discuss how these translate into an improved understanding of disease mechanisms, and address current challenges such as genotype-phenotype correlations, functional mechanisms of risk variants and the missing heritability. PMID:23730204

  20. Combining multiple altimeter missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, G. A.; Mitchell, J. L.

    1997-10-01

    Viewing altimeter data only at the points where separate altimeter missions' ground tracks cross provides a method to observe long time period sea surface height (SSH) variations and avoids many of the problems inherent in combining separate altimeter data sets through an independently determined geoid. TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) data over the time period from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 1995, form a mean SSH that is used as a reference by other altimeter data sets. A least squares analysis of the mean T/P SSH determines the portion of the Geographically Correlated Orbit Error (GCOE) that may be observed through crossover differences and removes this portion of the GCOE. The analysis removes errors of 0.86 cm RMS at 1 cycle per orbit revolution (cpr) and indicates negligible errors at higher frequencies. After the GCOE removal, the accuracy of the T/P reference mean is better than 1 cm RMS as measured by crossover differences. The GCOE contained in the Geosat-Exact Repeat Mission (ERM) and ERS 1 data with orbit solutions using the Joint Gravity Model (JGM) 3 is evaluated through an adjustment to the T/P reference mean surface. The Geosat-ERM data indicate a bias of about 28 cm averaged over the globe, and the ERS 1 bias is 44 cm. The T/P data used here is not corrected for the oscillator drift correction error so that the actual bias is less by about 13 cm. Both the Geosat-ERM and ERS 1 GCOE are mainly 1 cpr. GCOE estimates at frequencies above 1 cpr indicate little actual orbit error but are more correlated to instrument correction errors (particularly water vapor). Simultaneous T/P and ERS 1 SSH anomalies to the T/P mean indicate good correlation.

  1. Telerobotic management system: coordinating multiple human operators with multiple robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jamie W.; Pretty, Raymond; Brothers, Brendan; Gosine, Raymond G.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes an application called the Tele-robotic management system (TMS) for coordinating multiple operators with multiple robots for applications such as underground mining. TMS utilizes several graphical interfaces to allow the user to define a partially ordered plan for multiple robots. This plan is then converted to a Petri net for execution and monitoring. TMS uses a distributed framework to allow robots and operators to easily integrate with the applications. This framework allows robots and operators to join the network and advertise their capabilities through services. TMS then decides whether tasks should be dispatched to a robot or a remote operator based on the services offered by the robots and operators.

  2. Multiple pigmented follicular cysts: a subtype of multiple pilosebaceous cysts.

    PubMed

    Salopek, T G; Lee, S K; Jimbow, K

    1996-04-01

    Pigmented follicular cyst is a rare disorder which typically presents as a pigmented papule on the head or neck and which, histologically, exhibits terminally differentiated, pigmented hair shafts in an epidermoid cyst. We report a 22-year-old man with the multiple variant of this disorder. Clinically he had numerous brown-blue to flesh-coloured, domed-shaped papules, on the anterior chest and abdomen, of 10 years duration. Histologically, hybrid cysts exhibiting trichilemmal and epidermoid keratinization were seen. The cysts contained numerous pigmented, terminally differentiated hair shafts and, embedded in the wall of one cyst, was a sebaceous gland. The condition of multiple pigmented follicular cysts, is thought to represent a distinct subtype within the spectrum of multiple pilosebaceous cystic disorders. PMID:8733387

  3. [Multiple myeloma with D immunoglobulin].

    PubMed

    Benchekroun, Laila; Ouzzif, Zohra; Bouabdillah, Mounya; Jaouhar, Nouzha; Aoufir, Fatiha; Aoufi, Farida; Chabraoui, Layachi

    2011-01-01

    The immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma is a rare form of multiple myeloma and affects a young population. It is characterized by its clinical severity and poor prognosis. We report four cases of multiple myeloma immunoglobulin D diagnosed and supported in the university hospital Center of Sale and Rabat-Morocco. We propose to study the epidemiological, clinical and biological characteristics of this rare type of monoclonal gammopathy. Through the observations reported, the clinical aspect of myeloma is characterized by the high frequency of extra-bone manifestations including impaired kidney function. The immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma is mainly type λ, the IgD κ is rare, the predominance of λ light chains could be explained by rearrangements at the immunoglobulin genes. Bence-Jones proteinuria is almost constant in the multiple myeloma immunoglobulin D, it is mainly type λ, reflecting excess production of light chains by plasma cells. The marrow is invaded by plasma cells in very different proportions of up to 95%. It's a clinical entity, difficult to diagnose, particularly when low homogeneous band on electrophoresis goes unnoticed for an eye inexperienced or when immune serum anti-IgD was not used during the immunotyping. PMID:22008139

  4. Biological auctions with multiple rewards.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Johannes G; Kanodia, Ayush; Gupta, Raghav; Nowak, Martin A; Chatterjee, Krishnendu

    2015-08-01

    The competition for resources among cells, individuals or species is a fundamental characteristic of evolution. Biological all-pay auctions have been used to model situations where multiple individuals compete for a single resource. However, in many situations multiple resources with various values exist and single reward auctions are not applicable. We generalize the model to multiple rewards and study the evolution of strategies. In biological all-pay auctions the bid of an individual corresponds to its strategy and is equivalent to its payment in the auction. The decreasingly ordered rewards are distributed according to the decreasingly ordered bids of the participating individuals. The reproductive success of an individual is proportional to its fitness given by the sum of the rewards won minus its payments. Hence, successful bidding strategies spread in the population. We find that the results for the multiple reward case are very different from the single reward case. While the mixed strategy equilibrium in the single reward case with more than two players consists of mostly low-bidding individuals, we show that the equilibrium can convert to many high-bidding individuals and a few low-bidding individuals in the multiple reward case. Some reward values lead to a specialization among the individuals where one subpopulation competes for the rewards and the other subpopulation largely avoids costly competitions. Whether the mixed strategy equilibrium is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) depends on the specific values of the rewards. PMID:26180069

  5. Gasdynamic Multiple-Mirror Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beklemishev, Alexei; Anikeev, Andrei; Bagryansky, Peter; Burdakov, Alexander; Gavrilenko, Dmitrii; Ivanov, Alexander; Polosatkin, Sergei; Sinitsky, Stanislav

    2013-10-01

    The new linear device for confinement of fusion plasmas, GDMT, is being developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk. The facility will combine features of existing GOL-3 and GDT devices: the central GDT-like cell with sloshing NBI ions, and the multiple-mirror plugs for suppression of axial losses. Such combination became feasible due to recent discoveries. In particular, the requirement of flute-mode stability can be relaxed by using vortex confinement, achieved by plasma biasing through open field lines. This allows the use of potentially destabilizing multiple-mirror sections. Another key effect is the enhanced multiple-mirror confinement at low densities, which is due to collective rather than coulomb scattering of ions. Hence the multiple-mirror plugs can work at pressures compatible with magnetic confinement. These two main technologies are supplemented by axial injection of pulsed electron beams. Besides additional plasma heating (like in GOL-3), such injection can be used for induced collective scattering in the multiple-mirror plugs and for plasma biasing. The new device is designed to be superconducting and modular. It will be built in stages, with the first stage, GDMT-T, intended for PMI studies. The work was financially supported by Ministry of Education and Science RF.

  6. Daclizumab treatment for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sylvia E

    2009-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and the leading cause of neurologic disability in young adults. Established therapies, such as interferon and glatiramer, have only partial effects, and they offer limited or no effect on the progression of multiple sclerosis. The etiology of multiple sclerosis is unclear; however, the disease is presumed to be a T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Therefore, targeting of lymphocytes may be a promising means of therapy for multiple sclerosis. Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody approved for use in preventing renal allograft rejection. The agent is under investigation in phase II trials for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and has demonstrated positive clinical outcomes, including decreased relapse rates. Adverse events included urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, paresthesias, mild leukopenia, transient elevations in liver enzyme and bilirubin levels, rash, postinfusion reactions (fever), lymphadenopathy, transient thrombocytopenia, and nausea. Daclizumab may be an alternative or add-on therapy when conventional immunomodulators fail or when existing approved therapies cannot be used. Besides ongoing phase II trials, additional phase II or III trials are required to determine the extended benefits of the agent, as well as clinical outcomes. PMID:19170591

  7. Determinants of early childhood morbidity and proper treatment responses in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Van Huy, Nguyen; Choi, Sugy

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite significant achievements in health indicators during previous decades, Vietnam lags behind other developing countries in reducing common early childhood illnesses, such as diarrhea and respiratory infections. To date, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the prevalence and treatment of childhood morbidity in Vietnam. Objective This study examines the determinants of diarrhea and ‘illness with a cough’ and treatments for each of the conditions among young children in Vietnam, and describes trends over time. Design Data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were used. Multivariable logistic regressions were undertaken to investigate factors associated with these childhood illnesses and proper treatment patterns. Results Between 2000 and 2011, the prevalence of diarrhea among children under the age of five declined from 11 to 7%, while having illness with a cough increased to 40% in 2011 after falling from 69 to 28% between 2000 and 2006. During the same period, the prevalence of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for treating diarrhea increased from 13 to 46%, whereas the rate of seeking formal treatment for illnesses with a cough fell from 24 to 7%. Multivariable models indicated that children who were older than 2 years (odds ration [OR]: 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37–0.53, p<0.001), male (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.64–2.37, p<0.05), living in rural areas (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.00–1.64, p<0.05), or of Kinh ethnicity (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56–0.87, p<0.01) were more likely to suffer from diarrhea. Ethnic differences and higher household wealth were factors significantly associated with having illness with a cough. In particular, the effect of level of wealth on illness with a cough varied in each wave. Mothers with higher levels of education had higher odds of seeking ORT compared with mothers with the lowest level of education. Seeking formal treatment for children who have illness with a cough was associated with being in a household in the richest wealth quintile (OR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34–0.91, p<0.05). Conclusions This study demonstrates the importance of identifying different risk factors for these two illnesses and also factors associated with healthcare-seeking behaviors in order to reduce the burden of childhood morbidity in Vietnam. Policies aimed at tackling childhood morbidities should include comprehensive strategies that impact on socioeconomic and environmental factors. PMID:26950559

  8. Quantifying the Relative Importance and Potential Interactive Effects of Multiple Indices When Predicting Fire Risk and Severity in the Western US.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyser, A. R.; Westerling, A.

    2007-12-01

    The national fire plan was implemented after the landmark fire season of 2000 as a response to a perceived increasing threat of severe wildfires. Subsequently, the Landfire project was initiated to develop a national dataset comprising vegetation condition, wildland fuels and fire regimes, and ecosystem status to support the national fire plan. A key product in this dataset to predict areas at risk for severe fires is the fire regime condition class (FRCC). The FRCC is an index of the degree of departure from the historical fire regime. This departure is a metric of the difference between current landscape vegetation composition and the range of historical reference vegetation characteristics; this difference can result from changes in vegetation characteristics and/or the spatial fire regime. The FRCC index is derived relative to simulated reference conditions, which in turn are based on Landsum, a landscape fire succession model. In addition to land management decisions, factors such as nitrogen deposition, ozone and climate affect both reference and current vegetation characteristics. It is an open question as to whether FRCC is sensitive enough to capture the full suite of potential effects on fire regimes. We are interested in examining vegetation change (via FRCC), nitrogen deposition, ozone concentration and climate variability in terms of their utility in predicting spatial variability in fire regime characteristics. Our analysis includes statistical examination of the multiple effects of nitrogen deposition, ozone, climate indices, and FRCC on fire frequency, size, and severity in California and the Western United States. We will assess how these four factors might act alone to influence fire, and their relative importance as co-determinants of fire risks. Our results will quantify how distinct FRCC is from climate and its efficacy as a predictor of fire risk and severity. Of particular interest is the extent to which FRCC predicts spatial variability in fire activity, and the extent to which climate and pollution patterns predict or influence the FRCC.

  9. Trends and determinants for early initiation of and exclusive breastfeeding under six months in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Quyen Thi-Tu; Lee, Hwa-Young; Le, Anh Thi-Kim; Van Dung, Do; Vu, Lan Thi-Hoang

    2016-01-01

    Background There is strong evidence that breastfeeding (BF) significantly benefits mothers and infants in various ways. Yet the proportion of breastfed babies in Vietnam is low and continues to decline. This study fills an important evidence gap in BF practices in Vietnam. Objective This paper examines the trend of early initiation of BF and exclusive BF from 2000 to 2011 in Vietnam and explores the determinants at individual and contextual levels. Design Data from three waves of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey were combined to estimate crude and adjusted trends over time for two outcomes – early initiation of BF and exclusive BF. Three-level logistic regressions were fitted to examine the impacts of both individual and contextual characteristics on early initiation of BF and exclusive BF in the 2011 data. Results Both types of BF showed a decreasing trend over time after controlling for individual-level characteristics but this trend was more evident for early initiation of BF. Apart from child's age, individual-level characteristics were not significant predictors of the BF outcomes, but provincial characteristics had a strong association. When controlling for individual-level characteristics, mothers living in provinces with a higher percentage of mothers with more than three children were more likely to have initiated early BF (odds ratio [OR]: 1.06; confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.11) but less likely to exclusively breastfeed their babies (OR: 0.94; CI: 0.88–1.01). Mothers living in areas with a higher poverty rate were more likely to breastfeed exclusively (OR: 1.07; CI: 1.02–1.13), and those who delivered by Caesarean section were less likely to initiate early BF. Conclusions Our results suggest that environmental factors are becoming more important for determining BF practices in Vietnam. Intervention programs should therefore not only consider individual factors, but should also consider the potential impact of contextual factors on BF practices. PMID:26950562

  10. A Distinct Class of Antibodies May Be an Indicator of Gray Matter Autoimmunity in Early and Established Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ligocki, Ann J.; Rivas, Jacqueline R.; Rounds, William H.; Guzman, Alyssa A.; Li, Min; Spadaro, Melania; Lahey, Lauren; Chen, Ding; Henson, Paul M.; Graves, Donna; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Frohman, Elliot M.; Sally Ward, E.; Robinson, William; Meinl, Edgar; White, Charles L.; Stowe, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    *These authors contributed equally to the work in this manuscript.We have previously identified a distinct class of antibodies expressed by B cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of early and established relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients that is not observed in healthy donors. These antibodies contain a unique pattern of mutations in six codons along VH4 antibody genes that we termed the antibody gene signature (AGS). In fact, patients who have such B cells in their CSF are identified as either having RRMS or developing RRMS in the future. As mutations in antibody genes increase antibody affinity for particular antigens, the goal for this study was to investigate whether AGS+ antibodies bind to brain tissue antigens. Single B cells were isolated from the CSF of 10 patients with early or established RRMS. We chose 32 of these B cells that expressed antibodies enriched for the AGS for further study. We generated monoclonal full-length recombinant human antibodies (rhAbs) and used both immunological assays and immunohistochemistry to investigate the capacity of these AGS+ rhAbs to bind brain tissue antigens. AGS+ rhAbs did not recognize myelin tracts in the corpus callosum. Instead, AGS+ rhAbs recognized neuronal nuclei and/or astrocytes, which are prevalent in the cortical gray matter. This pattern was unique to the AGS+ antibodies from early and established RRMS patients, as AGS+ antibodies from an early neuromyelitis optica patient did not display the same reactivity. Prevalence of CSF-derived B cells expressing AGS+ antibodies that bind to these cell types may be an indicator of gray matter-directed autoimmunity in early and established RRMS patients. PMID:26489686

