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Sample records for multiple indicators multiple

  1. Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models

    PubMed Central

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  2. Estimating differential expression from multiple indicators

    PubMed Central

    Ilmjärv, Sten; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Reimets, Riin; Niitsoo, Margus; Kolde, Raivo; Vilo, Jaak; Vasar, Eero; Luuk, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of the advent of high-throughput sequencing, microarrays remain central in current biomedical research. Conventional microarray analysis pipelines apply data reduction before the estimation of differential expression, which is likely to render the estimates susceptible to noise from signal summarization and reduce statistical power. We present a probe-level framework, which capitalizes on the high number of concurrent measurements to provide more robust differential expression estimates. The framework naturally extends to various experimental designs and target categories (e.g. transcripts, genes, genomic regions) as well as small sample sizes. Benchmarking in relation to popular microarray and RNA-sequencing data-analysis pipelines indicated high and stable performance on the Microarray Quality Control dataset and in a cell-culture model of hypoxia. Experimental-data-exhibiting long-range epigenetic silencing of gene expression was used to demonstrate the efficacy of detecting differential expression of genomic regions, a level of analysis not embraced by conventional workflows. Finally, we designed and conducted an experiment to identify hypothermia-responsive genes in terms of monotonic time-response. As a novel insight, hypothermia-dependent up-regulation of multiple genes of two major antioxidant pathways was identified and verified by quantitative real-time PCR. PMID:24586062

  3. Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators. PMID:23088287

  4. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  5. Differential Item Functioning Detection Using the Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Method with a Pure Short Anchor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Lin; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2009-01-01

    The multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) method with a pure short anchor was proposed to detect differential item functioning (DIF). A simulation study showed that the MIMIC method with an anchor of 1, 2, 4, or 10 DIF-free items yielded a well-controlled Type I error rate even when such tests contained as many as 40% DIF items. In general,…

  6. Identifying Node Role in Social Network Based on Multiple Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role. PMID:25089823

  7. A multiple indicator, multiple cause method for representing social capital with an application to psychological distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Peter

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes a structural equation methodology for obtaining social capital scores for survey subjects from multiple indicators of social support, neighbourhood and trust perceptions, and memberships of organizations. It adjusts for variation that is likely to occur in levels of social capital according to geographic context (e.g. level of area deprivation, geographic region, level of urbanity) and demographic group. Social capital is used as an explanatory factor for psychological distress using data from the 2006 Health Survey for England. A highly significant effect of social capital in reducing the chance of psychiatric caseness is obtained after controlling for other individual and geographic risk factors. Allowing for social capital has considerable effects on the impacts on psychiatric health of other risk factors. In particular, the impact of area deprivation category is much reduced. There is also evidence of significant differentiation in social capital between population categories and geographic contexts.

  8. A multiple indicators multiple causes model of late-life depression in Latin American countries

    PubMed Central

    Brailean, Anamaria; Guerra, Mariella; Chua, Kia-Chong; Prince, Martin; Prina, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Euro-D depression scale consists of symptom clusters that may be differentially related to demographic and cognitive characteristics in older adults. This hypothesis needs further investigation and the role of measurement bias on substantive conclusions remains to be established. Method The study sample comprised 10,405 community-dwelling older adults from six Latin American countries. We applied a Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model for a concurrent investigation of measurement bias and of the association between Euro-D symptom clusters and background variables. Results The factorial validity of Euro-D, with a two-dimensional structure – affective suffering and motivation disturbance, was consistently supported in all countries. Although complete measurement invariance could not be assumed across countries, measurement bias was minor. Both Euro-D factors were unrelated to age, but related to gender, as well as to impairment in memory and verbal fluency. Gender differences were larger for affective suffering than for motivation disturbance, whereas differences in verbal fluency impairment were more strongly related to motivation disturbance. Limitations Our analytic strategies could only examine invariance at the level of indicator thresholds. The generalisability of current findings needs to be examined in clinical populations. A wider set of cognitive tests is needed. We did not examine the compositional factors that could have accounted for the variation in Euro-D scores across countries, as this was beyond the aims of the paper. Conclusion The current study adds evidence for the construct validity of Euro-D and for the possible differential association of depression symptom-clusters with gender and verbal fluency in older adults. An understanding of the heterogeneity of late-life depression may carry clinical implications for the diagnosis and treatment of depression in old age. PMID:26092097

  9. Indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder for the Clinician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Thomas W.

    Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response…

  10. Multiple uses of indicators and indices in cumulative effects assessment and management

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, L.W.; Atkinson, S.F.

    2011-09-15

    Both environmental indicators and multi-metric indices are useful for describing baseline conditions and qualitatively predicting the cumulative consequences of multiple actions. Several examples and case studies associated with indicators and/or indices are presented herein. They can be easily modified for usage in CEAM. Habitat suitability models reflect special indices related to habitat needs and quality for specific species or broad habitat types. Such models have been used to address direct and indirect effects, and with some modification, they can be also used to address cumulative effects of multiple actions. This review has indicated that there are numerous examples of such tools which have been or could be used in both EIA and CEAM. Some key lessons are: (1) in conducting CEAM studies, it is useful to think from the mindset that 'I am the VEC or indicator, and what is my historical and current condition and how have I, or will I, be affected by multiple past, present, and future actions?'; (2) due to the likely absence of detailed information on future actions, the described tools can still be used to 'predict' future conditions by focusing on qualitative up-or-down changes in individual indicators or indices with their aggregated displays; and (3) numerous regional and site-specific tools are currently available, with one example being indices of biological integrity for specific watersheds and water bodies. Such tools, even though they may not have been developed for CEAM usage, can certainly benefit CEAM studies and practice. Finally, usage of selected and appropriate tools as described herein can aid in conducting science-based, systematic, and documentable CEAM studies.

  11. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey - 2010: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Arash; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Elahi, Elham; Beheshtian, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad; Zakeri, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an international emphasis on providing timely and high quality data to monitor progress of countries toward Millennium Development Goals. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) aimed to provide valid information on population and health outcomes to monitor progress in achieving national priorities and health programs and to assist policy makers to design effective strategies for improving health outcomes and equity in access to care. Methods: A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified cluster-random survey is conducted through face-to-face household interviews. The sampling frame is developed using Iran's 2006 population and housing census. Provincial samples ranging are from a minimum of 400 households per province to 6400 households in Tehran province. Cluster size is 10 households. The target sample includes 3096 clusters: 2187 clusters in urban and 909 clusters in rural areas. IrMIDHS instruments include three questionnaires: Household questionnaire, women aged 15-54 questionnaire, children under five questionnaire, supervision and quality assessment checklists and data collection sheets and standard weight and height measurement tools for under-five children. A cascading decentralized training method is used for training data collection and supervision teams. Quality assurance procedures are defined for the five steps of conducting the survey including: Sampling, training data collection and training teams, survey implementation, data entry and analysis. A multi-layer supervision and monitoring procedure is established. All the questionnaires are double entered. Conclusions: IrMIDHS will provide valuable data for policymakers in Iran. Designing and implementation of the study involve contributions from academics as well as program managers and policy makers. The collaborative nature of the study may facilitate better usage of its results. PMID:24932396

  12. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Multiple Sclerosis Overview What is multiple sclerosis (MS)? Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system. Normally, antibodies produced by ...

  13. Learning about Locomotion Patterns: Effective Use of Multiple Pictures and Motion-Indicating Arrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhof, Birgit; Scheiter, Katharina; Edelmann, Jorg; Gerjets, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how enriching visualizations with arrows indicating the motion of objects may help in conveying dynamic information: Multiple static-simultaneous visualizations with motion-indicating arrows were compared with either multiple visualizations without arrows or a single visualization with arrows. Seventy-one students were…

  14. An Approach to Ground Moving Target Indication Using Multiple Resolutions of Multilook Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

    E-print Network

    Akers, Geoffrey

    2009-12-15

    Ground moving target indication (GMTI) using multiple resolutions of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to estimate the clutter scattering statistics is shown to outperform conventional sample matrix inversion space-time adaptive processing GMTI...

  15. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Condensed from Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Multiple Sclerosis? An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, ...

  16. Effects of Indicator Transform Method of Electric Resistivity Data on Rock Mass Classification Using Multiple Indicator Kriging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Cho, J.; Park, H.; Bae, G.

    2008-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of indicator transform method of electric resistivity data on rock mass classification using multiple indicator kriging. Two different approaches were designed to examine the variation of rock mass classifications according to each indicator transform method. One approach is to change fuzzy membership functions for determining the indicator values at four increasing thresholds (i.e., 20, 40, 60 and 80 which represent the boundary values of rock mass classes in RMR). The other is to reclassify indicator transform ranges of electric resistivity data by considering various classification rules such as quantile, equal interval, natural breaks, standard deviation and grade block. Two tunnelling sites in Korea were selected as study areas, and multiple indicator kriging using borehole RMR and electric resistivity data was performed to estimate RMR values along planned tunnel alignments. The results showed that rock mass classes determined by multiple indicator kriging are significantly sensitive to both the fuzzy membership functions and the transform ranges. From validation processes, it was found that combination of the indicator values derived from frequency ratio of borehole RMR values at each rock mass class and the indicator transform ranges determined by the grade block can make a more accurate result than others.

  17. How teams use indicators for quality improvement - a multiple-case study on the use of multiple indicators in multidisciplinary breast cancer teams.

    PubMed

    Gort, Marjan; Broekhuis, Manda; Regts, Gerdien

    2013-11-01

    A crucial issue in healthcare is how multidisciplinary teams can use indicators for quality improvement. Such teams have increasingly become the core component in both care delivery and in many quality improvement methods. This study aims to investigate the relationships between (1) team factors and the way multidisciplinary teams use indicators for quality improvement, and (2) both team and process factors and the intended results. An in-depth, multiple-case study was conducted in the Netherlands in 2008 involving four breast cancer teams using six structure, process and outcome indicators. The results indicated that the process of using indicators involves several stages and activities. Two teams applied a more intensive, active and interactive approach as they passed through these stages. These teams were perceived to have achieved good results through indicator use compared to the other two teams who applied a simple control approach. All teams experienced some difficulty in integrating the new formal control structure, i.e. measuring and managing performance, in their operational task, and in using their 'new' managerial task to decide as a team what and how to improve. Our findings indicate the presence of a network of relationships between team factors, the controllability and actionability of indicators, the indicator-use process, and the intended results. PMID:24034953

  18. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  19. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  20. Gender and Perceived Illness Severity: Differential Indicators of Employment Concerns for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.; Turner, Ronna C.; Robertson, Judith L.; Rumrill,Phillip D.

    2005-01-01

    Although research has indicated a link between gender and perceived illness severity and the employment status of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), it has not addressed questions regarding the relationship between those variables and specific types of employment concerns. In this study, a sample of 1,310 adults with MS replied to a mail survey…

  1. Human Health Risk Implications of Multiple Sources of Faecal Indicator Bacteria in a Recreational Waterbody

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluate the influence of multiple sources of faecal indicator bacteria in recreational water bodies on potential human health risk by considering waters impacted by human and animal sources, human and non-pathogenic sources, and animal and non-pathogenic sources. We illustrat...

  2. Applying a Multiple Group Causal Indicator Modeling Framework to the Reading Comprehension Skills of Third, Seventh, and Tenth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Wagner, Richard K.; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of applying a causal indicator modeling framework to investigate important predictors of reading comprehension in third, seventh, and tenth grade students. The results indicated that a 4-factor multiple indicator multiple indicator cause (MIMIC) model of reading comprehension provided adequate fit at each grade…

  3. Multiple Trichofolliculomas Mimicking Multiple Trichoepitheliomas

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Sudhir UK; Shenoi, Shrutakirthi D; Geetha, V; Prabhu, Smitha; Nagel, Bhawna

    2015-01-01

    Trichofolliculomas are benign hair follicle hamartomas which were initially considered as hair follicle tumors. Usually presenting as a solitary lesion associated with a tuft of vellus hairs, multiple trichofolliculomas are rare. Trichofolliculomas are characterized by a histopathological feature of dermal keratin cyst with cyst wall showing radiating hair follicles. We report this case for the rare presentation of multiple trichofolliculomas on the face which clinically mimicked multiple trichoepitheliomas. PMID:25814743

  4. Therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okereke, Emmanuel O.

    2000-09-01

    This quasi-experiment study examined the therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress. By utilizing drug interventions that reduced cardiovascular distress through changes in the hypertensive indices, previous studies have shown that improvements in life expectancy, lowering of health care costs in later years, and reduction in all-cause mortality were achieved. In fact, individuals without risk factors or with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adulthood or middle age were healthier, had a greater life expectancy, and incurred lower health care costs in later years. The hypertensive indices of interest include elevated heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (Ps), diastolic blood pressure (PD), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), pulse pressure (PP), and mechanical disadvantages of the heart MDH. Mechanical disadvantage of the heart is a term that has been developed for the purposes of this study. The alternative hypotheses for this study proposed to show a significant change in the relevant hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress in volunteers after a minimum of 45 days treatment with multiple nutritional supplements. The target population was all middle-aged (30 to 65 years) volunteer hypertensives in Nigeria (West Africa), who were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or control group, controlling for individuals who were on any form of medication, smokers, alcoholics, and those who were pregnant or on contraceptives. Treatment involved multiple doses of the various vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and accessory nutrients in their complementary combinations that influence various levels of cardiovascular function. After 45 days of treatment, the differences between the mean sores of the experimental group and control group on Ps, PD, MABP, and PP were found to be statistically significant, at p ? .05 cut-off level for rejecting the null hypothesis for each dependent variable on a one-tailed student's t test. The same results were not demonstrated for HR and MDH. In summary, the therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress could provide a cost-effective, safe, healthy, and reliable way of preventing cardiovascular disease.

  5. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePLUS

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... myeloma most commonly causes a low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  6. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is fertilized by a sperm, more than one embryo may implant and grow in your uterus . This ... fertilized egg splits, it results in multiple identical embryos. This type of pregnancy results in identical twins ( ...

  7. Using Indicators of Multiple Deprivation to Demonstrate the Spatial Legacy of Apartheid in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Wright, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial analysis of multiple deprivation in South Africa and demonstrates that the most deprived areas in the country are located in the rural former homeland areas. The analysis is undertaken using the datazone level South African Index of Multiple Deprivation which was constructed from the 2001 Census. Datazones are a new…

  8. Chemotherapy-induced changes in cardiac capillary permeability measured by fluorescent multiple indicator dilution.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Alicia; Carvajal, Denny A; Lei, Tingjun; McGoron, Anthony J

    2014-12-01

    Anthracyclines cause severe irreversible cardiac toxicity. The study of changes in cardiac permeability with chemotherapy could enhance the understanding of mechanisms behind cardiac damage, and provide useful information to evaluate anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Thirty-six rats (12 Sprague-Dawley, 12 Wistar, 12 Fischer-344) were randomly assigned to control (n = 21) or doxorubicin (n = 15), and injected i.p. with a cumulative dose of 18 mg/kg doxorubicin in saline (vehicle) or vehicle alone over 12 days. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and on day 11. An isolated heart experiment was done on day 12 to obtain perfused heart pressure values, and to measure cardiac capillary permeability using a Texas Red/sodium fluorescein multiple indicator dilution method. Control animals had significantly lower average permeability-surface-area-products (0.035 ± 0.013 cm(3)/s) than doxorubicin animals (0.066 ± 0.023 cm(3)/s), PSP ± SD, p < 0.001. These permeability changes correlated with significant functional changes. There was a significant decline in cardiac function with a deleterious effect of chemotherapy on fractional shortening (p < 0.001), left ventricular developed pressure (p < 0.001), contractility (p < 0.001), and relaxation (p = 0.02). Based on our results, cardiac capillary permeability changes can be detected after in vivo chemotherapy treatment using our fluorescent multiple indicator dilution technique, and may provide valuable information in evaluating cardiotoxicity of novel drugs. PMID:25224075

  9. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  10. Discovery of Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase: A Target with Multiple Potential Therapeutic Indications

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Discovery of Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase: A Target with Multiple Potential Therapeutic been detected in prokaryotes and eukaryotes ranging from plants to mammals.1-3 In mammals these include

  11. Myeloma (multiple)

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Multiple myeloma is the most common primary cancer of the bones in adults, representing about 1% of all cancers diagnosed in the US in 2004, and 14% of all haematological malignancies. In the UK, multiple myeloma accounts for 1% of all new cases of cancer diagnosed each year. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatment in people with asymptomatic early stage multiple myeloma (stage I)? What are the effects of first-line treatments in people with advanced stage multiple myeloma (stages II and III)? What are the effect of salvage treatments, or supportive therapy, in people with advanced stage multiple myeloma (stages II and III)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to November 2004 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 71 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: allogenic transplant (non-myeloablative), autologous stem cell transplant (early or late transplantation, double or single, purging of), bisphosphonates, bone marrow stem cells, bortezomib, chemotherapy (combination, conventional dose, intermediate dose plus stem cell rescue, high-dose plus stem cell rescue), combination chemotherapy plus corticosteroids, deferred treatment (in stage I disease), early chemotherapy plus corticosteroids (in stage I disease), epoetin alpha, first-line treatments, infection prophylaxis, interferon, maintenance therapy (in advanced multiple myeloma), melphalan (normal dose, high dose before autologous stem cell transplantation, plus total body irradiation), optimum priming regimen, peripheral blood stem cells, plasmapheresis, salvage therapy regimens, single-agent chemotherapy (adding prednisolone), single-agent chemotherapy (bendamustine, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, lomustine, carmustine) with or without corticosteroid (prednisolone, dexamethasone), syngeneic transplantation, and thalidomide (and derivatives).

  12. Large-Scale Diversity of Slope Fishes: Pattern Inconsistency between Multiple Diversity Indices

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Jean-Claude; Colloca, Francesco; Politou, Chrissi-Yianna; Gil De Sola, Luis; Bertrand, Jacques A.; Murenu, Matteo; Durbec, Jean-Pierre; Kallianiotis, Argyris; Mannini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale studies focused on the diversity of continental slope ecosystems are still rare, usually restricted to a limited number of diversity indices and mainly based on the empirical comparison of heterogeneous local data sets. In contrast, we investigate large-scale fish diversity on the basis of multiple diversity indices and using 1454 standardized trawl hauls collected throughout the upper and middle slope of the whole northern Mediterranean Sea (36°3?- 45°7? N; 5°3?W - 28°E). We have analyzed (1) the empirical relationships between a set of 11 diversity indices in order to assess their degree of complementarity/redundancy and (2) the consistency of spatial patterns exhibited by each of the complementary groups of indices. Regarding species richness, our results contrasted both the traditional view based on the hump-shaped theory for bathymetric pattern and the commonly-admitted hypothesis of a large-scale decreasing trend correlated with a similar gradient of primary production in the Mediterranean Sea. More generally, we found that the components of slope fish diversity we analyzed did not always show a consistent pattern of distribution according either to depth or to spatial areas, suggesting that they are not driven by the same factors. These results, which stress the need to extend the number of indices traditionally considered in diversity monitoring networks, could provide a basis for rethinking not only the methodological approach used in monitoring systems, but also the definition of priority zones for protection. Finally, our results call into question the feasibility of properly investigating large-scale diversity patterns using a widespread approach in ecology, which is based on the compilation of pre-existing heterogeneous and disparate data sets, in particular when focusing on indices that are very sensitive to sampling design standardization, such as species richness. PMID:23843962

  13. Effects of whole body vibration on hormonal & functional indices in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Eftekhari, Elham; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease, which affects the patients’ mobility, and exercise training is considered to be beneficial for these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 10 wk of low intensity exercise and whole body vibration (WBV) training on fatigue, quality of life, functional and physical indices, and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone in MS patients. Methods: Thirty four MS patients with mild to moderate disability were recruited and randomly divided into two groups, the training group (n=17) and control group (n=17). Patients in the training group did low intensity exercise and WBV training programme three times a week for 10 wk. The control group continued their routine life. Intended variables like expanded disability status scale (EDSS), fatigue, quality of life, functional and physical indices consisted of balance, walking speed, functional mobility, functional muscle endurance, and walking endurance, and serum levels of ghrelin, leptin, and testosterone were measured before and after the protocol. Results: Thirty subjects completed the study (23 females, 7 males; mean age =38.80 ± 9.50 yr). Statistical analysis demonstrated that EDSS in the WBV training group was significantly decreased (P=0.01), balance (P=0.01), and walking endurance significantly increased (P=0.01) in MS patients (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: The results suggest that low intensity exercise and WBV training have some beneficial impact on functional and physical indices of MS patients. PMID:26609037

  14. Measuring Social Isolation Among Older Adults Using Multiple Indicators From the NSHAP Study

    PubMed Central

    Waite, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) data contain multiple indicators of social connectedness, social participation, social support, and loneliness among older adults. We suggest that these indicators can be combined to measure two aspects of social isolation: social disconnectedness (i.e., physical separation from others) and perceived isolation (i.e., feelings of loneliness and a lack of social support). We use the NSHAP data to create scales measuring social disconnectedness and perceived isolation and examine their distribution among older adults. Methods We assess the reliability of the scales using Cronbach’s alpha and item-total correlations and perform confirmatory factor analysis to test the model against the data. Finally, we test differences in scale means across subgroups to assess the distribution of social disconnectedness and perceived isolation among older adults. Results We find that 17 indicators combine into two reliable scales. The social disconnectedness scale has a two-factor structure, including the restricted social network dimension and the social inactivity dimension. The perceived isolation scale also comprises two dimensions: lack of support and loneliness. We find that social disconnectedness does not vary across age groups, but the oldest old feel more isolated than the young old. Social disconnectedness and perceived isolation are greater among those who have worse health. Discussion The creation of scales measuring social disconnectedness and perceived isolation provides one way to utilize the wide variety of indicators of social isolation collected in the NSHAP study. Although individual indicators of social connectedness or isolation are useful in their own right, these scales provide parsimonious, continuous variables that account for a variety of aspects of social isolation, which may be especially useful for inclusion in multivariate analyses predicting health outcomes. PMID:19508982

  15. Economic Adversity and Children’s Sleep Problems: Multiple Indicators and Moderation of Effects

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Bagley, Erika J.; Keiley, Margaret; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Chen, Edith; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Toward explicating relations between economic adversity and children’s sleep, we examined associations between multiple indicators of socioeconomic status (SES)/adversity and children’s objectively and subjectively derived sleep parameters; ethnicity was examined as potential moderator. Methods Participants were 276 third- and fourth-grade children and their families (133 girls; M age = 9.44 years; SD = .71): 66% European American (EA) and 34% African American (AA). Four SES indicators were used: income-to-needs ratio, perceived economic well-being, maternal education, and community poverty. Children wore actigraphs for 7 nights and completed a self-report measure to assess sleep problems. Results Objectively and subjectively assessed sleep parameters were related to different SES indicators, and overall worse sleep was evident for children from lower SES homes. Specifically, children from homes with lower income-to-needs ratios had higher levels of reported sleep/wake problems. Parental perceived economic well-being was associated with shorter sleep minutes and greater variability in sleep onset for children. Lower mother’s education was associated with lower sleep efficiency. Children who attended Title 1 schools had shorter sleep minutes. Ethnicity was a significant moderator of effects in the link between some SES indicators and children’s sleep. AA children’s sleep was more negatively affected by income-to-needs ratio and mother’s education than was the sleep of EA children. Conclusions The results advocate for the importance of specifying particular SES and sleep variables used because they may affect the ability to detect associations between sleep and economic adversity. PMID:23148451

  16. Uncertainties, Correlations, and Optimal Blends of Drought Indices from the NLDAS Multiple Land Surface Model Ensemble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, Youlong; Ek, Michael B.; Mocko, David M.; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Sheffield, Justin; Dong, Jiarui; Wood, Eric F.

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed uncertainties and correlations over the United States among four ensemble-mean North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) percentile-based drought indices derived from monthly mean evapotranspiration ET, total runoff Q, top 1-m soil moisture SM1, and total column soil moisture SMT. The results show that the uncertainty is smallest for SM1, largest for SMT, and moderate for ET and Q. The strongest correlation is between SM1 and SMT, and the weakest correlation is between ET and Q. The correlation between ET and SM1 (SMT) is strongest in arid-semi-arid regions, and the correlation between Q and SM1 (SMT) is strongest in more humid regions in the Pacific Northwest and the Southeast. Drought frequency analysis shows that SM1 has the most frequent drought occurrence, followed by SMT, Q, and ET. The study compared the NLDAS drought indices (a research product) with the U.S. Drought Monitor (USDM; an operational product) in terms of drought area percentage derived from each product. It proposes an optimal blend of NLDAS drought indices by searching for weights for each index that minimizes the RMSE between NLDAS and USDM drought area percentage for a 10-yr period (2000-09)with a cross validation. It reconstructed a 30-yr (1980-2009) Objective Blended NLDAS Drought Index (OBNDI) and monthly drought percentage. Overall, the OBNDI performs the best with the smallest RMSE, followed by SM1 and SMT. It should be noted that the contribution to OBNDI from different variables varies with region. So a single formula is probably not the best representation of a blended index. The representation of a blended index using the multiple formulas will be addressed in a future study.

  17. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a clonal plasma cell malignancy that accounts for slightly more than 10% of all hematologic cancers. In this paper, we present a historically focused review of the disease, from the description of the first case in 1844 to the present. The evolution of drug therapy and stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of myeloma, as well as the development of new agents, is discussed. We also provide an update on current concepts of diagnosis and therapy, with an emphasis on how treatments have emerged from a historical perspective after certain important discoveries and the results of experimental studies. PMID:18332230

  18. Multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Files, Daniel Kane; Jausurawong, Tani; Katrajian, Ruba; Danoff, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, debilitating disease that can have devastating effects. Presentation varies widely in symptoms, pace, and progression. In addition to a thorough history and physical examination, diagnostic tools required to diagnose MS and exclude other diagnoses include MRI, evoked potential testing, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Although the disease is not curable presently, quality of life can be improved by minimizing the frequency and severity of disease burden. Disease modification, symptom management, preservation of function, and treatment of psychosocial issues are paramount to enhance the quality of life for the patient affected with MS. PMID:25979578

  19. The Effects of Nonverbal and Verbal Immediacy on Recall and Multiple Student Learning Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodboy, Alan K.; Weber, Keith; Bolkan, San

    2009-01-01

    A 2 x 2 experiment was conducted in which instructor nonverbal immediacy and verbal immediacy were manipulated in a college classroom to examine causal links with cognitive and affective learning outcomes. Previous criticisms concerning immediacy and learning research were considered and multiple operationalizations of cognitive learning (i.e.,…

  20. Adolescent Non-Involvement in Multiple Risk Behaviors: An Indicator of Successful Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.; Bosacki, Sandra; Dupont, Diane; Marini, Zopito; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Sadava, Stan; Ward, Anthony; Woloshyn, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Based on the conceptualization of successful development as the joint maximization of desirable outcomes and minimization of undesirable outcomes (Baltes, 1997), the present study examined connections between adolescent non-involvement in multiple risk behaviors and positive developmental status. Results from a survey of 7290 high school students…

  1. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Cause (MIMIC) model of respiratory health and household factors in Chinese children: the seven Northeastern cities (SNEC) study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Trevathan, Edwin; Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui; Ong, Kee-Hean; Ferguson, Tekeda Freeman; Riley, Erin; Simckes, Maayan

    2014-01-01

    In China, with the rapid economic development and improvement of living standards over the past few decades, the household living environment has shifted dramatically. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of home environment factors on respiratory symptoms and asthma in Chinese children. Investigators analyzed data collected in the 25 districts from the seven Northeastern cities to examine health effects on respiratory symptoms and asthma in 31,049 children aged 2-14 years. Factor analysis was used to reduce 33 children's lifestyle and household variables to six new 'factor' variables. The multiple indicators multiple causes approach was used to examine the relationship between indoor air pollution and respiratory health status, controlling for covariates. Factor analyses generated six factor variables of potential household risk factors from an original list of 33 variables. The respiratory symptoms and asthma were significantly associated with the recent home renovation factor (estimate = 0.076, p < 0.001), pet ownership factor (estimate = 0.095, p < 0.001), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure factor (estimate = 0.181, p < 0.001) and PVC-flooring factor (estimate = 0.031, p = 0.007). Home ventilation factor was not related to any respiratory condition (estimate = 0.028, p = 0.074). Independent respiratory health effects existed for multiple household environmental factors recent home renovation, pet ownership, ETS, and PVC-flooring. PMID:23440490

  2. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple electroconvulsive therapy sessions: characteristics, indications, and results

    PubMed Central

    Iancu, Iulian; Pick, Nimrod; Seener-Lorsh, Orit; Dannon, Pinhas

    2015-01-01

    Background While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used for many years, there is insufficient research regarding the indications for continuation/maintenance (C/M)-ECT, its safety and efficacy, and the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple ECT sessions. The aims of this study were to characterize a series of patients who received 30 ECT sessions or more, to describe treatment regimens in actual practice, and to examine the results of C/M-ECT in terms of safety and efficacy, especially the effect on aggression and functioning. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients (mean age 64.6 years) with schizophrenia (n=16) or schizoaffective disorder (n=4) who received at least 30 ECT sessions at our ECT unit, and also interviewed the treating physician and filled out the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised. Results Patients received a mean of 91.3 ECT sessions at a mean interval of 2.6 weeks. All had been hospitalized for most or all of the previous 3 years. There were no major adverse effects, and cognitive side effects were relatively minimal (cognitive deficit present for several hours after treatment). We found that ECT significantly reduced scores on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised subscales for verbal aggression and self-harm, and improved Global Assessment of Functioning scores. There were reductions in total aggression scores, subscale scores for harm to objects and to others, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores, these were not statistically significant. Conclusion C/M-ECT is safe and effective for chronically hospitalized patients. It improves general functioning and reduces verbal aggression and self-harm. More research using other aggression tools is needed to determine its effects and to reproduce our findings in prospective and controlled studies. PMID:25848283

  3. Multiple Myeloma Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ET. CALL NOW Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms Multiple Myeloma Symptoms Multiple myeloma symptoms may vary by patient, ... to be managed or prevented. The most common multiple myeloma symptoms may include: • Bone pain or bone fractures • ...

  4. An Enriched Teaching Program for Reducing Resistance and Indices of Unhappiness among Individuals with Profound Multiple Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Carolyn W.; Reid, Dennis H.; Rollyson, Jeannia H.; Passante, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated an enriched teaching program for reducing resistance and indices of unhappiness displayed by 3 individuals with profound multiple disabilities during teaching sessions. The program involved presentation of preferred activities before, during, and after each teaching session, discontinuation of identified nonpreferred activities, and a…

  5. Multiple osteochondromas.

    PubMed

    Bovée, Judith V M G

    2008-01-01

    Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is characterised by development of two or more cartilage capped bony outgrowths (osteochondromas) of the long bones. The prevalence is estimated at 1:50,000, and it seems to be higher in males (male-to-female ratio 1.5:1). Osteochondromas develop and increase in size in the first decade of life, ceasing to grow when the growth plates close at puberty. They are pedunculated or sessile (broad base) and can vary widely in size. The number of osteochondromas may vary significantly within and between families, the mean number of locations is 15-18. The majority are asymptomatic and located in bones that develop from cartilage, especially the long bones of the extremities, predominantly around the knee. The facial bones are not affected. Osteochondromas may cause pain, functional problems and deformities, especially of the forearm, that may be reason for surgical removal. The most important complication is malignant transformation of osteochondroma towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma, which is estimated to occur in 0.5-5%. MO is an autosomal dominant disorder and is genetically heterogeneous. In almost 90% of MO patients germline mutations in the tumour suppressor genes EXT1 or EXT2 are found. The EXT genes encode glycosyltransferases, catalyzing heparan sulphate polymerization. The diagnosis is based on radiological and clinical documentation, supplemented with, if available, histological evaluation of osteochondromas. If the exact mutation is known antenatal diagnosis is technically possible. MO should be distinguished from metachondromatosis, dysplasia epiphysealis hemimelica and Ollier disease. Osteochondromas are benign lesions and do not affect life expectancy. Management includes removal of osteochondromas when they give complaints. Removed osteochondromas should be examined for malignant transformation towards secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma. Patients should be well instructed and regular follow-up for early detection of malignancy seems justified. For secondary peripheral chondrosarcoma, en-bloc resection of the lesion and its pseudocapsule with tumour-free margins, preferably in a bone tumour referral centre, should be performed. PMID:18271966

  6. Multiple Episodes of Recent Gully Activity Indicated by Gully Fan Stratigraphy in Eastern Promethei Terra, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schon, S.; Head, J.; Fassett, C.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Gullies are considered among the youngest geomorphic features on Mars based upon their stratigraphic relationships, superposition on steep slopes and distinctive morphology in unconsolidated sediment. Multiple formation hypotheses have been proposed, which can be divided into three broad classes: entirely dry mechanisms (e.g., [1,2]), wet mechanisms invoking groundwater or ground ice (e.g., [3,4]) and wet mechanisms invoking surficial meltwater (e.g., [5,6,7,8]). It has been difficult to differentiate between these hypotheses based upon past observations and it remains possible that gullies are polygenetic landforms. This study presents stratigraphic relationships in the depositional fan of a crater wall gully system that suggest: (1) multiple episodes of alluvial fan-style deposition, (2) very recent depositional activity that is younger than a newly recognized rayed crater, and (3) surficial snowmelt as the most likely source of these multiple episodes of recent gully activity. Gully-Fan Stratigraphy In Eastern Promethei Terra an ~5 km-diameter crater is observed with a well-developed gully system (Fig. 1) and several smaller gullies in its northnortheast wall. The large gully system (composed of a small western gully and larger eastern gully) shows evidence for incision into the crater wall country rock and has multiple contributory sub-alcoves and channels. The depositional fan associated with this gully system is bounded on its western side by a small arcuate ridge swell that is not observed on the eastern side of the fan. This ridge is interpreted as a moraine-like structure that may have bounded a glacially-formed depression into which the fan is deposited [8]. Similar depressions with bounding ridges are commonly observed in this latitude band (~30-50°S) in association with deeply incised gully alcoves [9,10,11]. This gully fan is composed of multiple lobes with distinct lobe contacts, incised channels, and cut-andfill deposits - all features similar to those seen in terrestrial alluvial fans [12,13]. The western portion of the fan is contained within the depression, while the younger eastern portion overlies and obscures any potential evidence of the ridge structure. A very striking and unusual feature of this gully fan is the large number of superposed impact craters; due to their density and similar diameter, we interpret these to be secondary craters from a large nearby primary impact crater. The depositional lobes of the fan can be divided into two groups: 1) those that predate the secondary crater population and 2) younger lobes that are superposed on the secondary craters. Numerous secondary craters (~1-25 m-diameter) superpose the lowermost stratigraphic lobe (Fig. 1, A), while at least three younger lobes (Fig. 1, C1, D1, and D2) directly superpose the cratered lobe. The emplacement date of these secondaries provides a robust maximum age for the youngest lobes of this fan, and therefore the most recent fluvial activity of the gully. Most gullies either have no superposed impact craters [3,7] or are too small to date with any certainty using crater counts [14]. Therefore, locating and dating the parent impact crater of these secondaries is critical to constrain the chronology and origin of gully systems. Rayed-Crater Source of the Secondary Craters Regional reconnaissance for the origin of the secondary craters led to the discovery of a previously unidentified rayed crater complex (consisting of an ~18 km-diameter outer crater and an ~7 km-diameter inner crater) approximately 175 km southwest of the gully system. Distinctive rays are observed in THEMIS nighttime thermal inertia data, but are not observable as albedo contrasts in THEMIS visible data, consistent with other identifications of young rayed craters on Mars [15,16]. The rims of both craters are distinct and consistent with the morphology of very young impact craters on Mars. The inner crater has a greater depth to diameter ratio than the outer crater (0.121 compared to 0.073), consistent with young Martian craters [17]. Both the ou

  7. Databased comparison of Sparse Bayesian Learning and Multiple Linear Regression for statistical downscaling of low flow indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Deepti; St-Hilaire, André; Daigle, Anik; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThis study attempts to compare the performance of two statistical downscaling frameworks in downscaling hydrological indices (descriptive statistics) characterizing the low flow regimes of three rivers in Eastern Canada - Moisie, Romaine and Ouelle. The statistical models selected are Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), an implementation of Sparse Bayesian Learning, and the Automated Statistical Downscaling tool (ASD), an implementation of Multiple Linear Regression. Inputs to both frameworks involve climate variables significantly (? = 0.05) correlated with the indices. These variables were processed using Canonical Correlation Analysis and the resulting canonical variates scores were used as input to RVM to estimate the selected low flow indices. In ASD, the significantly correlated climate variables were subjected to backward stepwise predictor selection and the selected predictors were subsequently used to estimate the selected low flow indices using Multiple Linear Regression. With respect to the correlation between climate variables and the selected low flow indices, it was observed that all indices are influenced, primarily, by wind components (Vertical, Zonal and Meridonal) and humidity variables (Specific and Relative Humidity). The downscaling performance of the framework involving RVM was found to be better than ASD in terms of Relative Root Mean Square Error, Relative Mean Absolute Bias and Coefficient of Determination. In all cases, the former resulted in less variability of the performance indices between calibration and validation sets, implying better generalization ability than for the latter.

