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1

Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models  

PubMed Central

Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535

Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.

2014-01-01

2

Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.  

PubMed

Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24962535

Tekwe, Carmen D; Carter, Randy L; Cullings, Harry M; Carroll, Raymond J

2014-11-01

3

Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How sharp are your multiplication skills? Give these great math games a try ! Play Asteroids blaster and test your multiplication skills. How fast can you solve the problem... play a round of Baseball multiplication and see! Multiplication is fun and delicious with Crazy Cones. Help Lemonade Larry determine the correct amount! Test your multiplication skills with Tic Tac Toe! ...

Ms.roberts

2009-02-24

4

Estimating differential expression from multiple indicators  

PubMed Central

Regardless of the advent of high-throughput sequencing, microarrays remain central in current biomedical research. Conventional microarray analysis pipelines apply data reduction before the estimation of differential expression, which is likely to render the estimates susceptible to noise from signal summarization and reduce statistical power. We present a probe-level framework, which capitalizes on the high number of concurrent measurements to provide more robust differential expression estimates. The framework naturally extends to various experimental designs and target categories (e.g. transcripts, genes, genomic regions) as well as small sample sizes. Benchmarking in relation to popular microarray and RNA-sequencing data-analysis pipelines indicated high and stable performance on the Microarray Quality Control dataset and in a cell-culture model of hypoxia. Experimental-data-exhibiting long-range epigenetic silencing of gene expression was used to demonstrate the efficacy of detecting differential expression of genomic regions, a level of analysis not embraced by conventional workflows. Finally, we designed and conducted an experiment to identify hypothermia-responsive genes in terms of monotonic time-response. As a novel insight, hypothermia-dependent up-regulation of multiple genes of two major antioxidant pathways was identified and verified by quantitative real-time PCR. PMID:24586062

Ilmjarv, Sten; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Reimets, Riin; Niitsoo, Margus; Kolde, Raivo; Vilo, Jaak; Vasar, Eero; Luuk, Hendrik

2014-01-01

5

Should researchers use single indicators, best indicators, or multiple indicators in structural equation models?  

PubMed Central

Background Structural equation modeling developed as a statistical melding of path analysis and factor analysis that obscured a fundamental tension between a factor preference for multiple indicators and path modeling’s openness to fewer indicators. Discussion Multiple indicators hamper theory by unnecessarily restricting the number of modeled latents. Using the few best indicators – possibly even the single best indicator of each latent – encourages development of theoretically sophisticated models. Additional latent variables permit stronger statistical control of potential confounders, and encourage detailed investigation of mediating causal mechanisms. Summary We recommend the use of the few best indicators. One or two indicators are often sufficient, but three indicators may occasionally be helpful. More than three indicators are rarely warranted because additional redundant indicators provide less research benefit than single indicators of additional latent variables. Scales created from multiple indicators can introduce additional problems, and are prone to being less desirable than either single or multiple indicators. PMID:23088287

2012-01-01

6

Identifying node role in social network based on multiple indicators.  

PubMed

It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role. PMID:25089823

Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

2014-01-01

7

The validity of well-being measures: a multiple-indicator-multiple-rater model.  

PubMed

In the subjective indicators tradition, well-being is defined as a match between an individual's actual life and his or her ideal life. Common well-being indicators are life-satisfaction judgments, domain satisfaction judgments, and measures of positive and negative affect (hedonic balance). These well-being indicators are routinely used to study well-being, but a formal measurement model of well-being is lacking. This article introduces a measurement model of well-being and examines the validity of self-ratings and informant ratings of well-being. Participants were 335 families (1 student with 2 parents, N = 1,005). The main findings were that (a) self-ratings and informant ratings are equally valid, (b) global life-satisfaction judgments and averaged domain satisfaction judgments are about equally valid, and (c) about 1/3 of the variance in a single indicator is valid. The main implication is that researchers should demonstrate convergent validity across multiple indicators by multiple raters. PMID:23914958

Zou, Christopher; Schimmack, Ulrich; Gere, Judith

2013-12-01

8

Indicators of Multiplicative Reasoning among Fourth Grade Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many students encounter difficulty in their transition to advanced mathematical thinking. Such difficulty may be explained by a lack of understanding of many concepts taught in early school years, especially multiplicative reasoning. Advanced mathematical thinking depends on the development of multiplicative reasoning. The purpose of this study…

Carrier, James A.

2010-01-01

9

A multiple indicator, multiple cause method for representing social capital with an application to psychological distress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a structural equation methodology for obtaining social capital scores for survey subjects from multiple indicators of social support, neighbourhood and trust perceptions, and memberships of organizations. It adjusts for variation that is likely to occur in levels of social capital according to geographic context (e.g. level of area deprivation, geographic region, level of urbanity) and demographic group. Social capital is used as an explanatory factor for psychological distress using data from the 2006 Health Survey for England. A highly significant effect of social capital in reducing the chance of psychiatric caseness is obtained after controlling for other individual and geographic risk factors. Allowing for social capital has considerable effects on the impacts on psychiatric health of other risk factors. In particular, the impact of area deprivation category is much reduced. There is also evidence of significant differentiation in social capital between population categories and geographic contexts.

Congdon, Peter

2010-03-01

10

MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF MAIN ECONOMIC INDICATORS IN TOURISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analysis the measure between GDP dependent variable in the sector of hotels and restaurants and the following independent variables: overnight stays in the establishments of touristic reception, arrivals in the establishments of touristic reception and investments in hotels and restaurants sector in the period of analysis 1995-2007. With the multiple regression analysis I found that investments and tourist

Erika KULCSAR

2009-01-01

11

Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey - 2010: Study Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background: There is an international emphasis on providing timely and high quality data to monitor progress of countries toward Millennium Development Goals. Iran's Multiple Indicator Demographic and Health Survey (IrMIDHS) aimed to provide valid information on population and health outcomes to monitor progress in achieving national priorities and health programs and to assist policy makers to design effective strategies for improving health outcomes and equity in access to care. Methods: A cross-sectional multi-stage stratified cluster-random survey is conducted through face-to-face household interviews. The sampling frame is developed using Iran's 2006 population and housing census. Provincial samples ranging are from a minimum of 400 households per province to 6400 households in Tehran province. Cluster size is 10 households. The target sample includes 3096 clusters: 2187 clusters in urban and 909 clusters in rural areas. IrMIDHS instruments include three questionnaires: Household questionnaire, women aged 15-54 questionnaire, children under five questionnaire, supervision and quality assessment checklists and data collection sheets and standard weight and height measurement tools for under-five children. A cascading decentralized training method is used for training data collection and supervision teams. Quality assurance procedures are defined for the five steps of conducting the survey including: Sampling, training data collection and training teams, survey implementation, data entry and analysis. A multi-layer supervision and monitoring procedure is established. All the questionnaires are double entered. Conclusions: IrMIDHS will provide valuable data for policymakers in Iran. Designing and implementation of the study involve contributions from academics as well as program managers and policy makers. The collaborative nature of the study may facilitate better usage of its results. PMID:24932396

Rashidian, Arash; Karimi-Shahanjarini, Akram; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Elahi, Elham; Beheshtian, Maryam; Shakibazadeh, Elham; Khabiri, Roghayeh; Arab, Mohammad; Zakeri, Mohammad-Reza

2014-01-01

12

Learning about Locomotion Patterns: Effective Use of Multiple Pictures and Motion-Indicating Arrows  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated how enriching visualizations with arrows indicating the motion of objects may help in conveying dynamic information: Multiple static-simultaneous visualizations with motion-indicating arrows were compared with either multiple visualizations without arrows or a single visualization with arrows. Seventy-one students were…

