Sample records for multiple indicators multiple

  1. Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models

    PubMed Central

    Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  2. Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.

    PubMed

    Tekwe, Carmen D; Carter, Randy L; Cullings, Harry M; Carroll, Raymond J

    2014-11-10

    Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

  3. Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms.Roberts

    2009-02-24

    How sharp are your multiplication skills? Give these great math games a try ! Play Asteroids blaster and test your multiplication skills. How fast can you solve the problem... play a round of Baseball multiplication and see! Multiplication is fun and delicious with Crazy Cones. Help Lemonade Larry determine the correct amount! Test your multiplication skills with Tic Tac Toe! ...

  4. Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Walker

    2008-03-26

    Here are some fun games to make practicing multiplication fun!!! Before you start the fun... click Multiplication Tables to review what you already know! Can you figure out the Multiplication Hidden Picture... you better know your math skills first or the picture will burst! It\\'s times to have a \\"blast\\"... Blow me away with theMultiplication Tunnel Blaster Now your ready to join the team! Show me ...

  5. Multiple Indicator Stationary Time Series Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivo, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the propriety and practical advantages of specifying multivariate time series models in the context of structural equation modeling for time series and longitudinal panel data. For time series data, the multiple indicator model specification improves on classical time series analysis. For panel data, the multiple indicator model…

  6. Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Williams

    2011-04-06

    Which way of learning multiplication helped you the best? First you will need to use organizer Then you need to go to thinking blocks Next go to multiplication rap song Then go to dinosaur game and times table and lattice method and finally flashcards after this look over your graphic organizer and think about which site was most helpful for you. You will then be divided into groups where you will make your own creative lesson ...

  7. Estimating differential expression from multiple indicators

    PubMed Central

    Ilmjärv, Sten; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Reimets, Riin; Niitsoo, Margus; Kolde, Raivo; Vilo, Jaak; Vasar, Eero; Luuk, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Regardless of the advent of high-throughput sequencing, microarrays remain central in current biomedical research. Conventional microarray analysis pipelines apply data reduction before the estimation of differential expression, which is likely to render the estimates susceptible to noise from signal summarization and reduce statistical power. We present a probe-level framework, which capitalizes on the high number of concurrent measurements to provide more robust differential expression estimates. The framework naturally extends to various experimental designs and target categories (e.g. transcripts, genes, genomic regions) as well as small sample sizes. Benchmarking in relation to popular microarray and RNA-sequencing data-analysis pipelines indicated high and stable performance on the Microarray Quality Control dataset and in a cell-culture model of hypoxia. Experimental-data-exhibiting long-range epigenetic silencing of gene expression was used to demonstrate the efficacy of detecting differential expression of genomic regions, a level of analysis not embraced by conventional workflows. Finally, we designed and conducted an experiment to identify hypothermia-responsive genes in terms of monotonic time-response. As a novel insight, hypothermia-dependent up-regulation of multiple genes of two major antioxidant pathways was identified and verified by quantitative real-time PCR. PMID:24586062

  8. Testing for Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning with Multiple Indicator Multiple Cause Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Carol M.; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    In extant literature, multiple indicator multiple cause (MIMIC) models have been presented for identifying items that display uniform differential item functioning (DIF) only, not nonuniform DIF. This article addresses, for apparently the first time, the use of MIMIC models for testing both uniform and nonuniform DIF with categorical indicators. A…

  9. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  10. Differential Item Functioning Detection Using the Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Method with a Pure Short Anchor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Lin; Wang, Wen-Chung

    2009-01-01

    The multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) method with a pure short anchor was proposed to detect differential item functioning (DIF). A simulation study showed that the MIMIC method with an anchor of 1, 2, 4, or 10 DIF-free items yielded a well-controlled Type I error rate even when such tests contained as many as 40% DIF items. In general,…

  11. Combining Multiple Indicators to Determine Conservation Status

    E-print Network

    of Canada's Wild Salmon Policy, which requires that the biological status of Conservation Units (CUs) of Pacific salmon (Oncorhychus spp.) be assessed by combining the status of several indicators or metrics. We; salmon; #12;v Dedication To interconnectedness, interdependence, and union. #12;vi Acknowledgements I

  12. Identifying Node Role in Social Network Based on Multiple Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role. PMID:25089823

  13. Control region sequences indicate that multiple externae represent multiple infections by Sacculina carcini (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala)

    PubMed Central

    Rees, David; Glenner, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The rhizocephalan barnacle, Sacculina carcini, is a common parasite of the European shore crab, Carcinus maenas, in which it causes significant detrimental physical and behavioral modifications. In the vast majority of cases, the external portion of the parasite is present in the form of a single sac-like externa; in rare cases, double or even triple externae may occur on the same individual host. Here, we use a highly variable DNA marker, the mitochondrial control region (CR), to investigate whether multiple externae in S. carcini represent infection by multiple parasites or asexual cloning developed by a single parasite individual. Sequences for multiple externae from C. maenas hosts from the Danish inlet, Limfjorden, and from the mud flates at Roscoff, France, were compared. In almost all cases, double or triple externae from an individual host yielded different haplotypes. In the few cases where identical haplotypes were identified from externae on a multiple-infected host, this always represented the most commonly found haplotype in the population. This indicates that in Sacculina carcini, the presence of multiple externae on a single host reflects infection by different individual parasites. A haplotype network of CR sequences also suggests a degree of geographical partitioning, with no shared haplotypes between the Limfjorden and Roscoff. Our data represent the first complete CR sequences for a rhizocephalan, and a unique gene order was also revealed. Although the utility of CR sequences for population-level work must be investigated further, the CR has proved a simple to use and highly variable marker for studies of S. carcini and can easily be applied to a variety of studies in this important parasite. PMID:25473481

  14. Indicators of Multiplicative Reasoning among Fourth Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Many students encounter difficulty in their transition to advanced mathematical thinking. Such difficulty may be explained by a lack of understanding of many concepts taught in early school years, especially multiplicative reasoning. Advanced mathematical thinking depends on the development of multiplicative reasoning. The purpose of this study…

  15. A multiple indicator, multiple cause method for representing social capital with an application to psychological distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Congdon, Peter

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes a structural equation methodology for obtaining social capital scores for survey subjects from multiple indicators of social support, neighbourhood and trust perceptions, and memberships of organizations. It adjusts for variation that is likely to occur in levels of social capital according to geographic context (e.g. level of area deprivation, geographic region, level of urbanity) and demographic group. Social capital is used as an explanatory factor for psychological distress using data from the 2006 Health Survey for England. A highly significant effect of social capital in reducing the chance of psychiatric caseness is obtained after controlling for other individual and geographic risk factors. Allowing for social capital has considerable effects on the impacts on psychiatric health of other risk factors. In particular, the impact of area deprivation category is much reduced. There is also evidence of significant differentiation in social capital between population categories and geographic contexts.

  16. Indicator Simulation Accounting for MultiplePoint Statistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julián M. Ortiz; Clayton V. Deutsch

    2004-01-01

    Geostatistical simulation aims at reproducing the variability of the real underlying phenomena. When nonlinear features or large-range connectivity is present, the traditional variogram-based simulation approaches do not provide good reproduction of those features. Connectivity of high and low values is often critical for grades in a mineral deposit. Multiple-point statistics can help to characterize these features. The use of multiple-point

  17. Indicators of Multiple Personality Disorder for the Clinician.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Thomas W.

    Multiple personality disorder (MPD) is now recognized as a valid diagnostic category. Occurrence may be higher than previously suspected. While physiological testing of MPD has shown significant differences between the various personalities of individuals in terms of galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram recordings, electrodermal response…

  18. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey - 2010: Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rashidian, Arash; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Elahi, Elham; Beheshtian, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad; Zakeri, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an international emphasis on providing timely and high quality data to monitor progress of countries toward Millennium Development Goals. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) aimed to provide valid information on population and health outcomes to monitor progress in achieving national priorities and health programs and to assist policy makers to design effective strategies for improving health outcomes and equity in access to care. Methods: A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified cluster-random survey is conducted through face-to-face household interviews. The sampling frame is developed using Iran's 2006 population and housing census. Provincial samples ranging are from a minimum of 400 households per province to 6400 households in Tehran province. Cluster size is 10 households. The target sample includes 3096 clusters: 2187 clusters in urban and 909 clusters in rural areas. IrMIDHS instruments include three questionnaires: Household questionnaire, women aged 15-54 questionnaire, children under five questionnaire, supervision and quality assessment checklists and data collection sheets and standard weight and height measurement tools for under-five children. A cascading decentralized training method is used for training data collection and supervision teams. Quality assurance procedures are defined for the five steps of conducting the survey including: Sampling, training data collection and training teams, survey implementation, data entry and analysis. A multi-layer supervision and monitoring procedure is established. All the questionnaires are double entered. Conclusions: IrMIDHS will provide valuable data for policymakers in Iran. Designing and implementation of the study involve contributions from academics as well as program managers and policy makers. The collaborative nature of the study may facilitate better usage of its results. PMID:24932396

  19. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    MENU Return to Web version Multiple Sclerosis Overview What is multiple sclerosis (MS)? Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system. Normally, antibodies produced by ...

  20. Learning about Locomotion Patterns: Effective Use of Multiple Pictures and Motion-Indicating Arrows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imhof, Birgit; Scheiter, Katharina; Edelmann, Jorg; Gerjets, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how enriching visualizations with arrows indicating the motion of objects may help in conveying dynamic information: Multiple static-simultaneous visualizations with motion-indicating arrows were compared with either multiple visualizations without arrows or a single visualization with arrows. Seventy-one students were…

  1. Defining Multiplication on Indices of Points on an Elliptic Curve and Defining Z Using One Universal Quantifier Defining Multiplication on Indices of Points

    E-print Network

    Shlapentokh, Alexandra

    might find You get what you need Rolling Stones #12;Defining Multiplication on Indices of Points Universal Quantifier Prologue Diophantine Sets If R is a ring and m Z>0, then a subset A Rm is called Question A Question about an Arbitrary Recursive Ring R Is there an algorithm, which if given an arbitrary

  2. An Approach to Ground Moving Target Indication Using Multiple Resolutions of Multilook Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

    E-print Network

    Akers, Geoffrey

    2009-12-15

    Ground moving target indication (GMTI) using multiple resolutions of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images to estimate the clutter scattering statistics is shown to outperform conventional sample matrix inversion space-time ...

  3. Control, compare and communicate: designing control charts to summarise efficiently data from multiple quality indicators

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, B; Love, T; Fahey, T; Morris, A; Sullivan, F

    2005-01-01

    ?? Summarising the complex data generated by multiple cross sectional quality indicators in a way that patients, clinicians, managers and policymakers find useful is challenging. A common approach is aggregation to create summary measures such as star ratings and balanced score cards, but these may conceal the detail needed to focus quality improvement. We propose an alternative way of summarising and presenting multiple quality indicators, suitable for use for quality improvement and governance. This paper discusses (1) control charts for repeated measurements of single processes as used in industrial statistical process control (SPC); (2) control charts for cross sectional comparison of many institutions for a single quality indicator (rarely used in industry but commonly proposed for health care); and (3) small multiple graphics which combine control chart signal extraction with efficient graphical presentations for multiple indicators. PMID:16326793

  4. Control, compare and communicate: designing control charts to summarise efficiently data from multiple quality indicators.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, B; Love, T; Fahey, T; Morris, A; Sullivan, F

    2005-12-01

    Summarising the complex data generated by multiple cross sectional quality indicators in a way that patients, clinicians, managers and policymakers find useful is challenging. A common approach is aggregation to create summary measures such as star ratings and balanced score cards, but these may conceal the detail needed to focus quality improvement. We propose an alternative way of summarising and presenting multiple quality indicators, suitable for use for quality improvement and governance. This paper discusses (1) control charts for repeated measurements of single processes as used in industrial statistical process control (SPC); (2) control charts for cross sectional comparison of many institutions for a single quality indicator (rarely used in industry but commonly proposed for health care); and (3) small multiple graphics which combine control chart signal extraction with efficient graphical presentations for multiple indicators. PMID:16326793

  5. Multiplication 2

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Lerdahl

    2010-11-16

    Try some harder multiplication activities! Missing Factor Meteor Blasting Complete the Missing Step Batter s Up Multiplication Sum Sense Multiplication Challenge a Friend to Grand Prix Multiplication Double Digit Multiplication https://embed.espresso.co.uk/espresso/embed/images/logo_espresso.gif ) no-repeat center center" Mastering Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Jackson

    2007-10-25

    Play the following games to practice your multiplication. Take a swing at Multplication Baseball! (Set with hard) Use your multiplication knowledge and defeat the Mayan Math Monster! (Set to hard) Quick! Stop the Multiplication Invader before it is too late! ...

  6. Multiplication table

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    bgross

    2011-04-14

    Help learn First learn go over your Learn The Multiplication table now get some extra help Learn The Multiplication table have fun Learn The multiplication table with games good luck practice test pre test pre test final test ...

  7. Parenting Multiples

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the birth of a child. So parents of twins or higher-order multiples (triplets or more) can ... the chances of having multiples. The incidence of twin and higher-order multiple births has climbed rapidly ...

  8. Multiplication Rocks!!!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Peake

    2009-04-15

    Let's practice what we've learned about multiplication. Play at least one game in each of the categories. Times Table Practice: Design the Ultimate Fashion Outfit with Math Models Blast the Meteors before they destroy the ship in Meteor Multiplication More Multiplication: Batter's Up in Baseball Multiplication Win $1,000,000 in Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? ...

  9. Multiplication Mania!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Packard

    2005-10-25

    These assignments will help you practice your multiplication facts. Work through these multiplication facts. Click on each link and scroll down past the red box to the orange box. Click on \\"Start Multiplication\\". After you type in your answer click on the \\"Check\\" box to check your answer. 1. Practice your multiplication facts 0-3. ...

  10. Multiplication Practice

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Lerdahl

    2010-02-23

    Practice Your Multiplication Skills! Watch These Fun Multiplication Videos *Need a review? Watch the Multiplication is Repeated Addition Video Four Legged Zoo I ve Got 6 Ready or Not Here I Come (5s) Twelve Toes Elementary My Dear 2s Figure 8 Lucky 7s Video My Hero Zero Naughty Number 9 Practice your multiplication skills with these fun games: Multiplication Facts Become the king of multiplication with Castle Quest Dish up some ice cream with Crazy Cone Multiplication. Earn disco moves to make a dinosaur dance with Disco Dino. Design your own granny and make her race in a ...

  11. Monitoring marine recreational water quality using multiple microbial indicators in an urban tropical environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomoyuki Shibata; Helena M. Solo-gabriele; Lora E. Fleming; Samir Elmir

    2004-01-01

    The microbial water quality at two beaches, Hobie Beach and Crandon Beach, in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA was measured using multiple microbial indicators for the purpose of evaluating correlations between microbes and for identifying possible sources of contamination. The indicator microbes chosen for this study (enterococci, Escherichia coli, fecal coliform, total coliform and C. perfringens) were evaluated through three different

  12. Single and Multiple Indicators of Physical Attractiveness and Psychosocial Behaviors among Young Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Daniel F.; Lerner, Richard M.

    1995-01-01

    Examined relations among several indicators of physical attractiveness (PA): height, weight, and triceps skinfold thickness. Appraised whether multiple PA indicators accounted for more variation in measures of psychosocial functioning than did single PA indexes. Facial attractiveness was the most frequent statistically significant predictor of…

  13. Function estimation for multiple indices trend analysis using self-organizing mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siyu Zhang

    1994-01-01

    Since system conditions can be indicated by a group of machine signal features but not any individual index, multiple indices trend analysis has foundational importance in system monitoring and diagnosis for factory automation. The author proposes to employ self-organizing neural network method to perform trend analysis in multi-dimensional space as an original exploration. However, experiments show that Kohonen's learning algorithm

  14. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  15. Human Health Risk Implications of Multiple Sources of Faecal Indicator Bacteria in a Recreational Waterbody

    EPA Science Inventory

    We evaluate the influence of multiple sources of faecal indicator bacteria in recreational water bodies on potential human health risk by considering waters impacted by human and animal sources, human and non-pathogenic sources, and animal and non-pathogenic sources. We illustrat...

  16. Gender and Perceived Illness Severity: Differential Indicators of Employment Concerns for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.; Turner, Ronna C.; Robertson, Judith L.; Rumrill,Phillip D.

    2005-01-01

    Although research has indicated a link between gender and perceived illness severity and the employment status of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), it has not addressed questions regarding the relationship between those variables and specific types of employment concerns. In this study, a sample of 1,310 adults with MS replied to a mail survey…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Romantic Adjustment: Comparison of Single- and Multiple-Indicator Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stephane; Lussier, Yvan

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the usefulness of single- and multiple-indicator strategies in a model examining the role of child sexual abuse (CSA) to predict later marital satisfaction through attachment and psychological distress. The sample included 1,092 women and men from a nonclinical population in cohabiting or marital relationships. The single-item…

  18. UNAIDS ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator: promoting sexual networks to reduce potential biases

    PubMed Central

    Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Emina, Jacques B.O.; Sankoh, Osman

    2014-01-01

    UNAIDS proposed a set of core indicators for monitoring changes in the worldwide AIDS epidemic. This paper explores the validity and effectiveness of the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator, which is only partially captured with current available data. The paper also suggests an innovative approach for collecting more informative data that can be used to provide an accurate measure of the UNAIDS’s ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. Specifically, the paper addresses three major limitations associated with the indicator when it is measured with respondents’ sexual behaviors. First, the indicator assumes that a person’s risk of contracting HIV/AIDS/STIs is merely a function of his/her own sexual behavior. Second, the indicator does not account for a partner’s sexual history, which is very important in assessing an individual’s risk level. Finally, the 12-month period used to define a person’s risks can be misleading, especially because HIV/AIDS theoretically has a period of latency longer than a year. The paper concludes that, programmatically, improvements in data collection are a top priority for reducing the observed bias in the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. PMID:24647127

  19. Multiple Correlation versus Multiple Regression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Carl J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes differences between multiple correlation analysis (MCA) and multiple regression analysis (MRA), showing how these approaches involve different research questions and study designs, different inferential approaches, different analysis strategies, and different reported information. (SLD)

  1. Multiplication Mania!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Hoeman

    2008-09-18

    Fun games to practice your multiplication facts! Need a refreshing break? Come on over to the lemonade stand...Lemonade Stand At the beach, you can swim, sun, and practice your multiplication facts...Beach Multiplication How fast are you? Click here to...Race the Clock Do you have your spacesuit and astronaut food, are you ready for your...Mission to the Moon ...

  2. Multiple Trichofolliculomas Mimicking Multiple Trichoepitheliomas

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Sudhir UK; Shenoi, Shrutakirthi D; Geetha, V; Prabhu, Smitha; Nagel, Bhawna

    2015-01-01

    Trichofolliculomas are benign hair follicle hamartomas which were initially considered as hair follicle tumors. Usually presenting as a solitary lesion associated with a tuft of vellus hairs, multiple trichofolliculomas are rare. Trichofolliculomas are characterized by a histopathological feature of dermal keratin cyst with cyst wall showing radiating hair follicles. We report this case for the rare presentation of multiple trichofolliculomas on the face which clinically mimicked multiple trichoepitheliomas.

  3. Multiplication Frenzy!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Burks

    2010-01-27

    Let's practice multiplication! First, try to win the first place medal in the Fish Race. Then, test your skills by blowing up meteors by getting your multiplication tables right in Meteor Buster. Last, don't let the ants eat your lunch in The Ants Go Marching. ...

  4. Therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okereke, Emmanuel O.

    2000-09-01

    This quasi-experiment study examined the therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress. By utilizing drug interventions that reduced cardiovascular distress through changes in the hypertensive indices, previous studies have shown that improvements in life expectancy, lowering of health care costs in later years, and reduction in all-cause mortality were achieved. In fact, individuals without risk factors or with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adulthood or middle age were healthier, had a greater life expectancy, and incurred lower health care costs in later years. The hypertensive indices of interest include elevated heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (Ps), diastolic blood pressure (PD), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), pulse pressure (PP), and mechanical disadvantages of the heart MDH. Mechanical disadvantage of the heart is a term that has been developed for the purposes of this study. The alternative hypotheses for this study proposed to show a significant change in the relevant hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress in volunteers after a minimum of 45 days treatment with multiple nutritional supplements. The target population was all middle-aged (30 to 65 years) volunteer hypertensives in Nigeria (West Africa), who were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or control group, controlling for individuals who were on any form of medication, smokers, alcoholics, and those who were pregnant or on contraceptives. Treatment involved multiple doses of the various vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and accessory nutrients in their complementary combinations that influence various levels of cardiovascular function. After 45 days of treatment, the differences between the mean sores of the experimental group and control group on Ps, PD, MABP, and PP were found to be statistically significant, at p ? .05 cut-off level for rejecting the null hypothesis for each dependent variable on a one-tailed student's t test. The same results were not demonstrated for HR and MDH. In summary, the therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress could provide a cost-effective, safe, healthy, and reliable way of preventing cardiovascular disease.

  5. Multiple homicides.

    PubMed

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered. PMID:2782297

  6. [Comparative analysis of clinical and neurophysiological indices in patients with multiple sclerosis and acute demyelinating polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Nikitina, V V; Skoromets, A A; Barbas, I M; Iantareva, L I; Pospelova, M L

    2004-01-01

    A comparison study of some clinical and neuropsychological indices in two demyelinating disorders--multiple sclerosis (17 patients, mean age 31.6 years) and inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (7 patients, mean age 49.5 years) was conducted, using electromyography with registration of impulse velocity conduction along the nerve and M-responses as well as of the parameters of movement units potentials. The data obtained suggest the presence of demyelinating lesions of central and peripheral nervous systems, namely, symptoms of axonal demyelinating polyneuropathy with the prevalence of demyelinating process, its dissemination and generalization, in both disorders. PMID:15071845

  7. Child sexual abuse and adult romantic adjustment: comparison of single- and multiple-indicator measures.

    PubMed

    Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan

    2009-04-01

    This study compared the usefulness of single- and multiple-indicator strategies in a model examining the role of child sexual abuse (CSA) to predict later marital satisfaction through attachment and psychological distress. The sample included 1,092 women and men from a nonclinical population in cohabiting or marital relationships. The single-item measure assessed the presence or absence of CSA. The multiple-indicator measure included items relating to level of force, relationship with perpetrator, number of abusive experiences, and nature of assault. Structural equation modeling indicated that, for research purposes, a dichotomized item provided as much information as a complex measure to predict the relationship between sexual abuse and marital adjustment through attachment representations and psychological distress. However, when analyses were conducted strictly within the CSA victims group, no correlation was found between abuse severity and psychosocial measures. The present results show that in a community sample, CSA may be an important risk factor that develops couple difficulties, regardless of the severity of the trauma. PMID:18448862

  8. Multiplication Matho

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A + Math

    2007-12-12

    This site has students practice their multiplication facts. They compete against the clock while picking the correct response from numerous choices. Student have Matho when they get five colored snakes in a row.

  9. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePLUS

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... myeloma most commonly causes a low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  10. Integer Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    In this lesson, middle school students investigate integer multiplication as repeated addition or subtraction using visual models. An accompanying voice explains the visual set-up. The investigation leads students to see how the sign of the factors determines whether the product is positive or negative. An interactive section allows learners to change the factors being multiplied. Ten multiple choice questions wrap up this learning activity.

  11. Multiple Intelligences

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Jepsen

    2005-12-02

    Objective: To explore Howard Gardner\\'s Multiple Intelligences and apply what you have learned. Materials needed: Computer, Internet access, Word processor. Part 1: Learn who Howard Gardner is. Steps: 1. Go to the following site Howard Gardner Bio. 2. Read Howard Gardner\\'s bio. Part 2: Learn what the multiple intelligences are. Steps: 1. Visit Intelligences in a nut shell or the previous site. 2. Write, in a word processor, a brief description of the intelligences that Dr. ...

  12. Using Indicators of Multiple Deprivation to Demonstrate the Spatial Legacy of Apartheid in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Wright, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial analysis of multiple deprivation in South Africa and demonstrates that the most deprived areas in the country are located in the rural former homeland areas. The analysis is undertaken using the datazone level South African Index of Multiple Deprivation which was constructed from the 2001 Census. Datazones are a new…

  13. Chemotherapy-induced changes in cardiac capillary permeability measured by fluorescent multiple indicator dilution.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Alicia; Carvajal, Denny A; Lei, Tingjun; McGoron, Anthony J

    2014-12-01

    Anthracyclines cause severe irreversible cardiac toxicity. The study of changes in cardiac permeability with chemotherapy could enhance the understanding of mechanisms behind cardiac damage, and provide useful information to evaluate anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Thirty-six rats (12 Sprague-Dawley, 12 Wistar, 12 Fischer-344) were randomly assigned to control (n = 21) or doxorubicin (n = 15), and injected i.p. with a cumulative dose of 18 mg/kg doxorubicin in saline (vehicle) or vehicle alone over 12 days. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and on day 11. An isolated heart experiment was done on day 12 to obtain perfused heart pressure values, and to measure cardiac capillary permeability using a Texas Red/sodium fluorescein multiple indicator dilution method. Control animals had significantly lower average permeability-surface-area-products (0.035 ± 0.013 cm(3)/s) than doxorubicin animals (0.066 ± 0.023 cm(3)/s), PSP ± SD, p < 0.001. These permeability changes correlated with significant functional changes. There was a significant decline in cardiac function with a deleterious effect of chemotherapy on fractional shortening (p < 0.001), left ventricular developed pressure (p < 0.001), contractility (p < 0.001), and relaxation (p = 0.02). Based on our results, cardiac capillary permeability changes can be detected after in vivo chemotherapy treatment using our fluorescent multiple indicator dilution technique, and may provide valuable information in evaluating cardiotoxicity of novel drugs. PMID:25224075

  14. Using Support Vector Machines with Multiple Indices of Diffusion for Automated Classification of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O.; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Desmond; Bartley, Máiréad; Collins, D. Rónán; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the potential of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in conjunction with machine learning algorithms in order to automate the classification of healthy older subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here we apply DTI to 40 healthy older subjects and 33 MCI subjects in order to derive values for multiple indices of diffusion within the white matter voxels of each subject. DTI measures were then used together with support vector machines (SVMs) to classify control and MCI subjects. Greater than 90% sensitivity and specificity was achieved using this method, demonstrating the potential of a joint DTI and SVM pipeline for fast, objective classification of healthy older and MCI subjects. Such tools may be useful for large scale drug trials in Alzheimer's disease where the early identification of subjects with MCI is critical. PMID:22384251

  15. Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  16. Multiplication Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hooda Math

    2013-03-13

    This iOS app helps develop strategic thinking and fluency with multiplication facts. Two players take turns selecting one of two factors, 1 - 9, in order to capture products on a grid. The winner is the first player to capture four in a row. This game can be played by two players or one player against the computer.

  17. Lattice Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Interactive Math Miscellany and Puzzles, Alexander Bogomolny

    2011-01-01

    Leonardo Fibonacci's multiplication algorithm arrays the digits of multiplicands along a rectangular lattice. Read an explanation of the technique, see a few worked examples, and watch the method in action with a Java applet. Clicking a little off-center of any digit of a multiplicand (left to increase, right to decrease) instantly changes resulting products and sums throughout the lattice.

  18. Large-Scale Diversity of Slope Fishes: Pattern Inconsistency between Multiple Diversity Indices

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Jean-Claude; Colloca, Francesco; Politou, Chrissi-Yianna; Gil De Sola, Luis; Bertrand, Jacques A.; Murenu, Matteo; Durbec, Jean-Pierre; Kallianiotis, Argyris; Mannini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale studies focused on the diversity of continental slope ecosystems are still rare, usually restricted to a limited number of diversity indices and mainly based on the empirical comparison of heterogeneous local data sets. In contrast, we investigate large-scale fish diversity on the basis of multiple diversity indices and using 1454 standardized trawl hauls collected throughout the upper and middle slope of the whole northern Mediterranean Sea (36°3?- 45°7? N; 5°3?W - 28°E). We have analyzed (1) the empirical relationships between a set of 11 diversity indices in order to assess their degree of complementarity/redundancy and (2) the consistency of spatial patterns exhibited by each of the complementary groups of indices. Regarding species richness, our results contrasted both the traditional view based on the hump-shaped theory for bathymetric pattern and the commonly-admitted hypothesis of a large-scale decreasing trend correlated with a similar gradient of primary production in the Mediterranean Sea. More generally, we found that the components of slope fish diversity we analyzed did not always show a consistent pattern of distribution according either to depth or to spatial areas, suggesting that they are not driven by the same factors. These results, which stress the need to extend the number of indices traditionally considered in diversity monitoring networks, could provide a basis for rethinking not only the methodological approach used in monitoring systems, but also the definition of priority zones for protection. Finally, our results call into question the feasibility of properly investigating large-scale diversity patterns using a widespread approach in ecology, which is based on the compilation of pre-existing heterogeneous and disparate data sets, in particular when focusing on indices that are very sensitive to sampling design standardization, such as species richness. PMID:23843962

  19. [Multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Abe, Masahiro

    2009-05-01

    Multiple myeloma causes debilitating clinical symptoms including intractable bone pain, disabling multiple fractures and hypercalcemia. Bisphosphonates, potent inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated bone destruction, prevent skeletal-related events in myeloma. However, the impact of long-term bisphosphonate use remains unclear because of insufficient follow-up, while osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) emerges as a major concern. The proteosome inhibitor bortezomib is a novel anti-myeloma agent, which has been recently drawn a considerable attention in its anabolic effects to resume bone formation in patients with myeloma. It is important to clarify the roles of these bone-targeting agents in the treatment for a myeloma bone disease and make the best use of them by eliminating underlying risk of their adverse effects. PMID:19432122

  20. Multiplication Mania!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Reeves

    2006-11-06

    You\\'ve been practicing your multiplication facts, these games will help you develop your skills! First, you will read some stories that may help you remember your 9 X Tables better. Read through these stories and pick your favorite to share with a partner sitting close to you. Click here 9 X Tables Stories With this game, you need to save the mokeys apples so the crocodile wont eat ...

  1. Economic Adversity and Children’s Sleep Problems: Multiple Indicators and Moderation of Effects

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Bagley, Erika J.; Keiley, Margaret; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Chen, Edith; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Toward explicating relations between economic adversity and children’s sleep, we examined associations between multiple indicators of socioeconomic status (SES)/adversity and children’s objectively and subjectively derived sleep parameters; ethnicity was examined as potential moderator. Methods Participants were 276 third- and fourth-grade children and their families (133 girls; M age = 9.44 years; SD = .71): 66% European American (EA) and 34% African American (AA). Four SES indicators were used: income-to-needs ratio, perceived economic well-being, maternal education, and community poverty. Children wore actigraphs for 7 nights and completed a self-report measure to assess sleep problems. Results Objectively and subjectively assessed sleep parameters were related to different SES indicators, and overall worse sleep was evident for children from lower SES homes. Specifically, children from homes with lower income-to-needs ratios had higher levels of reported sleep/wake problems. Parental perceived economic well-being was associated with shorter sleep minutes and greater variability in sleep onset for children. Lower mother’s education was associated with lower sleep efficiency. Children who attended Title 1 schools had shorter sleep minutes. Ethnicity was a significant moderator of effects in the link between some SES indicators and children’s sleep. AA children’s sleep was more negatively affected by income-to-needs ratio and mother’s education than was the sleep of EA children. Conclusions The results advocate for the importance of specifying particular SES and sleep variables used because they may affect the ability to detect associations between sleep and economic adversity. PMID:23148451

  2. Multiple indications for everolimus after liver transplantation in current clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Bilbao, Itxarone; Dopazo, Cristina; Lazaro, Jose; Castells, Lluis; Caralt, Mireia; Sapisochin, Gonzalo; Charco, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess our experience with the use and management of everolimus-based regimens post-liver transplantation and to redefine the potential role of this drug in current clinical practice. METHODS: From October 1988 to December 2012, 1023 liver transplantations were performed in 955 patients in our Unit. Seventy-four patients (7.74%) received immunosuppression with everolimus at some time post-transplantation. Demographic characteristics, everolimus indication, time elapsed from transplantation to the introduction of everolimus, doses and levels administered, efficacy, side effects, discontinuation and post-conversion survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean age at the time of conversion to everolimus was 57.7 ± 10 years. Indications for conversion were: refractory rejection 31.1%, extended hepatocellular carcinoma in explanted liver 19%, post-transplant hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence 8.1%, de novo tumour 17.6%, renal insufficiency 8.1%, severe neurotoxicity 10.8%, and others 5.4%. Median time from transplantation to introduction of everolimus was 6 mo (range: 0.10-192). Mean follow-up post-conversion was 22 ± 19 mo (range: 0.50-74). The event for which the drug was indicated was resolved in 60.8% of patients, with the best results in cases of refractory rejection, renal insufficiency and neurotoxicity. Results in patients with cancer were similar to those of a historical cohort treated with other immunosuppressants. The main side effects were dyslipidemia and infections. Post-conversion acute rejection occurred in 14.9% of cases. The drug was discontinued in 28.4% of patients. CONCLUSION: Everolimus at low doses in combination with tacrolimus is a safe immunosuppressant with multiple early and late indications post-liver transplantation. PMID:25032101

  3. The receiver operational characteristic for binary classification with multiple indices and its application to the neuroimaging study of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Li, Juan; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Protas, Hillary; Jagust, William; Fleisher, Adam; Reiman, Eric; Yao, Li; Chen, Kewei

    2013-01-01

    Given a single index, the receiver operational characteristic (ROC) curve analysis is routinely utilized for characterizing performances in distinguishing two conditions/groups in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Given the availability of multiple data sources (referred to as multi-indices), such as multimodal neuroimaging data sets, cognitive tests, and clinical ratings and genomic data in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) studies, the single-index-based ROC underutilizes all available information. For a long time, a number of algorithmic/analytic approaches combining multiple indices have been widely used to simultaneously incorporate multiple sources. In this study, we propose an alternative for combining multiple indices using logical operations, such as “AND,” “OR,” and “at least n” (where n is an integer), to construct multivariate ROC (multiV-ROC) and characterize the sensitivity and specificity statistically associated with the use of multiple indices. With and without the “leave-one-out” cross-validation, we used two data sets from AD studies to showcase the potentially increased sensitivity/specificity of the multiV-ROC in comparison to the single-index ROC and linear discriminant analysis (an analytic way of combining multi-indices). We conclude that, for the data sets we investigated, the proposed multiV-ROC approach is capable of providing a natural and practical alternative with improved classification accuracy as compared to univariate ROC and linear discriminant analysis. PMID:23702553

  4. Two Specific Correlation Patterns as Indicators for Various Random Multiplicative Cascade Processes

    E-print Network

    Wu Yuanfang; Wang Yingdan; Bai Yuting; Liao Hongbo; Liu Lianshou

    2002-05-01

    It is suggested and demonstrated that two specific 2-dimensional correlation patterns, fixed-to-arbitrary bin and neighboring bin correlation patterns, are efficient for identifying various random multiplicative cascade processes. A possible application of these two correlation patterns to single event analysis in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider experiments is discussed.