  11. Relationship of the Brief UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B) to multiple indicators of functioning in people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T; Harvey, Philip D; Pulver, Ann E; Depp, Colin A; Wolyniec, Paula S; Thornquist, Mary H; Luke, James R; McGrath, John A; Bowie, Christopher; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the relationship between multiple indicators of ‘real-world’ functioning and scores on a brief performance-based measure of functional capacity known as the Brief University of California San Diego (UCSD) Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B) in a sample of 205 patients with either serious bipolar disorder (n = 89) or schizophrenia (n = 116). Methods Participants were administered the UPSA-B and assessed on the following functional domains: (i) independent living status (e.g., residing independently as head of household, living in residential care facility); (ii) informant reports of functioning (e.g., work skills, daily living skills); (iii) educational attainment and estimated premorbid IQ as measured by years of education and Wide Range Achievement Test reading scores, respectively; and (iv) employment. Results Better scores on the UPSA-B were associated with greater residential independence after controlling for age, diagnosis, and symptoms of psychopathology. Among both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia patients, higher UPSA-B scores were significantly related to better informant reports of functioning in daily living skills and work skills domains. Greater estimated premorbid IQ was associated with higher scores on the UPSA-B for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder participants. Participants who were employed scored higher on the UPSA-B when controlling for age and diagnosis, but not when controlling for symptoms of psychopathology. Conclusions These data suggest the UPSA-B may be useful for assessing capacity for functioning in a number of domains in both people diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:20148866

  12. Analysis of the long control region of bovine papillomavirus type 1 associated with sarcoids in equine hosts indicates multiple cross-species transmission events and phylogeographical structure

    PubMed Central

    Trewby, Hannah; Ayele, Gizachew; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Brandt, Sabine; Campo, M. Saveria; Del Fava, Claudia; Marais, Johan; Leonardi, Leonardo; Vanselow, Barbara; Biek, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are a family of slowly evolving DNA viruses and their evolution is commonly linked to that of their host species. However, whilst bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) primarily causes warts in its natural host, the cow, it can also cause locally aggressive and invasive skin tumours in equids, known as sarcoids, and thus provides a rare contemporary example of cross-species transmission of a papillomavirus. Here, we describe the first phylogenetic analysis of BPV-1 in equine sarcoids to our knowledge, allowing us to explore the evolutionary history of BPV-1 and investigate its cross-species association with equids. A phylogenetic analysis of the BPV-1 transcriptional promoter region (the long control region or LCR) was conducted on 15 bovine and 116 equine samples from four continents. Incorporating previous estimates for evolutionary rates in papillomavirus implied that the genetic diversity in the LCR variants was ancient and predated domestication of both equids and cattle. The phylogeny demonstrated geographical segregation into an ancestral group (African, South American and Australian samples), and a more recently derived, largely European clade. Whilst our data are consistent with BPV-1 originating in cattle, we found evidence of multiple, probably relatively recent, cross-species transmission events into horses. We also demonstrated the high prevalence of one particular sequence variant (variant 20), and suggest this may indicate that this variant shows a fitness advantage in equids. Although strong host specificity remains the norm in papillomaviruses, our results demonstrate that exceptions to this rule exist and can become epidemiologically relevant. PMID:25185436

  13. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Design Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence. PMID:26950567

  14. Analysis of the long control region of bovine papillomavirus type 1 associated with sarcoids in equine hosts indicates multiple cross-species transmission events and phylogeographical structure.

    PubMed

    Trewby, Hannah; Ayele, Gizachew; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Brandt, Sabine; Campo, M Saveria; Del Fava, Claudia; Marais, Johan; Leonardi, Leonardo; Vanselow, Barbara; Biek, Roman; Nasir, Lubna

    2014-12-01

    Papillomaviruses are a family of slowly evolving DNA viruses and their evolution is commonly linked to that of their host species. However, whilst bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) primarily causes warts in its natural host, the cow, it can also cause locally aggressive and invasive skin tumours in equids, known as sarcoids, and thus provides a rare contemporary example of cross-species transmission of a papillomavirus. Here, we describe the first phylogenetic analysis of BPV-1 in equine sarcoids to our knowledge, allowing us to explore the evolutionary history of BPV-1 and investigate its cross-species association with equids. A phylogenetic analysis of the BPV-1 transcriptional promoter region (the long control region or LCR) was conducted on 15 bovine and 116 equine samples from four continents. Incorporating previous estimates for evolutionary rates in papillomavirus implied that the genetic diversity in the LCR variants was ancient and predated domestication of both equids and cattle. The phylogeny demonstrated geographical segregation into an ancestral group (African, South American and Australian samples), and a more recently derived, largely European clade. Whilst our data are consistent with BPV-1 originating in cattle, we found evidence of multiple, probably relatively recent, cross-species transmission events into horses. We also demonstrated the high prevalence of one particular sequence variant (variant 20), and suggest this may indicate that this variant shows a fitness advantage in equids. Although strong host specificity remains the norm in papillomaviruses, our results demonstrate that exceptions to this rule exist and can become epidemiologically relevant. PMID:25185436

  15. Interger multiplication with overflow detection or saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, M.J.; Balzola, P.I.; Akkas, A.; Brocato, R.W.

    2000-01-11

    High-speed multiplication is frequently used in general-purpose and application-specific computer systems. These systems often support integer multiplication, where two n-bit integers are multiplied to produce a 2n-bit product. To prevent growth in word length, processors typically return the n least significant bits of the product and a flag that indicates whether or not overflow has occurred. Alternatively, some processors saturate results that overflow to the most positive or most negative representable number. This paper presents efficient methods for performing unsigned or two's complement integer multiplication with overflow detection or saturation. These methods have significantly less area and delay than conventional methods for integer multiplication with overflow detection and saturation.

  16. The MARVEL assembly for neutron multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Mathew T. Kinlaw

    2013-10-01

    A new multiplying test assembly is under development at Idaho National Laboratory to support research, validation, evaluation, and learning. The item is comprised of three stacked, highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders, each 11.4 cm in diameter and having a combined height of up to 11.7 cm. The combined mass of all three cylinders is 20.3 kg of HEU. Calculations for the bare configuration of the assembly indicate a multiplication level of >3.5 (keff=0.72). Reflected configurations of the assembly, using either polyethylene or tungsten, are possible and have the capability of raising the assembly's multiplication level to greater than 10. This paper describes simulations performed to assess the assembly's multiplication level under different conditions and describes the resources available at INL to support the use of these materials. We also describe some preliminary calculations and test activities using the assembly to study neutron multiplication.

  17. Active search for multiple targets is inefficient.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Preeti

    2012-12-01

    This study examines saccade strategy in a novel task where observers actively search a display to find multiple targets in a limited time. Theory predicts that the relative merit of different saccade strategies depends on the prior probability of the target at a location: when the target prior is low and multiple-target trials are rare, making a saccade to the most likely target location is close to the optimal strategy, but when the target prior is high and multiple-target trials are frequent, selecting uncertain locations is more informative. The prior probability of the target was varied from 0.17 to 0.67 to determine whether observers adjusted their saccades strategies to maximize information. Observers actively searched a noisy display with six potential target locations. Each location had an independent probability of a target, so the number of targets in a trial ranged from 0 to 6. For all target priors ranging from low to high, a trial-by-trial analysis of saccade strategy indicated that observers made saccades to the most likely target location more often than the most uncertain location. Fixating likely locations is efficient only when multiple targets are rare, as in the case of a low target prior, or in the case of the more standard single-target search task. Yet it is the preferred saccade strategy in all our conditions, even when multiple targets are frequent. These findings indicate that humans are far from ideal searchers in multiple-target search. PMID:22929812

  18. Subpixel resolution from multiple images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Kanefsky, Rob; Stutz, John; Kraft, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Multiple images taken from similar locations and under similar lighting conditions contain similar, but not identical, information. Slight differences in instrument orientation and position produces mismatches between the projected pixel grids. These mismatches ensure that any point on the ground is sampled differently in each image. If all the images can be registered with respect to each other to a small fraction of a pixel accuracy, then the information from the multiple images can be combined to increase linear resolution by roughly the square root of the number of images. In addition, the gray-scale resolution of the composite image is also improved. We describe methods for multiple image registration and combination, and discuss some of the problems encountered in developing and extending them. We display test results with 8:1 resolution enhancement, and Viking Orbiter imagery with 2:1 and 4:1 enhancements.

  19. Multiple vehicle detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betke, Margrit; Haritaoglu, Ismail; Davis, Larry S.

    1997-02-01

    A hard real time vision system has been developed that recognizes and tracks multiple cars from video sequences taken from a car driving on highways and country roads. Recognition is accomplished by combining the analysis of single image frames with the analysis of the motion information provided by multiple consecutive image frames. In single image frames, cars are recognized by matching deformable gray-scale templates, by detecting image features, such as corners, and by evaluating how these features relate to each other. Cars are also recognized by tracking motion parameters that are typical for cars. The vision system utilizes the hard real-time operating system Maruti which guarantees that the timing constraints on the various vision processes are satisfied. The dynamic creation and termination of tracking processes optimizes the amount of computational resources spent and allows fast detection and tracking of multiple cars. Experimental results demonstrate robust, real-time recognition and tracking over thousands of image frames.

  20. Multiple meteoroid impact in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihoupt, J. W.; Rice, A.; van der Hoeven, F.

    2006-12-01

    In the late 1950's, geophysical field parties undertaking gravity surveys across Antarctica observed over a large area of Wilkes Land (> 240km across) an exceptionally pronounced negative free air anomaly ((to -158.3 mgal). This area was later interpreted as a possible meteor impact site because the gravity profiles were similar to those of known impact sites (apparent rim structures, circular basins, central peaks or rings), they possessed appropriate aspect ratios (e.g., crater diameter vs crater depth), anomalously steep negative free air gravity anomaly gradients (to 4.71 mgal/km) were characteristic of impact craters and uncharacteristic of solely mantle-related or geologic crustal variations, etc. The condition of the ice covering the anomaly (heavily crevassed), the apparent lack of isostatic compensation with surrounding environs, etc suggested the impact was geologically recent and that perhaps a tektite strewn field was associated with it. The distance from the postulated impact to the Australian strewn field was appropriate as are the ages of the tektites there. This early work has been augmented with the detection of a dominant cluster of negative free air gravity anomalies crossing the continental-oceanic boundary, and the East and West Antarctic structural boundary (i.e., Transantarctic Mountains). These anomalies are coincident with complex subglacial craterform topographic features inferred from radiosounding (to -500m below MSL). The major interior positive free air gravity anomalies are associated with subglacial topographic highs. The elliptical distribution of the negative gravity anomalies resemble known multiple impact distributions (scatter ellipses with the larger anomalies forward and the lesser ones aft). This more recent information favors expanding the original proposal to that of a multiple meteoroid impact. The multiple impact hypotheses would explain aeromagnetic surveys revealing ring-shaped structures in the subglacial rock surface much like those of known impact structures (the magnetic anomalies are unusual in magnitude themselves: amplitudes to 3600nT for sensors at 3.5 km elevation). Deviations from this topography can be attributed to glacial scour. Certainly glacial surging should accompany such an impact. The distribution of the apparent impact structures extends beyond the original discovery and on the basis of negative free air anomalies, into the Wilkes Subglacial Basin to the south, athwart the Transantarctic Mountains and into the Ross Embayment to the east. No multiple impact sites of comparable size on Earth have been reported. The above suggestions have been augmented by recent work on cores taken from the Ross Sea which has revealed the presence of material of high magnetic susceptibility often taken as an indicator of meteor impact and tektites. The age of this material is placed in the Late Pliocene. The oldest ages reported for meteorites collected from the Antarctic Blue Ice is ca. 700,000y.

  1. More than Multiplication in a 12 x 12 Multiplication Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gierdien, Faaiz

    2009-01-01

    This note presents demonstrations of mathematics that emerges when problems are posed with respect to a combined 12 x 12 multiplication table showing multiplier and multiplicand. Through processes such as recognizing and extending patterns, specializing and generalizing particular functional relationships between the diagonal and row sequences are…

  2. Multiple Imputation Strategies for Multiple Group Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Craig K.; Gottschall, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Although structural equation modeling software packages use maximum likelihood estimation by default, there are situations where one might prefer to use multiple imputation to handle missing data rather than maximum likelihood estimation (e.g., when incorporating auxiliary variables). The selection of variables is one of the nuances associated…

  3. Convergence and Discriminant: Assessing Multiple Traits Using Multiple Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye K.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple traits of language proficiency as well as test method effects were concurrently analyzed to investigate interrelations of construct validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity using multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) matrices. A total of 585 test takers' scores were derived from the field test of the "Pearson Test of English

  4. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. PMID:25732946

  5. Multiple myeloma: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Nau, Konrad C; Lewis, William D

    2008-10-01

    Multiple myeloma, the most common bone malignancy, is occurring with increasing frequency in older persons. Typical symptoms are bone pain, malaise, anemia, renal insufficiency, and hypercalcemia. Incidental discovery on comprehensive laboratory panels is common. The disease is diagnosed with serum or urine protein electrophoresis or immunofixation and bone marrow aspirate analysis. Skeletal radiographs are important in staging multiple myeloma and revealing lytic lesions, vertebral compression fractures, and osteoporosis. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography or computed tomography are emerging as useful tools in the evaluation of patients with myeloma; magnetic resonance imaging is preferred for evaluating acute spinal compression. Nuclear bone scans and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry have no role in the diagnosis and staging of myeloma. The differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathies includes monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance, smoldering (asymptomatic) and symptomatic multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and rare plasma cell leukemia and heavy chain diseases. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance or smoldering multiple myeloma should be followed closely, but not treated. Symptomatic multiple myeloma is treated with chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, if possible. Melphalan, prednisolone, dexamethasone, vincristine, doxorubicin, bortezomib, and thalidomide and its analogue lenalidomide have been used successfully. It is important that family physicians recognize and appropriately treat multiple myeloma complications. Bone pain is treated with opiates, bisphosphonates, radiotherapy, vertebroplasty, or kyphoplasty; nephrotoxic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided. Hypercalcemia is treated with isotonic saline infusions, steroids, furosemide, or bisphosphonates. Because of susceptibility to infections, patients require broad-spectrum antibiotics for febrile illness and immunization against influenza, pneumococcus, and Haemophilus influenzae B. Five-year survival rates approach 33 percent, and the median survival rate is 33 months. PMID:18841734