Imhof, Birgit; Scheiter, Katharina; Edelmann, Jorg; Gerjets, Peter

2013-01-01

13

Multiplication 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Try some harder multiplication activities! Missing Factor Meteor Blasting Complete the Missing Step Batter s Up Multiplication Sum Sense Multiplication Challenge a Friend to Grand Prix Multiplication Double Digit Multiplication https://embed.espresso.co.uk/espresso/embed/images/logo_espresso.gif ) no-repeat center center"

Lerdahl, Miss

2010-11-16

14

Calls for Multiple Indices Incorporating Multiculturalism in Content Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This reaction evaluates three content analyses that investigated separate aspects of research articles published in major counseling psychology journals: (a) institutional research productivity, (b) use of structural equation modeling, and (c) use of theory-driven research. The evaluation focuses on the adequacy of indices used in the content…

Lee, Dong-gwi

2005-01-01

15

Convergent Evidence Scaling for Multiple Assessment Indicators: Conceptual Issues, Applications, and Technical Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to present Convergent Evidence Scaling (CES) as an emergent method for combining data from multiple assessment indicators. The CES method combines single-case assessment data by converging data gathered across multiple persons, settings, or measures, thereby providing an overall criterion-referenced outcome on which…

Busse, R. T.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

2010-01-01

16

Mastering Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Play the following games to practice your multiplication. Take a swing at Multplication Baseball! (Set with hard) Use your multiplication knowledge and defeat the Mayan Math Monster! (Set to hard) Quick! Stop the Multiplication Invader before it is too late! ...

Jackson, Ms.

2007-10-25

17

Middle school students' willingness to engage in activities with peers with ADHD symptoms: a multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model.  

PubMed

Researchers examining peers' behavioral intentions toward students diagnosed with ADHD have frequently used vignettes and asked students to indicate their willingness to engage with an individual described either with or without symptoms of ADHD. The Shared Activities Questionnaire (SAQ-B) is one instrument that has been used to measure students' intentions to engage with students represented in these vignettes. Confirmatory factor analysis results from 183 middle school students supported the three-factor model underlying the SAQ-B, although there were some areas of model misfit. To examine the effects of experimentally manipulating two vignette conditions (describing a peer displaying ADHD symptoms or a peer without these symptoms) on students' responses to items on the SAQ-B, a multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) analysis was used. Results of the MIMIC analyses identified 4 of the 24 SAQ-B items that exhibited statistically significant uniform differential item functioning between the experimental vignette conditions. Comparisons of the latent variable means between experimental conditions indicated that participants expressed greater willingness to engage with a peer without ADHD symptoms than with one with symptoms on academic activities; no differences were found on the latent variable means for social and recreational activities. Familiarity with ADHD did not have a significant relation to participants' willingness to engage in any of the three types of activities. Implications for practice and research are discussed. PMID:23816232

Ogg, Julia; McMahan, Melanie M; Dedrick, Robert F; Mendez, Linda Raffaele

2013-06-01

18

Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Romantic AdjustmentComparison of Single and Multiple-Indicator Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the usefulness of single- and multiple-indicator strategies in a model examining the role of child sexual abuse (CSA) to predict later marital satisfaction through attachment and psychological distress. The sample included 1,092 women and men from a nonclinical population in cohabiting or marital relationships. The single-item measure assessed the presence or absence of CSA. The multiple-indicator measure

Natacha Godbout; Stéphane Sabourin; Yvan Lussier

2009-01-01

19

Multiplication Mania!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These assignments will help you practice your multiplication facts. Work through these multiplication facts. Click on each link and scroll down past the red box to the orange box. Click on \\"Start Multiplication\\". After you type in your answer click on the \\"Check\\" box to check your answer. 1. Practice your multiplication facts 0-3. ...

Packard, Mrs.

2005-10-25

20

Multiplication Rocks!!!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's practice what we've learned about multiplication. Play at least one game in each of the categories. Times Table Practice: Design the Ultimate Fashion Outfit with Math Models Blast the Meteors before they destroy the ship in Meteor Multiplication More Multiplication: Batter's Up in Baseball Multiplication Win $1,000,000 in Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? ...

Peake, Mrs.

2009-04-15

21

Occupational stress and psychopathology in health professionals: an explorative study with the multiple indicators multiple causes (MIMIC) model approach.  

PubMed

Occupational stress is a multivariate process involving sources of pressure, psycho-physiological distress, locus of control, work dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, mental health disorders, hopelessness, and suicide ideation. Healthcare professionals are known for higher rates of occupational-related distress (burnout and compassion fatigue) and higher rates of suicide. The purpose of this study was to explain the relationships between occupational stress and some psychopathological dimensions in a sample of health professionals. We investigated 156 nurses and physicians, 62 males and 94 females, who were administered self-report questionnaires to assess occupational stress [occupational stress inventory (OSI)], temperament (temperament evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego autoquestionnaire), and hopelessness (Beck hopelessness scale). The best Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes model with five OSI predictors yielded the following results: ?2(9) = 14.47 (p = 0.11); ?2/df = 1.60; comparative fit index = 0.99; root mean square error of approximation = 0.05. This model provided a good fit to the empirical data, showing a strong direct influence of casual variables such as work dissatisfaction, absence of type A behavior, and especially external locus of control, psychological and physiological distress on latent variable psychopathology. Occupational stress is in a complex relationship with temperament and hopelessness and also common among healthcare professionals. PMID:22632290

Iliceto, Paolo; Pompili, Maurizio; Spencer-Thomas, Sally; Ferracuti, Stefano; Erbuto, Denise; Lester, David; Candilera, Gabriella; Girardi, Paolo

2013-03-01

22

Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

23

Multiple Sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... is multiple sclerosis (MS)? Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the nervous system. Normally, antibodies produced ... of 20 and 40. If you have another autoimmune disease, such as thyroid disease or Type 1 diabetes, ...

24

Finger Multiplication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

Simanihuruk, Mudin

2011-01-01

25

Effects of Indicator Transform Method of Electric Resistivity Data on Rock Mass Classification Using Multiple Indicator Kriging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigates the effects of indicator transform method of electric resistivity data on rock mass classification using multiple indicator kriging. Two different approaches were designed to examine the variation of rock mass classifications according to each indicator transform method. One approach is to change fuzzy membership functions for determining the indicator values at four increasing thresholds (i.e., 20, 40, 60 and 80 which represent the boundary values of rock mass classes in RMR). The other is to reclassify indicator transform ranges of electric resistivity data by considering various classification rules such as quantile, equal interval, natural breaks, standard deviation and grade block. Two tunnelling sites in Korea were selected as study areas, and multiple indicator kriging using borehole RMR and electric resistivity data was performed to estimate RMR values along planned tunnel alignments. The results showed that rock mass classes determined by multiple indicator kriging are significantly sensitive to both the fuzzy membership functions and the transform ranges. From validation processes, it was found that combination of the indicator values derived from frequency ratio of borehole RMR values at each rock mass class and the indicator transform ranges determined by the grade block can make a more accurate result than others.

Choi, Y.; Cho, J.; Park, H.; Bae, G.

2008-12-01

26

Gender and Perceived Illness Severity: Differential Indicators of Employment Concerns for Adults with Multiple Sclerosis?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although research has indicated a link between gender and perceived illness severity and the employment status of people with multiple sclerosis (MS), it has not addressed questions regarding the relationship between those variables and specific types of employment concerns. In this study, a sample of 1,310 adults with MS replied to a mail survey…

Roessler, Richard T.; Turner, Ronna C.; Robertson, Judith L.; Rumrill,Phillip D.