  5. Adolescent Non-Involvement in Multiple Risk Behaviors: An Indicator of Successful Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.; Bosacki, Sandra; Dupont, Diane; Marini, Zopito; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Sadava, Stan; Ward, Anthony; Woloshyn, Vera

    2007-01-01

    Based on the conceptualization of successful development as the joint maximization of desirable outcomes and minimization of undesirable outcomes (Baltes, 1997), the present study examined connections between adolescent non-involvement in multiple risk behaviors and positive developmental status. Results from a survey of 7290 high school students…

  6. Multiple Personality Disorder: A Risk Indicator, Diagnostic Marker and Psychiatric Outcome for Severe Child Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Y. Whitman; Wayne Munkel

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that multiple personality disorder (MPD) is not as rare as previously believed. Indeed, it may represent a relatively common (as many as 25% of cases) outcome of severe physical and sexual abuse of children. Because diagnosis and treatment offer the best prognosis, it is important for the pediatric clinician to become familiar with both the at risk

  7. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Cause (MIMIC) model of respiratory health and household factors in Chinese children: the seven Northeastern cities (SNEC) study.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Trevathan, Edwin; Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui; Ong, Kee-Hean; Ferguson, Tekeda Freeman; Riley, Erin; Simckes, Maayan

    2014-01-01

    In China, with the rapid economic development and improvement of living standards over the past few decades, the household living environment has shifted dramatically. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of home environment factors on respiratory symptoms and asthma in Chinese children. Investigators analyzed data collected in the 25 districts from the seven Northeastern cities to examine health effects on respiratory symptoms and asthma in 31,049 children aged 2-14 years. Factor analysis was used to reduce 33 children's lifestyle and household variables to six new 'factor' variables. The multiple indicators multiple causes approach was used to examine the relationship between indoor air pollution and respiratory health status, controlling for covariates. Factor analyses generated six factor variables of potential household risk factors from an original list of 33 variables. The respiratory symptoms and asthma were significantly associated with the recent home renovation factor (estimate = 0.076, p < 0.001), pet ownership factor (estimate = 0.095, p < 0.001), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure factor (estimate = 0.181, p < 0.001) and PVC-flooring factor (estimate = 0.031, p = 0.007). Home ventilation factor was not related to any respiratory condition (estimate = 0.028, p = 0.074). Independent respiratory health effects existed for multiple household environmental factors recent home renovation, pet ownership, ETS, and PVC-flooring. PMID:23440490

  8. Multiple Myeloma

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program discusses multiple myeloma including the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options for this type of cancer, with their benefits and side effects. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  9. Multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hafler, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a complex genetic disease associated with inflammation in the CNS white matter thought to be mediated by autoreactive T cells. Clonal expansion of B cells, their antibody products, and T cells, hallmarks of inflammation in the CNS, are found in MS. This review discusses new methods to define the molecular pathology of human disease with high-throughput examination of germline DNA haplotypes, RNA expression, and protein structures that will allow the generation of a new series of hypotheses that can be tested to develop better understanding of and therapies for this disease. PMID:15067307

  10. Computing PI and Szeged indices of multiple phenylenes and cyclic hexagonal-square chain consisting of mutually isomorphic hexagonal chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yousefi-Azari; J. Yazdani; A. Bahrami; A. R. Ashrafi

    2007-01-01

    PI and Szeged indices are two of the most important topological indices defined in chemistry. In this study, the PI and Szeged indices of linear (n)-phenyl- enes and a cyclic hexagonal-square chain consisting of n mutually isomorphic hexa- gonal chains were computed. The PI and Szeged indices of a multiple phenylene, which is the 2-dimensional case of a phenylenic nanotube

  11. Patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple electroconvulsive therapy sessions: characteristics, indications, and results

    PubMed Central

    Iancu, Iulian; Pick, Nimrod; Seener-Lorsh, Orit; Dannon, Pinhas

    2015-01-01

    Background While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has been used for many years, there is insufficient research regarding the indications for continuation/maintenance (C/M)-ECT, its safety and efficacy, and the characteristics of patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who receive multiple ECT sessions. The aims of this study were to characterize a series of patients who received 30 ECT sessions or more, to describe treatment regimens in actual practice, and to examine the results of C/M-ECT in terms of safety and efficacy, especially the effect on aggression and functioning. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 20 consecutive patients (mean age 64.6 years) with schizophrenia (n=16) or schizoaffective disorder (n=4) who received at least 30 ECT sessions at our ECT unit, and also interviewed the treating physician and filled out the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Global Assessment of Functioning, and the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised. Results Patients received a mean of 91.3 ECT sessions at a mean interval of 2.6 weeks. All had been hospitalized for most or all of the previous 3 years. There were no major adverse effects, and cognitive side effects were relatively minimal (cognitive deficit present for several hours after treatment). We found that ECT significantly reduced scores on the Staff Observation Aggression Scale-Revised subscales for verbal aggression and self-harm, and improved Global Assessment of Functioning scores. There were reductions in total aggression scores, subscale scores for harm to objects and to others, and Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores, these were not statistically significant. Conclusion C/M-ECT is safe and effective for chronically hospitalized patients. It improves general functioning and reduces verbal aggression and self-harm. More research using other aggression tools is needed to determine its effects and to reproduce our findings in prospective and controlled studies. PMID:25848283

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of Lantana camara in India indicates multiple introductions and gene flow.

    PubMed

    Ray, A; Quader, S

    2014-05-01

    Lantana camara is a highly invasive plant, which has spread over 60 countries and island groups of Asia, Africa and Australia. In India, it was introduced in the early nineteenth century, since when it has expanded and gradually established itself in almost every available ecosystem. We investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of this plant in India in order to understand its introduction, subsequent range expansion and gene flow. A total of 179 individuals were sequenced at three chloroplast loci and 218 individuals were genotyped for six nuclear microsatellites. Both chloroplasts (nine haplotypes) and microsatellites (83 alleles) showed high genetic diversity. Besides, each type of marker confirmed the presence of private polymorphism. We uncovered low to medium population structure in both markers, and found a faint signal of isolation by distance with microsatellites. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed multiple divergent genetic clusters. Taken together, these findings (i.e. high genetic diversity with private alleles and multiple genetic clusters) suggest that Lantana was introduced multiple times and gradually underwent spatial expansion with recurrent gene flow. PMID:24119091

  13. Using Multiple Calibration Indices in Order to Capture the Complex Picture of What Affects Students' Accuracy of Feeling of Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boekaerts, Monique; Rozendaal, Jeroen S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study used multiple calibration indices to capture the complex picture of fifth graders' calibration of feeling of confidence in mathematics. Specifically, the effects of gender, type of mathematical problem, instruction method, and time of measurement (before and after problem solving) on calibration skills were investigated. Fourteen…

  14. Multiple System Atrophy

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Multiple System Atrophy Information Page Condensed from Multiple System Atrophy Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multiple System Atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

  15. Multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Laubach, Jacob; Richardson, Paul; Anderson, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B cell neoplasm of the bone marrow with a complex array of clinical manifestations including anemia, bone lesions, hypercalcemia, renal dysfunction, and compromised immune function. It accounts for 10%-15% of all hematologic malignancies, and 20% of deaths related to cancers of the blood and bone marrow. The diagnosis of MM is based on the presence of neoplastic plasma cells in the bone marrow or other extramedullary sites, along with evidence of disease-related organ dysfunction. Although the disease remains incurable, significant advances in both basic and translational research have enhanced understanding of disease pathogenesis and guided the development of new and more effective therapies. These agents include the immunomodulatory drugs thalidomide and lenalidomide, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, and other therapeutics that are currently being evaluated. This review highlights important historical landmarks in the field of MM, examines the pathogenesis and clinical manifestations of the disease, and outlines principles of both diagnosis and treatment of MM. PMID:21090965

  16. An indicator of cancer: downregulation of Monoamine Oxidase-A in multiple organs and species

    PubMed Central

    Rybaczyk, Leszek A; Bashaw, Meredith J; Pathak, Dorothy R; Huang, Kun

    2008-01-01

    Background Identifying consistent changes in cellular function that occur in multiple types of cancer could revolutionize the way cancer is treated. Previous work has produced promising results such as the identification of p53. Recently drugs that affect serotonin reuptake were shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer in man. Here, we analyze an ensemble of cancer datasets focusing on genes involved in the serotonergic pathway. Genechip datasets consisting of cancerous tissue from human, mouse, rat, or zebrafish were extracted from the GEO database. We first compared gene expression between cancerous tissues and normal tissues for each type of cancer and then identified changes that were common to a variety of cancer types. Results Our analysis found that significant downregulation of MAO-A, the enzyme that metabolizes serotonin, occurred in multiple tissues from humans, rodents, and fish. MAO-A expression was decreased in 95.4% of human cancer patients and 94.2% of animal cancer cases compared to the non-cancerous controls. Conclusion These are the first findings that identify a single reliable change in so many different cancers. Future studies should investigate links between MAO-A suppression and the development of cancer to determine the extent that MAO-A suppression contributes to increased cancer risk. PMID:18366702

  17. Multiple Episodes of Recent Gully Activity Indicated by Gully Fan Stratigraphy in Eastern Promethei Terra, Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schon, S.; Head, J.; Fassett, C.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction Gullies are considered among the youngest geomorphic features on Mars based upon their stratigraphic relationships, superposition on steep slopes and distinctive morphology in unconsolidated sediment. Multiple formation hypotheses have been proposed, which can be divided into three broad classes: entirely dry mechanisms (e.g., [1,2]), wet mechanisms invoking groundwater or ground ice (e.g., [3,4]) and wet mechanisms invoking surficial meltwater (e.g., [5,6,7,8]). It has been difficult to differentiate between these hypotheses based upon past observations and it remains possible that gullies are polygenetic landforms. This study presents stratigraphic relationships in the depositional fan of a crater wall gully system that suggest: (1) multiple episodes of alluvial fan-style deposition, (2) very recent depositional activity that is younger than a newly recognized rayed crater, and (3) surficial snowmelt as the most likely source of these multiple episodes of recent gully activity. Gully-Fan Stratigraphy In Eastern Promethei Terra an ~5 km-diameter crater is observed with a well-developed gully system (Fig. 1) and several smaller gullies in its northnortheast wall. The large gully system (composed of a small western gully and larger eastern gully) shows evidence for incision into the crater wall country rock and has multiple contributory sub-alcoves and channels. The depositional fan associated with this gully system is bounded on its western side by a small arcuate ridge swell that is not observed on the eastern side of the fan. This ridge is interpreted as a moraine-like structure that may have bounded a glacially-formed depression into which the fan is deposited [8]. Similar depressions with bounding ridges are commonly observed in this latitude band (~30-50°S) in association with deeply incised gully alcoves [9,10,11]. This gully fan is composed of multiple lobes with distinct lobe contacts, incised channels, and cut-andfill deposits - all features similar to those seen in terrestrial alluvial fans [12,13]. The western portion of the fan is contained within the depression, while the younger eastern portion overlies and obscures any potential evidence of the ridge structure. A very striking and unusual feature of this gully fan is the large number of superposed impact craters; due to their density and similar diameter, we interpret these to be secondary craters from a large nearby primary impact crater. The depositional lobes of the fan can be divided into two groups: 1) those that predate the secondary crater population and 2) younger lobes that are superposed on the secondary craters. Numerous secondary craters (~1-25 m-diameter) superpose the lowermost stratigraphic lobe (Fig. 1, A), while at least three younger lobes (Fig. 1, C1, D1, and D2) directly superpose the cratered lobe. The emplacement date of these secondaries provides a robust maximum age for the youngest lobes of this fan, and therefore the most recent fluvial activity of the gully. Most gullies either have no superposed impact craters [3,7] or are too small to date with any certainty using crater counts [14]. Therefore, locating and dating the parent impact crater of these secondaries is critical to constrain the chronology and origin of gully systems. Rayed-Crater Source of the Secondary Craters Regional reconnaissance for the origin of the secondary craters led to the discovery of a previously unidentified rayed crater complex (consisting of an ~18 km-diameter outer crater and an ~7 km-diameter inner crater) approximately 175 km southwest of the gully system. Distinctive rays are observed in THEMIS nighttime thermal inertia data, but are not observable as albedo contrasts in THEMIS visible data, consistent with other identifications of young rayed craters on Mars [15,16]. The rims of both craters are distinct and consistent with the morphology of very young impact craters on Mars. The inner crater has a greater depth to diameter ratio than the outer crater (0.121 compared to 0.073), consistent with young Martian craters [17]. Both the ou

  18. Databased comparison of Sparse Bayesian Learning and Multiple Linear Regression for statistical downscaling of low flow indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Deepti; St-Hilaire, André; Daigle, Anik; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThis study attempts to compare the performance of two statistical downscaling frameworks in downscaling hydrological indices (descriptive statistics) characterizing the low flow regimes of three rivers in Eastern Canada - Moisie, Romaine and Ouelle. The statistical models selected are Relevance Vector Machine (RVM), an implementation of Sparse Bayesian Learning, and the Automated Statistical Downscaling tool (ASD), an implementation of Multiple Linear Regression. Inputs to both frameworks involve climate variables significantly (? = 0.05) correlated with the indices. These variables were processed using Canonical Correlation Analysis and the resulting canonical variates scores were used as input to RVM to estimate the selected low flow indices. In ASD, the significantly correlated climate variables were subjected to backward stepwise predictor selection and the selected predictors were subsequently used to estimate the selected low flow indices using Multiple Linear Regression. With respect to the correlation between climate variables and the selected low flow indices, it was observed that all indices are influenced, primarily, by wind components (Vertical, Zonal and Meridonal) and humidity variables (Specific and Relative Humidity). The downscaling performance of the framework involving RVM was found to be better than ASD in terms of Relative Root Mean Square Error, Relative Mean Absolute Bias and Coefficient of Determination. In all cases, the former resulted in less variability of the performance indices between calibration and validation sets, implying better generalization ability than for the latter.

  19. Evaluating multiple indices of agricultural water use efficiency and productivity to improve comparisons between sites and trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, M. C.

    2012-12-01

    Approximately 70% of global available freshwater supplies are used in the agricultural sector. Increased demands for water to meet growing population food requirements, and expected changes in the reliability of freshwater supplies due to climate change, threaten the sustainability of water supplies worldwide - not only on farms, but in connected cities and industries. Researchers concerned with agricultural water use sustainability use a variety of theoretical and empirical measures of efficiency and productivity to gain insight into the sustainability of agricultural water use. However, definitions of measures, or indices, vary between different natural and political boundaries, across regions, states and nations and between their respective research, industry, and environmental groups. Index development responds to local data availability and local agendas, and there is debate about the validity of various indices. However, real differences in empirical index measures are not well-understood across the multiple disciplines that study agricultural water use, including engineering and hydrology, agronomy, climate and soil sciences, and economics. Nevertheless reliable, accessible, and generalizable indices are required for planners and policymakers to promote sustainable water use systems. This study synthesizes a set of water use efficiency and productivity indices based on academic, industry and government literature in California and Australia, two locations with similarly water-stressed and valuable agricultural industries under pressure to achieve optimal water use efficiency and productivity. Empirical data at the irrigation district level from the California San Joaquin Valley and Murray Darling Basin states of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia are used to compute indices that estimate efficiency, yield productivity, and economic productivity of agricultural water use. Multiple index estimates of same time-series data demonstrate historical spread in efficiency and productivity measures in different agricultural regions. Individual indices consistently over- or under- estimate trends in efficiency and productivity by their construction, and may provide inaccurate results in years with extreme climatic events, such as droughts. By treating multiple indices as an "ensemble" of measures, analogous to the treatment of multiple climate model predictions, this study quantifies likely "true" states of efficiency and productivity in the selected agricultural regions, and error in individual indices. While different individual indices are preferable at different scales, and relative to the quality of available input data, ensemble indices can be more reliably used in comparative study across different agricultural regions, and for prediction.

  20. Gender as a differential indicator of the employment discrimination experiences of Americans with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rumrill, Phillip D; Roessler, Richard T; McMahon, Brian T; Hennessey, Mary L; Neath, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    Information from the Integrated Mission System of the United States Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) was used to investigate the employment discrimination experiences of women and men with multiple sclerosis (MS). Spanning the years 1992 to 2003, the EEOC database included 3,663 allegations of discrimination filed by 2,167 adults with MS. With respect to women and men with MS, the researchers examined the comparability of a) demographic characteristics; b) industry designations, locations, and size of employers; c) the nature of discrimination alleged; and d) the legal outcome or resolution of those allegations. On average, women and men with MS were in their early forties, with the majority of both groups being Caucasian. Both women and men were most likely to allege discrimination related to discharge and reasonable accommodations, although women were more likely to file harassment charges than men. Men with MS were more likely to allege discrimination regarding hiring and reinstatement. Women with MS were more likely to file allegations against employers in the service industries, and men were more likely to file allegations against employers in the construction, manufacturing, and wholesale industries. No gender differences were found in the geographic distribution of allegations. Both groups had comparable rates of merit closures (23% vs. 27%) as a result of the EEOC's investigatory process. Implications for rehabilitation counseling and employer-oriented interventions are discussed. PMID:18057570

  1. Statistics of multiple stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, A.

    2004-08-01

    The statistics of stellar systems of multiplicity three and higher is reviewed. They are frequent, 0.15-0.25 of all stellar systems. Some 700 multiples are expected among the 3383 stars of spectral type F, G, and K within 50 pc, while only 76 of them are actually known. Many (if not all) close binaries have distant tertiary components, indicating that angular momentum exchange within multiple systems was probably critical in forming short-period binaries. The ratio of outer to inner periods in the best-studied nearby multiples and in low-mass pre-main sequence multiples does not exceed 104 at the formation epoch; larger ratios are produced by subsequent orbital evolution. All multiples with well-defined orbits are dynamically stable, the eccentricities of outer orbits obey the empirical stability limit P[out](1 - e[out])3/P[in] > 5 that is more strict than current theoretical limits. Relative orientation of orbits in triple stars shows some degree of alignment, especially in weakly-hierarchical systems. The statistics support the idea that most multiple stars originated from dynamical interactions in small clusters.

  2. Analyzing latent state-trait and multiple-indicator latent growth curve models as multilevel structural equation models

    PubMed Central

    Geiser, Christian; Bishop, Jacob; Lockhart, Ginger; Shiffman, Saul; Grenard, Jerry L.

    2013-01-01

    Latent state-trait (LST) and latent growth curve (LGC) models are frequently used in the analysis of longitudinal data. Although it is well-known that standard single-indicator LGC models can be analyzed within either the structural equation modeling (SEM) or multilevel (ML; hierarchical linear modeling) frameworks, few researchers realize that LST and multivariate LGC models, which use multiple indicators at each time point, can also be specified as ML models. In the present paper, we demonstrate that using the ML-SEM rather than the SL-SEM framework to estimate the parameters of these models can be practical when the study involves (1) a large number of time points, (2) individually-varying times of observation, (3) unequally spaced time intervals, and/or (4) incomplete data. Despite the practical advantages of the ML-SEM approach under these circumstances, there are also some limitations that researchers should consider. We present an application to an ecological momentary assessment study (N = 158 youths with an average of 23.49 observations of positive mood per person) using the software Mplus (Muthén and Muthén, 1998–2012) and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using the ML-SEM approach to estimate the parameters of LST and multiple-indicator LGC models. PMID:24416023

  3. Become a Multiplication Wizard!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ms. Robinson

    2010-01-27

    Practice all levels of basic multiplication facts. Are you a math magician? Practice how speedy you can be in Be A Math Magician!. Dress up and race granny in Granny Multiplication Race to make her go faster, answer the problems correctly. Multiplication that makes your mouth water. Multiplication Ice Cream Cones ...

  4. An Evaluation of Multiple Single-Case Outcome Indicators Using Convergent Evidence Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.; Busse, R. T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate the consistency of five single-case outcome indicators, used to assess response-to-intervention data from a pilot Tier 2 reading intervention that was implemented at an elementary school. Using convergent evidence scaling, the indicators were converted onto a common interpretive scale for each case…

  5. ISIM3D: AN ANSI-C THREE-DIMENSIONAL MULTIPLE INDICATOR CONDITIONAL SIMULATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indicator conditional simulation technique provides stochastic simulations of a variable that (i) honor the initial data and (ii) can feature a richer family of spatial structures not limited by Gaussianity. he data are encoded into a series of indicators which then are used ...

  6. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  7. Discovery of Inhibitors of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase: A Target with Multiple Potential Therapeutic Indications

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Indications Hong C. Shen*, and Bruce D. Hammock*, RY800-C114, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Merck been detected in prokaryotes and eukaryotes ranging from plants to mammals.1-3 In mammals these include

  8. Evaluation of off-label recombinant activated factor VII for multiple indications in children.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Pamela D; Valuck, Robert J; Taylor, Ruston S

    2007-07-01

    Despite a paucity of safety and efficacy data, the use of recombinant activated factor VII in children for off-label indications has now surpassed its use in hemophilia. A retrospective chart review was conducted of 46 subjects (age, 6.7 +/- 6 years; weight, 26 +/- 20 kg) who received recombinant activated factor VII for nonhemophiliac indications between January 1, 2004, and September 1, 2005. Indications for use included prevention (n = 6) or treatment (n = 40) of bleeding due to general surgery, hepatic failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, severe traumatic brain injury, bone marrow transplant, cardiac, acetaminophen overdose, and multiorgan system failure. Decreases in prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and international normalized ratio were observed. No inappropriate thrombotic events were noted. Administration of recombinant activated factor VII was associated with a reduction in coagulation markers without obvious adverse thrombotic events at cost of $4189 per dose. These findings should be confirmed in a prospective trial. PMID:17636185

  9. Comparison of drought indicators derived from multiple data sets over Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, G.; Dutra, E.; Barbosa, P.; Pappenberger, F.; Wetterhall, F.; Vogt, J. V.

    2014-05-01

    Drought monitoring is a key component to mitigate impacts of droughts. Lack of reliable and up-to-date precipitation data sets is a common challenge across the globe. This study investigates different data sets and drought indicators on their capability to improve drought monitoring in Africa. The study was performed for four river basins located in different climatic regions (the Oum er-Rbia in Morocco, the Blue Nile in eastern Africa, the Upper Niger in western Africa, and the Limpopo in southeastern Africa) as well as the Greater Horn of Africa. The five precipitation data sets compared are the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite monthly rainfall product 3B-43, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre gridded precipitation data set, the Global Precipitation Climatology Project Global Monthly Merged Precipitation Analyses, and the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation. The set of drought indicators used includes the Standardized Precipitation Index, the Standardized Precipitation-Evaporation Index, and Soil Moisture Anomalies. A comparison of the annual cycle and monthly precipitation time series shows a good agreement in the timing of the rainy seasons. The main differences between the data sets are in the ability to represent the magnitude of the wet seasons and extremes. Moreover, for the areas affected by drought, all the drought indicators agree on the time of drought onset and recovery although there is disagreement on the extent of the affected area. In regions with limited rain gauge data the estimation of the different drought indicators is characterized by a higher uncertainty. Further comparison suggests that the main source of differences in the computation of the drought indicators is the uncertainty in the precipitation data sets rather than the estimation of the distribution parameters of the drought indicators.

  10. Evaluating Multiple Indices from a Canopy Reflectance Sensor to Estimate Corn N Requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the increasing cost of fertilizer N, there is a renewed emphasis on developing new technologies for quantifying in-season N requirements for corn. The objectives of this research are (i) to evaluate different vegetative indices derived from an active reflectance sensor in estimating in-season N...

  11. Weighting and Aggregation in Composite Indicator Construction: A Multiplicative Optimization Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, P.; Ang, B. W.; Zhou, D. Q.

    2010-01-01

    Composite indicators (CIs) have increasingly been accepted as a useful tool for benchmarking, performance comparisons, policy analysis and public communication in many different fields. Several recent studies show that as a data aggregation technique in CI construction the weighted product (WP) method has some desirable properties. However, a…

  12. Neural network models for earthquake magnitude prediction using multiple seismicity indicators.

    PubMed

    Panakkat, Ashif; Adeli, Hojjat

    2007-02-01

    Neural networks are investigated for predicting the magnitude of the largest seismic event in the following month based on the analysis of eight mathematically computed parameters known as seismicity indicators. The indicators are selected based on the Gutenberg-Richter and characteristic earthquake magnitude distribution and also on the conclusions drawn by recent earthquake prediction studies. Since there is no known established mathematical or even empirical relationship between these indicators and the location and magnitude of a succeeding earthquake in a particular time window, the problem is modeled using three different neural networks: a feed-forward Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation (LMBP) neural network, a recurrent neural network, and a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. Prediction accuracies of the models are evaluated using four different statistical measures: the probability of detection, the false alarm ratio, the frequency bias, and the true skill score or R score. The models are trained and tested using data for two seismically different regions: Southern California and the San Francisco bay region. Overall the recurrent neural network model yields the best prediction accuracies compared with LMBP and RBF networks. While at the present earthquake prediction cannot be made with a high degree of certainty this research provides a scientific approach for evaluating the short-term seismic hazard potential of a region. PMID:17393560

  13. Practice Parameters for the Non-Respiratory Indications for Polysomnography and Multiple Sleep Latency Testing for Children

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Lamm, Carin I.; Zak, Rochelle S.; Kristo, David A.; Bista, Sabin R.; Rowley, James A.; Casey, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although a level 1 nocturnal polysomnogram (PSG) is often used to evaluate children with non-respiratory sleep disorders, there are no published evidence-based practice parameters focused on the pediatric age group. In this report, we present practice parameters for the indications of polysomnography and the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) in the assessment of non-respiratory sleep disorders in children. These practice parameters were reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). Methods: A task force of content experts was appointed by the AASM to review the literature and grade the evidence according to the American Academy of Neurology grading system. Recommendations For PSG and MSLT Use: PSG is indicated for children suspected of having periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) for diagnosing PLMD. (STANDARD) The MSLT, preceded by nocturnal PSG, is indicated in children as part of the evaluation for suspected narcolepsy. (STANDARD) Children with frequent NREM parasomnias, epilepsy, or nocturnal enuresis should be clinically screened for the presence of comorbid sleep disorders and polysomnography should be performed if there is a suspicion for sleep-disordered breathing or periodic limb movement disorder. (GUIDELINE) The MSLT, preceded by nocturnal PSG, is indicated in children suspected of having hypersomnia from causes other than narcolepsy to assess excessive sleepiness and to aid in differentiation from narcolepsy. (OPTION) The polysomnogram using an expanded EEG montage is indicated in children to confirm the diagnosis of an atypical or potentially injurious parasomnia or differentiate a parasomnia from sleep-related epilepsy (OPTION) Polysomnography is indicated in children suspected of having restless legs syndrome (RLS) who require supportive data for diagnosing RLS. (OPTION) Recommendations Against PSG Use: Polysomnography is not routinely indicated for evaluation of children with sleep-related bruxism. (STANDARD) Conclusions: The nocturnal polysomnogram and MSLT are useful clinical tools for evaluating pediatric non-respiratory sleep disorders when integrated with the clinical evaluation. Citation: Aurora RN; Lamm CI; Zak RS; Kristo DA; Bista SR; Rowley JA; Casey KR. Practice parameters for the non-respiratory indications for polysomnography and multiple sleep latency testing for children. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1467-1473. PMID:23115395

  14. Suicidality and divalproex sodium: analysis of controlled studies in multiple indications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent analyses of antiepileptic drugs have indicated an increase in the risk of suicidality. The objective of this report was to provide clinical information and an independent meta-analysis of divalproex sodium and suicidality events by analyzing data from 13 placebo-controlled studies and 1 low-dose controlled study. Methods Adverse events considered to be possibly suicide related were identified using the Columbia Classification Algorithm of Suicide Assessment (C-CASA) methodology. Indications included epilepsy, bipolar disorder, migraine prophylaxis, impulsive aggression, and dementia. Narratives were produced for every event, and suicidality event ratings were performed by a third party blinded to treatment assignment. Statistical analyses were conducted using methodology similar to that reported by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Results Suicidality events were identified in 5 of the 13 placebo-controlled studies. Of the 1,327 (0.83%) subjects taking divalproex sodium, 11 had suicidality events: 2 suicide attempts and 9 suicidal ideation. Of 992 (0.91%) subjects taking placebo, 9 had suicidality events: 1 preparatory act toward suicide, 2 suicide attempts, and 6 suicidal ideation. Across placebo-controlled studies, the overall estimated odds ratio (OR) of suicidal behavior or ideation was 0.72 (95% CI 0.29 to 1.84). The OR for suicidal behavior was 0.37 (95% CI 0.04 to 2.58), and the OR for suicidal ideation was 0.90 (95% CI 0.31 to 2.79). Conclusions In this meta-analysis, divalproex sodium does not appear to increase the risk of suicide-related adverse events relative to placebo in the populations studied. Clinicians should nonetheless remain vigilant in assessing suicidality, not only in patients treated for mental disorders with inherently high suicide risk, but also in patients taking antiepileptic medications. PMID:21244672

  15. Indication of colloidal calcium in freshwaters using multiple processing and analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlqvist, R.; Benedetti, M.; Andersson, K.; Ingri, J.

    2003-04-01

    Studies of freshwaters indicate that Ca is retained during ultrafiltration together with colloidal material. It has been uncertain however if the retained fraction of Ca is actually associated with the colloidal material or if the enrichment is an artefact. Experimental studies have clearly shown that free Ca ions can be retained during ultrafiltration. This retention is claimed to originate from electrostatic repulsion of sulphate ions by the filtration membrane, with subsequent retention of cations (including Ca) to maintain charge balance in the solution. But other studies of natural freshwaters suggest that there might also be a true colloidal fraction of Ca present. An obvious problem would be to distinguish the two causes of retention from each other. The Ca speciation in the Amazon/Purús rivers and the Kalix river (a boreal river in northern Sweden) was compared using combined analysis with ICP-MS and Ca ISE (ion-selective electrode). Analysis was performed on unfiltered samples and on solutions from cross-flow ultrafiltration experiments. Results obtained from this combined analysis of unfiltered samples from the Amazon/Púrus and Kalix rivers are in excellent agreement with each other and indicate that on average about 84% of the total Ca is in true dissolved form. The newly developed combination of flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) coupled on-line to ICP-MS has been used to study the size distribution and nature of colloidal material in the Kalix river. Mainly two types of colloids are present in this river. A carbon rich form, probably consisting of humic substances, and a Fe-rich form which is larger. Size distribution spectra produced with FlFFF ICP-MS show that a fraction of Ca is associated with the smaller organic rich colloidal phase. ICP-MS and ISE analysis from ultrafiltered retentate fractions show that colloidal Ca as well as free Ca2+ ions are enriched during cross-flow ultrafiltration. The results give important information about how ultrafiltration affects the sample during processing and has implications for the quantification of the colloidal fraction. The use of ISE makes colloidal quantification of Ca possible.

  16. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profiles Indicate CD8+ T Cell Hypermethylation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Steffan D.; Page, Christian M.; Andreassen, Bettina K.; Elboudwarej, Emon; Gustavsen, Marte W.; Briggs, Farren; Quach, Hong; Leikfoss, Ingvild S.; Bjølgerud, Anja; Berge, Tone; Harbo, Hanne F.; Barcellos, Lisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Determine whether MS-specific DNA methylation profiles can be identified in whole blood or purified immune cells from untreated MS patients. Methods Whole blood, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell DNA from 16 female, treatment naïve MS patients and 14 matched controls was profiled using the HumanMethylation450K BeadChip. Genotype data were used to assess genetic homogeneity of our sample and to exclude potential SNP-induced DNA methylation measurement errors. Results As expected, significant differences between CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and whole blood DNA methylation profiles were observed, regardless of disease status. Strong evidence for hypermethylation of CD8+ T cell, but not CD4+ T cell or whole blood DNA in MS patients compared to controls was observed. Genome-wide significant individual CpG-site DNA methylation differences were not identified. Furthermore, significant differences in gene DNA methylation of 148 established MS-associated risk genes were not observed. Conclusion While genome-wide significant DNA methylation differences were not detected for individual CpG-sites, strong evidence for DNA hypermethylation of CD8+ T cells for MS patients was observed, indicating a role for DNA methylation in MS. Further, our results suggest that large DNA methylation differences for CpG-sites tested here do not contribute to MS susceptibility. In particular, large DNA methylation differences for CpG-sites within 148 established MS candidate genes tested in our study cannot explain missing heritability. Larger studies of homogenous MS patients and matched controls are warranted to further elucidate the impact of CD8+ T cell and more subtle DNA methylation changes in MS development and pathogenesis. PMID:25734800

  17. Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold

    1992-01-01

    Optical-fiber digital communication network to support data-acquisition and control functions of electric-power-distribution networks. Optical-fiber links of communication network follow power-distribution routes. Since fiber crosses open power switches, communication network includes multiple interconnected loops with occasional spurs. At each intersection node is needed. Nodes of communication network include power-distribution substations and power-controlling units. In addition to serving data acquisition and control functions, each node acts as repeater, passing on messages to next node(s). Multiple-ring communication network operates on new AbNET protocol and features fiber-optic communication.

  18. Jalyn's Multiplication Mania!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Huey

    2011-10-11

    Multiplication Games For My Favorite Gillenwater Jalyn Will Love Serving Aliens Lunch! Ms. Gillenwater Will Have Fun With Multiplication In Murbia! When Jalyn Plays This Game She Will Go Bananas! Buy A Pet From Gillenwater s Pet Shop! ...

  19. Coffee and Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... right-hand corner of the player. Coffee and Multiple Sclerosis HealthDay February 27, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Caffeine Multiple Sclerosis Transcript For all the coffee lovers out there… ...

  20. Multiple sclerosis - discharge

    MedlinePLUS

    Your doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis. This disease affects the brain and spinal cord ( ... your doctor may prescribe medicine. Some people with multiple sclerosis need to use a urinary catheter . This is ...

  1. Preparing for Multiple Births

    MedlinePLUS

    ... prior pregnancies. "Supertwins" is a common term for triplets and other higher-order multiple births, such as ... will be delivered by C-section. And most triplets and other higher-order multiples are born by ...

  2. Twins, Triplets, Multiple Births

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by C-section, especially if there are three babies or more. Parenting multiples can be a challenge. Volunteer help and support groups for parents of multiples can help. Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health

  3. (10, k) Reversible Multiples

    E-print Network

    Madline Al- Tahan

    2015-04-20

    We consider the integers having the property of reversing when multiplied by a specific integer k. First, we proved that k should be either 1, 4 or 9. Second, we classify these integers as (10, 1)- reverse multiples, (10, 4)- reverse multiples and (10, 9)- reverse multiples. Then we conclude their general form.

  4. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvati?, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics. PMID:21599254

  5. Quantifying and modeling long-range cross correlations in multiple time series with applications to world stock indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvati?, Davor; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-04-01

    We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes “bad news” for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.

  6. Long-Term Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on Multiple Indicators of Grief in Parentally Bereaved Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Ma, Yue; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.; Wolchik, Sharlene; Kennedy, Cara; Millsap, Roger

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports on results from a randomized experimental trial of the effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on multiple measures of grief experienced by parentally bereaved children and adolescents over a 6-year period. Method: Participants were 244 youths (ages 8-16, mean age = 11.4 years) from 156 families that had…

  7. The use of multiple indices of physiological activity to access viability in chlorine disinfected Escherichia coli O157:H7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisle, J. T.; Pyle, B. H.; McFeters, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    A suite of fluorescent intracellular stains and probes was used, in conjunction with viable plate counts, to assess the effect of chlorine disinfection on membrane potential (rhodamine 123; Rh123 and bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid) trimethine oxonol; DiBAC4(3)), membrane integrity (LIVE/DEAD BacLight kit), respiratory activity (5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride; CTC) and substrate responsiveness (direct viable counts; DVC) in the commensal pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7. After a 5 min exposure to the disinfectant, physiological indices were affected in the following order: viable plate counts > substrate responsiveness > membrane potential > respiratory activity > membrane integrity. In situ assessment of physiological activity by examining multiple targets, as demonstrated in this study, permits a more comprehensive determination of the site and extent of injury in bacterial cells following sublethal disinfection with chlorine. This approach to assessing altered bacterial physiology has application in various fields where detection of stressed bacteria is of interest.

  8. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine S. Landry; Thereasa Rich; Camilo Jimenez; Elizabeth G. Grubbs; Jeffrey E. Lee; Nancy D. Perrier

    \\u000a The term “multiple endocrine neoplasia” was first used by Steiner in the late 1960s when he described three distinct endocrine\\u000a disorders. The first disorder, multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN 1) (also known as Wermer syndrome), described patients\\u000a with familial pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic islet cell tumors. The second syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia\\u000a type II (MEN 2) (also known as

  9. Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Creveld Dysplasia Hypochondroplasia Kniest Dysplasia Metatropic Dysplasia Morquio Syndrome Multiple Epiphyseal ... Endowed Chair in Orthopedics William G. Mackenzie, MD Dr. Mackenzie is an internationally ...

  10. Multiplication is Fun!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Gross

    2010-10-09

    Let's play some multiplication games! If asked to pick a fact family or a leve, pick the one you are most comfortable with first then go to the harder one. Penguin Jump Click on the ice cube that has the answer to the multiplication problem at the bottom. Snagger s Pond For this game, first you will pick a Fact Family 0-5, 2-9, 3-12. Then answer the Multiplication fact. Let s Multiply! Select a level, then answer the multiplication facts by clicking on the ice cream ...

  11. On Multiple-Layered Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    2011-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to find ways to make vortex flow fields decompose more quickly, photographs and observations are presented of vortex flow fields that indicate the presence of multiple layers of fluid rotating about a common axis. A survey of the literature indicates that multiple-layered vortices form in waterspouts, tornadoes and lift-generated vortices of aircraft. An explanation for the appearance of multiple-layered structures in vortices is suggested. The observations and data presented are intended to improve the understanding of the formation and persistence of vortex flow fields.