  6. Systematic imaging review: Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Katdare, Aparna; Ursekar, Meher

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterised by immune-mediated demyelination, and is a leading cause of neurological disability worldwide. It has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations which overlap with other neurological conditions many times. Further, the radiological array of findings in MS can also be confused for multiple other conditions, leading to the need to look for the more typical findings, and interpret these in close conjunction with the clinical picture including temporal evolution. This review aims to revisit the MRI findings in MS, including recent innovations in imaging, and to help distinguish MS from its mimics. PMID:26538845

  7. Risk Stratification in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Melissa Gaik-Ming; de Mel, Sanjay; Chng, Wee Joo

    2016-04-01

    There are many prognostic variables in multiple myeloma and the difficulty is in deciding which is truly significant. The widely used International Staging System (ISS) does not incorporate genetics, age, and other important variables in its risk stratification. Although it has its own limitations, the recently published Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) that was built upon the framework of ISS, is a more comprehensive and predictive tool for multiple myeloma patients and should be henceforth utilised. We will review the current prognostic variables and their significance in this paper. PMID:26883334

  8. [Current description of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Río, Jordi; Montalbán, Xavier

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a multifocal demyelinating disease leading to progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response in genetically predisposed individuals. In the last few years, the knowledge and management of this disease has been revolutionized by a series of findings. The present article reviews pathological features of the disease, in which cortical involvement is increasingly implicated, and aspects related to novel pathogenic mechanisms, such as the role of the microbiota in the genesis of multiple sclerosis, as well as recent contributions from the fields of epidemiology and genetics. Also reviewed are the latest diagnostic criteria, which currently allow a much earlier diagnosis, with clear therapeutic implications. PMID:25732942

  9. Multiple Sclerosis and its Management

    PubMed Central

    Weinshenker, Brian

    1992-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis, the most common disabling disease of the central nervous system affecting young adults, is diagnosed primarily from a history of typical relapsing and remitting white matter symptoms supported by objective signs. Multiple sclerosis may present in more insidious ways or may be mimicked by other diseases, which seemingly satisfy the diagnostic criteria of dissemination in time and space. Patients need psychological support to deal with an uncertain future. A multidisciplinary team approach can best manage both acute temporary disability and, often later, progressive physical and occasionally mental disability. ImagesFigures 1-3 PMID:21221279

  10. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  11. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, Emanuel M.; Nunnally, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  12. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  13. Multiple Myeloma: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent; Kumar, Shaji

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma has changed dramatically in the past decade. The disease definition has been updated to include highly specific biomarkers in addition to established markers of end-organ damage. The staging system has been revised to combine both measures of tumor burden and disease biology. Advances in therapy have resulted in a marked improvement in overall survival. New drugs introduced in the past few years include carfilzomib, pomalidomide, panobinostat, ixazomib, elotuzumab, and daratumumab. In this review, we outline the current approach to the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of multiple myeloma. PMID:26763514

  14. Polarimetry with multiple mirror telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, S. C.

    1986-01-01

    The polarizations of multiple mirror telescopes are calculated using Mueller calculus. It is found that the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) produces a constant depolarization that is a function of wavelength and independent of sky position. The efficiency and crosstalk are modeled and experimentally verified. The two- and four-mirror new generation telescopes are found to produce sinusoidal depolarization for which an accurate interpretation of the incident Stokes vector requires inverse matrix calculations. Finally, the depolarization of f/1 paraboloids is calculated and found to be less than 0.1 percent at 3000 A.

  15. Development of a Multimorbidity Illness Perceptions Scale (MULTIPleS)

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Chris J.; Kenning, Cassandra; Coventry, Peter A.; Bee, Penny; Bundy, Christine; Fisher, Louise; Bower, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Illness perceptions are beliefs about the cause, nature and management of illness, which enable patients to make sense of their conditions. These perceptions can predict adjustment and quality of life in patients with single conditions. However, multimorbidity (i.e. patients with multiple long-term conditions) is increasingly prevalent and a key challenge for future health care delivery. The objective of this research was to develop a valid and reliable measure of illness perceptions for multimorbid patients. Methods Candidate items were derived from previous qualitative research with multimorbid patients. Questionnaires were posted to 1500 patients with two or more exemplar long-term conditions (depression, diabetes, osteoarthritis, coronary heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Data were analysed using factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Rasch analysis is a modern psychometric technique for deriving unidimensional and intervally-scaled questionnaires. Results Questionnaires from 490 eligible patients (32.6% response) were returned. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five potential subscales ‘Emotional representations’, ‘Treatment burden’, ‘Prioritising conditions’, ‘Causal links’ and ‘Activity limitations’. Rasch analysis led to further item reduction and the generation of a summary scale comprising of items from all scales. All scales were unidimensional and free from differential item functioning or local independence of items. All scales were reliable, but for each subscale there were a number of patients who scored at the floor of the scale. Conclusions The MULTIPleS measure consists of five individual subscales and a 22-item summary scale that measures the perceived impact of multimorbidity. All scales showed good fit to the Rasch model and preliminary evidence of reliability and validity. A number of patients scored at floor of each subscale, which may reflect variation in the perception of multimorbidity. The MULTIPleS measure will facilitate research into the impact of illness perceptions on adjustment, clinical outcomes, quality of life, and costs in patients with multimorbidity. PMID:24376504

  16. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Multiple Cropping Indices in the North China Plain Using a Long Remote Sensing Data Time Series

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yan; Bai, Linyan; Feng, Jianzhong; Lin, Xiaosong; Wang, Li; Xu, Lijun; Ran, Qiyun; Wang, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cropping provides China with a very important system of intensive cultivation, and can effectively enhance the efficiency of farmland use while improving regional food production and security. A multiple cropping index (MCI), which represents the intensity of multiple cropping and reflects the effects of climate change on agricultural production and cropping systems, often serves as a useful parameter. Therefore, monitoring the dynamic changes in the MCI of farmland over a large area using remote sensing data is essential. For this purpose, nearly 30 years of MCIs related to dry land in the North China Plain (NCP) were efficiently extracted from remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI) data from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS). Next, the characteristics of the spatial-temporal change in MCI were analyzed. First, 2162 typical arable sample sites were selected based on a gridded spatial sampling strategy, and then the LAI information was extracted from the samples. Second, the Savizky-Golay filter was used to smooth the LAI time-series data of the samples, and then the MCIs of the samples were obtained using a second-order difference algorithm. Finally, the geo-statistical Kriging method was employed to map the spatial distribution of the MCIs and to obtain a time-series dataset of the MCIs of dry land over the NCP. The results showed that all of the MCIs in the NCP showed an increasing trend over the entire study period and increased most rapidly from 1982 to 2002. Spatially, MCIs decreased from south to north; also, high MCIs were mainly concentrated in the relatively flat areas. In addition, the partial spatial changes of MCIs had clear geographical characteristics, with the largest change in Henan Province. PMID:27104536

  17. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Multiple Cropping Indices in the North China Plain Using a Long Remote Sensing Data Time Series.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Bai, Linyan; Feng, Jianzhong; Lin, Xiaosong; Wang, Li; Xu, Lijun; Ran, Qiyun; Wang, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Multiple cropping provides China with a very important system of intensive cultivation, and can effectively enhance the efficiency of farmland use while improving regional food production and security. A multiple cropping index (MCI), which represents the intensity of multiple cropping and reflects the effects of climate change on agricultural production and cropping systems, often serves as a useful parameter. Therefore, monitoring the dynamic changes in the MCI of farmland over a large area using remote sensing data is essential. For this purpose, nearly 30 years of MCIs related to dry land in the North China Plain (NCP) were efficiently extracted from remotely sensed leaf area index (LAI) data from the Global LAnd Surface Satellite (GLASS). Next, the characteristics of the spatial-temporal change in MCI were analyzed. First, 2162 typical arable sample sites were selected based on a gridded spatial sampling strategy, and then the LAI information was extracted from the samples. Second, the Savizky-Golay filter was used to smooth the LAI time-series data of the samples, and then the MCIs of the samples were obtained using a second-order difference algorithm. Finally, the geo-statistical Kriging method was employed to map the spatial distribution of the MCIs and to obtain a time-series dataset of the MCIs of dry land over the NCP. The results showed that all of the MCIs in the NCP showed an increasing trend over the entire study period and increased most rapidly from 1982 to 2002. Spatially, MCIs decreased from south to north; also, high MCIs were mainly concentrated in the relatively flat areas. In addition, the partial spatial changes of MCIs had clear geographical characteristics, with the largest change in Henan Province. PMID:27104536

  18. Sequential Test Strategies for Multiple Fault Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakeri, M.; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Raghavan, V.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Kell, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing near optimal test sequencing algorithms for diagnosing multiple faults in redundant (fault-tolerant) systems. The computational complexity of solving the optimal multiple-fault isolation problem is super-exponential, that is, it is much more difficult than the single-fault isolation problem, which, by itself, is NP-hard. By employing concepts from information theory and Lagrangian relaxation, we present several static and dynamic (on-line or interactive) test sequencing algorithms for the multiple fault isolation problem that provide a trade-off between the degree of suboptimality and computational complexity. Furthermore, we present novel diagnostic strategies that generate a static diagnostic directed graph (digraph), instead of a static diagnostic tree, for multiple fault diagnosis. Using this approach, the storage complexity of the overall diagnostic strategy reduces substantially. Computational results based on real-world systems indicate that the size of a static multiple fault strategy is strictly related to the structure of the system, and that the use of an on-line multiple fault strategy can diagnose faults in systems with as many as 10,000 failure sources.

  19. Childhood Multiple Sclerosis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Amy; O'Connor, Erin; Tennekoon, Gihan

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that is increasingly recognized as a disease that affects children. Similar to adult-onset MS, children present with visual and sensory complaints, as well as weakness, spasticity, and ataxia. A lumbar puncture can be helpful in diagnosing MS when

  20. Childhood Multiple Sclerosis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Amy; O'Connor, Erin; Tennekoon, Gihan

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that is increasingly recognized as a disease that affects children. Similar to adult-onset MS, children present with visual and sensory complaints, as well as weakness, spasticity, and ataxia. A lumbar puncture can be helpful in diagnosing MS when…

  1. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  2. Multiple source energy recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Nussbaum, O. J.

    1985-10-15

    A multiple source energy recovery system incorporating a finned heat exchanger having a plurality of primary fluid circuits, at least some of which are connected to waste heat sources. A heated medium in a secondary fluid circuit is stored in a tank and then circulated to a second heat exchanger where the waste heat is recovered and utilized.

  3. Investigations on Multiplication of Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sai, Khoo Phon; Inder, Walter R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three different models with continuous materials, discontinuous materials, and number lines were used to study the operation concept in six investigations on multiplication with fractions with pupils aged 11-12 in a Penang International School. All approaches could be understood by pupils, but they preferred the area and fractional models. (MNS)

  4. Fashion, Paper Dolls and Multiplicatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ura, Suzana Kaori; Stein-Barana, Alzira C. M.; Munhoz, Deisy P.

    2011-01-01

    The multiplicative principle is the tool allowing the counting of groups that can be described by a sequence of events. An event is a subset of sample space, i.e. a collection of possible outcomes, which may be equal to or smaller than the sample space as a whole. It is important that students understand this basic principle early on and know how…

  5. Multiple pass laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.; Jorna, Siebe; Moncur, N. Kent

    1977-01-01

    A laser amplification method for increasing the energy extraction efficiency from laser amplifiers while reducing the energy flux that passes through a flux limited system which includes apparatus for decomposing a linearly polarized light beam into multiple components, passing the components through an amplifier in delayed time sequence and recombining the amplified components into an in phase linearly polarized beam.

  6. Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.

    2008-01-01

    Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

  7. Laryngeal Involvement of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Grobman, Ariel B.; Vivero, Richard J.; Campuzano-Zuluaga, German; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Rosow, David E.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to discuss a rare cause of laryngeal multiple myeloma, to review unique pathologic findings associated with plasma cell neoplasms, to discuss epidemiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment options for plasma cell neoplasms of the larynx. Laryngeal multiple myeloma, also noted in the literature as “metastatic” multiple myeloma, presenting as a de novo laryngeal mass is extremely rare with few reported cases. Laryngeal involvement of extramedullary tumors is reported to be between 6% and 18% with the epiglottis, glottis, false vocal folds, aryepiglottic folds, and subglottis involved in decreasing the order of frequency. We present the case of a 58-year-old male with a history of IgA smoldering myeloma who presented to a tertiary care laryngological practice with a two-month history of dysphonia, which was found to be laryngeal involvement of multiple myeloma. We review the classification of and differentiation between different plasma cell neoplasms, disease workups, pathologic findings, and treatment options. PMID:23213583

  8. Laryngeal involvement of multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Grobman, Ariel B; Vivero, Richard J; Campuzano-Zuluaga, German; Ganjei-Azar, Parvin; Rosow, David E

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to discuss a rare cause of laryngeal multiple myeloma, to review unique pathologic findings associated with plasma cell neoplasms, to discuss epidemiology, differential diagnosis, and treatment options for plasma cell neoplasms of the larynx. Laryngeal multiple myeloma, also noted in the literature as "metastatic" multiple myeloma, presenting as a de novo laryngeal mass is extremely rare with few reported cases. Laryngeal involvement of extramedullary tumors is reported to be between 6% and 18% with the epiglottis, glottis, false vocal folds, aryepiglottic folds, and subglottis involved in decreasing the order of frequency. We present the case of a 58-year-old male with a history of IgA smoldering myeloma who presented to a tertiary care laryngological practice with a two-month history of dysphonia, which was found to be laryngeal involvement of multiple myeloma. We review the classification of and differentiation between different plasma cell neoplasms, disease workups, pathologic findings, and treatment options. PMID:23213583

  9. Pocket Guide to Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirley, Linda J.

    Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (1983) suggests that human cognitive competence is best described as a set of abilities, talents, or mental skills. All human beings possess each of these intelligences to some extent, but individuals differ in the levels of development and nature of their combination. The seven intelligences…

  10. The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Howard

    1987-01-01

    The multiple intelligence theory is based on cultural contexts, biological analysis, developmental theories, and a vertical theory of faculties. Seven intelligences are identified: linguistic, logical mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. The theory's educational implications are described,…

  11. Multiple Intelligences in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Kathleen M.

    Within the context of school improvement and school reform, it is important to examine Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI theory). His work has far-reaching implications for curriculum development and classroom implementation. Gardner believes that the culture defines intelligence too narrowly. He sought to broaden the scope of…

  12. Multiple-orifice throttle valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitton, J. S., Jr.; Rosales, L. A.

    1969-01-01

    Multiple-orifice throttle valve is not subject to cold welding in a vacuum environment and is compatible with strong oxidizing fluid. The valve is of all metal construction using simple components that do not slide or rotate and excludes static or dynamic seals.