  8. Evaluating multiple indices of agricultural water use efficiency and productivity to improve comparisons between sites and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 70% of global available freshwater supplies are used in the agricultural sector. Increased demands for water to meet growing population food requirements, and expected changes in the reliability of freshwater supplies due to climate change, threaten the sustainability of water supplies worldwide - not only on farms, but in connected cities and industries. Researchers concerned with agricultural water use sustainability use a variety of theoretical and empirical measures of efficiency and productivity to gain insight into the sustainability of agricultural water use. However, definitions of measures, or indices, vary between different natural and political boundaries, across regions, states and nations and between their respective research, industry, and environmental groups. Index development responds to local data availability and local agendas, and there is debate about the validity of various indices. However, real differences in empirical index measures are not well-understood across the multiple disciplines that study agricultural water use, including engineering and hydrology, agronomy, climate and soil sciences, and economics. Nevertheless reliable, accessible, and generalizable indices are required for planners and policymakers to promote sustainable water use systems. This study synthesizes a set of water use efficiency and productivity indices based on academic, industry and government literature in California and Australia, two locations with similarly water-stressed and valuable agricultural industries under pressure to achieve optimal water use efficiency and productivity. Empirical data at the irrigation district level from the California San Joaquin Valley and Murray Darling Basin states of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia are used to compute indices that estimate efficiency, yield productivity, and economic productivity of agricultural water use. Multiple index estimates of same time-series data demonstrate historical spread in efficiency and productivity measures in different agricultural regions. Individual indices consistently over- or under- estimate trends in efficiency and productivity by their construction, and may provide inaccurate results in years with extreme climatic events, such as droughts. By treating multiple indices as an "ensemble" of measures, analogous to the treatment of multiple climate model predictions, this study quantifies likely "true" states of efficiency and productivity in the selected agricultural regions, and error in individual indices. While different individual indices are preferable at different scales, and relative to the quality of available input data, ensemble indices can be more reliably used in comparative study across different agricultural regions, and for prediction.

  9. Ischemia modified albumin is an indicator of oxidative stress in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ozgur; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Eren, Esin; Kurtulus, Fatma; Yaman, Aylin; Y?lmaz, Necat

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oligodendrocytes need iron in processes of energy generation and myelination. However, excessive levels of iron may exert iron induced oxidative stress and thus lead to tissue degeneration. Monitoring oxidative stress will be of paramount importance in follow-up of patients with many diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to measure total anti-oxidative status (TAS), total oxidative status (TOS) and ischemia modified albumin (IMA) in stable relapse remitting MS (RRMS) patients. Materials and methods: Thirty-five RRMS patients (15 males and 20 females; median age 42 (20–55) years) and thirty-five age-sex matched healthy controls (13 males and 22 females; median age 37 (21–60) years) were included in this study. All patients were diagnosed with MS according to the criteria of McDonald. Results: IMA levels were significantly higher in RRMS patients (P < 0.001), while TAS and TOS did not show any significant difference between groups (P = 0.870 and P = 0.460, respectively). Conclusions: Our results suggest IMA as a more efficient serum marker than TAS and TOS in detecting the oxidative stress in MS patients. Serum oxidative stress markers should be included in future study protocols besides clinical and radiological parameters. PMID:25351357

  10. Evaluation of the Impact of Alveolar Nitrogen Excretion on Indices Derived from Multiple Breath Nitrogen Washout

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Niklas; Nielsen, Jorgen G.; Horsley, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    Background A large body of evidence has now accumulated describing the advantages of multiple breath washout tests over conventional spirometry in cystic fibrosis (CF). Although the majority of studies have used exogenous sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) as the tracer gas this has also led to an increased interest in nitrogen washout tests, despite the differences between these methods. The impact of body nitrogen excreted across the alveoli has previously been ignored. Methods A two-compartment lung model was developed that included ventilation heterogeneity and dead space (DS) effects, but also incorporated experimental data on nitrogen excretion. The model was used to assess the impact of nitrogen excretion on washout progress and accuracy of functional residual capacity (FRC) and lung clearance index (LCI) measurements. Results Excreted nitrogen had a small effect on accuracy of FRC (1.8%) in the healthy adult model. The error in LCI calculated with true FRC was greater (6.3%), and excreted nitrogen contributed 21% of the total nitrogen concentration at the end of the washout. Increasing DS and ventilation heterogeneity both caused further increase in measurement error. LCI was increased by 6–13% in a CF child model, and excreted nitrogen increased the end of washout nitrogen concentration by 24–49%. Conclusions Excreted nitrogen appears to have complex but clinically significant effects on washout progress, particularly in the presence of abnormal gas mixing. This may explain much of the previously described differences in washout outcomes between SF6 and nitrogen. PMID:24039916

  11. Analyzing latent state-trait and multiple-indicator latent growth curve models as multilevel structural equation models

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Christian; Bishop, Jacob; Lockhart, Ginger; Shiffman, Saul; Grenard, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    Latent state-trait (LST) and latent growth curve (LGC) models are frequently used in the analysis of longitudinal data. Although it is well-known that standard single-indicator LGC models can be analyzed within either the structural equation modeling (SEM) or multilevel (ML; hierarchical linear modeling) frameworks, few researchers realize that LST and multivariate LGC models, which use multiple indicators at each time point, can also be specified as ML models. In the present paper, we demonstrate that using the ML-SEM rather than the SL-SEM framework to estimate the parameters of these models can be practical when the study involves (1) a large number of time points, (2) individually-varying times of observation, (3) unequally spaced time intervals, and/or (4) incomplete data. Despite the practical advantages of the ML-SEM approach under these circumstances, there are also some limitations that researchers should consider. We present an application to an ecological momentary assessment study (N = 158 youths with an average of 23.49 observations of positive mood per person) using the software Mplus (Muthén and Muthén, 1998–2012) and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using the ML-SEM approach to estimate the parameters of LST and multiple-indicator LGC models. PMID:24416023

  12. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  13. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    PubMed Central

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Background Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual communication. We here investigate the evolutionary basis for the intricate agonistic signalling system in eland antelopes, paying particular attention to the evolutionary phenomenon of loud knee-clicking. Results A principal components analysis separated seven male traits into three groups. The dominant frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age-related traits such as fighting experience. Facemask darkness, frontal hairbrush size and body greyness aligned with a third underlying variable, presumed to be androgen-related aggression. A longitudinal study provided independent support of these findings. Conclusion The results show that the multiple agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1) body size, (2) age and (3) presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action of several selective forces, each of which favours multiple signals. Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals. PMID:18986518

  14. Assessment of indices of temperature extremes simulated by multiple CMIP5 models over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Siyan; Xu, Ying; Zhou, Botao; Shi, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Given that climate extremes in China might have serious regional and global consequences, an increasing number of studies are examining temperature extremes in China using the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models. This paper investigates recent changes in temperature extremes in China using 25 state-of-the-art global climate models participating in CMIP5. Thirteen indices that represent extreme temperature events were chosen and derived by daily maximum and minimum temperatures, including those representing the intensity (absolute indices and threshold indices), duration (duration indices), and frequency (percentile indices) of extreme temperature. The overall performance of each model is summarized by a "portrait" diagram based on relative root-mean-square error, which is the RMSE relative to the median RMSE of all models, revealing the multi-model ensemble simulation to be better than individual model for most indices. Compared with observations, the models are able to capture the main features of the spatial distribution of extreme temperature during 1986-2005. Overall, the CMIP5 models are able to depict the observed indices well, and the spatial structure of the ensemble result is better for threshold indices than frequency indices. The spread amongst the CMIP5 models in different subregions for intensity indices is small and the median CMIP5 is close to observations; however, for the duration and frequency indices there can be wide disagreement regarding the change between models and observations in some regions. The model ensemble also performs well in reproducing the observational trend of temperature extremes. All absolute indices increase over China during 1961-2005.

  15. ISIM3D: AN ANSI-C THREE-DIMENSIONAL MULTIPLE INDICATOR CONDITIONAL SIMULATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indicator conditional simulation technique provides stochastic simulations of a variable that (i) honor the initial data and (ii) can feature a richer family of spatial structures not limited by Gaussianity. he data are encoded into a series of indicators which then are used ...

  16. An Evaluation of Multiple Single-Case Outcome Indicators Using Convergent Evidence Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.; Busse, R. T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the consistency of five single-case outcome indicators, used to assess response-to-intervention data from a pilot Tier 2 reading intervention that was implemented at an elementary school. Using convergent evidence scaling, the indicators were converted onto a common interpretive scale for each case…

  17. Testing congruence among multiple grazing indicators: a multi-site study across the Tibetan plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Lehnert, Lukas; Holzapfel, Maika; Schultz, Roland; Heberling, Gwendolyn; Görzen, Eugen; Meyer, Hanna; Seeber, Elke; Pinkert, Stefan; Ritz, Markus; Ansorge, Hermann; Bendix, Jörg; Seifert, Bernhard; Miehe, Georg; Long, Ruijun; Yang, Yongping; Wesche, Karsten

    2015-04-01

    Aim Animal husbandry is one of the most widespread land use types, and grazing is a key topic in grassland management. A wide range of indicators are employed in grazing assessments and they often yield widely differing estimates on the associated level of degradation threat. Covering Tibet as a large grassland region with long history of pastoralism, we selected representative indicators to test: (1) how grazing responses change along large-scale climatic gradients, and (2) whether their responses to both grazing intensities and local abiotic conditions are congruent. Location Tibetan Plateau Methods Biotic indicators including species and growth form compositions of vascular plants, richness and abundance of small mammals and ants, together with soil nutrients and field spectra were compared in pairs of high and low grazing intensity at 18 sites across large climatic gradients. Altitude, temperature, and precipitation were considered as potentially influential abiotic factors. Responses of indicators to grazing intensity and environmental gradients were explored by multivariate and univariate analyses. Results All indicators responded strongly to environmental changes, but the response patterns and the most influential abiotic factors varied among indicators. Grazing responses showed low overall congruence. Only vegetation cover, soil nutrient concentrations, and spectral indices were sensitive to grazing across large spatial scales. Grazing effects were significant only when local abiotic factors were taken into account. Main conclusions The results imply that grazing assessments require both appropriate indicators and local calibration. Overall, the threat of grassland degradation across the Tibetan Plateau is not as severe as is commonly assumed.

  18. Power of Alternative Fit Indices for Multiple Group Longitudinal Tests of Measurement Invariance

    E-print Network

    Short, Stephen David

    2014-05-31

    a Monte Carlo simulation to examine the power of change in alternative fit indices to detect two types of measurement invariance, weak and strong, across a variety of manipulated study conditions including sample size, sample size ratio, lack...

  19. A consistent picture of the hydroclimatic response to global warming from multiple indices: Models and observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, F.; Coppola, E.; Raffaele, F.

    2014-10-01

    We analyze trends of six daily precipitation-based and physically interconnected hydroclimatic indices in an ensemble of historical and 21st century climate projections under forcing from increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP)8.5), along with gridded (land only) observations for the late decades of the twentieth century. The indices include metrics of intensity (SDII) and extremes (R95) of precipitation, dry (DSL), and wet spell length, the hydroclimatic intensity index (HY-INT), and a newly introduced index of precipitation area (PA). All the indices in both the 21st century and historical simulations provide a consistent picture of a predominant shift toward a hydroclimatic regime of more intense, shorter, less frequent, and less widespread precipitation events in response to GHG-induced global warming. The trends are larger and more spatially consistent over tropical than extratropical regions, pointing to the importance of tropical convection in regulating this response, and show substantial regional spatial variability. Observed trends in the indices analyzed are qualitatively and consistently in line with the simulated ones, at least at the global and full tropical scale, further supporting the robustness of the identified prevailing hydroclimatic responses. The HY-INT, PA, and R95 indices show the most consistent response to global warming, and thus offer the most promising tools for formal hydroclimatic model validation and detection/attribution studies. The physical mechanism underlying this response and some of the applications of our results are also discussed.

  20. Weighting and Aggregation in Composite Indicator Construction: A Multiplicative Optimization Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, P.; Ang, B. W.; Zhou, D. Q.

    2010-01-01

    Composite indicators (CIs) have increasingly been accepted as a useful tool for benchmarking, performance comparisons, policy analysis and public communication in many different fields. Several recent studies show that as a data aggregation technique in CI construction the weighted product (WP) method has some desirable properties. However, a…

  1. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  2. Evaluation of ecological instream flow using multiple ecological indicators with consideration of hydrological alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    Dam-induced hydrological alterations and related ecological problems have been arousing considerable concern from hydrologists, ecologists, and policy-makers. The East River basin in China is the major provider of water resources for mega-cities within the Pearl River Delta and meets 80% of annual water demand of Hong Kong. In this study, ecodeficit and ecosurplus were analyzed to determine the ecological impact of water impoundments. Also, Do and DHRAM were employed to evaluate the degree of alteration of hydrological regimes, and ERHIs were analyzed to evaluate the influence of hydrological alterations on ecological diversity. Results indicate that: (1) the magnitude and frequency of high flows decrease and those of low flows increase due to the regulation of reservoirs; (2) variations of annual ecosurplus are mainly the result of precipitation changes and the annual ecodeficit is significantly influenced by reservoirs. However, ecodeficit and ecosurplus in other seasons, particularly autumn and winter, are more influenced by reservoir regulation; (3) impacts of reservoirs on hydrological regimes and eco-flow regimes are different from one station to another due to different degrees of influence of reservoirs on hydrological processes at different stations. The longer the distance between a reservoir and a hydrological station is, the weaker the influence the water reservoir has on the hydrological processes; (4) ecodeficit and ecosurplus can be accepted in the evaluation of alterations of hydrological processes at annual and seasonal time scales. Results of Shannon Index indicate decreasing biological diversity after the construction of water reservoirs, implying negative impacts of water reservoirs on biological diversity of a river basin and this should arouse considerable human concerns. This study provides a theoretical background for water resources management with consideration of eco-flow variations due to reservoir regulation in other highly-regulated river basins of the globe.

  3. MultipleColposcopyJCO

    Cancer.gov

    Performing multiple biopsies during a procedure known as colposcopy—visual inspection of the cervix—is more effective than performing only a single biopsy of the worst-appearing area for detecting cervical cancer precursors. This multiple biopsy approach

  4. Depression and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Depression - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society ... Twitter Email Home Symptoms & Diagnosis MS Symptoms Depression Depression Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print In this ...

  5. Multiple sclerosis - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Your doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis. This disease affects the brain and spinal cord ( ... your doctor may prescribe medicine. Some people with multiple sclerosis need to use a urinary catheter . This is ...

  6. Multiple Myeloma Section

    Cancer.gov

    The Multiple Myeloma Section currently has several ongoing and upcoming protocols related to the molecular Natural History and novel treatments for Multiple Myeloma and its precursors - Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) and Smolder

  7. Multiple Sclerosis International Federation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MS support organisation Find support What is MS? Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive disease of the nervous ... and mental health professionals Learn more Contact us Multiple Sclerosis International Federation 3rd Floor Skyline House 200 Union ...

  8. Evaluation of daily precipitation indices over North America in multiple datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaconescu, Emilia Paula; Gachon, Philippe; Scinocca, John; Laprise, René

    2015-04-01

    The study presents a regional analysis and evaluation of simulations from two Canadian regional climate models (RCMs), CanRCM4 and CRCM5 developed respectively at EC-CCCma and UQAM/ESCER, participating in the CORDEX-North America experiment. The focus is on the models' skill in simulating daily precipitation indices with respect to several sets of gridded observations. The Canadian RCMs are also compared against four reanalyses and six other RCMs that take part to the NARCCAP program. The different configurations of Canadian RCM simulations allow also to evaluate the respective effects of different spatial resolutions, driving fields and nudging procedures on the simulated fields. Results show that, for the winter season, the 0.44 degree CanRCM4 and CRCM5 reproduce quite accurately the cumulative total amount of precipitation, as well as the occurrence of wet days and the 90th, 95th and 99th percentiles of daily precipitation. The increase in resolution is associated with an increase in precipitation of high intensity, while the use of interior spectral nudging or different driving fields influences the dry spells' occurrence, especially over Mexico and central US.

  9. Complete mitochondrial genome phylogeographic analysis of killer whales (Orcinus orca) indicates multiple species

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Phillip A.; Archer, Frederick I.; Foote, Andrew D.; Vilstrup, Julia; Allen, Eric E.; Wade, Paul; Durban, John; Parsons, Kim; Pitman, Robert; Li, Lewyn; Bouffard, Pascal; Abel Nielsen, Sandra C.; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Harkins, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Killer whales (Orcinus orca) currently comprise a single, cosmopolitan species with a diverse diet. However, studies over the last 30 yr have revealed populations of sympatric “ecotypes” with discrete prey preferences, morphology, and behaviors. Although these ecotypes avoid social interactions and are not known to interbreed, genetic studies to date have found extremely low levels of diversity in the mitochondrial control region, and few clear phylogeographic patterns worldwide. This low level of diversity is likely due to low mitochondrial mutation rates that are common to cetaceans. Using killer whales as a case study, we have developed a method to readily sequence, assemble, and analyze complete mitochondrial genomes from large numbers of samples to more accurately assess phylogeography and estimate divergence times. This represents an important tool for wildlife management, not only for killer whales but for many marine taxa. We used high-throughput sequencing to survey whole mitochondrial genome variation of 139 samples from the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and southern oceans. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that each of the known ecotypes represents a strongly supported clade with divergence times ranging from ?150,000 to 700,000 yr ago. We recommend that three named ecotypes be elevated to full species, and that the remaining types be recognized as subspecies pending additional data. Establishing appropriate taxonomic designations will greatly aid in understanding the ecological impacts and conservation needs of these important marine predators. We predict that phylogeographic mitogenomics will become an important tool for improved statistical phylogeography and more precise estimates of divergence times. PMID:20413674

  10. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles Indicate CD8+ T Cell Hypermethylation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Steffan D.; Page, Christian M.; Andreassen, Bettina K.; Elboudwarej, Emon; Gustavsen, Marte W.; Briggs, Farren; Quach, Hong; Leikfoss, Ingvild S.; Bjølgerud, Anja; Berge, Tone; Harbo, Hanne F.; Barcellos, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether MS-specific DNA methylation profiles can be identified in whole blood or purified immune cells from untreated MS patients. Methods Whole blood, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell DNA from 16 female, treatment naïve MS patients and 14 matched controls was profiled using the HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. Genotype data were used to assess genetic homogeneity of our sample and to exclude potential SNP-induced DNA methylation measurement errors. Results As expected, significant differences between CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and whole blood DNA methylation profiles were observed, regardless of disease status. Strong evidence for hypermethylation of CD8+ T cell, but not CD4+ T cell or whole blood DNA in MS patients compared to controls was observed. Genome-wide significant individual CpG-site DNA methylation differences were not identified. Furthermore, significant differences in gene DNA methylation of 148 established MS-associated risk genes were not observed. Conclusion While genome-wide significant DNA methylation differences were not detected for individual CpG-sites, strong evidence for DNA hypermethylation of CD8+ T cells for MS patients was observed, indicating a role for DNA methylation in MS. Further, our results suggest that large DNA methylation differences for CpG-sites tested here do not contribute to MS susceptibility. In particular, large DNA methylation differences for CpG-sites within 148 established MS candidate genes tested in our study cannot explain missing heritability. Larger studies of homogenous MS patients and matched controls are warranted to further elucidate the impact of CD8+ T cell and more subtle DNA methylation changes in MS development and pathogenesis. PMID:25734800

  11. Enclave Compositions Indicate Multiple Felsic Components at Chaos Crags, Lassen Volcanic National Park, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E. R.; Hammersley, L. C.; Clynne, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Chaos Crags, located in Lassen Volcanic National Park, is a series of 6 rhyodacite domes that exhibit dramatic evidence of magma mixing. Mafic enclaves from the Chaos Crags form two distinct textural groups: a finer-grained group containing abundant plagioclase crystals from the host rhyodacite, and a coarser-grained group generally lacking host phenocrysts. Enclave samples were collected from Dome B of the Chaos Crags with the intent of obtaining complete suites of the two textural groups. Geochemical data for the enclaves shows a weak correlation between texture and geochemistry. Notably, the geochemical data also shows two distinct chemical trends that appear to represent mixing with two different felsic components. The dominant trend shows mixing between the host rhyodacite and the mafic end member. The second trend is interpreted to result from mixing between the mafic end member and a cryptic felsic component that is distinct from the host rhyodacite. Modeling of major oxides, selected trace elements and rare earth elements suggests that, although the two clusters of enclaves mix towards different felsic end members, they appear start from the same mafic end member, which has a composition of approximately: SiO2 51.84%, CaO 10.45%, K2O 0.69%, P2O5 0.10%, MgO 5.35%, Na2O 2.8%, FeO 8.25%, Fe2O3 1.84%, Al2O3 19.47% and TiO2 0.76%, a composition common in the Lassen region. Preliminary modeling results indicate that, at 75% SiO2, the cryptic felsic component has a composition of: K2O 5.25%, P2O5 1.2%, Na2O 8.25%, Al2O3 14.65%, Fe2O3 0.18%, FeO 0.88% and TiO2 1.46%, with negligible amounts of CaO and MgO. At 70% SiO2 this composition is approximately: K2O 4.3%, P2O5 0.95%, Na2O 7.05%, Al2O3 15.66%, TiO2 1.31%, FeO 2.51% and Fe2O3 0.55% with negligible amounts of CaO and MgO. It is likely that this previously unrecognized mixing trend represents crustal contamination of the mafic end member. A suite of samples with compositions intermediate between these two trends is also present.

  12. Multiple Myeloma Section

    Cancer.gov

    The Multiple Myeloma Section The mission of the Multiple Myeloma Section of the NCI is to... Ola Landgren, M.D., Ph.D. Dr. Landgren is the director of the Clinical Program in the Multiple Myeloma Research Section.  He received his M.D. in 1995 and Ph.D. i

  13. Effects on indicators of tissue perfusion in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane at two multiples of the minimum alveolar concentration.

    PubMed

    Floriano, Beatriz P; Wagatsuma, Juliana T; Ferreira, Joana Z; Abimussi, Caio J X; Menegheti, Thais M; Santos, Paulo S P; Oliva, Valéria N L S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of isoflurane anesthesia administered at 2 multiples of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) on tissue perfusion in dogs. ANIMALS 8 healthy young adult Beagles. PROCEDURES A randomized crossover design was used. Dogs were anesthetized with isoflurane at 1.5 or 2.0 times the MAC for 2 hours, a 7-day washout period was provided, and dogs were reanesthetized with the alternate treatment. Various physiologic variables were monitored before anesthesia (baseline), at 20-minute intervals during anesthesia, and after anesthetic recovery. Variable values were compared between MAC multiples by means of repeated-measures ANOVA, with the Tukey test used for multiple comparisons. RESULTS During anesthesia, mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and mixed venous oxygen saturation were significantly greater when isoflurane was administered at 1.5 versus 2.0 times the MAC. Cardiac output gradually increased during anesthesia at 1.5 times but not at 2.0 times the MAC. Arterial blood lactate concentration did not differ between MAC multiples at any point; however, this concentration decreased with increasing anesthetic duration at both MAC multiples. Oxygen delivery differed between MAC multiples, and oxygen consumption differed from baseline during anesthesia at 2.0 times the MAC. Oxygen extraction was higher at 2.0 versus 1.5 times the MAC. Heart rate differed between MAC multiples only after anesthetic recovery. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Isoflurane anesthesia impaired tissue perfusion in dogs, but these changes would not be clinically relevant with oxygen delivery at 100%. Peripheral tissue perfusion was maintained or improved with time. PMID:26709933

  14. Multiple quantum solid-state NMR indicates a parallel, not antiparallel, organization of ?-sheets in Alzheimer's ?-amyloid fibrils

    PubMed Central

    Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Balbach, John J.; Leapman, Richard D.; Rizzo, Nancy W.; Reed, Jennifer; Tycko, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Senile plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease contain deposits of fibrils formed by 39- to 43-residue ?-amyloid peptides with possible neurotoxic effects. X-ray diffraction measurements on oriented fibril bundles have indicated an extended ?-sheet structure for Alzheimer's ?-amyloid fibrils and other amyloid fibrils, but the supramolecular organization of the ?-sheets and other structural details are not well established because of the intrinsically noncrystalline, insoluble nature of amyloid fibrils. Here we report solid-state NMR measurements, using a multiple quantum (MQ) 13C NMR technique, that probe the ?-sheet organization in fibrils formed by the full-length, 40-residue ?-amyloid peptide (A?1–40). Although an antiparallel ?-sheet organization often is assumed and is invoked in recent structural models for full-length ?-amyloid fibrils, the MQNMR data indicate an in-register, parallel organization. This work provides site-specific, atomic-level structural constraints on full-length ?-amyloid fibrils and applies MQNMR to a significant problem in structural biology. PMID:11069287

  15. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvati?, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics. PMID:21599254

  16. The Receiver Operational Characteristic for Binary Classification with Multiple Indices and Its Application to the Neuroimaging Study of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xia; Li, Juan; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Protas, Hillary; Jagust, William; Fleisher, Adam; Reiman, Eric; Yao, Li; Chen, Kewei

    2014-01-01

    Given a single index, the receiver operational characteristic (ROC) curve analysis is routinely utilized for characterizing performances in distinguishing two conditions/groups in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Given the availability of multiple data sources (referred to as multi-indices), such as multimodal neuroimaging data sets, cognitive tests, and clinical ratings and genomic data in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) studies, the single-index-based ROC underutilizes all available information. For a long time, a number of algorithmic/analytic approaches combining multiple indices have been widely used to simultaneously incorporate multiple sources. In this study, we propose an alternative for combining multiple indices using logical operations, such as “AND,” “OR,” and “at least n” (where n is an integer), to construct multivariate ROC (multiV-ROC) and characterize the sensitivity and specificity statistically associated with the use of multiple indices. With and without the “leave-one-out” cross-validation, we used two data sets from AD studies to showcase the potentially increased sensitivity/specificity of the multiV-ROC in comparison to the single-index ROC and linear discriminant analysis (an analytic way of combining multi-indices). We conclude that, for the data sets we investigated, the proposed multiV-ROC approach is capable of providing a natural and practical alternative with improved classification accuracy as compared to univariate ROC and linear discriminant analysis. PMID:23702553

  17. Multiple Scattering Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modregger, Peter; Kagias, Matias; Peter, Silvia; Abis, Matteo; Guzenko, Vitaliy A.; David, Christian; Stampanoni, Marco

    2014-07-01

    Multiple scattering represents a challenge for numerous modern tomographic imaging techniques. In this Letter, we derive an appropriate line integral that allows for the tomographic reconstruction of angular resolved scattering distributions, even in the presence of multiple scattering. The line integral is applicable to a wide range of imaging techniques utilizing various kinds of probes. Here, we use x-ray grating interferometry to experimentally validate the framework and to demonstrate additional structural sensitivity, which exemplifies the impact of multiple scattering tomography.

  18. The Empirical Power and Type I Error Rates of the GBT and [omega] Indices in Detecting Answer Copying on Multiple-Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zopluoglu, Cengiz; Davenport, Ernest C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The generalized binomial test (GBT) and [omega] indices are the most recent methods suggested in the literature to detect answer copying behavior on multiple-choice tests. The [omega] index is one of the most studied indices, but there has not yet been a systematic simulation study for the GBT index. In addition, the effect of the ability levels…

  19. Complex Multiplicative Calculus

    E-print Network

    Bashirov, Agamirza

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper we extend the concepts of multiplicative de- rivative and integral to complex-valued functions of complex variable. Some drawbacks, arising with these concepts in the real case, are explained satis- factorily. Properties of complex multiplicative derivatives and integrals are studied. In particular, the fundamental theorem of complex multiplicative calculus, relating these concepts, is proved. It is shown that complex multi- plicative calculus is not just another realization of the ordinary calculus. In particular, the Cauchy formula of complex calculus disappears in multiplicative complex calculus.

  20. On Multiple-Layered Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to find ways to make vortex flow fields decompose more quickly, photographs and observations are presented of vortex flow fields that indicate the presence of multiple layers of fluid rotating about a common axis. A survey of the literature indicates that multiple-layered vortices form in waterspouts, tornadoes and lift-generated vortices of aircraft. An explanation for the appearance of multiple-layered structures in vortices is suggested. The observations and data presented are intended to improve the understanding of the formation and persistence of vortex flow fields.

  1. Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis in R--A Tutorial in Measurement Invariance with Continuous and Ordinal Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschfeld, Gerrit; von Brachel, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) is among the most productive extensions of structural equation modeling. Many researchers conducting cross-cultural or longitudinal studies are interested in testing for measurement and structural invariance. The aim of the present paper is to provide a tutorial in MG-CFA using the freely…

  2. Long-Term Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on Multiple Indicators of Grief in Parentally Bereaved Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Ma, Yue; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.; Wolchik, Sharlene; Kennedy, Cara; Millsap, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports on results from a randomized experimental trial of the effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on multiple measures of grief experienced by parentally bereaved children and adolescents over a 6-year period. Method: Participants were 244 youths (ages 8-16, mean age = 11.4 years) from 156 families that had…

  3. The use of multiple indices of physiological activity to access viability in chlorine disinfected Escherichia coli O157:H7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisle, J. T.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    A suite of fluorescent intracellular stains and probes was used, in conjunction with viable plate counts, to assess the effect of chlorine disinfection on membrane potential (rhodamine 123; Rh123 and bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol; DiBAC4(3)), membrane integrity (LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit), respiratory activity (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride; CTC) and substrate responsiveness (direct viable counts; DVC) in the commensal pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. After a 5 min exposure to the disinfectant, physiological indices were affected in the following order: viable plate counts > substrate responsiveness > membrane potential > respiratory activity > membrane integrity. In situ assessment of physiological activity by examining multiple targets, as demonstrated in this study, permits a more comprehensive determination of the site and extent of injury in bacterial cells following sublethal disinfection with chlorine. This approach to assessing altered bacterial physiology has application in various fields where detection of stressed bacteria is of interest.

  4. Using multiple chemical indicators to assess sources of nitrate and age of groundwater in a karstic spring basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.; Copeland, R.; Greenhalgh, T.; Ceryak, R.; Zwanka, W.

    2005-01-01

    Human health and ecological concerns have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations during the past 40 years in Fannin Springs (0.3-4.7 mg/L), a regional discharge point with an average flow of >2.8 m3/second (>100 ft3/second) for water from the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple chemical indicators (major dissolved species, 15N and 18O of nitrate, dissolved gases, 78 pesticides and degradates, and 67 organic compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater) and transient tracers (3H/3He, chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs], sulfur hexafluoride [SF6]) were analyzed in water samples from nine wells along three transects and in spring water to assess groundwater age and potential contaminant sources. Land use is predominantly agricultural (52 percent) and forest (31 percent) in the 320 km2 (124 mi2) spring basin, which was delineated from a potentiometric-surface map of the UFA using high-resolution water-level data. Nitrate-N concentrations were highly variable in the oxic UFA and ranged from <0.02 to 4.7 mg/L. ?? 15N-NO3 values (3.4-9.9 per mil) indicated that nitrate contamination originated from inorganic sources (synthetic fertilizer) and organic sources (manure spreading or waste disposal). Higher nitrate concentrations and the younger age of spring water relative to water from upgradient wells indicate better communication with N sources at the surface. Apparent ages of groundwater correlated positively with well depth (P < 0.05) and were younger in water from wells nearer to the spring (<8 years) compared with other wells (10-50 years). Most transient tracer concentrations were consistent with binary mixing curves representing mixtures of water recharged during the past 10 years and older water (recharged before 1940). Young water mixing fractions ranged from 0.07 to 0.90. Trace levels of herbicides found in groundwater and spring water were indicative of applications for vegetative control in agricultural and other land-use types.

  5. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  6. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  7. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  8. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  9. Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... extended lives that would have been lost to multiple myeloma yesterday. And it is accelerating all the time. Learn how ... approved 1998 MMRF established The MMRF changed the multiple myeloma treatment landscape by removing obstacles and injecting speed at each step of the research ...

  10. Multiple personality: diagnostic considerations.

    PubMed

    Coons, P M

    1980-10-01

    Multiple personality is a syndrome characterized by 2 or more alternating personality states and amnesia. Multiple personality must be differentiated from fugue, possession syndromes, mediumships, hysterical personality, schizophrenia, hypnotic states, organic brain syndrome and simulation. A review of the literature, discussion of diagnosis, and 4 illustrative cases are presented. PMID:7430076

  11. Fig trees at the northern limit of their range: the distributions of cryptic pollinators indicate multiple glacial refugia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Compton, Stephen G; Liu, Min; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2012-04-01

    Climatic oscillations during the last few million years had well-documented effects on the distributions and genomes of temperate plants and animals, but much less is known of their impacts on tropical and subtropical species. In contrast to Europe and North America, ice-sheets did not cover most of China during glacial periods, and the effects of glacial cycles were less dramatic. Fig trees are a predominantly tropical group pollinated by host-specific fig wasps. We employed partial mitochondrial COI (918?bp) and nuclear ITS2 (462?bp) gene sequences to investigate the genetic structure and demographic histories of the wasps that pollinate the subtropical Ficus pumila var. pumila in Southeastern China. Deep genetic divergence in both mitochondrial (7.2-11.6%) and nuclear genes (1.6-2.9%) indicates that three pollinator species are present and that they diverged about 4.72 and 6.00?Myr bp. This predates the Quaternary ice ages, but corresponds with the formation of the Taiwan Strait and uplifting of the Wuyi-Xianxia Mountains. The three pollinators have largely allopatric distribution patterns in China and display different postglacial demographic histories. Wiebesia spp. 1 and 2 occupy, respectively, the northern and southern regions of the mainland host range. Their populations both underwent significant postglacial spatial expansions, but at different times and at different rates. Wiebesia sp. 3 is largely restricted to northern islands and shows less evidence of recent population expansion. Their mainly allopatric distributions and different demographic histories are consistent with host plant postglacial expansion from three distinct refugia and suggest one mechanism whereby fig trees gain multiple pollinators. PMID:22335780

  12. CE399 Diagnostic Test The following multiple-choice questions are indicative of the scope and difficulty of the problems that

    E-print Network

    Bertini, Robert L.