2005-01-01

27

A Statistical Analysis of Infrequent Events on Multiple-Choice Tests that Indicate Probable Cheating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A statistical analysis of multiple-choice answers is performed to identify anomalies that can be used as evidence of student cheating. The ratio of exact errors in common (EEIC: two students put the same wrong answer for a question) to differences (D: two students get different answers) was found to be a good indicator of cheating under a wide…

Sundermann, Michael J.

2008-01-01

28

Human Health Risk Implications of Multiple Sources of Faecal Indicator Bacteria in a Recreational Waterbody  

EPA Science Inventory

We evaluate the influence of multiple sources of faecal indicator bacteria in recreational water bodies on potential human health risk by considering waters impacted by human and animal sources, human and non-pathogenic sources, and animal and non-pathogenic sources. We illustrat...

29

UNAIDS 'multiple sexual partners' core indicator: promoting sexual networks to reduce potential biases  

PubMed Central

UNAIDS proposed a set of core indicators for monitoring changes in the worldwide AIDS epidemic. This paper explores the validity and effectiveness of the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator, which is only partially captured with current available data. The paper also suggests an innovative approach for collecting more informative data that can be used to provide an accurate measure of the UNAIDS’s ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. Specifically, the paper addresses three major limitations associated with the indicator when it is measured with respondents’ sexual behaviors. First, the indicator assumes that a person’s risk of contracting HIV/AIDS/STIs is merely a function of his/her own sexual behavior. Second, the indicator does not account for a partner’s sexual history, which is very important in assessing an individual’s risk level. Finally, the 12-month period used to define a person’s risks can be misleading, especially because HIV/AIDS theoretically has a period of latency longer than a year. The paper concludes that, programmatically, improvements in data collection are a top priority for reducing the observed bias in the ‘multiple sexual partners’ core indicator. PMID:24647127

Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Emina, Jacques B.O.; Sankoh, Osman

2014-01-01

30

Multiplication Mania!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fun games to practice your multiplication facts! Need a refreshing break? Come on over to the lemonade stand...Lemonade Stand At the beach, you can swim, sun, and practice your multiplication facts...Beach Multiplication How fast are you? Click here to...Race the Clock Do you have your spacesuit and astronaut food, are you ready for your...Mission to the Moon ...

Hoeman, Ms.

2008-09-18

31

Multiplication Frenzy!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Let's practice multiplication! First, try to win the first place medal in the Fish Race. Then, test your skills by blowing up meteors by getting your multiplication tables right in Meteor Buster. Last, don't let the ants eat your lunch in The Ants Go Marching. ...

Burks, Ms.

2010-01-27

32

Multiple homicides.  

PubMed

A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered. PMID:2782297

Copeland, A R

1989-09-01

33

Multiplication Matho  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site has students practice their multiplication facts. They compete against the clock while picking the correct response from numerous choices. Student have Matho when they get five colored snakes in a row.

A + Math

2007-12-12

34

Multiple myeloma  

MedlinePLUS

Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... myeloma most commonly causes a low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

35

Multiplication Mania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Brush up on your multiplication skills with these fun games. Math Magician Let\\'s see how you can work your math magic! Choose either multiplication or division on Level 1. Once you feel comfortable, move on to Level 2. Multiflyer Play this fun game while learning about space exploration. Batter s Up Baseball Take me out to the ball game! Practice your math facts with ...

Thompson, Mrs.

2006-04-01

36

Therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This quasi-experiment study examined the therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress. By utilizing drug interventions that reduced cardiovascular distress through changes in the hypertensive indices, previous studies have shown that improvements in life expectancy, lowering of health care costs in later years, and reduction in all-cause mortality were achieved. In fact, individuals without risk factors or with low risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adulthood or middle age were healthier, had a greater life expectancy, and incurred lower health care costs in later years. The hypertensive indices of interest include elevated heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (Ps), diastolic blood pressure (PD), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), pulse pressure (PP), and mechanical disadvantages of the heart MDH. Mechanical disadvantage of the heart is a term that has been developed for the purposes of this study. The alternative hypotheses for this study proposed to show a significant change in the relevant hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress in volunteers after a minimum of 45 days treatment with multiple nutritional supplements. The target population was all middle-aged (30 to 65 years) volunteer hypertensives in Nigeria (West Africa), who were randomly assigned to either the experimental group or control group, controlling for individuals who were on any form of medication, smokers, alcoholics, and those who were pregnant or on contraceptives. Treatment involved multiple doses of the various vitamins, minerals, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and accessory nutrients in their complementary combinations that influence various levels of cardiovascular function. After 45 days of treatment, the differences between the mean sores of the experimental group and control group on Ps, PD, MABP, and PP were found to be statistically significant, at p ? .05 cut-off level for rejecting the null hypothesis for each dependent variable on a one-tailed student's t test. The same results were not demonstrated for HR and MDH. In summary, the therapeutic effects of multiple nutritional supplements on the hypertensive indices of cardiovascular distress could provide a cost-effective, safe, healthy, and reliable way of preventing cardiovascular disease.

Okereke, Emmanuel O.

2000-09-01

37

Multiplication Mania  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Multiplication Mania is alive & well in 4A! With this online project, you can click on the links below & turn into a multiplication maniac no matter where you are.... Who Wants to Be a Mathionaire? See if you can earn enough money to call yourself a Mathionaire Millionaire! What facts do you need to practice? Choose here & improve your Superstars status! Do you want to practice x5? x2? x4? Choose your number & then Race Against Red to see how well you ...

Macumber, Ms.

2008-10-01

38

Chemotherapy-induced changes in cardiac capillary permeability measured by fluorescent multiple indicator dilution.  

PubMed

Anthracyclines cause severe irreversible cardiac toxicity. The study of changes in cardiac permeability with chemotherapy could enhance the understanding of mechanisms behind cardiac damage, and provide useful information to evaluate anthracycline cardiotoxicity. Thirty-six rats (12 Sprague-Dawley, 12 Wistar, 12 Fischer-344) were randomly assigned to control (n = 21) or doxorubicin (n = 15), and injected i.p. with a cumulative dose of 18 mg/kg doxorubicin in saline (vehicle) or vehicle alone over 12 days. Echocardiography was performed at baseline and on day 11. An isolated heart experiment was done on day 12 to obtain perfused heart pressure values, and to measure cardiac capillary permeability using a Texas Red/sodium fluorescein multiple indicator dilution method. Control animals had significantly lower average permeability-surface-area-products (0.035 ± 0.013 cm(3)/s) than doxorubicin animals (0.066 ± 0.023 cm(3)/s), PSP ± SD, p < 0.001. These permeability changes correlated with significant functional changes. There was a significant decline in cardiac function with a deleterious effect of chemotherapy on fractional shortening (p < 0.001), left ventricular developed pressure (p < 0.001), contractility (p < 0.001), and relaxation (p = 0.02). Based on our results, cardiac capillary permeability changes can be detected after in vivo chemotherapy treatment using our fluorescent multiple indicator dilution technique, and may provide valuable information in evaluating cardiotoxicity of novel drugs. PMID:25224075

Fernandez-Fernandez, Alicia; Carvajal, Denny A; Lei, Tingjun; McGoron, Anthony J

2014-12-01

39

Multiple Sclerosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

40

Lattice Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Leonardo Fibonacci's multiplication algorithm arrays the digits of multiplicands along a rectangular lattice. Read an explanation of the technique, see a few worked examples, and watch the method in action with a Java applet. Clicking a little off-center of any digit of a multiplicand (left to increase, right to decrease) instantly changes resulting products and sums throughout the lattice.