  13. Improving Multiple-Choice Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cristina; Lopes, Ana Paula; Babo, Lurdes; Azevedo, Jose

    2011-01-01

    A MC (multiple-choice) question can be defined as a question in which students are asked to select one alternative from a given set of alternatives in response to a question stem. The objective of this paper is to analyse if MC questions may be considered as an interesting alternative for assessing knowledge, particularly in the mathematics area,…

  14. Multiple Pathways for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary…

  15. Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an

  16. Multiple Literacies Theory: Exploring Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masny, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions of philosophy, art and science to education through the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological usefulness of a Deleuze-Guattarian conceptual framework that informs multiple literacies theory (MLT). Education lends itself to Deleuze's notion of connecting and creating through philosophy, art and…

  17. Analog voltage-multiplication circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankratov, N. N.; Romashchenko, A. I.

    The paper describes an analog circuit for the multiplication of ac voltage to dc voltage, which is based on two bipolar transistors and one MOS transistor. The energy consumption of this circuit, which is intended for use in time-optimal or energy-optimal automatic control systems, is approximately 4 mW. The circuit diagram is given.

  18. Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an…

  19. Multiple Pathways for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary

  20. Enhancing Learning through Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Pinar; Guneysu, Sibel; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a significant difference between multiple intelligence instruction (MII) and traditionally designed science instruction (TDSI) on fourth grade students' understanding of concepts associated with the "Diversity of Living Things" unit. Students' intelligence types were also examined. There were two…

  1. Improving Inferences from Multiple Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, R. Lance; Mark, Melvin M.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple evaluation methods (MEMs) can cause an inferential challenge, although there are strategies to strengthen inferences. Practical and theoretical issues involved in the use by social scientists of MEMs, three potential problems in drawing inferences from MEMs, and short- and long-term strategies for alleviating these problems are outlined.

  2. Becoming a Multiple Intelligences School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    The motivation to help students learn has moved many educators to explore multiple intelligences (MI) theory as a tool to help more children succeed. This book relates a decade of experiences in applying MI theory at New City School, an independent St. Louis elementary school. Directed toward educational leaders, the book focuses on the centrality

  3. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  4. Learning Multiplication: The Easy Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caron, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an innovative approach to teaching multiplication facts for children in middle school or younger. After introducing the dangers of some contradictions that persist, relating a brief summary of related research and guidelines regarding math facts and their relation to strategic approaches to more complex math,…

  5. Characteristics of Multiple Comparison Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mian Muhammad; And Others

    Multiple comparison procedures (MCPs), in the context of analysis of variance, are becoming more popular than the overall F tests. An attempt is made to clarify confusion among the different MCPs by systematically comparing and contrasting the procedures in terms of their purposes, restrictions, robustness to assumptions, and other special…

  6. Improving Inferences from Multiple Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, R. Lance; Mark, Melvin M.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple evaluation methods (MEMs) can cause an inferential challenge, although there are strategies to strengthen inferences. Practical and theoretical issues involved in the use by social scientists of MEMs, three potential problems in drawing inferences from MEMs, and short- and long-term strategies for alleviating these problems are outlined.…

  7. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60.0). Conclusions More efforts are required to increase household access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta, South East and Central Highlands regions of Vietnam. There is also a need to address socio-economic factors associated with inadequate access to improved sanitation facilities. PMID:26950563

  8. Budgeting and controllable cost variances. The case of multiple diagnoses, multiple services, and multiple resources.

    PubMed

    Broyles, R W; Lay, C M

    1982-12-01

    This paper examines an unfavorable cost variance in an institution which employs multiple resources to provide stay specific and ancillary services to patients presenting multiple diagnoses. It partitions the difference between actual and expected costs into components that are the responsibility of an identifiable individual or group of individuals. The analysis demonstrates that the components comprising an unfavorable cost variance are attributable to factor prices, the use of real resources, the mix of patients, and the composition of care provided by the institution. In addition, the interactive effects of these factors are also identified. PMID:7183731

  9. Multiple RNA interaction: beyond two.

    PubMed

    Mneimneh, Saad; Ahmed, Syed Ali

    2015-03-01

    The interaction of two RNA molecules involves a complex interplay between folding and binding that warranted recent developments in RNA-RNA interaction algorithms. However, biological mechanisms in which more than two RNAs take part in an interaction also exist. It is reasonable to believe that interactions involving multiple RNAs are generally more complex to be treated pairwise. In addition, given a pool of RNAs, it is not trivial to predict which RNAs interact without sufficient biological knowledge. Therefore, structures resulting from multiple RNA interactions often cannot be predicted by the existing algorithms that handle RNAs pairwise and may simply favor the best interacting pair. We propose a system for multiple RNA interaction that overcomes the difficulties mentioned above by formulating a combinatorial optimization problem called Pegs and Rubber Bands. A solution to this problem encodes a structure of interacting RNAs. The problem, not surprisingly, is NP-hard. However, our experiments with approximation algorithms and heuristics for the problem suggest that this formulation is adequate to predict known interaction patterns of multiple RNAs. In general, however, the optimal solution obtained does not necessarily correspond to the actual structure observed in biological experiments. Moreover, a structure produced by interacting RNAs may not be unique. We extend our approach to generate multiple suboptimal solutions. By clustering these solutions, we are able to reveal representatives that correspond to realistic structures. Specifically, our results on the U2-U6 complex with introns in the spliceosome of human/yeast and the CopA-CopT complex in E. coli are consistent with published biological structures. PMID:25680214

  10. Software Portability Considerations for Multiple Applications over Multiple Sites

    PubMed Central

    Munnecke, Thomas

    1981-01-01

    There are great benefits to be obtained by distributing the cost of software development over multiple sites. Both economies and dis-economies of scale become prominent when broad-based software portability is looked at carefully. However, traditional data processing techniques are oriented to making specific users, rather than general software for a class of users. This trend toward overspecification is getting worse with traditional data processing languages, while other standard languages are confronting it.

  11. Iron chelation and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Kelsey J.; Lynch, Sharon G.; LeVine, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Histochemical and MRI studies have demonstrated that MS (multiple sclerosis) patients have abnormal deposition of iron in both gray and white matter structures. Data is emerging indicating that this iron could partake in pathogenesis by various mechanisms, e.g., promoting the production of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Iron chelation therapy could be a viable strategy to block iron-related pathological events or it can confer cellular protection by stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor 1α, a transcription factor that normally responds to hypoxic conditions. Iron chelation has been shown to protect against disease progression and/or limit iron accumulation in some neurological disorders or their experimental models. Data from studies that administered a chelator to animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of MS, support the rationale for examining this treatment approach in MS. Preliminary clinical studies have been performed in MS patients using deferoxamine. Although some side effects were observed, the large majority of patients were able to tolerate the arduous administration regimen, i.e., 6–8 h of subcutaneous infusion, and all side effects resolved upon discontinuation of treatment. Importantly, these preliminary studies did not identify a disqualifying event for this experimental approach. More recently developed chelators, deferasirox and deferiprone, are more desirable for possible use in MS given their oral administration, and importantly, deferiprone can cross the blood–brain barrier. However, experiences from other conditions indicate that the potential for adverse events during chelation therapy necessitates close patient monitoring and a carefully considered administration regimen. PMID:24397846

  12. Stable isotope values (δ18O & δ13C) of multiple ostracode species in a large Neotropical lake as indicators of past changes in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Liseth; Curtis, Jason; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David; Escobar, Jaime; Lozano, Socorro; Schwalb, Antje

    2013-04-01

    Modern lake hydrodynamics, ostracode species autecology, stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) of multiple ostracode species, ostracode taphonomy and sediment geochemistry were studied to improve interpretation of the late Pleistocene-early Holocene (˜24-10 ka) stable isotope record of ostracodes in sediment core PI-6 from Lago Petén Itzá, northern Guatemala. Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes in modern and fossil species assemblages of Lago Petén Itzá were used as indicators of changes in the balance between evaporation and precipitation, past lake level and carbon source. Ostracode taphonomy was used to detect past periods of strong currents, high-energy environments, and possible partial or full mixing of the lake. The modern lake water isotopic composition displays clear seasonal differences that are independent of lake level fluctuations. Modern benthic species displayed lower δ18O and δ13C values than nektobenthic species, with differences of 3.0‰ and 5.3‰, respectively. Valves of nektobenthic species display higher values of δ13C because these ostracodes live in shallower environments among abundant algae and aquatic plants, where productivity is high. The benthic species Limnocythere opesta Brehm, 1939 displayed the smallest average offset from δ18O water (+0.3‰) and the largest offset from δ13CDIC values (-4.1‰) among studied ostracode species. Nektobenthic species Heterocypris punctata Keyser, 1975 displayed the smallest difference relative to the δ13CDIC values (-0.1‰). Late Pleistocene-early Holocene climate conditions and water levels in Lago Petén Itzá can be summarized as follows: 1) high lake levels and cold conditions (Last Glacial Maximum [LGM], ˜24-19 ka), 2) fluctuating lake levels and cold conditions (Heinrich Stadial 1 [HS1], ˜19-15 ka), 3) high lake levels and warm and wetter conditions (Bølling-Allerød [BA], ˜15-13 ka), 4) low lake levels and dry conditions (Younger Dryas [YD], ˜13-11.5 ka) and 5) high lake levels and warm and wetter conditions (early Holocene, ˜11.5-10.0 ka). Average lake level fluctuation in Lago Petén Itzá during the late Pleistocene-early Holocene was as much as ˜25 m. Ostracode analyses suggest that the LGM was characterized by relatively low δ18O (+4.7 to +6.0‰), and δ13C values (-7.1 to -6.4‰) in ostracode valves, high inferred water depths and high percentages of broken adult and juvenile valves (>66%), suggesting a high-energy environment, strong currents, partial to full mixing, downslope transport, colder water temperatures and wetter conditions. An increase in the relative abundance of the benthic species L. opesta and higher numbers of broken valves suggest heavy precipitation events during the LGM (˜23.7, 21.7, 20.8 and 20.1 ka). HS1 was predominantly dry, but we identified times when lake levels were slightly higher, at the onset of the deglacial and a brief period (˜17-16 ka) between HS1b and HS1a. All studied climate proxies indicate wetter and warmer conditions and lake system stability during the BA. Lake levels dropped during the YD and gradually increased during the Preboreal and early Holocene. We demonstrate that modern and fossil ostracode isotopic signatures, species assemblages and taphonomy can be used together with physical and geochemical variables in Lago Petén Itzá sediments to make high-resolution inferences about late Pleistocene-early Holocene environmental changes in the lowland Neotropics.

  13. Genetics Reasoning with Multiple External Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Explores a case study of a class of 10th grade students whose learning of genetics involved activities using BioLogica, a computer program that features multiple external representations (MERs). Findings indicate that the MERs in BioLogica contributed to students' development of genetics reasoning by engendering their motivation and interest but…

  14. Impaired neurosteroid synthesis in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Ellestad, Kristofor K.; Maingat, Ferdinand; Warren, Kenneth G.; Han, May H.; Steinman, Lawrence; Baker, Glen B.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput technologies have led to advances in the recognition of disease pathways and their underlying mechanisms. To investigate the impact of micro-RNAs on the disease process in multiple sclerosis, a prototypic inflammatory neurological disorder, we examined cerebral white matter from patients with or without the disease by micro-RNA profiling, together with confirmatory reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction analysis, immunoblotting and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These observations were verified using the in vivo multiple sclerosis model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Brains of patients with or without multiple sclerosis demonstrated differential expression of multiple micro-RNAs, but expression of three neurosteroid synthesis enzyme-specific micro-RNAs (miR-338, miR-155 and miR-491) showed a bias towards induction in patients with multiple sclerosis (P < 0.05). Analysis of the neurosteroidogenic pathways targeted by micro-RNAs revealed suppression of enzyme transcript and protein levels in the white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis (P < 0.05). This was confirmed by firefly/Renilla luciferase micro-RNA target knockdown experiments (P < 0.05) and detection of specific micro-RNAs by in situ hybridization in the brains of patients with or without multiple sclerosis. Levels of important neurosteroids, including allopregnanolone, were suppressed in the white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis (P < 0.05). Induction of the murine micro-RNAs, miR-338 and miR-155, accompanied by diminished expression of neurosteroidogenic enzymes and allopregnanolone, was also observed in the brains of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (P < 0.05). Allopregnanolone treatment of the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model limited the associated neuropathology, including neuroinflammation, myelin and axonal injury and reduced neurobehavioral deficits (P < 0.05). These multi-platform studies point to impaired neurosteroidogenesis in both multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The findings also indicate that allopregnanolone and perhaps other neurosteroid-like compounds might represent potential biomarkers or therapies for multiple sclerosis. PMID:21908875

  15. Autonomic Disorders in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lensch, E.; Jost, W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease leading to disseminated lesions of the central nervous system resulting in both somatomotor and autonomic disturbances. These involve the central centers of the autonomic nervous system, as well as the automatic control and pathway systems. All autonomic functions may be disordered individually or in combined form. There is no other disease with a clinical picture so multifaceted. Besides cardiovascular dysfunctions disorders of bladder and rectum have become apparent. Somatomotor and autonomic disturbances occur with similar frequency; however the focused exam often heavily favors somatomotor symptoms. Autonomic disturbances should primarily be taken into account on history taking and clinical examination. Individual diagnosis and treatment is a secondary feature. Impairments of the autonomic nervous systems in multiple sclerosis are frequently overlooked. PMID:21603189

  16. Lambert's multiple reflection model revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahlweg, Cornelius; Rothe, Hendrik

    2011-10-01

    In last years paper on the idea of Lambertian reflection we gave a partial translation of an almost lost chapter by Lambert on multiple reflection as a gimmick. The problem of multiple reflections is of special interest in scatterometric devices. The present paper is dedicated to a deeper discussion of the model proposed by J.H. Lambert or, better to say, a derivation using the matrix method of paraxial optics. Further some examples and special cases - especially the consequences for scatterometer design - are discussed. For easy handling it would be desirable to derive some simplified formulas describing the effective higher order refraction qualities of thick lenses, which might support the choice of lenses for certain applications.

  17. Multiple aperture telescope diffraction images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meinel, A. B.; Meinel, M. P.; Woolf, N. J.