    Diagnostic Test Summer 2013 2 Diagnostic Criteria/Evaluation To be prepared for the upper-division Civil/Environmental) required to solve the problem. #12;CE399 Diagnostic Test Summer 2013 3 Mathematics Math-001 Question WhatCE399 Diagnostic Test General The following multiple-choice questions are indicative of the scope

  13. Multiple sclerosis and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bodiguel, E; Bensa, C; Brassat, D; Laplaud, D; Le Page, E; Ouallet, J-C; Zephir, H; De Seze, J

    2014-04-01

    The question of pregnancy in patients with multiple sclerosis is regularly raised due to the prevalence of the disease in middle age women. The multiple sclerosis think tank (Groupe de Réflexion sur la Sclérose en Plaques [GRESEP]) decided to develop recommendations on this issue, with consideration to both the impact of multiple sclerosis on pregnancy, and that of pregnancy on the disease. As with topics of previous works, the formal expert consensus method was used. The working group was composed of hospital-based and private practice neurologists. The reading group was composed of neurologists, anaesthetists and obstetricians. Each recommendation is presented with the relevant level of consensus. PMID:24684929

  14. Multiple sclerosis (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Multiple sclerosis is a central nervous system disorder marked by decreased nerve function with initial inflammation of the protective myelin nerve covering and eventual scarring. Symptoms and severity of ...

  15. Challenges of Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePLUS

    ... tell them apart by their individual characteristics and personalities. depending on the personalities of the parents and children and the nature ... multiples. You can also work with your children’s teachers to provide the best environment for your children. • ...

  16. What Is Multiple Myeloma?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multiple myeloma is a cancer formed by malignant plasma cells. Normal plasma cells are found in the bone marrow and ... to an infection, they mature and change into plasma cells. Plasma cells make the antibodies (also called ...

  17. Photovoltaics: Separating Multiple Excitons

    SciTech Connect

    Nozik, A. J.

    2012-05-01

    Scientists have demonstrated an efficient process for generating multiple excitons in adjacent silicon nanocrystals from a single high-energy photon. Their findings could prove useful for a wide range of photovoltaic applications.

  18. Communicating with Multiple Impairments 

    E-print Network

    Dunlop, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain the effect of multiple special needs on the communication interactions between students and their carers in residential units of a special school. In particular, staff control, student ...

  19. Multiple Turbo Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, D.; Pollara, F.

    1995-01-01

    A description is given of multiple turbo codes and a suitable decoder structure derived from an approximation to the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decision rule, which is substantially different from the decoder for two-code-based encoders.

  20. Pomalidomide for Multiple Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a phase III trial that compared the combination of pomalidomide (Pomalyst®) and low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone alone in patients with multiple myeloma that has progressed despite other treatments.

  1. Indication of change of phase in high-multiplicity proton-proton events at LHC in string percolation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, I.; Téllez, A. Fernandez; Ghosh, Premomoy

    2015-10-01

    We analyze high-multiplicity proton-proton (p p ) collision data in the framework of the string percolation model that has been successful in describing several phenomena of multiparticle production, including the signatures of recent discovery of strongly interacting partonic matter, the quark-gluon plasma, in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Our study in terms of the ratio of shear viscosity and entropy density (? /s ) and the [Lattice Quantum Chromodinamics (LQCD)] predicted signature of QCD change of phase, in terms of the effective number of degrees of freedom (? /T4), reiterates the possibility of a strongly interacting collective medium in these events.

  2. Metabolic gene expression changes in astrocytes in Multiple Sclerosis cerebral cortex are indicative of immune-mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Zeis, T; Allaman, I; Gentner, M; Schroder, K; Tschopp, J; Magistretti, P J; Schaeren-Wiemers, N

    2015-08-01

    Emerging as an important correlate of neurological dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis (MS), extended focal and diffuse gray matter abnormalities have been found and linked to clinical manifestations such as seizures, fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. To investigate possible underlying mechanisms we analyzed the molecular alterations in histopathological normal appearing cortical gray matter (NAGM) in MS. By performing a differential gene expression analysis of NAGM of control and MS cases we identified reduced transcription of astrocyte specific genes involved in the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS) and the glutamate-glutamine cycle (GGC). Additional quantitative immunohistochemical analysis demonstrating a CX43 loss in MS NAGM confirmed a crucial involvement of astrocytes and emphasizes their importance in MS pathogenesis. Concurrently, a Toll-like/IL-1? signaling expression signature was detected in MS NAGM, indicating that immune-related signaling might be responsible for the downregulation of ANLS and GGC gene expression in MS NAGM. Indeed, challenging astrocytes with immune stimuli such as IL-1? and LPS reduced their ANLS and GGC gene expression in vitro. The detected upregulation of IL1B in MS NAGM suggests inflammasome priming. For this reason, astrocyte cultures were treated with ATP and ATP/LPS as for inflammasome activation. This treatment led to a reduction of ANLS and GGC gene expression in a comparable manner. To investigate potential sources for ANLS and GGC downregulation in MS NAGM, we first performed an adjuvant-driven stimulation of the peripheral immune system in C57Bl/6 mice in vivo. This led to similar gene expression changes in spinal cord demonstrating that peripheral immune signals might be one source for astrocytic gene expression changes in the brain. IL1B upregulation in MS NAGM itself points to a possible endogenous signaling process leading to ANLS and GGC downregulation. This is supported by our findings that, among others, MS NAGM astrocytes express inflammasome components and that astrocytes are capable to release Il-1? in-vitro. Altogether, our data suggests that immune signaling of immune- and/or central nervous system origin drives alterations in astrocytic ANLS and GGC gene regulation in the MS NAGM. Such a mechanism might underlie cortical brain dysfunctions frequently encountered in MS patients. PMID:25937052

  3. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  4. Multiple Intelligences and Business Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    Results from 97 business students with substantial work histories indicate that the Multiple Intelligence Preference Inventory gives a valid and reliable indication of their preferred intelligences. Awareness of these results is associated with assessments of self and others as knowledge sources. This information can help in recognizing,…

  5. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, H.K. Jr.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means for separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means. 7 figs.

  6. Multiple Sclerosis Luminance Threshold and Measurements

    E-print Network

    Foster, David H.

    Multiple Sclerosis Luminance Threshold and Measurements of Temporal Characteristics of Vision indicates multiple sclerosis; ON, optic neuritis. Table 1.-Clinical Details of Patients Details of Eye In patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) and In normal control subjects. The Inten Itles of the tlmull used

  7. Detection of multiple enteric virus strains within a foodborne outbreak of gastroenteritis: an indication of the source of contamination.

    PubMed

    Gallimore, C I; Pipkin, C; Shrimpton, H; Green, A D; Pickford, Y; McCartney, C; Sutherland, G; Brown, D W G; Gray, J J

    2005-02-01

    An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis of suspected viral aetiology occurred in April 2003 in the British Royal Fleet Auxiliary ship (RFA) Argus deployed in the Northern Arabian Gulf. There were 37 cases amongst a crew of 400 personnel. Of 13 samples examined from cases amongst the crew, six enteric viruses were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Five different viruses were identified including, three norovirus genotypes, a sapovirus and a rotavirus. No multiple infections were detected. A common food source was implicated in the outbreak and epidemiological analysis showed a statistically significant association with salad as the source of the outbreak, with a relative risk of 3.41 (95% confidence interval of 1.7-6.81) of eating salad on a particular date prior to the onset of symptoms. Faecal contamination of the salad at source was the most probable explanation for the diversity of viruses detected and characterized. PMID:15724709

  8. Multiple sclerosis and glutamate.

    PubMed

    Groom, Anthony J; Smith, Terence; Turski, Lechoslaw

    2003-05-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis reproduces in rodents the features of multiple sclerosis, an immune-mediated, disabling disorder of the human nervous system. No adequate therapy is available for multiple sclerosis, despite anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunomodulatory measures. Increasingly glutamate is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we (1) review changes in the glutamatergic system in multiple sclerosis and (2) reveal the effects of glutamate AMPA antagonists in acute and chronic rodent models of multiple sclerosis. Administration of structurally diverse competitive and non-competitive AMPA antagonists reduces neurologic disability in rodents subjected to acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In addition, AMPA antagonists are active in both the adoptive transfer and in chronic models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats and mice and affect both the acute and chronic relapsing phases. Moreover, short-term therapy with AMPA antagonists leads to sustained benefit well into the progressive phases. These results imply that therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis should be complemented by glutamate AMPA antagonists to reduce neurologic disability. PMID:12853317

  9. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  10. Dynamic determination of kinetic parameters for the interaction between polypeptide hormones and cell-surface receptors in the perfused rat liver by the multiple-indicator dilution method

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Sakamoto, S.; Fuwa, T.; Hanano, M. )

    1988-11-01

    Hepatic elimination of epidermal growth factor (EGF) via receptor-mediated endocytosis was studied by a multiple-indicator dilution method in the isolated perfused rat liver, in which cell polarity and spatial organization are maintained. In this method EGF was given with inulin, an extracellular reference, as a bolus into the portal vein, and dilution curves of both compounds in the hepatic vein effluent were analyzed. Analysis of the dilution curve for EGF, compared with that for somatostatin, which showed no specific binding to isolated liver plasma membranes, resulted as follows: (i) both extraction ratio and distribution volume of {sup 125}I-labeled EGF decreased as the injected amount of unlabeled EGF increased; (ii) the ratio plot of the dilution curve for EGF exhibited an upward straight line initially for a short period of time, whereas the ratio plot of somatostatin gradually decreased. The multiple-indicator dilution method was used for other peptides also. Insulin and glucagon, known to have hepatocyte receptors, behaved similarly to EGF in shape of their ratio plots. The kinetic parameters calculated by this analysis were comparable with reported values obtained by in vitro direct binding measurements at equilibrium using liver homogenates. They conclude that the multiple-indicator dilution method is a good tool for analyzing the dynamics of peptide hormones-cell-surface receptor interaction under a condition in which spatial architecture of the liver is maintained.

  11. Multiplicative Calculus and Student Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Duff

    1999-01-01

    Multiplicative calculus is based on a multiplicative rate of change whereas the usual calculus is based on an additive rate of change. Describes some student investigations into multiplicative calculus, including an original student idea about multiplicative Euler's Method. (Author/ASK)

  12. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  13. Multiple access trade study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-09-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  14. Managing advanced multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Teasell, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common neurologic conditions in Canada. Many individuals with MS eventually develop the progressive form of the disease. The neurologic and psychosocial manifestations of the later stages of MS are numerous. Family physicians ought to have some understanding of patients with advanced MS and some knowledge of how to manage them. PMID:8499793

  15. Unfolding Fraction Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyberg, Terry; Whitney, Stephanie R.; Cramer, Kathleen A.; Monson, Debra S.; Leavitt, Seth

    2011-01-01

    Students often have difficulty understanding fractions, in general, and understanding how to multiply fractions, in particular. To move past this potential problem area, students need to develop a deeper understanding of multiplication and connect the ideas to fractions. In this article, the authors share their insights into teaching fraction…

  16. Theories for multiple resonances

    E-print Network

    D. Klakow; M. Weber; P. -G. Reinhard

    1995-02-09

    Two microscopic theories for multiple resonances in nuclei are compared, n-particle-hole RPA and quantized Time-Dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF). The Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model is used as test case. We find that quantized TDHF is superior in many respects, except for very small systems.

  17. The Multiple Mirror Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckers, J. M.; Ulich, B. L.; Shannon, R. R.; Carleton, N. P.; Geary, J. C.; Latham, D. W.; Angel, J. R. P.; Hoffmann, W. F.; Low, F. J.; Weymann, R. J.

    The Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT), located on top of Mount Hopkins (2600 m) in Arizona, consists of six main telescope systems, each of which is a classical Cassegrain with a 1.8 m diameter parabolic primary with focal ratio f/2.7, and a hyperbolic secondary producing a final f/31.6 for each of the individual telescopes. The most significant departures of the MMT from conventional optical telescope technology are (1) the use of light-weight 'egg-crate' mirrors, which reduced the telescope weight, (2) the use of an alt-azimuth mount, which simplifies the gravitational effects on the structure, (3) the use of a ball-bearing support rather than hydrostatic bearings, resulting in cost savings and less maintenance, (4) the use of spur gear drives rather than worm gears, and (5) the use of multiple coaligned light collectors rather than a single monolithic mirror. Early multiple objective telescopes are discussed, and the early history of the MMT project is given. The design and performance of the telescope are explained, and MMT instrumentation (spectrograph, optical design, detector, infrared photometer, SAO CCD camera) is given. Astronomical research with the telescope is discussed, along with plans for future multiple objective telescopes.

  18. Mastering the Multiplication Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ettorre, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

  19. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  20. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

  1. Marsh Geomorphology: Multiple methods

    E-print Network

    Savidge, Dana

    Marsh Geomorphology: Multiple methods: · RTK GPS pedestrian surveys · Single beam echo soundingIO Measurement Clark Alexander, SkIO Geomorphology Julie Amft, SkIO Measurement Trent Moore, SkIO Measurement Mike Robinson, SkIO, Geomorphology Al Garrett, SRNL Model Dave Hayes, SRNL Dye Dana Savidge, SkIO Radar

  2. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Cancer.gov

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, investigators led an effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S., resulting in a monograph.

  3. Managing Multiple Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePascale, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of how one might feel about the recent developments in teacher evaluation systems, No Child Left Behind (NCLB) and adequate yearly progress (AYP), or student assessments for high-stakes promotion decisions, educators overwhelmingly agree that use of multiple measures is better than reliance on a single measure such as a large-scale,…

  4. Functional connectivity indicates differential roles for the intraparietal sulcus and the superior parietal lobule in multiple object tracking.

    PubMed

    Alnæs, Dag; Sneve, Markus H; Richard, Geneviève; Skåtun, Kristina C; Kaufmann, Tobias; Nordvik, Jan Egil; Andreassen, Ole A; Endestad, Tor; Laeng, Bruno; Westlye, Lars T

    2015-12-01

    Attentive tracking requires sustained object-based attention, rather than passive vigilance or rapid attentional shifts to brief events. Several theories of tracking suggest a mechanism of indexing objects that allows for attentional resources to be directed toward the moving targets. Imaging studies have shown that cortical areas belonging to the dorsal frontoparietal attention network increase BOLD-signal during multiple object tracking (MOT). Among these areas, some studies have assigned IPS a particular role in object indexing, but the neuroimaging evidence has been sparse. In the present study, we tested participants on a continuous version of the MOT task in order to investigate how cortical areas engage in functional networks during attentional tracking. Specifically, we analyzed the data using eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM) analysis, which provides estimates of individual voxels' connectedness with hub-like parts of the functional network. The results obtained using permutation based voxel-wise statistics support the proposed role for the IPS in object indexing as this region displayed increased centrality during tracking as well as increased functional connectivity with both prefrontal and visual perceptual cortices. In contrast, the opposite pattern was observed for the SPL, with decreasing centrality, as well as reduced functional connectivity with the visual and frontal cortices, in agreement with a hypothesized role for SPL in attentional shifts. These findings provide novel evidence that IPS and SPL serve different functional roles during MOT, while at the same time being highly engaged during tracking as measured by BOLD-signal changes. PMID:26299796

  5. Code design for multiple-input multiple-output broadcast channels 

    E-print Network

    Uppal, Momin Ayub

    2009-06-02

    Recent information theoretical results indicate that dirty-paper coding (DPC) achieves the entire capacity region of the Gaussian multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) broadcast channel (BC). This thesis presents practical code designs for Gaussian...

  6. Multiple gene analyses of caligid copepods indicate that the reduction of a thoracic appendage in Pseudocaligus represents convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Caligidae is a family of parasitic copepods containing over 30 recognised genera. They are commercially important parasites as they cause disease in numerous finfish aquaculture facilities globally. Morphological features are used to distinguish between the genera and Pseudocaligus has traditionally been differentiated from Caligus solely by the presence of a much reduced form of the fourth thoracic leg. Currently there are numerous DNA sequences available for Caligus spp. but only the type species, Pseudocaligus brevipedis, has molecular data available, so systematic studies using molecular phylogenetic analyses have been limited. Methods Three gene regions, SSU rDNA, 16S and CO1, for Pseudocaligus fugu from puffer fish from Japan and Pseudocaligus uniartus from rabbit fish from Indonesia are sequenced and molecular phylogenetic analyses performed in order to infer phylogenetic relationships between Pseudocaligus and other caligid copepods. Results The analysis revealed that there was no discrete grouping of Pseudocaligus spp. and that they had a polyphyletic distribution within Caligus taxa. Pseudocaligus fugu grouped with Caligus elongatus and contained a unique synapomorphy in the SSU rDNA region only seen in members of that clade. Pseudocaligus uniartus formed a well-supported group, in the SSU rDNA analyses, with a Caligus sp. that also infects rabbit fish, but was unresolved in the other analyses. Pseudocaligus brevipedis consistently and robustly grouped with Caligus curtus and C. centrodonti in all analyses. The majority of Lepeophtheirus spp. form a monophyletic sister group to the Caligus clade; however, L. natalensis is unresolved in all analyses and does not form part of the main Lepeophtheirus clade. Conclusions These findings do not support the morphological-based distinction between Pseudocaligus and Caligus, suggesting that the reduced fourth leg is a feature that has evolved on multiple occasions throughout caligid evolution. Congruent molecular phylogenetic data support groupings based on the presence of morphological features, such as lunules, geography and host fish type rather than appendage morphology. Therefore, we support the synonymy of Pseudocaligus with Caligus. PMID:24286135

  7. Portable multiplicity counter

    DOEpatents

    Newell, Matthew R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jones, David Carl (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-09-01

    A portable multiplicity counter has signal input circuitry, processing circuitry and a user/computer interface disposed in a housing. The processing circuitry, which can comprise a microcontroller integrated circuit operably coupled to shift register circuitry implemented in a field programmable gate array, is configured to be operable via the user/computer interface to count input signal pluses receivable at said signal input circuitry and record time correlations thereof in a total counting mode, coincidence counting mode and/or a multiplicity counting mode. The user/computer interface can be for example an LCD display/keypad and/or a USB interface. The counter can include a battery pack for powering the counter and low/high voltage power supplies for biasing external detectors so that the counter can be configured as a hand-held device for counting neutron events.

  8. Interference multiple access communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, L. Reggie; DeBardelaben, James A.; Niedzwiecki, Joshua; Learned, Rachel E.; Eisenberg, Yiftach; Cooper, David M.

    2007-04-01

    The implementation of network centric warfare on the battlefield has driven the growing demand for high capacity warfighter communication systems. Although new high capacity SATCOM systems such as WGS are being introduced in the near term, these systems use the interference avoidance paradigm, which fundamentally limits overall network performance. This paper introduces a new wireless networking paradigm called Interference Multiple Access (IMA), developed under the auspices of DARPA. The interference multiple access paradigm exploits multi-access interference to enable revolutionary improvements in wireless communication capacity and latency without the need for infrastructure, coordination, or spectrum preplanning. Simulation and over-the-air test results suggest that greater than 3X increases in network throughput (especially in low SNR scenarios) can be achieved over traditional contention and scheduled-based spectrum access approaches when applied to WIN-T NCW terminals communicating in a mesh topology over the WGS constellation.

  9. [Multiple food allergy].

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Adriana; Prates, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Multiple food allergy is an adverse immune response to more than one food. When a child is allergic to a great number of foods, the clinical picture can be serious and the eviction of the implied allergens leads to important dietary restrictions. We describe the case of a 4-year-old child with serious atopic eczema and multiple food allergy. At 8 months she presented positive specific Imunoglobulin (Ig)E for milk, wheat, rye, barley, gluten, soy, egg (yolk and white) and initiated eviction of these foods. At 20 months she tried to introduce wheat but suspended after aggravation of atopic eczema. At 3 years old, she had anaphylaxis after contact with cheese. At 4 years old she keeps eviction of milk, egg, wheat, gluten, barley and rye. Food restrictions in these patients are high, demanding a rigorous control of foods ingested to prevent both adverse reactions and nutricional deficits. Multidisciplinary approach is important. PMID:22015034

  10. Multiple zeros of polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    For polynomials of higher degree, iterative numerical methods must be used. Four iterative methods are presented for approximating the zeros of a polynomial using a digital computer. Newton's method and Muller's method are two well known iterative methods which are presented. They extract the zeros of a polynomial by generating a sequence of approximations converging to each zero. However, both of these methods are very unstable when used on a polynomial which has multiple zeros. That is, either they fail to converge to some or all of the zeros, or they converge to very bad approximations of the polynomial's zeros. This material introduces two new methods, the greatest common divisor (G.C.D.) method and the repeated greatest common divisor (repeated G.C.D.) method, which are superior methods for numerically approximating the zeros of a polynomial having multiple zeros. These methods were programmed in FORTRAN 4 and comparisons in time and accuracy are given.

  11. Universality of particle multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K. |

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  12. Multiple membrane cavity optomechanics

    E-print Network

    M. Bhattacharya; P. Meystre

    2008-04-08

    We investigate theoretically the extension of cavity optomechanics to multiple membrane systems. We describe such a system in terms of the coupling of the collective normal modes of the membrane array to the light fields. We show these modes can be optically addressed individually and be cooled, trapped and characterized, e.g. via quantum nondemolition measurements. Analogies between this system and a linear chain of trapped ions or dipolar molecules imply the possibility of related applications in the quantum regime.

  13. Multiple lymphomatous polyposis.

    PubMed

    Kadayifçi, A; Benekli, M; Sava?, M C; Arslan, S; Uzunalimo?lu, B; Bari?ta, I; Güllü, I H; Tekuzman, G

    1997-04-01

    Multiple lymphomatous polyposis (MLP) is a distinctive and particularly rare clinical type of malignant gastrointestinal lymphoma, which is classified as B-cell centrocytic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. this rare entity has been recently reclassified as mantle cell lymphoma. We herein report three additional cases of MLP involving various segments of the gastrointestinal tract. MLP has an aggressive biologic behavior and a relatively poor prognosis and must be treated accordingly as a high-grade lymphoma with systemic chemotherapy. PMID:9142193

  14. Multiple muons in MACRO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinz, R.

    1985-01-01

    An analysis of the multiple muon events in the Monopole Astrophysics and Cosmic Ray Observatory detector was conducted to determine the cosmic ray composition. Particular emphasis is placed on the interesting primary cosmic ray energy region above 2000 TeV/nucleus. An extensive study of muon production in cosmic ray showers has been done. Results were used to parameterize the characteristics of muon penetration into the Earth to the location of a detector.

  15. MULTIPLE OSCILLATION STABILIZING CONTROL.

    SciTech Connect

    YUE,M.; SCHLUETER,R.; AZARM,M.; BARI,R.

    2004-07-23

    This paper presents a strategy that may be used to guide stabilizing control design for multiple oscillations, which are difficult to control using conventional control design procedures. A multiple oscillation phenomena is observed in an example power system. A local bifurcation and an interarea bifurcation develop in an example power system due to multiple bifurcation parameter variations. The dynamic behaviors of the bifurcating system are complex due to the overlapping of the two different bifurcation subsystems and are shown to be difficult to control. The double bifurcations are studied in this paper and in order to stabilize them, three kind of {mu}-synthesis robust controls are designed, (a) {mu}-synthesis power system stabilizer (MPSS); (b) {mu}-synthesis SVC control (MSVC); and (c) a mixed MPSS/MSVC control. Based on the bifurcation subsystem analysis, the measurement signals and locations of the controls are selected. The control performances of three kind of controls are evaluated and compared. The conclusions are given according to the analysis and time simulation results.

  16. Strongly Multiplicative and 3-Multiplicative Linear Secret Sharing Schemes

    E-print Network

    Chee, Yeow Meng

    the intermediate results secretly shared among the players with the underlying LSSS. Due to the nature of linearityStrongly Multiplicative and 3-Multiplicative Linear Secret Sharing Schemes Zhifang Zhang1 , Mulan. Strongly multiplicative linear secret sharing schemes (LSSS) have been a powerful tool for constructing

  17. Multiple emulsions High-Order Multiple Emulsions Formed in

    E-print Network

    Multiple emulsions High-Order Multiple Emulsions Formed in Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Microfluidics** A. R. Abate and D. A. Weitz* Multiple emulsions are nested sets of drops.[1,2] Drops of one kind of yet another fluid. Such ``emulsions within emulsions'' are very useful for many applications

  18. Development of multiple linear regression models as predictive tools for fecal indicator concentrations in a stretch of the lower Lahn River, Germany.

    PubMed

    Herrig, Ilona M; Böer, Simone I; Brennholt, Nicole; Manz, Werner

    2015-11-15

    Since rivers are typically subject to rapid changes in microbiological water quality, tools are needed to allow timely water quality assessment. A promising approach is the application of predictive models. In our study, we developed multiple linear regression (MLR) models in order to predict the abundance of the fecal indicator organisms Escherichia coli (EC), intestinal enterococci (IE) and somatic coliphages (SC) in the Lahn River, Germany. The models were developed on the basis of an extensive set of environmental parameters collected during a 12-months monitoring period. Two models were developed for each type of indicator: 1) an extended model including the maximum number of variables significantly explaining variations in indicator abundance and 2) a simplified model reduced to the three most influential explanatory variables, thus obtaining a model which is less resource-intensive with regard to required data. Both approaches have the ability to model multiple sites within one river stretch. The three most important predictive variables in the optimized models for the bacterial indicators were NH4-N, turbidity and global solar irradiance, whereas chlorophyll a content, discharge and NH4-N were reliable model variables for somatic coliphages. Depending on indicator type, the extended mode models also included the additional variables rainfall, O2 content, pH and chlorophyll a. The extended mode models could explain 69% (EC), 74% (IE) and 72% (SC) of the observed variance in fecal indicator concentrations. The optimized models explained the observed variance in fecal indicator concentrations to 65% (EC), 70% (IE) and 68% (SC). Site-specific efficiencies ranged up to 82% (EC) and 81% (IE, SC). Our results suggest that MLR models are a promising tool for a timely water quality assessment in the Lahn area. PMID:26318647

  19. Ninlaro Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_155844.html Ninlaro Approved for Multiple Myeloma Blocks certain enzymes, hindering cancer-cell growth To ... Food and Drug Administration to treat people with multiple myeloma who have had at least one prior treatment ...

  20. Empliciti Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_155973.html Empliciti Approved for Multiple Myeloma Drug boosts immune system to destroy cancer cells ... and Drug Administration to treat the blood cancer multiple myeloma. The drug is only approved for patients who ...

  1. The Functions of Multiple Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Shaaron

    1999-01-01

    Discusses multiple representations and multimedia learning environments; describes a functional taxonomy of MERs (multiple external representations); and considers how MERs are used to support cognitive processes in learning and problem solving with computers. (Contains 41 references.) (Author/LRW)

  2. Multiplicity of Solutions in Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupont, M

    1927-01-01

    One of the most striking phenomena which accompany the flow of fluids such as air and water about bodies, is that of changes in character. This phenomena is still very little understood. We will first discuss the nature of these changes and then show that pure theory leads to a multiplicity of characters of flow, among which we will endeavor to indicate those bearing some analogy to experimental results.

  3. Modeling Multiple Information Seeking Episodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Shin-jeng; Belkin, Nicholas J.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of information retrieval and information seeking behavior focuses on a multi-dimensional conceptual model called MISE (multiple information-seeking episodes). Identifies eight different reasons why people engage in multiple information-seeking episodes, characterizes them in terms of traits of Multiple Information Seeking Episode…

  4. Multiple Sparse Representations Classification

    PubMed Central

    Plenge, Esben; Klein, Stefan S.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Meijering, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Sparse representations classification (SRC) is a powerful technique for pixelwise classification of images and it is increasingly being used for a wide variety of image analysis tasks. The method uses sparse representation and learned redundant dictionaries to classify image pixels. In this empirical study we propose to further leverage the redundancy of the learned dictionaries to achieve a more accurate classifier. In conventional SRC, each image pixel is associated with a small patch surrounding it. Using these patches, a dictionary is trained for each class in a supervised fashion. Commonly, redundant/overcomplete dictionaries are trained and image patches are sparsely represented by a linear combination of only a few of the dictionary elements. Given a set of trained dictionaries, a new patch is sparse coded using each of them, and subsequently assigned to the class whose dictionary yields the minimum residual energy. We propose a generalization of this scheme. The method, which we call multiple sparse representations classification (mSRC), is based on the observation that an overcomplete, class specific dictionary is capable of generating multiple accurate and independent estimates of a patch belonging to the class. So instead of finding a single sparse representation of a patch for each dictionary, we find multiple, and the corresponding residual energies provides an enhanced statistic which is used to improve classification. We demonstrate the efficacy of mSRC for three example applications: pixelwise classification of texture images, lumen segmentation in carotid artery magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and bifurcation point detection in carotid artery MRI. We compare our method with conventional SRC, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine classifiers. The results show that mSRC outperforms SRC and the other reference methods. In addition, we present an extensive evaluation of the effect of the main mSRC parameters: patch size, dictionary size, and sparsity level. PMID:26177106

  5. Multiple thymic carcinoids.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Koji; Usami, Noriyasu; Okasaka, Toshiki; Yokoi, Kohei

    2011-06-01

    We present a very rare case of simultaneous thymic carcinoids with similar size, one of which showed spontaneous regression. A 68-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of two similar abnormal masses at his anterior mediastinum on chest computed tomography, one of which had decreased from 25 to 16 mm in diameter. A total thymectomy was performed and the pathologic examinations revealed that both tumors were atypical carcinoids. There have been seldom reports of multiple thymic carcinoids, and this case might suggest that total thymectomy is the best way to treat thymic carcinoid because of the possibility of multicentric origins. PMID:21619996

  6. Complex Gaussian multiplicative chaos

    E-print Network

    Hubert Lacoin; Rémi Rhodes; Vincent Vargas

    2015-02-15

    In this article, we study complex Gaussian multiplicative chaos. More precisely, we study the renormalization theory and the limit of the exponential of a complex log-correlated Gaussian field in all dimensions (including Gaussian Free Fields in dimension 2). Our main working assumption is that the real part and the imaginary part are independent. We also discuss applications in 2D string theory; in particular we give a rigorous mathematical definition of the so-called Tachyon fields, the conformally invariant operators in critical Liouville Quantum Gravity with a c=1 central charge, and derive the original KPZ formula for these fields.

  7. Constructing and Validating a Multiple-Indicator Construct of Economic Hardship in a National Sample of Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Christopher; Doren, Bonnie; Gau, Jeff M.; Zvoch, Keith; Seeley, John R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to develop a multi-indicator construct of economic hardship among adolescents with disabilities (N = 9,230) participating in the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, the largest, most comprehensive investigation of adolescents with disabilities ever conducted. Five theoretically relevant indicators (i.e.,…

  8. Phase-multiplication holography

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, H.D.; Prince, J.M.; Davis, T.J.

    1982-01-25

    This disclosure relates generally to nondestructive testing for identifying structural characteristics of an object by scanned holographic techniques using a known source of radiation, such as electromagnetic or acoustical radiation. It is an object of this invention to provide an apparatus and method for synthetic aperture expansion in holographic imaging applications to construct fringe patterns capable of holographic reproduction where aperture restrictions in nondestructive testing applications would conventionally make such imaging techniques impossible. The apparatus and method result in the production of a sharply defined frontal image of structural characteristics which could not otherwise be imaged because they occur either near the surface of the object or are confined by geometry restricting aperture dimensions available for scanning purposes. The depth of the structural characteristic below the surface of the object can also be determined by the reconstruction parameters which produce the sharpest focus. Lateral resolution is established by simulated reduction in the radiation wavelength and may easily be an order of magnitude less than the electromagnetic wavelength in the material or 2 times the standard depth of penetration. Since the phase multiplication technique is performed on the detected data, the penetration depth available due to the longer wavelength signals applied to the test object remains unchanged. The phase multiplication technique can also be applied to low frequency acoustic holography, resulting in a test which combines excellent penetration of difficult materials with high resolution images.

  9. Smoldering multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent; Landgren, Ola; Mateos, María-Victoria

    2015-05-14

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic clonal plasma cell disorder. SMM is distinguished from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance by a much higher risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM). There have been major advances in the diagnosis, prognosis, and management of SMM in the last few years. These include a revised disease definition, identification of several new prognostic factors, a classification based on underlying cytogenetic changes, and new treatment options. Importantly, a subset of patients previously considered SMM is now reclassified as MM on the basis of biomarkers identifying patients with an ?80% risk of progression within 2 years. SMM has assumed greater significance on the basis of recent trials showing that early therapy can be potentially beneficial to patients. As a result, there is a need to accurately diagnose and risk-stratify patients with SMM, including routine incorporation of modern imaging and laboratory techniques. In this review, we outline current concepts in diagnosis and risk stratification of SMM, and provide specific recommendations on the management of SMM. PMID:25838344

  10. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, Norman J. (Edmonton, CA); Zhang, Jian Z. (Edmonton, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibres to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands.

  11. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  12. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  13. RESPONSIVENESS OF GREAT LAKES WETLAND INDICATORS TO HUMAN DISTURBANCES AT MULTIPLE SPATIAL SCALES: A MULTI-ASSEMBLAGE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will address several issues important to the development of ecological indicators, including strength of the relationship between various biotic endpoints and types of human disturbance, and the spatial scale at which such assessments are best made.

  14. Multiple-scale study of fracture indicators at eight sites across the Appalachian orogen in Pennsylvania: Summary of results

    SciTech Connect

    Shuman, C.A. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    Four scales of remote sensing were used to investigate fracture indicators (lineaments and fracture traces) at 8 study areas: (1) 1:500,000 Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper; (2) 1:250,000 Side-Looking Airborne Radar mosaics; (3) 1:80,000 National High-Altitude Program aerial photographs; and (4) 1:20,000 Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service aerial photographs. To allow for inter-comparison of results, two traverses of four study areas were arranged across the four major physiographic regions in the Appalachian orogen, (1) Plateau, (2) Ridge and Valley, (3) Great Valley; and (4) Piedmont. The remote sensing results for the Plateau and Ridge and Valley areas indicate that observed orientations are concentrated in the NW to NNW. Orientation peaks for the areas are less well defined but tend to be parallel and perpendicular to Mesozoic features. These findings indicate that causal relationships exist between bedrock paleo-stress trajectories and observed fracture indicator maxima. The results of the geomorphic parameter studies indicate that these features are complexly controlled by factors other than bedrock fracture fabric, most notably bedrock strike. Other findings of this study may generally characterize relationships between classes of fracture indicators. As imagery scale number increases: the average degree of expression of lineament features decreases; lineament frequency over each study area decreases in a decay curve; plots of average lineament length show a positive trend for the three larger scales; and total lineament length over the study area shows a decay curve. Other results define potentially useful relationships between feature length, type, and degree of expression.