  12. Multiple Approaches to Multiple Agent Problem Solving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Hendler; Daniel G. Bobrow; Les Gasser; Carl Hewitt; Marvin Minsky

    1991-01-01

    Tick up any modern operating systems textbook, and you will find sections on distributed processing - the sharing of computation among multiple physical proces­ sors. Familiarity with this literature brings the reader into contact with a jargon filled with the sorts of terms that computer science thrives on: load balancing, net­ work topology, routing strategics, circuit switching, col- lision detection,

  13. Using multiple chemical indicators to assess sources of nitrate and age of groundwater in a karstic spring basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.; Copeland, R.; Greenhalgh, T.; Ceryak, R.; Zwanka, W.

    2005-01-01

    Human health and ecological concerns have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations during the past 40 years in Fannin Springs (0.3-4.7 mg/L), a regional discharge point with an average flow of >2.8 m3/second (>100 ft3/second) for water from the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple chemical indicators (major dissolved species, 15N and 18O of nitrate, dissolved gases, 78 pesticides and degradates, and 67 organic compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater) and transient tracers (3H/3He, chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs], sulfur hexafluoride [SF6]) were analyzed in water samples from nine wells along three transects and in spring water to assess groundwater age and potential contaminant sources. Land use is predominantly agricultural (52 percent) and forest (31 percent) in the 320 km2 (124 mi2) spring basin, which was delineated from a potentiometric-surface map of the UFA using high-resolution water-level data. Nitrate-N concentrations were highly variable in the oxic UFA and ranged from <0.02 to 4.7 mg/L. ?? 15N-NO3 values (3.4-9.9 per mil) indicated that nitrate contamination originated from inorganic sources (synthetic fertilizer) and organic sources (manure spreading or waste disposal). Higher nitrate concentrations and the younger age of spring water relative to water from upgradient wells indicate better communication with N sources at the surface. Apparent ages of groundwater correlated positively with well depth (P < 0.05) and were younger in water from wells nearer to the spring (<8 years) compared with other wells (10-50 years). Most transient tracer concentrations were consistent with binary mixing curves representing mixtures of water recharged during the past 10 years and older water (recharged before 1940). Young water mixing fractions ranged from 0.07 to 0.90. Trace levels of herbicides found in groundwater and spring water were indicative of applications for vegetative control in agricultural and other land-use types.

  14. Applying Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2009-01-01

    The ideas of multiple intelligences introduced by Howard Gardner of Harvard University more than 25 years ago have taken form in many ways, both in schools and in other sometimes-surprising settings. The silver anniversary of Gardner's learning theory provides an opportunity to reflect on the ways multiple intelligences theory has taken form and…

  15. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed wh provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation.

  16. Single password, multiple accounts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Saravanakumar; A. Mohan

    2008-01-01

    Most users have multiple accounts on the Internet where each account is protected by a password. To avoid the headache in remembering and managing a long list of different and unrelated passwords, most users simply use the same password for multiple accounts. Unfortunately, the predominant HTTP basic authentication protocol (even over SSL) makes this common practice remarkably dangerous: an attacker

  17. Single Password, Multiple Accounts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed G. Gouda; Alex X. Liu; Lok M. Leung; Mohamed A. Alam

    Most users have multiple accounts on the Internet where each account is protected by a password. To avoid the headache in re- membering and managing a long list of dieren t and unrelated passwords, most users simply use the same password for multiple accounts. Unfortu- nately, the predominant HTTP basic authentication protocol (even over SSL) makes this common practice remarkably

  18. Constraining Multiple Grammars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopp, Holger

    2014-01-01

    This article offers the author's commentary on the Multiple Grammars (MG) language acquisition theory proposed by Luiz Amaral and Tom Roeper in the present issue. Multiple Grammars advances the claim that optionality is a constitutive characteristic of any one grammar, with interlanguage grammars being perhaps the clearest examples of a…

  19. Fractions--Rectangle Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-01-01

    This interactive applet provides a visual model of fraction multiplication using rectangular arrays. The applet offers both a demonstration/exploration mode ("show me") and a practice mode ("test me") in which students arrange the rectangle to display a given multiplication problem. Teaching ideas and applet instructions are available through the links at the top of the page.

  20. Hadron Multiplicities at HERMES

    E-print Network

    A. Hillenbrand; M. Hartig

    2007-11-24

    Hadron multiplicities of $\\pim$, $\\pip$, $\\km$ and $\\kp$ have been measured in the deep-inelastic scattering of 27.5 GeV positrons off a hydrogen target. The data used in this analysis have been collected during the 2000 HERA running period. The multiplicities were obtained for 0.15$$ = 2.5 GeV$^2$.

  1. Multiple Linear Regression

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lacey, Michelle

    This site, created by Michelle Lacey of Yale University, gives an explanation, a definition and an example of multiple linear regression. Topics include: confidence intervals, tests of significance, and squared multiple correlation. While brief, this is still a valuable site for anyone interested in statistics.

  2. Sexuality in multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Z. Schmidt; P. Hofmann; G. Niederwieser; H.-P. Kapfhammer; R. M. Bonelli

    2005-01-01

    Summary. Sexuality and partnership have an important influence on the quality of life of every person and also on people with chronic disorders such as multiple sclerosis. The findings in literature show high evidence that people with multiple sclerosis experience high levels of sexual dysfunction, most of them with hypoactive sexual behaviour often associated with dissatisfaction in relationship, and also

  3. Multiple density layered insulator

    DOEpatents

    Alger, T.W.

    1994-09-06

    A multiple density layered insulator for use with a laser is disclosed which provides at least two different insulation materials for a laser discharge tube, where the two insulation materials have different thermoconductivities. The multiple layer insulation materials provide for improved thermoconductivity capability for improved laser operation. 4 figs.

  4. Multiple pancreatic pseudocyst disease.

    PubMed Central

    Goulet, R J; Goodman, J; Schaffer, R; Dallemand, S; Andersen, D K

    1984-01-01

    In an effort to determine the incidence of multiple pseudocyst disease and establish the optimal approach to this problem, the records of 91 consecutive patients diagnosed during a 36-month period as having pancreatic pseudocyst disease by sonography or computerized tomographic scanning were reviewed. Thirteen patients (14.3%) had multiple cysts; all received sonograms and six had CT scans. The combined false negative and false positive rate with sonography was 9%. Spontaneous resolution occurred involving five cysts (18%) up to 6.5 cm in size. The diagnosis of cyst multiplicity was confirmed at operation in seven cases; two of the seven operations were excisional and the remaining patients received drainage procedures. There were no operative deaths; complications included one patient who required chronic enzyme replacement therapy after excision and another patient who developed a subphrenic abscess after attempted percutaneous drainage. The incidence of multiple pseudocyst disease in our series is just over 14%. The possibility of multiplicity should be carefully investigated in each patient with pseudocyst disease. In light of the rate of spontaneous resolution, not all patients with multiple pseudocysts may require operative therapy. Because of the 7.7% false negative diagnoses with sonography, CT scanning is especially helpful when the diagnosis of multiple pseudocysts is suspected or in preoperative preparation of pseudocyst drainage. If an operation becomes necessary, a drainage procedure rather than excision should be used whenever possible to maximize gland salvage. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6691732

  5. Multiple sclerosis and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bodiguel, E; Bensa, C; Brassat, D; Laplaud, D; Le Page, E; Ouallet, J-C; Zephir, H; De Seze, J

    2014-04-01

    The question of pregnancy in patients with multiple sclerosis is regularly raised due to the prevalence of the disease in middle age women. The multiple sclerosis think tank (Groupe de Réflexion sur la Sclérose en Plaques [GRESEP]) decided to develop recommendations on this issue, with consideration to both the impact of multiple sclerosis on pregnancy, and that of pregnancy on the disease. As with topics of previous works, the formal expert consensus method was used. The working group was composed of hospital-based and private practice neurologists. The reading group was composed of neurologists, anaesthetists and obstetricians. Each recommendation is presented with the relevant level of consensus. PMID:24684929

  6. Low serum miR-19a expression as a novel poor prognostic indicator in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Hao, Mu; Zang, Meirong; Wendlandt, Erik; Xu, Yan; An, Gang; Gong, Dasen; Li, Fei; Qi, Fang; Zhang, Yanru; Yang, Ye; Zhan, Fenghuang; Qiu, Lugui

    2015-04-15

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy characterized by the clonal expansion of plasma cells. Despite continuing advances, novel biomarkers are needed for diagnosis and prognosis of MM. In our study, we characterized the diagnostic and prognostic potential of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in MM. Serum miRNA levels were analyzed in 108 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM patients and 56 healthy donors (HDs). Our analysis identified 95 dysregulated miRNAs in newly diagnosed MM patients. Of the 95 dysregulated miRNAs, dysregulation of miR-19a, miR-92a, miR-214-3p, miR-135b-5p, miR-4254, miR-3658 and miR-33b was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that a combination of miR-19a and miR-4254 can distinguish MM from HD with a sensitivity of 91.7% and specificity of 90.5%. Decreased expression of miR-19a was positively correlated with international staging system advancement, del(13q14) and 1q21 amplification. Furthermore, downregulation of miR-19a resulted in significantly decreased progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Our analysis indicated that the poor prognostic correlation of miR-19a expression was independent of genetic abnormalities in MM. Multivariate analysis revealed that miR-19a was a significant predictor of shortened PFS and OS. Interestingly, although miR-19a levels portend a poor prognosis, patients with low miR-19a levels had an improved response to bortezomib compared to those with high miR-19a profile. Patients with downregulated miR-19a experienced a significantly extended survival upon bortezomib-based therapy. These data demonstrate that the expression patterns of serum microRNAs are altered in MM, and miR-19a levels are a valuable prognostic marker to identify high-risk MM. PMID:25220540

  7. Strongly Multiplicative and 3-Multiplicative Linear Secret Sharing Schemes

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Zhifang; Chee, Yeow Meng; Ling, San; Wang, Huaxiong; 10.1007/978-3-540-89255-7

    2008-01-01

    Strongly multiplicative linear secret sharing schemes (LSSS) have been a powerful tool for constructing secure multiparty computation protocols. However, it remains open whether or not there exist efficient constructions of strongly multiplicative LSSS from general LSSS. In this paper, we propose the new concept of a 3-multiplicative LSSS, and establish its relationship with strongly multiplicative LSSS. More precisely, we show that any 3-multiplicative LSSS is a strongly multiplicative LSSS, but the converse is not true; and that any strongly multiplicative LSSS can be efficiently converted into a 3-multiplicative LSSS. Furthermore, we apply 3-multiplicative LSSS to the computation of unbounded fan-in multiplication, which reduces its round complexity to four (from five of the previous protocol based on strongly multiplicative LSSS). We also give two constructions of 3-multiplicative LSSS from Reed-Muller codes and algebraic geometric codes. We believe that the construction and verification of 3-multiplicati...

  8. Matrix Multiplication with CUDA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rob Hochberg

    This module teaches matrix multiplication in the context of enumerating paths in a graph and the basics of programming in CUDA. It emphasizes the power of using shared memory when programming on GPGPU architectures.

  9. High-multiplicity study

    SciTech Connect

    Kokoulina, E. S., E-mail: kokoulin@sunse.jinr.r [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Kutov, A. Ya., E-mail: kutov@dm.komisc.r [Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Mathematics, Ural Division (Russian Federation)

    2008-09-15

    Theoretical and experimental problems of multiparticle production are analyzed in the high-multiplicity region. Interesting collective phenomena may be revealed in this region. Preliminary results of the Thermalization Project are being reported.

  10. Immunoparalysis after multiple trauma.

    PubMed

    Tschoeke, Sven K; Ertel, Wolfgang

    2007-12-01

    The immunological sequelae following multiple trauma constitute an ongoing challenge in critical care management. The overall immune response to multiple trauma is a multilevel complex interdependently involving neurohormonal, cellular and haemodynamic factors. Immunoparalysis is characterised by a reduced capacity to present antigens via downregulated HLA-DR and an unbalanced monocyte-T cell interaction. Trauma-induced death of functionally conducive immune cells in the early recovery phase is significant in the emergence of posttraumatic multiple organ dysfunction or failure. Novel findings may contribute to more appropriate immunomonitoring and improved treatment. We must consider the preservation and support of immune function as the ultimate therapeutic goal, which may override the current strategy of simply antagonising excessive pro- or anti-inflammatory immune responses of the severely injured person. This review focuses on the injury-induced conduct of key immune effector cells and associated effects promoting immunoparalysis after multiple trauma. PMID:18048039

  11. A Multiple Procedure DDT

    E-print Network

    Knight, Thomas

    1968-01-01

    This Memo. Describes a version of DDT used as the command level of the A.I. Group PDP-6 Time Sharing System (ITS). Special features include capability to handle multiple jobs, ability to stop open read or write references ...

  12. Caring for Multiples

    MedlinePLUS

    ... NICU families. Mothering Multiples: Breastfeeding and Caring for Twins or More, by Karen Kerkhoff Gromada (La Leche League International, 1999). Mothers of Super Twins (MOST) A support network of families who have ...

  13. IRON IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA

    PubMed Central

    VanderWall, Kristina; Daniels-Wells, Tracy R; Penichet, Manuel; Lichtenstein, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a non-curable B cell malignancy in which iron metabolism plays an important role. Patients with this disorder almost universally suffer from a clinically significant anemia, which is often symptomatic, and which is due to impaired iron utilization. Recent studies indicate that the proximal cause of dysregulated iron metabolism and anemia in these patients is cytokine-induced upregulation of hepcidin expression. Malignant myeloma cells are dependent on an increased influx of iron and therapeutic efforts are being made to target this requirement. The studies detailing the characteristics and biochemical abnormalities in iron metabolism causing anemia and the initial attempts to target iron therapeutically are described in this review. PMID:23879589

  14. [Multiple myeloma stem cell].

    PubMed

    Hosen, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells. MM patients harbor phenotypic CD19+ B cells expressing the immunoglobulin gene sequence and the idiotype unique to the individual myeloma clone. However, in most MM patients CD19+ clonotypic B cells do not reconstitute MM disease upon transplantation into immune-deficient mice. In the SCID-rab and SCID-hu models, which enable engraftment of human MM in vivo, CD19-CD38++ plasma cells engrafted and rapidly propagated MM. These results indicate that MM-initiating cells are derived from plasma cells, which are terminally differentiated cells. It should be now clarified whether all MM plasma cells can exert as MM-initiating cells when located in the appropriate niche or only distinct myeloma stem cells can propagate MM. PMID:25626303

  15. Mobile multiple access study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

  16. Multiple simultaneous gastric carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Wittekind, C.; Klimpfinger, M.; Hermanek, P.; Tannapfel, A.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 1664 patients with gastric cancer were examined to evaluate the rate of multiple synchronous primary tumours. In cases of multiple synchronous cancer (MSC), the tumours were analysed immunohistochemically for their expression pattern of p53, c-erbB2, ras, E-cadherin and proliferative activity. Multiple synchronous gastric carcinomas (MSCs) were observed in 61 out of 1664 patients (3.7%), with a total of 134 carcinomas. In our series, early carcinoma was observed more frequently in MSC than in solitary cancers. The comparison of tumour stage in MSC and solitary tumours revealed that multiple early gastric cancers were significantly more often of type I (protruded type) and IIa (superficial elevated type) than solitary early cancer. Multiple advanced carcinomas were more often of a lower pT category than solitary advanced gastric cancer. Performing immunohistochemistry for p53, c-erbB2 and ras in 134 tumours with MSCs, we observed positivity rates of 33%, 59% and 87% respectively. In 43 patients, the multiple tumours in each individual patient demonstrated an identical status of p53 and c-erbB2, and in 42 patients a similar pattern of E-cadherin expression was observed. The proliferative index, determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunolabelling, did not differ significantly between the MSC in each patient. Ras immunostaining was detected in 53 out of 61 patients, but also in metaplasia and regenerative hyperplasia in the specimens. In survival analysis, no difference was observed between patients with solitary or multiple early or advanced carcinomas. Our results suggest that in at least a high proportion of patients with gastric cancer multiple primary tumours arise from precancerous conditions leading to similar genetic alterations. PMID:9413949

  17. QCD and multiplicity scaling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Hegyi

    2001-01-01

    In QCD, the similarity of multiplicity distributions is violated i) by the running of the strong coupling constant alpha_s and ii) by the self-similar nature of parton cascades. It will be shown that the data collapsing behavior of P_n onto a unique scaling curve can be restored by performing the original scaling prescription (translation and dilatation) in the multiplicity moments'

  18. Cannabinoids and Multiple Sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger G. Pertwee

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses clinical and preclinical evidence that supports the use of cannabinoid receptor agonists for the management\\u000a of multiple sclerosis. In addition, it considers preclinical findings that suggest that as well as ameliorating signs and\\u000a symptoms of multiple sclerosis, cannabinoid CB1 and\\/or CB2 receptor activation may suppress some of the pathological changes that give rise to these signs and

  19. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K. (Birmingham, MI)

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means or separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means.

  20. Multiple stage multiple filter hydrate store

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, H.K. Jr.

    1983-05-31

    An improved hydrate store for a metal halogen battery system is disclosed which employs a multiple stage, multiple filter means for separating the halogen hydrate from the liquid used in forming the hydrate. The filter means is constructed in the form of three separate sections which combine to substantially cover the interior surface of the store container. Exit conduit means is provided in association with the filter means for transmitting liquid passing through the filter means to a hydrate former subsystem. The hydrate former subsystem combines the halogen gas generated during the charging of the battery system with the liquid to form the hydrate in association with the store. Relief valve means is interposed in the exit conduit means for controlling the operation of the separate sections of the filter means, such that the liquid flow through the exit conduit means from each of the separate sections is controlled in a predetermined sequence. The three separate sections of the filter means operate in three discrete stages to provide a substantially uniform liquid flow to the hydrate former subsystem during the charging of the battery system. The separation of the liquid from the hydrate causes an increase in the density of the hydrate by concentrating the hydrate along the filter means. 7 figs.

  1. Multiple Determinations of Sperm DNA Fragmentation Show That Varicocelectomy Is Not Indicated for Infertile Patients with Subclinical Varicocele

    PubMed Central

    García-Peiró, Agustín; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Oliver-Bonet, María; Navarro, Joaquima; Checa, Miguel A.; Nikolaou, Alexandros; Amengual, María J.; Abad, Carlos; Benet, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Varicocele is one of the most common causes of low semen quality, which is reflected in high percentages of sperm cells with fragmented DNA. While varicocelectomy is usually performed to ameliorate a patient's fertility, its impact on sperm DNA integrity in the case of subclinical varicocele is poorly documented. In this study, multiple DNA fragmentation analyses (TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA) were performed on semen samples from sixty infertile patients with varicocele (15 clinical varicoceles, 19 clinical varicoceles after surgical treatment, 16 subclinical varicoceles, and 10 subclinical varicoceles after surgical treatment). TUNEL, SCD, and SCSA assays all showed substantial sperm DNA fragmentation levels that were comparable between subclinical and clinical varicocele patients. Importantly, varicocelectomy did improve sperm quality in patients with clinical varicocele; however, this was not the case in patients with subclinical varicocele. In summary, although infertile patients with clinical and subclinical varicocele have similar sperm DNA quality, varicocelectomy should only be advised for patients with clinical varicocele. PMID:24967335

  2. Multiple Sclerosis Luminance Threshold and Measurements

    E-print Network

    Foster, David H.

    Multiple Sclerosis Luminance Threshold and Measurements of Temporal Characteristics of Vision indicates multiple sclerosis; ON, optic neuritis. Table 1.-Clinical Details of Patients Details of Eye In patient with multiple sclerosis (MS) and In normal control subjects. The Inten Itles of the tlmull used

  3. Strongly Multiplicative and 3Multiplicative Linear Secret Sharing Schemes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhifang Zhang; Mulan Liu; Yeow Meng Chee; San Ling; Huaxiong Wang

    2008-01-01

    Strongly multiplicative linear secret sharing schemes (LSSS) have been a powerful tool for constructing secure multi-party computa- tion protocols. However, it remains open whether or not there exist effi- cient constructions of strongly multiplicative LSSS from general LSSS. In this paper, we propose the new concept of a 3-multiplicative LSSS, and establish its relationship with strongly multiplicative LSSS. More pre-

  4. Multiple Birth and Cut Algorithm for Multiple Object Detection

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Multiple Birth and Cut Algorithm for Multiple Object Detection Ahmed Gamal-Eldin, Xavier Descombes.zerubia}@inria.fr Abstract--In this paper, we describe a new optimization method which we call Multiple Birth and Cut (MBC). It combines the recently developed Multiple Birth and Death (MBD) algorithm and the Graph-Cut algorithm. MBD

  5. Enhancing multiple disciplinary teamwork.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Terri E

    2008-01-01

    Multiple disciplinary research provides an opportunity to bring together investigators across disciplines to provide new views and develop innovative approaches to important questions. Through this shared experience, novel paradigms are formed, original frameworks are developed, and new language is generated. Integral to the successful construction of effective cross-disciplinary teams is the recognition of antecedent factors that affect the development of the team such as intrapersonal, social, physical environmental, organizational, and institutional influences. Team functioning is enhanced with well-developed behavioral, affective, interpersonal, and intellectual processes. Outcomes of effective multiple disciplinary research teams include novel ideas, integrative models, new training programs, institutional change, and innovative policies that can also influence the degree to which antecedents and processes contribute to team performance. Ongoing evaluation of team functioning and achievement of designated outcomes ensures the continued development of the multiple disciplinary team and confirmation of this approach as important to the advancement of science. PMID:18501748

  6. Neutron multiplicity analysis tool

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Scott L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    I describe the capabilities of the EXCOM (EXcel based COincidence and Multiplicity) calculation tool which is used to analyze experimental data or simulated neutron multiplicity data. The input to the program is the count-rate data (including the multiplicity distribution) for a measurement, the isotopic composition of the sample and relevant dates. The program carries out deadtime correction and background subtraction and then performs a number of analyses. These are: passive calibration curve, known alpha and multiplicity analysis. The latter is done with both the point model and with the weighted point model. In the current application EXCOM carries out the rapid analysis of Monte Carlo calculated quantities and allows the user to determine the magnitude of sample perturbations that lead to systematic errors. Neutron multiplicity counting is an assay method used in the analysis of plutonium for safeguards applications. It is widely used in nuclear material accountancy by international (IAEA) and national inspectors. The method uses the measurement of the correlations in a pulse train to extract information on the spontaneous fission rate in the presence of neutrons from ({alpha},n) reactions and induced fission. The measurement is relatively simple to perform and gives results very quickly ({le} 1 hour). By contrast, destructive analysis techniques are extremely costly and time consuming (several days). By improving the achievable accuracy of neutron multiplicity counting, a nondestructive analysis technique, it could be possible to reduce the use of destructive analysis measurements required in safeguards applications. The accuracy of a neutron multiplicity measurement can be affected by a number of variables such as density, isotopic composition, chemical composition and moisture in the material. In order to determine the magnitude of these effects on the measured plutonium mass a calculational tool, EXCOM, has been produced using VBA within Excel. This program was developed to help speed the analysis of Monte Carlo neutron transport simulation (MCNP) data, and only requires the count-rate data to calculate the mass of material using INCC's analysis methods instead of the full neutron multiplicity distribution required to run analysis in INCC. This paper describes what is implemented within EXCOM, including the methods used, how the program corrects for deadtime, and how uncertainty is calculated. This paper also describes how to use EXCOM within Excel.

  7. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOEpatents

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  8. Practical Multiple Sequence Alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rausch, Tobias; Reinert, Knut

    Multiple sequence alignment as a means of comparing DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequences is an essential precondition for various analyses, including structure prediction, modeling binding sites, phylogeny, or function prediction. This range of applications implies a demand for versatile, flexible, and specialized methods to compute accurate alignments. This chapter summarizes the key algorithmic insights gained in the past years to facilitate an easy understanding of the current multiple sequence alignment literature and to enable the readers to use and apply current tools in their own research.

  9. Dimensions of Multiple Personality Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John B. Murray

    1994-01-01

    Research on multiple personality disorder (MPD) has burgeoned, and large-scale investigations indicate that a typical MPD patient is a woman, a victim of childhood abuse (especially sexual abuse), a person whose symptoms meet criteria for other psychiatric disorders, and a person who would employ many psychological defenses. Treatment approaches have frequently included hypnotherapy, which requires skill and caution.

  10. Constellation Precoded Multiple Beamforming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong Ju Park; Boyu Li; Ender Ayanoglu

    2011-01-01

    Beamforming techniques that employ Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) are commonly used in Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) wireless communication systems. In the absence of channel coding, when a single symbol is transmitted, these systems achieve the full diversity order provided by the channel; whereas when multiple symbols are simultaneously transmitted, this property is lost. When channel coding is employed, full diversity order

  11. Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunbaum, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

  12. MULTIPLE VIEW Anders Heyden

    E-print Network

    Pollefeys, Marc

    thorough description of projective geometry is given. Section 3.3 gives a short introduction to tensor elements in video. 45 #12;46 Multiple View Geometry Chapter 3 3.2 Projective Geometry Projective geometry view geometry. The main reason is that the image formation process can be regarded as a projective

  13. 10monkeys Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-03

    This free iOS app provides practice with multiplication facts in an arcade-like format. Students choose from among 10 levels (2 to 10 times tables and mixed times tables) and identify products of given factors in order to free trapped monkeys. Scoring rewards both accuracy and speed.

  14. Factors and Multiples Puzzle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-01

    This puzzle provides an interesting context which challenges learners to apply their knowledge of the properties of numbers. Learners need to work with various types of numbers at the same time and consider their relationships to each other (e.g. primes, squares and specific sets of multiples).

  15. Managing advanced multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Teasell, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common neurologic conditions in Canada. Many individuals with MS eventually develop the progressive form of the disease. The neurologic and psychosocial manifestations of the later stages of MS are numerous. Family physicians ought to have some understanding of patients with advanced MS and some knowledge of how to manage them. PMID:8499793

  16. IMMUNOLOGY OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mireia Sospedra; Roland Martin

    2005-01-01

    Ke yW ords autoimmunity, autoimmune mechanisms, neuroimmunology, demyelinating dieseases, EAE ? Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) develops in young adults with a complex pre- disposing genetic trait and probably requires an inciting environmental insult such as a viral infection to trigger the disease. The activation of CD4+ autoreactive T cells and their differentiation into a Th1 phenotype is a crucial event

  17. Nutrition and multiple gestation.

    PubMed

    Luke, Barbara

    2005-10-01

    Multiple pregnancy represents a state of magnified nutritional requirements, resulting in a greater nutrient drain on maternal resources and an accelerated depletion of nutritional reserves. The accelerated starvation which occurs in pregnancy is exaggerated with a multiple gestation, particularly during the second half of pregnancy, with more rapid depletion of glycogen stores and resultant metabolism of fat between meals and during an overnight fast. A reduced glucose stream from mother to fetus results in slower fetal growth, smaller birth size, as well as a higher risk of preterm labor and preterm birth. For this reason, diet therapy with a diabetic regimen of 20% of calories from protein, 40% of calories from carbohydrate, and 40% of calories from fat may be particularly useful. Iron-deficiency anemia has also been linked to preterm delivery and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mobilization of maternal iron stores, in addition to an adequate amount and pattern of gestational weight gain (including BMI-specific weight gain goals by 20 and 28 weeks gestation), has been associated with significantly better fetal growth and longer gestations in twin pregnancies. Supplementation with calcium, magnesium, and zinc, as well as multivitamins and essential fatty acids may also reduce pregnancy complications and improve postnatal health for infants born from a multiple gestation. Diet therapy for women pregnant with multiples is an important component of effective prenatal care. PMID:16360494

  18. Multiple Access Trade Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    The Personal Access Satellite System (PASS) strawman design uses a hybrid Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)/Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) implementation. TDMA is used for the forward direction (from Suppliers to Users), and FDMA for the return direction (from Users to Suppliers). An alternative architecture is proposed that will require minimal real time coordination and yet provide a fast access method by using random access Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). The CDMA system issues are addressed such as connecting suppliers and users, both of whom may be located anywhere in the CONUS, when the user terminals are constrained in size and weight; and providing efficient traffic routing under highly variable traffic requirements. It is assumed that bandwidth efficiency is not of paramount importance. CDMA or Spread Spectrum Multiple Access (SSMA) communication is a method in which a group of carriers operate at the same nominal center frequency but are separable from each other by the low cross correlation of the spreading codes used. Interference and multipath rejection capability, ease of selective addressing and message screening, low density power spectra for signal hiding and security, and high resolution ranging are among the benefits of spread spectrum communications.

  19. Multiple Grammars and MOGUL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truscott, John

    2014-01-01

    Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

  20. Mastering the Multiplication Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Ettorre, Jenna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

  1. Multiple booster spaceports

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan W. Arata

    1992-01-01

    The need for building a new multiple booster spaceport as a more cost-effective alternative to the currently used vehicle-specific launch facilities is demonstrated. Despite the differences, the current space boosters have a number of systems in common. They all use propellants, require communication systems, launch processing systems, electrical power distribution and control systems, and have structural as well as access

  2. Marsh Geomorphology: Multiple methods

    E-print Network

    Savidge, Dana

    Marsh Geomorphology: Multiple methods: · RTK GPS pedestrian surveys · Single beam echo soundingIO Measurement Clark Alexander, SkIO Geomorphology Julie Amft, SkIO Measurement Trent Moore, SkIO Measurement Mike Robinson, SkIO, Geomorphology Al Garrett, SRNL Model Dave Hayes, SRNL Dye Dana Savidge, SkIO Radar

  3. Multiple Choice Test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jay Parkes

    This site presents a guide to developing and deploying effective multiple choice tests. The site also discusses the costs and benefits of this method, as well as the philosophy of this commonly used assessment method. Links to more detailed information are included as well.

  4. Simplifying Algebraic Expressions: Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Blohowiak, Chad

    This learning object from Wisc-Online covers simplifying algebraic expressions using multiplication. The unit's activities include defining the terminology associated with algebraic operations, using the fundamental laws of algebra to simplify those expressions, removing the symbols of grouping and changing the signs of the appropriate terms to simplify expressions. Practice questions are also included.

  5. Assessing Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William C.

    This paper explains Howard Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) and discusses questions raised about MI theory in regard to validity, assessment, and implications for instructional activities. MI theory asserts that human cognitive competence is best described in terms of a set of abilities, talents, and mental skills that each child…

  6. Reasoning About Multiplication & Division

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-01-01

    This 7-minute video features Drew Crandall working with his third grade class to develop concepts involving properties of operations and the relationship between multiplication and division. His approach allows students to learn from each other, to construct and revise their own meaning, and to develop communication skills. A downloadable transcript of the video is available (doc).

  7. Multiple sclerosis: changing times.

    PubMed

    Kurtzke, J F

    1991-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is distributed about the world in three zones of high, medium, and low frequency. All high- and medium-risk areas are among predominantly white populations. Migration studies indicate MS is already acquired by age 15 in high-risk endemic areas and that low-to-high migrants increase their risk from age 11 years. Therefore MS is an environmental disease ordinarily acquired in adolescence with a long incubation before symptom onset. Susceptibility is limited to the period from about age 11 to 47. In general, MS death rates have been declining over time while prevalence rates have increased. Incidence rates have also increased, however, in: northeastern Scotland; Turku, Finland; Hordaland, Norway; Rochester, Minn.; Lower Saxony; several areas of Italy. Incidence was unchanged in northernmost Norway. Conversely, incidence and prevalence rates have decreased in the Shetland-Orkneys; there was a cyclical pattern in incidence in Rostock, GDR; and there was a transient doubling of incidence in Iceland in the post-World War II decade. In the Faroe Islands, MS was absent before 1943 when a major point-source epidemic began, reaching an incidence rate of 10 per 100,000 population in 1945. This was followed by two consecutively smaller epidemics with respective peaks each about 12 years later, and there is now a new epidemic IV on these islands. Explanations for changing incidence of MS over time should bring us closer to solving the etiology of this disease. PMID:2062411

  8. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Gregory P.; Gilden, Don; Burgoon, Mark P.; Yu, Xiaoli; Bennett, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of unknown etiology, possibly caused by a virus or virus-triggered immunopathology. The virus might reactivate after years of latency and lyse oligodendrocytes, as in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, or initiate immunopathological demyelination, as in animals infected with Theiler’s murine encephalomyelitis virus or coronaviruses. The argument for a viral cause of MS is supported by epidemiological analyses and studies of MS in identical twins, indicating that disease is acquired. However, the most important evidence is the presence of bands of oligoclonal IgG (OCBs) in MS brain and CSF that persist throughout the lifetime of the patient. OCBs are found almost exclusively in infectious CNS disorders, and antigenic targets of OCBs represent the agent that causes disease. Here, the authors review past attempts to identify an infectious agent in MS brain cells and discuss the promise of using recombinant antibodies generated from clonally expanded plasma cells in brain and CSF to identify disease-relevant antigens. They show how this strategy has been used successfully to analyze antigen specificity in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, a chronic encephalitis caused by measles virus, and in neuromyelitis optica, a chronic autoimmune demyelinating disease produced by antibodies directed against the aquaporin-4 water channel. PMID:22130640

  9. Multiple Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, A.J.P.; Khangure, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    Summary Dural arteriovenous fistulas are most probably acquired lesions. However, they have been rarely encountered de novo. We present a unique case of a 71-year-old woman who initially presented with right-sided dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), which spontaneously resolved after diagnostic arteriography. She later developed asymptomatic occlusion of the left transverse sinus. Five years after her initial presentation she developed left-sided pulse-synchronous tinnitus. MRA and catheter angiography showed a complex type IV DAVF between the left transverse sinus and multiple dural branches arising from both left and right external carotid arteries. The left transverse sinus was isolated from the torcula herophili, with stenosis of the sigmoid sinus. Extensive cortical venous drainage was demonstrated. Endovascular cure was effected by polyvinyl alcohol particle and absolute alcohol occlusion of the dominant dural supply, and transvenous coil occlusion of the left transverse sinus. The patient's symptoms resolved almost immediately. This unique case demonstrates that dural sinus occlusion and DAVFs may co-exist, but there may not be a causal relationship. It is likely that both DAVFs and sinus occlusion are manifestations of the same disease process characterised by a pro-thrombotic state and secondary angiogenesis. It is important to recognise that changes in symptomatology, even long after apparent disappearance of a lesion may indicate recurrence, and careful follow up is advocated. PMID:20594527

  10. Multiple gene analyses of caligid copepods indicate that the reduction of a thoracic appendage in Pseudocaligus represents convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Caligidae is a family of parasitic copepods containing over 30 recognised genera. They are commercially important parasites as they cause disease in numerous finfish aquaculture facilities globally. Morphological features are used to distinguish between the genera and Pseudocaligus has traditionally been differentiated from Caligus solely by the presence of a much reduced form of the fourth thoracic leg. Currently there are numerous DNA sequences available for Caligus spp. but only the type species, Pseudocaligus brevipedis, has molecular data available, so systematic studies using molecular phylogenetic analyses have been limited. Methods Three gene regions, SSU rDNA, 16S and CO1, for Pseudocaligus fugu from puffer fish from Japan and Pseudocaligus uniartus from rabbit fish from Indonesia are sequenced and molecular phylogenetic analyses performed in order to infer phylogenetic relationships between Pseudocaligus and other caligid copepods. Results The analysis revealed that there was no discrete grouping of Pseudocaligus spp. and that they had a polyphyletic distribution within Caligus taxa. Pseudocaligus fugu grouped with Caligus elongatus and contained a unique synapomorphy in the SSU rDNA region only seen in members of that clade. Pseudocaligus uniartus formed a well-supported group, in the SSU rDNA analyses, with a Caligus sp. that also infects rabbit fish, but was unresolved in the other analyses. Pseudocaligus brevipedis consistently and robustly grouped with Caligus curtus and C. centrodonti in all analyses. The majority of Lepeophtheirus spp. form a monophyletic sister group to the Caligus clade; however, L. natalensis is unresolved in all analyses and does not form part of the main Lepeophtheirus clade. Conclusions These findings do not support the morphological-based distinction between Pseudocaligus and Caligus, suggesting that the reduced fourth leg is a feature that has evolved on multiple occasions throughout caligid evolution. Congruent molecular phylogenetic data support groupings based on the presence of morphological features, such as lunules, geography and host fish type rather than appendage morphology. Therefore, we support the synonymy of Pseudocaligus with Caligus. PMID:24286135

  11. A comparison of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging for mapping patterns of herbivore species abundance in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Smit, Izak P.J.; Ingram, Ben R.