    After the successful development of the multiple-mirror telescope (MMT) which is now in operation at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, it appears likely that other large telescopes of the future will also employ several apertures in combination. The characteristics of multiple-aperture telescopes (MAT) are considered along with the diffraction pattern for an array of equal-diameter apertures and the experimental setup for generating the diffraction pattern. An atlas of diffraction images is discussed, taking into account single apertures, linear-spaced arrays, four-square arrays, circular arrays, triangular arrays, Y-arrays, eight-element arrays, arrays with central aperture, Golay arrays, Mills Cross arrays, 12-element arrays, 16-element arrays, and many-aperture arrays. Attention is also given to a quantitative analysis of patterns.

  18. Method for deploying multiple spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharer, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method for deploying multiple spacecraft is disclosed. The method can be used in a situation where a first celestial body is being orbited by a second celestial body. The spacecraft are loaded onto a single spaceship that contains the multiple spacecraft and the spacecraft is launched from the second celestial body towards a third celestial body. The spacecraft are separated from each other while in route to the third celestial body. Each of the spacecraft is then subjected to the gravitational field of the third celestial body and each of the spacecraft assumes a different, independent orbit about the first celestial body. In those situations where the spacecraft are launched from Earth, the Sun can act as the first celestial body, the Earth can act as the second celestial body and the Moon can act as the third celestial body.

  19. Multiple sclerosis genetics is dead.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Christopher H

    2013-07-01

    This review addresses several areas of contention related to the genetic theory for multiple sclerosis (MS). It is argued (a) that the concept of MS as a 'complex disease' has little value, (b) just because a disorder is found in multiple families, it is not necessarily genetically based, (c) although twin studies are claimed to show that MS is '30% genetically based' this concept derives from widely varying data, (d) although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest the presence of several MS related genes this has yet to be proven, (e) monozygotic twins discordant for MS should have a different genetic sequence if the disorder has a genetic basis but data so far suggest this may not be correct and (f) epigenetics or epistasis are contentious topics and may not provide the answer. It is concluded that the role of genetics in MS etiology may be overstated and that attention should now be devoted to environmental causes. PMID:25877721

  20. Emerging therapies in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    El-Amm, Joelle; Tabbara, Imad A

    2015-06-01

    The treatment of multiple myeloma has evolved significantly over the past 2 decades due to the use of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, and the subsequent introduction of the immunomodulatory agents (thalidomide and lenalidomide) and the proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib). The median overall survival of multiple myeloma patients has increased significantly with patients younger than age 50 years experiencing a 10-year survival rate of around 40%. However, despite the increased effectiveness of the first-line agents, the majority of patients will eventually relapse and become drug resistant. Promising novel therapies have recently emerged and are being used to treat relapsed and refractory patients. This review will cover the clinical data regarding these emergent therapies that include new generation of proteasome inhibitors (carfilzomib, ixazomib, oprozomib, and marizomib), immunomodulatory drugs (pomalidomide), monoclonal antibodies (elotuzumab and daratumumab), signal transduction modulator (perifosine), and histone deacetylase inhibitors (vorinostat and panobinostat). PMID:23934133

  1. Multiple sclerosis - New treatment modalities

    PubMed Central

    Totaro, Rocco; Di Carmine, Caterina; Marini, Carmine; Carolei, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the introduction of the first disease modifying therapies, the concept of multiple sclerosis treatment algorithms developed ceaselessly. The increasing number of available drugs is paralleled by impelling issue of ensuring the most appropriate treatment to the right patient at the right time. The purpose of this review is to describe novel agents recently approved for multiple sclerosis treatment, namely teriflunomide, alemtuzumab and dimethylfumarate, focusing on mechanism of action, efficacy data in experimental setting, safety and tolerability. The place in therapy of newer treatment implies careful balancing of risk-benefit profile as well as accurate patient selection. Hence the widening of therapeutic arsenal provides greater opportunity for personalized therapy but also entails a complex trade-off between efficacy, tolerability, safety and eventually patient preference. PMID:26831413

  2. Multiple sclerosis - New treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Totaro, Rocco; Di Carmine, Caterina; Marini, Carmine; Carolei, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Ever since the introduction of the first disease modifying therapies, the concept of multiple sclerosis treatment algorithms developed ceaselessly. The increasing number of available drugs is paralleled by impelling issue of ensuring the most appropriate treatment to the right patient at the right time. The purpose of this review is to describe novel agents recently approved for multiple sclerosis treatment, namely teriflunomide, alemtuzumab and dimethylfumarate, focusing on mechanism of action, efficacy data in experimental setting, safety and tolerability. The place in therapy of newer treatment implies careful balancing of risk-benefit profile as well as accurate patient selection. Hence the widening of therapeutic arsenal provides greater opportunity for personalized therapy but also entails a complex trade-off between efficacy, tolerability, safety and eventually patient preference. PMID:26831413

  3. Replacing cells in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Ian D

    2008-02-15

    Cell transplantation is emerging as a major potential therapeutic approach in the treatment of otherwise untreatable neurodegenerative diseases. In multiple sclerosis (MS), a major direction of current research is to devise strategies that will remyelinate axons and protect them against subsequent ongoing degeneration. Ongoing loss of axons will lead to chronic disability. Oligodendrocytes and their progenitors are lost during multiple relapses in the course of MS and either needs to be replaced from an exogenous source or the remaining progenitors stimulated to differentiate and remyelinate. The successful isolation and purification of human oligodendrocytes from neural or embryonic stem cells offer hope that a source of sufficient cells for translational application might be achievable in the future. Focal repair of strategic lesions followed by more disseminated delivery of exogenous cells will be the short and long-term goals. PMID:17585942

  4. Passive neutron-multiplication measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnay, A.S.; Barnett, C.S.; Spracklen, H.P.

    1982-10-14

    We have developed an instrument to measure neutron multiplication by statistical analysis of the timing of neutrons emitted from fissionable material. This instrument is capable of repeated analysis of the same recorded data with selected algorithms, graphical displays showing statistical properties of the data, and preservation of raw data on disk for future comparisons. In our measurements we have made a comparison of the covariance to mean and Feynman variance to mean analysis algorithms to show that the covariance avoids a bias term and measures directly the effect due to the presence of neutron chains. A spherical assembly of enriched uranium shells and acrylic resin reflector/moderator components used for the measurements is described. Preliminary experimental results of the Feynman variance to mean measurements show the expected correlation with assembly multiplication.

  5. Pedestrian flow through multiple bottlenecks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezaki, Takahiro; Yanagisawa, Daichi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the dynamics of the evacuation process with multiple bottlenecks using the floor field model. To deal with this problem, we first focus on a part of the system and report its microscopic behavior. The system is controlled by parameters of inflow and the competitiveness of the pedestrians, and large inflow leads to a congested situation. Through simulations, the metastable state induced by conflicts of pedestrians is observed. The metastability is related to the phase transition from free flow to congestion. The critical condition of the transition is theoretically derived. In addition, we give simulation results of situations with multiple bottlenecks. They imply that local improvement of pedestrian flow sometimes adversely affects the total evacuation time, and that the total optimization of the system is not straightforward.

  6. Multiple thymoma with myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Hirai, T; Yamanaka, A; Fujimoto, T; Takahashi, A; Takayama, Y; Yamanaka, K

    2001-07-01

    A case of multiple thymoma associated with myotonic dystrophy is reported. The patient was a 42-year-old man who had two separate encapsulated thymoma in the anterior mediastinum, at 3 cm in diameter on the right side, and at 4 cm in diameter on the left. Extended thymo-thymomectomy was performed. Microscopically, the tumor in the right thymic lobe was predominantly mixed type, and that in the left predominantly epithelial type. Neuromuscular disease appeared to develop, with severe sputum retention in the larynx and he was referred to neurology at 6 months after surgery. On examination, he presented a characteristic hatchet face, muscle atrophy, muscle weakness, percussion myotonia and grip myotonia, and diagnosis was revised to be multiple thymoma associated with myotonic dystrophy. This association is extremely rare. It is difficult to clarify whether this association was a syndrome or coincidence. PMID:11517583

  7. Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, J. M.; Semonin, O. E.; Beard, M. C.; Gao, J.; Nozik, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Heat loss is the major factor limiting traditional single junction solar cells to a theoretical efficiency of 32%. Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) enables efficient use of the solar spectrum yielding a theoretical power conversion efficiency of 44% in solar cells under 1-sun conditions. Quantum-confined semiconductors have demonstrated the ability to generate multiple carriers but present-day materials deliver efficiencies far below the SQ limit of 32%. Semiconductor quantum dots of PbSe and PbS provide an active testbed for developing high-efficiency, inexpensive solar cells benefitting from quantum confinement effects. Here, we will present recent work of solar cells employing MEG to yield external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100%.

  8. Medical management update: multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Stoopler, Eric T; Vogl, Dan T; Stadtmauer, Edward A

    2007-05-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematologic malignancy characterized by abnormal proliferation of immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells. Manifestations of MM may include anemia, osteolytic lesions, and renal dysfunction. Treatment for this disease chiefly consists of corticosteroids, bisphosphonates, chemotherapy, and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. This medical management update will review recent clinical and therapeutic advances in the field of MM and highlight issues that are important to the oral health care provider. PMID:17291793

  9. Multiple Vaccinations: Friend or Foe

    PubMed Central

    Church, Sarah E.; Jensen, Shawn M.; Twitty, Chris; Bahjat, Keith; Hu, Hong-Ming; Urba, Walter J.; Fox, Bernard A.

    2013-01-01

    Few immunotherapists would accept the concept of a single vaccination inducing a therapeutic anti-cancer immune response in a patient with advanced cancer. But what is the evidence to support the “more-is-better” approach of multiple vaccinations? Since we are unaware of trials comparing the effect of a single vaccine versus multiple vaccinations on patient outcome, we considered that an anti-cancer immune response might provide a surrogate measure of the effectiveness of vaccination strategies. Since few large trials include immunological monitoring, the majority of information is gleaned from smaller trials in which an evaluation of immune responses to vaccine or tumor, before and at one or more times following the first vaccine was performed. In some studies there is convincing evidence that repeated administration of a specific vaccine can augment the immune response to antigens contained in the vaccine. In other settings multiple vaccinations can significantly reduce the immune response to one or more targets. Results from three large adjuvant vaccine studies support the potential detrimental effect of multiple vaccinations as clinical outcomes in the control arms were significantly better than that for treatment groups. Recent research has provided insights into mechanisms that are likely responsible for the reduced responses in the studies noted above, but supporting evidence from clinical specimens is generally lacking. Interpretation of these results is further complicated by the possibility that the dominant immune response may evolve to recognize epitopes not present in the vaccine. Nonetheless, the FDA-approval of the first therapeutic cancer vaccine and recent developments from preclinical models and clinical trials provide a substantial basis for optimism and a critical evaluation of cancer vaccine strategies. PMID:21952289

  10. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  11. Update on multiple sclerosis treatments.

    PubMed

    Bridel, Claire; Lalive, Patrice H

    2014-01-01

    Relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) management has dramatically changed over the past decade. New drugs have arrived on the market, allowing for more individualised treatment selection. However, this diversity has increased the complexity of RRMS patient follow-up. In this review, we provide summarised information about treatment efficacy, potential side-effects, follow-up recommendations, vaccinations, and pregnancy safety issues for all currently available disease modifying therapies and those awaiting approval. PMID:25247669

  12. Artifactual hypercalcemia in multiple myeloma

    SciTech Connect

    Annesley, T.M.; Burritt, M.F.; Kyle, R.A.

    1982-09-01

    A calcium-binding IgG K monoclonal protein in a patient with multiple myeloma and asymptomatic hypercalcemia was recognized, isolated, and characterized. In addition to binding by the whole IgG molecules, calcium was bound by purified Fab fragments and recombined heavy and light chains. In a competitive binding study, the isolated myeloma protein did not bind magnesium. Recognition of calcium-binding myeloma proteins is important in order to avoid therapy for hypercalcemia.

  13. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  14. FRACTIONAL DYNAMICS AT MULTIPLE TIMES

    PubMed Central

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Straka, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A continuous time random walk (CTRW) imposes a random waiting time between random particle jumps. CTRW limit densities solve a fractional Fokker-Planck equation, but since the CTRW limit is not Markovian, this is not sufficient to characterize the process. This paper applies continuum renewal theory to restore the Markov property on an expanded state space, and compute the joint CTRW limit density at multiple times. PMID:23378670

  15. [Neuropsychological disorders in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Greim, B; Zettl, U K

    2009-08-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS) neuropsychological disorders such as cognitive dysfunctions, depression, and fatigue are common and have a significant impact on everyday live. The three symptoms interact in different ways which has to be bore in mind in diagnostic and therapeutic proceedings. The clinical management of the three symptoms should include an assessment of overlapping cofactors and primary causes as well as a step-wise treatment approach that encompasses non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions. PMID:19685387

  16. SnapShot: Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Braggio, Esteban; Kortüm, K Martin; Stewart, A Keith

    2015-11-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy characterized by a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Genetic abnormalities are not only key events in the origin and progression of the disease but are also useful tools for prognosis, risk stratification, and therapeutic decision making. Although still incurable, a revolution in the treatment of MM is currently ongoing, leading to a significant improvement of clinical outcome and survival. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF. PMID:26555176

  17. Multiple Element Infrared Synchrotron Mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Frogley, Mark; Cinque, Gianfelice

    2010-02-03

    Multiple element focussing mirrors are simulated, with a novel design to correct for the spatially extended source in bending magnet infrared beamlines with large acceptance apertures. The calculated enhancement of the effective source brightness is a factor of 4.6 at lambda = 2 {mu}m, 2.5 at lambda = 10 {mu}m and 1.0 at lambda = 100 {mu}m.

  18. [Special cases of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Mendibe Bilbao, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that usually occurs in young people and affects them for the rest of their lives. Patients and their families usually have a series of doubts and questions on everyday matters and all types of situations that occur during the distinct stages of life and which can influence the course of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide specific answers to these questions. PMID:25732948

  19. Vindesine in refractory multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    van der Lelie, H; Monasch, E; Pegels, H G; von dem Borne, A E

    1986-01-15

    In 12 of 18 patients with multiple myeloma refractory to treatment with the combination of vincristine, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, and prednisone, favorable results were obtained by replacing vincristine in this combination with vindesine. Although only three patients showed marked reductions (greater than 50%) of myeloma protein, this treatment, which was well tolerated, was also clearly beneficial to the other responding patients, thus postponing the need for more toxic treatment programs. PMID:3942957

  20. Bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Mariana Inés; Moreira, Marcos Aurélio; Araújo, Carolina Reis; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2007-12-01

    Bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Although research in this area is limited, studies assessing the nature of this association have focused on genetic aspects, adverse reaction to drugs and brain demyelinating lesions. Herein we report three patients with MS that also presented bipolar disorder. The coexistence of neurological and psychiatric symptoms in most MS relapses highlights the relevance of biological factors in the emergence of mood disorders in these patients. PMID:18345425

  1. Integrating individual-based indices of contaminant effects. How multiple sublethal effects may ultimately reduce amphibian recruitment from a contaminated breeding site.