  15. The Distributive Property: The Core of Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Cathy J.; Stanford, Ted

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a sequence of learning activities that lead to using the area model of multiplication to understand the distributive property (DP). The connection between area and multiplication is an important one, both for algebraic thinking and for geometry, as indicated in two of the critical areas for the third grade in the Common Core…

  16. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but human and other animal gut microbiota contain an array of other taxonomic groups that might serve as indicators for sources of fecal pollution. High thr...

  17. Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

  18. Base Rates, Multiple Indicators, and Comprehensive Forensic Evaluations: Why Sexualized Behavior Still Counts in Assessments of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Mark D.; Faller, Kathleen Coulborn

    2012-01-01

    Developmentally inappropriate sexual behavior has long been viewed as a possible indicator of child sexual abuse. In recent years, however, the utility of sexualized behavior in forensic assessments of alleged child sexual abuse has been seriously challenged. This article addresses a number of the concerns that have been raised about the…

  19. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.; Schuler, Jason M.; Chandler, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that utilized multiple fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, for the design and assembly of a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, for the design and assembly of a portable four monitor hyper wall strip that could extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill that could be utilized on a next generation robot or rover, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and creation of a new outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory.

  20. Multiple primary prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lanesky, J; Opipari, M I; McKenzie, M

    1979-06-01

    Although increasing reports are noted of apparent endometrial carcinoma of prostatic origin, the controversy is present of the actual existence of such an entity. The association of papillary prostatic cancer (endometrial or ductal) with the typical microacinar variety has also been previously presented. This report is an account of 2 cases of multiple prostatic primary tumors. The first case is the twelfth reported case of endometrial (utricular) carcinoma not only simultaneously associated with microacinar type carcinoma, but also with a previous transitional carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The second case is a papillary carcinoma and associated microacinar type with the papillary component responding dramatically to chemotherapy. Significant aspects of interest in this case include the site of papillary metastasis to the lungs, elevated estrogen levels with normalization after treatment, and finally response to chemotherapy. PMID:452201

  1. MULTIPLE GALAXY COLLISIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  2. Multiple Sclerosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    INALOO, Soroor; HAGHBIN, Saideh

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most important immune-mediated demyelinated disease of human which is typically the disease of young adults. A total of 4% to 5% of MS population are pediatric. Pediatric MS is defined as the appearance of MS before the age of sixteen. About 80% of the pediatric cases and nearly all adolescent onset patients present with attacks typical to adult MS. Approximately 97% to 99% of the affected children have relapsing-remitting MS, while 85% to 95% of the adults experience such condition. MS in children is associated with more frequent and severe relapses. Treatment is the same as adults. We aimed to review the epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MS in children. PMID:24665290

  3. On Multiple Einstein Rings

    E-print Network

    M. C. Werner; J. An; N. W. Evans

    2008-07-30

    A number of recent surveys for gravitational lenses have found examples of double Einstein rings. Here, we investigate analytically the occurrence of multiple Einstein rings. We prove, under very general assumptions, that at most one Einstein ring can arise from a mass distribution in a single plane lensing a single background source. Two or more Einstein rings can therefore only occur in multi-plane lensing. Surprisingly, we show that it is possible for a single source to produce more than one Einstein ring. If two point masses (or two isothermal spheres) in different planes are aligned with observer and source on the optical axis, we show that there are up to three Einstein rings. We also discuss the image morphologies for these two models if axisymmetry is broken, and give the first instances of magnification invariants in the case of two lens planes.

  4. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  5. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J. (Livingston Manor, NY); Donohoe, Anthony J. (Ovid, NY)

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  6. Biomarkers in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Housley, William J; Pitt, David; Hafler, David A

    2015-11-01

    Substantial effort has been made over the last six decades to identify biomarkers for multiple sclerosis that can improve disease diagnosis, predict disease progression, and improve clinical outcomes. However, to date, few of these findings have proven clinically useful. In this review, we address the current state of MS biomarker research. We start by discussing biomarkers currently in clinical use including Oligoclonal bands, MRI, and JC viral titers. We go on to discuss other potential biomarkers from MS serum and cerebrospinal fluid including Markers of neurodegeneration including neurofilament and GFAP, the monocyte macrophage marker CD163, the glial activation marker YKL-40, the B cell chemoattractant CXCL13, miRNA and mRNA, myelin reactive t cells, Kir4.1 antibodies, osteopontin, and microbiome associated lipopeptides. Finally, we discuss the current state of MS genetic studies and how genetics may offer simple, reliable testing for MS susceptibility and progression. PMID:26143623

  7. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the most sensitive to toxic air contaminants in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region.

  8. Comparison of Sewage and Animal Fecal Microbiomes by Using Oligotyping Reveals Potential Human Fecal Indicators in Multiple Taxonomic Groups.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jenny C; Eren, A Murat; Green, Hyatt C; Shanks, Orin C; Morrison, Hilary G; Vineis, Joseph H; Sogin, Mitchell L; McLellan, Sandra L

    2015-10-15

    Most DNA-based microbial source tracking (MST) approaches target host-associated organisms within the order Bacteroidales, but the gut microbiota of humans and other animals contain organisms from an array of other taxonomic groups that might provide indicators of fecal pollution sources. To discern between human and nonhuman fecal sources, we compared the V6 regions of the 16S rRNA genes detected in fecal samples from six animal hosts to those found in sewage (as a proxy for humans). We focused on 10 abundant genera and used oligotyping, which can detect subtle differences between rRNA gene sequences from ecologically distinct organisms. Our analysis showed clear patterns of differential oligotype distributions between sewage and animal samples. Over 100 oligotypes of human origin occurred preferentially in sewage samples, and 99 human oligotypes were sewage specific. Sequences represented by the sewage-specific oligotypes can be used individually for development of PCR-based assays or together with the oligotypes preferentially associated with sewage to implement a signature-based approach. Analysis of sewage from Spain and Brazil showed that the sewage-specific oligotypes identified in U.S. sewage have the potential to be used as global alternative indicators of human fecal pollution. Environmental samples with evidence of prior human fecal contamination had consistent ratios of sewage signature oligotypes that corresponded to the trends observed for sewage. Our methodology represents a promising approach to identifying new bacterial taxa for MST applications and further highlights the potential of the family Lachnospiraceae to provide human-specific markers. In addition to source tracking applications, the patterns of the fine-scale population structure within fecal taxa suggest a fundamental relationship between bacteria and their hosts. PMID:26231648

  9. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  10. Sarcoidosis presenting with multiple tattoo granulomata

    PubMed Central

    Iveson, J. M. I.; Cotterill, J. A.; Wright, V.

    1975-01-01

    A patient with sarcoidosis, multiple tattoo granulomata and arthritis is described. A combination of tattoo granulomata unrelated to any one colour in the tattoo and granulomatous inflammation elsewhere is indicative of sarcoidosis. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:1197172

  11. Multiple tree-ring isotopes as environmental indicators of diffuse atmospheric pollution in a peri-urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doucet, A.; Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Ouarda, T. B.; Marion, J.

    2010-12-01

    The combined analyses of tree-ring ?13C, ?18O, ?15N, 206Pb/207Pb, 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/208Pb isotope ratios of three red spruce specimens from the Tantaré ecological reserve located 40 km northwest of Québec City (Canada) were studied with the aim of reconstructing environmental conditions and unravel past air-quality changes of the 1880-2007 period. To separate the tree-ring ?18O and ?13C patterns induced by natural conditions from those generated by anthropogenic perturbations, a linear regression was applied between the most explicative meteorological parameters and the isotopic series for the period of low pollution (1880 to 1909). The model equations were then applied to the most recent part of the series (1910-2007) to verify if climatic conditions have remained the main driver of the tree-ring isotopic variations. The good fit between the modeled and measured ?18O series for the entire studied period suggests that the assimilation of oxygen by red spruce trees is not significantly affected by pollution stress near Québec City. However, the deviation between the measured and modeled ?13C values for the 1944-2007 period indicates that diffuse pollution affected carbon assimilation by the investigated trees. To independently validate if atmospheric pollution could have generated the deviation between the measured and the estimated ?13C values, a linear regression was applied between the portion of the residual ?13C values and atmospheric pollution (Canadian fossil fuel proxy from 1958 to 2000). The nice fit between the modeled ?13C values from the combination of the two regression analyses based on climate and emission proxy strongly supports the hypothesis that there is a natural and an anthropogenic portion in the ?13C variations of the studied specimens. The short-term variations of the red spruce ?15N series are correlated with the instrumentally measured amounts of provincial N emissions for the 1990 to 2006 period (longest measurements available). Additionally, the long-term decrease of the ?15N series after 1956 is linked to the low isotopic values of NOx emitted by car exhausts, as expressed by the provincial number of cars which reflect the amount of transport-related N deposition at the provincial scale. The 208Pb/206Pb and 204Pb/206Pb ratios as a function of 206Pb/207Pb of the 1880-1919 period reflect a mixture of natural lead from the mineral soil horizon and mainly anthropogenic lead from north-eastern American coal combustion. The lower Pb ratios of the 1920-1989 period correlate well with the introduction of leaded additives to gasoline characterized by lower ratios relative to coal combustion. Inferring the lead sources of the 1990-2008 period is not as straightforward because lead can potentially derive from three main sources: coal combustion, burnt recycled material and natural lead present in soils. Our results show the great potential of tree-ring stable isotopes to record pollution events in the context of peri-urban diffuse pollution, and to prolong the pollution history in regions where direct measurements of pollutants only covers a relatively short period.

  12. Current progress in using multiple electromagnetic indicators to determine location, time, and magnitude of earthquakes in California and Peru (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleier, T. E.; Dunson, C.; Roth, S.; Heraud, J.; Freund, F. T.; Dahlgren, R.; Bryant, N.; Bambery, R.; Lira, A.

    2010-12-01

    Since ultra-low frequency (ULF) magnetic anomalies were discovered prior to the 1989 Loma Prieta, Ca. M7.0 earthquake, QuakeFinder, a small R&D group based in Palo Alto California has systematically monitored ULF magnetic signals with a network of 3-axis induction magnetometers since 2000 in California. This raw magnetometer data was collected at 20-50 samples per sec., with no preprocessing, in an attempt to collect an accurate time history of electromagnetic waveforms prior to, during, and after large earthquakes within 30 km. of these sensors. Finally in October 2007, the QuakeFinder team observed a series of strange magnetic pulsations at the Alum Rock, California site, 14 days prior to M5.4 earthquake. These magnetic signals observed were relatively short, random pulsations, not continuous waveform signals like Pc1 or Pc3 micropulsations. The magnetic pulses have a characteristic uni-polar shapes and 0.5 sec. to 30 sec. durations, much longer than lightning signals. In May of 2010, very similar pulses were observed at Tacna, Peru, 13 days prior to a M6.2 earthquake, using a QuakeFinder station jointly operated under collaboration with the Catholic University in Lima Peru (PUCP). More examples of these pulsations were sought, and a historical review of older California magnetic data discovered fewer but similar pulsations occurred at the Hollister, Ca. site operated by UC Berkeley (e.g. San Juan Bautista M5.1 earthquake on August 12, 1998). Further analysis of the direction of arrival of the magnetic pulses showed an interesting “azimuth clustering” observed in both Alum Rock, Ca. and Tacna, Peru data. The complete time series of the Alum Rock data allowed the team to analyze subsequent changes observed in magnetometer “filter banks” (0.001 Hz to 10 Hz filter bands, similar to those used by Fraser-Smith in 1989), but this time using time-adjusted limits based on time of day, time of year, Kp, and site background noise. These site-customized limits showed similar increases in 30 minute averaged energy excursions, but the 30 minute averages had a disadvantage in that they reduced the signal to noise ratio over the individual pulse counting method. In other electromagnetic monitoring methods, air conductivity instrumentation showed major changes in positive air-borne ions observed near the Alum Rock and Tacna sites, peaking during the 24 hours prior to the earthquake. The use of GOES (geosynchronous) satellite infra red (IR) data showed that an unusual apparent “night time heating” occurred in an extended area within 40+ km. of the Alum Rock site, and this IR signature peaked around the time of the magnetic pulse count peak. The combination of these 3 indicators (magnetic pulse counts, air conductivity, and IR night time heating) may be the start in determining the time (within 1-2 weeks), location (within 20-40km) and magnitude (within +/- 1 increment of Richter magnitude) of earthquake greater than M5.4

  13. The GL 569 Multiple System

    E-print Network

    M. Simon; C. Bender; L. Prato

    2006-04-04

    We report the results of high spectral and angular resolution infrared observations of the multiple system GL 569 A and B that were intended to measure the dynamical masses of the brown dwarf binary believed to comprise GL 569 B. Our analysis did not yield this result but, instead, revealed two surprises. First, at age ~100 Myr, the system is younger than had been reported earlier. Second, our spectroscopic and photometric results provide support for earlier indications that GL 569 B is actually a hierarchical brown dwarf triple rather than a binary. Our results suggest that the three components of GL 569 B have roughly equal mass, ~0.04 Msun.

  14. Multiple Choice Learning: Learning to Produce Multiple Structured Outputs

    E-print Network

    Kohli, Pushmeet

    predictions: 1. Interactive Intelligent Systems. The goal of interactive machine-learning algorithmsMultiple Choice Learning: Learning to Produce Multiple Structured Outputs Abner Guzman for structured predic- tion tasks that involve interaction with users or successive components in a cas- caded

  15. “Undiagnosing” multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Eran P.; Bourdette, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of encounters with patients misdiagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: A cross-sectional Internet-based physician survey of MS specialists was performed. Results: The response rate for the survey was 50.4%. Of those who responded, the majority (95%) reported having evaluated 1 or more patients who had been diagnosed with MS, but who they strongly felt did not have MS, within the last year. The majority of respondents (>90%) also reported the use of disease-modifying therapy in a proportion of these patients. Most respondents (94%) found clinical encounters with these patients equally or more challenging than giving a new diagnosis of MS. Fourteen percent of respondents reported that they did not always inform such patients of their opinion that they did not have MS. Conclusions: The misdiagnosis of MS is common and has significant consequences for patient care and health care system costs. Caring for a patient with a misdiagnosis of MS is challenging, and at times honest disclosure of a misdiagnosis represents an important ethical concern for neurologists. More data are needed on this patient population to improve diagnostic acumen and the care of these patients. PMID:22581930

  16. Multiple stage railgun

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Scudder, Jonathan K. (Pleasanton, CA); Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  17. Multiple Myeloma: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Al-Farsi, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a rare, largely incurable malignant disease of plasma cells. Patients usually present with hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia and/or lytic bony lesions along with a monoclonal protein in the serum and/or urine in addition to an increase in the number of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Patients with myeloma live on an average for five to seven years, with their survival dependent on the presence or absence of different prognostic markers. Treatment of younger fit patients is with induction therapy consisting of steroids with one or more novel anti-myeloma agents followed by high dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation, while older and less fit patients are treated with melphalan-based combination chemotherapy. Supportive care is of paramount importance and includes the use of bisphosphonates, prophylactic antibiotics, thrombosis prophylaxis and the use of hematopoietic growth factors along with the treatment of complications of disease and its therapy. As more progress is being made and deeper responses are being attained, the disease might turn into a potentially curable one in the near future. PMID:23386937

  18. Multiple trellis coded modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A technique for designing trellis codes to minimize bit error performance for a fading channel. The invention provides a criteria which may be used in the design of such codes which is significantly different from that used for average white Gaussian noise channels. The method of multiple trellis coded modulation of the present invention comprises the steps of: (a) coding b bits of input data into s intermediate outputs; (b) grouping said s intermediate outputs into k groups of s.sub.i intermediate outputs each where the summation of all s.sub.i,s is equal to s and k is equal to at least 2; (c) mapping each of said k groups of intermediate outputs into one of a plurality of symbols in accordance with a plurality of modulation schemes, one for each group such that the first group is mapped in accordance with a first modulation scheme and the second group is mapped in accordance with a second modulation scheme; and (d) outputting each of said symbols to provide k output symbols for each b bits of input data.

  19. Immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Brinar, Vesna

    2009-06-01

    Immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis is a complex process involving T cell mediated autoimmunity at initial stage of disease. A long standing view that Th1 cells are critical for early inflammatory development of lesions is challenging by recent findings that Th1 helper cells with Th17 phenotype are even more important. A complex autoimmunity of MS is further complicated with evidence that CD8 cells, regulatory T cells, clonal expansion of B cells, cells of myelin lineage, antibodies and complement, as well as process intrinsic to central nervous system contribute to the tissue destruction. Although there are a lot of evidences about inflammatory phase of MS, far less is known about mechanisms involved in degenerative phase of disease. It is not known weather quantitative, or qualitative differences in inflammatory response contributes to destruction of the tissue, or as it was shown experimentally demyelination may sometimes occur independent of T cells. Understanding of immunopathogenesis of MS especially regarding various stages of disease is necessary for clinicians in choosing optimal therapy of MS in individual patients. Influences of immunomodulatory treatment on various stages of MS immuno-pathogenesis are presented. PMID:25384860

  20. Multiple-Event Gully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-554, 24 November 2003

    Middle- and polar-latitude gullies are common on crater and trough walls in the martian southern hemisphere. Some also occur in the north. One of the controversies surrounding gullies is whether they involved fluid flow (such as liquid water) or were formed by dry landsliding processes. The occurrence of banked and leveed channels in many gullies argues that they formed by fluid flow. Another question centers on whether gullies are 'one-shot deals' or involved more than one episode of fluid flow. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired in November 2003, shows a gully with an apron, near the center of the frame, that formed by multiple fluid flows. The apron of debris at the base of the gully near the center of the picture is not just one apron, it is three. Three separate aprons formed at three different times. First, the larger, left-most apron formed. Later, another event caused fluid to cut through that apron and create a new one (the middle of the three). Later, a third event cut both aprons and formed a small, third one. This image shows the wall of an impact crater located near 51.3oS, 326.6oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide, and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  1. Multiple Indicators of Poor Diet Quality in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Are Associated with Higher Body Mass Index Percentile but not Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Nansel, Tonja R.; Haynie, Denise L.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Laffel, Lori M. B.; Mehta, Sanjeev N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet is a cornerstone of type 1 diabetes treatment, and poor diet quality may affect glycemic control and other health outcomes. Yet diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes remains understudied. Objective To evaluate multiple indicators of diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their associations with hemoglobin A1c and body mass index percentile. Design In this cross-sectional study, participants completed 3-day diet records, and data were abstracted from participants’ medical records. Diet quality indicators included servings of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains; Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) score; Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 score (NRF 9.3); and glycemic index. Participants/setting Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes ?1 year, aged 8 to 18 years, were recruited at routine clinic visits. Of 291 families enrolled, 252 provided diet data. Statistical analyses Associations of diet quality indicators to HbA1c and body mass index percentile were examined using analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression. Results Participants demonstrated low adherence to dietary guidelines; mean HEI-2005 score was 53.4±11.0 (range = 26.7 to 81.2). Intake of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains was less than half the recommended amount. Almost half of the participants’ daily energy intake was derived from refined-grain products, desserts, chips, and sweetened beverages. Higher fruit (P=0.04) and whole-grain (P=0.03) intake were associated with lower HbA1c in unadjusted, but not adjusted analyses; vegetable intake, HEI-2005 score, NRF 9.3 score, and glycemic index were not associated with HbA1c. Higher fruit (P=0.01) and whole-grain (P=0.04) intake and NRF 9.3 score (P=0.02), but not other diet quality indicators, were associated with lower body mass index percentile in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Data demonstrate poor diet quality in youth with type 1 diabetes and provide support for the importance of diet quality for weight management. Future research on determinants of dietary intake and methods to promote improved diet quality would be useful to inform clinical care. PMID:23102173

  2. Adult Multiple Intelligences and Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Meg Ryback

    In the Adult Multiple Intelligences (AMI) study, 10 teachers of adults from the northeastern region of the United States explored for 18 months the ways that multiple intelligences (MI) theory could support instruction and assessment in various adult learning contexts. The results of this research were published in a book by Julie Viens called MI…

  3. The problem with multiple robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Marcus J.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The issues that can arise in research associated with multiple, robotic agents are discussed. Two particular multi-robot projects are presented as examples. This paper was written in the hope that it might ease the transition from single to multiple robot research.

  4. Multiple Intelligences for Differentiated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    There is an intricate literacy to Gardner's multiple intelligences theory that unlocks key entry points for differentiated learning. Using a well-articulated framework, rich with graphic representations, Williams provides a comprehensive discussion of multiple intelligences. He moves the teacher and students from curiosity, to confidence, to…

  5. Multiple Intelligences and Lab Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colannino, Noreen M.; Hoyt, William L.; Murray, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Science teachers who are committed to excellence in the classroom continually seek ways to improve teaching and learning, and the concept of multiple intelligences holds promise as a method for accomplishing this. The essence of the theory of multiple intelligences is to understand the many differences among students, the variations in the ways…

  6. Multiple View Vision Kalle strm,

    E-print Network

    Lunds Universitet

    Multiple View Vision Kalle Åström, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Lund University P O Box 118 historical overview of multiple view vision and in particular the es- timation of both camera geometry within the field of computer vision are their inverses in the mathematical sense, i.e. to calculate

  7. Multiple Regression Assumptions. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.; Waters, Elaine

    This Digest presents a discussion of the assumptions of multiple regression that is tailored to the practicing researcher. The focus is on the assumptions of multiple regression that are not robust to violation, and that researchers can deal with if violated. Assumptions of normality, linearity, reliability of measurement, and homoscedasticity are…

  8. Bent Bonds and Multiple Bonds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward A.; Gillespie, Ronald J.

    1980-01-01

    Considers carbon-carbon multiple bonds in terms of Pauling's bent bond model, which allows direct calculation of double and triple bonds from the length of a CC single bond. Lengths of these multiple bonds are estimated from direct measurements on "bent-bond" models constructed of plastic tubing and standard kits. (CS)

  9. Multiple sclerosis update.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Clyde E

    2013-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic but incurable disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is often diagnosed in the second or third decade of life. It is more common among women than men, significantly impairs patient quality of life, and is associated with substantial costs to patients, healthcare systems, and society. Of the approximately 2.3 million individuals worldwide that have MS, more than 400,000 reside in the United States. Although the etiology of MS is not completely understood, a great deal of evidence suggests a complex relationship between environmental and genetic factors. The pathophysiology of MS involves an aberrant attack by the host immune system on oligodendrocytes, which synthesize and maintain myelin sheaths in the CNS. There are 4 identified disease courses in MS, and approximately 85% of people with MS present with relapsing-remitting MS, which is characterized by discrete acute attacks followed by periods of remission. Signs and symptoms of MS are dependent on the demyelinated area(s) of the CNS and often involve sensory disturbances, limb weakness, fatigue, and increased body temperature. The criteria for a diagnosis of MS include evidence of damage in at least 2 separate areas of the CNS, evidence that the damage occurred at different time points, and the ruling out of other possible diagnoses. Diseasemodifying drugs (DMDs) that reduce the frequency of relapses, development of brain lesions, and progression of disability are the standard of care for relapsing forms of MS, and the use of DMDs should be initiated as early as possible. PMID:24494618

  10. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that ranged multiple aspects and fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, a design and build for a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, a design for a portable four monitor hyper wall that can extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill for a next generation robot, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and implementation of a new weekly outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory. The objectives for the command center were to create a central computer controlled area for the still in production lunar regolith bin. It needed to be easy to use and the operating systems had to be Linux. The objectives for the hyper wall were to build a mobile transport of monitors that could potentially attach to one another. It needed to be light but sturdy, and have the ability to last. The objectives for the blast shield included a robust design that could withstand a small equipment malfunction, while also being convenient for use. The objectives for the nano-drill included the research and implementation of programming for vertical and horizontal movement. The hyper wall and blasts shield project were designed by me in the Pro/Engineer/Creo2 software. Each project required a meeting with the Swamp Works engineers and was declared successful.

  11. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the Silver Springs Group, central Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Leel; Katz, Brian G.; Toth, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8 mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched ?15N and ?18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5 mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age.

  12. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN,M.T; PONCE,D; GRUNLOH,H.J; ELLIS,R.A; GROSNICKLE,W.H; HUMPHREY,R.L

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future.

  13. Proton interactions with high multiplicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kokoulina, E. S. Nikitin, V. A.; Petukhov, Y. P.; Kutov, A. Ya.

    2012-06-15

    Project Thermalization is aimed to study the proton-proton interaction with high multiplicity of secondary particles. The region of high multiplicity is especially actual at present. We expect the manifestation of the secondary particle collective behavior at this region. The experimentally measured topological cross section was corrected for apparatus acceptance and detection efficiency. These data are in good agreement with gluon dominance model. The comparison with other models is also done and shows no essential deviations. There is evidence that Bose-Einstein condensation can formed at high total multiplicity region.

  14. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Racosta, Juan Manuel; Kimpinski, Kurt; Morrow, Sarah Anne; Kremenchutzky, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    Autonomic dysfunction is a prevalent and significant cause of disability among patients with multiple sclerosis. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis is usually explained by lesions within central nervous system regions responsible for autonomic regulation, but novel evidence suggests that other factors may be involved as well. Additionally, the interactions between the autonomic nervous system and the immune system have generated increased interest about the role of autonomic dysfunction in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In this paper we analyze systematically the most relevant signs and symptoms of autonomic dysfunction in MS, considering separately their potential causes and implications. PMID:26070809

  15. Using d15 N in Fish Larvae as an Indicator of Watershed Sources of Anthropogenic Nitrogen: Response at Multiple Spatial Scales

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nitrogen stable isotope, 15N, is an effective tool to track anthropogenic N sources to aquatic ecosystems. It may be difficult to identify potential N sources, however, where 15N responds similarly to multiple, concurrent activities in the watershed that cause higher nutrient...

  16. Constraining multiple systems with GAIA

    E-print Network

    Beauvalet, L.

    GAIA will provide observations of some multiple asteroid and dwarf systems. These observations are a way to determine and improve the quantification of dynamical parameters, such as the masses and the gravity fields, in ...

  17. Lung Multiple Primary Rules Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    Lung Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C340-C349 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * Prepare one abstract. Use the histology coding rules to assign the appropriate histology code. ** Prepare two or more abstracts.

  18. Multiplicities in high energy interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.

    1985-05-13

    This paper reviews the data on multiplicities in high energy interactions. Results from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, from neutrino interactions, and from hadronic collisions, both diffractive and nondiffractive, are compared and contrasted. The energy dependence of the mean charged multiplicity, , as well as the rapidity density at Y = 0 are presented. For hadronic collisions, the data on neutral pion production shows a strong correlation with . The heavy particle fractions increase with ..sqrt..s up to the highest energies. The charged particle multiplicity distributions for each type of reaction show a scaling behavior when expressed in terms of the mean. Attempts to understand this behavior, which was first predicted by Koba, Nielsen, and Olesen, are discussed. The multiplicity correlations and the energy variation of the shape of the KNO scaling distribution provide important constraints on models. Some extrapolations to the energies of the Superconducting Super Collider are made. 51 refs., 27 figs.

  19. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  20. Jejunal morphology in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Bateson, M C; Hopwood, D; MacGillivray, J B

    1979-05-26

    In a prospective survey jejunal biopsy samples from 11 patients with multiple sclerosis on normal diets were compared with those from controls matched for age and sex. Quantitative histology, morphometry, and electron microscopy showed no difference between the two groups. Since there was no evidence that gluten sensitivity plays a role in the aetiology of multiple sclerosis, the wide adoption of gluten exclusion by patients seems unjustified. PMID:86833

  1. The MARVEL assembly for neutron multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Mathew T. Kinlaw

    2013-10-01

    A new multiplying test assembly is under development at Idaho National Laboratory to support research, validation, evaluation, and learning. The item is comprised of three stacked, highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders, each 11.4 cm in diameter and having a combined height of up to 11.7 cm. The combined mass of all three cylinders is 20.3 kg of HEU. Calculations for the bare configuration of the assembly indicate a multiplication level of >3.5 (keff=0.72). Reflected configurations of the assembly, using either polyethylene or tungsten, are possible and have the capability of raising the assembly's multiplication level to greater than 10. This paper describes simulations performed to assess the assembly's multiplication level under different conditions and describes the resources available at INL to support the use of these materials. We also describe some preliminary calculations and test activities using the assembly to study neutron multiplication.

  2. Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF) Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters

    E-print Network

    Williams, Brian C.

    Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF) Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF R.Q.A. Santana Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF) #12;Interacting Multiple Model Kalman Filters (IMMKF) Sumário 1 Introdução Abordagens de múltiplos modelos Introdução ao Interacting

  3. Multiplication of Fractions through Paper Folding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinicrope, Rose; Mick, Harold W.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an instructional approach that utilizes paper-folding activities to help students understand the concept of fractions. Utilizes an area model of multiplication to extend the concept of multiplication of whole numbers to multiplication of fractions. (MDH)

  4. Introduction Matrix multiplication based linear algebra

    E-print Network

    Pernet, Clément

    Introduction Matrix multiplication based linear algebra Computing the characteristic polynomial Conclusion and perspectives Matrix Multiplication Based Computations of the Characteristic Polynomial Clément Meeting ORCCA-SCG, February 9, 2007 Clément Pernet Matrix multiplication based Characteristic Polynomial

  5. Multiple System Atrophy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... studied as part of the NINDS Parkinson’s Disease Biomarkers Program ( http://pdbp.ninds.nih.gov/ ). This major ... to track the progression of the disease. Identifying biomarkers (signs that may indicate risk of a disease ...

  6. A Distinct Class of Antibodies May Be an Indicator of Gray Matter Autoimmunity in Early and Established Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ligocki, Ann J; Rivas, Jacqueline R; Rounds, William H; Guzman, Alyssa A; Li, Min; Spadaro, Melania; Lahey, Lauren; Chen, Ding; Henson, Paul M; Graves, Donna; Greenberg, Benjamin M; Frohman, Elliot M; Ward, E Sally; Robinson, William; Meinl, Edgar; White, Charles L; Stowe, Ann M; Monson, Nancy L

    2015-01-01

    *These authors contributed equally to the work in this manuscript.We have previously identified a distinct class of antibodies expressed by B cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of early and established relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients that is not observed in healthy donors. These antibodies contain a unique pattern of mutations in six codons along VH4 antibody genes that we termed the antibody gene signature (AGS). In fact, patients who have such B cells in their CSF are identified as either having RRMS or developing RRMS in the future. As mutations in antibody genes increase antibody affinity for particular antigens, the goal for this study was to investigate whether AGS(+) antibodies bind to brain tissue antigens. Single B cells were isolated from the CSF of 10 patients with early or established RRMS. We chose 32 of these B cells that expressed antibodies enriched for the AGS for further study. We generated monoclonal full-length recombinant human antibodies (rhAbs) and used both immunological assays and immunohistochemistry to investigate the capacity of these AGS(+) rhAbs to bind brain tissue antigens. AGS(+) rhAbs did not recognize myelin tracts in the corpus callosum. Instead, AGS(+) rhAbs recognized neuronal nuclei and/or astrocytes, which are prevalent in the cortical gray matter. This pattern was unique to the AGS(+) antibodies from early and established RRMS patients, as AGS(+) antibodies from an early neuromyelitis optica patient did not display the same reactivity. Prevalence of CSF-derived B cells expressing AGS(+) antibodies that bind to these cell types may be an indicator of gray matter-directed autoimmunity in early and established RRMS patients. PMID:26489686

  7. Relationship of the Brief UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B) to multiple indicators of functioning in people with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mausbach, Brent T; Harvey, Philip D; Pulver, Ann E; Depp, Colin A; Wolyniec, Paula S; Thornquist, Mary H; Luke, James R; McGrath, John A; Bowie, Christopher; Patterson, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study assessed the relationship between multiple indicators of ‘real-world’ functioning and scores on a brief performance-based measure of functional capacity known as the Brief University of California San Diego (UCSD) Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA-B) in a sample of 205 patients with either serious bipolar disorder (n = 89) or schizophrenia (n = 116). Methods Participants were administered the UPSA-B and assessed on the following functional domains: (i) independent living status (e.g., residing independently as head of household, living in residential care facility); (ii) informant reports of functioning (e.g., work skills, daily living skills); (iii) educational attainment and estimated premorbid IQ as measured by years of education and Wide Range Achievement Test reading scores, respectively; and (iv) employment. Results Better scores on the UPSA-B were associated with greater residential independence after controlling for age, diagnosis, and symptoms of psychopathology. Among both bipolar disorder and schizophrenia patients, higher UPSA-B scores were significantly related to better informant reports of functioning in daily living skills and work skills domains. Greater estimated premorbid IQ was associated with higher scores on the UPSA-B for both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder participants. Participants who were employed scored higher on the UPSA-B when controlling for age and diagnosis, but not when controlling for symptoms of psychopathology. Conclusions These data suggest the UPSA-B may be useful for assessing capacity for functioning in a number of domains in both people diagnosed with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:20148866

  8. Analysis of the long control region of bovine papillomavirus type 1 associated with sarcoids in equine hosts indicates multiple cross-species transmission events and phylogeographical structure

    PubMed Central

    Trewby, Hannah; Ayele, Gizachew; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Brandt, Sabine; Campo, M. Saveria; Del Fava, Claudia; Marais, Johan; Leonardi, Leonardo; Vanselow, Barbara; Biek, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Papillomaviruses are a family of slowly evolving DNA viruses and their evolution is commonly linked to that of their host species. However, whilst bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) primarily causes warts in its natural host, the cow, it can also cause locally aggressive and invasive skin tumours in equids, known as sarcoids, and thus provides a rare contemporary example of cross-species transmission of a papillomavirus. Here, we describe the first phylogenetic analysis of BPV-1 in equine sarcoids to our knowledge, allowing us to explore the evolutionary history of BPV-1 and investigate its cross-species association with equids. A phylogenetic analysis of the BPV-1 transcriptional promoter region (the long control region or LCR) was conducted on 15 bovine and 116 equine samples from four continents. Incorporating previous estimates for evolutionary rates in papillomavirus implied that the genetic diversity in the LCR variants was ancient and predated domestication of both equids and cattle. The phylogeny demonstrated geographical segregation into an ancestral group (African, South American and Australian samples), and a more recently derived, largely European clade. Whilst our data are consistent with BPV-1 originating in cattle, we found evidence of multiple, probably relatively recent, cross-species transmission events into horses. We also demonstrated the high prevalence of one particular sequence variant (variant 20), and suggest this may indicate that this variant shows a fitness advantage in equids. Although strong host specificity remains the norm in papillomaviruses, our results demonstrate that exceptions to this rule exist and can become epidemiologically relevant. PMID:25185436

  9. Telerobotic management system: coordinating multiple human operators with multiple robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jamie W.; Pretty, Raymond; Brothers, Brendan; Gosine, Raymond G.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes an application called the Tele-robotic management system (TMS) for coordinating multiple operators with multiple robots for applications such as underground mining. TMS utilizes several graphical interfaces to allow the user to define a partially ordered plan for multiple robots. This plan is then converted to a Petri net for execution and monitoring. TMS uses a distributed framework to allow robots and operators to easily integrate with the applications. This framework allows robots and operators to join the network and advertise their capabilities through services. TMS then decides whether tasks should be dispatched to a robot or a remote operator based on the services offered by the robots and operators.