Interactive Math Miscellany And Puzzles, Alexander B.

2011-01-01

41

Finger Multiplication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author has been prompted to write this article about finger multiplication for a number of reasons. Firstly there are a number of related articles in past issues of "Mathematics Teaching" ("MT") which have connections to this algorithm. Secondly, very few of his primary teaching students and professional colleagues appear to be aware of the…

Holmes, Bill

2010-01-01

42

Multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Preliminary studies have suggested that a high salt diet may play a role in the development of autoimmune disease and possibly multiple sclerosis (MS). Promising clinical trial results for 2 new therapies for MS have been reported. Dimethyl fumarate, also known by its investigational name BG-12, became the third oral disease-modifying therapy for MS to be Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved in March 2013. Interestingly, dimethyl fumarate served as the active compound used for the treatment of psoriasis for decades. Alemtuzumab remains under investigation and is not currently FDA-approved for treatment of MS. Other drugs currently approved for alternative indications are being investigated for use in MS. Additionally, an investigation of alternative dosing strategies for glatiramer acetate suggests that patients may benefit from a higher dose formulation and less frequent medication administration. Advances in basic science research have identified another potential autoantigenic target in MS, KIR4.1, which may provide further insight into MS pathophysiology. PMID:24175156

Boster, Aaron L.; Racke, Michael K.

2013-01-01

43

An earthquake detection algorithm with pseudo-probabilities of multiple indicators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop an automatic earthquake detection algorithm combining information from numerous indicator variables in a non-parametric framework. The method is shown to perform well with multiple ratios of moving short- and long-time averages having ranges of time intervals and frequency bands. The results from each indicator are transformed to a pseudo-probability time-series (PPTS) in the range [0, 1]. The various PPTS of the different indicators are multiplied to form a single joint PPTS that is used for detections. Since all information is combined, redundancy among the different indicators produces robust peaks in the output. This allows the trigger threshold applied to the joint PPTS to be significantly lower than for any one detector, leading to substantially more detected earthquakes. Application of the algorithm to a small data set recorded during a 7-d window by 13 stations near the San Jacinto fault zone detects 3.13 times as many earthquakes as listed in the Southern California Seismic Network catalogue. The method provides a convenient statistical platform for including other indicators, and may utilize different sets of indicators to detect other information such as specific seismic phases or tremor.

Ross, Z. E.; Ben-Zion, Y.

2014-04-01

44

Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

New therapies challenge the very definition of multiple sclerosis (MS). By classic definitions, MS is a chronic neurological\\u000a disease characterized by plaques or scars in the central nervous system (CNS) as a result of demyelization and atrophy of\\u000a neuronal axons. However, for most diagnosed with MS, symptoms and progression are much more heterogeneous than that definition\\u000a would imply. For most

M. Patricia Leuschen; Kathleen M. Healey; Mary L. Filipi

45

Multiple osteochondromas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple osteochondromas (MO) is characterised by development of two or more cartilage capped bony outgrowths (osteochondromas) of the long bones. The prevalence is estimated at 1:50,000, and it seems to be higher in males (male-to-female ratio 1.5:1). Osteochondromas develop and increase in size in the first decade of life, ceasing to grow when the growth plates close at puberty. They

Judith VMG Bovée

2008-01-01

46

Multiple Reflections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity on multiple reflections is produced by the International Society for Optical Engineering, the Optical Society of America, and the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy. Two plane rectangular mirrors, that meet on one edge, produce various reflection patterns. Students learn the relationship between the number of images produced and the orientation of the two mirrors. The site lists all necessary tools and materials and includes numerous helpful photographs and diagrams.

2009-01-13

47

Long Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet offers an interactive version of the standard "long" multiplication algorithm. Click any digit of either multiplicand slightly off-center (left to increase, right to decrease) and watch the corresponding products change accordingly. In addition to check-boxes to toggle the appearance of trailing zeros and other display choices, the applet also lets you change bases -- from base 3 to base 36.

Interactive Math Miscellany And Puzzles, Alexander B.

2011-01-01

48

Multiple beamforming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beamforming techniques are generally based on the assumption that the received signal arrives from a single source. In a realistic situation, however, there is more than one source present and these sources can interact with each other in the beamformer. This paper describes a method that allows us to form multiple beams in order to steer the receiver toward two or more sound sources simultaneously. The main advantage of this procedure is that it includes the full interactions of the different sources in the beamformer. It describes a multiple beamformer in which the interaction of different sources is included in the algorithm. The maximum likelihood principle is used to find the different source amplitude and bearing estimates. The performance of the algorithm is compared for varying conditions with the Cramer-Rao lower bound. Two pre-processors necessary and suitable to ensure globally optimized results are derived from the ideas of Pisarenko and Prony. Finally, a post-processor is proposed to evaluate the success of the multiple beamformer.

Zimmer, W. M. X.

1985-07-01

49

Using Support Vector Machines with Multiple Indices of Diffusion for Automated Classification of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Few studies have looked at the potential of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in conjunction with machine learning algorithms in order to automate the classification of healthy older subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here we apply DTI to 40 healthy older subjects and 33 MCI subjects in order to derive values for multiple indices of diffusion within the white matter voxels of each subject. DTI measures were then used together with support vector machines (SVMs) to classify control and MCI subjects. Greater than 90% sensitivity and specificity was achieved using this method, demonstrating the potential of a joint DTI and SVM pipeline for fast, objective classification of healthy older and MCI subjects. Such tools may be useful for large scale drug trials in Alzheimer's disease where the early identification of subjects with MCI is critical. PMID:22384251

O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O.; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Desmond; Bartley, Máiréad; Collins, D. Rónán; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

2012-01-01

50

Using support vector machines with multiple indices of diffusion for automated classification of mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Few studies have looked at the potential of using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in conjunction with machine learning algorithms in order to automate the classification of healthy older subjects and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Here we apply DTI to 40 healthy older subjects and 33 MCI subjects in order to derive values for multiple indices of diffusion within the white matter voxels of each subject. DTI measures were then used together with support vector machines (SVMs) to classify control and MCI subjects. Greater than 90% sensitivity and specificity was achieved using this method, demonstrating the potential of a joint DTI and SVM pipeline for fast, objective classification of healthy older and MCI subjects. Such tools may be useful for large scale drug trials in Alzheimer's disease where the early identification of subjects with MCI is critical. PMID:22384251

O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L W; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Desmond; Bartley, Máiréad; Collins, D Rónán; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

2012-01-01

51

An array sensor consisting of a single indicator with multiple concentrations and its application in ion discrimination.  