    PubMed

    Rowe, C L; Hopkins, W A; Congdon, J D

    2001-11-29

    Habitat contamination can alter numerous biological processes in individual organisms. Examining multiple individual-level responses in an integrative fashion is necessary to understand how individual health or fitness reflects environmental contamination. Here we provide an example of such an integrated perspective based upon recent studies of an amphibian (the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana ) that experiences several, disparate changes when larval development occurs in a trace element-contaminated habitat. First, we present an overview of studies focused on specific responses of individuals collected from, or transplanted into, a habitat contaminated by coal combustion residues (CCR). These studies have reported morphological, behavioral, and physiological modifications to individuals chronically interacting with sediments in the CCR-contaminated site. Morphological abnormalities in the oral and tail regions in contaminant-exposed individuals influenced other properties such as grazing, growth, and swimming performance. Behavioral changes in swimming activities and responses to stimuli appear to influence predation risk in the contaminant-exposed population. Significant changes in bioenergetics in the contaminated habitat, evident as abnormally high energetic expenditures for survival (maintenance) costs, may ultimately influence production pathways (growth, energy storage) in individuals. We then present a conceptual model to examine how interactions among the affected systems (morphological, behavioral, physiological) may ultimately bring about more severe effects than would be predicted if the responses were considered in isolation. A complex interplay among simultaneously occurring biological changes emerges in which multiple, sublethal effects ultimately can translate into reductions in larval or juvenile survival, and thus reduced recruitment of juveniles into the population. In systems where individuals are exposed to low concentrations of contaminants for long periods of time, research focused on one or few sublethal responses could substantially underestimate overall effects on individuals. We suggest that investigators adopt a more integrated perspective on contaminant-induced biological changes so that studies of individual-based effects can be better integrated into analyses of mechanisms of population change. PMID:12805772

  2. Serum concentration of the cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ICTP) is a useful prognostic indicator in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Elomaa, I; Virkkunen, P; Risteli, L; Risteli, J

    1992-08-01

    Type I collagen is the main collagen type found in mineralised bone. Specific immunoassays for PICP (carboxyterminal propeptide of type I procollagen) and ICTP (cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptide region of type I collagen) allow simultaneous assessment of the synthesis and degradation of type I collagen in serum samples, respectively. Our aim was to find out whether these metabolites of type I collagen are useful markers for following bone turnover and evaluating treatment response in multiple myeloma, which is a good model disease of excessive osteolysis. Fifteen consecutive patients were studied before and throughout their treatment. Samples for serum PICP and ICTP were collected before starting each treatment course of melphalan and prednisolon. Response to treatment was evaluated by following the changes in M protein and bone roentgenograms. The disease was progressing in four and regressive in 11 patients, but in four of these a recurrence occurred. In nonresponders the ICTP concentration was permanently elevated despite treatment. In responders both increased or normal levels of ICTP were initially observed, but they returned to or remained in the reference interval during treatment. The ICTP concentration increased upon recurring disease. There was a strong correlation between the extent of bone lesions and ICTP. There was no correlation between ICTP and PICP, the latter mainly remaining within the reference range, a finding that suggests no change in bone formation. ICTP was a significant predictor for survival in this patient group (P less than 0.05). We conclude that ICTP is a specific and sensitive marker for bone resorption. Simultaneous use of serum ICTP and PICP offers an additional and easy means to follow bone turnover and evaluate the response to therapy in multiple myeloma. PMID:1503907

  3. High multiplicity study and gluon dominance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokoulina, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    Study of high multiplicity events in proton-proton interactions is carried out at the U-70 accelerator (IHEP, Protvino). These events are extremely rare. Usually, Monte Carlo codes underestimate topological cross sections in this region. The gluon dominance model (GDM) was offered to describe them. It is based on QCD and a phenomenological scheme of a hadronization stage. This model indicates a recombination mechanism of hadronization and a gluon fission. Future program of the SVD Collaboration is aimed at studying a long-standing puzzle of excess soft photon yield and its connection with high multiplicity at the U-70 and Nuclotron facility at JINR, Dubna.

  4. Time-domain multiple-quantum NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Weitekamp, D.P.

    1982-11-01

    The development of time-domain multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance is reviewed through mid 1982 and some prospects for future development are indicated. Particular attention is given to the problem of obtaining resolved, interpretable, many-quantum spectra for anisotropic magnetically isolated systems of coupled spins. New results are presented on a number of topics including the optimization of multiple-quantum-line intensities, analysis of noise in two-dimensional spectroscopy, and the use of order-selective excitation for cross polarization between nuclear-spin species.

  5. Learning to track multiple targets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Tao, Dacheng; Song, Mingli; Zhang, Luming; Bu, Jiajun; Chen, Chun

    2015-05-01

    Monocular multiple-object tracking is a fundamental yet under-addressed computer vision problem. In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework for tracking multiple objects by detection. First, instead of heuristically defining a tracking algorithm, we learn that a discriminative structure prediction model from labeled video data captures the interdependence of multiple influence factors. Given the joint targets state from the last time step and the observation at the current frame, the joint targets state at the current time step can then be inferred by maximizing the joint probability score. Second, our detection results benefit from tracking cues. The traditional detection algorithms need a nonmaximal suppression postprocessing to select a subset from the total detection responses as the final output and a large number of selection mistakes are induced, especially under a congested circumstance. Our method integrates both detection and tracking cues. This integration helps to decrease the postprocessing mistake risk and to improve performance in tracking. Finally, we formulate the entire model training into a convex optimization problem and estimate its parameters using the cutting plane optimization. Experiments show that our method performs effectively in a large variety of scenarios, including pedestrian tracking in crowd scenes and vehicle tracking in congested traffic. PMID:25051561

  6. Confabulators mistake multiplicity for uniqueness.

    PubMed

    Serra, Mara; La Corte, Valentina; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Brazzarola, Marta; Zannoni, Ilaria; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Dalla Barba, Gianfranco

    2014-09-01

    Some patients with organic amnesia show confabulation, the production of statements and actions unintentionally incongruous to the subject's history, present and future situation. It has been shown that confabulators tend to report as unique and specific personal memories, events or actions that belong to their habits and routines (Habits Confabulations). We consider that habits and routines can be characterized by multiplicity, as opposed to uniqueness. This paper examines this phenomenon whereby confabulators mistake multiplicity, i.e., repeated events, for uniqueness, i.e., events that occurred in a unique and specific temporo-spatial context. In order to measure the ability to discriminate unique from repeated events we used four runs of a recognition memory task, in which some items were seen only once at study, whereas others were seen four times. Confabulators, but not non-confabulating amnesiacs (NCA), considered repeated items as unique, thus mistaking multiplicity for uniqueness. This phenomenon has been observed clinically but our study is the first to demonstrate it experimentally. We suggest that a crucial mechanism involved in the production of confabulations is thus the confusion between unique and repeated events. PMID:25080079

  7. Multiple Forms of Bacterial Hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Ackrell, B. A. C.; Asato, R. N.; Mower, H. F.

    1966-01-01

    Ackrell, B. A. C. (University of Hawaii, Honolulu), R. N. Asato, and H. F. Mower. Multiple forms of bacterial hydrogenases. J. Bacteriol. 92:828–838. 1966.—Extracts of certain bacterial species have been shown by disc electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel to contain multiple hydrogenase systems. The hydrogenase enzymes comprising these systems have different electrophoretic mobilities and produce a band pattern that is unique for each bacterial species. Of 20 bacterial species known to possess hydrogenase activity and which were examined by this technique, only the activities of Clostridium tetanomorphum and C. thermosaccharolyticum could be attributed, at pH 8.3, to a single hydrogenase enzyme. This multiplicity of hydrogenase forms was found both in bacteria which contain mostly soluble hydrogenases and in those where the hydrogenase is predominantly associated with particulate material. When solubilization of this particulate material could be effected, at least two solubilized hydrogenases were released, and, of these, one would have the same electrophoretic properties (i.e., RF) as one of the soluble hydrogenases already present in small amounts within the cell. Different growth conditions for various types of bacteria, such as the nitrogen source, the degree of aeration, and photosynthetic versus aerobic growth in the dark, as well as the conditions under which the cells were stored, markedly affected the hydrogenase activity of the cells, but not their hydrogenase band pattern. The disc electrophoresis technique proved to be 10 times more sensitive than the manometric technique in detecting hydrogenase activity. PMID:5926752

  8. Efficient coding and multiple motions.

    PubMed

    Barth, Erhardt; Dorr, Michael; Vig, Eleonora; Pomarjanschi, Laura; Mota, Cicero

    2010-10-28

    Based on the principle of efficient coding, we present a theoretical framework for how to categorize the basic types of changes that can occur in a spatio-temporal signal. First, theoretical results for the problem of estimating multiple transparent motions are reviewed. Then, confidence measures for the presence of multiple motions are used to derive a basic alphabet of local signal variation that includes motion layers. To better understand and visualize this alphabet, a representation of motions in the projective plane is used. A further, practical contribution is an interactive tool that allows generating multiple motion patterns and displaying them in various apertures. In our framework, we can explain some well-known results on coherent motion and a few more complex perceptual phenomena such as the 2D-1D entrainment effect, but the focus of this paper is on the methods. Our working hypothesis is that efficient representations can be obtained by suppressing all the redundancies that arise if the visual input does not change in a particular direction, or a set of directions. Finally, we assume that human eye movements will tend to avoid the redundant parts of the visual input and report results where our framework has been used to obtain very good predictions of eye movements made on overlaid natural videos. PMID:20801147

  9. Mediation Analysis with Multiple Mediators

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, T.J.; Vansteelandt, S.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in the causal inference literature on mediation have extended traditional approaches to direct and indirect effects to settings that allow for interactions and non-linearities. In this paper, these approaches from causal inference are further extended to settings in which multiple mediators may be of interest. Two analytic approaches, one based on regression and one based on weighting are proposed to estimate the effect mediated through multiple mediators and the effects through other pathways. The approaches proposed here accommodate exposure-mediator interactions and, to a certain extent, mediator-mediator interactions as well. The methods handle binary or continuous mediators and binary, continuous or count outcomes. When the mediators affect one another, the strategy of trying to assess direct and indirect effects one mediator at a time will in general fail; the approach given in this paper can still be used. A characterization is moreover given as to when the sum of the mediated effects for multiple mediators considered separately will be equal to the mediated effect of all of the mediators considered jointly. The approach proposed in this paper is robust to unmeasured common causes of two or more mediators. PMID:25580377

  10. Entropy content of multiplicity distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, C. S.

    1989-02-01

    We argue that the entropy S is an important variable to consider for multiparticle productions. A prediction of the width parameter 1//k of multiplicity distributions can be made at superhigh energies by extrapolating the entropy variable S, considered as a function of the average multiplicity Nmacr;. This is done explicitly for the negative binomial distributions and the Furry-Yule distributions, though the method is applicable to other distributions. We also argue that direct extrapolation in the variable 1//k is not advisable. Further evidence for SSZ scaling is given, and a power law for the average multiplicity N as a function of the collision energy ?s is derived. It is a pleasure to thank Rudy Hwa and David Kiang for discussions and help. I am also grateful to Dr. V. imk and Dr. M. umbera for a correspondence pointing out a numerical error in the earlier version of this work. This work is supported in part by the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Qubec Department of Education.

  11. Resistant multiple sparse canonical correlation.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jacob; Replogle, Joseph; Chandler, Gabriel; Hardin, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a multivariate technique that takes two datasets and forms the most highly correlated possible pairs of linear combinations between them. Each subsequent pair of linear combinations is orthogonal to the preceding pair, meaning that new information is gleaned from each pair. By looking at the magnitude of coefficient values, we can find out which variables can be grouped together, thus better understanding multiple interactions that are otherwise difficult to compute or grasp intuitively. CCA appears to have quite powerful applications to high-throughput data, as we can use it to discover, for example, relationships between gene expression and gene copy number variation. One of the biggest problems of CCA is that the number of variables (often upwards of 10,000) makes biological interpretation of linear combinations nearly impossible. To limit variable output, we have employed a method known as sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA), while adding estimation which is resistant to extreme observations or other types of deviant data. In this paper, we have demonstrated the success of resistant estimation in variable selection using SCCA. Additionally, we have used SCCA to find multiple canonical pairs for extended knowledge about the datasets at hand. Again, using resistant estimators provided more accurate estimates than standard estimators in the multiple canonical correlation setting. R code is available and documented at https://github.com/hardin47/rmscca. PMID:26963062

  12. Optical multiple object tracking techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-02-01

    Two multichannel multiple-object tracking techniques are reviewed. In the diffraction grating technique, the input scene is picked up by a TV camera and imaged onto a liquid-crystal light valve (LCLV), and the output side of the light valve is illuminated with a suitably polarized and collimated coherent laser beam to yield a reflected beam with polarization modulated according to the intensity of the incoherent input. This reflected beam passes through a beam splitter cube and an analyzer, resulting in an intensity modulated coherent image. An array of spectrum islands containing the information of the input appears after crossing a contact screen/lens combination. In the multiple-focus hololens technique, the scene of moving objects is sent into the LCTVSLM through a camera; a collimated laser beam is incident upon the LCTV screen; a low-pass filter is inserted between the LCTVSLM and the hololens for the removal of the high order diffractions due to the grid structure of the LCTV. The feasibility of the LCTVSLM and multiple-focus hololens technique is demonstrated.

  13. Optical multiple object tracking techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

    1989-01-01

    Two multichannel multiple-object tracking techniques are reviewed. In the diffraction grating technique, the input scene is picked up by a TV camera and imaged onto a liquid-crystal light valve (LCLV), and the output side of the light valve is illuminated with a suitably polarized and collimated coherent laser beam to yield a reflected beam with polarization modulated according to the intensity of the incoherent input. This reflected beam passes through a beam splitter cube and an analyzer, resulting in an intensity modulated coherent image. An array of spectrum islands containing the information of the input appears after crossing a contact screen/lens combination. In the multiple-focus hololens technique, the scene of moving objects is sent into the LCTVSLM through a camera; a collimated laser beam is incident upon the LCTV screen; a low-pass filter is inserted between the LCTVSLM and the hololens for the removal of the high order diffractions due to the grid structure of the LCTV. The feasibility of the LCTVSLM and multiple-focus hololens technique is demonstrated.