    2015-01-01

    Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, provides protected habitats for the unique animals of the African savannah. For the past 40 years, annual aerial surveys of herbivores have been conducted to aid management decisions based on (1) the spatial distribution of species throughout the park and (2) total species populations in a year. The surveys are extremely time consuming and costly. For many years, the whole park was surveyed, but in 1998 a transect survey approach was adopted. This is cheaper and less time consuming but leaves gaps in the data spatially. Also the distance method currently employed by the park only gives estimates of total species populations but not their spatial distribution. We compare the ability of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging to accurately map species distribution in the park. A leave-one-out cross-validation approach indicates that multiple indicator kriging makes poor estimates of the number of animals, particularly the few large counts, as the indicator variograms for such high thresholds are pure nugget. Poisson kriging was applied to the prediction of two types of abundance data: spatial density and proportion of a given species. Both Poisson approaches had standardized mean absolute errors (St. MAEs) of animal counts at least an order of magnitude lower than multiple indicator kriging. The spatial density, Poisson approach (1), gave the lowest St. MAEs for the most abundant species and the proportion, Poisson approach (2), did for the least abundant species. Incorporating environmental data into Poisson approach (2) further reduced St. MAEs. PMID:25729318

  12. Multiple zeros of polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. A.

    1974-01-01

    For polynomials of higher degree, iterative numerical methods must be used. Four iterative methods are presented for approximating the zeros of a polynomial using a digital computer. Newton's method and Muller's method are two well known iterative methods which are presented. They extract the zeros of a polynomial by generating a sequence of approximations converging to each zero. However, both of these methods are very unstable when used on a polynomial which has multiple zeros. That is, either they fail to converge to some or all of the zeros, or they converge to very bad approximations of the polynomial's zeros. This material introduces two new methods, the greatest common divisor (G.C.D.) method and the repeated greatest common divisor (repeated G.C.D.) method, which are superior methods for numerically approximating the zeros of a polynomial having multiple zeros. These methods were programmed in FORTRAN 4 and comparisons in time and accuracy are given.

  13. Multiple pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R.S.; Jernigan, J.L.

    1981-02-10

    A multiple pulse laser from a single resonant cavity is disclosed. An acousto-optic cell is used to modulate coherent light from a lasing element. Either multiple chirp signals or a masked mirror are used to provide distinct pulses of light. Through proper choice of materials for the acousto-optic cell and use of divergent optics, a higher power level is obtained. Use of a multi-tapped delay line permits a shorter period between pulses due to the linear superposition principle. When the mask embodiment is used, the acousto-optic cell focuses light which scans across the mask. Whenever the focused light passes through the mask, lasing occurs which generates an output pulse.

  14. Interference multiple access communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brothers, L. Reggie; DeBardelaben, James A.; Niedzwiecki, Joshua; Learned, Rachel E.; Eisenberg, Yiftach; Cooper, David M.

    2007-04-01

    The implementation of network centric warfare on the battlefield has driven the growing demand for high capacity warfighter communication systems. Although new high capacity SATCOM systems such as WGS are being introduced in the near term, these systems use the interference avoidance paradigm, which fundamentally limits overall network performance. This paper introduces a new wireless networking paradigm called Interference Multiple Access (IMA), developed under the auspices of DARPA. The interference multiple access paradigm exploits multi-access interference to enable revolutionary improvements in wireless communication capacity and latency without the need for infrastructure, coordination, or spectrum preplanning. Simulation and over-the-air test results suggest that greater than 3X increases in network throughput (especially in low SNR scenarios) can be achieved over traditional contention and scheduled-based spectrum access approaches when applied to WIN-T NCW terminals communicating in a mesh topology over the WGS constellation.

  15. Pediatric multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brenda L. Banwell

    2004-01-01

    The onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) in childhood is being increasingly recognized. Despite this, there currently exist several\\u000a barriers to the prompt diagnosis of MS in children. Many clinicians view MS as an exclusively adult-onset disease, and thus\\u000a they may not entertain the diagnosis in a child. Also, the clinical and radiographic criteria for the diagnosis of MS have\\u000a not

  16. Multiple Miniature Avionic Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rye, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Dorneich, Michael C. (Inventor); Gannon, Aaron J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A display screen for displaying multiple sets of information is provided. In one embodiment, an aviation display screen includes a main window and a plurality of miniature windows. The main window is adapted to illustrate one set of information. Each miniature window is adapted to display a set of avionic information. The avionic display is further adapted to toggle a select set of avionic information in one of the miniature windows into the main window.

  17. Universality of particle multiplicities

    SciTech Connect

    Goulianos, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)]|[Rockefeller Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    We discuss the scaling properties and universality aspects of the rapidity and multiplicity distributions of particles produced in high energy hadronic and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} interactions. This paper is based on material presented in three lectures on pomeron phenomenology, which included a review of traditional soft pomeron physics and selected topics on hard diffraction processes probing the structure function of the pomeron.

  18. Fatigue in multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren B. Krupp; Christopher Christodoulou

    2001-01-01

    Fatigue is among the most common, yet least understood, symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) [1·]. It can profoundly disrupt\\u000a the occupational and social functioning of patients, and is recognized as a criterion for MS disability by the Social Security\\u000a Administration. Most approaches to fatigue assessment can be classified as either self-report scales or performance-based\\u000a measures of motor or cognitive output.

  19. Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph

    Cancer.gov

    To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, Radiation Epidemiology Branch (REB) investigators led a collaborative effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S. The 500-page monograph utilized data from nine cancer registries participating in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program from 1973 to 2000.

  20. Multiple Cause Vector Quantization

    E-print Network

    David A. Ross; Richard S. Zemel

    2003-01-01

    We propose a model that can learn parts-based representations of highdimensional data. Our key assumption is that the dimensions of the data can be separated into several disjoint subsets, or factors, which take on values independently of each other. We assume each factor has a small number of discrete states, and model it using a vector quantizer. The selected states of each factor represent the multiple causes of the input.

  1. Multiple Sclerosis and Uveitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graeme J. Williams

    Optic neuritis has a well-recognised association with multiple sclerosis (MS). Forty-five percent of patients with MS have\\u000a been found to have optic atrophy at post mortem [1]. Although MS predominantly involves the optic nerves [2] and the pathways\\u000a controlling eye movements [3], there also appears to be an association between MS and uveitis.\\u000a \\u000a Retinal periphlebitis was first reported in association

  2. Multiple booster spaceports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Alan W.

    The need for building a new multiple booster spaceport as a more cost-effective alternative to the currently used vehicle-specific launch facilities is demonstrated. Despite the differences, the current space boosters have a number of systems in common. They all use propellants, require communication systems, launch processing systems, electrical power distribution and control systems, and have structural as well as access requirements. These systems, engineered generically, will form the core of any new spaceport.

  3. Reconfigurable multiple constant multiplication using minimum adder depth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Faust; Oscar Gustafsson; Chip-Hong Chang

    2010-01-01

    The problem of reconfigurable multiple constant multiplication (ReMCM) is about finding an cost-effective network of shifts, additions, subtractions, and multiplexers to implement the multiplication of a single input variable with one out of several sets of coefficients. Most previous publications only focus on the problem with a single output, whereas the algorithm proposed here solves a multiple output ReMCM problem

  4. Strongly Multiplicative and 3Multiplicative Linear Secret Sharing Schemes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhifang Zhang; Mulan Liu; Yeow Meng Chee; San Ling; Huaxiong Wang

    2008-01-01

    Strongly multiplicative linear secret sharing schemes (LSSS) have been a\\u000apowerful tool for constructing secure multiparty computation protocols.\\u000aHowever, it remains open whether or not there exist efficient constructions of\\u000astrongly multiplicative LSSS from general LSSS. In this paper, we propose the\\u000anew concept of a 3-multiplicative LSSS, and establish its relationship with\\u000astrongly multiplicative LSSS. More precisely, we show

  5. Multiple emulsions High-Order Multiple Emulsions Formed in

    E-print Network

    Multiple emulsions High-Order Multiple Emulsions Formed in Poly(dimethylsiloxane) Microfluidics** A. R. Abate and D. A. Weitz* Multiple emulsions are nested sets of drops.[1,2] Drops of one kind of yet another fluid. Such ``emulsions within emulsions'' are very useful for many applications

  6. Multiply with MI: Using Multiple Intelligences To Master Multiplication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jody Kenny; Johnson, Aostre N.

    2001-01-01

    Explores how to use Gardner's Multiple Intelligence theory to help students' master multiplication. Focuses on helping children use their different intelligence strength to attain conceptual understanding of multiplication, develop their own thinking strategies for harder facts, and build mastery through practice and problem solving. (KHR)

  7. Multiple Identity Enactments and Multiple Personality Disorder: A Sociocognitive Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas P. Spanos

    1994-01-01

    People who enact multiple identities behave as if they possess 2 or more selves, each with its own characteristic moods, memories, and behavioral repertoire. Under different names, this phenomenon occurs in many cultures: in North American culture, it is frequently labeled multiple personality disorder (MPD). This article reviews experimental, cross-cultural, historical, and clinical findings concerning multiplicity and examines the implications

  8. Twins, Triplets, and Other Multiples

    MedlinePLUS

    ... what? Pregnancy This information in Spanish ( en español ) Twins, triplets, and other multiples How twins are formed ... can increase the likelihood of multiple births. How twins are formed Twins form in one of two ...

  9. EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLAND INDICATORS USING MULTIPLE TAXONOMIC GROUPS: GEOGRAPHIC AND GEOMORPHIC INFLUENCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This work arises from a MED collaboration with the GLEI consortium funded by and EPA Star Grant. Results confirm that developing effective indicators for Great Lakes coastal wetlands requires determination of the geographic range and ecosystem type where indicators are appropriat...

  10. Responsiveness of Great Lakes Wetland Indicators to Human Disturbances at Multiple Spatial Scales: A Multi-Assemblage Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Brazner; Nicolas P. Danz; Anett S. Trebitz; Gerald J. Niemi; Ronald R. Regal; Tom Hollenhorst; George E. Host; Euan D. Reavie; Terry N. Brown; JoAnn M. Hanowski; Carol A. Johnston; Lucinda B. Johnson; Robert W. Howe; Jan J. H. Ciborowski

    2007-01-01

    Developing indicators of ecosystem condition is a priority in the Great Lakes, but little is known about appropriate spatial scales to characterize disturbance or response for most indicators. We surveyed birds, fish, amphibians, aquatic macroinvertebrates, wetland vegetation, and diatoms at 276 coastal wetland locations throughout the U.S. Great Lakes coastal region during 2002–2004. We assessed the responsiveness of 66 candidate

  11. Coloring Multiples in Pascal's Triangle

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Color numbers in Pascal's Triangle by rolling a number and then clicking on all entries that are multiples of the number rolled, thereby practicing multiplication tables, investigating number patterns, and investigating fractal patterns. Coloring Multiples in Pascal's Triangle is one of the Interactivate assessment explorers.

  12. Multiplicity distributions and rapidity gaps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Pumplin

    1994-01-01

    We examine the phenomenology of particle multiplicity distributions, with special emphasis on the low multiplicities that are a background to the study of rapidity gaps. In particular, we analyze the multiplicity distribution in a rapidity interval between two jets, using the herwig QCD simulation with some necessary modifications. The distribution is not of the ``negative binomial'' form, and displays an

  13. Inversion of multiple thermal indicators: quantitative methods of determining paleoheat flux and geological parameters. I. Theoretical development for paleoheat flux

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, I.

    1988-01-01

    The quantitative inversion of present-day downhole thermal indicator information enables (a) assessment of the effective paleoheat flux recorded by thermal indicators, and (b) determination of geological parameters related to the dynamical burial history of sedimentary strata. The logic of the general inversion scheme underlying seven thermal indicators, viz. vitrinite reflectance, sterane, and/or hopane isomers, sterane atomatization, optical rotation, /sup 39/Ar//sup 40/Ar, pollen translucency, and fission scar tracks in apatite is presented, and their capability for resolving paleoheat flux is noted.

  14. Arabidopsis Transcriptome Profiling Indicates That Multiple Regulatory Pathways Are Activated during Cold Acclimation in Addition to the CBF Cold Response PathwayW?

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Sarah; Thomashow, Michael F.

    2002-01-01

    Many plants, including Arabidopsis, increase in freezing tolerance in response to low, nonfreezing temperatures, a phenomenon known as cold acclimation. Previous studies established that cold acclimation involves rapid expression of the CBF transcriptional activators (also known as DREB1 proteins) in response to low temperature followed by induction of the CBF regulon (CBF-targeted genes), which contributes to an increase in freezing tolerance. Here, we present the results of transcriptome-profiling experiments indicating the existence of multiple low-temperature regulatory pathways in addition to the CBF cold response pathway. The transcript levels of ?8000 genes were determined at multiple times after plants were transferred from warm to cold temperature and in warm-grown plants that constitutively expressed CBF1, CBF2, or CBF3. A total of 306 genes were identified as being cold responsive, with transcripts for 218 genes increasing and those for 88 genes decreasing threefold or more at one or more time points during the 7-day experiment. These results indicate that extensive downregulation of gene expression occurs during cold acclimation. Of the cold-responsive genes, 48 encode known or putative transcription factors. Two of these, RAP2.1 and RAP2.6, were activated by CBF expression and thus presumably control subregulons of the CBF regulon. Transcriptome comparisons indicated that only 12% of the cold-responsive genes are certain members of the CBF regulon. Moreover, at least 28% of the cold-responsive genes were not regulated by the CBF transcription factors, including 15 encoding known or putative transcription factors, indicating that these cold-responsive genes are members of different low-temperature regulons. Significantly, CBF expression at warm temperatures repressed the expression of eight genes that also were downregulated by low temperature, indicating that in addition to gene induction, gene repression is likely to play an integral role in cold acclimation. PMID:12172015

  15. Immunology of multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael P. Pender; Judith M. Greer

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) leading to demyelination, axonal damage,\\u000a and progressive neurologic disability. The development of MS is influenced by environmental factors, particularly the Epstein-Barr\\u000a virus (EBV), and genetic factors, which include specific HLA types, particularly DRB1*1501-DQA1*0102-DQB1*0602, and a predisposition\\u000a to autoimmunity in general. MS patients have increased circulating T-cell and

  16. Multiple Cystic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    A lung cyst is an air-filled lucent structure surrounded by a thin wall. The presence of multiple intrapulmonary cysts is defined as cystic lung disease. Although cystic lung disease is rare, incidental detection has increased significantly in recent years by screening using computed tomography. There are many conditions that can mimic lung cysts and cause cystic lung disease. Clinical, radiographic, and histologic findings are all necessary for a proper diagnosis, and multidisciplinary approaches are frequently required. The aim of this report is to review the causes and characteristics of cystic lung disease to better understand and improve treatment. PMID:23579924

  17. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, Norman J. (Edmonton, CA); Zhang, Jian Z. (Edmonton, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibres to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands.

  18. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  19. Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Multiple Symptom Validity Indices in Psychotic and Non-Psychotic Psychiatric Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan W. Schroeder; Paul S. Marshall

    2011-01-01

    Although it is recognized that significant cognitive deficits are inherent in many psychiatric disorders, there is minimal research on whether the deficits can cause a failing score on symptom validity tests (SVTs). The performances of 104 and 178 patients with psychotic disorders and non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, respectively, on seven SVTs were examined. Analyses indicate that most of these SVTs have

  20. Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

  1. Neutron-multiplication measurement instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results.

  2. Multiplicity Distributions and Rapidity Gaps

    E-print Network

    Jon Pumplin

    1994-07-19

    I examine the phenomenology of particle multiplicity distributions, with special emphasis on the low multiplicities that are a background in the study of rapidity gaps. In particular, I analyze the multiplicity distribution in a rapidity interval between two jets, using the HERWIG QCD simulation with some necessary modifications. The distribution is not of the negative binomial form, and displays an anomalous enhancement at zero multiplicity. Some useful mathematical tools for working with multiplicity distributions are presented. It is demonstrated that ignoring particles with pt<0.2 has theoretical advantages, in addition to being convenient experimentally.

  3. The diagnostic significance of antibody specificity indices in multiple sclerosis and herpes virus induced diseases of the nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Felgenhauer; H. Reiber

    1992-01-01

    The antibody specificity index (ASI) indicates the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)\\/serum difference of antibody amounts per weight unit IgG (normal < 1.5). It has proven to be the most sensitive inflammation parameter in CSF analysis so far, more sensitive than the Western blot, the “oligoclonal” response, and the empirical differentiation of CSF immunoglobulins. By this diagnostic criterion, several benign viral meningitis

  4. Phylogeographical Analysis of mtDNA Data Indicates Postglacial Expansion from Multiple Glacial Refugia in Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)

    PubMed Central

    Klütsch, Cornelya F. C.; Manseau, Micheline; Wilson, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ?1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544–22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record that caribou were distributed in these areas during the Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the last glacial maximum substantially shaped the phylogeographical structure of this large mammalian North American species that will be affected by climatic change. Therefore, the presented results will be essential for future conservation planning in woodland caribou. PMID:23285137

  5. Parents' talk : multiple schemas and parenting practice

    E-print Network

    Sarda, Zoltan G.

    2012-01-01

    of negative parental cognitions, indicating a need for moreneeds of our multiple selves, including multiple and at times conflicting parenting cognitions.cognitions: Event-dependent and schematic, the former operating within our awareness and activated by such events as the need

  6. The Distributive Property: The Core of Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzer, Cathy J.; Stanford, Ted

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a sequence of learning activities that lead to using the area model of multiplication to understand the distributive property (DP). The connection between area and multiplication is an important one, both for algebraic thinking and for geometry, as indicated in two of the critical areas for the third grade in the Common Core…

  7. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the most sensitive to toxic air contaminants in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region.

  8. Dancing with Multiple Partners

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Darren G. Woodside (Texas Biotechnology Corporation; REV)

    2002-03-19

    Transmembrane proteins, such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and integrins, activate intracellular signaling pathways through interactions with downstream binding partners. Woodside discusses two examples in which GPCRs and integrins interact in a noncompeting manner with more than one partner. The specific GPCR described is the thrombin receptor, in experiments where G protein peptides selectively block signaling through a particular G protein that does not appear to inhibit coupling of the receptor to other G proteins. The second system described is the ?IIb?3 integrin and its activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Syk. Syk appeared capable of interacting with both the integrin and intracellular domains of immune response receptors, because binding of Syk to the integrin was not inhibited by peptides based on the Syk binding site in immune response receptors. Thus, multiple, noncompeting binding partners add to the complexity of signal transduction outputs from a single receptor complex.

  9. Multiple Sclerosis in Children

    PubMed Central

    INALOO, Soroor; HAGHBIN, Saideh

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most important immune-mediated demyelinated disease of human which is typically the disease of young adults. A total of 4% to 5% of MS population are pediatric. Pediatric MS is defined as the appearance of MS before the age of sixteen. About 80% of the pediatric cases and nearly all adolescent onset patients present with attacks typical to adult MS. Approximately 97% to 99% of the affected children have relapsing-remitting MS, while 85% to 95% of the adults experience such condition. MS in children is associated with more frequent and severe relapses. Treatment is the same as adults. We aimed to review the epidemiology, etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of MS in children. PMID:24665290

  10. Multiple Differential Aperture Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Jin-Seok [ORNL; Isa, Saliman Anavami [ORNL; Greene, Virgil [ORNL; Broadwater, Ombreyan Q [ORNL; Liu, W. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ice, Gene E [ORNL

    2007-01-01

    Differential-aperture X-ray microscopy (DAXM) is a powerful approach to 3D tomography with particular relevance to X-ray microdiffraction. With DAXM, scattering from submicron volumes can be resolved. However, the method is intrinsically a scanning technique where every resolved volume element (voxel) requires at least one area-detector readout. Previous applications of DAXM have used a single wire for knife-edge step profiling. Here, we demonstrate a way to accelerate DAXM measurements using multiple wires. A proof-of-principle experiment with a three-wire prototype showed that the speed of measurements can be tripled, but careful calibrations of wires will be required to maintain the spatial accuracy. In addition, related possibilities for accelerating measurements are briefly discussed.

  11. Note on multiplicity

    E-print Network

    Katz, Daniel L.

    1988-12-01

    e(K/L) = 0. Thus e(J) = e(/5) = e(IS/L) = ë(S/L) = ë(T) = e(IT) as desired. Now suppose the result holds for local rings of dimension less than d. As before, we may select t/i in R such that I = (yi,x2,...,xd)R and t/i is superficial for I....1) that (F JaR(Z): g) n IroJsR(Z) = Ir~1JsR(Z) for all r > ro and s > 0. (d) As in the proof of [8], Proposition 2.1, this implies that e0 = e0,...,ed_i = e'd_x where e0,..., e'd_1 are the mixed multiplicities of / and J as ideals of R(Z)/(g). (e) R(Z...

  12. Multiple Linear Regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grégoire, G.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter deals with the multiple linear regression. That is we investigate the situation where the mean of a variable depends linearly on a set of covariables. The noise is supposed to be gaussian. We develop the least squared method to get the parameter estimators and estimates of their precisions. This leads to design confidence intervals, prediction intervals, global tests, individual tests and more generally tests of submodels defined by linear constraints. Methods for model's choice and variables selection, measures of the quality of the fit, residuals study, diagnostic methods are presented. Finally identification of departures from the model's assumptions and the way to deal with these problems are addressed. A real data set is used to illustrate the methodology with software R. Note that this chapter is intended to serve as a guide for other regression methods, like logistic regression or AFT models and Cox regression.

  13. Multiple-port valve

    DOEpatents

    Doody, Thomas J. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1978-08-22

    A multiple-port valve assembly is designed to direct flow from a primary conduit into any one of a plurality of secondary conduits as well as to direct a reverse flow. The valve includes two mating hemispherical sockets that rotatably receive a spherical valve plug. The valve plug is attached to the primary conduit and includes diverging passageways from that conduit to a plurality of ports. Each of the ports is alignable wih one or more of a plurality of secondary conduits fitted into one of the hemispherical sockets. The other hemispherical socket includes a slot for the primary conduit such that the conduit's motion along that slot with rotation of the spherical plug about various axes will position the valve-plug ports in respect to the secondary conduits.

  14. Multiple layer insulation cover

    DOEpatents

    Farrell, James J. (Livingston Manor, NY); Donohoe, Anthony J. (Ovid, NY)

    1981-11-03

    A multiple layer insulation cover for preventing heat loss in, for example, a greenhouse, is disclosed. The cover is comprised of spaced layers of thin foil covered fabric separated from each other by air spaces. The spacing is accomplished by the inflation of spaced air bladders which are integrally formed in the cover and to which the layers of the cover are secured. The bladders are inflated after the cover has been deployed in its intended use to separate the layers of the foil material. The sizes of the material layers are selected to compensate for sagging across the width of the cover so that the desired spacing is uniformly maintained when the cover has been deployed. The bladders are deflated as the cover is stored thereby expediting the storage process and reducing the amount of storage space required.

  15. [Pediatric multiple trauma].

    PubMed

    Auner, B; Marzi, I

    2014-05-01

    Multiple trauma in children is rare so that even large trauma centers will only treat a small number of cases. Nevertheless, accidents are the most common cause of death in childhood whereby the causes are mostly traffic accidents and falls. Head trauma is the most common form of injury and the degree of severity is mostly decisive for the prognosis. Knowledge on possible causes of injury and injury patterns as well as consideration of anatomical and physiological characteristics are of great importance for treatment. The differences compared to adults are greater the younger the child is. Decompression and stopping bleeding are the main priorities before surgical fracture stabilization. The treatment of a severely injured child should be carried out by an interdisciplinary team in an approved trauma center with expertise in pediatrics. An inadequate primary assessment involves a high risk of early mortality. On the other hand children have a better prognosis than adults with comparable injuries. PMID:24811223

  16. Multiple jet study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. E.; Kors, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Test data is presented which allows determination of jet penetration and mixing of multiple cold air jets into a ducted subsonic heated mainstream flow. Jet-to-mainstream momentum flux ratios ranged from 6 to 60. Temperature profile data is presented at various duct locations up to 24 orifice diameters downstream of the plane of jet injection. Except for two configurations, all geometries investigated had a single row of constant diameter orifices located transverse to the main flow direction. Orifice size and spacing between orifices were varied. Both of these were found to have a significant effect on jet penetration and mixing. The best mixing of the hot and cold streams was achieved with duct height.

  17. Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication

    SciTech Connect

    Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

    2004-09-30

    In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

  18. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.; Schuler, Jason M.; Chandler, Meredith L.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that utilized multiple fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, for the design and assembly of a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, for the design and assembly of a portable four monitor hyper wall strip that could extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill that could be utilized on a next generation robot or rover, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and creation of a new outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory.

  19. Disability in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chamot, Eric; Salter, Amber R.; Cutter, Gary R.; Bacon, Tamar E.; Herbert, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To create a reference table of disability outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS) that would enable patients to rank their disability relative to others' with similar disease duration and to develop a cost-effective research tool for comparing MS severity across patient populations and time periods. Methods: The North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry collects disability data from patients with MS on a validated, 9-point Patient-Determined Disease Steps (PDDS) scale. We compiled the Disability Expectancy Table, which displays cumulative frequencies of PDDS scores for each year of disease duration, from 0 to 45 years. We also tabulated disease duration–adjusted mean ranks of PDDS scores, referred to as Patient-derived MS Severity Scores (P-MSSS). Results: The cohort consisted of 27,918 NARCOMS enrollees, 72.7% of whom were female and 90.1% of whom were white. Mean age at symptom onset was 30.1 ± 10.1 years, and age at enrollment was 47.1 ± 11.0 years. The Disability Expectancy Table and P-MSSS afford a detailed overview of disability outcomes in a large MS cohort over a 45-year period. In the first year of disease, 15% of patients reported need of ambulatory aid, and 4% needed bilateral assistance or worse; after 45 years of disease, 76% of patients required ambulatory aid, and 52% bilateral assistance or worse. Proportion of patients who reported minimal or no interference in daily activities (PDDS ? 1) declined from 63% in the first year to 8% after 45 years of disease. Conclusion: The Disability Expectancy Table allows individual patients to determine how their disability ranks relative to NARCOMS enrollees with the same disease duration. P-MSSS may be used to compare disability across patient populations and to track disease progression in patient cohorts. P-MSSS does not require a formal neurologic examination and may therefore find wide applicability as a practical and cost-effective outcome measure in epidemiologic studies. PMID:23427319

  20. Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

  1. Minimal Logic Depth adder tree optimization for Multiple Constant Multiplication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Faust; Chip-Hong Chang

    2010-01-01

    Research on optimization of fixed coefficient FIR filters modeled as Multiple Constant Multiplication (MCM) has been ongoing for two decades. An analysis of Minimal Signed Digit (MSD) reveals that potential good solutions are omitted by Common Subexpression Elimination (CSE) algorithms as they are hidden in the MSD representations. Some CSE algorithms ensure that all coefficients are implemented at minimal Logic

  2. MULTIPLE STRESS COMPONENTS FROM MULTIPLE CUTS FOR THE CONTOUR METHOD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Pagliaro; M. B. Prime; B. Zuccarello

    An extension of the contour method is presented which allows the measurement of multiple stress components by making multiple cuts. In the contour method, a body is carefully cut in two using wire electric discharge machining (EDM). The contours, or shapes, of the cut surfaces are then measured and used to calculate the original residual stress normal to the cut

  3. Improved multiple constant multiplication using a minimum spanning tree

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Gustafsson; Henrik Ohlsson; Lars Wanhammar

    2004-01-01

    Recently, a novel technique for the multiple constant multiplication (MCM) problem using minimum spanning trees (MSTs) has been proposed. The approach works by finding simple differences between the coefficients to realize and then applying the same method to the differences (which is an MCM problem as well). Each iteration is divided into two steps. First, finding a minimum spanning tree

  4. Multiple Myeloma: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Al-Farsi, Khalil

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma is a rare, largely incurable malignant disease of plasma cells. Patients usually present with hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia and/or lytic bony lesions along with a monoclonal protein in the serum and/or urine in addition to an increase in the number of clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow. Patients with myeloma live on an average for five to seven years, with their survival dependent on the presence or absence of different prognostic markers. Treatment of younger fit patients is with induction therapy consisting of steroids with one or more novel anti-myeloma agents followed by high dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation, while older and less fit patients are treated with melphalan-based combination chemotherapy. Supportive care is of paramount importance and includes the use of bisphosphonates, prophylactic antibiotics, thrombosis prophylaxis and the use of hematopoietic growth factors along with the treatment of complications of disease and its therapy. As more progress is being made and deeper responses are being attained, the disease might turn into a potentially curable one in the near future. PMID:23386937

  5. Multiple stage railgun

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Scudder, Jonathan K. (Pleasanton, CA); Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  6. Visualizing Multiple Quantile Plots.

    PubMed

    Boon, Marko A A; Einmahl, John H J; McKeague, Ian W

    2013-03-01

    Multiple-quantile plots provide a powerful graphical method for comparing the distributions of two or more populations. This article develops a method of visualizing triple-quantile plots and their associated confidence tubes, thus extending the notion of a quantile-quantile (QQ) plot to three dimensions. More specifically, we consider three independent one-dimensional random samples with corresponding quantile functions Q 1, Q 2, and Q 3. The triple-quantile (QQQ) plot is then defined as the three-dimensional curve Q(p) = (Q 1(p), Q 2(p), Q 3(p)), where 0 < p < 1. The empirical likelihood method is used to derive simultaneous distribution-free confidence tubes for Q. We apply our method to an economic case study of strike durations and to an epidemiological study involving the comparison of cholesterol levels among three populations. These data as well as the Mathematica code for computation of the tubes are available in the online supplementary materials. PMID:24465124

  7. Pathology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kipp, Markus; van der Valk, Paul; Amor, Sandra

    2012-08-01

    Pathological examination of the affected human tissue is key to understanding the possible mechanisms operating in the disease. In multiple sclerosis (MS), studies of central nervous system (CNS) tissues reveal the inflammatory nature of the disease associated with demyelination and axonal damage. Based on the concept of a pathogenic adaptive immune response, immunosuppressive therapies have been developed in an attempt to block or inhibit the potentially pathogenic T and B cells. More recently, re-examination of the neuropathology has led to a resurgence of interest in the neurodegenerative aspects of the disease, the involvement of cortical damage as well as the role of innate immunity in MS. These ideas have led to paradigm shifts from MS being the result of autoimmunity to myelin due to initial adaptive immune responses, to that of a neurodegenerative disease in which, besides T and B cells, innate immunity may play a major role in the disease process. The neuropathological studies have undoubtedly influenced pharmaceutical interest in development of neuroprotective approaches. Here we review the latest findings from pathological studies of MS tissues and discuss the relevance of these findings for future therapeutic approaches. PMID:22583433

  8. Multiple-Event Gully

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-554, 24 November 2003

    Middle- and polar-latitude gullies are common on crater and trough walls in the martian southern hemisphere. Some also occur in the north. One of the controversies surrounding gullies is whether they involved fluid flow (such as liquid water) or were formed by dry landsliding processes. The occurrence of banked and leveed channels in many gullies argues that they formed by fluid flow. Another question centers on whether gullies are 'one-shot deals' or involved more than one episode of fluid flow. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired in November 2003, shows a gully with an apron, near the center of the frame, that formed by multiple fluid flows. The apron of debris at the base of the gully near the center of the picture is not just one apron, it is three. Three separate aprons formed at three different times. First, the larger, left-most apron formed. Later, another event caused fluid to cut through that apron and create a new one (the middle of the three). Later, a third event cut both aprons and formed a small, third one. This image shows the wall of an impact crater located near 51.3oS, 326.6oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide, and is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  9. Multiple sclerosis and pain.

    PubMed

    Nick, Saeed Talebzadeh; Roberts, Charles; Billiodeaux, Seth; Davis, Debra Elliott; Zamanifekri, Behrouz; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Alekseeva, Nadejda; Munjampalli, Sai; Roberts, Joann; Minagar, Alireza

    2012-11-01

    Despite the common belief that multiple sclerosis (MS) is a painless disease, several studies contradict this. There are a significant number of MS patients who actually suffer from painful conditions such as central and peripheral neuropathy, migraines, trigeminal neuralgia, painful tonic spasms, complex regional pain syndrome, glossopharyngeal neuralgia, and transverse myelitis. In addition, MS relapses are usually painful with many patients complaining of paroxysmal dystonia and neuropathic pain during these episodes. Additionally, treatments for MS such as use of beta-interferons may be associated with headache and pain at the injection site. The pathophysiology of pain in MS is poorly understood, but may be related to the development of demyelinating lesions involving certain neuroanatomic pathways such as the spinothalamic tract. Management of pain in MS patients is a therapeutic challenge for clinicians. Currently, various pharmacological agents such as antiepielptics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and even corticosteroids are used to suppress various painful conditions associated with MS. Non-pharmacological procedures such as massage therapy have also been used in the treatment of MS patients. The authors present a review of recent findings in pathophysiology and management of pain in MS patients. PMID:22909889

  10. Multiple small "imaging" branch-duct type intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) in familial pancreatic cancer: indicator for concomitant high grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia?

    PubMed

    Bartsch, D K; Dietzel, K; Bargello, M; Matthaei, E; Kloeppel, G; Esposito, I; Heverhagen, J T; Gress, T M; Slater, E P; Langer, P

    2013-03-01

    Most screening programs for familial pancreatic cancer are currently based on endoscopic ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Cystic lesions, especially those suspicious for small intraductal pancreatic mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the branch ducts, can be visualized in up to 40 % of individuals at risk, but their pathological importance in the setting of FPC is yet not well established. Individuals at risk from a prospective screening program for familial pancreatic cancer with small "imaging" IPMNs of the branch-duct type (BD-IPMN) who underwent pancreatic resection were analysed regarding clinico-pathological data and the locations of pancreatic lesions. Five of 125 individuals at risk who underwent screening had multiple small (size 2-10 mm) unicystic lesions and/or multicystic single lesions in the pancreatic body and tail suspicious for BD-IPMNs upon MRI imaging and decided to undergo surgical resection after interdisciplinary counselling, although none fulfilled the consensus criteria for IPMN resection. Histological examination revealed BD-IPMNs with low or moderate dysplasia of the gastric type in combination with multifocal PanIN2 and PanIN3 lesions in 4 individuals. The remaining patient had only tiny ductectasias in the pancreatic tail with multifocal PanIN 2 lesions in the entire gland and one PanIN3 lesion in the pancreatic head. Intriguingly, the location of the most dysplastic histological lesions (PanIN3) did not correspond to the preoperatively detected lesions and were not visible in preoperative imaging. In the setting of FPC, the presence of multiple small "imaging" BD-IPMNs may indicate the presence of high-grade PanIN lesions elsewhere in the pancreas. PMID:23179793

  11. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the silver springs group, Central Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, L., Jr.; Katz, B.G.; Toth, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched ??15N and ??18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag (outside the USA).

  12. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the Silver Springs Group, central Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Leel; Katz, Brian G.; Toth, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8 mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched ?15N and ?18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (<0.5 mg/L). Multiple age-tracer data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age.

  13. The problem with multiple robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Marcus J.; Kenny, Patrick G.

    1994-01-01

    The issues that can arise in research associated with multiple, robotic agents are discussed. Two particular multi-robot projects are presented as examples. This paper was written in the hope that it might ease the transition from single to multiple robot research.

  14. Undecidability of Multiplicative Subexponential Logic

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Undecidability of Multiplicative Subexponential Logic Kaustuv Chaudhuri INRIA, France kaustuv.chaudhuri@inria.fr [Presented at LINEARITY 2014, July 13, 2014] Abstract Subexponential logic is a variant of linear logic show that classical propositional multiplicative linear logic extended with one unrestricted and two

  15. Multiple Intelligences Centers and Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Carolyn; Freeman, Lynn

    Based upon Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, this book guides elementary school teachers through the process of using classroom learning centers and projects by providing choices for students. The guide is divided into two sections, providing the theoretical background and information on how to develop multiple intelligences learning…

  16. Multiple paradigms in CS I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chuck Leska; John Barr; Laurie A. Smith King

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to introducing multiple programming language paradigms in the CS I course through the use of a single multiparadigm language. The approach uses multiple paradigms in the design and implementation of solutions to computer projects. The paper illustrates the approach by outlining a solution to a sample project which utilizes the imperative, object-oriented, and the functional

  17. Symptomatic therapy in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Frohman, Teresa C.; Castro, Wanda; Shah, Anjali; Courtney, Ardith; Ortstadt, Jeffrey; Davis, Scott L.; Logan, Diana; Abraham, Thomas; Abraham, Jaspreet; Remington, Gina; Treadaway, Katherine; Graves, Donna; Hart, John; Stuve, Olaf; Lemack, Gary; Greenberg, Benjamin; Frohman, Elliot M.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common disabling neurological disease of young adults. The ability to impact the quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis should not only incorporate therapies that are disease modifying, but should also include a course of action for the global multidisciplinary management focused on quality of life and functional capabilities. PMID:21694806

  18. Multiple Intelligences for Differentiated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, R. Bruce

    2007-01-01

    There is an intricate literacy to Gardner's multiple intelligences theory that unlocks key entry points for differentiated learning. Using a well-articulated framework, rich with graphic representations, Williams provides a comprehensive discussion of multiple intelligences. He moves the teacher and students from curiosity, to confidence, to…

  19. Modular Inverse Algorithms without Multiplications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laszlo Hars

    2004-01-01

    the basic left-shift, right-shift and shifting Euclidean modular inverse algorithms are presented with new optimization tricks. These algorithms are based on the corresponding extended GCD algorithms, but only one multiplicator, the modular inverse is computed. On many computational platforms, for operand lengths used in cryptography, the fastest modular inverse algorithms need about twice the modular multiplication time, or even less.