PubMed

Optical sensor arrays typically require a large set of chemically responsive colorants to enhance discrimination capability. Conversely, we have proven that by using multiple concentrations of one indicator, the discrimination of various analytes could be realized. PMID:25350153

Li, Hui; Jia, Mingyan; Askim, Jon R; Zhang, Yu; Duan, Chunfeng; Guan, Yafeng; Feng, Liang

2014-12-18

52

Large-Scale Diversity of Slope Fishes: Pattern Inconsistency between Multiple Diversity Indices  

PubMed Central

Large-scale studies focused on the diversity of continental slope ecosystems are still rare, usually restricted to a limited number of diversity indices and mainly based on the empirical comparison of heterogeneous local data sets. In contrast, we investigate large-scale fish diversity on the basis of multiple diversity indices and using 1454 standardized trawl hauls collected throughout the upper and middle slope of the whole northern Mediterranean Sea (36°3?- 45°7? N; 5°3?W - 28°E). We have analyzed (1) the empirical relationships between a set of 11 diversity indices in order to assess their degree of complementarity/redundancy and (2) the consistency of spatial patterns exhibited by each of the complementary groups of indices. Regarding species richness, our results contrasted both the traditional view based on the hump-shaped theory for bathymetric pattern and the commonly-admitted hypothesis of a large-scale decreasing trend correlated with a similar gradient of primary production in the Mediterranean Sea. More generally, we found that the components of slope fish diversity we analyzed did not always show a consistent pattern of distribution according either to depth or to spatial areas, suggesting that they are not driven by the same factors. These results, which stress the need to extend the number of indices traditionally considered in diversity monitoring networks, could provide a basis for rethinking not only the methodological approach used in monitoring systems, but also the definition of priority zones for protection. Finally, our results call into question the feasibility of properly investigating large-scale diversity patterns using a widespread approach in ecology, which is based on the compilation of pre-existing heterogeneous and disparate data sets, in particular when focusing on indices that are very sensitive to sampling design standardization, such as species richness. PMID:23843962

Gaertner, Jean-Claude; Colloca, Francesco; Politou, Chrissi-Yianna; Gil De Sola, Luis; Bertrand, Jacques A.; Murenu, Matteo; Durbec, Jean-Pierre; Kallianiotis, Argyris; Mannini, Alessandro

2013-01-01

53

Multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifocal demyelinating disease with progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response to self-antigens in a genetically susceptible individual. While the formation and persistence of meningeal lymphoid follicles suggest persistence of antigens to drive the continuing inflammatory and humoral response, the identity of an antigen or infectious agent leading to the oligoclonal expansion of B and T cells is unknown. In this review we examine new paradigms for understanding the immunopathology of MS, present recent data defining the common genetic variants underlying disease susceptibility, and explore how improved understanding of immune pathway disruption can inform MS prognosis and treatment decisions. PMID:22466660

Nylander, Alyssa; Hafler, David A.

2012-01-01

54

Multiple indices of diffusion identifies white matter damage in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

The study of multiple indices of diffusion, including axial (DA), radial (DR) and mean diffusion (MD), as well as fractional anisotropy (FA), enables WM damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD) to be assessed in detail. Here, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were performed on scans of 40 healthy elders, 19 non-amnestic MCI (MCIna) subjects, 14 amnestic MCI (MCIa) subjects and 9 AD patients. Significantly higher DA was found in MCIna subjects compared to healthy elders in the right posterior cingulum/precuneus. Significantly higher DA was also found in MCIa subjects compared to healthy elders in the left prefrontal cortex, particularly in the forceps minor and uncinate fasciculus. In the MCIa versus MCIna comparison, significantly higher DA was found in large areas of the left prefrontal cortex. For AD patients, the overlap of FA and DR changes and the overlap of FA and MD changes were seen in temporal, parietal and frontal lobes, as well as the corpus callosum and fornix. Analysis of differences between the AD versus MCIna, and AD versus MCIa contrasts, highlighted regions that are increasingly compromised in more severe disease stages. Microstructural damage independent of gross tissue loss was widespread in later disease stages. Our findings suggest a scheme where WM damage begins in the core memory network of the temporal lobe, cingulum and prefrontal regions, and spreads beyond these regions in later stages. DA and MD indices were most sensitive at detecting early changes in MCIa. PMID:21738785

O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L W; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Des; Bartley, Máiréad; Collins, D Rónán; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

2011-01-01

55

Economic Adversity and Children's Sleep Problems: Multiple Indicators and Moderation of Effects  

PubMed Central

Objective Toward explicating relations between economic adversity and children’s sleep, we examined associations between multiple indicators of socioeconomic status (SES)/adversity and children’s objectively and subjectively derived sleep parameters; ethnicity was examined as potential moderator. Methods Participants were 276 third- and fourth-grade children and their families (133 girls; M age = 9.44 years; SD = .71): 66% European American (EA) and 34% African American (AA). Four SES indicators were used: income-to-needs ratio, perceived economic well-being, maternal education, and community poverty. Children wore actigraphs for 7 nights and completed a self-report measure to assess sleep problems. Results Objectively and subjectively assessed sleep parameters were related to different SES indicators, and overall worse sleep was evident for children from lower SES homes. Specifically, children from homes with lower income-to-needs ratios had higher levels of reported sleep/wake problems. Parental perceived economic well-being was associated with shorter sleep minutes and greater variability in sleep onset for children. Lower mother’s education was associated with lower sleep efficiency. Children who attended Title 1 schools had shorter sleep minutes. Ethnicity was a significant moderator of effects in the link between some SES indicators and children’s sleep. AA children’s sleep was more negatively affected by income-to-needs ratio and mother’s education than was the sleep of EA children. Conclusions The results advocate for the importance of specifying particular SES and sleep variables used because they may affect the ability to detect associations between sleep and economic adversity. PMID:23148451

El-Sheikh, Mona; Bagley, Erika J.; Keiley, Margaret; Elmore-Staton, Lori; Chen, Edith; Buckhalt, Joseph A.

2014-01-01

56

Adolescent Non-Involvement in Multiple Risk Behaviors: An Indicator of Successful Development?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the conceptualization of successful development as the joint maximization of desirable outcomes and minimization of undesirable outcomes (Baltes, 1997), the present study examined connections between adolescent non-involvement in multiple risk behaviors and positive developmental status. Results from a survey of 7290 high school students were used to define four profiles of risk behavior involvement (complete non-involvement, some involvement,

Teena Willoughby; Heather Chalmers; Michael A. Busseri; Sandra Bosacki; Diane Dupont; Zopito Marini; Linda Rose-Krasnor; Stan Sadava; Anthony Ward; Vera Woloshyn

2007-01-01

57

Adolescent Non-Involvement in Multiple Risk Behaviors: An Indicator of Successful Development?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on the conceptualization of successful development as the joint maximization of desirable outcomes and minimization of undesirable outcomes (Baltes, 1997), the present study examined connections between adolescent non-involvement in multiple risk behaviors and positive developmental status. Results from a survey of 7290 high school students…

Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather; Busseri, Michael A.; Bosacki, Sandra; Dupont, Diane; Marini, Zopito; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Sadava, Stan; Ward, Anthony; Woloshyn, Vera

2007-01-01

58

Information Processing and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Indices of Brain Pathology in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Accumulation of central nervous system (CNS) pathology affects cognitive processing speed and efficiency and is thought to underlie attentional and executive deficits in multiple sclerosis (MS). Most clinical neuropsychological tests are multifactorial and are limited in their sensitivity to specific cognitive processes. This may, in part, account for the low to moderate correlations between clinical test results and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indices of brain pathology. We compared the ability of a clinical and an experimental test of cognitive processing speed to differentiate domain-specific cognitive changes in MS, and examined relations between test performance and MRI measures of brain pathology. Twelve MS patients and 12 controls completed the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and the Attention Networks Test–Interactions (ANT-I), a computerized response latency task. Subjects also had MRI scans that included T1, T2, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequences that provided global and localized volumetric measures. Patients made more errors on the PASAT and were slower on the ANT-I. The ANT-I also revealed specific deficits in response inhibition. In addition, ANT-I performance was associated with changes in a number of MRI measures, which was not the case for the PASAT. Reaction time paradigms that manipulate within-task demands on distinct cognitive functions may provide meaningful markers of brain disease burden in MS. PMID:24453738

Fisk, John D.; Klein, Raymond M.; Schmidt, Matthias; Darvesh, Sultan; Bhan, Virender

2012-01-01

59

A Multiple Indicators Multiple Cause (MIMIC) model of respiratory health and household factors in Chinese children: the seven Northeastern cities (SNEC) study.  