  14. Taste dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Doty, Richard L; Tourbier, Isabelle A; Pham, Dzung L; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L; Udupa, Jayaram K; Karacali, Bilge; Beals, Evan; Fabius, Laura; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Moonis, Gul; Kim, Taehoon; Mihama, Toru; Geckle, Rena J; Yousem, David M

    2016-04-01

    Empirical studies of taste function in multiple sclerosis (MS) are rare. Moreover, a detailed assessment of whether quantitative measures of taste function correlate with the punctate and patchy myelin-related lesions found throughout the CNS of MS patients has not been made. We administered a 96-trial test of sweet (sucrose), sour (citric acid), bitter (caffeine) and salty (NaCl) taste perception to the left and right anterior (CN VII) and posterior (CN IX) tongue regions of 73 MS patients and 73 matched controls. The number and volume of lesions were assessed using quantitative MRI in 52 brain regions of 63 of the MS patients. Taste identification scores were significantly lower in the MS patients for sucrose (p = 0.0002), citric acid (p = 0.0001), caffeine (p = 0.0372) and NaCl (p = 0.0004) and were present in both anterior and posterior tongue regions. The percent of MS patients with identification scores falling below the 5th percentile of controls was 15.07 % for caffeine, 21.9 % for citric acid, 24.66 % for sucrose, and 31.50 % for NaCl. Such scores were inversely correlated with lesion volumes in the temporal, medial frontal, and superior frontal lobes, and with the number of lesions in the left and right superior frontal lobes, right anterior cingulate gyrus, and left parietal operculum. Regardless of the subject group, women outperformed men on the taste measures. These findings indicate that a sizable number of MS patients exhibit taste deficits that are associated with MS-related lesions throughout the brain. PMID:26810729

  15. Multiple states in river and lake ecosystems.

    PubMed Central

    Dent, C Lisa; Cumming, Graeme S; Carpenter, Stephen R

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear models of ecosystem dynamics that incorporate positive feedbacks and multiple, internally reinforced states have considerable explanatory power. However, linear models may be adequate, particularly if ecosystem behaviour is primarily controlled by external processes. In lake ecosystems, internal (mainly biotic) processes are thought to have major impacts on system behaviour, whereas in rivers, external (mainly physical) factors have traditionally been emphasized. We consider the hypothesis that models that exhibit multiple states are useful for understanding the behaviour of lake ecosystems, but not as useful for understanding stream ecosystems. Some of the best-known examples of multiple states come from lake ecosystems. We review some of these examples, and we also describe examples of multiple states in rivers. We conclude that the hypothesis is an oversimplification; the importance of physical forcing in rivers does not eliminate the possibility of internal feedbacks that create multiple states, although in rivers these feedbacks are likely to include physical as well as biotic processes. Nonlinear behaviour in aquatic ecosystems may be more common than current theory indicates. PMID:12079525

  16. Multiple memory systems as substrates for multiple decision systems.

    PubMed

    Doll, Bradley B; Shohamy, Daphna; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2015-01-01

    It has recently become widely appreciated that value-based decision making is supported by multiple computational strategies. In particular, animal and human behavior in learning tasks appears to include habitual responses described by prominent model-free reinforcement learning (RL) theories, but also more deliberative or goal-directed actions that can be characterized by a different class of theories, model-based RL. The latter theories evaluate actions by using a representation of the contingencies of the task (as with a learned map of a spatial maze), called an "internal model." Given the evidence of behavioral and neural dissociations between these approaches, they are often characterized as dissociable learning systems, though they likely interact and share common mechanisms. In many respects, this division parallels a longstanding dissociation in cognitive neuroscience between multiple memory systems, describing, at the broadest level, separate systems for declarative and procedural learning. Procedural learning has notable parallels with model-free RL: both involve learning of habits and both are known to depend on parts of the striatum. Declarative memory, by contrast, supports memory for single events or episodes and depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is thought to support declarative memory by encoding temporal and spatial relations among stimuli and thus is often referred to as a relational memory system. Such relational encoding is likely to play an important role in learning an internal model, the representation that is central to model-based RL. Thus, insofar as the memory systems represent more general-purpose cognitive mechanisms that might subserve performance on many sorts of tasks including decision making, these parallels raise the question whether the multiple decision systems are served by multiple memory systems, such that one dissociation is grounded in the other. Here we investigated the relationship between model-based RL and relational memory by comparing individual differences across behavioral tasks designed to measure either capacity. Human subjects performed two tasks, a learning and generalization task (acquired equivalence) which involves relational encoding and depends on the hippocampus; and a sequential RL task that could be solved by either a model-based or model-free strategy. We assessed the correlation between subjects' use of flexible, relational memory, as measured by generalization in the acquired equivalence task, and their differential reliance on either RL strategy in the decision task. We observed a significant positive relationship between generalization and model-based, but not model-free, choice strategies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that model-based RL, like acquired equivalence, relies on a more general-purpose relational memory system. PMID:24846190

  17. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.D.

    1999-01-24

    An array of epidemiological results and databases on test animal indicate that risk of cancer and atherosclerosis can be up- or down-regulated by diet through a range of 200%. Other factors contribute incrementally and include the natural terrestrial environment and various human activities that jointly produce complex exposures to endotoxin-producing microorganisms, ionizing radiations, and chemicals. Ordinary personal habits and simple physical irritants have been demonstrated to affect the immune response and risk of disease. There tends to be poor statistical correlation of long-term risk with single agent exposures incurred throughout working careers. However, Agency recommendations for control of hazardous exposures to humans has been substance-specific instead of contextually realistic even though there is consistent evidence for common mechanisms of toxicological and carcinogenic action. That behavior seems to be best explained by molecular stresses from cellular oxygen metabolism and phagocytosis of antigenic invasion as well as breakdown of normal metabolic compounds associated with homeostatic- and injury-related renewal of cells. There is continually mounting evidence that marrow stroma, comprised largely of monocyte-macrophages and fibroblasts, is important to phagocytic and cytokinetic response, but the complex action of the immune process is difficult to infer from first-principle logic or biomarkers of toxic injury. The many diverse database studies all seem to implicate two important processes, i.e., the univalent reduction of molecular oxygen and breakdown of aginuine, an amino acid, by hydrolysis or digestion of protein which is attendant to normal antigen-antibody action. This behavior indicates that protection guidelines and risk coefficients should be context dependent to include reference considerations of the composite action of parameters that mediate oxygen metabolism. A logic of this type permits the realistic common-scale modeling of multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of �what dose does?� in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of �what dose is?� Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

  18. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References

    PubMed Central

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1) the size of the factorization, 2) the time for factorization, and 3) the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%), factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s), and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB). Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization. PMID:26422374

  19. Selective termination in multiple pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Walters, W A

    1990-05-01

    Women new have a new option regarding selective termination in multiple pregnancies. New technology, researched in Australia, makes it possible to selectively terminate an abnormal fetus during first trimester, without interfering with the continuation of pregnancy. The growth and development of the normal fetus is insured. This technique can also be employed in those multiple pregnancies where parents opt, for instance, for one child as opposed to twins or triplets. Selective termination appeals principally to those located somewhere in the middle of the abortion issue. The procedure does, however, carry some small risks. When successful, it avoids the tragedy of complete termination of the pregnancy, or permanent damage to the surviving fetus. As a result, the procedure, on ethical grounds, has a small place in the arena of family planning. Selective termination is still a new procedure, and while it encourages reports on its success, it is still too early to label the success rates as confirmed. For instance, in situations where multiple pregnancies result from attempts at treatment for infertility, with all fetuses being normal, it is problematic which fetuses should be terminated. This applies in cases of fetuses selected for termination with some unexpected abnormality present. Another problem is monozygotic twin pregnancies with an anastomosis between two fetal circulations in the placenta. Both the National Bioethics Consultative Committee and the Federal and State Law Reform Commissions would be useful forums to discuss the ethical and legal issues as they apply to the procedure of selective termination. Practice of this procedure should be sued judiciously be physicians until more medical facts support a widespread acceptance of the practice. PMID:2381334

  20. Multiple head and neck malignancies.

    PubMed

    Odette, J; Szymanowski, R T; Nichols, R D

    1977-01-01

    Case histories of 47 patients with multiple head and neck neoplasms were reviewed at the Henry Ford Hospital. Data were obtained on the site of the malignancy and treatment program. Follow-up data have been good, utilizing clinic records. Several patients have had more than two malignancies of the head and neck, and one patient has just completed treatment for his fifth epidermoid carcinoma. The incidence of carcinoma of the esophagus is high in this series (16 of 47 patients). The literature is reviewed in relation to the present findings. Follow-up care is described at the Henry Ford Hospital. PMID:919150

  1. Newer therapies for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    The newer immunotherapies for multiple sclerosis (fingolimod, natalizumab, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, alemtuzumab) offer advantages of efficacy or tolerability over the injectable therapies of the 1990s. But they also have greater risks. As further treatments emerge (daclizumab and ocrelizumab are likely to be licensed in the next two years), the physician needs to be able to place them within a complex landscape of drugs and a specific treatment strategy, which may be an “escalation” or “induction” approach. Whilst on treatment, neurologist and patient need to be vigilant to signs of disease breakthrough or adverse effects. PMID:26538846

  2. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Arnone, Gaetano J.

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  3. Smart card multiple function badge

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Smart cards are credit card-sized computers with integrated data storage, an operating system to manage the data, and built-in security features that protect the data. They are used to distribute information to remote sites, providing the same or greater reliability, data integrity, and information security than a network system. However, smart cards may provide greater functionality at a lower cost than network systems. The US Department of Energy Hanford Site is developing the smart card to be used as a multiple function identification badge that will service various data management requirements on the Site. This paper discusses smart card technology and the proposed Hanford Site applications.

  4. Multiple-Beam Communications Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myhre, R. W.; Roberts, T. E.; Wong, W. C.

    1989-01-01

    System has both fixed-spot and scanning coverage. Advanced offset-fed spacecraft antenna systems operating in 30/20 GHz frequency bands developed to provide multiple-radiating fixed-spot and regional-coverage scanning beams for use on communications satellites. Operating at higher frequencies, provides alternate frequency bands for expansion of existing satellite services and achieving frequency reuse capability for conservation of frequency spectrum. 20-GHz transmitting antenna is offset-fed, dual-reflector configuration. 30-GHz receiving antenna has orthogonal polarized feeds, hyperbolic reflectors, and two subreflectors.

  5. Multiple station thermal diffusivity instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Dinwiddie, R.B.; Gaal, P.S.

    1995-12-31

    A multiple furnace laser flash thermal diffusivity system has been developed. The system is equipped with a movable Nd:Glass laser unit, two IR detectors and furnaces for precise measurements of thermal diffusivity over the temperature range from {minus}150{degree}C to 2500{degree}C. All furnaces can operate in vacuum and inert gas; the environmental effects furnace also supports oxidizing and reducing environments. To increase testing speed the graphite and aluminum furnaces are both equipped with six-sample carousels. Thermal diffusivity measurements of three standard reference materials show excellent results over the entire temperature range.

  6. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  7. Estrogen Treatment in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Stefan M; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

    2009-01-01

    Currently available treatments for multiple sclerosis reduce inflammatory lesions on MRI and decrease clinical relapses but have limited effects on disability. Novel treatment options that target both the inflammatory as well as the neurodegenerative component of the disease are therefore needed. A growing body of evidence from basic science and clinical studies supports the therapeutic potential of estrogens in MS. Mechanisms of action include both immunomodulatory and directly neuroprotective pathways. A first pilot trial of oral estriol treatment showed encouraging results. There are now several phase II trials underway to further determine the efficacy of estrogen treatment in MS. PMID:19539954

  8. Acromegaly associated with multiple tumors.

    PubMed

    Sekizawa, Naoko; Hayakawa, Eri; Tsuchiya, Kyoichiro; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Akashi, Takumi; Fujii, Takeshi; Yamada, Shozo; Hirata, Yukio

    2009-01-01

    A 56-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for the surgical removal of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). He was diagnosed with acromegaly due to his characteristic clinical features, endocrine data, and the presence of pituitary tumor. He was found to have colon cancer and follicular thyroid tumor. Pathological examination of the pituitary tumor after transsphenoidal surgery was compatible with growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. We also detected the transcripts and/or immunoreactivity of GH/insulin-like growth factor I components in the tumor specimen. This is a rare case of acromegaly associated with multiple tumors, including RCC, colon cancer and thyroid tumor. PMID:19652429

  9. Symptomatic management in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Pushkar

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest cause of disability in young adults. While there is increasing choice and better treatments available for delaying disease progression, there are still, very few, effective symptomatic treatments. For many patients such as those with primary progressive MS (PPMS) and those that inevitably become secondary progressive, symptom management is the only treatment available. MS related symptoms are complex, interrelated, and can be interdependent. It requires good understanding of the condition, a holistic multidisciplinary approach, and above all, patient education and empowerment. PMID:26538847

  10. Newer therapies for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Coles, Alasdair

    2015-09-01

    The newer immunotherapies for multiple sclerosis (fingolimod, natalizumab, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, alemtuzumab) offer advantages of efficacy or tolerability over the injectable therapies of the 1990s. But they also have greater risks. As further treatments emerge (daclizumab and ocrelizumab are likely to be licensed in the next two years), the physician needs to be able to place them within a complex landscape of drugs and a specific treatment strategy, which may be an "escalation" or "induction" approach. Whilst on treatment, neurologist and patient need to be vigilant to signs of disease breakthrough or adverse effects. PMID:26538846

  11. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  12. Multiple light scattering from colloidal samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobbmann, Ulf

    Scope and method of study. The scattering of light from a NdYAG laser was used to investigate several colloidal samples of spheres of polystyrene (PST). The spheres were dispersed into water in such concentrations that multiple scattering resulted. Data for intensity and correlation functions are presented for various particle parameters and geometries and compared to existing DWS and CT analytic approximations. The multiple scattering technique is used with foam and supporting rheometry data were taken. Finally, a multiple scattering suppression technique is devised. Findings and conclusions. It is found that the existing Diffusing Wave Spectroscopy (DWS) works very well to describe the photon statistics in highly multiple scattering samples. Other analytic approximations which improve on DWS assumptions were tested but found to not increase the level of accuracy measurably. The ease of analytical forms for DWS solutions outweighs the small accuracy increase of analytic approximations of the modified Correlation Transfer Equation (CT). We found a new correlation between the perpendicular polarization components in the intermediate optical thickness range but lack a theoretical understanding of its occurance. We present a multiple scattering suppression technique that allows the extraction of single scattering data with small multiple scattering noise even in highly concentrated suspensions. The autocorrelation function of the scattered intensity can be used to find the mean square displacement of scatters by inversion. We used this technique to discover unique and unreported scaling relationships with bubble size. The scaling could indicate that foam exhibits self- organized criticality. This would be the first observation by an optical technique of its manifestation in a three-dimensional system. Foam rheometry shows a size independent yield strain but an elastic modulus proportional to the bubble size to the power of -0.7. This result is different from theoretical predictions.