  10. [Multiple myeloma with D immunoglobulin].

    PubMed

    Benchekroun, Laila; Ouzzif, Zohra; Bouabdillah, Mounya; Jaouhar, Nouzha; Aoufir, Fatiha; Aoufi, Farida; Chabraoui, Layachi

    2011-01-01

    The immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma is a rare form of multiple myeloma and affects a young population. It is characterized by its clinical severity and poor prognosis. We report four cases of multiple myeloma immunoglobulin D diagnosed and supported in the university hospital Center of Sale and Rabat-Morocco. We propose to study the epidemiological, clinical and biological characteristics of this rare type of monoclonal gammopathy. Through the observations reported, the clinical aspect of myeloma is characterized by the high frequency of extra-bone manifestations including impaired kidney function. The immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma is mainly type ?, the IgD ? is rare, the predominance of ? light chains could be explained by rearrangements at the immunoglobulin genes. Bence-Jones proteinuria is almost constant in the multiple myeloma immunoglobulin D, it is mainly type ?, reflecting excess production of light chains by plasma cells. The marrow is invaded by plasma cells in very different proportions of up to 95%. It's a clinical entity, difficult to diagnose, particularly when low homogeneous band on electrophoresis goes unnoticed for an eye inexperienced or when immune serum anti-IgD was not used during the immunotyping. PMID:22008139

  11. Biological auctions with multiple rewards.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Johannes G; Kanodia, Ayush; Gupta, Raghav; Nowak, Martin A; Chatterjee, Krishnendu

    2015-08-01

    The competition for resources among cells, individuals or species is a fundamental characteristic of evolution. Biological all-pay auctions have been used to model situations where multiple individuals compete for a single resource. However, in many situations multiple resources with various values exist and single reward auctions are not applicable. We generalize the model to multiple rewards and study the evolution of strategies. In biological all-pay auctions the bid of an individual corresponds to its strategy and is equivalent to its payment in the auction. The decreasingly ordered rewards are distributed according to the decreasingly ordered bids of the participating individuals. The reproductive success of an individual is proportional to its fitness given by the sum of the rewards won minus its payments. Hence, successful bidding strategies spread in the population. We find that the results for the multiple reward case are very different from the single reward case. While the mixed strategy equilibrium in the single reward case with more than two players consists of mostly low-bidding individuals, we show that the equilibrium can convert to many high-bidding individuals and a few low-bidding individuals in the multiple reward case. Some reward values lead to a specialization among the individuals where one subpopulation competes for the rewards and the other subpopulation largely avoids costly competitions. Whether the mixed strategy equilibrium is an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) depends on the specific values of the rewards. PMID:26180069

  12. Gasdynamic Multiple-Mirror Trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beklemishev, Alexei; Anikeev, Andrei; Bagryansky, Peter; Burdakov, Alexander; Gavrilenko, Dmitrii; Ivanov, Alexander; Polosatkin, Sergei; Sinitsky, Stanislav

    2013-10-01

    The new linear device for confinement of fusion plasmas, GDMT, is being developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk. The facility will combine features of existing GOL-3 and GDT devices: the central GDT-like cell with sloshing NBI ions, and the multiple-mirror plugs for suppression of axial losses. Such combination became feasible due to recent discoveries. In particular, the requirement of flute-mode stability can be relaxed by using vortex confinement, achieved by plasma biasing through open field lines. This allows the use of potentially destabilizing multiple-mirror sections. Another key effect is the enhanced multiple-mirror confinement at low densities, which is due to collective rather than coulomb scattering of ions. Hence the multiple-mirror plugs can work at pressures compatible with magnetic confinement. These two main technologies are supplemented by axial injection of pulsed electron beams. Besides additional plasma heating (like in GOL-3), such injection can be used for induced collective scattering in the multiple-mirror plugs and for plasma biasing. The new device is designed to be superconducting and modular. It will be built in stages, with the first stage, GDMT-T, intended for PMI studies. The work was financially supported by Ministry of Education and Science RF.

  13. Allogeneic transplantation in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Gahrton, Gösta; Krishnan, Amrita

    2014-02-01

    Allogeneic transplantation has the potential to cure subgroups of patients with multiple myeloma, but its role is controversial due to high transplant-related mortality. Therefore, myeloablative allogeneic transplantation has fallen out of favor. Allogeneic transplantation using reduced-intensity conditioning (RICallo) has lower transplant-related mortality and may be an option for subgroups of patients. Upfront tandem autologous/RICallo (auto/RICallo) was shown to be superior to single auto or tandem auto/auto in both progression-free and overall survival in two studies with long-term follow-up, while four similarly designed studies with shorter follow-up did not show a significant advantage. All studies included patients less than 70 years of age. No study has shown that the auto/RICallo approach is inferior to auto or auto/auto. There have been indications that poor-risk cytogenetics may be overcome by the auto/RICallo approach. Encouraging results have also been seen in treatment of relapsed patients. Small studies indicate that combining allogeneic transplant with new proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs may further improve results. Prospective studies including these drugs for induction, conditioning and post-allogeneic transplant maintenance are warranted and planned. New cell therapies, such as with natural killer cells have shown encouraging results in experimental animals and should be tried in combination with allotransplantation. PMID:24224804

  14. Constraining multiple systems with GAIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauvalet, L.; Lainey, V.; Arlot, J.-E.; Bancelin, D.; Binzel, R. P.; Marchis, F.

    2012-12-01

    GAIA will provide observations of some multiple asteroid and dwarf systems. These observations are a way to determine and improve the quantification of dynamical parameters, such as the masses and the gravity fields, in these multiple systems. Here we investigate this problem in the cases of Pluto's and Eugenia's system. We simulate observations reproducing an approximate planning of the GAIA observations for both systems, as well as the New Horizons observations of Pluto. We have developed a numerical model reproducing the specific behavior of multiple asteroid system around the Sun and fit it to the simulated observations using least-square method, giving the uncertainties on the fitted parameters. We found that GAIA will improve significantly the precision of Pluto's and Charon's mass, as well as Petit Prince's orbital elements and Eugenia's polar oblateness.

  15. Multiple smart weapons employment mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    McGlynn, M.P.; Meiklejohn, W.D.

    1993-07-20

    A digital communications armament network adaptor is described for carrying multiple smart weapons on a single wing pylon station of an aircraft, comprising: an aircraft having a weapons controller configured in compliance with MIL-STD 1553; multiple wing-mounted pylons on said aircraft, each providing a weapons station with communications and ejection and release mechanisms electrically connected to said controller for the airborne launch of smart weapons; a multiple ejector rack affixed to at least one pylon, said rack holding a plurality of smart weapons; and an electronic digital network connected between the controller and said rack-mounted smart weapons, said network located in said rack and including circuitry which receives coded digital communications from said controller and selectively rebroadcasts said communications to one of said smart weapons on said rack designated by said coded communications, thereby controlling all required functions of said designated smart weapon.

  16. Convergence and Discriminant: Assessing Multiple Traits Using Multiple Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye K.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple traits of language proficiency as well as test method effects were concurrently analyzed to investigate interrelations of construct validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity using multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) matrices. A total of 585 test takers' scores were derived from the field test of the "Pearson Test of English…

  17. Multiple Imputation Strategies for Multiple Group Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enders, Craig K.; Gottschall, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    Although structural equation modeling software packages use maximum likelihood estimation by default, there are situations where one might prefer to use multiple imputation to handle missing data rather than maximum likelihood estimation (e.g., when incorporating auxiliary variables). The selection of variables is one of the nuances associated…

  18. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  19. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Nunnally, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  20. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  1. Multiplicative calculus and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashirov, Agamirza E.; Kurpinar, Emine Misirli; Özyapici, Ali

    2008-01-01

    Two operations, differentiation and integration, are basic in calculus and analysis. In fact, they are the infinitesimal versions of the subtraction and addition operations on numbers, respectively. In the period from 1967 till 1970 Michael Grossman and Robert Katz gave definitions of a new kind of derivative and integral, moving the roles of subtraction and addition to division and multiplication, and thus established a new calculus, called multiplicative calculus. In the present paper our aim is to bring up this calculus to the attention of researchers and demonstrate its usefulness.

  2. Systematic imaging review: Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Katdare, Aparna; Ursekar, Meher

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterised by immune-mediated demyelination, and is a leading cause of neurological disability worldwide. It has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations which overlap with other neurological conditions many times. Further, the radiological array of findings in MS can also be confused for multiple other conditions, leading to the need to look for the more typical findings, and interpret these in close conjunction with the clinical picture including temporal evolution. This review aims to revisit the MRI findings in MS, including recent innovations in imaging, and to help distinguish MS from its mimics. PMID:26538845

  3. Dean's Great Discovery: Multiplication, Division and Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Colleen; Davies, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Multiplication, division and fractions are "hotspots" for students in the middle years with many students experiencing difficulty with these concepts. Arrays effectively model multiplication and help children develop multiplicative thinking and learn multiplication facts. In this article the authors show how an open-ended array problem enabled a…

  4. Multiple Myeloma, Version 2.2016.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kenneth C; Alsina, Melissa; Atanackovic, Djordje; Biermann, J Sybil; Chandler, Jason C; Costello, Caitlin; Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Fung, Henry C; Gasparetto, Cristina; Godby, Kelly; Hofmeister, Craig; Holmberg, Leona; Holstein, Sarah; Huff, Carol Ann; Kassim, Adetola; Krishnan, Amrita Y; Kumar, Shaji K; Liedtke, Michaela; Lunning, Matthew; Raje, Noopur; Singhal, Seema; Smith, Clayton; Somlo, George; Stockerl-Goldstein, Keith; Treon, Steven P; Weber, Donna; Yahalom, Joachim; Shead, Dorothy A; Kumar, Rashmi

    2015-11-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells that accumulate in bone marrow, leading to bone destruction and marrow failure. Recent statistics from the American Cancer Society indicate that the incidence of MM is increasing. The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) included in this issue address management of patients with solitary plasmacytoma and newly diagnosed MM. PMID:26553768

  5. Simultaneous Localization and Surveying with Multiple Agents

    E-print Network

    Roweis, Sam

    of multiple agents, that interact with each other through proximity sensors. Since exact learning in this case and Ruslan R. Salakhutdinov 0 20 40 60 80 Sensor 1 Sensor 2 Sensor 3 Wall Sensor Proximity Sensor Fig. 1 sensors; the fourth is a wall-detecting binary sensor. The proximity sensor indicates whether an agent

  6. Genetics Reasoning with Multiple External Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Explores a case study of a class of 10th grade students whose learning of genetics involved activities using BioLogica, a computer program that features multiple external representations (MERs). Findings indicate that the MERs in BioLogica contributed to students' development of genetics reasoning by engendering their motivation and interest but…

  7. Multiple Pathways for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary…

  8. Introductory Lectures on Multiple Membranes

    E-print Network

    Copland, Neil B

    2010-01-01

    These lecture notes introduce the multiple membrane theories known as BLG and ABJM. We assume the reader is familiar with string theory, but not with M-theory, 11-dimensional supergravity or membranes. We therefore start with a background on M-theory and its extended objects before discussing BLG and ABJM. The link to string theory via dimensional reduction will be maintained throughout.

  9. Introductory Lectures on Multiple Membranes

    E-print Network

    Neil B. Copland

    2010-12-02

    These lecture notes introduce the multiple membrane theories known as BLG and ABJM. We assume the reader is familiar with string theory, but not with M-theory, 11-dimensional supergravity or membranes. We therefore start with a background on M-theory and its extended objects before discussing BLG and ABJM. The link to string theory via dimensional reduction will be maintained throughout.

  10. Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an…

  11. Fashion, Paper Dolls and Multiplicatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ura, Suzana Kaori; Stein-Barana, Alzira C. M.; Munhoz, Deisy P.

    2011-01-01

    The multiplicative principle is the tool allowing the counting of groups that can be described by a sequence of events. An event is a subset of sample space, i.e. a collection of possible outcomes, which may be equal to or smaller than the sample space as a whole. It is important that students understand this basic principle early on and know how…

  12. Multiple venous aneurysms of neck

    PubMed Central

    Swaika, Sweta; Basu, Sudipta; Bhadra, Ram C.; Maitra, Sujay

    2013-01-01

    Venous aneurysm of neck is a rare anomaly, usually presenting as a painless mass which increases in size on valsalva maneuver. A child with multiple aneurysms of the right common facial and external jugular veins diagnosed on Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance venography is reported. PMID:23599580

  13. Presentation 7: Multiple Primary Rules

    Cancer.gov

    MP Rules - Note 2 The registrar must recognize that during the diagnostic workup the physician may start with a non-specific diagnosis (NOS) and as testing is completed, a more specific histology is identified. These diagnoses are not multiple primaries; they represent steps in the diagnostic work-up. See rules M7-M12.

  14. Improving Inferences from Multiple Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shotland, R. Lance; Mark, Melvin M.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple evaluation methods (MEMs) can cause an inferential challenge, although there are strategies to strengthen inferences. Practical and theoretical issues involved in the use by social scientists of MEMs, three potential problems in drawing inferences from MEMs, and short- and long-term strategies for alleviating these problems are outlined.…

  15. Characteristics of Multiple Comparison Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mian Muhammad; And Others

    Multiple comparison procedures (MCPs), in the context of analysis of variance, are becoming more popular than the overall F tests. An attempt is made to clarify confusion among the different MCPs by systematically comparing and contrasting the procedures in terms of their purposes, restrictions, robustness to assumptions, and other special…

  16. Assessment of Multiplication Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marilyn Sue; Usnick, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This project had two major goals: to determine the usefulness of individually-administered interview process to access elementary students' fluency with basic multiplication facts, and to determine whether a developmental sequence found in Australian mathematics education literature applied to elementary students in the United States. Students in…

  17. Multiple Literacies Theory: Exploring Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masny, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions of philosophy, art and science to education through the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological usefulness of a Deleuze-Guattarian conceptual framework that informs multiple literacies theory (MLT). Education lends itself to Deleuze's notion of connecting and creating through philosophy, art and…

  18. Childhood Multiple Sclerosis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Amy; O'Connor, Erin; Tennekoon, Gihan

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that is increasingly recognized as a disease that affects children. Similar to adult-onset MS, children present with visual and sensory complaints, as well as weakness, spasticity, and ataxia. A lumbar puncture can be helpful in diagnosing MS when…

  19. Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.

    2008-01-01

    Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

  20. Viscoelastic waves and multiple scales

    SciTech Connect

    Hedstrom, G.

    1994-05-01

    A multiple-scales argument is used to obtain the speeds of the main shear and compressional waves in a general homogeneous viscoelastic medium. The rate of spreading by diffusion of these waves is also derived. These methods are also used to determine the speed of the main viscoelastic Rayleigh wave, as well as the rate of its energy decay.

  1. The STAR Photon Multiplicity Detector

    E-print Network

    M. M. Aggarwal; S. K. Badyal; P. Bhaskar; V. S. Bhatia; S. Chattopadhyay; S. Das; R. Datta; A. K. Dubey; M. R. DuttaMajumdar; M. S. Ganti; P. Ghosh; A. Gupta; M. Gupta; R. Gupta; I. Kaur; A. Kumar; S. Mahajan; D. P. Mahapatra; L. K. Mangotra; D. Mishra; B. Mohanty; S. K. Nayak; T. K. Nayak; S. K. Pal; S. C . Phatak; B. V. K. S. Potukuchi; R. Raniwala; S. Raniwala; R. Sahoo; A. Sharma; R. N. Singaraju; G. Sood; M. D. Trivedi; R. Varma; Y. P. Viyogi

    2002-12-07

    Details concerning the design, fabrication and performance of STAR Photon Multiplicity Detector (PMD) are presented. The PMD will cover the forward region, within the pseudorapidity range 2.3--3.5, behind the forward time projection chamber. It will measure the spatial distribution of photons in order to study collective flow, fluctuation and chiral symmetry restoration.

  2. Drugs Approved for Multiple Myeloma

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for multiple myeloma and other plasma cell neoplasms. The list includes generic names, brand names, and common drug combinations, which are shown in capital letters. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  3. Enhancing Learning through Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Pinar; Guneysu, Sibel; Tekkaya, Ceren

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether there was a significant difference between multiple intelligence instruction (MII) and traditionally designed science instruction (TDSI) on fourth grade students' understanding of concepts associated with the "Diversity of Living Things" unit. Students' intelligence types were also examined. There were two…

  4. Mechanisms of multiple chemical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Winder, Chris

    2002-03-10

    Sensitivity to chemicals is a toxicological concept, contained in the dose-response relationship. Sensitivity also includes the concept of hypersensitivity, although controversy surrounds the nature of effects from very low exposures. The term multiple chemical sensitivity has been used to describe individuals with a debilitating, multi-organ sensitivity following chemical exposures. Many aspects of this condition extend the nature of sensitivity to low levels of exposure to chemicals, and is a designation with medical, immunological, neuropsychological and toxicological perspectives. The basis of MCS is still to be identified, although a large number of hypersensitivity, immunological, psychological, neurological and toxicological mechanisms have been suggested, including: allergy; autosuggestion; cacosomia; conditioned response; immunological; impairment of biochemical pathways involved in energy production; impairment of neurochemical pathways; illness belief system; limbic kindling; olfactory threshold sensitivity; panic disorder; psychosomatic condition; malingering; neurogenic inflammation; overload of biotransformation pathways (also linked with free radical production); psychological or psychiatric illness; airway reactivity; sensitisation of the neurological system; time dependent sensitisation, toxicant induced loss of tolerance. Most of these theories tend to break down into concepts involving: (1) disruption in immunological/allergy processes; (2) alteration in nervous system function; (3) changes in biochemical or biotransformation capacity; (4) changes in psychological/neurobehavioural function. Research into the possible mechanisms of MCS is far from complete. However, a number of promising avenues of investigation indicate that the possibility of alteration of the sensitivity of nervous system cells (neurogenic inflammation, limbic kindling, cacosomia, neurogenic switching) are a possible mechanism for MCS. PMID:11869820

  5. Time-domain multiple-quantum NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Weitekamp, D.P.

    1982-11-01

    The development of time-domain multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance is reviewed through mid 1982 and some prospects for future development are indicated. Particular attention is given to the problem of obtaining resolved, interpretable, many-quantum spectra for anisotropic magnetically isolated systems of coupled spins. New results are presented on a number of topics including the optimization of multiple-quantum-line intensities, analysis of noise in two-dimensional spectroscopy, and the use of order-selective excitation for cross polarization between nuclear-spin species.

  6. Iron chelation and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Kelsey J.; Lynch, Sharon G.; LeVine, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Histochemical and MRI studies have demonstrated that MS (multiple sclerosis) patients have abnormal deposition of iron in both gray and white matter structures. Data is emerging indicating that this iron could partake in pathogenesis by various mechanisms, e.g., promoting the production of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Iron chelation therapy could be a viable strategy to block iron-related pathological events or it can confer cellular protection by stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor 1?, a transcription factor that normally responds to hypoxic conditions. Iron chelation has been shown to protect against disease progression and/or limit iron accumulation in some neurological disorders or their experimental models. Data from studies that administered a chelator to animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of MS, support the rationale for examining this treatment approach in MS. Preliminary clinical studies have been performed in MS patients using deferoxamine. Although some side effects were observed, the large majority of patients were able to tolerate the arduous administration regimen, i.e., 6–8 h of subcutaneous infusion, and all side effects resolved upon discontinuation of treatment. Importantly, these preliminary studies did not identify a disqualifying event for this experimental approach. More recently developed chelators, deferasirox and deferiprone, are more desirable for possible use in MS given their oral administration, and importantly, deferiprone can cross the blood–brain barrier. However, experiences from other conditions indicate that the potential for adverse events during chelation therapy necessitates close patient monitoring and a carefully considered administration regimen. PMID:24397846

  7. Integrating individual-based indices of contaminant effects. How multiple sublethal effects may ultimately reduce amphibian recruitment from a contaminated breeding site.

    PubMed

    Rowe, C L; Hopkins, W A; Congdon, J D

    2001-11-29

    Habitat contamination can alter numerous biological processes in individual organisms. Examining multiple individual-level responses in an integrative fashion is necessary to understand how individual health or fitness reflects environmental contamination. Here we provide an example of such an integrated perspective based upon recent studies of an amphibian (the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana ) that experiences several, disparate changes when larval development occurs in a trace element-contaminated habitat. First, we present an overview of studies focused on specific responses of individuals collected from, or transplanted into, a habitat contaminated by coal combustion residues (CCR). These studies have reported morphological, behavioral, and physiological modifications to individuals chronically interacting with sediments in the CCR-contaminated site. Morphological abnormalities in the oral and tail regions in contaminant-exposed individuals influenced other properties such as grazing, growth, and swimming performance. Behavioral changes in swimming activities and responses to stimuli appear to influence predation risk in the contaminant-exposed population. Significant changes in bioenergetics in the contaminated habitat, evident as abnormally high energetic expenditures for survival (maintenance) costs, may ultimately influence production pathways (growth, energy storage) in individuals. We then present a conceptual model to examine how interactions among the affected systems (morphological, behavioral, physiological) may ultimately bring about more severe effects than would be predicted if the responses were considered in isolation. A complex interplay among simultaneously occurring biological changes emerges in which multiple, sublethal effects ultimately can translate into reductions in larval or juvenile survival, and thus reduced recruitment of juveniles into the population. In systems where individuals are exposed to low concentrations of contaminants for long periods of time, research focused on one or few sublethal responses could substantially underestimate overall effects on individuals. We suggest that investigators adopt a more integrated perspective on contaminant-induced biological changes so that studies of individual-based effects can be better integrated into analyses of mechanisms of population change. PMID:12805772

  8. Method for deploying multiple spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharer, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method for deploying multiple spacecraft is disclosed. The method can be used in a situation where a first celestial body is being orbited by a second celestial body. The spacecraft are loaded onto a single spaceship that contains the multiple spacecraft and the spacecraft is launched from the second celestial body towards a third celestial body. The spacecraft are separated from each other while in route to the third celestial body. Each of the spacecraft is then subjected to the gravitational field of the third celestial body and each of the spacecraft assumes a different, independent orbit about the first celestial body. In those situations where the spacecraft are launched from Earth, the Sun can act as the first celestial body, the Earth can act as the second celestial body and the Moon can act as the third celestial body.

  9. Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, J. M.; Semonin, O. E.; Beard, M. C.; Gao, J.; Nozik, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Heat loss is the major factor limiting traditional single junction solar cells to a theoretical efficiency of 32%. Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) enables efficient use of the solar spectrum yielding a theoretical power conversion efficiency of 44% in solar cells under 1-sun conditions. Quantum-confined semiconductors have demonstrated the ability to generate multiple carriers but present-day materials deliver efficiencies far below the SQ limit of 32%. Semiconductor quantum dots of PbSe and PbS provide an active testbed for developing high-efficiency, inexpensive solar cells benefitting from quantum confinement effects. Here, we will present recent work of solar cells employing MEG to yield external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100%.

  10. Computational Reasoning across Multiple Models

    PubMed Central

    Tsafnat, Guy; Coiera, Enrico W.

    2009-01-01

    Computational support of clinical decisions frequently requires the integration of data in a variety of formats and from multiple sources and domains. Some impressive multiscale computational models of biological phenomena have been developed as part of the study of disease and healthcare systems. One can now contemplate harnessing these models arising from computational biology and using highly interconnected clinical data to support clinical decision-making. Indeed, understanding how to build computational systems able to reason across heterogeneous models and datasets is one of the major and perhaps foundational challenges of translational biomedical informatics. In this paper, the authors examine the use of multimodels (models composed of several daughter models) and explore three major research challenges to reasoning across multiple models: model selection, model composition, and computer aided model construction. PMID:19717801

  11. Emerging therapies in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    El-Amm, Joelle; Tabbara, Imad A

    2015-06-01

    The treatment of multiple myeloma has evolved significantly over the past 2 decades due to the use of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, and the subsequent introduction of the immunomodulatory agents (thalidomide and lenalidomide) and the proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib). The median overall survival of multiple myeloma patients has increased significantly with patients younger than age 50 years experiencing a 10-year survival rate of around 40%. However, despite the increased effectiveness of the first-line agents, the majority of patients will eventually relapse and become drug resistant. Promising novel therapies have recently emerged and are being used to treat relapsed and refractory patients. This review will cover the clinical data regarding these emergent therapies that include new generation of proteasome inhibitors (carfilzomib, ixazomib, oprozomib, and marizomib), immunomodulatory drugs (pomalidomide), monoclonal antibodies (elotuzumab and daratumumab), signal transduction modulator (perifosine), and histone deacetylase inhibitors (vorinostat and panobinostat). PMID:23934133

  12. Multiple idiopathic apical root resorption.

    PubMed

    Kanungo, Manish; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Nayak, Prathibha Anand

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic external root resorption is a rarely reported condition which has been observed in single or multiple teeth. This is a rare case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption (MIARR) in a 16-year-old boy. External root resorption of the permanent teeth is a multifactorial process. Well-recognised causes of apical root resorption in permanent teeth include orthodontic therapy, trauma, periapical or periodontal inflammation, tumours, cysts, occlusal stresses, impacted teeth, systemic conditions, endocrine imbalances and dietary habits. When none of these causes are present, it is termed idiopathic root resorption which may be either cervical or apical. MIARR is a rare condition which is usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. However, it may cause pain and mobility in severe cases. PMID:23616336

  13. Hypodiploid multiple myeloma is characterized by more aggressive molecular markers than non-hyperdiploid multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Van Wier, Scott; Braggio, Esteban; Baker, Angela; Ahmann, Gregory; Levy, Joan; Carpten, John D.; Fonseca, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma can be categorized into hyperdiploid or non-hyperdiploid myeloma based on the number of chromosomes found in the tumor clone. Among the non-hyperdiploid myelomas, the hypodiploid subtype has the most aggressive clinical phenotype, but the genetic differences between groups are not completely defined. In order to understand the genetic background of hypodiploid multiple myeloma better, we compared the genomic (array-based comparative genomic hybridization) and transcriptomic (gene expression profiling) background of 49 patients with hypodiploid myeloma with 50 other non-hyperdiploid and 125 hyperdiploid myeloma patients. There were significant chromosomal and gene expression differences between hyperdiploid patients and non-hyperdiploid and hypodiploid patients. Non-hyperdiploid and hypodiploid patients shared most of the chromosomal abnormalities; nevertheless a subset of these abnormalities, such as monosomies 13, 14 and 22, was markedly increased in hypodiploid patients. Furthermore, deletions of 1p, 12p, 16q and 17p, all associated with poor outcome or progression in multiple myeloma, were significantly enriched in hypodiploid patients. Molecular risk-stratification indices reinforce the worse prognosis associated with hypodiploid multiple myeloma compared with non-hyperdiploid multiple myeloma. Gene expression profiling clustered hypodiploid and non-hyperdiploid subgroups closer than hyperdiploid myeloma but also highlighted the up-regulation of CCND2, WHSC1/MMSET and FGFR3 in the hypodiploid subtype. In summary, hypodiploid multiple myeloma is genetically similar to non-hyperdiploid multiple myeloma but characterized by a higher prevalence of genetic alterations associated with poor outcome and disease progression. It is provocative to hypothesize that hypodiploid multiple myeloma is an advanced stage of non-hyperdiploid multiple myeloma. PMID:23716545

  14. Melanoma Multiple Primary Rules Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    Cutaneous Melanoma Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C440 – C449 (Excludes melanoma of any other site) * P r e p ar e o n e abs tr a c t. U s e t h e hi s t o lo g y c o di ng r u le s t o as s i gn th e ap pr o p r iat e h is to lo

  15. [Special cases of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Mendibe Bilbao, Mar

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that usually occurs in young people and affects them for the rest of their lives. Patients and their families usually have a series of doubts and questions on everyday matters and all types of situations that occur during the distinct stages of life and which can influence the course of the disease. The aim of this review is to provide specific answers to these questions. PMID:25732948

  16. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  17. Multiple-access bosonic communications

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Brent J.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2005-12-15

    The maximum rates for reliably transmitting classical information over bosonic multiple-access channels (MACs) are derived when the transmitters are restricted to coherent-state encodings. Inner and outer bounds for the ultimate capacity region of the bosonic MAC are also presented. It is shown that the sum-rate upper bound is achievable with a coherent-state encoding and that the entire region is asymptotically achievable in the limit of large mean input photon numbers.

  18. The Complexity of Iterated Multiplication

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Supported by NSF grants DMS-8807202 and CCR-8802835. 1 #12;FO = AC0 ThC0 NC1 L NL AC1 DET* ThC1 NC2 DSPACE log2 n surprising fact { reported in BCH, Rei] { is that iterated integer multiplication is in P-uniform ThC0 but not known to be in (uniform) ThC0 , or even in L. Usually, uniformity does not pose as a serious issue

  19. Blepharochalasis with multiple system involvement.

    PubMed Central

    Ghose, S; Kalra, B R; Dayal, Y

    1984-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral blepharochalasis of the upper eyelids is presented in a 10-year-old boy with several systemic abnormalities--unilateral agenesis of the left kidney, multiple skeletal anomalies of the vertebral column, and congenital heart disease with a left to right shunt. Such widespread congenital defects in association with blepharochalasis have not been described before. Blepharochalasis may represent a part of a more generalised disorder. Images PMID:6743619

  20. Kidney Multiple Primary Rules Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    Kidney Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C649 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * P r e p ar e o n e abs tr a c t. U s e t h e hi s t o lo g y c o di ng r u le s t o as s i gn th e ap pr o p r iat

  1. Colon Multiple Primary Rules Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    Colon Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C180-C189 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * P r e p ar e o n e abs tr a c t. U s e t h e hi s t o lo g y c o di ng r u le s t o as s i gn th e ap pr o p

  2. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  3. FRACTIONAL DYNAMICS AT MULTIPLE TIMES.

    PubMed

    Meerschaert, Mark M; Straka, Peter

    2012-11-01

    A continuous time random walk (CTRW) imposes a random waiting time between random particle jumps. CTRW limit densities solve a fractional Fokker-Planck equation, but since the CTRW limit is not Markovian, this is not sufficient to characterize the process. This paper applies continuum renewal theory to restore the Markov property on an expanded state space, and compute the joint CTRW limit density at multiple times. PMID:23378670

  4. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-01-09

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film. 3 figs.

  5. Learning to track multiple targets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Tao, Dacheng; Song, Mingli; Zhang, Luming; Bu, Jiajun; Chen, Chun

    2015-05-01

    Monocular multiple-object tracking is a fundamental yet under-addressed computer vision problem. In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework for tracking multiple objects by detection. First, instead of heuristically defining a tracking algorithm, we learn that a discriminative structure prediction model from labeled video data captures the interdependence of multiple influence factors. Given the joint targets state from the last time step and the observation at the current frame, the joint targets state at the current time step can then be inferred by maximizing the joint probability score. Second, our detection results benefit from tracking cues. The traditional detection algorithms need a nonmaximal suppression postprocessing to select a subset from the total detection responses as the final output and a large number of selection mistakes are induced, especially under a congested circumstance. Our method integrates both detection and tracking cues. This integration helps to decrease the postprocessing mistake risk and to improve performance in tracking. Finally, we formulate the entire model training into a convex optimization problem and estimate its parameters using the cutting plane optimization. Experiments show that our method performs effectively in a large variety of scenarios, including pedestrian tracking in crowd scenes and vehicle tracking in congested traffic. PMID:25051561

  6. Immune tolerance in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Goverman, Joan M

    2011-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis is believed to be mediated by T cells specific for myelin antigens that circulate harmlessly in the periphery of healthy individuals until they are erroneously activated by an environmental stimulus. Upon activation, the T cells enter the central nervous system and orchestrate an immune response against myelin. To understand the initial steps in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, it is important to identify the mechanisms that maintain T-cell tolerance to myelin antigens and to understand how some myelin-specific T cells escape tolerance and what conditions lead to their activation. Central tolerance strongly shapes the peripheral repertoire of myelin-specific T cells, as most myelin-specific T cells are eliminated by clonal deletion in the thymus. Self-reactive T cells that escape central tolerance are generally capable only of low-avidity interactions with antigen-presenting cells. Despite the low avidity of these interactions, peripheral tolerance mechanisms are required to prevent spontaneous autoimmunity. Multiple peripheral tolerance mechanisms for myelin-specific T cells have been identified, the most important of which appears to be regulatory T cells. While most studies have focused on CD4(+) myelin-specific T cells, interesting differences in tolerance mechanisms and the conditions that abrogate these mechanisms have recently been described for CD8(+) myelin-specific T cells. PMID:21488900

  7. Lecture 12: Chain Matrix Multiplication CLRS Section 15.2

    E-print Network

    Wu, Dekai

    Lecture 12: Chain Matrix Multiplication CLRS Section 15.2 Outline of this Lecture Recalling matrix multiplication. The chain matrix multiplication problem. A dynamic programming algorithm for chain ma- trix multiplication. 1 #12;Recalling Matrix Multiplication Matrix: An ¡ ¢ matrix

  8. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.D.

    1999-01-24

    An array of epidemiological results and databases on test animal indicate that risk of cancer and atherosclerosis can be up- or down-regulated by diet through a range of 200%. Other factors contribute incrementally and include the natural terrestrial environment and various human activities that jointly produce complex exposures to endotoxin-producing microorganisms, ionizing radiations, and chemicals. Ordinary personal habits and simple physical irritants have been demonstrated to affect the immune response and risk of disease. There tends to be poor statistical correlation of long-term risk with single agent exposures incurred throughout working careers. However, Agency recommendations for control of hazardous exposures to humans has been substance-specific instead of contextually realistic even though there is consistent evidence for common mechanisms of toxicological and carcinogenic action. That behavior seems to be best explained by molecular stresses from cellular oxygen metabolism and phagocytosis of antigenic invasion as well as breakdown of normal metabolic compounds associated with homeostatic- and injury-related renewal of cells. There is continually mounting evidence that marrow stroma, comprised largely of monocyte-macrophages and fibroblasts, is important to phagocytic and cytokinetic response, but the complex action of the immune process is difficult to infer from first-principle logic or biomarkers of toxic injury. The many diverse database studies all seem to implicate two important processes, i.e., the univalent reduction of molecular oxygen and breakdown of aginuine, an amino acid, by hydrolysis or digestion of protein which is attendant to normal antigen-antibody action. This behavior indicates that protection guidelines and risk coefficients should be context dependent to include reference considerations of the composite action of parameters that mediate oxygen metabolism. A logic of this type permits the realistic common-scale modeling of multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of ?what dose does?? in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of ?what dose is?? Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

  9. Multiple memory systems as substrates for multiple decision systems.

    PubMed

    Doll, Bradley B; Shohamy, Daphna; Daw, Nathaniel D

    2015-01-01

    It has recently become widely appreciated that value-based decision making is supported by multiple computational strategies. In particular, animal and human behavior in learning tasks appears to include habitual responses described by prominent model-free reinforcement learning (RL) theories, but also more deliberative or goal-directed actions that can be characterized by a different class of theories, model-based RL. The latter theories evaluate actions by using a representation of the contingencies of the task (as with a learned map of a spatial maze), called an "internal model." Given the evidence of behavioral and neural dissociations between these approaches, they are often characterized as dissociable learning systems, though they likely interact and share common mechanisms. In many respects, this division parallels a longstanding dissociation in cognitive neuroscience between multiple memory systems, describing, at the broadest level, separate systems for declarative and procedural learning. Procedural learning has notable parallels with model-free RL: both involve learning of habits and both are known to depend on parts of the striatum. Declarative memory, by contrast, supports memory for single events or episodes and depends on the hippocampus. The hippocampus is thought to support declarative memory by encoding temporal and spatial relations among stimuli and thus is often referred to as a relational memory system. Such relational encoding is likely to play an important role in learning an internal model, the representation that is central to model-based RL. Thus, insofar as the memory systems represent more general-purpose cognitive mechanisms that might subserve performance on many sorts of tasks including decision making, these parallels raise the question whether the multiple decision systems are served by multiple memory systems, such that one dissociation is grounded in the other. Here we investigated the relationship between model-based RL and relational memory by comparing individual differences across behavioral tasks designed to measure either capacity. Human subjects performed two tasks, a learning and generalization task (acquired equivalence) which involves relational encoding and depends on the hippocampus; and a sequential RL task that could be solved by either a model-based or model-free strategy. We assessed the correlation between subjects' use of flexible, relational memory, as measured by generalization in the acquired equivalence task, and their differential reliance on either RL strategy in the decision task. We observed a significant positive relationship between generalization and model-based, but not model-free, choice strategies. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that model-based RL, like acquired equivalence, relies on a more general-purpose relational memory system. PMID:24846190

  10. Whooping Cough - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Whooping Cough URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Whooping Cough - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  11. CZ: Multiple Inheritance Without Diamonds Donna Malayeri

    E-print Network

    Aldrich, Jonathan

    CZ: Multiple Inheritance Without Diamonds Donna Malayeri Carnegie Mellon University donna, such as mixins and traits. Instead, we ad- dress the diamond problem directly, considering two diffi- culties approach: supporting multiple inheritance but forbidding diamond inheritance. Expressiveness is retained

  12. Pressure Sores - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Pressure Sores URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Pressure Sores - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  13. Refractive Errors - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Refractive Errors URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Refractive Errors - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  14. Oil Spills - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Oil Spills URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oil Spills - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Parasitic Diseases URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Parasitic Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages...45 Multiple survivors. Multiple survivors of the same smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms...