PubMed

In China, with the rapid economic development and improvement of living standards over the past few decades, the household living environment has shifted dramatically. The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of home environment factors on respiratory symptoms and asthma in Chinese children. Investigators analyzed data collected in the 25 districts from the seven Northeastern cities to examine health effects on respiratory symptoms and asthma in 31,049 children aged 2-14 years. Factor analysis was used to reduce 33 children's lifestyle and household variables to six new 'factor' variables. The multiple indicators multiple causes approach was used to examine the relationship between indoor air pollution and respiratory health status, controlling for covariates. Factor analyses generated six factor variables of potential household risk factors from an original list of 33 variables. The respiratory symptoms and asthma were significantly associated with the recent home renovation factor (estimate = 0.076, p < 0.001), pet ownership factor (estimate = 0.095, p < 0.001), environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure factor (estimate = 0.181, p < 0.001) and PVC-flooring factor (estimate = 0.031, p = 0.007). Home ventilation factor was not related to any respiratory condition (estimate = 0.028, p = 0.074). Independent respiratory health effects existed for multiple household environmental factors recent home renovation, pet ownership, ETS, and PVC-flooring. PMID:23440490

Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin; Fu, Qiang; Wang, Jing; Trevathan, Edwin; Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui; Ong, Kee-Hean; Ferguson, Tekeda Freeman; Riley, Erin; Simckes, Maayan

2014-01-01

60

The receiver operational characteristic for binary classification with multiple indices and its application to the neuroimaging study of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Given a single index, the receiver operational characteristic (ROC) curve analysis is routinely utilized for characterizing performances in distinguishing two conditions/groups in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Given the availability of multiple data sources (referred to as multi-indices), such as multimodal neuroimaging data sets, cognitive tests, and clinical ratings and genomic data in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) studies, the single-index-based ROC underutilizes all available information. For a long time, a number of algorithmic/analytic approaches combining multiple indices have been widely used to simultaneously incorporate multiple sources. In this study, we propose an alternative for combining multiple indices using logical operations, such as “AND,” “OR,” and “at least n” (where n is an integer), to construct multivariate ROC (multiV-ROC) and characterize the sensitivity and specificity statistically associated with the use of multiple indices. With and without the “leave-one-out” cross-validation, we used two data sets from AD studies to showcase the potentially increased sensitivity/specificity of the multiV-ROC in comparison to the single-index ROC and linear discriminant analysis (an analytic way of combining multi-indices). We conclude that, for the data sets we investigated, the proposed multiV-ROC approach is capable of providing a natural and practical alternative with improved classification accuracy as compared to univariate ROC and linear discriminant analysis. PMID:23702553

Wu, Xia; Li, Juan; Ayutyanont, Napatkamon; Protas, Hillary; Jagust, William; Fleisher, Adam; Reiman, Eric; Yao, Li; Chen, Kewei

2013-01-01

61

Modeling Multiplication with Fractions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will relate multiplication strategies with fractions through problem solving situations. This lesson connects prior understanding of multiplication and equal groups to multiplication of fractions.

Ratasky, Joseph

2012-08-18

62

Multiple System Atrophy  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Multiple System Atrophy Information Page Condensed from Multiple System Atrophy Fact Sheet Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multiple System Atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

63

Using Multiple Calibration Indices in Order to Capture the Complex Picture of What Affects Students' Accuracy of Feeling of Confidence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study used multiple calibration indices to capture the complex picture of fifth graders' calibration of feeling of confidence in mathematics. Specifically, the effects of gender, type of mathematical problem, instruction method, and time of measurement (before and after problem solving) on calibration skills were investigated. Fourteen…

Boekaerts, Monique; Rozendaal, Jeroen S.

2010-01-01

64

Increased functional connectivity indicates the severity of cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Correlations in spontaneous brain activity provide powerful access to large-scale organizational principles of the CNS. However, making inferences about cognitive processes requires a detailed understanding of the link between these couplings and the structural integrity of the CNS. We studied the impact of multiple sclerosis, which leads to the severe disintegration of the central white matter, on functional connectivity patterns in spontaneous cortical activity. Using a data driven approach based on the strength of a salient pattern of cognitive pathology, we identified distinct networks that exhibit increases in functional connectivity despite the presence of strong and diffuse reductions of the central white-matter integrity. The default mode network emerged as a core target of these connectivity modulations, showing enhanced functional coupling in bilateral inferior parietal cortex, posterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortex. These findings imply a complex and diverging relation of anatomical and functional connectivity in early multiple sclerosis and, thus, add an important observation for understanding how cognitive abilities and CNS integrity may be reflected in the intrinsic covariance of functional signals. PMID:22065778

Hawellek, David J; Hipp, Joerg F; Lewis, Christopher M; Corbetta, Maurizio; Engel, Andreas K

2011-11-22

65

Multiple Assessments for Multiple Intelligences. Third Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is designed to align assessment with instructional practices that promote the development of the multiple intelligences outlined by Howard Gardner. To facilitate the use of multiple assessments for the multiple intelligences, the information in this book is transferable to the classroom. The book explains how a teacher can design…

Bellanca, James; Chapman, Carolyn; Swartz, Elizabeth

66

Multiple Episodes of Recent Gully Activity Indicated by Gully Fan Stratigraphy in Eastern Promethei Terra, Mars.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction Gullies are considered among the youngest geomorphic features on Mars based upon their stratigraphic relationships, superposition on steep slopes and distinctive morphology in unconsolidated sediment. Multiple formation hypotheses have been proposed, which can be divided into three broad classes: entirely dry mechanisms (e.g., [1,2]), wet mechanisms invoking groundwater or ground ice (e.g., [3,4]) and wet mechanisms invoking surficial meltwater (e.g., [5,6,7,8]). It has been difficult to differentiate between these hypotheses based upon past observations and it remains possible that gullies are polygenetic landforms. This study presents stratigraphic relationships in the depositional fan of a crater wall gully system that suggest: (1) multiple episodes of alluvial fan-style deposition, (2) very recent depositional activity that is younger than a newly recognized rayed crater, and (3) surficial snowmelt as the most likely source of these multiple episodes of recent gully activity. Gully-Fan Stratigraphy In Eastern Promethei Terra an ~5 km-diameter crater is observed with a well-developed gully system (Fig. 1) and several smaller gullies in its northnortheast wall. The large gully system (composed of a small western gully and larger eastern gully) shows evidence for incision into the crater wall country rock and has multiple contributory sub-alcoves and channels. The depositional fan associated with this gully system is bounded on its western side by a small arcuate ridge swell that is not observed on the eastern side of the fan. This ridge is interpreted as a moraine-like structure that may have bounded a glacially-formed depression into which the fan is deposited [8]. Similar depressions with bounding ridges are commonly observed in this latitude band (~30-50°S) in association with deeply incised gully alcoves [9,10,11]. This gully fan is composed of multiple lobes with distinct lobe contacts, incised channels, and cut-andfill deposits - all features similar to those seen in terrestrial alluvial fans [12,13]. The western portion of the fan is contained within the depression, while the younger eastern portion overlies and obscures any potential evidence of the ridge structure. A very striking and unusual feature of this gully fan is the large number of superposed impact craters; due to their density and similar diameter, we interpret these to be secondary craters from a large nearby primary impact crater. The depositional lobes of the fan can be divided into two groups: 1) those that predate the secondary crater population and 2) younger lobes that are superposed on the secondary craters. Numerous secondary craters (~1-25 m-diameter) superpose the lowermost stratigraphic lobe (Fig. 1, A), while at least three younger lobes (Fig. 1, C1, D1, and D2) directly superpose the cratered lobe. The emplacement date of these secondaries provides a robust maximum age for the youngest lobes of this fan, and therefore the most recent fluvial activity of the gully. Most gullies either have no superposed impact craters [3,7] or are too small to date with any certainty using crater counts [14]. Therefore, locating and dating the parent impact crater of these secondaries is critical to constrain the chronology and origin of gully systems. Rayed-Crater Source of the Secondary Craters Regional reconnaissance for the origin of the secondary craters led to the discovery of a previously unidentified rayed crater complex (consisting of an ~18 km-diameter outer crater and an ~7 km-diameter inner crater) approximately 175 km southwest of the gully system. Distinctive rays are observed in THEMIS nighttime thermal inertia data, but are not observable as albedo contrasts in THEMIS visible data, consistent with other identifications of young rayed craters on Mars [15,16]. The rims of both craters are distinct and consistent with the morphology of very young impact craters on Mars. The inner crater has a greater depth to diameter ratio than the outer crater (0.121 compared to 0.073), consistent with young Martian craters [17]. Both the ou