  13. Inflammatory Cortical Demyelination in Early Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lucchinetti, Claudia F.; Popescu, Bogdan F.G.; Bunyan, Reem F.; Moll, Natalia M.; Roemer, Shanu F.; Lassmann, Hans; Brück, Wolfgang; Parisi, Joseph E.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Giannini, Caterina; Weigand, Stephen D.; Mandrekar, Jay; Ransohoff, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cortical disease has emerged as a critical aspect of the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, being associated with disease progression and cognitive impairment. Most studies of cortical lesions have focused on autopsy findings in patients with long-standing, chronic, progressive multiple sclerosis, and the noninflammatory nature of these lesions has been emphasized. Magnetic resonance imaging studies indicate that cortical damage occurs early in the disease. METHODS We evaluated the prevalence and character of demyelinating cortical lesions in patients with multiple sclerosis. Cortical tissues were obtained in passing during biopsy sampling of white-matter lesions. In most cases, biopsy was done with the use of stereotactic procedures to diagnose suspected tumors. Patients with sufficient cortex (138 of 563 patients screened) were evaluated for cortical demyelination. Using immunohistochemistry, we characterized cortical lesions with respect to demyelinating activity, inflammatory infiltrates, the presence of meningeal inflammation, and a topographic association between cortical demyelination and meningeal inflammation. Diagnoses were ascertained in a subgroup of 77 patients (56%) at the last follow-up visit (at a median of 3.5 years). RESULTS Cortical demyelination was present in 53 patients (38%) (104 lesions and 222 tissue blocks) and was absent in 85 patients (121 tissue blocks). Twenty-five patients with cortical demyelination had definite multiple sclerosis (81% of 31 patients who underwent long-term follow-up), as did 33 patients without cortical demyelination (72% of 46 patients who underwent long-term follow-up). In representative tissues, 58 of 71 lesions (82%) showed CD3+ T-cell infiltrates, and 32 of 78 lesions (41%) showed macrophage-associated demyelination. Meningeal inflammation was topographically associated with cortical demyelination in patients who had sufficient meningeal tissue for study. CONCLUSIONS In this cohort of patients with early-stage multiple sclerosis, cortical demyelinating lesions were frequent, inflammatory, and strongly associated with meningeal inflammation. (Funded by the National Multiple Sclerosis Society and the National Institutes of Health.) PMID:22150037

  14. Hypodiploid multiple myeloma is characterized by more aggressive molecular markers than non-hyperdiploid multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Van Wier, Scott; Braggio, Esteban; Baker, Angela; Ahmann, Gregory; Levy, Joan; Carpten, John D; Fonseca, Rafael

    2013-10-01

    Multiple myeloma can be categorized into hyperdiploid or non-hyperdiploid myeloma based on the number of chromosomes found in the tumor clone. Among the non-hyperdiploid myelomas, the hypodiploid subtype has the most aggressive clinical phenotype, but the genetic differences between groups are not completely defined. In order to understand the genetic background of hypodiploid multiple myeloma better, we compared the genomic (array-based comparative genomic hybridization) and transcriptomic (gene expression profiling) background of 49 patients with hypodiploid myeloma with 50 other non-hyperdiploid and 125 hyperdiploid myeloma patients. There were significant chromosomal and gene expression differences between hyperdiploid patients and non-hyperdiploid and hypodiploid patients. Non-hyperdiploid and hypodiploid patients shared most of the chromosomal abnormalities; nevertheless a subset of these abnormalities, such as monosomies 13, 14 and 22, was markedly increased in hypodiploid patients. Furthermore, deletions of 1p, 12p, 16q and 17p, all associated with poor outcome or progression in multiple myeloma, were significantly enriched in hypodiploid patients. Molecular risk-stratification indices reinforce the worse prognosis associated with hypodiploid multiple myeloma compared with non-hyperdiploid multiple myeloma. Gene expression profiling clustered hypodiploid and non-hyperdiploid subgroups closer than hyperdiploid myeloma but also highlighted the up-regulation of CCND2, WHSC1/MMSET and FGFR3 in the hypodiploid subtype. In summary, hypodiploid multiple myeloma is genetically similar to non-hyperdiploid multiple myeloma but characterized by a higher prevalence of genetic alterations associated with poor outcome and disease progression. It is provocative to hypothesize that hypodiploid multiple myeloma is an advanced stage of non-hyperdiploid multiple myeloma. PMID:23716545

  15. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H.B.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Meyer, W.T.; Gorbics, M.S.; Thomas, W.D.; McKay, R.L.; Homer, J.F. Jr.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler. 25 figs.

  16. Multiple Waveband Temperature Sensor (MWTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath; Wilson, Daniel; Stirbl, Robert; Blea, Anthony; Harding, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Multiple Waveband Temperature Sensor (MWTS). The MWTS project will result in a highly stable, monolithically integrated, high resolution infrared detector array sensor that records registered thermal imagery in four infrared wavebands to infer dynamic temperature profiles on a laser-irradiated ground target. An accurate surface temperature measurement of a target in extreme environments in a non-intrusive manner is required. The development challenge is to: determine optimum wavebands (suitable for target temperatures, nature of the targets and environments) to measure accurate target surface temperature independent of the emissivity, integrate simultaneously readable multiband Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs) in a single monolithic focal plane array (FPA) sensor and to integrate the hardware/software and system calibration for remote temperature measurements. The charge was therefore to develop and demonstrate a multiband infrared imaging camera with the detectors simultaneously sensitive to multiple distinct color bands for front surface temperature measurements Wavelength ( m) measurements. Amongst the requirements are: that the measurement system will not affect target dynamics or response to the laser irradiation and that the simplest criterion for spectral band selection is to choose those practically feasible spectral bands that create the most contrast between the objects or scenes of interest in the expected environmental conditions. There is in the presentation a review of the modeling and simulation of multi-wave infrared temperature measurement and also a review of the detector development and QWIP capacities.

  17. Innovative Agents in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Faiman, Beth; Richards, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable cancer of the bone marrow plasma cells. However, the overall survival of patients with MM has increased dramatically within the past decade. This is due, in part, to newer agents such as immunomodulatory drugs (lenalidomide, thalidomide, and pomalidomide) and proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib, carfilzomib, MLN9708). These and several other new classes of drugs have arisen from an improved understanding of the complex environment in which genetic changes occur. Improved understanding of genetic events will enable clinicians to better stratify risk before and during therapy, tailor treatment, and test the value of personalized interventions. The ultimate goal in this incurable disease setting is to reduce the impact of cancer- or chemotherapy-related side effects. Nurses and advanced practitioners are integral to the treatment team. Thus, each should be aware of changes to the current drug landscape. Targeted drugs with sophisticated mechanisms of action are currently under investigation. Patients gain access to newer drugs within the context of clinical trials. Awareness of such trials will help accrual and determine if therapeutic benefit exists. In this article, we will describe new agents with unique and targeted mechanisms of action that have activity in patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. PMID:25089218

  18. Multiple pure tone noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fei; Sharma, Anupam; Paliath, Umesh; Shieh, Chingwei

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a fully numerical method for predicting multiple pure tones, also known as “Buzzsaw” noise. It consists of three steps that account for noise source generation, nonlinear acoustic propagation with hard as well as lined walls inside the nacelle, and linear acoustic propagation outside the engine. Noise generation is modeled by steady, part-annulus computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. A linear superposition algorithm is used to construct full-annulus shock/pressure pattern just upstream of the fan from part-annulus CFD results. Nonlinear wave propagation is carried out inside the duct using a pseudo-two-dimensional solution of Burgers' equation. Scattering from nacelle lip as well as radiation to farfield is performed using the commercial solver ACTRAN/TM. The proposed prediction process is verified by comparing against full-annulus CFD simulations as well as against static engine test data for a typical high bypass ratio aircraft engine with hardwall as well as lined inlets. Comparisons are drawn against nacelle unsteady pressure transducer measurements at two axial locations as well as against near- and far-field microphone array measurements outside the duct. This is the first fully numerical approach (no experimental or empirical input is required) to predict multiple pure tone noise generation, in-duct propagation and far-field radiation. It uses measured blade coordinates to calculate MPT noise.

  19. The neuropsychiatry of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Anthony

    2004-03-01

    This review describes the many neuropsychiatric abnormalities associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). These may be broadly divided into 2 categories: disorders of mood, affect, and behaviour and abnormalities affecting cognition. With respect to the former, the epidemiology, phenomenology, and theories of etiology are described for the syndromes of depression, bipolar disorder, euphoria, pathological laughing and crying, and psychosis attributable to MS. The section discussing cognition reviews the prevalence and nature of cognitive dysfunction, with an emphasis on abnormalities affecting multiple domains of memory, speed of information processing, and executive function. The detection, natural history, and cerebral correlates of cognitive dysfunction are also discussed. Finally, treatment pertaining to all these disorders is reviewed, with the observation that translational research has been found wanting when it comes to providing algorithms to guide clinicians. Guidelines derived from general psychiatry still largely apply, although they may not always be most effective in patients with neurologic disorders. The importance of future research addressing this imbalance is emphasized, for neuropsychiatric sequelae add significantly to the morbidity associated with MS. PMID:15101497

  20. Multiple protocol fluorometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew S.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2000-09-19

    A multiple protocol fluorometer measures photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton and higher plants using actively stimulated fluorescence protocols. The measured parameters include spectrally-resolved functional and optical absorption cross sections of PSII, extent of energy transfer between reaction centers of PSII, F.sub.0 (minimal), F.sub.m (maximal) and F.sub.v (variable) components of PSII fluorescence, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, size of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool, and the kinetics of electron transport between Q.sub.a and PQ pool and between PQ pool and PSI. The multiple protocol fluorometer, in one embodiment, is equipped with an excitation source having a controlled spectral output range between 420 nm and 555 nm and capable of generating flashlets having a duration of 0.125-32 .mu.s, an interval between 0.5 .mu.s and 2 seconds, and peak optical power of up to 2 W/cm.sup.2. The excitation source is also capable of generating, simultaneous with the flashlets, a controlled continuous, background illumination.

  1. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H. Bert; Rosenberg, Eli I.; Meyer, W. Thomas; Gorbics, Mark S.; Thomas, William D.; McKay, Roy L.; Homer, Jr., John F.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler.

  2. Domain transfer multiple kernel learning.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lixin; Tsang, Ivor W; Xu, Dong

    2012-03-01

    Cross-domain learning methods have shown promising results by leveraging labeled patterns from the auxiliary domain to learn a robust classifier for the target domain which has only a limited number of labeled samples. To cope with the considerable change between feature distributions of different domains, we propose a new cross-domain kernel learning framework into which many existing kernel methods can be readily incorporated. Our framework, referred to as Domain Transfer Multiple Kernel Learning (DTMKL), simultaneously learns a kernel function and a robust classifier by minimizing both the structural risk functional and the distribution mismatch between the labeled and unlabeled samples from the auxiliary and target domains. Under the DTMKL framework, we also propose two novel methods by using SVM and prelearned classifiers, respectively. Comprehensive experiments on three domain adaptation data sets (i.e., TRECVID, 20 Newsgroups, and email spam data sets) demonstrate that DTMKL-based methods outperform existing cross-domain learning and multiple kernel learning methods. PMID:21646679

  3. Multiple sclerosis and sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen-Ni; He, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Yi

    2012-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system characterized by episodic and progressive neurologic dysfunction resulting from inflammatory and autoimmune reactions. The underlying pathogenesis of MS remains largely unclear. However, it is currently accepted as a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Among other clinical manifestations, sexual dysfunction (SD) is a painful but still underreported and underdiagnosed symptom of the disorder. SD in MS patients may result from a complex set of conditions and may be associated with multiple anatomic, physiologic, biologic, medical and psychological factors. SD arises primarily from lesions affecting the neural pathways involved in physiologic function. In addition, psychological factors, the side effects of medications and physical symptoms such as fatigue, muscular weakness, menstrual changes, pain and concerns about bladder and bowel incontinence may also be involved. Since MS primarily affects young people, SD secondary to MS may have a great impact on quality of life. Thus, maintaining a healthy sexual life with MS is an important priority. The treatment of SD requires multidisciplinary teamwork and cooperation among specialists, individual patients, partners and the society. PMID:22447199

  4. Time-resolved multiple scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Gerard J.

    1995-09-01

    Time and range resolved multiple-scattered radiation from the aureole around a traveling radiation, using an additional off axis scanning lidar-receiver, on top of an existing lidar. This system can be considered as an analogue equivalent of Bissonnette's fixed multi-field-of-view lidar. Because multiple-scattering is effective over much larger volumes than the illuminating volume by the laser pulse itself; the variations in the signals due to atmospheric structures are reduced to a certain extent. A simple second-order scattering model has been developed to understand this volume averaging effect. It has been shown that this model can be used to estimate the extinction coefficient of clouds and the average diameters of the cloud droplets. Lidar waveforms, obtained during a field experiment, have been inverted with the proposed model. The results appear to be in reasonable agreement with the in situ measured extinction using a nephelometer mounted on a cable car which was moving up and down a mountain slope through the clouds.

  5. Macular Degeneration - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Macular Degeneration URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Macular Degeneration - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. Smokeless Tobacco - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Smokeless Tobacco URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Smokeless Tobacco - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  7. Accelerated Cure Project for Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content Accelerating research toward a cure for multiple sclerosis Home Contact Us Search form Search Connect Volunteer ... is to accelerate efforts toward a cure for multiple sclerosis by rapidly advancing research that determines its causes ...

  8. Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and their FAMILIES EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet presents the current research on emotional disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) and summarizes the main findings of a ...

  9. Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fiber URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fiber - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guideline for PATIENTS and their FAMILIES COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet is provided ... you understand the current evidence regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The ...

  11. Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Parasitic Diseases URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  12. Meningococcal Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Meningococcal Infections URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Meningococcal Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://www.nlm. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  14. Stomach Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Stomach Disorders URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Stomach Disorders - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Herbal Medicine URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: multiple lentigines syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... signs and symptoms of multiple lentigines syndrome include learning disorders, mild developmental delay, a sunken or protruding chest, ... Mutations in the PTPN11 , RAF1 , or BRAF genes cause multiple lentigines syndrome . Approximately 90 percent of individuals ...

  17. The multiple control of verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C; Sundberg, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's Verbal Behavior, the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms convergent multiple control and divergent multiple control. We point out some implications for applied work and discuss examples of the role of multiple control in humor, poetry, problem solving, and recall. Joint control and conditional discrimination are discussed as special cases of multiple control. We suggest that multiple control is a useful analytic tool for interpreting virtually all complex behavior, and we consider the concepts of derived relations and naming as cases in point. PMID:22532752

  18. Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Dietary Fats URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Dietary Fats - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  19. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. Teaching Multiplication Algorithms from Other Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Cheng-Yao

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a number of multiplication algorithms from different cultures around the world: Hindu, Egyptian, Russian, Japanese, and Chinese. Students can learn these algorithms and better understand the operation and properties of multiplication.