  20. Multiplication Fact Fluency Using Doubles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Judith M.; Rubenstein, Rheta N.

    2010-01-01

    Not knowing multiplication facts creates a gap in a student's mathematics development and undermines confidence and disposition toward further mathematical learning. Learning multiplication facts is a first step in proportional reasoning, "the capstone of elementary arithmetic and the gateway to higher mathematics" (NRC 2001, p. 242). Proportional…

  1. Visual issues in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Francis, Courtney E

    2013-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis has several ophthalmic manifestations, including optic neuritis, internuclear ophthalmoplegia, and nystagmus. The presentation, treatment, and prognosis of visual complaints secondary to multiple sclerosis are discussed. Additionally, the use of optical coherence tomography and complications related to the use of fingolimod are considered. PMID:24314686

  2. Multiple Regression Assumptions. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Jason W.; Waters, Elaine

    This Digest presents a discussion of the assumptions of multiple regression that is tailored to the practicing researcher. The focus is on the assumptions of multiple regression that are not robust to violation, and that researchers can deal with if violated. Assumptions of normality, linearity, reliability of measurement, and homoscedasticity are…

  3. Swamp Works- Multiple Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carelli, Jonathan M.

    2013-01-01

    My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that ranged multiple aspects and fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, a design and build for a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, a design for a portable four monitor hyper wall that can extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill for a next generation robot, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and implementation of a new weekly outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory. The objectives for the command center were to create a central computer controlled area for the still in production lunar regolith bin. It needed to be easy to use and the operating systems had to be Linux. The objectives for the hyper wall were to build a mobile transport of monitors that could potentially attach to one another. It needed to be light but sturdy, and have the ability to last. The objectives for the blast shield included a robust design that could withstand a small equipment malfunction, while also being convenient for use. The objectives for the nano-drill included the research and implementation of programming for vertical and horizontal movement. The hyper wall and blasts shield project were designed by me in the Pro/Engineer/Creo2 software. Each project required a meeting with the Swamp Works engineers and was declared successful.

  4. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2003 in Afghanistan: Outdated Sampling Frame and the Effect of Sampling Weights on Estimates of Maternal and Child Health Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Shuaib, Muhammad; Becker, Stan; Rahman, Md. Mokhlesur; Peters, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Due to an urgent need for information on the coverage of health service for women and children after the fall of Taliban regime in Afghanistan, a multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS) was conducted in 2003 using the outdated 1979 census as the sampling frame. When 2004 pre-census data became available, population-sampling weights were generated based on the survey-sampling scheme. Using these weights, the population estimates for seven maternal and child healthcare-coverage indicators were generated and compared with the unweighted MICS 2003 estimates. The use of sample weights provided unbiased estimates of population parameters. Results of the comparison of weighted and unweighted estimates showed some wide differences for individual provincial estimates and confidence intervals. However, the mean, median and absolute mean of the differences between weighted and unweighted estimates and their confidence intervals were close to zero for all indicators at the national level. Ranking of the five highest and the five lowest provinces on weighted and unweighted estimates also yielded similar results. The general consistency of results suggests that outdated sampling frames can be appropriate for use in similar situations to obtain initial estimates from household surveys to guide policy and programming directions. However, the power to detect change from these estimates is lower than originally planned, requiring a greater tolerance for error when the data are used as a baseline for evaluation. The generalizability of using outdated sampling frames in similar settings is qualified by the specific characteristics of the MICS 2003—low replacement rate of clusters and zero probability of inclusion of clusters created after the 1979 census. PMID:21957678

  5. Effect of multiple oral doses of androgenic anabolic steroids on endurance performance and serum indices of physical stress in healthy male subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Baume; Yorck Olaf Schumacher; Pierre-Edouard Sottas; Carlo Bagutti; Michel Cauderay; Patrice Mangin; Martial Saugy

    2006-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are doping agents that are mostly used for improvement of strength and muscle hypertrophy. In some sports, athletes reported that the intake of AAS is associated with a better recovery, a higher training load capacity and therefore an increase in physical and mental performances. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, the effect of multiple

  6. Multiple hashes of single key with passcode for multiple accounts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kok-wah Lee; Hong-tat Ewe

    2007-01-01

    A human’s e-life needs multiple offline and online accounts. It is a balance between usability and security to set keys or\\u000a passwords for these multiple accounts. Password reuse has to be avoided due to the domino effect of malicious administrators\\u000a and crackers. However, human memorability constrains the number of keys. Single sign-on server, key hashing, key strengthening\\u000a and petname system

  7. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN,M.T; PONCE,D; GRUNLOH,H.J; ELLIS,R.A; GROSNICKLE,W.H; HUMPHREY,R.L

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future.

  8. Proton interactions with high multiplicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kokoulina, E. S., E-mail: kokoulin@sunse.jinr.ru; Nikitin, V. A.; Petukhov, Y. P. [LHEP, JINR (Russian Federation); Kutov, A. Ya. [Department of Mathematics Komi SC UrD RAS (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-15

    Project Thermalization is aimed to study the proton-proton interaction with high multiplicity of secondary particles. The region of high multiplicity is especially actual at present. We expect the manifestation of the secondary particle collective behavior at this region. The experimentally measured topological cross section was corrected for apparatus acceptance and detection efficiency. These data are in good agreement with gluon dominance model. The comparison with other models is also done and shows no essential deviations. There is evidence that Bose-Einstein condensation can formed at high total multiplicity region.

  9. Multiple memory systems and extinction

    E-print Network

    Gabriele, Amanda

    2005-08-29

    and format of Behavioral Neuroscience. 2 Animal brain lesion studies were utilized to further explore this apparent dichotomy. Evidence for multiple memory systems is provided by studies using dissociation methodology. A double dissociation shows...

  10. MULTIPLE SCALES FOR SUSTAINABLE RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This session will highlight recent research that incorporates the use of multiple scales and innovative environmental accounting to better inform decisions that affect sustainability, resilience, and vulnerability at all scales. Effective decision-making involves assessment at mu...

  11. Multiple test tubes stirred mechanically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, H. J.; Strong, I. J.

    1965-01-01

    Mechanical device simultaneously stirs multiple test tubes under controlled laboratory conditions. The invention provides a variable stirring rate, minimal amount of contamination of tube contents, unattended and simple operation, and easy maintenance and cleaning.

  12. Lung Multiple Primary Rules Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    Lung Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C340-C349 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * Prepare one abstract. Use the histology coding rules to assign the appropriate histology code. ** Prepare two or more abstracts.

  13. Multiplicities in high energy interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Derrick, M.

    1985-05-13

    This paper reviews the data on multiplicities in high energy interactions. Results from e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation, from neutrino interactions, and from hadronic collisions, both diffractive and nondiffractive, are compared and contrasted. The energy dependence of the mean charged multiplicity, , as well as the rapidity density at Y = 0 are presented. For hadronic collisions, the data on neutral pion production shows a strong correlation with . The heavy particle fractions increase with ..sqrt..s up to the highest energies. The charged particle multiplicity distributions for each type of reaction show a scaling behavior when expressed in terms of the mean. Attempts to understand this behavior, which was first predicted by Koba, Nielsen, and Olesen, are discussed. The multiplicity correlations and the energy variation of the shape of the KNO scaling distribution provide important constraints on models. Some extrapolations to the energies of the Superconducting Super Collider are made. 51 refs., 27 figs.

  14. Multiple Regression and Its Discontents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.; Marsh, Mitchell

    2012-01-01

    Multiple regression is part of a larger statistical strategy originated by Gauss. The authors raise questions about the theory and suggest some changes that would make room for Mandelbrot and Serendipity.

  15. Original article Inference about multiplicative

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    for estimating variance components (Patterson and Thompson, 1971): However, heterogeneous variances are oftenOriginal article Inference about multiplicative heteroskedastic components of variance in a mixed for the sire and residual components of variance. heteroskedasticity / mixed linear model / Bayesian technique

  16. Reading Comprehension Tests: Multiple Guess?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Robert F.

    1973-01-01

    Study was designed to determine whether certain commercial 10-item multiple-choice reading comprehension tests were vulnerable to guessing. It was concluded that more valid comprehension tests could be developed if items were tested for guessability. (Author)

  17. Multiples: Twins, Triplets and Beyond

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page It's been added to your dashboard . Multiples: twins, triplets and beyond When a woman is carrying ... What is the difference between identical and fraternal twins? Identical twins (also called monozygotic twins) occur when ...

  18. Sequence labeling with multiple annotators

    E-print Network

    Rodrigues, Filipe

    The increasingly popular use of Crowdsourcing as a resource to obtain labeled data has been contributing to the wide awareness of the machine learning community to the problem of supervised learning from multiple annotators. ...

  19. Multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Velasquez, G.; Glass, T.A.; D'Souza, V.J.; Formanek, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    Renal oncocytoma, although rare, is being diagnosed more frequently, and criteria to differentiate it from other tumors have been described. Multiple oncocytomas have been reported, but an association between multiple oncocytomas and renal carcinoma in the same kidney has not been described. The authors report a case with two oncocytomas and a renal carcinoma in the right kidney as well as a right adrenal adenoma.

  20. A Semantics of Multiple Inheritance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Cardelli

    1988-01-01

    this paper is to present a clean semantics of multiple inheritance and to show that, in the context of strongly-typed, statically-scoped languages, a sound typechecking algorithm exists. Multiple inheritance is also interpreted in a broad sense: instead of being limited to objects, it is extended in a natural way to union types and to higher-order functional types. This constitutes a

  1. The Problem Multiple Yield Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Houlsby, Guy T.

    The Problem Multiple Yield Surfaces Examples Visit us at: "www-civil.eng.ox.ac.uk" G.T. Houlsby &&& A model is defined in terms of multiple yield surfaces. The inner surfaces can move around and exhibit an infinite number of yield surfaces. 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 Shear strain Shearstress 0 0

  2. Quantum spread spectrum multiple access

    E-print Network

    Juan Carlos Garcia-Escartin; Pedro Chamorro-Posada

    2014-11-27

    We describe a quantum multiple access scheme that can take separate single photon channels and combine them in the same path. We propose an add-drop multiplexer that can insert or extract a single photon into an optical fibre carrying the qubits of all the other users. The system follows the principle of code division multiple access, a spread spectrum technique widely used in cellular networks.

  3. Let's Practice Multiplication and Division!

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Aycock

    2009-04-15

    Use the games below to improve your multiplication and division skills. Today, we are going to play some fun games that help us get better at multiplication and division. Follow the directions below: 1. Choose one of the following games. If you are a boy, you may wish to play with the catapult in Flight of the Knight. If you are a girl, you could ...

  4. Multiple sclerosis: autoimmunity and viruses

    PubMed Central

    Cusick, Matthew F.; Libbey, Jane E.; Fujinami, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review will explore two new aspects of the involvement of viruses in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis. The first aspect is the complex interactions between viruses. The second aspect is the proposal of a mechanism by which autoreactive T cells are able to escape thymic selection and potentially recognize self and a pathogen. Recent findings With regard to viruses, recent work has demonstrated that one virus may enhance the replication of another virus, potentially leading to an increase in inflammation and disease progression. Also, interactions between human endogenous retroviruses, which likely do not replicate, and certain herpes viruses, may also play a role in disease pathogenesis. Mechanistically, T cells expressing dual T-cell receptors would be able to recognize self and a foreign antigen specifically. Therefore, human endogenous retroviruses potentially play a role in multiple sclerosis pathogenesis, and both interactions between multiple viruses and autoreactive CD8+ T cells with dual T-cell receptors may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Summary The complex interactions between multiple viral infections, either within the central nervous system or in the periphery, and the host immune response to viral infection may be such that a variety of viral specificities result in the activation of T cells that recognize self and induce multiple sclerosis. Therefore, it is unlikely that any one microbe will be determined to be the causative agent of multiple sclerosis as reflected by the number of potential triggering mechanisms of the disease. PMID:23656710

  5. Association and linkage analysis of candidate chromosomal regions in multiple sclerosis: indication of disease genes in 12q23 and 7ptr–15

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun Xu; Yamei Dai; Sten Fredrikson; Jan Hillert

    1999-01-01

    Four recent genome-wide screen studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) identified a number of candidate regions for susceptibility genes in addition to the HLA complex in 6p21. However, none of these regions provided formally significant evidence for genome-wide linkage. We have investigated such regions in 46 Swedish multiplex MS families, 28 singleton families, 190 sporadic MS patients and 148 normal controls

  6. Analysis of the long control region of bovine papillomavirus type 1 associated with sarcoids in equine hosts indicates multiple cross-species transmission events and phylogeographical structure.

    PubMed

    Trewby, Hannah; Ayele, Gizachew; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Brandt, Sabine; Campo, M Saveria; Del Fava, Claudia; Marais, Johan; Leonardi, Leonardo; Vanselow, Barbara; Biek, Roman; Nasir, Lubna

    2014-12-01

    Papillomaviruses are a family of slowly evolving DNA viruses and their evolution is commonly linked to that of their host species. However, whilst bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) primarily causes warts in its natural host, the cow, it can also cause locally aggressive and invasive skin tumours in equids, known as sarcoids, and thus provides a rare contemporary example of cross-species transmission of a papillomavirus. Here, we describe the first phylogenetic analysis of BPV-1 in equine sarcoids to our knowledge, allowing us to explore the evolutionary history of BPV-1 and investigate its cross-species association with equids. A phylogenetic analysis of the BPV-1 transcriptional promoter region (the long control region or LCR) was conducted on 15 bovine and 116 equine samples from four continents. Incorporating previous estimates for evolutionary rates in papillomavirus implied that the genetic diversity in the LCR variants was ancient and predated domestication of both equids and cattle. The phylogeny demonstrated geographical segregation into an ancestral group (African, South American and Australian samples), and a more recently derived, largely European clade. Whilst our data are consistent with BPV-1 originating in cattle, we found evidence of multiple, probably relatively recent, cross-species transmission events into horses. We also demonstrated the high prevalence of one particular sequence variant (variant 20), and suggest this may indicate that this variant shows a fitness advantage in equids. Although strong host specificity remains the norm in papillomaviruses, our results demonstrate that exceptions to this rule exist and can become epidemiologically relevant. PMID:25185436

  7. Emotional Disorders in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and their FAMILIES EMOTIONAL DISORDERS IN PEOPLE WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS This fact sheet presents the current research on ... American Association of Neuroscience Nurses, the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers, and the International Organization of Multiple Sclerosis ...

  8. Multiplicity in Early Stellar Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, B.; Clarke, C. J.; Boss, A. P.; Goodwin, S. P.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Stassun, K. G.; Tokovinin, A.; Zinnecker, H.

    Observations from optical to centimeter wavelengths have demonstrated that multiple systems of two or more bodies is the norm at all stellar evolutionary stages. Multiple systems are widely agreed to result from the collapse and fragmentation of cloud cores, despite the inhibiting influence of magnetic fields. Surveys of class 0 protostars with millimeter interferometers have revealed a very high multiplicity frequency of about 2/3, even though there are observational difficulties in resolving close protobinaries, thus supporting the possibility that all stars could be born in multiple systems. Near-infrared adaptive optics observations of class I protostars show a lower binary frequency relative to the class 0 phase, a declining trend that continues through the class II/III stages to the field population. This loss of companions is a natural consequence of dynamical interplay in small multiple systems, leading to ejection of members. We discuss observational consequences of this dynamical evolution, and its influence on circumstellar disks, and we review the evolution of circumbinary disks and their role in defining binary mass ratios. Special attention is paid to eclipsing PMS binaries, which allow for observational tests of evolutionary models of early stellar evolution. Many stars are born in clusters and small groups, and we discuss how interactions in dense stellar environments can significantly alter the distribution of binary separations through dissolution of wider binaries. The binaries and multiples we find in the field are the survivors of these internal and external destructive processes, and we provide a detailed overview of the multiplicity statistics of the field, which form a boundary condition for all models of binary evolution. Finally, we discuss various formation mechanisms for massive binaries, and the properties of massive trapezia.

  9. Modularization to Support Multiple Brand Platforms

    E-print Network

    Agus, Sudjianto

    2001-09-09

    Methods to determine acceptable architecture for multiple platforms supporting multiple brands must represent both platform cost saving commonization as well as revenue enhancing brand distinctions. Functional architecting ...

  10. Sequential Test Strategies for Multiple Fault Isolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakeri, M.; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Raghavan, V.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Kell, T.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing near optimal test sequencing algorithms for diagnosing multiple faults in redundant (fault-tolerant) systems. The computational complexity of solving the optimal multiple-fault isolation problem is super-exponential, that is, it is much more difficult than the single-fault isolation problem, which, by itself, is NP-hard. By employing concepts from information theory and Lagrangian relaxation, we present several static and dynamic (on-line or interactive) test sequencing algorithms for the multiple fault isolation problem that provide a trade-off between the degree of suboptimality and computational complexity. Furthermore, we present novel diagnostic strategies that generate a static diagnostic directed graph (digraph), instead of a static diagnostic tree, for multiple fault diagnosis. Using this approach, the storage complexity of the overall diagnostic strategy reduces substantially. Computational results based on real-world systems indicate that the size of a static multiple fault strategy is strictly related to the structure of the system, and that the use of an on-line multiple fault strategy can diagnose faults in systems with as many as 10,000 failure sources.

  11. [Oral treatments in multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Meca-Lallana, José Eustasio; Hernández-Clares, Rocío; Carreón-Guarnizo, Ester

    2014-12-01

    The development of new disease-modifying drugs (DMD) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS), which share the common denominator of oral administration, considerably improves patient expectations in terms of effectiveness, tolerability and treatment adherence compared with currently available drugs. However, the common route of administration of these drugs does not mean that they are equivalent, since the heading of "oral route" encompasses drugs with distinct indications and mechanisms of action, as well as heterogeneous results in terms of efficacy and safety, allowing treatment to be personalized according to the each patient' s characteristics. Currently, four oral DMD are available or in an advanced stage of clinical development: fingolimod, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate and laquinimod. In pivotal trials versus placebo, these molecules reduced the annualized rate of exacerbations versus placebo by 54%, 31%, 53% and 23%, respectively, the risk of progression of disability by 31%, 30%, 38% and 36%, and the number of active lesions showing contrast uptake on magnetic resonance imaging by 82%, 80%, 90% and 37%, respectively. Based on the risk/benefit ratio, fingolimod is indicated in patients with suboptimal response to initial DMD or in severe rapidly progressing RRMS, while the remaining drugs can be used as first-line options. Clinical experience with these treatments will provide new data on safety and effectiveness, which will be determinant when establishing therapeutic algorithms. PMID:25732946

  12. Vitamin D and Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Raghuwanshi, Anita; Joshi, Sneha S.; Christakos, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D is a principal regulator of calcium homeostasis. However, recent evidence has indicated that vitamin D can have numerous other physiological functions including inhibition of proliferation of a number of malignant cells including breast and prostate cancer cells and protection against certain immune mediated disorders including multiple sclerosis (MS). The geographic incidence of MS indicates an increase in MS with a decrease in sunlight exposure. Since vitamin D is produced in the skin by solar or UV irradiation and high serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) have been reported to correlate with a reduced risk of MS, a protective role of vitamin D is suggested. Mechanisms whereby the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3 ) may act to mediate this protective effect are reviewed. Due to its immunosuppressive actions, it has been suggested that 1,25(OH)2D3 may prevent the induction of MS. PMID:18655192

  13. Subpixel resolution from multiple images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Kanefsky, Rob; Stutz, John; Kraft, Richard

    1994-01-01

    Multiple images taken from similar locations and under similar lighting conditions contain similar, but not identical, information. Slight differences in instrument orientation and position produces mismatches between the projected pixel grids. These mismatches ensure that any point on the ground is sampled differently in each image. If all the images can be registered with respect to each other to a small fraction of a pixel accuracy, then the information from the multiple images can be combined to increase linear resolution by roughly the square root of the number of images. In addition, the gray-scale resolution of the composite image is also improved. We describe methods for multiple image registration and combination, and discuss some of the problems encountered in developing and extending them. We display test results with 8:1 resolution enhancement, and Viking Orbiter imagery with 2:1 and 4:1 enhancements.

  14. Multiple pilomatricomas in Kabuki syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hamahata, Atsumori; Kamei, Wataru; Ishikawa, Masashi; Konoeda, Hisato; Yamaki, Takashi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Pilomatricoma is a benign tumor of the hair matrix cell that presents predominantly in childhood. Although pilomatricoma occurs spontaneously, multiple pilomatricomas have been described in association with several inherited syndromes. We report on a 28-year-old man with Kabuki syndrome with three pilomatricomas in his head and thigh. Although several reports describe multiple pilomatricomas associated with Turner syndrome, there are no reports of multiple pilomatricomas combined with Kabuki syndrome. Ectodermal abnormalities such as hair abnormality and hirsutism are symptoms of Kabuki syndrome, and pilomatricomas are frequently associated with the mutations of beta-catenin in hair follicle development. The predisposition of pilomatricomas may be not merely a coincidental finding, but an added association with Kabuki syndrome. PMID:22304445

  15. Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Gana, R; Skhissi, M; Maaqili, R; Bellakhdar, F

    2008-05-01

    We report an unusual patient with multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts. A 20-year-old man presented with a 2-month history of headache and progressive left-sided hempiparesis. A cerebral CT scan showed a large and heterogeneous parieto-occipital lesion. During surgery an infected hydatid cyst was discovered with multiple daughter vesicles. Post-operatively the patient was treated with albendazol, cefotaxime and metronidazole. The clinical course was good with total recovery of the hemiparesis. A follow-up CT scan showed persistence of some small deep-seated cysts. Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cyst is uncommon and can be confused with other cystic brain lesions. The aim of surgery is to remove the cyst unruptured and this should be followed by antihelminthic and antibiotic treatment in order to avoid recurrences. PMID:18342511

  16. Gd[subscript 13]Fe[subscript 10]C[subscript 13]: Indications of Fe?Fe Multiple Bonding Emerging from Chemical Frustration

    SciTech Connect

    Hadler, Amelia B.; Fredrickson, Daniel C. (UW)

    2012-10-25

    We report the synthesis and crystal structure of the carbide Gd{sub 13}Fe{sub 10}C{sub 13}. This compound adopts a new structure type that is remarkable for its 'H'-shaped C{sub 2}FeFeC{sub 2} units, which have some of the shortest Fe-Fe contacts known. A bonding analysis using DFT-calibrated Hueckel calculations hints that Fe-Fe multiple bonding underlies these short distances. Gd{sub 13}Fe{sub 10}C{sub 13} undergoes ferromagnetic ordering at {approx}55 K.

  17. Convergence and Discriminant: Assessing Multiple Traits Using Multiple Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye K.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple traits of language proficiency as well as test method effects were concurrently analyzed to investigate interrelations of construct validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity using multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) matrices. A total of 585 test takers' scores were derived from the field test of the "Pearson Test of English…

  18. Multiple Choice Learning: Learning to Produce Multiple Structured Outputs

    E-print Network

    Kohli, Pushmeet

    , in Computer Vision, this is the case for state-of-the-art methods for human-pose estimation which produce improvements in prediction accuracy. 1 Introduction A number of problems in Computer Vision, Natural Language multiple predictions that are then refined by employing a tempo- ral model [22, 3]. In Natural Language

  19. The Multiple Factors of Multiple Sclerosis: A Darwinian Perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ASHTON F. EMBRY

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, is often referred to as a multifactorial disease, but there is little consensus as to what factors are involved, besides genetic susceptibility and childhood infectious agents. The purpose of this paper is to identify plausible, environmental factors that contribute to the aetiology of MS. Design: Review of the

  20. Multiple Sclerosis and its Management

    PubMed Central

    Weinshenker, Brian

    1992-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis, the most common disabling disease of the central nervous system affecting young adults, is diagnosed primarily from a history of typical relapsing and remitting white matter symptoms supported by objective signs. Multiple sclerosis may present in more insidious ways or may be mimicked by other diseases, which seemingly satisfy the diagnostic criteria of dissemination in time and space. Patients need psychological support to deal with an uncertain future. A multidisciplinary team approach can best manage both acute temporary disability and, often later, progressive physical and occasionally mental disability. ImagesFigures 1-3 PMID:21221279

  1. Multiple order common path spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

  2. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, E.M.; Nunnally, W.C.

    1985-06-19

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  3. Models for multiple heating mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Kring, D.

    1994-01-01

    Current meteoritic and astrophysical evidence (especially FU Orionis events) suggests that large-scale gas-dynamics shocks penetrating to the nebular midplane represent a promising class of multiple heating mechanisms for the formation of chondrules. Initial numerical models have shown that shock heating of chondrule precursor grains in optically thick clouds of grains is especially efficient. Shocks generated by infalling molecular cloud clumps and shocks separating different mass elements in a time dependently and axially asymmetrically evolving disk are possibilities deserving further attention. Meteoritic constraints, astrophysical considerations and multiple heating mechanisms are addressed.

  4. Body composition in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dionyssiotis, Y

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis affects central nervous system leading to disability. Among other complications the deterioration of body composition is usually neglected and increases the risk for diseases such as coronary heart disease, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, lipid abnormalities and bone loss leading to fractures in this population. Body mass index values, the effect of spasticity, the increased number of drugs used and the relationship between skeletal muscle and bone which interacts with impaired motor function leading to body composition alterations in multiple sclerosis are reviewed. PMID:23935336

  5. SPSS Tutorial for Multiple Comparisons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Little, Laura

    Authored by Laura Little of the University of Washington, this tutorial exposes students to conducting multiple comparisons in SPSS. This html based tutorial provides extensive screen shots and an example data set. Topics covered in the tutorial include: one way ANOVA, preplanned contrasts, Bonferroni, Post Hoc Tukey's HSD, and Scheffe's multiple contrasts. This is a great example of how to use statistical tools such as SPSS in a psychological statistics course. Little does excellent work in providing a step by step approach to learning these methods.

  6. Bilateral Multiple Level Lateral Meningocoele

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, B. E. Panil; Hegde, Kishor V.; Kumari, G. Lalitha; Agrawal, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Lateral meningocoele is a very rare disorder characterized by extensions of the dura and arachnoid through an enlarged neural foramen. We report a case of a 23-year-old female with deformity of spine who presented with low back pain and no neurological deficits. A whole spine magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple well-defined cystic masses involving dorsal, lumbar, and sacral spinal levels bilaterally, with dural ectasia and neural foraminal widening suggestive of bilateral multiple level lateral meningocoele. The patient is being managed conservatively and is on regular follow-up. PMID:23607071

  7. Multiple resonant railgun power supply

    DOEpatents

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Nunnally, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

  8. Immunotherapy strategies in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jooeun; Munshi, Nikhil C; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2014-10-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a B-cell malignancy characterized by the clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow and the development of osteolytic bone lesions. MM has emerged as a paradigm within the cancers for the success of drug discovery and translational medicine. This article discusses immunotherapy as an encouraging option for the goal of inducing effective and long-lasting therapeutic outcome. Divided into two distinct approaches, passive or active, immunotherapy, which targets tumor-associated antigens has shown promising results in multiple preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:25212890

  9. Multiple scattering in single scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liang-Wu

    2004-03-01

    Scattering by a multilayered scatterer is analyzed via a novel multiple-scattering approach. Based on the recognition that multiple scattering occurs within single scatterers having internal interfaces, the solution procedure follows the physical process, and yields analytically exact solutions. A simple two-layered scatterer subjected to SH incident waves is used to illustrate the detailed solution procedure. The solution is then verified by a two-layered circular cylindrical scatterer, whose exact analytical solution has previously been obtained by the author [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2004)]. The proposed approach opens new ways for analyzing scatterers of more complicated geometrical and physical compositions.

  10. Development of a Multimorbidity Illness Perceptions Scale (MULTIPleS)

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Chris J.; Kenning, Cassandra; Coventry, Peter A.; Bee, Penny; Bundy, Christine; Fisher, Louise; Bower, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Illness perceptions are beliefs about the cause, nature and management of illness, which enable patients to make sense of their conditions. These perceptions can predict adjustment and quality of life in patients with single conditions. However, multimorbidity (i.e. patients with multiple long-term conditions) is increasingly prevalent and a key challenge for future health care delivery. The objective of this research was to develop a valid and reliable measure of illness perceptions for multimorbid patients. Methods Candidate items were derived from previous qualitative research with multimorbid patients. Questionnaires were posted to 1500 patients with two or more exemplar long-term conditions (depression, diabetes, osteoarthritis, coronary heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Data were analysed using factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Rasch analysis is a modern psychometric technique for deriving unidimensional and intervally-scaled questionnaires. Results Questionnaires from 490 eligible patients (32.6% response) were returned. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five potential subscales ‘Emotional representations’, ‘Treatment burden’, ‘Prioritising conditions’, ‘Causal links’ and ‘Activity limitations’. Rasch analysis led to further item reduction and the generation of a summary scale comprising of items from all scales. All scales were unidimensional and free from differential item functioning or local independence of items. All scales were reliable, but for each subscale there were a number of patients who scored at the floor of the scale. Conclusions The MULTIPleS measure consists of five individual subscales and a 22-item summary scale that measures the perceived impact of multimorbidity. All scales showed good fit to the Rasch model and preliminary evidence of reliability and validity. A number of patients scored at floor of each subscale, which may reflect variation in the perception of multimorbidity. The MULTIPleS measure will facilitate research into the impact of illness perceptions on adjustment, clinical outcomes, quality of life, and costs in patients with multimorbidity. PMID:24376504

  11. Demand Characteristics of Multiple-Choice Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, James J.; Williams, David V.

    Thirteen graduate students were asked to indicate for each of 24 multiple-choice items whether the item tested "recall of specific information," a "higher order skill," or "don't know." The students were also asked to state their general basis for judging the items. The 24 items had been previously classified according to Bloom's cognitive-skills…

  12. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Craig Helton; Curtis B. Storlie

    2006-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (1) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (2) additive models, (3) projection pursuit regression, and (4) recursive partitioning regression. The indicated procedures are illustrated with both

  13. Genetics Reasoning with Multiple External Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2003-01-01

    Explores a case study of a class of 10th grade students whose learning of genetics involved activities using BioLogica, a computer program that features multiple external representations (MERs). Findings indicate that the MERs in BioLogica contributed to students' development of genetics reasoning by engendering their motivation and interest but…

  14. Scalable Montgomery Multiplication Algorithm Brock J. Prince

    E-print Network

    M is always odd as mentioned earlier. This will make the result even, thus a right-shift security. This is especially important since there are predictions which indicate that the number's simplest form, Montgomery multiplication can be performed using an add-shift algorithm. Let's represent X

  15. Professional Skepticism of Multiple Personality Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane F. Cormier; Mark H. Thelen

    1998-01-01

    If you saw a patient who appeared to have more than one personality, what diagnosis would you make? And how would you vary your clinical approach? Data from 425 respondents indicated that the majority of psychologists believed multiple personality disorder (MPD) to be a valid but rare clinical diagnosis. Respondents cited extreme child abuse as the foremost cause of MPD.

  16. Bit Interleaved Coded Multiple Beamforming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enis Akay; Ersin Sengul; Ender Ayanoglu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the performance of bit-interleaved coded multiple beamforming (BICMB). We provide interleaver design criteria such that BICMB achieves full spatial multiplexing of min( N, M) and full spatial diversity of NM with N transmit and M receive antennas over quasi-static Rayleigh flat fading channels. If the channel is frequency selective, then BICMB is combined with orthogonal

  17. Mania Associated with Multiple Sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsoi Tak Hon; Pamela Youde; Dunn Lai Wah; Yin King Miao

    Mania sometimes occurs in association with an organic condition in the brain. A 29-year-old housewife with secondary mania related to multiple sclerosis is described. The case highlights the importance of considering organic causes in treating patients with mania, especially when there are unexplained neurological findings and cognitive dysfunction. The case also illustrates the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging for investigating

  18. Meningeal involvement in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Laribi, Kamel; Mellerio, Charles; Baugier, Alix; Ghnaya, Habib; Denizon, Nathalie; Besançon, Anne; Laly, Margot; Jadeau, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message A patient with multiple myeloma with a mass in the nasopharyngeal was diagnosed. He received melphalan autograft and radiotherapy, and obtained complete remission. He relapsed 3 months later, with meningeal involvement and without systemic relapse. He received intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy, without neurological improvement and died 4 weeks after relapse.

  19. Multiple Intelligence and Counselor Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jennifer; Fitch, Trey

    2001-01-01

    Applies Multiple Intelligence theory to the process of counselor training. Encourages counselor educators to acknowledge that verbal and logical abilities are important, but not sufficient areas of development for counselor training. Concludes that by addressing all of the areas of a student's intelligence, counselor educators can train balanced,…

  20. Multiple Intelligences: Myths and Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Howard

    1996-01-01

    Debunks several myths that have arisen in schools' misapplication of the author's multiple intelligences (MI) theory. Argues that seven intelligences do not require seven different intelligence tests. An intelligence is a construct, not a domain, discipline, or learning style. MI theory is empirical and compatible with general intelligence theory.…

  1. INPUFF, MULTIPLE SOURCE PUFF MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    INPUFF is a Gaussian integrated PUFF model. The Gaussian puff diffusion equation is used to compute the contribution to the concentration at each receptor from each puff every time step. Computations in INPUFF can be made for a single or multiple point sources at up to 100 recept...

  2. Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

    2008-01-01

    In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an…

  3. Developmental thermography: multiple aspect thermography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinori Nagasawa; Kazuichi Katoh

    1993-01-01

    Multiple aspect thermography (MAT) is a kind of developmental thermography. MAT was designed in order to supplement the shortage of the number of coverage aspects in triple aspect thermography (TAT). TAT allows simultaneous display of numbers of thermograms on various selected aspects of the subject in CRT frame. This paper reports on MAT methodology and discusses some aspects of the

  4. Multiple Intelligences in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Kathleen M.

    Within the context of school improvement and school reform, it is important to examine Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences (MI theory). His work has far-reaching implications for curriculum development and classroom implementation. Gardner believes that the culture defines intelligence too narrowly. He sought to broaden the scope of…

  5. Multiple Versus Single Banking Relationships

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrica Detragiache; Paolo Garella; Luigi Guiso

    1997-01-01

    This paper develops a theoretical model in which firms may choose multiple banking relationships to reduce the risk that financing will be denied by ‘relationship banks’ should the latter experience liquidity problems and refuse to roll over lines of credit. The inability to refinance from relationship banks signals unfavourable information about the quality of the firm’s project, which may also

  6. Inferring constraints from multiple snapshots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Kurlander; Steven Feiner

    1993-01-01

    Many graphic tasks, such as the manipulation of graphical objects and the construction of user-interface widgets, can be facilitated by geometric constraints. However, the difficulty of specifying constraints by traditional methods forms a barrier to their widespread use. In order to make constraints easier to declare, we have developed a method of specifying constraints implicitly, through multiple examples. Snapshots are

  7. Corticial lesions in multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Kidd; F. Barkhof; R. McConnell; P. R. Algra; I. V. Allen; T. Revesz

    1999-01-01

    Summary Although previous studies have shown that the lesions of multiple sclerosis may involve the cerebral cortex, there is little published research on the prevalence and distribution of such lesions. Using neuropathological techniques and MRI, a series of studies has been undertaken in order to assess this, in particular to identify their relationship to cortical veins. A serial MRI study

  8. Cerebral palsy and multiple births

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P O Pharoah; T Cooke

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To compare the birthweight specific prevalence of cerebral palsy in singleton and multiple births. METHODS: Registered births of babies with cerebral palsy born to mothers resident in the counties of Merseyside and Cheshire during the period 1982 to 1989 were ascertained. RESULTS: The crude prevalence of cerebral palsy was 2.3 per 1000 infant survivors in singletons, 12.6 in twins,

  9. Multiple Pathways for All Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary…

  10. Childhood Multiple Sclerosis: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, Amy; O'Connor, Erin; Tennekoon, Gihan

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that is increasingly recognized as a disease that affects children. Similar to adult-onset MS, children present with visual and sensory complaints, as well as weakness, spasticity, and ataxia. A lumbar puncture can be helpful in diagnosing MS when…

  11. Viscoelastic waves and multiple scales

    SciTech Connect

    Hedstrom, G.