Schon, S.; Head, J.; Fassett, C.

2008-09-01

67

Ischemia modified albumin is an indicator of oxidative stress in multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Oligodendrocytes need iron in processes of energy generation and myelination. However, excessive levels of iron may exert iron induced oxidative stress and thus lead to tissue degeneration. Monitoring oxidative stress will be of paramount importance in follow-up of patients with many diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to measure total anti-oxidative status (TAS), total oxidative status (TOS) and ischemia modified albumin (IMA) in stable relapse remitting MS (RRMS) patients. Materials and methods: Thirty-five RRMS patients (15 males and 20 females; median age 42 (20–55) years) and thirty-five age-sex matched healthy controls (13 males and 22 females; median age 37 (21–60) years) were included in this study. All patients were diagnosed with MS according to the criteria of McDonald. Results: IMA levels were significantly higher in RRMS patients (P < 0.001), while TAS and TOS did not show any significant difference between groups (P = 0.870 and P = 0.460, respectively). Conclusions: Our results suggest IMA as a more efficient serum marker than TAS and TOS in detecting the oxidative stress in MS patients. Serum oxidative stress markers should be included in future study protocols besides clinical and radiological parameters.

Aydin, Ozgur; Ellidag, Hamit Yasar; Eren, Esin; Kurtulus, Fatma; Yaman, Aylin; Y?lmaz, Necat

2014-01-01

68

Factorial Invariance in Multiple Populations: A Multiple Testing Procedure  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A multiple testing method for examining factorial invariance for latent constructs evaluated by multiple indicators in distinct populations is outlined. The procedure is based on the false discovery rate concept and multiple individual restriction tests and resolves general limitations of a popular factorial invariance testing approach. The…

Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.; Millsap, Roger E.

2013-01-01

69

Evaluating multiple indices of agricultural water use efficiency and productivity to improve comparisons between sites and trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approximately 70% of global available freshwater supplies are used in the agricultural sector. Increased demands for water to meet growing population food requirements, and expected changes in the reliability of freshwater supplies due to climate change, threaten the sustainability of water supplies worldwide - not only on farms, but in connected cities and industries. Researchers concerned with agricultural water use sustainability use a variety of theoretical and empirical measures of efficiency and productivity to gain insight into the sustainability of agricultural water use. However, definitions of measures, or indices, vary between different natural and political boundaries, across regions, states and nations and between their respective research, industry, and environmental groups. Index development responds to local data availability and local agendas, and there is debate about the validity of various indices. However, real differences in empirical index measures are not well-understood across the multiple disciplines that study agricultural water use, including engineering and hydrology, agronomy, climate and soil sciences, and economics. Nevertheless reliable, accessible, and generalizable indices are required for planners and policymakers to promote sustainable water use systems. This study synthesizes a set of water use efficiency and productivity indices based on academic, industry and government literature in California and Australia, two locations with similarly water-stressed and valuable agricultural industries under pressure to achieve optimal water use efficiency and productivity. Empirical data at the irrigation district level from the California San Joaquin Valley and Murray Darling Basin states of Victoria and New South Wales in Australia are used to compute indices that estimate efficiency, yield productivity, and economic productivity of agricultural water use. Multiple index estimates of same time-series data demonstrate historical spread in efficiency and productivity measures in different agricultural regions. Individual indices consistently over- or under- estimate trends in efficiency and productivity by their construction, and may provide inaccurate results in years with extreme climatic events, such as droughts. By treating multiple indices as an "ensemble" of measures, analogous to the treatment of multiple climate model predictions, this study quantifies likely "true" states of efficiency and productivity in the selected agricultural regions, and error in individual indices. While different individual indices are preferable at different scales, and relative to the quality of available input data, ensemble indices can be more reliably used in comparative study across different agricultural regions, and for prediction.

Levy, M. C.

2012-12-01

70

Indication of transverse radial flow in high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider  

E-print Network

We analyze the measured spectra of $\\pi^\\pm$, $K^\\pm$, $p$($\\bar p$) in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt {s}$ = 0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV, in the light of blast-wave model to extract the transverse radial flow velocity and kinetic temperature at freeze-out for the system formed in $pp$ collisions. The dependency of the blast-wave parameters on average charged particle multiplicity of event sample or the `centrality' of collisions has been studied and compared with results of similar analysis in nucleus-nucleus ($AA$) and proton-nucleus ($pA$) collisions. We analyze the spectra of $K_{s}^0$, $\\Lambda$($\\bar \\Lambda$) and $\\Xi^-$ also to see the dependence of blast-wave description on the species of produced particles. Within the framework of the blast-wave model, the study reveals indication of collective behavior for high-multiplicity events in $pp$ collisions at LHC. Strong transverse radial flow in high multiplicity $pp$ collisions and its comparison with that in $pA$ and $AA$ collisions match with predictions from a very recent theoretical work [Shuryak and Zahed 2013 arXiv:1301.4470] that addresses the conditions for applicability of hydrodynamics in $pp$ and $pA$ collisions.

Premomoy Ghosh; Sanjib Muhuri; Jajati k. Nayak; Raghava Varma

2014-02-27

71

[Association between the percentages of typical forms, acrosome abnormalities and the multiple anomalies indices: potential quality indicators?].  

PubMed

In addition to NF EN ISO 15189, the second version of "GBEA AMP", published in the official journal of the French Republic, had set for "AMP" exams, the actions to be implemented in order to achieve an efficient quality management system. As part of continuous improvement of quality, and besides our external and internal quality systems, we have been developping indicators that will allow an early detection of potential drifts within operators performing sperm morphology testing. We have extracted nearly 1900 sperm morphology tests from our database. These tests were performed by three operators. The analysis of the data collected has shown a cross correlation between the percentages of typical forms, malformative acrosomes and "MAI". We have been using these correlations as quality indicators in our laboratory in order to highlight any potential drift in reading sperm morphology tests. PMID:22294144

Laudat, Antoine; Lecourbe, Karine; Joyeux, Claudine; Burc-Struxiano, Laurence

2012-01-01

72

Analyzing latent state-trait and multiple-indicator latent growth curve models as multilevel structural equation models.  