  17. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages...45 Multiple survivors. Multiple survivors of the same smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms...

  18. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages...45 Multiple survivors. Multiple survivors of the same smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms...

  19. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages...45 Multiple survivors. Multiple survivors of the same smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms...

  20. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages...45 Multiple survivors. Multiple survivors of the same smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms...

  1. Breast Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Breast Diseases URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Breast Diseases - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 ...Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service...

  3. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping...Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the...

  4. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 ...Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service...

  5. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 ...Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service...

  6. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 ...Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service...

  7. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 ...Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service...

  8. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 ...Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service...

  9. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping...Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the...

  10. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping...Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the...

  11. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 ...Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service...

  12. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping...Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the...

  13. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 ...Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service...

  14. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 ...Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service...

  15. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping...Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the...

  16. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 ...Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service...

  17. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and their FAMILIES COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE FOR MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet is provided to help you ... complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is ...

  18. Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and their FAMILIES EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet presents the current research on emotional disorders in multiple sclerosis (MS) and summarizes the main findings of a ...

  19. Aortic Aneurysm - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Aortic Aneurysm URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Aortic Aneurysm - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  20. Some Simple Computational Formulas for Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lewis R., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Short-cut formulas are presented for direct computation of the beta weights, the standard errors of the beta weights, and the multiple correlation coefficient for multiple regression problems involving three independent variables and one dependent variable. (Author)

  1. Multiple-Valued Logic: An Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, T. T.; Campbell, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    The state of the art for multiple-valued electronic devices relying on integrated injection logic (I2L) is discussed. Applications and extension of multiple-valued I2L devices to quaternary logic technology are presented.

  2. Detection and Classification of Multiple Person Interaction 

    E-print Network

    Blunsden, Scott

    2009-01-01

    This thesis investigates the classification of the behaviour of multiple persons when viewed from a video camera. Work upon a constrained case of multiple person interaction in the form of team games is investigated. A ...

  3. Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Rotavirus Infections URL of this page: https://www.nlm. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotavirus Infections - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  4. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Child Abuse URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Tick Bites - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Tick Bites URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih. ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Tick Bites - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  6. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C; Sundberg, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's Verbal Behavior, the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms convergent multiple control and divergent multiple control. We point out some implications for applied work and discuss examples of the role of multiple control in humor, poetry, problem solving, and recall. Joint control and conditional discrimination are discussed as special cases of multiple control. We suggest that multiple control is a useful analytic tool for interpreting virtually all complex behavior, and we consider the concepts of derived relations and naming as cases in point. PMID:22532752

  7. [Prognosis and therapy of multiple myeloma].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Sonntag RW

    1978-08-12

    Criteria for the diagnosis of multiple myeloma and differential diagnostic considerations are presented. The indications for treatment are discussed. Combination of melphalan or cyclophosphamide with prednisone may be considered standard therapy today. This produces objective tumor regression in 50-70% of patients. The parameters for determining remission and their significance with regard to survival and tumor cell mass are discussed. The importance of supportive measures is stressed. Persistent problems and potential for improving present therapy are discussed.

  8. Multiple Tries on Trial Gerd Kortemeyer

    E-print Network

    Multiple Tries on Trial Gerd Kortemeyer Michigan State University AAPT Conference July 2015 #12;The Accusation Online homework fosters unproductive behavior Too many multiple tries are at fault ... or maybe ... Too few tries are at fault #12;Typical Online Physics Problem Multiple tries Open- ended numerical #12

  9. Parallel MATLAB: Single Program Multiple Data

    E-print Network

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    : is Single Program, Multiple Data Lecture #3: SPMD - 18 February The SPMD command (today's lecture) is likeParallel MATLAB: Single Program Multiple Data John Burkardt (FSU) Gene Cliff (AOE/ICAM - ecliff Computing SPMD: Single Program, Multiple Data QUAD Example Distributed Arrays LBVP & FEM 2D HEAT Examples

  10. Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Joyce A.; Conti, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    One way of addressing individual differences among adult learners is to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the learner. Multiple Intelligences refers to the concept developed by Howard Gardner that challenges the traditional view of intelligence and explains the presence of nine different Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study was…

  11. Breast feeding twins and high multiples

    PubMed Central

    Flidel?Rimon, O; Shinwell, E S

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding offers major health advantages for all infants, whether born singleton or from multiple pregnancy. Adequate quantity and quality of milk production has been documented even for high multiples. Combined efforts of parents, close family, friends, and the medical team can help to make either full or partial breast feeding of multiples possible. PMID:16923939

  12. SPARSE MATRIX MULTIPLICATION ON AN ASSOCIATIVE PROCESSOR

    E-print Network

    Ginosar, Ran

    SPARSE MATRIX MULTIPLICATION ON AN ASSOCIATIVE PROCESSOR L. Yavits, A. Morad, R. Ginosar Abstract--Sparse matrix multiplication is an important component of linear algebra computations. Implementing sparse of vector dot product does not depend on the vector size. Four sparse matrix multiplication algorithms

  13. Fast sparse matrix multiplication Raphael Yuster

    E-print Network

    Yuster, Raphael

    Fast sparse matrix multiplication Raphael Yuster Uri Zwick Abstract Let A and B two n Ã? n.38 ) algebraic operations. Obtaining a fast sparse matrix multiplication algorithm that beats the naive method are extremely sparse. The naive matrix multiplication algorithm, on the other hand, can be used to multiply two

  14. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  15. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Modification of Multiple Sclerosis Phenotypes

    E-print Network

    Reich, David

    ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Modification of Multiple Sclerosis Phenotypes by African Ancestry at HLA. Oksenberg, PhD Background: In those with multiple sclerosis (MS), Afri- can American individuals have a more ancestry at HLA correlated with dis- ability as measured by the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (P .001

  16. EFFICIENT DESIGNS OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS CLINICAL TRIALS

    E-print Network

    Brennand, Tracy

    EFFICIENT DESIGNS OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS CLINICAL TRIALS by Dean Emile Vrecko B.Sc., University of Science Title of project: Efficient Designs of Multiple Sclerosis Clinical Trials Examining Committee: Dr Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating disease that attacks the central nervous system. Much research

  17. http://msj.sagepub.com Multiple Sclerosis

    E-print Network

    Hamarneh, Ghassan

    http://msj.sagepub.com Multiple Sclerosis DOI: 10.1177/135248506071178 2006; 12; 1Mult Scler Oral://www.sagepublications.com can be found at:Multiple SclerosisAdditional services and information for http in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients at a faster rate ((/4.5% versus (/1%) than loss in whole brain volume

  18. Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Woodward, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis for exploring associations among multiple sets of functions. The proposed method includes functional canonical correlation analysis as a special case when only two sets of functions are considered. As in classical multiple-set canonical correlation analysis, computationally, the…

  19. BAYESIAN MULTIPLE PERSON TRACKING USING PROBABILITY

    E-print Network

    Frean, Marcus

    BAYESIAN MULTIPLE PERSON TRACKING USING PROBABILITY HYPOTHESIS DENSITY SMOOTHING S. Hernandez or multiple cameras, the scope and availability of multiple target tracking techniques for crowd analysis has approximation to the posterior density. The PHD filter is a good alternative to standard multi-target tracking

  20. Dependent Multiple Cue Integration for Robust Tracking

    E-print Network

    Moreno-Noguer, Francesc

    and versatility of our method. Index Terms--Bayesian tracking, multiple cue integration. Ç 1 INTRODUCTION TRACKINGDependent Multiple Cue Integration for Robust Tracking Francesc Moreno-Noguer, Alberto Sanfeliu, Member, IEEE, and Dimitris Samaras, Member, IEEE Abstract--We propose a new technique for fusing multiple

  1. PARALLEL MATRIX MULTIPLICATION: A SYSTEMATIC JOURNEY

    E-print Network

    Batory, Don

    PARALLEL MATRIX MULTIPLICATION: A SYSTEMATIC JOURNEY MARTIN D. SCHATZ, ROBERT A. VAN DE GEIJN- trix matrix multiplication algorithms. The journey starts with a description of how matrices implementation of matrix-vector multiplication and rank-1 update, continues on to reveal a fam- ily of matrix-matrix

  2. The Many Meanings of "Multiple Measures"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Professional assessment organizations almost universally endorse the use of multiple measures for making education decisions. In practice, however, the concept of multiple measures is defined and applied in many different ways, depending on how we answer two questions--What counts as a "measure"? and How are the multiple measures combined?…

  3. Stator and multiple piece seal

    SciTech Connect

    Heldreth, M.A.; Buckert, S.R.

    1993-06-22

    A gas turbine engine is described comprising a compressor section, a combustor section and a turbine section arranged in flow series and defining an annular flow path extending axially from the compressor section through the turbine section, the engine further comprising a plurality of air passageways extending from the compressor section to a plenum in the turbine section so that the pressure in the plenum is greater than the pressure in a portion of the flow path disposed within the turbine section, the turbine section comprising a stator vane array upstream of a rotor blade array, the stator vane array having a plurality of vanes interposed in the turbine section flow path and mounted radially between a segmented outer end wall and a segmented inner end wall, each of the segments, of the inner and outer end walls, having a narrow gap there between, the gap being in fluid communication with the plenum and the turbine section flow path defining a pressure differential across the gap, the stator vane array further comprising a multiple piece seal inserted in each of the gaps, the multiple piece seal comprising a first sealing member having a thickness sufficiently small so that the first sealing member deforms into sealing contact across the gap when exposed to the pressure differential, and a second sealing member having a thickness sufficiently large to prevent both the first and second sealing members from buckling when the multiple piece seal is inserted into the gap the first and second sealing members being attached at one end.

  4. Sequence Factorization with Multiple References

    PubMed Central

    Wandelt, Sebastian; Leser, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The success of high-throughput sequencing has lead to an increasing number of projects which sequence large populations of a species. Storage and analysis of sequence data is a key challenge in these projects, because of the sheer size of the datasets. Compression is one simple technology to deal with this challenge. Referential factorization and compression schemes, which store only the differences between input sequence and a reference sequence, gained lots of interest in this field. Highly-similar sequences, e.g., Human genomes, can be compressed with a compression ratio of 1,000:1 and more, up to two orders of magnitude better than with standard compression techniques. Recently, it was shown that the compression against multiple references from the same species can boost the compression ratio up to 4,000:1. However, a detailed analysis of using multiple references is lacking, e.g., for main memory consumption and optimality. In this paper, we describe one key technique for the referential compression against multiple references: The factorization of sequences. Based on the notion of an optimal factorization, we propose optimization heuristics and identify parameter settings which greatly influence 1) the size of the factorization, 2) the time for factorization, and 3) the required amount of main memory. We evaluate a total of 30 setups with a varying number of references on data from three different species. Our results show a wide range of factorization sizes (optimal to an overhead of up to 300%), factorization speed (0.01 MB/s to more than 600 MB/s), and main memory usage (few dozen MB to dozens of GB). Based on our evaluation, we identify the best configurations for common use cases. Our evaluation shows that multi-reference factorization is much better than single-reference factorization. PMID:26422374

  5. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving multiple nerves.

    PubMed

    Rohilla, Seema; Jain, Nitin; Sharma, Rambaksh; Dhaulakhandi, Dhara B

    2012-03-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa (MDL), a rare congenital disorder, is considered by some to be a localized form of Proteus syndrome. The implication of the PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10) gene in both strengthens this belief. We present a case who had MDL in multiple nerve territories--all on the same side of the body--with hypertrophy of mainly fibroadipose tissue throughout their distribution, thus pointing to a form of localized hemihypertrophy; both hemihypertrophy and lipomatous tumors are components of Proteus syndrome. PMID:21948052

  6. Multiple channel programmable coincidence counter

    DOEpatents

    Arnone, Gaetano J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A programmable digital coincidence counter having multiple channels and featuring minimal dead time. Neutron detectors supply electrical pulses to a synchronizing circuit which in turn inputs derandomized pulses to an adding circuit. A random access memory circuit connected as a programmable length shift register receives and shifts the sum of the pulses, and outputs to a serializer. A counter is input by the adding circuit and downcounted by the seralizer, one pulse at a time. The decoded contents of the counter after each decrement is output to scalers.

  7. Newer therapies for multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Coles, Alasdair

    2015-09-01

    The newer immunotherapies for multiple sclerosis (fingolimod, natalizumab, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, alemtuzumab) offer advantages of efficacy or tolerability over the injectable therapies of the 1990s. But they also have greater risks. As further treatments emerge (daclizumab and ocrelizumab are likely to be licensed in the next two years), the physician needs to be able to place them within a complex landscape of drugs and a specific treatment strategy, which may be an "escalation" or "induction" approach. Whilst on treatment, neurologist and patient need to be vigilant to signs of disease breakthrough or adverse effects. PMID:26538846

  8. Coordination of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Soloway, D.

    1987-01-01

    Kinematic resolved-rate control from one robot arm is extended to the coordinated control of multiple robot arms in the movement of an object. The structure supports the general movement of one axis system (moving reference frame) with respect to another axis system (control reference frame) by one or more robot arms. The grippers of the robot arms do not have to be parallel or at any pre-disposed positions on the object. For multiarm control, the operator chooses the same moving and control reference frames for each of the robot arms. Consequently, each arm then moves as though it were carrying out the commanded motions by itself.

  9. Newer therapies for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Coles, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    The newer immunotherapies for multiple sclerosis (fingolimod, natalizumab, dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, alemtuzumab) offer advantages of efficacy or tolerability over the injectable therapies of the 1990s. But they also have greater risks. As further treatments emerge (daclizumab and ocrelizumab are likely to be licensed in the next two years), the physician needs to be able to place them within a complex landscape of drugs and a specific treatment strategy, which may be an “escalation” or “induction” approach. Whilst on treatment, neurologist and patient need to be vigilant to signs of disease breakthrough or adverse effects. PMID:26538846

  10. Symptomatic management in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Pushkar

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the commonest cause of disability in young adults. While there is increasing choice and better treatments available for delaying disease progression, there are still, very few, effective symptomatic treatments. For many patients such as those with primary progressive MS (PPMS) and those that inevitably become secondary progressive, symptom management is the only treatment available. MS related symptoms are complex, interrelated, and can be interdependent. It requires good understanding of the condition, a holistic multidisciplinary approach, and above all, patient education and empowerment. PMID:26538847

  11. Smart card multiple function badge

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Smart cards are credit card-sized computers with integrated data storage, an operating system to manage the data, and built-in security features that protect the data. They are used to distribute information to remote sites, providing the same or greater reliability, data integrity, and information security than a network system. However, smart cards may provide greater functionality at a lower cost than network systems. The US Department of Energy Hanford Site is developing the smart card to be used as a multiple function identification badge that will service various data management requirements on the Site. This paper discusses smart card technology and the proposed Hanford Site applications.

  12. Multiple piece turbine rotor blade

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Russell B; Fedock, John A

    2013-05-21

    A multiple piece turbine rotor blade with a shell having an airfoil shape and secured between a spar and a platform with the spar including a tip end piece. a snap ring fits around the spar and abuts against the spar tip end piece on a top side and abuts against a shell on the bottom side so that the centrifugal loads from the shell is passed through the snap ring and into the spar and not through a tip cap dovetail slot and projection structure.

  13. Multiple memory systems and extinction 

    E-print Network

    Gabriele, Amanda

    2005-08-29

    stream_source_info etd-tamu-2005A-PSYC-Gabriele.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 84839 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name etd-tamu-2005A-PSYC-Gabriele.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...-1 MULTIPLE MEMORY SYSTEMS AND EXTINCTION A Thesis by AMANDA GABRIELE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2005...

  14. Myelin peptides in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Grau-López, L; Raïch, D; Ramo-Tello, C; Naranjo-Gómez, M; Dàvalos, A; Pujol-Borrell, R; Borràs, F E; Martínez-Cáceres, E

    2009-07-01

    The development of specific therapies for organ-specific autoimmune diseases requires the identification of relevant immunogenic epitopes, recognized by both pathogenic T cells and autoantibodies. Here, we review the most relevant studies focused in the identification of peptides in multiple sclerosis (MS) and the distinct T cell reactivity induced in patients compared to controls. Only a few studies reported significant differences in terms of T cell reactivity to them. The current knowledge on this issue, and the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities opened by the identification of pathogenic MS epitopes are discussed in this paper. PMID:19393199

  15. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Brizard, A. J.; Kaufman, A. N.; Tracy, E. R.

    2008-08-15

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  16. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N.; Tracy, E.R.

    2008-07-30

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  17. Multiple $q$-zeta brackets

    E-print Network

    Wadim Zudilin

    2015-03-22

    The multiple zeta values (MZVs) possess a rich algebraic structure of algebraic relations, which is conjecturally determined by two different (shuffle and stuffle) products of a certain algebra of noncommutative words. In a recent work, Bachmann constructed a $q$-analogue of the MZVs -- the so-called bi-brackets -- for which the two products are dual to each other, in a very natural way. We overview Bachmann's construction and discuss the radial asymptotics of the bi-brackets, its links to the MZVs, and related linear (in)dependence questions of the $q$-analogue.

  18. Multiple sclerosis: living the reality.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Tonks N; Lucas, Maree

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly variable and unpredictable disease and is considered one of the most life-altering diagnoses a person can receive (Holland and Madonna, 2005). The hallmark of this disorder is its unpredictability. This article explores the journey one individual (ML) takes from the time that seemingly trivial symptoms took on a new and disturbing meaning to the point where, as someone newly diagnosed with MS, the potential challenges of the journey ahead have to be viewed with realism, optimism, and meaning. PMID:16415749

  19. Effects of multiple herb formula SEC-22 supplementation on dietary intake, picky eating behaviors, and growth indices in thin preschool children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijoon; Lee, Joonsuk; Paik, Hee Young; Yoon, Jihyun; Ryu, Bongha

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Thin children may have insufficient intake of energy and nutrients, resulting in reduced immune function and growth. This study aimed to identify the effects of multiple herb formula SEC-22 supplementation on growth, dietary changes, and picky eating behaviors in thin children. SUBJECTS/METHODS A double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted on 79 children aged 2-5 years with poor appetites, BMI percentile < 25, and without any illness. Subjects were given either SEC-22 (n = 35) or placebo (n = 44) for 2 months and followed for an additional 2 months. Three-day dietary records, questionnaires on picky eating behaviors, and anthropometric measures were collected. RESULTS Energy, carbohydrate intake, and feeding difficulty improved in both groups during the intervention period. However, changes were maintained only in the SEC-22 group after 2 months of follow-up post-supplementation. 'Frequency of trying to feed' was improved in the SEC-22 group compared to the placebo group after the first month of follow-up (P < 0.05). Intakes of potassium and thiamine were improved in the SEC-22 group compared to the placebo group after the first month of intervention (P < 0.05). 'Frequency of food reward', eating amount, and intakes of carbohydrate, potassium, and vitamin C showed significant improvement compared to the placebo group after the second month of follow-up (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that SEC-22 supplementation can improve parental feeding difficulty resulting from insufficient eating amount or picky eating as well as increase nutrient intake in thin children. Although these improvements were observable at least 2 months after supplementation, effects beyond this time frame need to be confirmed. PMID:26244078

  20. Multiple protocol fluorometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew S. (Shoreham, NY); Falkowski, Paul G. (Stony Brook, NY)

    2000-09-19

    A multiple protocol fluorometer measures photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton and higher plants using actively stimulated fluorescence protocols. The measured parameters include spectrally-resolved functional and optical absorption cross sections of PSII, extent of energy transfer between reaction centers of PSII, F.sub.0 (minimal), F.sub.m (maximal) and F.sub.v (variable) components of PSII fluorescence, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, size of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool, and the kinetics of electron transport between Q.sub.a and PQ pool and between PQ pool and PSI. The multiple protocol fluorometer, in one embodiment, is equipped with an excitation source having a controlled spectral output range between 420 nm and 555 nm and capable of generating flashlets having a duration of 0.125-32 .mu.s, an interval between 0.5 .mu.s and 2 seconds, and peak optical power of up to 2 W/cm.sup.2. The excitation source is also capable of generating, simultaneous with the flashlets, a controlled continuous, background illumination.

  1. Innovative Agents in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Faiman, Beth; Richards, Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable cancer of the bone marrow plasma cells. However, the overall survival of patients with MM has increased dramatically within the past decade. This is due, in part, to newer agents such as immunomodulatory drugs (lenalidomide, thalidomide, and pomalidomide) and proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib, carfilzomib, MLN9708). These and several other new classes of drugs have arisen from an improved understanding of the complex environment in which genetic changes occur. Improved understanding of genetic events will enable clinicians to better stratify risk before and during therapy, tailor treatment, and test the value of personalized interventions. The ultimate goal in this incurable disease setting is to reduce the impact of cancer- or chemotherapy-related side effects. Nurses and advanced practitioners are integral to the treatment team. Thus, each should be aware of changes to the current drug landscape. Targeted drugs with sophisticated mechanisms of action are currently under investigation. Patients gain access to newer drugs within the context of clinical trials. Awareness of such trials will help accrual and determine if therapeutic benefit exists. In this article, we will describe new agents with unique and targeted mechanisms of action that have activity in patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. PMID:25089218

  2. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H. Bert (Ames, IA); Rosenberg, Eli I. (Ames, IA); Meyer, W. Thomas (Ames, IA); Gorbics, Mark S. (Ames, IA); Thomas, William D. (Boone, IA); McKay, Roy L. (Ames, IA); Homer, Jr., John F. (Ames, IA)

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler.

  3. Multiple pure tone noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fei; Sharma, Anupam; Paliath, Umesh; Shieh, Chingwei

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a fully numerical method for predicting multiple pure tones, also known as “Buzzsaw” noise. It consists of three steps that account for noise source generation, nonlinear acoustic propagation with hard as well as lined walls inside the nacelle, and linear acoustic propagation outside the engine. Noise generation is modeled by steady, part-annulus computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. A linear superposition algorithm is used to construct full-annulus shock/pressure pattern just upstream of the fan from part-annulus CFD results. Nonlinear wave propagation is carried out inside the duct using a pseudo-two-dimensional solution of Burgers' equation. Scattering from nacelle lip as well as radiation to farfield is performed using the commercial solver ACTRAN/TM. The proposed prediction process is verified by comparing against full-annulus CFD simulations as well as against static engine test data for a typical high bypass ratio aircraft engine with hardwall as well as lined inlets. Comparisons are drawn against nacelle unsteady pressure transducer measurements at two axial locations as well as against near- and far-field microphone array measurements outside the duct. This is the first fully numerical approach (no experimental or empirical input is required) to predict multiple pure tone noise generation, in-duct propagation and far-field radiation. It uses measured blade coordinates to calculate MPT noise.

  4. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H.B.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Meyer, W.T.; Gorbics, M.S.; Thomas, W.D.; McKay, R.L.; Homer, J.F. Jr.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler. 25 figs.

  5. Multiple Waveband Temperature Sensor (MWTS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath; Wilson, Daniel; Stirbl, Robert; Blea, Anthony; Harding, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of Multiple Waveband Temperature Sensor (MWTS). The MWTS project will result in a highly stable, monolithically integrated, high resolution infrared detector array sensor that records registered thermal imagery in four infrared wavebands to infer dynamic temperature profiles on a laser-irradiated ground target. An accurate surface temperature measurement of a target in extreme environments in a non-intrusive manner is required. The development challenge is to: determine optimum wavebands (suitable for target temperatures, nature of the targets and environments) to measure accurate target surface temperature independent of the emissivity, integrate simultaneously readable multiband Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIPs) in a single monolithic focal plane array (FPA) sensor and to integrate the hardware/software and system calibration for remote temperature measurements. The charge was therefore to develop and demonstrate a multiband infrared imaging camera with the detectors simultaneously sensitive to multiple distinct color bands for front surface temperature measurements Wavelength ( m) measurements. Amongst the requirements are: that the measurement system will not affect target dynamics or response to the laser irradiation and that the simplest criterion for spectral band selection is to choose those practically feasible spectral bands that create the most contrast between the objects or scenes of interest in the expected environmental conditions. There is in the presentation a review of the modeling and simulation of multi-wave infrared temperature measurement and also a review of the detector development and QWIP capacities.

  6. Time-resolved multiple scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Gerard J.

    1995-09-01

    Time and range resolved multiple-scattered radiation from the aureole around a traveling radiation, using an additional off axis scanning lidar-receiver, on top of an existing lidar. This system can be considered as an analogue equivalent of Bissonnette's fixed multi-field-of-view lidar. Because multiple-scattering is effective over much larger volumes than the illuminating volume by the laser pulse itself; the variations in the signals due to atmospheric structures are reduced to a certain extent. A simple second-order scattering model has been developed to understand this volume averaging effect. It has been shown that this model can be used to estimate the extinction coefficient of clouds and the average diameters of the cloud droplets. Lidar waveforms, obtained during a field experiment, have been inverted with the proposed model. The results appear to be in reasonable agreement with the in situ measured extinction using a nephelometer mounted on a cable car which was moving up and down a mountain slope through the clouds.

  7. A multiple-objective optimal exploration strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Exploration for natural resources is accomplished through partial sampling of extensive domains. Such imperfect knowledge is subject to sampling error. Complex systems of equations resulting from modelling based on the theory of correlated random fields are reduced to simple analytical expressions providing global indices of estimation variance. The indices are utilized by multiple objective decision criteria to find the best sampling strategies. The approach is not limited by geometric nature of the sampling, covers a wide range in spatial continuity and leads to a step-by-step procedure. ?? 1988.

  8. The Impact of Multiple Fluency Interventions on a Single Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morra, Jennifer; Tracey, Dianne H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of multiple fluency interventions on a single subject in grade three. Fluency interventions, including choral reading, echo reading, repeated reading, audio book modeling, and teacher modeling were implemented over a period of eight weeks. Results indicated that using multiple fluency strategies, rather…

  9. Clustering of multiple sclerosis in Galion, Ohio, 1982-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Ingalls, T.H. )

    1989-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that the outbreak of 30-40 cases of multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating syndromes in Galion, Ohio, USA, during 1982-1985 was related to an excess concentration of heavy-metal wastes, especially of cadmium and chromium in sewage and river water. Both multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis were diagnosed by board-certified neurologists.

  10. Multiple Trajectories of Successful Aging of Older and Younger Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Jones, Bobby L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to apply group-based trajectory analysis to identify multiple successful aging trajectories by multiple indicators and to examine the factors related to successful aging among the elderly population in Taiwan. Design and Methods: Nation-representative longitudinal data collected from 1993 to 2007 and…

  11. Variables associated with patient activation in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Goodworth, Marie-Christine R; Stepleman, Lara; Hibbard, Judith; Johns, Lisa; Wright, Dustin; Hughes, Mary D; Williams, Mitzi J

    2016-01-01

    Identifying variables associated with patient activation in the multiple sclerosis population could serve to facilitate better multiple sclerosis self-management behaviors. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 199 participants were recruited from a multiple sclerosis center in the Southeastern United States. Depression, multiple sclerosis quality of life, and multiple Sclerosis self-efficacy were all significantly correlated with patient activation. Results of a hierarchical regression indicated that patient activation was significantly related to educational attainment, depression, and self-efficacy but not to quality of life. The results suggest several possible targets for intervention to increase patient activation, including health literacy, depression symptoms, and self-efficacy for multiple sclerosis disease management. PMID:24591120

  12. [Current immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Paul, F; Ruprecht, K

    2015-08-01

    Following the introduction of interferon beta 1b as the first immunomodulatory therapy for multiple sclerosis (MS) in 1993, there are currently nine substances or substance classes approved for the treatment of MS (i.e. alemtuzumab, azathioprine, dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod, glatiramer acetate, interferon beta, mitoxantrone, natalizumab and teriflunomide). Major developments during the last 5 years include the approval of orally administered medications (i.e. fingolimod, teriflunomide and dimethyl fumarate), a monoclonal antibody (alemtuzumab), as well as glatiramer acetate with an administration frequency three times a week and a pegylated formulation of interferon beta 1a. The broadened therapeutic options enable a more differentiated and individualized therapy of MS; however, evidence-based data for therapeutic decision-making relevant in clinical practice are not always available. Rare but potentially severe and even life-threatening side effects of immunotherapies for MS require continuous pharmacovigilance and adherence to risk management plans. PMID:26253589

  13. 2014 Multiple Sclerosis Therapeutic Update

    PubMed Central

    Cree, Bruce A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid advances are occurring in multiple sclerosis disease modifying therapies. Recent therapeutic advances include modifications to improve tolerability of existing products (e.g. interferon beta and glatiramer acetate), development of novel anti-neuroinflammatory medications (e.g. fingolimod, teriflunomide and dimethyl fumarate, daclizumab, alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab) and investigation of treatments in progressive MS (e.g. natalizumab, mastinib, natalizumab, siponimod). The impact of vitamin D supplementation on the disease course in relapsing MS patients is also being studied in several clinical trials. This article reviews the current state of the field with a forward look to the next phase of MS research that could focus on strategies to promote remyelination and provide neuronal protection. PMID:24707333

  14. Multiple-stage integrating accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1986-01-01

    An accelerometer assembly is provided for use in activating a switch in response to multiple acceleration pulses in series. The accelerometer includes a housing forming a chamber. An inertial mass or piston is slidably disposed in the chamber and spring biased toward a first or reset position. A damping system is also provided to damp piston movement in response to first and subsequent acceleration pulses. Additionally, a cam, including a Z-shaped slot, and cooperating follower pin slidably received therein are mounted to the piston and the housing. The middle or cross-over leg of the Z-shaped slot cooperates with the follower pin to block or limit piston movement and prevent switch activation in response to a lone acceleration pulse. The switch of the assembly is only activated after two or more separate acceleration pulses are sensed and the piston reaches the end of the chamber opposite the reset position.

  15. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  16. Multiple importance sampling for PET.

    PubMed

    Szirmay-Kalos, Laszló; Magdics, Milán; Tóth, Balázs

    2014-04-01

    This paper proposes the application of multiple importance sampling in fully 3-D positron emission tomography to speed up the iterative reconstruction process. The proposed method combines the results of lines of responses (LOR) driven and voxel driven projections keeping their advantages, like importance sampling, performance and parallel execution on graphics processing units. Voxel driven methods can focus on point like features while LOR driven approaches are efficient in reconstructing homogeneous regions. The theoretical basis of the combination is the application of the mixture of the samples generated by the individual importance sampling methods, emphasizing a particular method where it is better than others. The proposed algorithms are built into the Tera-tomo system. PMID:24710165

  17. Conformal Mapping for Multiple Terminals

    E-print Network

    Wang, Weimin; Wang, Qiang; Ren, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Conformal mapping is an important mathematical tool in many physical and engineering fields, especially in electrostatics, fluid mechanics, classical mechanics, and transformation optics. However in the existing textbooks and literatures, it is only adopted to solve the problems which have only two terminals. Two terminals with electric potential differences, pressure difference, optical path difference, etc., can be mapped conformally onto a solvable structure, e.g., a rectangle, where the two terminals are mapped onto two opposite edges of the rectangle. Here we show a conformal mapping method for multiple terminals, which is more common in practical applications. Through accurate analysis of the boundary conditions, additional terminals or boundaries are folded in the inner of the mapped rectangle. Then the solution will not be influenced. The method is described in several typical situations and two application examples are detailed. The first example is an electrostatic actuator with three electrodes. A ...

  18. Multiple-stage integrating accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Devaney, H.F.

    1984-06-27

    An accelerometer assembly is provided for use in activating a switch in response to multiple acceleration pulses in series. The accelerometer includes a housing forming a chamber. An inertial mass or piston is slidably disposed in the chamber and spring biased toward a first or reset position. A damping system is also provided to damp piston movement in response to first and subsequent acceleration pulses. Additionally, a cam, including a Z-shaped slot, and cooperating follower pin slidably received therein are mounted to the piston and the housing. The middle or cross-over leg of the Z-shaped slot cooperates with the follower pin to block or limit piston movement and prevent switch activation in response to a lone acceleration pulse. The switch of the assembly is only activated after two or more separate acceleration pulses are sensed and the piston reaches the end of the chamber opposite the reset position.

  19. Candidate autoantigens in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S

    1999-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating CNS disease of putatively autoimmune origin. Novel models of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have demonstrated that T cells specific for various myelin and even nonmyelin proteins are potentially encephalitogenic. The encephalitogenic T cell response directed against different CNS antigens not only determines the lesional topography of CNS inflammation but also the composition of the inflammatory infiltrates. The heterogeneity of the lesional distribution seen in EAE might therefore be useful for the understanding of the various clinical subtypes seen in MS. In this review the possible candidate autoantigens in MS are discussed with special regard to the human T cell and B cell responses against various myelin and nonmyelin proteins. PMID:10408714

  20. [The epidemiology of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenshi; Takahashi, Haruka

    2015-01-01

    We investigated epidemiology of multiple myeloma (MM), referring to recent papers. This article includes three points: 1) the progression rate of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to MM, 2) the effect of radiation to prevalence of MM, and 3) secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM. The risk of progression from MGUS to MM is 1% per year. The researches of atomic bomb showed that there is no increase of risk of MM after radiation exposure. In contrast, studies investigating workers in nuclear power plants point out that radiation exposure over 50 mSv increases risk of MM. The incidence of secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM was about 5%. This article will help to review recent researches about epidemiology of MM. PMID:25626296

  1. [Multiple myeloma and renal impairment].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Renal impairment (RI) is a common complication and it impacts on a survival of patients with systemic multiple myeloma (MM). In a cohort study in Akita, about 20-26% patients with MM showed RI at diagnosis and it was independently associated with overall survival. Cast nephropathy, amyloidosis, and monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (Randall type) are known as three pathological findings of kidney in MM patients with RI. Recently, the term monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) was proposed because of a causal relationship between the monoclonal gammopathy and the renal damage. Bortezomib-based regimens may improve renal function in the majority of MM patients with RI. We discussed an epidemiology, clinic-pathological findings and treatments of MM with RI in this review. PMID:25626301

  2. Hereditary Multiple Exostoses with Pseudoaneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hadidy, Azmy M. Al-Smady, Moa'ath M.; Haroun, Azmi A.; Hamamy, Hanan A.; Ghoul, Suha M.; Shennak, Akram O.