    1994-05-01

    A multiple-scales argument is used to obtain the speeds of the main shear and compressional waves in a general homogeneous viscoelastic medium. The rate of spreading by diffusion of these waves is also derived. These methods are also used to determine the speed of the main viscoelastic Rayleigh wave, as well as the rate of its energy decay.

  12. Characteristics of Multiple Comparison Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mian Muhammad; And Others

    Multiple comparison procedures (MCPs), in the context of analysis of variance, are becoming more popular than the overall F tests. An attempt is made to clarify confusion among the different MCPs by systematically comparing and contrasting the procedures in terms of their purposes, restrictions, robustness to assumptions, and other special…

  13. Empowering Students through Multiple Intelligences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubado, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences challenges narrow concepts of student talent and ability. This article applies this theory to the challenge of educating students with learning behavior disabilities. Reaching these young people and engaging them in learning can help them understand that intelligence comes in many forms. (Author)

  14. Multiple Literacies Theory: Exploring Futures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masny, Diana

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions of philosophy, art and science to education through the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological usefulness of a Deleuze-Guattarian conceptual framework that informs multiple literacies theory (MLT). Education lends itself to Deleuze's notion of connecting and creating through philosophy, art and…

  15. Multiple Cover Time Peter Winkler'

    E-print Network

    Zuckerman, David

    Multiple Cover Time Peter Winkler' Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974 7 David Zuckerman2 Zuckerman Contract grant sponsor: NSF NYI Contract grant number: CCR-9457799 0 1996John Wiley & Sons, Inc. CCC 1042-9832/96/090403-09 403 #12;404 WINKLER AND ZUCKERMAN 1. INTRODUCTION A random walk

  16. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesca Marini; Alberto Falchetti; Francesca Del Monte; Silvia Carbonell Sala; Alessia Gozzini; Ettore Luzi; Maria Luisa Brandi

    2006-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with

  17. Multiple Choice Questions for Groundwater

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    John C. Butler

    This online quiz was written by Dr. John C. Butler at the University of Houston for 100-level geology students. There are 44 multiple choice questions and 8 fill in the blank questions, Topics include groundwater resources, the water cycle, karst features, the water table and parts of an aquifer. Answers are linked directly from the quiz page.

  18. Occupational therapy for multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. J. Steultjens; J. Dekker; L. M. Bouter; M. Cardol; J. C. M. van de Nes; C. H. M. van den Ende

    2003-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are referred to occupational therapy with complaints about fatigue, limb weakness, alteration of upper extremity fine motor coordination, loss of sensation and spasticity that causes limitations in performance of activities of daily living and social participation. The primary purpose of occupational therapy is to enable individuals to participate in self-care, work and leisure activities that

  19. Multigenre, Multiple Intelligences, and Transcendentalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggieri, Colleen A.

    2002-01-01

    Explains an eleventh grade literature unit on Transcendentalism which employed a wide variety of supplemental materials and literary connections and which provided alternate assessment opportunities. Details how this unit revealed meaningful connections through comics, music, free reading, and multiple intelligences. Concludes that many students…

  20. Fashion, Paper Dolls and Multiplicatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ura, Suzana Kaori; Stein-Barana, Alzira C. M.; Munhoz, Deisy P.

    2011-01-01

    The multiplicative principle is the tool allowing the counting of groups that can be described by a sequence of events. An event is a subset of sample space, i.e. a collection of possible outcomes, which may be equal to or smaller than the sample space as a whole. It is important that students understand this basic principle early on and know how…

  1. Symptomatic Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Henze; P. Rieckmann; K. V. Toyka

    2006-01-01

    Besides immunomodulation and immunosuppression, the specific treatment of symptoms is an essential component of the overall management of multiple sclerosis (MS). Symptomatic treatment is aimed at the elimination or reduction of symptoms impairing the functional abilities and quality of life of the affected patients. Moreover, with symptomatic treatment the development of a secondary physical impairment due to an existing one

  2. Multiple piston expansion chamber engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1986-01-01

    This patent describes a multiple piston expansion chamber in an internal combustion engine wherein combustion, expansion and exhaust functions are performed in a cylinder. This cylinder consists of an auxiliary piston reciprocating in the cylinder, a sleeve valve reciprocating within the auxiliary piston, a working piston reciprocating within the sleeve valve. Leading the auxiliary piston is an auxiliary chamber above

  3. Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Niels G.

    2008-01-01

    Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

  4. Multiple comparison procedures Cavan Reilly

    E-print Network

    Reilly, Cavan

    and the percent change in the non-dominant muscle strength. > attach(fms) > Trait table(resistin c180g) resistin c180g CC CG GG 330 320 89 > m1 resistin c180g) #12;Multiple comparisons in ANOVA > summary(m1) Call: lm(formula = Trait ~ resistin c180g) Residuals: Min 1Q Median 3Q Max -56

  5. Multiple antibiotic resistance and efflux

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Nikaido

    1998-01-01

    Multiple antibiotic resistance in bacteria was at first thought to be caused exclusively by the combination of several resistance genes, each coding for resistance to a single drug. More recently, it became clear that such phenotypes are often achieved by the activity of drug efflux pumps. Some of these efflux pumps exhibit an extremely wide specificity covering practically all antibiotics,

  6. A Multiple-Baseline Stereo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masatoshi Okutomi; Takeo Kanade

    1993-01-01

    A stereo matching method that uses multiple stereo pairs with various baselines generated by a lateral displacement of a camera to obtain precise distance estimates without suffering from ambiguity is presented. Matching is performed simply by computing the sum of squared-difference (SSD) values. The SSD functions for individual stereo pairs are represented with respect to the inverse distance and are

  7. Accommodations for Multiple Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trammell, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Students with learning or learning-related disabilities frequently struggle with multiple choice assessments due to difficulty discriminating between items, filtering out distracters, and framing a mental best answer. This Practice Brief suggests accommodations and strategies that disability service providers can utilize in conjunction with…

  8. Assessment of Multiplication Fact Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Marilyn Sue; Usnick, Virginia

    2011-01-01

    This project had two major goals: to determine the usefulness of individually-administered interview process to access elementary students' fluency with basic multiplication facts, and to determine whether a developmental sequence found in Australian mathematics education literature applied to elementary students in the United States. Students in…

  9. Multiple sclerosis: Five new things.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Jacqueline A; Boster, Aaron L; Racke, Michael K

    2013-10-01

    Preliminary studies have suggested that a high salt diet may play a role in the development of autoimmune disease and possibly multiple sclerosis (MS). Promising clinical trial results for 2 new therapies for MS have been reported. Dimethyl fumarate, also known by its investigational name BG-12, became the third oral disease-modifying therapy for MS to be Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved in March 2013. Interestingly, dimethyl fumarate served as the active compound used for the treatment of psoriasis for decades. Alemtuzumab remains under investigation and is not currently FDA-approved for treatment of MS. Other drugs currently approved for alternative indications are being investigated for use in MS. Additionally, an investigation of alternative dosing strategies for glatiramer acetate suggests that patients may benefit from a higher dose formulation and less frequent medication administration. Advances in basic science research have identified another potential autoantigenic target in MS, KIR4.1, which may provide further insight into MS pathophysiology. PMID:24175156

  10. Multiple RNA interaction: beyond two.

    PubMed

    Mneimneh, Saad; Ahmed, Syed Ali

    2015-03-01

    The interaction of two RNA molecules involves a complex interplay between folding and binding that warranted recent developments in RNA-RNA interaction algorithms. However, biological mechanisms in which more than two RNAs take part in an interaction also exist. It is reasonable to believe that interactions involving multiple RNAs are generally more complex to be treated pairwise. In addition, given a pool of RNAs, it is not trivial to predict which RNAs interact without sufficient biological knowledge. Therefore, structures resulting from multiple RNA interactions often cannot be predicted by the existing algorithms that handle RNAs pairwise and may simply favor the best interacting pair. We propose a system for multiple RNA interaction that overcomes the difficulties mentioned above by formulating a combinatorial optimization problem called Pegs and Rubber Bands. A solution to this problem encodes a structure of interacting RNAs. The problem, not surprisingly, is NP-hard. However, our experiments with approximation algorithms and heuristics for the problem suggest that this formulation is adequate to predict known interaction patterns of multiple RNAs. In general, however, the optimal solution obtained does not necessarily correspond to the actual structure observed in biological experiments. Moreover, a structure produced by interacting RNAs may not be unique. We extend our approach to generate multiple suboptimal solutions. By clustering these solutions, we are able to reveal representatives that correspond to realistic structures. Specifically, our results on the U2-U6 complex with introns in the spliceosome of human/yeast and the CopA-CopT complex in E. coli are consistent with published biological structures. PMID:25680214

  11. Time-domain multiple-quantum NMR

    SciTech Connect

    Weitekamp, D.P.

    1982-11-01

    The development of time-domain multiple-quantum nuclear magnetic resonance is reviewed through mid 1982 and some prospects for future development are indicated. Particular attention is given to the problem of obtaining resolved, interpretable, many-quantum spectra for anisotropic magnetically isolated systems of coupled spins. New results are presented on a number of topics including the optimization of multiple-quantum-line intensities, analysis of noise in two-dimensional spectroscopy, and the use of order-selective excitation for cross polarization between nuclear-spin species.

  12. Iron chelation and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Kelsey J.; Lynch, Sharon G.; LeVine, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Histochemical and MRI studies have demonstrated that MS (multiple sclerosis) patients have abnormal deposition of iron in both gray and white matter structures. Data is emerging indicating that this iron could partake in pathogenesis by various mechanisms, e.g., promoting the production of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Iron chelation therapy could be a viable strategy to block iron-related pathological events or it can confer cellular protection by stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor 1?, a transcription factor that normally responds to hypoxic conditions. Iron chelation has been shown to protect against disease progression and/or limit iron accumulation in some neurological disorders or their experimental models. Data from studies that administered a chelator to animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of MS, support the rationale for examining this treatment approach in MS. Preliminary clinical studies have been performed in MS patients using deferoxamine. Although some side effects were observed, the large majority of patients were able to tolerate the arduous administration regimen, i.e., 6–8 h of subcutaneous infusion, and all side effects resolved upon discontinuation of treatment. Importantly, these preliminary studies did not identify a disqualifying event for this experimental approach. More recently developed chelators, deferasirox and deferiprone, are more desirable for possible use in MS given their oral administration, and importantly, deferiprone can cross the blood–brain barrier. However, experiences from other conditions indicate that the potential for adverse events during chelation therapy necessitates close patient monitoring and a carefully considered administration regimen. PMID:24397846

  13. Gaussian quadrature for multiple orthogonal polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussement, Jonathan; van Assche, Walter

    2005-06-01

    We study multiple orthogonal polynomials of type I and type II, which have orthogonality conditions with respect to r measures. These polynomials are connected by their recurrence relation of order r+1. First we show a relation with the eigenvalue problem of a banded lower Hessenberg matrix Ln, containing the recurrence coefficients. As a consequence, we easily find that the multiple orthogonal polynomials of type I and type II satisfy a generalized Christoffel-Darboux identity. Furthermore, we explain the notion of multiple Gaussian quadrature (for proper multi-indices), which is an extension of the theory of Gaussian quadrature for orthogonal polynomials and was introduced by Borges. In particular, we show that the quadrature points and quadrature weights can be expressed in terms of the eigenvalue problem of Ln.

  14. Sequential Testing Algorithms for Multiple Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakeri, Mojdeh; Raghavan, Vijaya; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing optimal and near-optimal test sequencing algorithms for multiple fault diagnosis. The computational complexity of solving the optimal multiple-fault isolation problem is super-exponential, that is, it is much more difficult than the single-fault isolation problem, which, by itself, is NP-hard. By employing concepts from information theory and AND/OR graph search, we present several test sequencing algorithms for the multiple fault isolation problem. These algorithms provide a trade-off between the degree of suboptimality and computational complexity. Furthermore, we present novel diagnostic strategies that generate a diagnostic directed graph (digraph), instead of a diagnostic tree, for multiple fault diagnosis. Using this approach, the storage complexity of the overall diagnostic strategy reduces substantially. The algorithms developed herein have been successfully applied to several real-world systems. Computational results indicate that the size of a multiple fault strategy is strictly related to the structure of the system.

  15. Multiple states in river and lake ecosystems.

    PubMed Central

    Dent, C Lisa; Cumming, Graeme S; Carpenter, Stephen R

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear models of ecosystem dynamics that incorporate positive feedbacks and multiple, internally reinforced states have considerable explanatory power. However, linear models may be adequate, particularly if ecosystem behaviour is primarily controlled by external processes. In lake ecosystems, internal (mainly biotic) processes are thought to have major impacts on system behaviour, whereas in rivers, external (mainly physical) factors have traditionally been emphasized. We consider the hypothesis that models that exhibit multiple states are useful for understanding the behaviour of lake ecosystems, but not as useful for understanding stream ecosystems. Some of the best-known examples of multiple states come from lake ecosystems. We review some of these examples, and we also describe examples of multiple states in rivers. We conclude that the hypothesis is an oversimplification; the importance of physical forcing in rivers does not eliminate the possibility of internal feedbacks that create multiple states, although in rivers these feedbacks are likely to include physical as well as biotic processes. Nonlinear behaviour in aquatic ecosystems may be more common than current theory indicates. PMID:12079525

  16. Multiple Exciton Generation Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Luther, J. M.; Semonin, O. E.; Beard, M. C.; Gao, J.; Nozik, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Heat loss is the major factor limiting traditional single junction solar cells to a theoretical efficiency of 32%. Multiple Exciton Generation (MEG) enables efficient use of the solar spectrum yielding a theoretical power conversion efficiency of 44% in solar cells under 1-sun conditions. Quantum-confined semiconductors have demonstrated the ability to generate multiple carriers but present-day materials deliver efficiencies far below the SQ limit of 32%. Semiconductor quantum dots of PbSe and PbS provide an active testbed for developing high-efficiency, inexpensive solar cells benefitting from quantum confinement effects. Here, we will present recent work of solar cells employing MEG to yield external quantum efficiencies exceeding 100%.

  17. Method for deploying multiple spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharer, Peter J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method for deploying multiple spacecraft is disclosed. The method can be used in a situation where a first celestial body is being orbited by a second celestial body. The spacecraft are loaded onto a single spaceship that contains the multiple spacecraft and the spacecraft is launched from the second celestial body towards a third celestial body. The spacecraft are separated from each other while in route to the third celestial body. Each of the spacecraft is then subjected to the gravitational field of the third celestial body and each of the spacecraft assumes a different, independent orbit about the first celestial body. In those situations where the spacecraft are launched from Earth, the Sun can act as the first celestial body, the Earth can act as the second celestial body and the Moon can act as the third celestial body.

  18. Computational Reasoning across Multiple Models

    PubMed Central

    Tsafnat, Guy; Coiera, Enrico W.

    2009-01-01

    Computational support of clinical decisions frequently requires the integration of data in a variety of formats and from multiple sources and domains. Some impressive multiscale computational models of biological phenomena have been developed as part of the study of disease and healthcare systems. One can now contemplate harnessing these models arising from computational biology and using highly interconnected clinical data to support clinical decision-making. Indeed, understanding how to build computational systems able to reason across heterogeneous models and datasets is one of the major and perhaps foundational challenges of translational biomedical informatics. In this paper, the authors examine the use of multimodels (models composed of several daughter models) and explore three major research challenges to reasoning across multiple models: model selection, model composition, and computer aided model construction. PMID:19717801

  19. Multiple idiopathic apical root resorption.

    PubMed

    Kanungo, Manish; Khandelwal, Vishal; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Nayak, Prathibha Anand

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic external root resorption is a rarely reported condition which has been observed in single or multiple teeth. This is a rare case of multiple idiopathic apical root resorption (MIARR) in a 16-year-old boy. External root resorption of the permanent teeth is a multifactorial process. Well-recognised causes of apical root resorption in permanent teeth include orthodontic therapy, trauma, periapical or periodontal inflammation, tumours, cysts, occlusal stresses, impacted teeth, systemic conditions, endocrine imbalances and dietary habits. When none of these causes are present, it is termed idiopathic root resorption which may be either cervical or apical. MIARR is a rare condition which is usually detected as an incidental radiographic finding. However, it may cause pain and mobility in severe cases. PMID:23616336

  20. Multiple-Segment Climbing Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerley, James; May, Edward; Eklund, Wayne

    1994-01-01

    Multiple-segment climbing robots developed to perform such tasks as inspection, sandblasting, welding, and painting on towers and other structures. Look and move like caterpillars. Video camera mounted on one of segments rotated to desired viewing angle. Used in remote inspection of structure, to view motion of robot and/or provides video feedback for control of motion, and/or to guide operation of head mounted on foremost segment with motorized actuators.

  1. Sense-making and Multiplication

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    In this 14-minute video UK teacher Sally Hill uses patterns to help her students learn the multiples of four and understand how to apply that knowledge to more complex multi-digit problems. Head teacher Kate Frood discusses the school's guiding principles and her own style of leadership. The page includes a link to a pdf document summarizing K-4 Mental Math Strategies [cataloged separately].

  2. Sexual Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fary KhanJulie; Julie F. Pallant; Louisa Ng; Michael Whishaw

    2011-01-01

    To describe sexual dysfunction (SD) in persons with MS, its impact on quality of life and relationship with bladder function.\\u000a Persons with definite MS (n = 73) from a tertiary hospital database, interviewed using standardized measures. For disability: Neurological Disability Scale (NDS), American Urological Association Index, Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI6), Incontinence\\u000a Impact Questionnaire (IIQ7) and Personal Experiences Questionnaire (PEQ); participation: Multiple Sclerosis

  3. Autonomic dysfunction in multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl-Albrecht Haensch; Johannes Jörg

    2006-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequent chronic neurological disease affecting young persons in developed countries.\\u000a MS is, however, considered as a secondary cause, of central origin, for autonomic dysfunction. The most common autonomic symptoms\\u000a in MS are disorders of micturation, impotence, sudomotor and gastrointestinal disturbances, orthostatic intolerance as well\\u000a as sleep disorders. The majority of the patients suffer at

  4. Colon Multiple Primary Rules Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    Colon Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C180-C189 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * P r e p ar e o n e abs tr a c t. U s e t h e hi s t o lo g y c o di ng r u le s t o as s i gn th e ap pr o p

  5. Kidney Multiple Primary Rules Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    Kidney Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C649 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * P r e p ar e o n e abs tr a c t. U s e t h e hi s t o lo g y c o di ng r u le s t o as s i gn th e ap pr o p r iat

  6. Novel therapy in multiple myeloma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agustin Avilés; Natividad Neri; M. Jesús Nambo; Sergio Cleto; Claudia Castañeda; Martha González; Alejandra Talavera; Judith Huerta-Guzmán

    2005-01-01

    Treatment in patients with multiple myeloma remain to be defined. Younger patients (defined as a cut-off level 65 years old are not candidates for this therapeutic approach and the use of intensive chemotherapy could be associated to severe toxicity. We developed an new, not-cytotoxic regimen with dexamethasone 30 mg\\/m2, iv, days 1 to 4, all trans retinoic acid 45 mg\\/m2,

  7. Distributive Property Matrix Multiplication (1)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Peter Tierney-Fife

    2009-02-20

    This interactive Java learning tool allows a teacher to demonstrate and explore the distributive property with expressions in the factored form (a + b) (c + d) using a matrix multiplication method with students. Sliders determine the number values from 20 to -20 with increments of one-tenth. Check boxes show or hide the factored form, starting matrix values, matrix, products in the matrix, and solution.

  8. Fractional Dynamics at Multiple Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerschaert, Mark M.; Straka, Peter

    2012-11-01

    A continuous time random walk (CTRW) imposes a random waiting time between random particle jumps. CTRW limit densities solve a fractional Fokker-Planck equation, but since the CTRW limit is not Markovian, this is not sufficient to characterize the process. This paper applies continuum renewal theory to restore the Markov property on an expanded state space, and compute the joint CTRW limit density at multiple times.

  9. Animal Models of Multiple Sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin R. Young; C. Jane Welsh

    To determine whether an immunological or pharmaceutical product has potential for therapy in treating multiple sclerosis (MS),\\u000a detailed animal models are required. To date many animal models for human MS have been described in mice, rats, rabbits, guinea\\u000a pigs, marmosets, and rhesus monkeys. The most comprehensive studies have involved murine experimental allergic (or autoimmune)\\u000a encephalomyelitis (EAE), Semliki Forest virus (SFV),

  10. Automatic regeneration of multiple cryopumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Finley

    1986-01-01

    A method of automating the simultaneous regeneration of any or all of six 48-in.-diam cryopumps is presented. (Cryopump regeneration is a process which involves multiple backfill\\/evacuation cycles.) Conventional Boolean logic gates are combined into control loops which are explained, along with the basic functioning of the computer, for this portion of he vacuum-chamber operation. The proposed system optimizes use of

  11. Melanoma Multiple Primary Rules Matrix

    Cancer.gov

    Cutaneous Melanoma Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C440 – C449 (Excludes melanoma of any other site) * P r e p ar e o n e abs tr a c t. U s e t h e hi s t o lo g y c o di ng r u le s t o as s i gn th e ap pr o p r iat e h is to lo

  12. Chimeras with multiple coherent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujjwal, Sangeeta Rani; Ramaswamy, Ramakrishna

    2013-09-01

    We study chimeric states in a coupled phase oscillator system with piecewise linear nonlocal coupling. By modifying the details of the coupling, it is possible to obtain multiple chimeric states with a specified number of coherent regions and with specified phase relationships. The case of a two-component chimera is illustrated and the generalization to arbitrary chimeric configurations is discussed. The phase relations between the two clusters of phase oscillators is described in some detail.

  13. Multiple kernels for object detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Vedaldi; Varun Gulshan; Manik Varma; Andrew Zisserman

    2009-01-01

    Our objective is to obtain a state-of-the art object cate- gory detector by employing a state-of-the-art image clas- sifier to search for the object in all possible image sub- windows. We use multiple kernel learning of Varma and Ray (ICCV 2007) to learn an optimal combination of expo- nential ?2 kernels, each of which captures a different fea- ture channel.

  14. PERSONS WITH MULTIPLE PERSONALITY DISORDER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ann Adams; Ann Adams; M. N. Sc

    1989-01-01

    In the past, Internal Self 1lelpers (ISM) of persons with multiple personality rlisorrler OWPI)) have been deseriberl by rr )7mill Humber of therapists. ii is .studV Iwo\\/ens the base ala I inaton relating to ISHs. Forty respondents who collectively had been therapists fur-rr totrtl of 690 i11P1) patients participated in the snarly. 77re findings of this study suti g ges

  15. The paradox of multiple elections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Brams; D. Marc Kilgour; William S. Zwicker

    1998-01-01

    .   Assume that voters must choose between voting yes (Y) and voting no (N) on three propositions on a referendum. If the winning\\u000a combination is NYY on the first, second, and third propositions, respectively, the paradox of multiple elections is that NYY can receive the fewest votes of the 23?=?8 combinations. Several variants of this paradox are illustrated, and necessary

  16. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film.

  17. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-01-09

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film. 3 figs.

  18. Inverse Relationships (Multiplication and Division)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-07-13

    This activity for the interactive white board (free access with registration) provides an opportunity for learners to practice building the fact family sets to reinforce the inverse relationship between multiplication and division. A set of three numbers are displayed and the learner drags the numbers and the operation down into the spaces to create a number fact (equation). The goal is to find all four facts in the family.

  19. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  20. [Intensive treatment of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Harousseau, Jean-Luc

    2003-01-01

    High dose therapy with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been extensively used in the past 15 years in multiple myeloma. The IFM 90 trial has shown that autologous bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is superior to conventional chemotherapy in terms of response rate, event free survival, overall survival. Several other randomized studies confirm that ASCT yields superior complete remission and event free survival rates. However, the benefit for overall survival is not always significant because some patients may receive high dose therapy at the time of relapse. While ASCT appears to be the treatment of choice for younger patients, a number of questions have been addressed in the past few years (optimal conditioning regimen, best source of stem cells, impact of tandem autotransplants, role of maintenance therapy, results of transplantation in patients over 65 years of age or with renal failure). These issues are addressed in this review. Analysis of large cohorts of patients indicate that a low beta 2 microglobulin level and the absence of chromosome 13 abnormalities are associated with a better outcome. However in patients with a high beta 2 microglobulin level and chromosome 13 abnormalities, the prognosis is poor even after tandem transplantations. Allogeneic BMT is offered to a minority of younger patients with an HLA identical sibling. Initial series have shown a high-toxic death rate and no survival advantage compared to ASCT. Yet, allogeneic BMT is possibly the only curative therapy. Reports of CR achieved after infusion of donor lymphoid cells in patients relapsing after allogeneic BMT support the concept of a graft versus myeloma effect. Therefore, the objectives of current studies are to reduce transplant related mortality by using earlier BMT, better selection of patients, better graft-versus host prophylaxis or non myeloablative conditioning regimens. PMID:14556449

  1. Multiple collisions in turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voßkuhle, Michel; Lévêque, Emmanuel; Wilkinson, Michael; Pumir, Alain

    2013-12-01

    In turbulent suspensions, collision rates determine how rapidly particles coalesce or react with each other. To determine the collision rate, many numerical studies rely on the ghost collision approximation (GCA), which simply records how often pairs of point particles come within a threshold distance. In many applications, the suspended particles stick (or in the case of liquid droplets, coalesce) upon collision, and it is the frequency of first contact which is of interest. If a pair of “ghost” particles undergoes multiple collisions, the GCA may overestimate the true collision rate. Here, using fully resolved direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows at moderate Reynolds number (Re?=130), we investigate the prevalence and properties of multiple collisions. We find the probability P(Nc) for a given pair of ghost particles to collide Nc times to be of the form P(Nc)=??Nc for Nc>1, where ? and ? are coefficients which depend upon the particle inertia. We also investigate the statistics of the times that ghost particles remain in contact. We show that the probability density function of the contact time is different for the first collision. The difference is explained by the effect of caustics in the phase space of the suspended particles. We demonstrate that, as a result of multiple collisions, the GCA leads to a small, but systematic overestimate of the collision rate, which is of the order of ˜15% when the particle inertia is small, and slowly decreases when inertia increases.

  2. Learning to Track Multiple Targets.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Tao, Dacheng; Song, Mingli; Zhang, Luming; Bu, Jiajun; Chen, Chun

    2014-07-14

    Monocular multiple-object tracking is a fundamental yet under-addressed computer vision problem. In this paper, we propose a novel learning framework for tracking multiple objects by detection. First, instead of heuristically defining a tracking algorithm, we learn that a discriminative structure prediction model from labeled video data captures the interdependence of multiple influence factors. Given the joint targets state from the last time step and the observation at the current frame, the joint targets state at the current time step can then be inferred by maximizing the joint probability score. Second, our detection results benefit from tracking cues. The traditional detection algorithms need a nonmaximal suppression postprocessing to select a subset from the total detection responses as the final output and a large number of selection mistakes are induced, especially under a congested circumstance. Our method integrates both detection and tracking cues. This integration helps to decrease the postprocessing mistake risk and to improve performance in tracking. Finally, we formulate the entire model training into a convex optimization problem and estimate its parameters using the cutting plane optimization. Experiments show that our method performs effectively in a large variety of scenarios, including pedestrian tracking in crowd scenes and vehicle tracking in congested traffic. PMID:25051561

  3. Multiple Forms of Bacterial Hydrogenases

    PubMed Central

    Ackrell, B. A. C.; Asato, R. N.; Mower, H. F.

    1966-01-01

    Ackrell, B. A. C. (University of Hawaii, Honolulu), R. N. Asato, and H. F. Mower. Multiple forms of bacterial hydrogenases. J. Bacteriol. 92:828–838. 1966.—Extracts of certain bacterial species have been shown by disc electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gel to contain multiple hydrogenase systems. The hydrogenase enzymes comprising these systems have different electrophoretic mobilities and produce a band pattern that is unique for each bacterial species. Of 20 bacterial species known to possess hydrogenase activity and which were examined by this technique, only the activities of Clostridium tetanomorphum and C. thermosaccharolyticum could be attributed, at pH 8.3, to a single hydrogenase enzyme. This multiplicity of hydrogenase forms was found both in bacteria which contain mostly soluble hydrogenases and in those where the hydrogenase is predominantly associated with particulate material. When solubilization of this particulate material could be effected, at least two solubilized hydrogenases were released, and, of these, one would have the same electrophoretic properties (i.e., RF) as one of the soluble hydrogenases already present in small amounts within the cell. Different growth conditions for various types of bacteria, such as the nitrogen source, the degree of aeration, and photosynthetic versus aerobic growth in the dark, as well as the conditions under which the cells were stored, markedly affected the hydrogenase activity of the cells, but not their hydrogenase band pattern. The disc electrophoresis technique proved to be 10 times more sensitive than the manometric technique in detecting hydrogenase activity. PMID:5926752

  4. Unraveling Multiple MHC Gene Associations with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Model Choice Indicates a Role for HLA Alleles and Non-HLA Genes in Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Morris, David L.; Taylor, Kimberly E.; Fernando, Michelle M.A.; Nititham, Joanne; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Barcellos, Lisa F.; Behrens, Timothy W.; Cotsapas, Chris; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Graham, Robert R.; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Harley, John B.; Hauser, Stephen L.; Hom, Geoffrey; Langefeld, Carl D.; Noble, Janelle A.; Rioux, John D.; Seldin, Michael F.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Vyse, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    We have performed a meta-analysis of the major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) region in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to determine the association with both SNPs and classical human-leukocyte-antigen (HLA) alleles. More specifically, we combined results from six studies and well-known out-of-study control data sets, providing us with 3,701 independent SLE cases and 12,110 independent controls of European ancestry. This study used genotypes for 7,199 SNPs within the MHC region and for classical HLA alleles (typed and imputed). Our results from conditional analysis and model choice with the use of the Bayesian information criterion show that the best model for SLE association includes both classical loci (HLA-DRB1?03:01, HLA-DRB1?08:01, and HLA-DQA1?01:02) and two SNPs, rs8192591 (in class III and upstream of NOTCH4) and rs2246618 (MICB in class I). Our approach was to perform a stepwise search from multiple baseline models deduced from a priori evidence on HLA-DRB1 lupus-associated alleles, a stepwise regression on SNPs alone, and a stepwise regression on HLA alleles. With this approach, we were able to identify a model that was an overwhelmingly better fit to the data than one identified by simple stepwise regression either on SNPs alone (Bayes factor [BF] > 50) or on classical HLA alleles alone (BF > 1,000). PMID:23084292

  5. Unraveling multiple MHC gene associations with systemic lupus erythematosus: model choice indicates a role for HLA alleles and non-HLA genes in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Morris, David L; Taylor, Kimberly E; Fernando, Michelle M A; Nititham, Joanne; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Barcellos, Lisa F; Behrens, Timothy W; Cotsapas, Chris; Gaffney, Patrick M; Graham, Robert R; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Gregersen, Peter K; Harley, John B; Hauser, Stephen L; Hom, Geoffrey; Langefeld, Carl D; Noble, Janelle A; Rioux, John D; Seldin, Michael F; Criswell, Lindsey A; Vyse, Timothy J

    2012-11-01

    We have performed a meta-analysis of the major-histocompatibility-complex (MHC) region in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to determine the association with both SNPs and classical human-leukocyte-antigen (HLA) alleles. More specifically, we combined results from six studies and well-known out-of-study control data sets, providing us with 3,701 independent SLE cases and 12,110 independent controls of European ancestry. This study used genotypes for 7,199 SNPs within the MHC region and for classical HLA alleles (typed and imputed). Our results from conditional analysis and model choice with the use of the Bayesian information criterion show that the best model for SLE association includes both classical loci (HLA-DRB1(?)03:01, HLA-DRB1(?)08:01, and HLA-DQA1(?)01:02) and two SNPs, rs8192591 (in class III and upstream of NOTCH4) and rs2246618 (MICB in class I). Our approach was to perform a stepwise search from multiple baseline models deduced from a priori evidence on HLA-DRB1 lupus-associated alleles, a stepwise regression on SNPs alone, and a stepwise regression on HLA alleles. With this approach, we were able to identify a model that was an overwhelmingly better fit to the data than one identified by simple stepwise regression either on SNPs alone (Bayes factor [BF] > 50) or on classical HLA alleles alone (BF > 1,000). PMID:23084292

  6. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T.D.

    1999-01-24

    An array of epidemiological results and databases on test animal indicate that risk of cancer and atherosclerosis can be up- or down-regulated by diet through a range of 200%. Other factors contribute incrementally and include the natural terrestrial environment and various human activities that jointly produce complex exposures to endotoxin-producing microorganisms, ionizing radiations, and chemicals. Ordinary personal habits and simple physical irritants have been demonstrated to affect the immune response and risk of disease. There tends to be poor statistical correlation of long-term risk with single agent exposures incurred throughout working careers. However, Agency recommendations for control of hazardous exposures to humans has been substance-specific instead of contextually realistic even though there is consistent evidence for common mechanisms of toxicological and carcinogenic action. That behavior seems to be best explained by molecular stresses from cellular oxygen metabolism and phagocytosis of antigenic invasion as well as breakdown of normal metabolic compounds associated with homeostatic- and injury-related renewal of cells. There is continually mounting evidence that marrow stroma, comprised largely of monocyte-macrophages and fibroblasts, is important to phagocytic and cytokinetic response, but the complex action of the immune process is difficult to infer from first-principle logic or biomarkers of toxic injury. The many diverse database studies all seem to implicate two important processes, i.e., the univalent reduction of molecular oxygen and breakdown of aginuine, an amino acid, by hydrolysis or digestion of protein which is attendant to normal antigen-antibody action. This behavior indicates that protection guidelines and risk coefficients should be context dependent to include reference considerations of the composite action of parameters that mediate oxygen metabolism. A logic of this type permits the realistic common-scale modeling of multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of ?what dose does?? in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of ?what dose is?? Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Multiple familial trichoepithelioma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... trichoepithelioma? Multiple familial trichoepithelioma can be caused by mutations in the CYLD gene. This gene provides instructions ... related multiple familial trichoepithelioma are born with a mutation in one of the two copies of the ...

  8. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages...45 Multiple survivors. Multiple survivors of the same smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms...

  9. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages...45 Multiple survivors. Multiple survivors of the same smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms...

  10. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages...45 Multiple survivors. Multiple survivors of the same smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms...

  11. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages...45 Multiple survivors. Multiple survivors of the same smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms...

  12. 42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages...45 Multiple survivors. Multiple survivors of the same smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms...

  13. Introduction Matrix multiplication based linear algebra

    E-print Network

    Pernet, Clément

    Introduction Matrix multiplication based linear algebra Computing the characteristic polynomial #12;Introduction Matrix multiplication based linear algebra Computing the characteristic polynomial Conclusion and perspectives Introduction Dense Linear Algebra over a Field: one of the usual models

  14. The multiple control of verbal behavior.

    PubMed

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C; Sundberg, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's Verbal Behavior, the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms convergent multiple control and divergent multiple control. We point out some implications for applied work and discuss examples of the role of multiple control in humor, poetry, problem solving, and recall. Joint control and conditional discrimination are discussed as special cases of multiple control. We suggest that multiple control is a useful analytic tool for interpreting virtually all complex behavior, and we consider the concepts of derived relations and naming as cases in point. PMID:22532752

  15. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129...ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply...

  16. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129...ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply...

  17. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129...ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply...

  18. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129...ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply...

  19. 46 CFR 129.323 - Multiple generators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Multiple generators. 129.323 Section 129...ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.323 Multiple generators. If an OSV uses two or more generators to supply...

  20. Can Multiple Myeloma Be Found Early?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Myeloma + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE ... Multiple Myeloma? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Multiple Myeloma Talking With ...