    2007-06-15

    A 16-year-old male patient with hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) was found to have a pseudoaneurysm of the left popliteal artery caused by osteochondroma in the lower femur. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography without the need to perform an angiogram. The osteochondroma was excised and the popliteal artery was repaired with a saphenous graft. Vascular complications are extremely rare in HME, pseudoaneurysm being the most common and mostly located in the popliteal artery. This complication should be considered in young HME patients with a mass at the knee region. The radiological spectrum of investigations allows the diagnosis of this complication with proper and less invasive management procedures for the patient.

  3. Standardized multiple output power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive program to develop a prototype model of a standardized multiple output power supply for use in space flight applications is described. The prototype unit was tested and evaluated to assure that the design would provide near optimum performance for the planned application. The prototype design used a dc-to-dc converter incorporating reqenerative current feedback with a time-ratio controlled duty cycle to achieve high efficiency over a wide variation of input voltage and output loads. The packaging concept uses a mainframe capable of accommodating up to four inverter/regulator modules with one common input filter and housekeeping module. Each inverter/regulator module provides a maximum of 100 watts or 10 amperes. Each module is adaptable to operate at any voltage between 4.0 volts and 108 volts. The prototype unit contains +5, + or - 15 and +28 volt modules.

  4. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced. PMID:25473861

  5. Pulmonary hypertension complicating multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Mark, Tomer M.; Niesvizky, Ruben; Sobol, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an infrequently reported complication of multiple myeloma (MM). PH has been more commonly associated with amyloidosis, myeloproliferative diseases, and the POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, skin changes) syndrome. PH in MM is typically mild to moderate and may be secondary to a variety of conditions, which include left ventricular dysfunction, high-output cardiac failure, chronic kidney disease, treatment-related toxicities, and precapillary involvement. We describe 3 patients with MM and severe PH. Each patient underwent right heart catheterization. All patients demonstrated elevated pulmonary pressures, transpulmonary gradients, and pulmonary vascular resistance. Each patient was ultimately treated with pulmonary vasodilator therapy with improvement in cardiopulmonary symptoms. Additional studies are needed to define the prevalence, prognosis, and pathogenesis of PH in this complex population and to help clarify who may benefit from targeted PH therapy. PMID:26401262

  6. Autonomic Dysregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Pintér, Alexandra; Cseh, Domonkos; Sárközi, Adrienn; Illigens, Ben M.; Siepmann, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, progressive central neurological disease characterized by inflammation and demyelination. In patients with MS, dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system may present with various clinical symptoms including sweating abnormalities, urinary dysfunction, orthostatic dysregulation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and sexual dysfunction. These autonomic disturbances reduce the quality of life of affected patients and constitute a clinical challenge to the physician due to variability of clinical presentation and inconsistent data on diagnosis and treatment. Early diagnosis and initiation of individualized interdisciplinary and multimodal strategies is beneficial in the management of autonomic dysfunction in MS. This review summarizes the current literature on the most prevalent aspects of autonomic dysfunction in MS and provides reference to underlying pathophysiological mechanisms as well as means of diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26213927

  7. Hughes syndrome and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Uthman, I; Noureldine, M H A; Berjawi, A; Skaf, M; Haydar, A A; Merashli, M; Hughes, G R V

    2015-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) share common clinical, laboratory and radiological features. We reviewed all the English papers on MS and APS published in the literature from 1965 to 2014 using PubMed and Google Scholar. We found that APS can mimic antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL)-positive MS in many ways in its clinical presentation. Nevertheless, APS diagnosis, clinical manifestations and management differ from those of MS. aPL were found in MS patients with titers ranging from 2% to 88%. The distribution and volume of lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may help to differentiate MS from primary APS. In addition, atypical MS presentation can guide physicians toward an alternative diagnosis, especially when features of thrombosis and/or history of connective tissue disease are present. In that case, an anticoagulation trial could be worthwhile. PMID:25326228

  8. Supervisory Control Of Multiple Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Thurston L.

    1989-03-01

    Economically mandated force limitations combined with a steadily shrinking pool of candidates endowed with the requisite skill levels, dictates that modern military systems must multiply the individual soldier's performance. An optimal solution within the realm of current technology can be achieved by recognizing that (1) machines are more effective than humans when the task is routine and specified, and (2) humans process complex data sets and deal with the unpredictable better than machines. These observations lead naturally to a philosophy in which the human's role becomes a higher level function associated with planning, teaching, initiating, monitoring, and intervening when the machine gets into trouble, while the machine performs the codifiable tasks with deliberate efficiency. Martin Marietta is developing the capability for a single operator to simultaneously control multiple remote weapons platforms through the development of a supervisory controls testbed. This effort is described.

  9. vol. 160, no. 5 the american naturalist november 2002 Multiple Receivers, Multiple Ornaments, and a Trade-off

    E-print Network

    vol. 160, no. 5 the american naturalist november 2002 Multiple Receivers, Multiple Ornaments, and a Trade-off between Agonistic and Epigamic Signaling in a Widowbird Staffan Andersson,1,* Sarah R. Pryke,1: Sexual displays often involve several different ornamental traits. Yet most indicator models of sexual

  10. Naming Game with Multiple Hearers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bing; Chen, Guanrong; Chow, Tommy W. S.

    2013-05-01

    A new model called Naming Game with Multiple Hearers (NGMH) is proposed in this paper. A naming game over a population of individuals aims to reach consensus on the name of an object through pair-wise local interactions among all the individuals. The proposed NGMH model describes the learning process of a new word, in a population with one speaker and multiple hearers, at each interaction towards convergence. The characteristics of NGMH are examined on three types of network topologies, namely ER random-graph network, WS small-world network, and BA scale-free network. Comparative analysis on the convergence time is performed, revealing that the topology with a larger average (node) degree can reach consensus faster than the others over the same population. It is found that, for a homogeneous network, the average degree is the limiting value of the number of hearers, which reduces the individual ability of learning new words, consequently decreasing the convergence time; for a scale-free network, this limiting value is the deviation of the average degree. It is also found that a network with a larger clustering coefficient takes longer time to converge; especially a small-word network with smallest rewiring possibility takes longest time to reach convergence. As more new nodes are being added to scale-free networks with different degree distributions, their convergence time appears to be robust against the network-size variation. Most new findings reported in this paper are different from that of the single-speaker/single-hearer naming games documented in the literature.

  11. Migraine: Multiple Processes, Complex Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Noseda, Rodrigo; Borsook, David

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a common, multifactorial, disabling, recurrent, hereditary neurovascular headache disorder. It usually strikes sufferers a few times per year in childhood and then progresses to a few times per week in adulthood, particularly in females. Attacks often begin with warning signs (prodromes) and aura (transient focal neurological symptoms) whose origin is thought to involve the hypothalamus, brainstem, and cortex. Once the headache develops, it typically throbs, intensifies with an increase in intracranial pressure, and presents itself in association with nausea, vomiting, and abnormal sensitivity to light, noise, and smell. It can also be accompanied by abnormal skin sensitivity (allodynia) and muscle tenderness. Collectively, the symptoms that accompany migraine from the prodromal stage through the headache phase suggest that multiple neuronal systems function abnormally. As a consequence of the disease itself or its genetic underpinnings, the migraine brain is altered structurally and functionally. These molecular, anatomical, and functional abnormalities provide a neuronal substrate for an extreme sensitivity to fluctuations in homeostasis, a decreased ability to adapt, and the recurrence of headache. Advances in understanding the genetic predisposition to migraine, and the discovery of multiple susceptible gene variants (many of which encode proteins that participate in the regulation of glutamate neurotransmission and proper formation of synaptic plasticity) define the most compelling hypothesis for the generalized neuronal hyperexcitability and the anatomical alterations seen in the migraine brain. Regarding the headache pain itself, attempts to understand its unique qualities point to activation of the trigeminovascular pathway as a prerequisite for explaining why the pain is restricted to the head, often affecting the periorbital area and the eye, and intensifies when intracranial pressure increases. PMID:25926442

  12. Care Partners and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Quig, Mary Elizabeth; Tyry, Tuula; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Cutter, Gary; Shearin, Edward; Johnson, Kamau; Simsarian, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: Caring for someone with multiple sclerosis (MS) can be a stressful experience that requires clinical attention. We investigated the impact of caregiver stress on the emotional well-being and physical health of the MS care partner using the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry. Methods: Care partners of NARCOMS participants were invited to complete an online questionnaire that captured demographic characteristics, health status, caregiver burden as measured by the Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview, and impact of caregiving on employment. Results: Of 1446 care partners who agreed to participate, 1333 had complete data. Most were men (n = 825, 61.9%), with a mean (SD) age of 51.1 (11.2) years. The mean (SD) Zarit total score was 24.6 (15.1), placing the overall group in the mild caregiver burden range. Compared with male care partners, female care partners reported higher levels of burden and stress and more medication use for stress/anxiety and mood disorders. Male care partners were more likely to report physical concerns. Care partners of people with primary progressive MS reported greater perceived burden than did partners of people with secondary progressive MS and relapsing-remitting MS. More than 40% of care partners (559 of 1288) had missed work during the past year owing to caregiving responsibilities. Conclusions: Care partners of people with MS have substantial physical and psychological health concerns and experience an adverse impact on employment. Future research should evaluate how to mitigate the adverse effects of caregiving and evaluate positive aspects of the role.

  13. Migraine: multiple processes, complex pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Rami; Noseda, Rodrigo; Borsook, David

    2015-04-29

    Migraine is a common, multifactorial, disabling, recurrent, hereditary neurovascular headache disorder. It usually strikes sufferers a few times per year in childhood and then progresses to a few times per week in adulthood, particularly in females. Attacks often begin with warning signs (prodromes) and aura (transient focal neurological symptoms) whose origin is thought to involve the hypothalamus, brainstem, and cortex. Once the headache develops, it typically throbs, intensifies with an increase in intracranial pressure, and presents itself in association with nausea, vomiting, and abnormal sensitivity to light, noise, and smell. It can also be accompanied by abnormal skin sensitivity (allodynia) and muscle tenderness. Collectively, the symptoms that accompany migraine from the prodromal stage through the headache phase suggest that multiple neuronal systems function abnormally. As a consequence of the disease itself or its genetic underpinnings, the migraine brain is altered structurally and functionally. These molecular, anatomical, and functional abnormalities provide a neuronal substrate for an extreme sensitivity to fluctuations in homeostasis, a decreased ability to adapt, and the recurrence of headache. Advances in understanding the genetic predisposition to migraine, and the discovery of multiple susceptible gene variants (many of which encode proteins that participate in the regulation of glutamate neurotransmission and proper formation of synaptic plasticity) define the most compelling hypothesis for the generalized neuronal hyperexcitability and the anatomical alterations seen in the migraine brain. Regarding the headache pain itself, attempts to understand its unique qualities point to activation of the trigeminovascular pathway as a prerequisite for explaining why the pain is restricted to the head, often affecting the periorbital area and the eye, and intensifies when intracranial pressure increases. PMID:25926442

  14. Improving Multiple Fault Diagnosability using Possible Conflicts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Pulido, Belarmino

    2012-01-01

    Multiple fault diagnosis is a difficult problem for dynamic systems. Due to fault masking, compensation, and relative time of fault occurrence, multiple faults can manifest in many different ways as observable fault signature sequences. This decreases diagnosability of multiple faults, and therefore leads to a loss in effectiveness of the fault isolation step. We develop a qualitative, event-based, multiple fault isolation framework, and derive several notions of multiple fault diagnosability. We show that using Possible Conflicts, a model decomposition technique that decouples faults from residuals, we can significantly improve the diagnosability of multiple faults compared to an approach using a single global model. We demonstrate these concepts and provide results using a multi-tank system as a case study.

  15. Multiple acousto-optic q-switch

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1993-01-01

    An improved dynamic moire interferometer comprised of a lasing medium providing a plurality of beams of coherent light, a multiple q-switch producing multiple trains of 100,000 or more pulses per second, a combining means collimating multiple trains of pulses into substantially a single train and directing beams to specimen gratings affixed to a test material, and a controller, triggering and sequencing the emission of the pulses with the occurrence and recording of a dynamic loading event.

  16. Multiple acousto-optic q-switch

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.

    1993-12-07

    An improved dynamic moire interferometer comprised of a lasing medium providing a plurality of beams of coherent light, a multiple q-switch producing multiple trains of 100,000 or more pulses per second, a combining means collimating multiple trains of pulses into substantially a single train and directing beams to specimen gratings affixed to a test material, and a controller, triggering and sequencing the emission of the pulses with the occurrence and recording of a dynamic loading event.

  17. Evolution of multiple supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Evgenii O.; Nath, Biman B.; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Heating of the interstellar medium (ISM) by multiple supernova (SN) explosions is at the heart of producing galaxy-scale outflows in starburst galaxies. Standard models of outflows assume a high efficiency of SNe in heating the gas to X-ray emitting temperatures and filling the central region of starburst with hot gas, in order to launch vigorous outflows. We use hydrodynamical simulations to study the efficiency of multiple SNe in heating the ISM and filling the volume with gas of high temperatures. We argue that it is important for SN remnants to have a large filling factor and a large heating efficiency. For this, they have to be clustered in space and time, and keep exploding until the hot gas percolates through the whole region, in order to compensate for the radiative loss. In the case of a limited number of SNe, we find that although the filling factor can be large, the heating efficiency declines after reaching a large value. In the case of a continuous series of SNe, the hot gas (T ? 3 × 106 K) can percolate through the whole region after the total volume filling factor reaches a threshold of ˜0.3. The efficiency of heating the gas to X-ray temperatures can be ?0.1 after this percolation epoch, which occurs after a period of ?10 Myr for a typical starburst SN rate density of ?SN ? 10-9 pc-3 yr-1 and gas density of n ? 10 cm-3 in starburst nuclei regions. This matches the recent observations of a time delay of similar order between the onset of star formation and galactic outflows. The efficiency to heat gas up to X-ray temperatures (?106.5 K) roughly scales as ? _SN^{0.2} n^{-0.6}. For a typical SN rate density and gas density in starburst nuclei, the heating efficiency is ˜0.15, also consistent with previous interpretations from X-ray observations. We discuss the implications of our results with regard to observational diagnostics of ionic ratios and emission measures in starburst nuclei regions.

  18. Experimental verification of carrier multiplication in graphene.

    PubMed

    Plötzing, T; Winzer, T; Malic, E; Neumaier, D; Knorr, A; Kurz, H

    2014-09-10

    We report on the first direct experimental observation of carrier multiplication in graphene reaching a multiplication factor of up to 2 and persisting on a picoseconds time scale. Exploiting multicolor pump-probe measurement techniques, the excited nonequilibrium carrier distribution is retrieved on an ultrafast time scale. This provides access to the temporal evolution of the optically excited carrier density and thus allows quantitative conclusions on possible carrier multiplication. Microscopic time- and momentum-resolved calculations on the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of optically excited carriers confirm the observation of carrier multiplication under corresponding experimental conditions, suggesting graphene as a promising material for novel high-efficiency photodetection devices. PMID:25144320

  19. Can Multiple Myeloma Be Found Early?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Article Close Push escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Multiple Myeloma + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging ...

  20. Radiation Exposure - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... List of All Topics All Radiation Exposure - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Korean (???) Russian (???????) Spanish (español) Korean (???) Radiation ...

  1. Integrated Spectrophotometric Properties of Multiple Stellar Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-chul; Cartwright, Charles

    2016-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that almost all the Milky Way globular clusters (MWGCs) are of multiple stellar populations. Several earlier works have revealed that the color-magnitude diagrams of MWGCs are best reproduced by the combination of stellar populations with different ages and metallicities. However, their integrated spectrophotometric properties have not yet been validated. In this work, we employ the most up-to-dated stellar evolutionary tracks and isochrones from several different groups and calculate the integrated broadband colors and spectral indices for the Milky Way globular clusters and compare the theoretical predictions to the observations.

  2. Asymmetric acoustic transmission in multiple frequency bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong-xiang; Yuan, Shou-qi; Zhang, Shu-yi

    2015-11-01

    We report both experimentally and numerically that the multi-band device of the asymmetric acoustic transmission is realized by placing two periodic gratings with different periods on both sides of two brass plates immersed in water. The asymmetric acoustic transmission can exist in four frequency bands below 1500 kHz, which arises from the interaction between various diffractions from the two gratings and Lamb modes in the brass plates immersed in water. The results indicate that the device has the advantages of multiple band, broader bandwidth, and simpler structure. Our finding should have great potential applications in ultrasonic devices.

  3. Gender agreement and multiple referents.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana 'the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem') than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro 'the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas'). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use. PMID:21037930

  4. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

  5. Optical multiple access intersatellite links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, M. A.; Matthews, N. F.; Robson, D.

    1988-03-01

    The feasibility of an optical implementation of a multiple access medium data rate data relay service on the timescale of Euro-DRS was assessed. The service requirements for the feasibility study are based on the service which, in existing or planned systems, is implemented at S band. The system should communicate simultaneously with up to 8 LEO users in orbits of radii up to 7400 km providing 8 independently agile links. On each link, it should communicate at up to 2Mb/sec, at bit error rates of 10 to the minus 6th power in the return direction (LEO to GEO). A design concept for the GEO central node was produced. Mass and power estimates were evaluated and a preliminary spacecraft accommodation study performed. The system weighs 130 kg and has a power consumption of 300 W. The optical subsystem occupies a 75 x 75 x 30 cm volume on the top floor of the spacecraft. A number of trade-offs were identified and performed in reaching the final system configuration. The system should have 1 telescope system per user, a periscope mirror configuration for coarse pointing, a single telescope for both transmit and receive, and the use of both 0.8 micron for the LEO-GEO link and 1.3 micron for GEO-LEO.

  6. Multiple-measurement beam probe

    SciTech Connect

    Gilpatrick, J.D.; Grant, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Particle accelerators are becoming smaller and are producing more intense beams; therefore, it is critical that beam-diagnostic instrumentation provide accelerator operators and automated control systems with a complete set of beam information. Traditionally, these beam data were collected and processed using limited-bandwidth interceptive techniques. For the new-generation accelerators, we are developing a multiple-measurement microstrip probe to obtain broadband beam data from inside a drift tube without perturbing the beam. The cylindrical probe's dimensions are 6-cm OD by 1.0 m long, and the probe is mounted inside a drift tube. The probe (and its associated electronics) monitors bunched-beam current, energy, and transverse position by sensing the beam's electromagnetic fields through the annular opening in the drift tube. The electrical impedance is tightly controlled through the full length of the probe and transmission lines to maintain beam-induced signal fidelity. The probe's small, cylindrical structure is matched to beam-bunch characteristics at specific beamline locations so that signal-to-noise ratios are optimized. Surrounding the probe, a mechanical structure attaches to the drift-tube interior and the quadrupole magnets; thus, the entire assembly's mechanical and electrical centers can be aligned and calibrated with respect to the rest of the linac.

  7. Remyelination Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Harlow, Danielle E.; Honce, Justin M.; Miravalle, Augusto A.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system that results in destruction of the myelin sheath that surrounds axons and eventual neurodegeneration. Current treatments approved for the treatment of relapsing forms of MS target the aberrant immune response and successfully reduce the severity of attacks and frequency of relapses. Therapies are still needed that can repair damage particularly for the treatment of progressive forms of MS for which current therapies are relatively ineffective. Remyelination can restore neuronal function and prevent further neuronal loss and clinical disability. Recent advancements in our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating myelination, as well as the development of high-throughput screens to identify agents that enhance myelination, have lead to the identification of many potential remyelination therapies currently in preclinical and early clinical development. One problem that has plagued the development of treatments to promote remyelination is the difficulty in assessing remyelination in patients with current imaging techniques. Powerful new imaging technologies are making it easier to discern remyelination in patients, which is critical for the assessment of these new therapeutic strategies during clinical trials. This review will summarize what is currently known about remyelination failure in MS, strategies to overcome this failure, new therapeutic treatments in the pipeline for promoting remyelination in MS patients, and new imaging technologies for measuring remyelination in patients. PMID:26696956

  8. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions. PMID:26376489

  9. Multiple sclerosis: Prospects and promise.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Stephen L; Chan, Jonah R; Oksenberg, Jorge R

    2013-09-01

    We have entered a golden era in multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Two decades ago, our understanding of the disease was largely descriptive and there were no approved therapies to modify the natural history of MS. Today, delineation of immune pathways relevant to MS have been clarified; a comprehensive map of genes that influence risk compiled; clues to environmental triggers identified; noninvasive in vivo monitoring of the MS disease process has been revolutionized by high-field MRI; and many effective therapies for the early, relapsing, component of MS now exist. However, major challenges remain. We still have no useful treatment for progressive MS (the holy grail of MS research), no means to repair injured axons or protect neurons, and extremely limited evidence to guide treatment decisions. Recent advances have set in place a foundation for development of increasingly selective immunotherapy for patients; application of genetic and genomic discoveries to improve therapeutic options; development of remyelination or neuroprotection therapies for progressive MS; and integrating clinical, imaging and genomic data for personalized medicine. MS has now advanced from the backwaters of autoimmune disease research to the front-line, and definitive answers, including cures, are now realistic goals for the next decade. Many of the breakthrough discoveries in MS have also resulted from meaningful interactions across disciplines, and especially from translational and basic scientists working closely with clinicians, highlighting that the clinical value of discoveries are most often revealed when ideas developed in the laboratory are tested at the bedside. PMID:23955638

  10. The thalamus and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Minagar, Alireza; Barnett, Michael H.; Benedict, Ralph H.B.; Pelletier, Daniel; Pirko, Istvan; Sahraian, Mohamad Ali; Frohman, Elliott

    2013-01-01

    The paired thalamic nuclei are gray matter (GM) structures on both sides of the third ventricle that play major roles in cortical activation, relaying sensory information to the higher cortical centers that influence cognition. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the human CNS that affects both the white matter (WM) and GM. A number of clinical observations as well as recent neuropathologic and neuroimaging studies have clearly demonstrated extensive involvement of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and neocortex in patients with MS. Modern MRI techniques permit visualization of GM lesions and measurement of atrophy. These contemporary methods have fundamentally altered our understanding of the pathophysiologic nature of MS. Evidence confirms the contention that GM injury can be detected in the earliest phases of MS, and that iron deposition and atrophy of deep gray nuclei are closely related to the magnitude of inflammation. Extensive involvement of GM, and particularly of the thalamus, is associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations including cognitive decline, motor deficits, fatigue, painful syndromes, and ocular motility disturbances in patients with MS. In this review, we characterize the neuropathologic, neuroimaging, and clinical features of thalamic involvement in MS. Further, we underscore the contention that neuropathologic and neuroimaging correlative investigations of thalamic derangements in MS may elucidate not heretofore considered pathobiological underpinnings germane to understanding the ontogeny, magnitude, and progression of the disease process. PMID:23296131

  11. Visualizing multiple word similarity measures.

    PubMed

    Kievit-Kylar, Brent; Jones, Michael N

    2012-09-01

    Although many recent advances have taken place in corpus-based tools, the techniques used to guide exploration and evaluation of these systems have advanced little. Typically, the plausibility of a semantic space is explored by sampling the nearest neighbors to a target word and evaluating the neighborhood on the basis of the modeler's intuition. Tools for visualization of these large-scale similarity spaces are nearly nonexistent. We present a new open-source tool to plot and visualize semantic spaces, thereby allowing researchers to rapidly explore patterns in visual data that describe the statistical relations between words. Words are visualized as nodes, and word similarities are shown as directed edges of varying strengths. The "Word-2-Word" visualization environment allows for easy manipulation of graph data to test word similarity measures on their own or in comparisons between multiple similarity metrics. The system contains a large library of statistical relationship models, along with an interface to teach them from various language sources. The modularity of the visualization environment allows for quick insertion of new similarity measures so as to compare new corpus-based metrics against the current state of the art. The software is available at www.indiana.edu/~semantic/word2word/. PMID:22810803

  12. Rehabilitation challenges in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Burks, Jack S.; Bigley, George Kim; Hill, Harry Haydon

    2009-01-01

    While current immunomodulating drugs aim to reduce multiple sclerosis (MS) exacerbations and slow disease progression, rehabilitation aims to improve and maintain the functional abilities of patients in the face of disease progression. An increasing number of journal articles are describing the value of the many rehabilitation interventions that can be used throughout the course of the disease, from the initial symptoms to the advanced stages. An integrated team of healthcare professionals is necessary to address a myriad of problems to reduce impairments, disabilities, and handicaps. The problems may be related to fatigue, weakness, spasticity, mobility, balance, pain, cognition, mood, relationships, bowel, bladder, sexual function, swallowing, speech, transportation, employment, recreation, and activities of daily living (ADL) such as dressing, eating, bathing, and household chores. The team can help prevent complications and secondary disabilities, while increasing patient safety. Improving neurologically related function, maintaining good relationships, and feeling productive and creative adds enormously to the quality of life of people with MS and their families. Rehabilitation is more than an ‘extra’ service that is given after medical therapies; it is an integral part of the management of the diverse set of problems encountered throughout the course of the disease. An interdisciplinary team may have many members, including physicians, nurses, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists, psychotherapists, social workers, recreational therapists, vocational rehabilitation therapists, patients, families, and other caregivers. PMID:20182578

  13. Evidence for Multiple Rhythmic Skills

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Rhythms, or patterns in time, play a vital role in both speech and music. Proficiency in a number of rhythm skills has been linked to language ability, suggesting that certain rhythmic processes in music and language rely on overlapping resources. However, a lack of understanding about how rhythm skills relate to each other has impeded progress in understanding how language relies on rhythm processing. In particular, it is unknown whether all rhythm skills are linked together, forming a single broad rhythmic competence, or whether there are multiple dissociable rhythm skills. We hypothesized that beat tapping and rhythm memory/sequencing form two separate clusters of rhythm skills. This hypothesis was tested with a battery of two beat tapping and two rhythm memory tests. Here we show that tapping to a metronome and the ability to adjust to a changing tempo while tapping to a metronome are related skills. The ability to remember rhythms and to drum along to repeating rhythmic sequences are also related. However, we found no relationship between beat tapping skills and rhythm memory skills. Thus, beat tapping and rhythm memory are dissociable rhythmic aptitudes. This discovery may inform future research disambiguating how distinct rhythm competencies track with specific language functions. PMID:26376489

  14. Emerging therapies for multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Podar, Klaus; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Hideshima, Teru; Vallet, Sonia; Richardson, Paul G; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal plasma cell malignancy clinically characterized by osteolytic lesions, immunodeficiency, and renal disease. There are an estimated 750,000 people diagnosed with MM worldwide, with a median overall survival of 3 – 5 years. Besides chromosomal aberrations, translocations, and mutations in essential growth and tumor-suppressor genes, accumulating data strongly highlight the pathophysiologic role of the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment in MM pathogenesis. Based on this knowledge, several novel agents have been identified, and treatment options in MM have fundamentally changed during the last decade. Thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide have been incorporated into conventional cytotoxic and transplantation regimens, first in relapsed and refractory and now also in newly diagnosed MM. Despite these significant advances, there remains an urgent need for more efficacious and tolerable drugs. Indeed, a plethora of preclinical agents awaits translation from the bench to the bedside. This article reviews the scientific rationale of new therapy regimens and newly identified therapeutic agents – small molecules as well as therapeutic antibodies – that hold promise to further improve outcome in MM. PMID:19249983

  15. Skin segmentation using multiple thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, Francesca; Schettini, Raimondo

    2006-01-01

    The segmentation of skin regions in color images is a preliminary step in several applications. Many different methods for discriminating between skin and non-skin pixels are available in the literature. The simplest, and often applied, methods build what is called an "explicit skin cluster" classifier which expressly defines the boundaries of the skin cluster in certain color spaces. These binary methods are very popular as they are easy to implement and do not require a training phase. The main difficulty in achieving high skin recognition rates, and producing the smallest possible number of false positive pixels, is that of defining accurate cluster boundaries through simple, often heuristically chosen, decision rules. In this study we apply a genetic algorithm to determine the boundaries of the skin clusters in multiple color spaces. To quantify the performance of these skin detection methods, we use recall and precision scores. A good classifier should provide both high recall and high precision, but generally, as recall increases, precision decreases. Consequently, we adopt a weighted mean of precision and recall as the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. Keeping in mind that different applications may have sharply different requirements, the weighting coefficients can be chosen to favor either high recall or high precision, or to satisfy a reasonable tradeoff between the two, depending on application demands. To train the genetic algorithm (GA) and test the performance of the classifiers applying the GA suggested boundaries, we use the large and heterogeneous Compaq skin database.

  16. When goals collide: monitoring the goals of multiple characters.

    PubMed

    Magliano, Joseph P; Taylor, Holly A; Kim, Hyun-Jeong Joyce

    2005-12-01

    Most story plots contain multiple characters who are independent, interact, and often have conflicting goals. One would expect that narrative understanding would require monitoring of the goals, concerns, and situations of multiple agents. There is considerable evidence that understanders monitor the primary protagonist's goal plans (e.g., Suh & Trabasso, 1993). However, there is relatively little research on the extent to which understanders monitor the goals of multiple agents. We investigated the impact of characters' roles and prominence on the extent to which understanders monitor the goal plans of multiple characters in a feature length film. In Experiment 1, participants made situation change judgments, and in Experiment 2, they verbally described scenes. Both types of judgments indicated that viewers monitor the goals and plans of multiple agents but do so to a greater extent for characters more prominent to the plotline. PMID:16615383

  17. Taking a "Simple View" of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills as a Predictor of Multiple Measures of Third-Grade Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, Kristen A.; Blachman, Benita A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity evidence of first-grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) scores for predicting third-grade reading comprehension scores. We used the "simple view" of reading as the theoretical foundation for examining the extent to which DIBELS subtest scores predict…

  18. Multiplicity associated to high p{sub T} events and multiplicity fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Cunqueiro, L.; Pajares, C.; Dias de Deus, J.

    2006-09-15

    It is shown that the difference between the multiplicity associated to high p{sub T} events and the unbiased multiplicity is given by the normalized variance of the multiplicity distribution, as a consequence of high p{sub T} events being self-shadowed. We discuss the possibility of checking the nonmonotonic behavior with centrality of the normalized variance by measuring the difference between multiplicities.

  19. Schooling Built on the Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Christine D.

    2009-01-01

    This article features a school built on multiple intelligences. As the first multiple intelligences school in the world, the Key Learning Community shapes its students' days to include significant time in the musical, spatial and bodily-kinesthetic intelligences, as well as the more traditional areas of logical-mathematical and linguistics. In…

  20. 47 CFR 73.3555 - Multiple ownership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple ownership. 73.3555 Section 73.3555 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.3555 Multiple ownership. (a)(1) Local radio ownership rule. A person or single entity...

  1. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following...

  2. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  3. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  4. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  5. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following...

  6. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following...

  7. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the ship's service loads, to comply with § 129.310(a) of this...

  8. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the ship's service loads, to comply with § 129.310(a) of this...

  9. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the ship's service loads, to comply with § 129.310(a) of this...

  10. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  11. 46 CFR 120.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple generators. 120.322 Section 120.322 Shipping... and Distribution Systems § 120.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following requirements must be met: (a) Each generator...

  12. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following...

  13. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the ship's service loads, to comply with § 129.310(a) of this...

  14. 46 CFR 183.322 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multiple generators. 183.322 Section 183.322 Shipping...) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.322 Multiple generators. When a vessel is equipped with two or more generators to supply ship's service power, the following...

  15. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129.323 Shipping... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply electricity for the ship's service loads, to comply with § 129.310(a) of this...

  16. Integer Programming Duality in Multiple Objective Programming

    E-print Network

    Klamroth, Kathrin

    -weighted Tchebycheff programs, using a cutting planes approach and a branch and bound methodology, respectively. FromInteger Programming Duality in Multiple Objective Programming Kathrin Klamroth1 Jørgen Tind1 for multiple crite- ria integer programming. However, in this case one may apply the more general e

  17. 1 Modular Design multiple choice quiz

    E-print Network

    Verschelde, Jan

    / 28 #12;modular design software cycle & quality 1 Modular Design multiple choice quiz bottom-up design to Computer Science (MCS 260) software cycle & quality L-22 4 March 2015 5 / 28 #12;modular design software cycle & quality 1 Modular Design multiple choice quiz bottom-up design 2 Python Implementation

  18. 43 CFR 3400.1 - Multiple development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Multiple development. 3400.1 Section 3400... Multiple development. (a) The granting of an exploration license, a license to mine or a lease for the exploration, development, or production of coal deposits shall preclude neither the issuance of...

  19. 43 CFR 3400.1 - Multiple development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Multiple development. 3400.1 Section 3400... Multiple development. (a) The granting of an exploration license, a license to mine or a lease for the exploration, development, or production of coal deposits shall preclude neither the issuance of...

  20. 43 CFR 3400.1 - Multiple development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Multiple development. 3400.1 Section 3400... Multiple development. (a) The granting of an exploration license, a license to mine or a lease for the exploration, development, or production of coal deposits shall preclude neither the issuance of...

  1. Developing Multiplicative Thinking from Additive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Andreasen, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    As students progress through elementary school, they encounter mathematics concepts that shift from additive to multiplicative situations (NCTM 2000). When they encounter fraction problems that require multiplicative thinking, they tend to incorrectly extend additive properties from whole numbers (Post et al. 1985). As a result, topics such as …

  2. Multiple Networks for Heterogeneous Distributed Applications

    E-print Network

    Melin, Emmanuel

    --multiple networks, distributed applications, performance prediction, FlowVR Sylvain Jubertie, Emmanuel Melin in its application design. The FlowVR middleware offers a way to build distributed applications prediction model for FlowVR applications which is adapted to heterogeneous SMP clusters with multiple

  3. 40 CFR 791.52 - Multiple tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Multiple tests. 791.52 Section 791.52...) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.52 Multiple tests. When more than one of a particular kind of test required by the test rule is performed, the additional costs will be shared among...

  4. 40 CFR 791.52 - Multiple tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Multiple tests. 791.52 Section 791.52...) DATA REIMBURSEMENT Basis for Proposed Order § 791.52 Multiple tests. When more than one of a particular kind of test required by the test rule is performed, the additional costs will be shared among...