  1. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C; Sundberg, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's Verbal Behavior, the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms convergent multiple control and divergent multiple control. We point out some implications for applied work and discuss examples of the role of multiple control in humor, poetry, problem solving, and recall. Joint control and conditional discrimination are discussed as special cases of multiple control. We suggest that multiple control is a useful analytic tool for interpreting virtually all complex behavior, and we consider the concepts of derived relations and naming as cases in point. PMID:22532752

  2. CZ: Multiple Inheritance Without Diamonds Donna Malayeri

    E-print Network

    Aldrich, Jonathan

    CZ: Multiple Inheritance Without Diamonds Donna Malayeri Carnegie Mellon University donna, such as mixins and traits. Instead, we ad- dress the diamond problem directly, considering two diffi- culties approach: supporting multiple inheritance but forbidding diamond inheritance. Expressiveness is retained

  3. Multiple aspect ranking for opinion analysis

    E-print Network

    Snyder, Benjamin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01

    We address the problem of analyzing multiple related opinions in a text. For instance, in a restaurant review such opinions may include food, ambiance and service. We formulate this task as a multiple aspect ranking problem, ...

  4. Multiple Pregnancy and Birth: Considering Fertility Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... achieve pregnancy, there has been an increase in twins and higher order multiple pregnancies (triplets or more). ... babies born in the U.S. were multiples with twins accounting for 3.1% of all live births, ...

  5. Epidemiology in multiple sclerosis: a pilgrim's progress.

    PubMed

    Kurtzke, John F

    2013-09-01

    There was more neurology taught under Harold G. Wolff at Cornell University Medical College in New York than perhaps anywhere else in the country when I attended from 1948 to 1952. I took my residency at the Veterans Administration Hospital in the Bronx, New York, a teaching hospital of Cornell, with Wolff as my Director of Training. While a resident, we thought we had found a treatment for multiple sclerosis. To test our conclusion, the first Class 1 treatment trial ever conducted for multiple sclerosis was performed. This showed no effect, but the participants began investigating multiple sclerosis among the 16 million persons at prime age for symptom onset who had served in the military in World War II. This led me to study its epidemiology worldwide, beginning with a detailed review of all published population-based estimates of frequency. Among these were nationwide surveys from Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland and later Norway and Finland, which showed in each country a concentration of the significantly high regions into contiguous areas forming a single 'focus' in each land, maximal in Denmark under the age of 15 years. The primary locus of high frequency multiple sclerosis seemed to be in the south-central inland lake region of Sweden, with spread to its contiguous neighbours. These concentrations in time and space indicated that multiple sclerosis was a disease probably acquired in early adolescence. Migration studies supported this: moves from high to low showed retention of birthplace risk only for those aged >15 years, whereas opposite moves indicated susceptibility limited to some 11-45 year olds. Epidemics of multiple sclerosis would suggest the disease is not only acquired but also infectious. If an infectious origin were true, transmission would have to occur before clinical onset, and would have to involve a much greater number of subjects than clinically involved. I believe there have been epidemics in Iceland, Shetland-Orkney and the Faroe Islands. On the Faroes there were no cases of multiple sclerosis among native-born resident Faroese from 1900 until 1943, when the first of 21 cases had clinical onset, heralding a type 1 epidemic with peak incidence rates >10 per 100,000 for 1945-46. British troops who occupied the islands from April 1940 to September 1945 we believe brought a widespread (because of the scatter of Faroese cases), asymptomatic (because they were healthy troops), persistent infection we called the primary multiple sclerosis affection that involved a large proportion of Faroese, with clinical multiple sclerosis ensuing in a very small proportion. Primary multiple sclerosis affection itself may have been manifest there as a newly introduced cause of acute infectious gastroenteritis and is possibly the underlying cause of multiple sclerosis in general. PMID:23983034

  6. Bundling and Optimal Auctions of Multiple Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Avery; Terrence Hendershott

    2000-01-01

    We study the optimal (i.e. revenue maximizing) auction of multiple products. We make three major points. First, we extend the relationship between price discrimination and optimal auctions from the single-product case to the multiple-product case. A monopolist setting prices for multiple products may offer discounts on purchases of bundles of products; similarly, the optimal auction of multiple products facilitates price

  7. Altered expression of oligodendrocyte and neuronal marker genes predicts the clinical onset of autoimmune encephalomyelitis and indicates the effectiveness of multiple sclerosis-directed therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Evangelidou, Maria; Karamita, Maria; Vamvakas, Sotiris-Spyros; Szymkowski, David E; Probert, Lesley

    2014-05-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a valuable model for studying immunopathology in multiple sclerosis (MS) and for exploring the interface between autoimmune responses and CNS tissue that ultimately leads to lesion development. In this study, we measured gene expression in mouse spinal cord during myelin oligodendrocyte gp35-55 peptide-induced EAE, using quantitative RT-PCR, to identify gene markers that monitor individual hallmark pathological processes. We defined a small panel of genes whose longitudinal expression patterns provided insight into the timing, interrelationships, and mechanisms of individual disease processes and the efficacy of therapeutics for the treatment of MS. Earliest transcriptional changes were upregulation of Il17a and sharp downregulation of neuronal and oligodendrocyte marker genes preceding clinical disease onset, whereas neuroinflammatory markers progressively increased as symptoms and tissue lesions developed. EAE-induced gene-expression changes were not altered in mice deficient in IKK? in cells of the myeloid lineage compared with controls, but the administration of a selective inhibitor of soluble TNF to mice from the day of immunization delayed changes in the expression of innate inflammation, myelin, and neuron markers from the presymptomatic phase. Proof of principle that the gene panel shows drug screening potential was obtained using a well-established MS therapeutic, glatiramer acetate. Prophylactic treatment of mice with glatiramer acetate normalized gene marker expression, and this correlated with the level of therapeutic success. These results show that neurons and oligodendrocytes are highly sensitive to CNS-directed autoimmunity before the development of clinical symptoms and immunopathology and reveal a role for soluble TNF in mediating the earliest changes in gene expression. PMID:24683189

  8. Multiple predictor smoothing methods for sensitivity analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Curtis B. Storlie; J. C. Helton

    2005-01-01

    The use of multiple predictor smoothing methods in sampling-based sensitivity analyses of complex models is investigated. Specifically, sensitivity analysis procedures based on smoothing methods employing the stepwise application of the following nonparametric regression techniques are described: (i) locally weighted regression (LOESS), (ii) additive models (GAMs), (iii) projection pursuit regression (PP_REG), and (iv) recursive partitioning regression (RP_REG). The indicated procedures are

  9. Acquired Dysfibrinogenemia Secondary to Multiple Myeloma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roman Kotlín; Tomáš Riedel; Peter Salaj; Zuzana Reicheltová; Pavel Májek; Tarek Khaznadar; Jan E. Dyr

    2008-01-01

    Abnormal coagulation properties indicative of a dysfibrinogen were found in the plasma of a 72-year-old male with multiple myeloma (IgG?, stage IIIA). The patient had high paraprotein concentration (85.75 g\\/l) and prolonged thrombin time (76.8 s), activated partial thromboplastin time (39.5 s), prothrombin time (23.5 s) and reptilase time (72.0 s). The fibrinogen level was increased. The fibrin polymerization induced

  10. Binaries and Multiple Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horch, Elliott

    Binary and multiple stellar systems have importance in three main areas of astronomy and astrophysics. First, because of the relatively simple gravitational interaction at work in the case of binary stars, these systems provide a basic check on stellar structure and evolution theory since the masses may be determined through observation. When these masses can be linked to other properties of the two stars, such as luminosity, color, and radius, they can provide very stringent constraints on stellar models. Second, the statistics of binary and multiple star systems provide clues to star formation mechanisms and environmental effects in the galactic gravitational potential and in clusters. Although a number of good results have been obtained in nearby star clusters and associations, knowledge of the field population has been somewhat limited until recently by a lack of large, complete samples of binaries. However, there appears to be a great deal of promise in this area for the coming decade in part due to astrometric satellites such as Hipparcos and Gaia. Third, the binary scenario is invoked to explain several important types of astrophysical phenomena such as Type Ia supernovae, cataclysmic variables, and stellar x-ray sources. Since the first of these mentioned is a standard candle for the extragalactic distance scale, it may even be said binary stars play a minor role in field of cosmology. However, in this chapter, the focus will mainly be on normal stars in binary and multiple-stellar systems. The basic physics of binaries will be reviewed, and the observational methods in use today will be discussed together with their limitations and prospects for the future. Finally, an overview of the current science in the three main areas mentioned where binaries have a significant impact will be given.

  11. MRI appearance of multiple eccrine spiradenoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y-D Han; Y Huan; J-L Deng; Y-G Zhang; C H-S Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Multiple eccrine spiradenoma is one of the rarest tumours of the sweat gland. We report a case of multiple eccrine spiradenoma that was distributed in several parts of the body. On MRI the lesions presented with multiple dispersive foci with clear circumferences in the cutis and the subcutaneous tissue. The lesions showed low signal intensity on T1 weighted images, and

  12. Hypnosis creates multiple personality: Myth or reality?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bennett G. Braun

    1984-01-01

    Since before the turn of the century, multiple personality has been associated with hysteria and hypnosis. The myth that hypnosis can create multiple personality is examined in this paper by reviewing studies that have suggested or implied a casual link between hypnosis and multiple personality. While it is possible that personality fragments can appear under hypnosis, there is no evidence

  13. Multiplicative Dirac structures on Lie groups

    E-print Network

    Ortiz, Cristian

    2009-01-01

    We study multiplicative Dirac structures on Lie groups. We show that the characteristic foliation of a multiplicative Dirac structure is given by the cosets of a normal Lie subgroup and, whenever this subgroup is closed, the leaf space inherits the structure of a Poisson-Lie group. We also describe multiplicative Dirac structures on Lie groups infinitesimally.

  14. ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Modification of Multiple Sclerosis Phenotypes

    E-print Network

    Reich, David

    ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION Modification of Multiple Sclerosis Phenotypes by African Ancestry at HLA. Oksenberg, PhD Background: In those with multiple sclerosis (MS), Afri- can American individuals have a more ancestry at HLA correlated with dis- ability as measured by the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (P .001

  15. 1 -26/02/2008 Interfrences multiples

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ROADEF'08 1 - 26/02/2008 Interférences multiples et coloration d'hypergraphes Alexandre Gondran. Problématique 2. Interférences multiples / SINR 3. T-coloration d'hypergraphe 4. Résultats 5. Conclusions4=7 x3=12 - 86 dBm facteur de protection - 94 dBm Interférences multiples best serveur interfering

  16. Disintegrating Multiple Systems in Early Stellar Evolution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Reipurth

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of the multiplicity of 14 sources driving giant Herbig-Haro flows has revealed an observed binary frequency between 79% and 86%, of which half are higher order multiples. These sources represent the hitherto youngest sample of stars examined for binarity. I postulate that the dynamical decay of triple or multiple systems leads to strong outflow activity. It is well

  17. Optimal multiple-objective marketing strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen S. Bell; Gregory S. Carpenter

    1992-01-01

    Brand managers often design strategies to achieve multiple objectives, but how managers choose among alternatives and consequently how multiple objectives should be incorporated into models of marketing strategy have received little attention. This paper explores the incorporation of multiple objectives into models of optimal marketing strategies. We focus on one marketing strategy issue, defensive marketing strategy, and develop a multi-objective

  18. The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

  19. Multiple myeloma superimposed on chronic myelocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Derghazarian, C.; Whittemore, N. B.

    1974-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman with chronic myelocytic leukemia and multiple myeloma is described. Cases of acute leukemia complicating multiple myeloma have been reported in recent years, but to our knowledge this is the first case where multiple myeloma developed in a patient who had pre-existing chronic myelocytic leukemia. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2p1050-a PMID:4522851

  20. Spatio-temporal processing in multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcy S. Marx; James G. May; Janice L. Reed; Halsey H. Matteson; Henry J. L. Dyk; A. Jayaraman

    1984-01-01

    The processing of spatial and temporal detail was investigated in patients with multiple sclerosis. Normal observers and 13 patients with optic neuritis secondary to multiple sclerosis performed a battery of visual tests that included contrast sensitivity, temporal integration, evoked potentials, and visual masking. The multiple sclerosis patients exhibited losses of pattern processing, and these deficits became more noticeable when the

  1. Identifying the Multiple Intelligences of Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Joyce A.; Conti, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    One way of addressing individual differences among adult learners is to identify the Multiple Intelligences of the learner. Multiple Intelligences refers to the concept developed by Howard Gardner that challenges the traditional view of intelligence and explains the presence of nine different Multiple Intelligences. The purpose of this study was…

  2. Decision Support Systems Multiple Choice Structure

    E-print Network

    Decision Support Systems With Multiple Choice Structure Ingo Alth¨ofer Friedrich the machines. ``Triple Brain'' is a ``Decision Support System with Multiple Choice Structure'': Com­ puter of Decision Support Systems with Multiple Choice Structure. Key Words and Phrases: Triple Brain, 3­Hirn

  3. The Method of Multiple Working Hypotheses

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    T. C. Chamberlin

    This essay describes the problems that can develop while working with multiple hypotheses and presents ideas for solving these problems. Topics discussed include premature theory development, the lingering of ruling theories, developing multiple working hypotheses, vacillation, and the potential drawbacks of working with multiple hypotheses.

  4. Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Heungsun; Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Woodward, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis for exploring associations among multiple sets of functions. The proposed method includes functional canonical correlation analysis as a special case when only two sets of functions are considered. As in classical multiple-set canonical correlation analysis, computationally, the…

  5. THEORETICAL ADVANCES Robust automated multiple view inspection

    E-print Network

    of camera multiplicity or multi- ple views, a reconfigurable array for machine inspection (RAMVITHEORETICAL ADVANCES Robust automated multiple view inspection Luis Pizarro Ã? Domingo Mery Ã? Rafael Springer-Verlag London Limited 2007 Abstract Recently, Automated Multiple View Inspection (AMVI) has been

  6. Multiple-Beam Communications Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myhre, R. W.; Roberts, T. E.; Wong, W. C.

    1989-01-01

    System has both fixed-spot and scanning coverage. Advanced offset-fed spacecraft antenna systems operating in 30/20 GHz frequency bands developed to provide multiple-radiating fixed-spot and regional-coverage scanning beams for use on communications satellites. Operating at higher frequencies, provides alternate frequency bands for expansion of existing satellite services and achieving frequency reuse capability for conservation of frequency spectrum. 20-GHz transmitting antenna is offset-fed, dual-reflector configuration. 30-GHz receiving antenna has orthogonal polarized feeds, hyperbolic reflectors, and two subreflectors.

  7. Multiple mononeuropathy following cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Beniczky, Sándor; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Fabricius, Martin; Andersen, Kjeld V

    2009-01-01

    A 31-year-old man with acute-onset of left-sided weakness following the sniffing of cocaine was admitted with rhabdomyolysis. Neurophysiological studies showed axonal degeneration in 4/10 sensory and 3/8 motor nerves, and conduction block outside the typical compression-sites in 3/8 motor nerves. The findings are consistent with a diagnosis of multiple mononeuropathy. Ischaemia due to vasoconstriction is currently believed to be the cause of muscle necrosis following cocaine abuse and we hypothesise that it also explains the neuropathy in this case. PMID:21686808

  8. Caustics in special multiple lenses

    E-print Network

    V. Bozza

    2000-01-13

    Despite its mathematical complexity, the multiple gravitational lens can be studied in detail in every situation where a perturbative approach is possible. In this paper, we examine the caustics of a system with a lens very far from the others with respect to their Einstein radii, and a system where mutual distances between lenses are small compared to the Einstein radius of the total mass. Finally we review the case of a planetary system adding some new information (area of caustics, duality and higher order terms).

  9. Multiple imaging radiography at LNLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Antunes, A.; Safatle, A. M. V.; Barros, P. S. M.; Morelhão, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    An analyzer-based X-ray phase-contrast imaging (ABI) setup has been mounted at the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS) for multiple imaging radiography (MIR) purposes. The algorithm employed for treating the MIR data collected at LNLS is described, and its reliability in extracting the distinct types of contrast that can be obtained with MIR is demonstrated by analyzing a test sample (thin polyamide wire). As a practical application, the possibility of studying ophthalmic tissues, corneal sequestra in this case, via MIR is investigated.

  10. Multiple single-centered attractors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominic, Pramod; Mandal, Taniya; Tripathy, Prasanta K.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we study spherically symmetric single-centered attractors in supergravity in four dimensions. The attractor points are obtained by extremising the effective black hole potential in the moduli space. Both supersymmetric as well as non-supersymmetric attractors exist in mutually exclusive domains of the charge lattice. We construct axion free supersymmetric as well as non-supersymmetric multiple attractors in a simple two parameter model. We further obtain explicit examples of two distinct non-supersymmetric attractors in type IIA string theory compactified on K3 × T 2 carrying D0 - D4 - D6 charges. We compute the entropy of these attractors and analyse their stability in detail.

  11. Multiple personality, a case study

    E-print Network

    Musick, William Daniel Anderson

    1976-01-01

    !eni treaiment co, isisted of videolripe theropy in which the two persor. alities of iie su!iieet were videotapea during therapy sessions cnd sub~rquently shovrn bcc? io her In - dd', ;on. a three-step behcivioral oroqrairn designer! to reinforce the female... appear io be the most coinmon and must widely used methods of treatment for multipl l, ersonalities. !nsul!n sh&x'k, electrcconvulsive shock, so&'iurn pentothal, chemotherapy, and beh&ivio" therapy have oh b(ien used with some aegree of success...

  12. Smart card multiple function badge

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Smart cards are credit card-sized computers with integrated data storage, an operating system to manage the data, and built-in security features that protect the data. They are used to distribute information to remote sites, providing the same or greater reliability, data integrity, and information security than a network system. However, smart cards may provide greater functionality at a lower cost than network systems. The US Department of Energy Hanford Site is developing the smart card to be used as a multiple function identification badge that will service various data management requirements on the Site. This paper discusses smart card technology and the proposed Hanford Site applications.

  13. Ermakov systems with multiplicative noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-López, E.; Espinoza, P. B.; Gallegos, A.; Rosu, H. C.

    2014-05-01

    Using the Euler-Maruyama numerical method, we present calculations of the Ermakov-Lewis invariant and the dynamic, geometric, and total phases for several cases of stochastic parametric oscillators, including the simplest case of the stochastic harmonic oscillator. The results are compared with the corresponding numerical noiseless cases to evaluate the effect of the noise. Besides, the noiseless cases are analytic and their analytic solutions are briefly presented. The Ermakov-Lewis invariant is not affected by the multiplicative noise in the three particular examples presented in this work, whereas there is a shift effect in the case of the phases.

  14. Multiple hypothesis testing in genomics.

    PubMed

    Goeman, Jelle J; Solari, Aldo

    2014-05-20

    This paper presents an overview of the current state of the art in multiple testing in genomics data from a user's perspective. We describe methods for familywise error control, false discovery rate control and false discovery proportion estimation and confidence, both conceptually and practically, and explain when to use which type of error rate. We elaborate on the assumptions underlying the methods and discuss pitfalls in the interpretation of results. In our discussion, we take into account the exploratory nature of genomics experiments, looking at selection of genes before or after testing, and at the role of validation experiments. PMID:24399688

  15. Myelin peptides in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Grau-López, L; Raïch, D; Ramo-Tello, C; Naranjo-Gómez, M; Dàvalos, A; Pujol-Borrell, R; Borràs, F E; Martínez-Cáceres, E

    2009-07-01

    The development of specific therapies for organ-specific autoimmune diseases requires the identification of relevant immunogenic epitopes, recognized by both pathogenic T cells and autoantibodies. Here, we review the most relevant studies focused in the identification of peptides in multiple sclerosis (MS) and the distinct T cell reactivity induced in patients compared to controls. Only a few studies reported significant differences in terms of T cell reactivity to them. The current knowledge on this issue, and the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities opened by the identification of pathogenic MS epitopes are discussed in this paper. PMID:19393199

  16. Multiple skeletal anomalies in the "13q-" syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chemke, J; Fishel, E; Zalish, M; Sagiv, M

    1978-05-22

    A patient with the "13q-" syndrome is reported. The typical association of congenital malformations was found. Multiple and unusual skeletal anomalies included absent thumbs, club-feet, coxa vara, diastasis of the pubic symphisis and extensive spina bifida occulta. These appear to be part of the multiple system involvement due to the chromosomal deletion. Chromosome analysis is indicated in patients with multiple skeletal anomalies, especially if the thumbs and radial axis are involved. PMID:668715

  17. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H. Bert (Ames, IA); Rosenberg, Eli I. (Ames, IA); Meyer, W. Thomas (Ames, IA); Gorbics, Mark S. (Ames, IA); Thomas, William D. (Boone, IA); McKay, Roy L. (Ames, IA); Homer, Jr., John F. (Ames, IA)

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler.

  18. JAWS multiple Doppler derived winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elmore, Kimberly L.

    1987-01-01

    An elementary working knowledge is given of the advantages and limitations of the multiple Doppler radar analyses that have recently become available from the Joint Airport Weather Studies (JAWS) project. What Doppler radar is and what it does is addressed and the way Doppler radars were used in the JAWS project to gather wind shear data is described. The working definition of wind shear used is winds that affect aircraft flight over a span of 15 to 45 seconds and turbulence is defined as air motion that cause abrupt aircraft motions. The JAWS data current available contain no turbulence data. The concept of multiple Doppler analysis and the geometry of how it works are described, followed by an explanation of how data gathered in radar space are interpolated to a common Cartesian coordinate system and the limitations involved. A discussion is also presented of the analysis grid and how it was constructed. What the user actually gets is discussed, followed by a discussion of the expected errors in the three orthogonal wind components. Finally, a discussion is presented of why JAWS data are significant.

  19. Developmental thermography: multiple aspect thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Akinori; Katoh, Kazuichi

    1993-09-01

    Multiple aspect thermography (MAT) is a kind of developmental thermography. MAT was designed in order to supplement the shortage of the number of coverage aspects in triple aspect thermography (TAT). TAT allows simultaneous display of numbers of thermograms on various selected aspects of the subject in CRT frame. This paper reports on MAT methodology and discusses some aspects of the problems and the special points of this technique. The data on the thermal images on the entire subject can be recorded in one revolution of the subject. After the measurement is completed all over the subject, thermograms of any selected aspects is composed in a CRT frame in multiple image arrangement by recalling the recorded thermal data using the multi-video processor. Strictly speaking, based on the thermography on the moving target in MAT, distortion and smoothing of the thermal pattern in MAT are essentially unavoidable. The shorter the frame time of the thermocamera is, the less the problems in MAT can be reduced. However, the problems in MAT are negligible under the usual condition for clinical application of MAT.

  20. Sequential Monte Carlo multiple testing

    PubMed Central

    Sandve, Geir Kjetil; Nygård, Ståle

    2011-01-01

    Motivation: In molecular biology, as in many other scientific fields, the scale of analyses is ever increasing. Often, complex Monte Carlo simulation is required, sometimes within a large-scale multiple testing setting. The resulting computational costs may be prohibitively high. Results: We here present MCFDR, a simple, novel algorithm for false discovery rate (FDR) modulated sequential Monte Carlo (MC) multiple hypothesis testing. The algorithm iterates between adding MC samples across tests and calculating intermediate FDR values for the collection of tests. MC sampling is stopped either by sequential MC or based on a threshold on FDR. An essential property of the algorithm is that it limits the total number of MC samples whatever the number of true null hypotheses. We show on both real and simulated data that the proposed algorithm provides large gains in computational efficiency. Availability: MCFDR is implemented in the Genomic HyperBrowser (http://hyperbrowser.uio.no/mcfdr), a web-based system for genome analysis. All input data and results are available and can be reproduced through a Galaxy Pages document at: http://hyperbrowser.uio.no/mcfdr/u/sandve/p/mcfdr. Contact: geirksa@ifi.uio.no PMID:21998154

  1. Cellular immunotherapy for multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Jacalyn; Avigan, David

    2008-09-01

    Multiple myeloma is a life-threatening haematological malignancy for which standard therapy is inadequate. Autologous stem cell transplantation results in effective cytoreduction, but patients subsequently relapse from sites of chemotherapy-resistant disease. Allogeneic transplantation may result in durable responses due to anti-tumour immunity mediated by donor lymphocytes. However, morbidity and mortality related to graft-vs-host disease remains a challenge. A promising area of investigation is the development of immunotherapeutic approaches that target and eliminate myeloma cells more selectively. A variety of tumour-associated antigens have been identified in myeloma cells that may be targeted selectively by host immunity. Vaccination strategies targeting single antigens and whole-cell approaches, which have the advantage of presenting patient-specific and potentially unidentified antigens to immune effector cells, have shown promise in clinical studies. In addition, the use of monoclonal antibodies has been evaluated in preclinical and clinical studies. Effector cell dysfunction and the increased number of regulatory T cells in patients with malignancy may limit the efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches. Strategies to improve upon immunotherapy for multiple myeloma involve the depletion of T regulatory cells, combining active and passive immunotherapy, the use of cytokine adjuvants, and using immunotherapy in conjunction with autologous and allogeneic transplantation. PMID:18790455

  2. Multiple protocol fluorometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew S. (Shoreham, NY); Falkowski, Paul G. (Stony Brook, NY)

    2000-09-19

    A multiple protocol fluorometer measures photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton and higher plants using actively stimulated fluorescence protocols. The measured parameters include spectrally-resolved functional and optical absorption cross sections of PSII, extent of energy transfer between reaction centers of PSII, F.sub.0 (minimal), F.sub.m (maximal) and F.sub.v (variable) components of PSII fluorescence, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, size of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool, and the kinetics of electron transport between Q.sub.a and PQ pool and between PQ pool and PSI. The multiple protocol fluorometer, in one embodiment, is equipped with an excitation source having a controlled spectral output range between 420 nm and 555 nm and capable of generating flashlets having a duration of 0.125-32 .mu.s, an interval between 0.5 .mu.s and 2 seconds, and peak optical power of up to 2 W/cm.sup.2. The excitation source is also capable of generating, simultaneous with the flashlets, a controlled continuous, background illumination.

  3. Multiple Sclerosis Society (Grant Tracker) Multiple Sclerosis Society (Grant Tracker) applicant guide June 2012 Page 1

    E-print Network

    Multiple Sclerosis Society (Grant Tracker) Multiple Sclerosis Society (Grant Tracker) applicant guide June 2012 Page 1 2012 INTERNAL USER GUIDE A Guide to the Multiple Sclerosis Society Grant Tracker application system A Quick Guide for applicants applying for funding from the MS Society Multiple Sclerosis

  4. A multiple-template approach to protein threading

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jian; Xu, Jinbo

    2011-01-01

    Most threading methods predict the structure of a protein using only a single template. Due to the increasing number of solved structures, a protein without solved structure is very likely to have more than one similar template structures. Therefore, a natural question to ask is if we can improve modeling accuracy using multiple templates. This paper describes a new multiple-template threading method to answer this question. At the heart of this multiple-template threading method is a novel probabilistic-consistency algorithm that can accurately align a single protein sequence simultaneously to multiple templates. Experimental results indicate that our multiple-template method can improve pairwise sequence-template alignment accuracy and generate models with better quality than single-template models even if they are built from the best single templates (P-value<10-6) while many popular multiple sequence/structure alignment tools fail to do so. The underlying reason is that our probabilistic-consistency algorithm can generate accurate multiple sequence/template alignments. In another word, without an accurate multiple sequence/template alignment the modeling accuracy cannot be improved by simply using multiple templates to increase alignment coverage. Blindly tested on the CASP9 targets with more than one good template structures, our method outperforms all other CASP9 servers except two (Zhang-Server and QUARK of the same group). Our probabilistic-consistency algorithm can possibly be extended to align multiple protein/RNA sequences and structures. PMID:21465564

  5. A multiple-objective optimal exploration strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Exploration for natural resources is accomplished through partial sampling of extensive domains. Such imperfect knowledge is subject to sampling error. Complex systems of equations resulting from modelling based on the theory of correlated random fields are reduced to simple analytical expressions providing global indices of estimation variance. The indices are utilized by multiple objective decision criteria to find the best sampling strategies. The approach is not limited by geometric nature of the sampling, covers a wide range in spatial continuity and leads to a step-by-step procedure. ?? 1988.

  6. Students' Difficulties With Multiple Representations in Introductory Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai; Rebello, N. Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Research in physics education indicates that the use of multiple representations in teaching and learning helps students become better problem-solvers. We report on a study to investigate students' difficulties in solving mechanics problems presented in multiple representations. We conducted teaching/learning interviews with 20 students in a…

  7. Clustering of multiple sclerosis in Galion, Ohio, 1982-1985

    SciTech Connect

    Ingalls, T.H. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that the outbreak of 30-40 cases of multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating syndromes in Galion, Ohio, USA, during 1982-1985 was related to an excess concentration of heavy-metal wastes, especially of cadmium and chromium in sewage and river water. Both multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis were diagnosed by board-certified neurologists.

  8. Multiple Trajectories of Successful Aging of Older and Younger Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan; Jones, Bobby L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to apply group-based trajectory analysis to identify multiple successful aging trajectories by multiple indicators and to examine the factors related to successful aging among the elderly population in Taiwan. Design and Methods: Nation-representative longitudinal data collected from 1993 to 2007 and…

  9. The Impact of Multiple Fluency Interventions on a Single Subject

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morra, Jennifer; Tracey, Dianne H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of multiple fluency interventions on a single subject in grade three. Fluency interventions, including choral reading, echo reading, repeated reading, audio book modeling, and teacher modeling were implemented over a period of eight weeks. Results indicated that using multiple fluency strategies, rather…

  10. Multiple Predictors of Asian American Children's School Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Sung Seek; Lee, Joohi

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: A structural equation model (SEM) and multiple indicators and multiple causes (MIMIC) model were used to test family factors, parent psychological well-being, parent-child home activity, and parent school involvement in relation to children's school achievement. Data for this study were drawn from the Early Childhood…

  11. Multiple fluid-filled bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, Laurent; Javier, Rose-Marie; Eichler, Francoise; Zollner, Goerg; Sibilia, Jean

    2010-03-01

    Bone metastases are usually seen on imaging studies as lytic lesions and less often as sclerotic or mixed lesions. We report an exceedingly unusual case of breast cancer identified after magnetic resonance imaging showed bone metastases with fluid-fluid levels in the spine and sacrum. Bone images containing fluid-fluid levels are usually solitary abnormalities produced by aneurismal bone cysts. The fluid-fluid level is due to bleeding within the tumor followed by layering of the blood components based on density differences. Only two other cases of bone metastases with multiple fluid-fluid levels have been reported. Although fluid-fluid levels are exceedingly rare, clinicians should be aware that they might indicate a malignancy, particularly when they are multiple. PMID:20194045

  12. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  13. Quantifying the relative importance and potential interactive effects of multiple indices when predicting fire risk and severity in the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyser, A.; Westerling, A. L.

    2010-12-01

    A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has interrupted the fire regimes of many forest types. This interruption has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function and led to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. This project investigated the potential for predicting forest fire severity across the Western US. Identifying areas at risk for fires whose severity is outside the natural fire regime will allow for targeted fuel reduction and mitigation to preserve ecosystem integrity. Our objective was to examine fire regime change, vegetation, fuels, and climate in terms of their utility in predicting forest fire severity in the Western US. How do these factors act separately to influence fire severity and what is their relative importance as co-determinants of fire severity? Is fire severity controlled more by bottom-up (vegetation and fuels) or top-down (climate) factors? We have a mapped fire severity dataset of 4591 large fires spanning twenty-four years (1984-2007) for eleven western states (AZ, CA, CO, ID, MT, NM, NV, OR, UT, WA, WY) as well as a suite of topographic and vegetation data layers from the Landfire project. Our hydro-climate dataset was developed using the VIC hydrologic model with the LDAS parameterization; we thus used the LDAS 1/8° grid to sample our fire severity, topographic, and vegetation datasets. Over our entire dataset, high severity fires make up a small percentage of the overall record. More than 75% of large fires have < 17% of the total fire area classified as high severity. Few years stand out with large fractions of high fire severity across multiple western states; 2002 is one where 6/11 states had significantly more high severity fire area than usual. Regional similarities in inter-annual high severity fire fraction and overall magnitude of high severity fraction occur. For instance, mean annual high severity fraction in large fires in the Southwestern US never reaches 20%. However, mean annual high severity for the Northern Rocky Mountains regularly reaches 30-50%. Initial analyses of the relationship between hydro-climate variables and high fractional fire severity show a number of strong relationships. High severity fraction is positively correlated to topographic complexity, Spring snowpack, and cumulative precipitation for the 12-month prior period and the 12-month period ending 6-months prior to the month of the fire. High severity fraction is negatively correlated to summer moisture deficit, average spring temperature, and cumulative adjusted moisture deficit for 12 months prior to the month of fire and the 12-month period ending 6 months prior to the fire. These initial correlations counter our hypothesis that high severity fire would be positively correlated to drier conditions. This hypothesis is based the importance of fuel moisture to fire severity and also previous results for California. We will present a final predictive model of fire severity as well as analysis as to whether patterns observed are driven more by bottom-up or top-down controls.

  14. Multiple differential-aperture microscopy.

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, J.-S.; Isa, S.; Greene, V.; Broadwater, O.; Liu, W.; Ice, G. E.; ORNL; Soongsil Univ.; South Carolina State Univ.

    2007-01-01

    Differential-aperture X-ray microscopy (DAXM) is a powerful approach to 3D tomography with particular relevance to X-ray microdiffraction. With DAXM, scattering from submicron volumes can be resolved. However, the method is intrinsically a scanning technique where every resolved volume element (voxel) requires at least one area-detector readout. Previous applications of DAXM have used a single wire for knife-edge step profiling. Here, we demonstrate a way to accelerate DAXM measurements using multiple wires. A proof-of-principle experiment with a three-wire prototype showed that the speed of measurements can be tripled, but careful calibrations of wires will be required to maintain the spatial accuracy. In addition, related possibilities for accelerating measurements are briefly discussed.

  15. Lightweight multiple output converter development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisch, J. J.; Martinelli, R. M.

    1978-01-01

    A high frequency, multiple output power conditioner was developed and breadboarded using an eight-stage capacitor diode voltage multiplier to provide +1200 Vdc, and a three-stage for -350 Vdc. In addition, two rectifier bridges were capacitively coupled to the eight-stage multiplier to obtain 0.5 and 0.65 a dc constant current outputs referenced to +1200 Vdc. Total power was 120 watts, with an overall efficiency of 85 percent at the 80 kHz operating frequency. All outputs were regulated to three percent or better, with complete short circuit protection. The power conditioner component weight and efficiency were compared to the equivalent four outputs of the 10 kHz conditioner for the 8 cm ion engine. Weight reduction for the four outputs was 557 grams; extrapolated in the same ratio to all nine outputs, it would be 1100 to 1400 grams.

  16. 2014 multiple sclerosis therapeutic update.

    PubMed

    Cree, Bruce A C

    2014-04-01

    Rapid advances are occurring in multiple sclerosis disease modifying therapies. Recent therapeutic advances include modifications to improve tolerability of existing products (e.g. interferon beta and glatiramer acetate), development of novel anti-neuroinflammatory medications (e.g. fingolimod, teriflunomide and dimethyl fumarate, daclizumab, alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab) and investigation of treatments in progressive MS (e.g. natalizumab, mastinib, natalizumab, siponimod). The impact of vitamin D supplementation on the disease course in relapsing MS patients is also being studied in several clinical trials. This article reviews the current state of the field with a forward look to the next phase of MS research that could focus on strategies to promote remyelination and provide neuronal protection. PMID:24707333

  17. Multiple-stage integrating accelerometer

    DOEpatents

    Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1986-01-01

    An accelerometer assembly is provided for use in activating a switch in response to multiple acceleration pulses in series. The accelerometer includes a housing forming a chamber. An inertial mass or piston is slidably disposed in the chamber and spring biased toward a first or reset position. A damping system is also provided to damp piston movement in response to first and subsequent acceleration pulses. Additionally, a cam, including a Z-shaped slot, and cooperating follower pin slidably received therein are mounted to the piston and the housing. The middle or cross-over leg of the Z-shaped slot cooperates with the follower pin to block or limit piston movement and prevent switch activation in response to a lone acceleration pulse. The switch of the assembly is only activated after two or more separate acceleration pulses are sensed and the piston reaches the end of the chamber opposite the reset position.

  18. Standardized multiple output power supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragusa, E. V.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive program to develop a prototype model of a standardized multiple output power supply for use in space flight applications is described. The prototype unit was tested and evaluated to assure that the design would provide near optimum performance for the planned application. The prototype design used a dc-to-dc converter incorporating reqenerative current feedback with a time-ratio controlled duty cycle to achieve high efficiency over a wide variation of input voltage and output loads. The packaging concept uses a mainframe capable of accommodating up to four inverter/regulator modules with one common input filter and housekeeping module. Each inverter/regulator module provides a maximum of 100 watts or 10 amperes. Each module is adaptable to operate at any voltage between 4.0 volts and 108 volts. The prototype unit contains +5, + or - 15 and +28 volt modules.

  19. Suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Stenager, Elsebeth Nylev; Jensen, Børge; Stenager, Maria; Stenager, Kirstina; Stenager, Egon

    2011-10-01

    The purposes of the study were (1) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Denmark and compare the risk to the background population in the County of Funen, Denmark; (2) to estimate the risk of suicide attempts in MS patients receiving immunomodulating therapy compared with untreated patients. The Danish MS Registry, the Danish MS Treatment Registry and the Suicide Attempt Registry are linked and merged together using a person identification number given to all persons residing in Denmark. Among 404 MS patients, 15 patients had attempted suicide, although no increased risk for suicide attempts was found in MS patients. No difference in number of suicide attempts in treated and untreated patients was found. PMID:21511689

  20. Professional skepticism about multiple personality.

    PubMed

    Dell, P F

    1988-09-01

    Therapists who have treated patients with multiple personality disorder (MPD) were surveyed about professional skepticism regarding the existence of MPD. Of these therapists, 78% reported that they had encountered intense skepticism from fellow professionals. Much of this skepticism appears to be explainable in terms of a) the lengthy decline of psychiatry's interest in dissociation, b) underappreciation of the prevalence of individuals with dissociative ability, and c) misconceptions about the natural clinical presentation of patients with MPD. These factors, however, could not explain the behavior of those skeptics who deliberately interfered with the clinical care of patients and who engaged in repeated acts of harassment against the patient and/or therapist. Half of the survey respondents reported that they had encountered these latter forms of extreme skepticism. PMID:3418322

  1. [The epidemiology of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kenshi; Takahashi, Haruka

    2015-01-01

    We investigated epidemiology of multiple myeloma (MM), referring to recent papers. This article includes three points: 1) the progression rate of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) to MM, 2) the effect of radiation to prevalence of MM, and 3) secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM. The risk of progression from MGUS to MM is 1% per year. The researches of atomic bomb showed that there is no increase of risk of MM after radiation exposure. In contrast, studies investigating workers in nuclear power plants point out that radiation exposure over 50 mSv increases risk of MM. The incidence of secondary malignancy after chemotherapy used to treat MM was about 5%. This article will help to review recent researches about epidemiology of MM. PMID:25626296

  2. Hereditary Multiple Exostoses with Pseudoaneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Hadidy, Azmy M. [Jordan University Hospital, University of Jordan, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Jordan)], E-mail: ahadidy@ju.edu.jo; Al-Smady, Moa'ath M. [Jordan University Hospital, University of Jordan, Department of Vascular Surgery (Jordan); Haroun, Azmi A. [Jordan University Hospital, University of Jordan, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Jordan); Hamamy, Hanan A. [National Institute for Diabetes Endocrinology and Genetics (Jordan); Ghoul, Suha M. [Jordan University Hospital, University of Jordan, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Jordan); Shennak, Akram O. [Jordan University Hospital, University of Jordan, Department of Orthopedic Surgery (Jordan)

    2007-06-15

    A 16-year-old male patient with hereditary multiple exostoses (HME) was found to have a pseudoaneurysm of the left popliteal artery caused by osteochondroma in the lower femur. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography without the need to perform an angiogram. The osteochondroma was excised and the popliteal artery was repaired with a saphenous graft. Vascular complications are extremely rare in HME, pseudoaneurysm being the most common and mostly located in the popliteal artery. This complication should be considered in young HME patients with a mass at the knee region. The radiological spectrum of investigations allows the diagnosis of this complication with proper and less invasive management procedures for the patient.

  3. Genetic heterogeneity of multiple exostoses

    SciTech Connect

    Legeai-Mallet, L.; Munnich, A.; Le Merrer, M. [Inserm U393 Hopital des Enfants-Malades, Paris (France)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Hereditary multiple exostoses (EXT, MIM 133700) is an autosomal dominant bony disorder characterized by the formation of cartilage-capped juxta-epiphyseal prominences on the long bones. Three disease genes, mapping to chromosomes 8q24 and 11 have been recently localized, supporting genetic heterogeneity of this condition. We have refined the genetic mapping of the chromosome 19p locus using a series of six families unlinked to chromosomes 8 or 11. Several genes expressed during cartilage growth and located in this region have been tested as candidate genes, namely zinc finger proteins, protein kinases, JunD and JunB. Hitherto no major rearrangement of these genes has been detected in EXT families linked to chromosome 19p.

  4. 2014 Multiple Sclerosis Therapeutic Update

    PubMed Central

    Cree, Bruce A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid advances are occurring in multiple sclerosis disease modifying therapies. Recent therapeutic advances include modifications to improve tolerability of existing products (e.g. interferon beta and glatiramer acetate), development of novel anti-neuroinflammatory medications (e.g. fingolimod, teriflunomide and dimethyl fumarate, daclizumab, alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab) and investigation of treatments in progressive MS (e.g. natalizumab, mastinib, natalizumab, siponimod). The impact of vitamin D supplementation on the disease course in relapsing MS patients is also being studied in several clinical trials. This article reviews the current state of the field with a forward look to the next phase of MS research that could focus on strategies to promote remyelination and provide neuronal protection. PMID:24707333

  5. Historical descriptions of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2005-01-01

    Modern understanding of multiple sclerosis is firmly founded on the labours of many neuroscientists of the last two centuries. The cost of the disease to its victims is nowhere better displayed than in their personal accounts of their illnesses. Two figures stand out: the high-born aristocrat, Augustus D'Este and his diaries of the early 19th century and the courageous if histrionic Bruce Frederick Cummings in the early 20th century. This paper cannot do justice to their major contributions, but seeks to summarise them to give the flavour of their symptoms, disabilities and the way they were regarded by doctors and the people at large. The early medical studies of Carswell, Cruveilhier, Charcot and many others are briefly reviewed as relevant settings to these personal histories. PMID:16103678

  6. Novel therapy in multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Agustin; Neri, Natividad; Nambo, M Jesús; Cleto, Sergio; Castañeda, Claudia; González, Martha; Talavera, Alejandra; Huerta-Guzmán, Judith

    2005-10-01

    Treatment in patients with multiple myeloma remain to be defined. Younger patients (defined as a cut-off level < 65 years old) will be treated with chemotherapy and transplant procedures. However, most patients > 65 years old are not candidates for this therapeutic approach and the use of intensive chemotherapy could be associated to severe toxicity. We developed an new, not-cytotoxic regimen with dexamethasone 30 mg/m(2), iv, days 1 to 4, all trans retinoic acid 45 mg/m(2), po, days 5 to 14 and interferon alfa 2a 4.5 MU, sc, daily, days 5 to 14 (DAI regimen) administered every 28 days in number of 6 cycles, at this point patients were restaging, if they showed complete response, objective response or partial response they were conducted to received thalidomide 100-200 mg po, daily and dexamethasone 10 mg/2, po days 1 to 4 at monthly intervals, for 18 months. Forty one patients were enrolled in an Phase II study. In an intent to treat analysis all patients were evaluable. Complete response was observed in 18 cases (43%), objective response in 10 patients (24%) and partial response in 5 patients (12%), overall response rate was 80%. Eight patients were considered failures. At an median of 36 months, no relapse of progression disease has been observed, thus actuarial curves at 3-years showed that event free survival is 100% and overall survival is 91%. Toxicity was mild, all patients received the planned dose in time. This regimen appear to be useful in older patients with multiple myeloma, the response rate is higher and toxicity was mild. Controlled clinical trials comparing with conventional chemotherapy will be conducted to define the role of this therapeutic approach. PMID:16133792

  7. Improving Multiple Fault Diagnosability using Possible Conflicts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Pulido, Belarmino

    2012-01-01

    Multiple fault diagnosis is a difficult problem for dynamic systems. Due to fault masking, compensation, and relative time of fault occurrence, multiple faults can manifest in many different ways as observable fault signature sequences. This decreases diagnosability of multiple faults, and therefore leads to a loss in effectiveness of the fault isolation step. We develop a qualitative, event-based, multiple fault isolation framework, and derive several notions of multiple fault diagnosability. We show that using Possible Conflicts, a model decomposition technique that decouples faults from residuals, we can significantly improve the diagnosability of multiple faults compared to an approach using a single global model. We demonstrate these concepts and provide results using a multi-tank system as a case study.

  8. Initial Results from the BRAHMS Multiplicity Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, H.

    2000-10-01

    The BRAHMS Multiplicity Array is one of three systems used to characterize the centrality of RHIC collisions at the BRAHMS experiment. Together, these systems, which also include the Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) and Beam-Beam Counter arrays, provide a global characterization of particle multiplicities, with the Multiplicity Array (-2.2multiplicity distributions over a large range of pseudorapidity ?, and the ZDC measuring neutron distributions along the beam axis. The Multiplicity Array consists of an inner barrel of 24 modestly segmented Si Strip detectors and an outer barrel of 38 plastic scintillator tiles in a collinear arrangement about the beam axis. This talk will discuss some of the physics to be explored with the Multiplicity Array and present initial results obtained with the array during the first RHIC running period.

  9. Quantifying the power of multiple event interpretations

    E-print Network

    Chien, Yang-Ting; Krohn, David; Marantan, Andrew; Mateos, David Lopez; Schwartz, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    A number of methods have been proposed recently which exploit multiple highly-correlated interpretations of events, or of jets within an event. For example, Qjets reclusters a jet multiple times and telescoping jets uses multiple cone sizes. Previous work has employed these methods in pseudo-experimental analyses and found that, with a simplified statistical treatment, they give sizable improvements over traditional methods. In this paper, the improvement gain from multiple event interpretations is explored with methods much closer to those used in real experiments. To this end, we derive a generalized extended maximum likelihood procedure. We study the significance improvement in Higgs to bb with both this method and the simplified method from previous analysis. With either method, we find that using multiple jet radii can provide substantial benefit over a single radius. Another concern we address is that multiple event interpretations might be exploiting similar information to that already present in the s...

  10. Tracking multiple topics for finding interesting articles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond K. Pon; Alfonso F. Cardenas; David Buttler; Terence Critchlow

    2007-01-01

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on

  11. Tracking Multiple Topics for Finding Interesting Articles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R K Pon; A F Cardenas; D J Buttler; T J Critchlow

    2008-01-01

    We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on

  12. Multiple acousto-optic q-switch

    DOEpatents

    Deason, Vance A.

    1993-12-07

    An improved dynamic moire interferometer comprised of a lasing medium providing a plurality of beams of coherent light, a multiple q-switch producing multiple trains of 100,000 or more pulses per second, a combining means collimating multiple trains of pulses into substantially a single train and directing beams to specimen gratings affixed to a test material, and a controller, triggering and sequencing the emission of the pulses with the occurrence and recording of a dynamic loading event.

  13. Evaluating multiple coordinated windows for programming workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shneiderman, B.; Grantham, C.; Norman, K.; Rogers, J.; Roussopoulos, N.

    1983-01-01

    Programmers might benefit from larger screens with multiple windows or multiple screens, especially if convenient coordination among screens are arranged. Uses for multiple coordinated displays in a programmers workstation are explored. Initial efforts focus on the potential applications, a command language for coordinating the displays, and the psychological basis for effective utilization so as to avoid information overload. Subsequent efforts will be devoted to implementing the concepts and performing controlled psychologically oriented experiments to validate the hypotheses.

  14. Decimal Multiplication Via Carry-Save Addition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Erle; Michael J. Schulte

    2003-01-01

    Decimal multiplication is important in many commercial applications including financial analysis, banking, tax calculation, currency conversion, insurance, and accounting. This paper presents two novel designs for fixed-point decimal multiplication that utilize decimal carry-save addition to reduce the critical path delay. First, a multiplier that stores a reduced number of multiplicand multiples and uses decimal carry-save addition in the iterative por-

  15. Evolution of multiple supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, Evgenii O.; Nath, Biman B.; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Heating of the interstellar medium (ISM) by multiple supernova (SN) explosions is at the heart of producing galaxy-scale outflows in starburst galaxies. Standard models of outflows assume a high efficiency of SNe in heating the gas to X-ray emitting temperatures and filling the central region of starburst with hot gas, in order to launch vigorous outflows. We use hydrodynamical simulations to study the efficiency of multiple SNe in heating the ISM and filling the volume with gas of high temperatures. We argue that it is important for SN remnants to have a large filling factor and a large heating efficiency. For this, they have to be clustered in space and time, and keep exploding until the hot gas percolates through the whole region, in order to compensate for the radiative loss. In the case of a limited number of SNe, we find that although the filling factor can be large, the heating efficiency declines after reaching a large value. In the case of a continuous series of SNe, the hot gas (T ? 3 × 106 K) can percolate through the whole region after the total volume filling factor reaches a threshold of ˜0.3. The efficiency of heating the gas to X-ray temperatures can be ?0.1 after this percolation epoch, which occurs after a period of ?10 Myr for a typical starburst SN rate density of ?SN ? 10-9 pc-3 yr-1 and gas density of n ? 10 cm-3 in starburst nuclei regions. This matches the recent observations of a time delay of similar order between the onset of star formation and galactic outflows. The efficiency to heat gas up to X-ray temperatures (?106.5 K) roughly scales as ? _SN^{0.2} n^{-0.6}. For a typical SN rate density and gas density in starburst nuclei, the heating efficiency is ˜0.15, also consistent with previous interpretations from X-ray observations. We discuss the implications of our results with regard to observational diagnostics of ionic ratios and emission measures in starburst nuclei regions.

  16. Low-multiplicity Burst Search at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    E-print Network

    Chen, Min

    Results are reported from a search for low-multiplicity neutrino bursts in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Such bursts could indicate the detection of a nearby core-collapse supernova explosion. The data were taken from ...

  17. Phenylketonuria - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Phenylketonuria - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Phenylketonuria or PKU English (Arabic) ???? ????? ??????? -- ??? ...

  18. MRSA - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enable JavaScript. MRSA - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) ... ???????? ???????????? - ??????? Multimedia Patient Education ... (Bosanski) MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) MRSA (meticilin rezistentni ...

  19. Children's Health - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... please enable JavaScript. Children's Health - Multiple Languages Bosnian (Bosanski) Spanish (español) Bosnian (Bosanski) Taking a Temperature Mjerenje temperature - Bosanski (Bosnian) Bilingual ...

  20. Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript. Cesarean Section - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Traditional (????) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) ... ??????? ???????? - ??????? Multimedia Patient Education Institute Bosnian (Bosanski) Your Recovery After Cesarean Birth Vaš Oporavak Nakon ...

  1. Diabetes Medicines - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diabetes Medicines - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) ...

  2. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Postpartum Depression - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Bosnian (Bosanski) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Marshallese ( ...

  3. Neurologic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript. Neurologic Diseases - Multiple Languages Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) ... ???? (Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) ... EEG (Électroencéphalogramme) - français (French) Bilingual ...

  4. Allergy - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multiple Languages Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) ... Chinese - Traditional) PDF Chinese Community Health Resource Center French (français) Allergies Allergies - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health ...

  5. Kidney Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multiple Languages Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) ... ???? (Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) 24-Hour Urine Test Test d'urine ...

  6. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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    ... enable JavaScript. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) ... ???????? ??? ?????? - ??????? Bilingual Health Information Translations French (français) Barium Enema Lavement baryté - français (French) Bilingual ...

  7. Swallowing Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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    ... Multiple Languages Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) ... ???? (Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Barium Swallow Déglutition barytée - français (French) Bilingual ...

  8. Fractures - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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    ... Fractures - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) ... Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases French (français) Bone Fractures Fractures osseuses - français (French) Bilingual ...

  9. Back Injuries - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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    ... Multiple Languages Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali ( ... ???? (Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Back Health and Safety Santé et sécurité ...

  10. Rehabilitation - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

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  11. Multiplicative Expansion of Microvascular Network: Intussusceptive Angiogenesis

    Cancer.gov

    Meetings & Events Home Agenda Speaker Biosketches Abstracts Logistics Contact Abstracts Multiplicative Expansion of Microvascular Network: Intussusceptive Angiogenesis Steven J. Mentzer, MD  [ View bio ] (Harvard Medical School, Boston,

  12. Hemorrhoids - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

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  13. Arthritis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Simplified (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian ( ... Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Arthritis Arthrite - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

  14. Colonic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript. Colonic Diseases - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian ( ... ??? ?????? - ??????? Bilingual Health Information Translations French (français) Barium Enema Lavement baryté - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

  15. Thalassemia - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Thalassemia - Multiple Languages Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) Spanish (español) Chinese - Simplified (????) Thalassemia English ??????? - ???? (Chinese - Simplified) PDF Chinese Community ...

  16. Microenvironment and multiple myeloma spread.

    PubMed

    Ribatti, Domenico; Moschetta, Michele; Vacca, Angelo

    2014-05-01

    In patients with multiple myeloma (MM), the bone marrow (BM) contains hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and non-hematopoietic cells. HSCs are able to give rise to all types of mature blood cells, while the non hematopoietic component includes mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), fibroblasts, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, chondroclasts, endothelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), B and T lymphocytes, NK cells, erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, platelets, macrophages and mast cells. All of these cells form specialized "niches" in the BM microenvironment which are close to the vasculature ("vascular niche") or to the endosteum ("osteoblast niche"). The "vascular niche" is rich in blood vessels where endothelial cells and mural cells (pericytes and smooth muscle cells) create a microenvironment that affects the behavior of several stem and progenitor cells. The vessel wall serves as an independent niche for the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells, MSCs and HSCs. The activation by angiogenic factors and inflammatory cytokines switch the "vascular niche" to promote MM tumor growth and spread. This review will focus on the mechanisms involved in the generation of signals released by endothelial cells in the "vascular niche" that promote tumor growth and spread in MM. PMID:24862128

  17. Multiple Myeloma and Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Noiri, Eisei

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) has a high incidence rate in the elderly. Responsiveness to treatments differs considerably among patients because of high heterogeneity of MM. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common clinical feature in MM patients, and treatment-related mortality and morbidity are higher in MM patients with CKD than in patients with normal renal function. Recent advances in diagnostic tests, chemotherapy agents, and dialysis techniques are providing clinicians with novel approaches for the management of MM patients with CKD. Once reversible factors, such as hypercalcemia, have been corrected, the most common cause of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in MM patients is tubulointerstitial nephropathy, which results from very high circulating concentrations of monoclonal immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC). In the setting of AKI, an early reduction of serum FLC concentration is related to kidney function recovery. The combination of extended high cutoff hemodialysis and chemotherapy results in sustained reductions in serum FLC concentration in the majority of patients and a high rate of independence from dialysis. PMID:24288486

  18. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

  19. [Multiple births in the Netherlands].

    PubMed

    Glasner, Tina J; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, between 2005 and 2011 the twin birth rate decreased from 18.6 to 15.9 per 1000 deliveries. The rise in the number of twin births in the 1980s and 1990 s is not only the consequence of a increase in the number dizygotic twins, but also of a small increase in the number of monozygotic twins. On IVF treatment single embryo transfer is increasingly taking place. This has led to a reduction of dizygotic twins but this does not prevent the development of monozygotic twins. In total, the number of twin pregnancies after IVF treatment has decreased from 803 in 2003 (21.7% of all pregnancies following IVF treatment) to 381 (8.5%) in 2011. Despite the big decline in the perinatal mortality rate over recent years, the risk of still birth or infant death clearly remains much higher in pregnancies with multiples than with singletons. The average gestational age of both monozygotic and dizygotic twins has decreased. PMID:23890166

  20. Islamic fasting and multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Month-long daytime Ramadan fasting pose s major challenges to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Muslim countries. Physicians should have practical knowledge on the implications of fasting on MS. We present a summary of database searches (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed) and a mini-symposium on Ramadan fasting and MS. In this symposium, we aimed to review the effect of fasting on MS and suggest practical guidelines on management. Discussion In general, fasting is possible for most stable patients. Appropriate amendment of drug regimens, careful monitoring of symptoms, as well as providing patients with available evidence on fasting and MS are important parts of management. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that calorie restriction before disease induction reduces inflammation and subsequent demyelination and attenuates disease severity. Fasting does not appear to have unfavorable effects on disease course in patients with mild disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ?3). Most experts believed that during fasting (especially in summer), some MS symptoms (fatigue, fatigue perception, dizziness, spasticity, cognitive problems, weakness, vision, balance, gait) might worsen but return to normal levels during feasting. There was a general consensus that fasting is not safe for patients: on high doses of anti-convulsants, anti-spastics, and corticosteroids; with coagulopathy or active disease; during attacks; with EDSS score ?7. Summary These data suggest that MS patients should have tailored care. Fasting in MS patients is a challenge that is directly associated with the spiritual belief of the patient. PMID:24655543

  1. [Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopie?, Bogus?aw

    2012-04-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome (MEN-2) is a rare hereditary cancer syndrome with autosomal dominant trait of inheritance. The most characteristic feature of this syndrome is a complete penetrance of medullary thyroid cancer. On the basis of differences in variable expression of pheochromocytomas, hyperparathyroidism, and other clinical features, MEN-2 is divided into three clinical variants, referred to as MEN-2A, MEN-2B and familial medullary thyroid cancer. In the most frequent variant, MEN-2A syndrome, apart from thyroid carcinoma, this syndrome includes also unilateral or bilateral pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism. In less common MEN-2B, medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma occur together with complex nervous and skeletal abnormalities. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is a variant of MEN-2 in which individuals affected develop only this neoplasm without other manifestations of MEN-2. It is well known that MEN-2 is caused by mutations of different codons of the RET proto-oncogene. The identification of mutations associated with this syndrome has led to genetic testing to identify patients at risk for MEN-2. There is a significant genotype-phenotype correlation, which allows a more individualised approach to the timing of prophylactic thyroidectomy. In this paper, we review the current views on the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of MEN-2. PMID:22708287

  2. Skin segmentation using multiple thresholding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasparini, Francesca; Schettini, Raimondo

    2006-01-01

    The segmentation of skin regions in color images is a preliminary step in several applications. Many different methods for discriminating between skin and non-skin pixels are available in the literature. The simplest, and often applied, methods build what is called an "explicit skin cluster" classifier which expressly defines the boundaries of the skin cluster in certain color spaces. These binary methods are very popular as they are easy to implement and do not require a training phase. The main difficulty in achieving high skin recognition rates, and producing the smallest possible number of false positive pixels, is that of defining accurate cluster boundaries through simple, often heuristically chosen, decision rules. In this study we apply a genetic algorithm to determine the boundaries of the skin clusters in multiple color spaces. To quantify the performance of these skin detection methods, we use recall and precision scores. A good classifier should provide both high recall and high precision, but generally, as recall increases, precision decreases. Consequently, we adopt a weighted mean of precision and recall as the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. Keeping in mind that different applications may have sharply different requirements, the weighting coefficients can be chosen to favor either high recall or high precision, or to satisfy a reasonable tradeoff between the two, depending on application demands. To train the genetic algorithm (GA) and test the performance of the classifiers applying the GA suggested boundaries, we use the large and heterogeneous Compaq skin database.

  3. Neuroendocrine Immunoregulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wai-Ping; Berneman, Zwi N.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, it is generally accepted that multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex multifactorial disease involving genetic and environmental factors affecting the autoreactive immune responses that lead to damage of myelin. In this respect, intrinsic or extrinsic factors such as emotional, psychological, traumatic, or inflammatory stress as well as a variety of other lifestyle interventions can influence the neuroendocrine system. On its turn, it has been demonstrated that the neuroendocrine system has immunomodulatory potential. Moreover, the neuroendocrine and immune systems communicate bidirectionally via shared receptors and shared messenger molecules, variously called hormones, neurotransmitters, or cytokines. Discrepancies at any level can therefore lead to changes in susceptibility and to severity of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Here we provide an overview of the complex system of crosstalk between the neuroendocrine and immune system as well as reported dysfunctions involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, including MS. Finally, possible strategies to intervene with the neuroendocrine-immune system for MS patient management will be discussed. Ultimately, a better understanding of the interactions between the neuroendocrine system and the immune system can open up new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of MS as well as other autoimmune diseases. PMID:24382974

  4. Gender agreement and multiple referents.

    PubMed

    Finocchiaro, Chiara; Mahon, Bradford Z; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    We report a new pattern of usage in current, spoken Italian that has implications for both psycholinguistic models of language production and linguistic theories of language change. In Italian, gender agreement is mandatory for both singular and plural nouns. However, when two or more nouns of different grammatical gender appear in a conjoined noun phrase (NP), masculine plural agreement is required. In this study, we combined on-line and off-line methodologies in order to assess the mechanisms involved in gender marking in the context of multiple referents. The results of two pronoun production tasks showed that plural feminine agreement was significantly more difficult than plural masculine agreement. In a separate study using offline judgements of acceptability, we found that agreement violations in Italian are tolerated more readily in the case of feminine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., la mela e la banana 'the:fem apple:fem and the: fem banana: fem') than masculine conjoined noun phrases (e.g., il fiore e il libro 'the:mas flower: mas and the:mas book:mas'). Implications of these results are discussed both at the level of functional architecture within the language production system and at the level of changes in language use. PMID:21037930

  5. Multiple-layer Radiation Absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Robert M. L.; Baker, Bonnie Sue

    A structure is discussed for absorbing incident radiation, either electromagnetic (EM) or sound. Such a surface structure is needed, for example, in a highly sensitive high-frequency gravitational wave or HFGW detector such as the Li-Baker. The multi-layer absorber, which is discussed, is constructed with metamaterial [MM] layer or layers on top. This MM is configured for a specific EM or sound radiation frequency band, which absorbs incident EM or sound radiation without reflection. Below these top MM layers is a substrate of conventional EM-radiation absorbing or acoustical absorbing reflective material, such as an array of pyramidal foam absorbers. Incident radiation is partially absorbed by the MM layer or layers, and then it is more absorbed by the lower absorbing and reflecting substrate. The remaining reflected radiation is even further absorbed by the MM layers on its "way out_ so that essentially all of the incident radiation is absorbed _ a nearly perfect black-body absorber. In a HFGW detector a substrate, such as foam absorbers, may outgas into a high vacuum and reduce the capability of the vacuum-producing equipment, however, the layers above this lowest substrate will seal the absorbing and reflecting substrate from any external vacuum. The layers also serve to seal the absorbing material against air or water flow past the surfaces of aircraft, watercraft or submarines. Other applications for such a multiple-level radiation absorber include stealth aircraft, missiles and submarines.

  6. Insights into the evolution of freshwater sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillina): Barcoding and phylogenetic data from Lake Tanganyika endemics indicate multiple invasions and unsettle existing taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Erpenbeck, Dirk; Weier, Tina; de Voogd, Nicole J; Wörheide, Gert; Sutcliffe, Patricia; Todd, Jonathan A; Michel, Ellinor

    2011-10-01

    Sponges are a conspicuous element in many benthic habitats including in Africa's oldest, deepest lake, Lake Tanganyika. Despite their prevalence and pivotal ecological role as filter feeders, knowledge of the evolutionary history of sponges is in its infancy. Here, we provide the first molecular analysis targeting the evolution of sponges from Lake Tanganyika. Independent markers indicate the occurrence of several colonisation events which have shaped the current Tanganyikan lacustrine sponge biodiversity. This is in contrast to a range of previously studied organisms that have diversified within the lake from single lineages. Our tree reconstructions indicate the presence of two genera, Oncosclera and Eunapius, which are globally distributed. Therefore, we reject the hypothesis of monophyly for the sponges from Lake Tanganyika and challenge existing higher taxonomic structure for freshwater sponges. PMID:21669294

  7. Inversion of multiple thermal indicators: quantitative methods of determining paleoheat flux and geological parameters. II. Theoretical development for chemical, physical, and geological parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Lerche, I.

    1988-02-01

    Using the logic for quantitative inversion of present-day downhole thermal indicators, the inversion procedure can be used to determine unknown, or poorly known, chemical and physical parameters as well as other geological quantities of interest which impact on burial history and thermal history of an evolving sedimentary basin. Some such quantities are: amount of erosion and timing of unconformities, paleo-overpressuring, stratigraphic age, timing of igneous intrusion and insertion temperature, overthrust timing and frictional heating, fault and slump timing, effect due to emplacement of a radioactive layer, and salt emplacement and dissolution timing. Combining a priori unknown values of these chemical/physical and geological parameters with unknown (a priori) paleoheat flux variations, a theoretical scheme, called thermal indicator tomography, is developed for the systematic determination of all parameters at the same time and on the same footing.

  8. Objectively-assessed and self-reported sedentary time in relation to multiple socioeconomic status indicators among adults in England: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Coombs, Ngaire; Rowlands, Alex; Shelton, Nicola; Hillsdon, Melvyn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and multidomain self-reported and objectively-assessed sedentary time (ST). Design Cross-sectional. Setting General population households in England. Participants 2289 adults aged 16–96?years who participated in the 2008 Health Survey for England. Outcomes Accelerometer-measured ST, and self-reported television time, non-television leisure-time sitting and occupational sitting/standing. We examined multivariable associations between household income, social class, education, area deprivation for each SEP indicator (including a 5-point composite SEP score computed by aggregating individual SEP indicators) and each ST indicator using generalised linear models. Results Accelerometry-measured total ST and occupational sitting/standing were positively associated with SEP score and most of its constituent SEP indicators, while television time was negatively associated with SEP score and education level. Area-level deprivation was largely unrelated to ST. Those in the lowest composite SEP group spent 64 (95% CIs 52 to 76) and 72 (48 to 98), fewer minutes/day in total ST and occupational sitting/standing compared to those in the top SEP group, and an additional 48 (35–60) min/day watching television (p<0.001 for linear trend). Stratified analyses showed that these associations between composite SEP score and total ST were evident only among participants who were in employment. Conclusions Occupational sitting seems to drive the positive association between SEP and total ST. Lower SEP is linked to higher TV viewing times. PMID:25377012

  9. Multiple oral radiopaque masses leading to Gardner's syndrome diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Aline Garcia Figueiredo; Costa, Rayana Ondina Biagioni; de Oliveira, Lucinei Roberto; Grossmann, Soraya de Mattos Camargo

    2013-07-01

    Gardner's syndrome, an autosomal dominant syndrome, is linked to familial adenomatosis polyposis (FAP), which is known mainly as a colorectal disease. FAP also presents extracolonically as intestinal polyposis, multiple osteomas, cutaneous cysts, or fibromas. This article reports the case of a 66-year-old white woman who was referred to the Oral Medicine Clinic, School of Dentistry, Universidade Vale do Rio Verde, Brazil, for evaluation of multiple sclerotic, asymptomatic masses in the jaws that were observed in a routine periapical radiographic exam by a dentist. The patient presented with intestinal poliposis, periosteal osteoma in the face, and fibromas and multiple endosteal osteomas in the maxilla, which are indications of Gardner's syndrome. The clinical differential diagnosis included multiple buccal exostoses, idiopathic osteosclerosis, cemento-osseous dysplasias, multiple odontomas, osteomas, and Gardner's syndrome. Patients with a suspected diagnosis of Gardner's syndrome should be referred to a dermatologist, have a colonoscopy performed, and be followed up by a dentist. PMID:23823353

  10. A method for extracting burned areas from Landsat TM/ETM+ images by soft aggregation of multiple Spectral Indices and a region growing algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroppiana, D.; Bordogna, G.; Carrara, P.; Boschetti, M.; Boschetti, L.; Brivio, P. A.

    2012-04-01

    Since fire is a major threat to forests and wooded areas in the Mediterranean environment of Southern Europe, systematic regional fire monitoring is a necessity. Satellite data constitute a unique cost-effective source of information on the occurrence of fire events and on the extent of the area burned. Our objective is to develop a (semi-)automated algorithm for mapping burned areas from medium spatial resolution (30 m) satellite data. In this article we present a multi-criteria approach based on Spectral Indices, soft computing techniques and a region growing algorithm; theoretically this approach relies on the convergence of partial evidence of burning provided by the indices. Our proposal features several innovative aspects: it is flexible in adapting to a variable number of indices and to missing data; it exploits positive and negative evidence (bipolar information) and it offers different criteria for aggregating partial evidence in order to derive the layers of candidate seeds and candidate region growing boundaries. The study was conducted on a set of Landsat TM images, acquired for the year 2003 over Southern Europe and pre-processed with the LEDAPS (Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System) processing chain for deriving surface spectral reflectance ?i in the TM bands. The proposed method was applied to show its flexibility and the sensitivity of the accuracy of the resulting burned area maps to different aggregation criteria and thresholds for seed selection. Validation performed over an entire independent Landsat TM image shows the commission and omission errors to be below 21% and 3%, respectively.

  11. Even faster integer multiplication David Harvey

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Even faster integer multiplication David Harvey School of Mathematics and Statistics University of Fürer's bound for the cost of multiplying n-bit integers in the bit complexity model. Unlike Fürer, our that achieves K = 4. Keywords: Integer multiplication, algorithm, complexity bound, FFT A.C.M. subject

  12. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePLUS

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Herbal Medicine - Multiple Languages Chinese - Simplified (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) ... Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information in Multiple Languages page. ... Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  13. Multiple chondromatous hamartomas of the lung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bini; M. Grazia; F. Petrella; M. Chittolini

    2002-01-01

    Multiple chondromatous hamartomas (MCH) of the lung are very rare: only 16 cases have been reported to date. In young women, the tumours may be a manifestation of Carney triad (gastric leiomyoblastoma, pulmonary hamartoma and extra-adrenal paraganglioma) or Cowden syndrome (mucocutaneous lesions, multiple benign tumors of internal organs and increased risk for breast, thyroid, urogenital and digestive tract cancer). We

  14. IRF4 addiction in multiple myeloma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur L. Shaffer; N. C. Tolga Emre; Laurence Lamy; Vu N. Ngo; George Wright; Wenming Xiao; John Powell; Sandeep Dave; Xin Yu; Hong Zhao; Yuxin Zeng; Bangzheng Chen; Joshua Epstein; Louis M. Staudt

    2008-01-01

    The transcription factor IRF4 (interferon regulatory factor 4) is required during an immune response for lymphocyte activation and the generation of immunoglobulin-secreting plasma cells. Multiple myeloma, a malignancy of plasma cells, has a complex molecular aetiology with several subgroups defined by gene expression profiling and recurrent chromosomal translocations. Moreover, the malignant clone can sustain multiple oncogenic lesions, accumulating genetic damage

  15. Atomicity Improvement for Elliptic Curve Scalar Multiplication

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    additions. In Sec- tion 2 we recall some basics about Elliptic Curves Cryptography. In particular we presentAtomicity Improvement for Elliptic Curve Scalar Multiplication Christophe Giraud1 and Vincent@insidefr.com Abstract. In this paper we address the problem of protecting elliptic curve scalar multiplication

  16. Rank Modulation with Multiplicity Anxiao (Andrew) Jiang

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Anxiao "Andrew"

    Rank Modulation with Multiplicity Anxiao (Andrew) Jiang Computer Science and Eng. Dept. Texas A&M University College Station, TX 77843 yuewang@cse.tamu.edu Abstract--Rank modulation is a scheme that uses-change memories, etc. An extension of rank modulation is studied in this paper, where multiple cells can have

  17. Developing Multiplicative Thinking from Additive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Andreasen, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    As students progress through elementary school, they encounter mathematics concepts that shift from additive to multiplicative situations (NCTM 2000). When they encounter fraction problems that require multiplicative thinking, they tend to incorrectly extend additive properties from whole numbers (Post et al. 1985). As a result, topics such as …

  18. Persistent Surveillance Using Multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles

    E-print Network

    Stanford University

    require long endurance and unmanned aerial vehicles are a natural choice for the sensing platforms1 Persistent Surveillance Using Multiple Unmanned Air Vehicles Nikhil Nigam and Ilan Kroo. These are tested in a multiple unmanned air vehicle (UAV) simulation environment, developed for this program

  19. Schooling Built on the Multiple Intelligences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, Christine D.

    2009-01-01

    This article features a school built on multiple intelligences. As the first multiple intelligences school in the world, the Key Learning Community shapes its students' days to include significant time in the musical, spatial and bodily-kinesthetic intelligences, as well as the more traditional areas of logical-mathematical and linguistics. In…

  20. DATA MINING OF MULTIPLE NONSTATIONARY TIME SERIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RICHARD J. POVINELLI; XIN FENG

    1999-01-01

    A data mining method for synthesizing multiple time series is presented. Based on a single time series algorithm, the method embeds multiple time series into a phase space. The reconstructed state space allows temporal pattern extraction and local model development. Using an a priori data mining objective, an optimal local model is chosen for short-term forecasting. For the same sampling