  5. Coordinating Multiple Rovers with Interdependent Science Objectives

    E-print Network

    Schaffer, Steven

    Coordinating Multiple Rovers with Interdependent Science Objectives Tara Estlin, Daniel Gaines Grove Drive Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 +1-818-393-5375 {firstname.lastname}@jpl.nasa.gov ABSTRACT This paper describes an integrated system for coordinating multiple rover behavior with the overall goal

  6. 7 CFR 1437.13 - Multiple benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Multiple benefits. 1437.13 Section 1437...Provisions § 1437.13 Multiple benefits. (a) If a producer is...payments under this part and benefits under any other program...Honeybees, and Farm-Raised Fish Program (ELAP) payments...

  7. 14 CFR 21.149 - Multiple products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple products. 21.149 Section 21.149... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Certificates § 21.149 Multiple products. The Administrator may authorize more than one type certificated product to be manufactured under the terms of one...

  8. 14 CFR 21.149 - Multiple products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Multiple products. 21.149 Section 21.149... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Certificates § 21.149 Multiple products. The Administrator may authorize more than one type certificated product to be manufactured under the terms of one...

  9. 36 CFR 219.10 - Multiple use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Multiple use. 219.10 Section 219.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land Management Planning § 219.10 Multiple use. While meeting the requirements of §§ 219.8 and 219.9, the plan must provide...

  10. 36 CFR 219.10 - Multiple use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Multiple use. 219.10 Section 219.10 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land Management Planning § 219.10 Multiple use. While meeting the requirements of §§ 219.8 and 219.9, the plan must provide...

  11. 43 CFR 3400.1 - Multiple development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Multiple development. 3400.1 Section 3400... Multiple development. (a) The granting of an exploration license, a license to mine or a lease for the exploration, development, or production of coal deposits shall preclude neither the issuance of...

  12. The Continuous Coagulation Equation with Multiple Fragmentation

    E-print Network

    Magdeburg, Universität

    The Continuous Coagulation Equation with Multiple Fragmentation Ankik Kumar Giri , Jitendra Kumar; Multiple Fragmentation; Existence; Uniqueness Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) 45J05, 34A34, 45L10). The coagulation Corresponding author. Tel +49 391 6711629; Fax +49 391 6718073 Email address: ankik.giri

  13. Multiple Intelligences of Students at Jordanian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khataybeh, Abdalla; Al-Sheikh, Kholoud

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at investigating different intelligence types among Jordanian students at different public and private universities in Jordan. To achieve such aim, it sought to identify and rank multiple intelligences that characterize students at Jordanian universities, and to identify and rank the differences in multiple intelligences…

  14. Stochastic Convex Optimization with Multiple Objectives

    E-print Network

    Jin, Rong

    stochastic multiple objective optimization is to linearly combine multiple objectives with a fixed weight r Rn denote random returns of the n risky assets, and w W {w Rn + : n i wi = 1} denote the distribution of an investor's wealth over all assets. The return for an investment distribution is defined as w

  15. Extracting Coactivated Features from Multiple Data Sets

    E-print Network

    Hyvärinen, Aapo

    Extracting Coactivated Features from Multiple Data Sets Michael U. Gutmann and Aapo Hyv¨arinen Dept of Canonical Corre- lation Analysis (CCA) to find related structure in multiple data sets. The new method allows to analyze an arbitrary number of data sets, and the extracted features capture higher

  16. On Sunflowers and Matrix Multiplication Amir Shpilka

    E-print Network

    Shpilka, Amir

    On Sunflowers and Matrix Multiplication Noga Alon Amir Shpilka Christopher Umans Abstract We present several variants of the sunflower conjecture of Erdos and Rado [ER60] and discuss the relations matrix multiplication algorithms. Specifically, we show that the Erdos-Rado sunflower conjecture (if true

  17. Multiple Testing with Modified Bonferroni Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jianmin; And Others

    This paper discusses the issue of multiple testing and overall Type I error rates in contexts other than multiple comparisons of means. It demonstrates, using a 5 x 5 correlation matrix, the application of 5 recently developed modified Bonferroni procedures developed by the following authors: (1) Y. Hochberg (1988); (2) B. S. Holland and M. D.…

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Multiple system atrophy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... information on the diagnosis or management of multiple system atrophy in Educational resources and Patient support . General information about the diagnosis and management of genetic conditions is available in the Handbook. ... about multiple system atrophy? You may find the following resources about ...

  19. Making the Most of Multiple Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookhart, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice questions draw criticism because many people perceive they test only recall or atomistic, surface-level objectives and do not require students to think. Although this can be the case, it does not have to be that way. Susan M. Brookhart suggests that multiple-choice questions are a useful part of any teacher's questioning repertoire…

  20. Evidence of Multiple Intelligences in FLES Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Beatriz Garcia; Armstrong, Joyce; Marchese, Marc

    2010-01-01

    According to the Theory of Multiple Intelligences of Howard Gardner, there are eight intelligences. In the present study with two FLES classes, 35 students were asked to present Spanish vocabulary to their class to link their preferences of techniques used to introduce the vocabulary to their classmates with a spectrum of their multiple

  1. Knowledge repositories for multiple uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

    1991-01-01

    In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

  2. Multiple Fixed-Point Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edler, F.; Ederer, P.

    2014-07-01

    The paper describes the construction and investigation of multiple fixed-point cells usable for the calibration of thermocouples at temperatures above 1100 C. These fixed-point cells made of pure graphite are characterized by a simple construction as well as by a flexible application. The cylindrical basic mount is equipped with a central hole for the insertion of a thermocouple, and with eight drill holes containing exchangeable cartridges which surround the central bore axially symmetrically. The cartridges are filled with different metal-carbon (Me-C) eutectics: cobalt-carbon (Co-C), nickel-carbon (Ni-C), palladium-carbon (Pd-C), and rhodium-carbon (Rh-C). The melting temperatures of the different Me-C eutectics of the cartridges were compared to the melting temperatures of commonly used Me-C eutectic fixed-point cells of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt by using a Pt/Pd thermocouple (Co-C, Ni-C) and Type B thermocouples (Pd-C, Rh-C). The uncertainties () of the emfs measured at the inflection points of the melting curves are in the order of a few V which correspond to temperature equivalents between 0.3 K and 0.6 K. Furthermore, the difference between the melting temperatures of the Co-C and Ni-C cartridges was found to be 4.2 K by using simultaneously two sets of four cartridges filled with the two materials and placed alternately in the eight outer holes of one basic mount.

  3. Multiple sclerosis in nurse anaesthetists

    PubMed Central

    Flodin, U; Landtblom, A; Axelson, O

    2003-01-01

    Background: Volatile anaesthetics are chemically related to organic solvents used in industry. Exposure to industrial solvents may increase the incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS). Aim: To examine the risk among nurse anaesthetists of contracting MS. Methods: Nurses with MS were identified by an appeal in the monthly magazine of the Swedish Nurse Union and a magazine of the Neurological Patients Association in Sweden. Ninety nurses with MS responded and contacted our clinic. They were given a questionnaire, which was filled in by 85 subjects; 13 of these were nurse anaesthetists. The questionnaire requested information about work tasks, exposure, diagnosis, symptoms, and year. The number of active nurse anaesthetists was estimated based on information from the National Board of Health and Welfare and The Nurse Union. Incidence data for women in the region of Gothenburg and Denmark were used as the reference to estimate the risk by calculation of the standardised incidence ratio (SIR). Results: Eleven of the 13 nurse anaesthetists were exposed to anaesthetic gases before onset of MS. Mean duration of exposure before diagnosis was 14.4 years (range 4–27 years). Ten cases were diagnosed in the study period 1980–99, resulting in significantly increased SIRs of 2.9 and 2.8 with the Gothenburg and the Danish reference data, respectively. Conclusion: Although based on crude data and a somewhat approximate analysis, this study provides preliminary evidence for an excess risk of MS in nurse anaesthetists. The risk may be even greater than observed, as the case ascertainment might have been incomplete because of the crude method applied. Further studies in this respect are clearly required to more definitely assess the risk. PMID:12499460

  4. Nutrition Facts in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Rossano, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    The question whether dietary habits and lifestyle have influence on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still a matter of debate, and at present, MS therapy is not associated with any information on diet and lifestyle. Here we show that dietary factors and lifestyle may exacerbate or ameliorate MS symptoms by modulating the inflammatory status of the disease both in relapsing-remitting MS and in primary-progressive MS. This is achieved by controlling both the metabolic and inflammatory pathways in the human cell and the composition of commensal gut microbiota. What increases inflammation are hypercaloric Western-style diets, characterized by high salt, animal fat, red meat, sugar-sweetened drinks, fried food, low fiber, and lack of physical exercise. The persistence of this type of diet upregulates the metabolism of human cells toward biosynthetic pathways including those of proinflammatory molecules and also leads to a dysbiotic gut microbiota, alteration of intestinal immunity, and low-grade systemic inflammation. Conversely, exercise and low-calorie diets based on the assumption of vegetables, fruit, legumes, fish, prebiotics, and probiotics act on nuclear receptors and enzymes that upregulate oxidative metabolism, downregulate the synthesis of proinflammatory molecules, and restore or maintain a healthy symbiotic gut microbiota. Now that we know the molecular mechanisms by which dietary factors and exercise affect the inflammatory status in MS, we can expect that a nutritional intervention with anti-inflammatory food and dietary supplements can alleviate possible side effects of immune-modulatory drugs and the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome and thus favor patient wellness. PMID:25694551

  5. Nutrition facts in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Riccio, Paolo; Rossano, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    The question whether dietary habits and lifestyle have influence on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS) is still a matter of debate, and at present, MS therapy is not associated with any information on diet and lifestyle. Here we show that dietary factors and lifestyle may exacerbate or ameliorate MS symptoms by modulating the inflammatory status of the disease both in relapsing-remitting MS and in primary-progressive MS. This is achieved by controlling both the metabolic and inflammatory pathways in the human cell and the composition of commensal gut microbiota. What increases inflammation are hypercaloric Western-style diets, characterized by high salt, animal fat, red meat, sugar-sweetened drinks, fried food, low fiber, and lack of physical exercise. The persistence of this type of diet upregulates the metabolism of human cells toward biosynthetic pathways including those of proinflammatory molecules and also leads to a dysbiotic gut microbiota, alteration of intestinal immunity, and low-grade systemic inflammation. Conversely, exercise and low-calorie diets based on the assumption of vegetables, fruit, legumes, fish, prebiotics, and probiotics act on nuclear receptors and enzymes that upregulate oxidative metabolism, downregulate the synthesis of proinflammatory molecules, and restore or maintain a healthy symbiotic gut microbiota. Now that we know the molecular mechanisms by which dietary factors and exercise affect the inflammatory status in MS, we can expect that a nutritional intervention with anti-inflammatory food and dietary supplements can alleviate possible side effects of immune-modulatory drugs and the symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome and thus favor patient wellness. PMID:25694551

  6. Insights into the evolution of freshwater sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillina): Barcoding and phylogenetic data from Lake Tanganyika endemics indicate multiple invasions and unsettle existing taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Weier, Tina; de Voogd, Nicole J; Wörheide, Gert; Sutcliffe, Patricia; Todd, Jonathan A; Michel, Ellinor

    2011-10-01

    Sponges are a conspicuous element in many benthic habitats including in Africa's oldest, deepest lake, Lake Tanganyika. Despite their prevalence and pivotal ecological role as filter feeders, knowledge of the evolutionary history of sponges is in its infancy. Here, we provide the first molecular analysis targeting the evolution of sponges from Lake Tanganyika. Independent markers indicate the occurrence of several colonisation events which have shaped the current Tanganyikan lacustrine sponge biodiversity. This is in contrast to a range of previously studied organisms that have diversified within the lake from single lineages. Our tree reconstructions indicate the presence of two genera, Oncosclera and Eunapius, which are globally distributed. Therefore, we reject the hypothesis of monophyly for the sponges from Lake Tanganyika and challenge existing higher taxonomic structure for freshwater sponges. PMID:21669294

  7. Objectively-assessed and self-reported sedentary time in relation to multiple socioeconomic status indicators among adults in England: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Coombs, Ngaire; Rowlands, Alex; Shelton, Nicola; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and multidomain self-reported and objectively-assessed sedentary time (ST). Design Cross-sectional. Setting General population households in England. Participants 2289 adults aged 16–96?years who participated in the 2008 Health Survey for England. Outcomes Accelerometer-measured ST, and self-reported television time, non-television leisure-time sitting and occupational sitting/standing. We examined multivariable associations between household income, social class, education, area deprivation for each SEP indicator (including a 5-point composite SEP score computed by aggregating individual SEP indicators) and each ST indicator using generalised linear models. Results Accelerometry-measured total ST and occupational sitting/standing were positively associated with SEP score and most of its constituent SEP indicators, while television time was negatively associated with SEP score and education level. Area-level deprivation was largely unrelated to ST. Those in the lowest composite SEP group spent 64 (95% CIs 52 to 76) and 72 (48 to 98), fewer minutes/day in total ST and occupational sitting/standing compared to those in the top SEP group, and an additional 48 (35–60) min/day watching television (p<0.001 for linear trend). Stratified analyses showed that these associations between composite SEP score and total ST were evident only among participants who were in employment. Conclusions Occupational sitting seems to drive the positive association between SEP and total ST. Lower SEP is linked to higher TV viewing times. PMID:25377012

  8. Multiple memory systems as substrates for multiple decision systems Bradley B. Doll a,b,

    E-print Network

    Ochsner, Kevin

    Multiple memory systems as substrates for multiple decision systems Bradley B. Doll a,b, , Daphna-based decision making is supported by multiple computational strategies. In particular, animal and human behavior to measure either capacity. Human subjects per- formed two tasks, a learning and generalization task

  9. Multiple-Source and Multiple-Destination Charge Migration in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage Systems*

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    Multiple-Source and Multiple-Destination Charge Migration in Hybrid Electrical Energy Storage massimo.poncino@polito.it Abstract-- Hybrid electrical energy storage (HEES) systems consist of multiple banks of heterogeneous electrical energy storage (EES) elements that are connected to each other through

  10. Effects of Creatine and Sodium Bicarbonate Coingestion on Multiple Indices of Mechanical Power Output During Repeated Wingate Tests in Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Corbin; Rogerson, David; Ranchordas, Mayur; Ruddock, Alan

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints. Nine well-trained men (age = 21.6 ± 0.9 yr, stature = 1.82 ± 0.05 m, body mass = 80.1 ±12.8 kg) participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, counterbalanced, crossover study using six 10-s repeated Wingate tests. Participants ingested either a placebo (0.5 g·kg(-1) of maltodextrin), 20 g·d(-1) of creatine monohydrate + placebo, 0.3 g·kg(-1) of sodium bicarbonate + placebo, or coingestion + placebo for 7 days, with a 7-day washout between conditions. Participants were randomized into two groups with a differential counterbalanced order. Creatine conditions were ordered first and last. Indices of mechanical power output (W), total work (J) and fatigue index (W·s(-1)) were measured during each test and analyzed using the magnitude of differences between groups in relation to the smallest worthwhile change in performance. Compared with placebo, both creatine (effect size (ES) = 0.37-0.83) and sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.22-0.46) reported meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output. Coingestion provided small meaningful improvements on indices of mechanical power output (W) compared with sodium bicarbonate (ES = 0.28-0.41), but not when compared with creatine (ES = -0.21-0.14). Coingestion provided a small meaningful improvement in total work (J; ES = 0.24) compared with creatine. Fatigue index (W·s(-1)) was impaired in all conditions compared with placebo. In conclusion, there was no meaningful additive effect of creatine and sodium bicarbonate coingestion on mechanical power during repeated sprints. PMID:25203421

  11. A method for extracting burned areas from Landsat TM/ETM+ images by soft aggregation of multiple Spectral Indices and a region growing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroppiana, D.; Bordogna, G.; Carrara, P.; Boschetti, M.; Boschetti, L.; Brivio, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    Since fire is a major threat to forests and wooded areas in the Mediterranean environment of Southern Europe, systematic regional fire monitoring is a necessity. Satellite data constitute a unique cost-effective source of information on the occurrence of fire events and on the extent of the area burned. Our objective is to develop a (semi-)automated algorithm for mapping burned areas from medium spatial resolution (30 m) satellite data. In this article we present a multi-criteria approach based on Spectral Indices, soft computing techniques and a region growing algorithm; theoretically this approach relies on the convergence of partial evidence of burning provided by the indices. Our proposal features several innovative aspects: it is flexible in adapting to a variable number of indices and to missing data; it exploits positive and negative evidence (bipolar information) and it offers different criteria for aggregating partial evidence in order to derive the layers of candidate seeds and candidate region growing boundaries. The study was conducted on a set of Landsat TM images, acquired for the year 2003 over Southern Europe and pre-processed with the LEDAPS (Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System) processing chain for deriving surface spectral reflectance ?i in the TM bands. The proposed method was applied to show its flexibility and the sensitivity of the accuracy of the resulting burned area maps to different aggregation criteria and thresholds for seed selection. Validation performed over an entire independent Landsat TM image shows the commission and omission errors to be below 21% and 3%, respectively.

  12. Integrating multiple fish biomarkers and risk assessment as indicators of metal pollution along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic.

    PubMed

    Omar, Wael A; Saleh, Yousef S; Marie, Mohamed-Assem S

    2014-12-01

    The marine environment of the Red Sea coast of Yemen Republic is subjected to increasing anthropogenic activities. The present field study assesses the impacts of metal pollutants on two common marine fish species; Pomadasys hasta and Lutjanus russellii collected from a reference site in comparison to two polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Hodeida, Yemen Republic. Concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in fish vital organs, metal pollution index (MPI), indicative biochemical parameters of liver functions (alanine aminotransferase [ALT] and aspartate aminotransferase [AST]) and kidney functions (urea and creatinine) as well as histopathological changes in gills, liver and kidney of both fish species are integrated as biomarkers of metal pollution. These biomarkers showed species-specific and/or site-specific response. The hazard index (HI) was used as an indicator of human health risks associated with fish consumption. The detected low HI values in most cases doesn't neglect the fact that the cumulative risk effects for metals together give an alarming sign and that the health of fish consumers is endangered around polluted sites. The levels of ALT, AST and urea in plasma of both fish species collected from the polluted sites showed significant increase in comparison to those of reference site. Histopathological alterations and evident damage were observed in tissues of fish collected from the polluted sites. The investigated set of biomarkers proved to be efficient and reliable in biomonitoring the pollution status along different pollution gradients. PMID:25261609

  13. Multiple linear regression for isotopic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Alonso, J. I.

    2012-04-01

    There are two typical applications of isotopic measurements: the detection of natural variations in isotopic systems and the detection man-made variations using enriched isotopes as indicators. For both type of measurements accurate and precise isotope ratio measurements are required. For the so-called non-traditional stable isotopes, multicollector ICP-MS instruments are usually applied. In many cases, chemical separation procedures are required before accurate isotope measurements can be performed. The off-line separation of Rb and Sr or Nd and Sm is the classical procedure employed to eliminate isobaric interferences before multicollector ICP-MS measurement of Sr and Nd isotope ratios. Also, this procedure allows matrix separation for precise and accurate Sr and Nd isotope ratios to be obtained. In our laboratory we have evaluated the separation of Rb-Sr and Nd-Sm isobars by liquid chromatography and on-line multicollector ICP-MS detection. The combination of this chromatographic procedure with multiple linear regression of the raw chromatographic data resulted in Sr and Nd isotope ratios with precisions and accuracies typical of off-line sample preparation procedures. On the other hand, methods for the labelling of individual organisms (such as a given plant, fish or animal) are required for population studies. We have developed a dual isotope labelling procedure which can be unique for a given individual, can be inherited in living organisms and it is stable. The detection of the isotopic signature is based also on multiple linear regression. The labelling of fish and its detection in otoliths by Laser Ablation ICP-MS will be discussed using trout and salmon as examples. As a conclusion, isotope measurement procedures based on multiple linear regression can be a viable alternative in multicollector ICP-MS measurements.

  14. Lipid D/H Ratios from Multiple Sources and Deposits Indicate Drier Little Ice Age at Washington Island (4°43`N, 160°25`W), Central Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muegler, I.; Sachse, D.; Sachs, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    To compare the sensitivity of biomarker D/H ratios from two distinct climate archives, a lake and a peat bog on the Tropical Pacific Island of Terrania, compound-specific hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as ?D values) were determined on lipid biomarkers from various biological sources deposited in the two climate archives. At present, Terrania or Washington Island (4°43`N, 160°25`W) permanently lies in the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and receives an annual precipitation of 2,903 mm. The interior of this lens shaped island contains a freshwater lake and peat bogs. Previous studies on the lake sediments found evidence for a substantially drier climate at times during the Little Ice Age (AD 1400-1850) based on the lithologic transition from modern freshwater sediments to a sequence of pure cyanobacterial mat in concert with ?D values from total lipid extracts (Sachs et al., 2009). Here we report on ?D values from lipids of various sources: dinoflagellate algae (dinosterol and a saturated C30 sterol (4? -methyl-24-ethyl-5? -cholestan-3?-ol), microbial sources (diploptene and nC21 alkane) and higher plants (fern-7-ene, ?-sitosterol and stigmastanol). Mean ?D values from all lipids, measured in both archives, are significantly enriched in deuterium by between 22 and 86‰ during previously inferred drier climate conditions and simultaneously record the transition towards a freshwater lake at around AD1550. Measured ?D values of all lipids cover a wide range from -281‰ to -105‰ during freshwater deposition and from -185‰ to -50‰ when climate was drier. In agreement with the observed isotopic difference between lipids produced via the acetogenic and the mevalonic acid biosynthetic pathway ?D values for algae and higher plant sterols are depleted in deuterium relative to the nC21 alkane by 150‰ on average. The consistent ?D values from dinosterol and 4? -methyl-24-ethyl-5? -cholestan-3?-ol from the lake and peat deposits signify the robustness of these lipid ?D values to indicate hydrologic changes in the sedimentary record. ?D values among lipids of similar and disparate sources and/or biosynthetic origin from Washington Island lake (AD ~ 800-1550) and peat bog (AD~1200-1660) sediments are significantly enriched in deuterium prior to AD 1560/1640 and thus both suggest drier climate conditions resembling today’s environmental and depositional setting at Christmas Island which is located 300km SSE of Washington Island beyond the influence of the ITCZ.

  15. Facial myokymia: a clue to the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    de Silva, K. L.; Pearce, John

    1972-01-01

    Three patients with multiple sclerosis in whom facial myokymia occurred are described. The clinical and electromyographic features of this phenomenon are reviewed. The phenomenon is most frequently associated with multiple sclerosis, and when it is transient and unassociated with progressive facial paresis and other signs of a pontine tumour, is a strong indication of this condition. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3 PMID:4650779

  16. Optimizing plasmonic nanoantennas via coordinated multiple coupling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Linhan; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoantennas, which can efficiently convert light from free space into sub-wavelength scale with the local field enhancement, are fundamental building blocks for nanophotonic systems. Predominant design methods, which exploit a single type of near- or far-field coupling in pairs or arrays of plasmonic nanostructures, have limited the tunability of spectral response and the local field enhancement. To overcome this limit, we are developing a general strategy towards exploiting the coordinated effects of multiple coupling. Using Au bowtie nanoantenna arrays with metal-insulator-metal configuration as examples, we numerically demonstrate that coordinated design and implementation of various optical coupling effects leads to both the increased tunability in the spectral response and the significantly enhanced electromagnetic field. Furthermore, we design and analyze a refractive index sensor with an ultra-high figure-of-merit (254), a high signal-to-noise ratio and a wide working range of refractive indices, and a narrow-band near-infrared plasmonic absorber with 100% absorption efficiency, high quality factor of up to 114 and a wide range of tunable wavelength from 800?nm to 1,500?nm. The plasmonic nanoantennas that exploit coordinated multiple coupling will benefit a broad range of applications, including label-free bio-chemical detection, reflective filter, optical trapping, hot-electron generation, and heat-assisted magnetic recording. PMID:26423015

  17. Optimizing plasmonic nanoantennas via coordinated multiple coupling

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Linhan; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanoantennas, which can efficiently convert light from free space into sub-wavelength scale with the local field enhancement, are fundamental building blocks for nanophotonic systems. Predominant design methods, which exploit a single type of near- or far-field coupling in pairs or arrays of plasmonic nanostructures, have limited the tunability of spectral response and the local field enhancement. To overcome this limit, we are developing a general strategy towards exploiting the coordinated effects of multiple coupling. Using Au bowtie nanoantenna arrays with metal-insulator-metal configuration as examples, we numerically demonstrate that coordinated design and implementation of various optical coupling effects leads to both the increased tunability in the spectral response and the significantly enhanced electromagnetic field. Furthermore, we design and analyze a refractive index sensor with an ultra-high figure-of-merit (254), a high signal-to-noise ratio and a wide working range of refractive indices, and a narrow-band near-infrared plasmonic absorber with 100% absorption efficiency, high quality factor of up to 114 and a wide range of tunable wavelength from 800?nm to 1,500?nm. The plasmonic nanoantennas that exploit coordinated multiple coupling will benefit a broad range of applications, including label-free bio-chemical detection, reflective filter, optical trapping, hot-electron generation, and heat-assisted magnetic recording. PMID:26423015

  18. Optimizing plasmonic nanoantennas via coordinated multiple coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Linhan; Zheng, Yuebing

    2015-10-01

    Plasmonic nanoantennas, which can efficiently convert light from free space into sub-wavelength scale with the local field enhancement, are fundamental building blocks for nanophotonic systems. Predominant design methods, which exploit a single type of near- or far-field coupling in pairs or arrays of plasmonic nanostructures, have limited the tunability of spectral response and the local field enhancement. To overcome this limit, we are developing a general strategy towards exploiting the coordinated effects of multiple coupling. Using Au bowtie nanoantenna arrays with metal-insulator-metal configuration as examples, we numerically demonstrate that coordinated design and implementation of various optical coupling effects leads to both the increased tunability in the spectral response and the significantly enhanced electromagnetic field. Furthermore, we design and analyze a refractive index sensor with an ultra-high figure-of-merit (254), a high signal-to-noise ratio and a wide working range of refractive indices, and a narrow-band near-infrared plasmonic absorber with 100% absorption efficiency, high quality factor of up to 114 and a wide range of tunable wavelength from 800?nm to 1,500?nm. The plasmonic nanoantennas that exploit coordinated multiple coupling will benefit a broad range of applications, including label-free bio-chemical detection, reflective filter, optical trapping, hot-electron generation, and heat-assisted magnetic recording.

  19. Novel Insights and Therapeutics in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Catriona A.; Goverman, Joan M.

    2015-01-01

    The last twelve years have witnessed the development of new therapies for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis that demonstrate increased efficacy relative to previous therapies. Many of these new drugs target the inflammatory phase of disease by manipulating different aspects of the immune system. While these new treatments are promising, the development of therapies for patients with progressive multiple sclerosis remains a significant challenge. We discuss the distinct mechanisms that may contribute to these two types of multiple sclerosis and the implications of these differences in the development of new therapeutic targets for this debilitating disease. PMID:26339480

  20. A Study of Multiplicities in Hadronic Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Estrada Tristan, Nora Patricia; /San Luis Potosi U.

    2006-02-01

    Using data from the SELEX (Fermilab E781) experiment obtained with a minimum-bias trigger, we study multiplicity and angular distributions of secondary particles produced in interactions in the experimental targets. We observe interactions of {Sigma}{sup -}, proton, {pi}{sup -}, and {pi}{sup +}, at beam momenta between 250 GeV/c and 650 GeV/c, in copper, polyethylene, graphite, and beryllium targets. We show that the multiplicity and angular distributions for meson and baryon beams at the same momentum are identical. We also show that the mean multiplicity increases with beam momentum, and presents only small variations with the target material.

  1. Accurate multiplication with noisy spiking neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nezis, Panagiotis; van Rossum, Mark C. W.

    2011-06-01

    Multiplication is an operation which is fundamental in mathematics, but it is also relevant for many sensory computations in the nervous system. Nevertheless, despite a number of suggestions in the literature, it is not known how multiplication is implemented in neural circuitry. We propose a simple feedforward circuit that combines a rate model of neural activity and a realistic neural input-output relation to accurately and efficiently implement multiplication of two rate-coded quantities. By simulating a network of integrate and fire neurons, we demonstrate the functional efficiency of the circuit. Finally we discuss how the model can be tested experimentally.

  2. Integrated-optical approaches to matrix multiplication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verber, C. M.; Kenan, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    The solution of matrix equations is essential to carrying out a large variety of control algorithms and to reducing certain types of data such as the output of a multispectral sensor array. Optical techniques and, in particular, integrated-optical circuits (IOC's) can provide compact, low-power devices for performing the mitrix multiplications necessary for the solution of these problems. A specific IOC for performing vector-matrix multiplication and several approaches to the design of IOC's for matrix-matrix multiplication will be discussed.

  3. Neutron multiplication error in TRU waste measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, John; Stanfield, Sean B; Wachter, Joe; Ceo, Bob

    2009-01-01

    Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) in neutron assays of transuranic waste (TRU) are comprised of several components including counting statistics, matrix and source distribution, calibration inaccuracy, background effects, and neutron multiplication error. While a minor component for low plutonium masses, neutron multiplication error is often the major contributor to the TMU for items containing more than 140 g of weapons grade plutonium. Neutron multiplication arises when neutrons from spontaneous fission and other nuclear events induce fissions in other fissile isotopes in the waste, thereby multiplying the overall coincidence neutron response in passive neutron measurements. Since passive neutron counters cannot differentiate between spontaneous and induced fission neutrons, multiplication can lead to positive bias in the measurements. Although neutron multiplication can only result in a positive bias, it has, for the purpose of mathematical simplicity, generally been treated as an error that can lead to either a positive or negative result in the TMU. While the factors that contribute to neutron multiplication include the total mass of fissile nuclides, the presence of moderating material in the matrix, the concentration and geometry of the fissile sources, and other factors; measurement uncertainty is generally determined as a function of the fissile mass in most TMU software calculations because this is the only quantity determined by the passive neutron measurement. Neutron multiplication error has a particularly pernicious consequence for TRU waste analysis because the measured Fissile Gram Equivalent (FGE) plus twice the TMU error must be less than 200 for TRU waste packaged in 55-gal drums and less than 325 for boxed waste. For this reason, large errors due to neutron multiplication can lead to increased rejections of TRU waste containers. This report will attempt to better define the error term due to neutron multiplication and arrive at values that are more realistic and accurate. To do so, measurements of standards and waste drums were performed with High Efficiency Neutron Counters (HENC) located at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The data were analyzed for multiplication effects and new estimates of the multiplication error were computed. A concluding section will present alternatives for reducing the number of rejections of TRU waste containers due to neutron multiplication error.

  4. Lecture 13: Chain Matrix Multiplication CLRS Section 15.2

    E-print Network

    Golin, Mordecai J.

    Lecture 13: Chain Matrix Multiplication CLRS Section 15.2 Revised April 17, 2003 Outline of this Lecture . Recalling matrix multiplication. . The chain matrix multiplication problem. . A dynamic programming algorithm for chain ma­ trix multiplication. 1 Recalling Matrix Multiplication Matrix: An n × m

  5. CZ: Multimethods and Multiple Inheritance Without Diamonds1

    E-print Network

    CZ: Multimethods and Multiple Inheritance Without Diamonds1 Donna Malayeri and Jonathan Aldrich This report complements CMU-CS-08-169, "CZ: Multiple Inheritance Without Diamonds." This research;Keywords: Multiple inheritance, multiple dispatch, diamond inheritance #12;Abstract Multiple inheritance

  6. Multiple-Regression Hidden Markov Model 

    E-print Network

    Fujinaga, Katsuhisa; Nakai, Mitsuru; Shimodaira, Hiroshi; Sagayama, Shigeki

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a new class of hidden Markov model (HMM) called multiple-regression HMM (MRHMM) that utilizes auxiliary features such as fundamental frequency (F0) and speaking styles that affect spectral parameters to ...

  7. On the complexity of matrix multiplication 

    E-print Network

    Stothers, Andrew James

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of the product of two matrices can be very computationally expensive. The multiplication of two n×n matrices, using the “default” algorithm can take O(n3) field operations in the underlying field k. It is ...

  8. Acute Bronchitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Acute Bronchitis URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/acutebronchitis.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  9. Calcium - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Calcium URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/calcium.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  10. Birth Control - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Birth Control URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/birthcontrol.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  11. Angioplasty - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Angioplasty URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/angioplasty.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  12. Child Nutrition - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Child Nutrition URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/childnutrition.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  13. Blood Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Blood Disorders URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/blooddisorders.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  14. Anthrax - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Anthrax URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/anthrax.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  15. Blood Thinners - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Blood Thinners URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/bloodthinners.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  16. Anxiety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Anxiety URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/anxiety.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  17. After Surgery - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? After Surgery URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/aftersurgery.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  18. Arrhythmia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Arrhythmia URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/arrhythmia.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  19. Atrial Fibrillation - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Atrial Fibrillation URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/atrialfibrillation.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  20. Chickenpox - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Chickenpox URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/chickenpox.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  1. Advance Directives - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Advance Directives URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/advancedirectives.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  2. Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Cancer URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/cancer.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  3. Alzheimer's Caregivers - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Alzheimer's Caregivers URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/alzheimerscaregivers.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  4. Breastfeeding - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Breastfeeding URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/breastfeeding.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  5. Alzheimer's Disease - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Alzheimer's Disease URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/alzheimersdisease.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  6. Appendicitis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Appendicitis URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/appendicitis.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  7. Cataract - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Cataract URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/cataract.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  8. Asthma - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Asthma URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/asthma.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  9. Angina - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Angina URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/angina.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  10. Anesthesia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Anesthesia URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/anesthesia.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  11. Bacterial Infections - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Bacterial Infections URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/bacterialinfections.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  12. Child Safety - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Child Safety URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/childsafety.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  13. Bladder Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Bladder Diseases URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/bladderdiseases.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  14. Anemia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Anemia URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/anemia.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  15. Animal Bites - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Animal Bites URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/animalbites.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  16. Cholesterol - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Cholesterol URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/cholesterol.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  17. Aneurysms - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Multiple Languages ? All Health Topics ? Aneurysms URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/aneurysms.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  18. Improving the quality of multiple sequence alignment 

    E-print Network

    Lu, Yue

    2009-05-15

    Multiple sequence alignment is an important bioinformatics problem, with applications in diverse types of biological analysis, such as structure prediction, phylogenetic analysis and critical sites identification. In recent years, the quality...

  19. Multiple Object Tracking in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    E-print Network

    Koldewyn, Kami

    Difficulties in visual attention are often implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but it remains unclear which aspects of attention are affected. Here, we used a multiple object tracking (MOT) task to quantitatively ...

  20. Application Guide to Neutron Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    D. G. Langner; J. E. Stewart; M. M. Pickrell; M. S. Krick; N. Ensslin; W. C. Harker

    1998-11-01

    This document is intended to serve as a comprehensive applications guide to passive neutron multiplicity counting, a new nondestructive assay (NDA) technique developed over the past ten years. The document describes the principles of multiplicity counter design, electronics, and mathematics. Existing counters in Department of Energy (DOE) facilities are surveyed, and their operating requirements and procedures and defined. Current applications to plutonium material types found in DOE facilities are described, and estimates of the expected assay precision and bias are given. Lastly, guidelines for multiplicity counter selection and procurement are summarized. The document also includes a detailed collection of references on passive neutron coincidence and multiplicity publications over the last ten to fifteen years.