PubMed

Latent state-trait (LST) and latent growth curve (LGC) models are frequently used in the analysis of longitudinal data. Although it is well-known that standard single-indicator LGC models can be analyzed within either the structural equation modeling (SEM) or multilevel (ML; hierarchical linear modeling) frameworks, few researchers realize that LST and multivariate LGC models, which use multiple indicators at each time point, can also be specified as ML models. In the present paper, we demonstrate that using the ML-SEM rather than the SL-SEM framework to estimate the parameters of these models can be practical when the study involves (1) a large number of time points, (2) individually-varying times of observation, (3) unequally spaced time intervals, and/or (4) incomplete data. Despite the practical advantages of the ML-SEM approach under these circumstances, there are also some limitations that researchers should consider. We present an application to an ecological momentary assessment study (N = 158 youths with an average of 23.49 observations of positive mood per person) using the software Mplus (Muthén and Muthén, 1998-2012) and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using the ML-SEM approach to estimate the parameters of LST and multiple-indicator LGC models. PMID:24416023

Geiser, Christian; Bishop, Jacob; Lockhart, Ginger; Shiffman, Saul; Grenard, Jerry L

2013-01-01

73

Analyzing latent state-trait and multiple-indicator latent growth curve models as multilevel structural equation models  

PubMed Central

Latent state-trait (LST) and latent growth curve (LGC) models are frequently used in the analysis of longitudinal data. Although it is well-known that standard single-indicator LGC models can be analyzed within either the structural equation modeling (SEM) or multilevel (ML; hierarchical linear modeling) frameworks, few researchers realize that LST and multivariate LGC models, which use multiple indicators at each time point, can also be specified as ML models. In the present paper, we demonstrate that using the ML-SEM rather than the SL-SEM framework to estimate the parameters of these models can be practical when the study involves (1) a large number of time points, (2) individually-varying times of observation, (3) unequally spaced time intervals, and/or (4) incomplete data. Despite the practical advantages of the ML-SEM approach under these circumstances, there are also some limitations that researchers should consider. We present an application to an ecological momentary assessment study (N = 158 youths with an average of 23.49 observations of positive mood per person) using the software Mplus (Muthén and Muthén, 1998–2012) and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using the ML-SEM approach to estimate the parameters of LST and multiple-indicator LGC models. PMID:24416023

Geiser, Christian; Bishop, Jacob; Lockhart, Ginger; Shiffman, Saul; Grenard, Jerry L.

2013-01-01

74

ISIM3D: AN ANSI-C THREE-DIMENSIONAL MULTIPLE INDICATOR CONDITIONAL SIMULATION PROGRAM  

EPA Science Inventory

The indicator conditional simulation technique provides stochastic simulations of a variable that (i) honor the initial data and (ii) can feature a richer family of spatial structures not limited by Gaussianity. he data are encoded into a series of indicators which then are used ...

75

Power of Alternative Fit Indices for Multiple Group Longitudinal Tests of Measurement Invariance  

E-print Network

a Monte Carlo simulation to examine the power of change in alternative fit indices to detect two types of measurement invariance, weak and strong, across a variety of manipulated study conditions including sample size, sample size ratio, lack...

Short, Stephen David

2014-05-31

76

Comparison of drought indicators derived from multiple data sets over Africa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drought monitoring is a key component to mitigate impacts of droughts. Lack of reliable and up-to-date precipitation data sets is a common challenge across the globe. This study investigates different data sets and drought indicators on their capability to improve drought monitoring in Africa. The study was performed for four river basins located in different climatic regions (the Oum er-Rbia in Morocco, the Blue Nile in eastern Africa, the Upper Niger in western Africa, and the Limpopo in southeastern Africa) as well as the Greater Horn of Africa. The five precipitation data sets compared are the ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite monthly rainfall product 3B-43, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre gridded precipitation data set, the Global Precipitation Climatology Project Global Monthly Merged Precipitation Analyses, and the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation. The set of drought indicators used includes the Standardized Precipitation Index, the Standardized Precipitation-Evaporation Index, and Soil Moisture Anomalies. A comparison of the annual cycle and monthly precipitation time series shows a good agreement in the timing of the rainy seasons. The main differences between the data sets are in the ability to represent the magnitude of the wet seasons and extremes. Moreover, for the areas affected by drought, all the drought indicators agree on the time of drought onset and recovery although there is disagreement on the extent of the affected area. In regions with limited rain gauge data the estimation of the different drought indicators is characterized by a higher uncertainty. Further comparison suggests that the main source of differences in the computation of the drought indicators is the uncertainty in the precipitation data sets rather than the estimation of the distribution parameters of the drought indicators.

Naumann, G.; Dutra, E.; Barbosa, P.; Pappenberger, F.; Wetterhall, F.; Vogt, J. V.

2014-05-01

77

Indication of colloidal calcium in freshwaters using multiple processing and analysis tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of freshwaters indicate that Ca is retained during ultrafiltration together with colloidal material. It has been uncertain however if the retained fraction of Ca is actually associated with the colloidal material or if the enrichment is an artefact. Experimental studies have clearly shown that free Ca ions can be retained during ultrafiltration. This retention is claimed to originate from

R. Dahlqvist; M. Benedetti; K. Andersson; J. Ingri

2003-01-01

78

Multiple Reproducibility Indices for Evaluation of Cognitive Functional MR Imaging Paradigms  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a variety of reproducibility indices for cognitive functional MR imaging (fMRI) paradigms that account for both overlapping and extraneous regions of activation. METHODS: Eight right-handed volunteers were imaged with fMRI by using a word-genera- tion paradigm and a forward-backward text-listening paradigm. The paradigms were per- formed twice in the

Joseph A. Maldjian; Paul J. Laurienti; Lance Driskill; Jonathan H. Burdette

79

Multiple-Ring Digital Communication Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optical-fiber digital communication network to support data-acquisition and control functions of electric-power-distribution networks. Optical-fiber links of communication network follow power-distribution routes. Since fiber crosses open power switches, communication network includes multiple interconnected loops with occasional spurs. At each intersection node is needed. Nodes of communication network include power-distribution substations and power-controlling units. In addition to serving data acquisition and control functions, each node acts as repeater, passing on messages to next node(s). Multiple-ring communication network operates on new AbNET protocol and features fiber-optic communication.

Kirkham, Harold

1992-01-01

80

Multiple convergent evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites indicates the primacy of ecology  

PubMed Central

Frequent convergent evolution in phylogenetically unrelated taxa points to the importance of ecological factors during evolution, whereas convergent evolution in closely related taxa indicates the importance of favourable pre-existing characters (pre-adaptations). We investigated the transitions to arboreal life in oribatid mites (Oribatida, Acari), a group of mostly soil-living arthropods. We evaluated which general force—ecological factors, historical constraints or chance—was dominant in the evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites. A phylogenetic study of 51 oribatid mite species and four outgroup taxa, using the ribosomal 18S rDNA region, indicates that arboreal life evolved at least 15 times independently. Arboreal oribatid mite species are not randomly distributed in the phylogenetic tree, but are concentrated among strongly sclerotized, sexual and evolutionary younger taxa. They convergently evolved a capitate sensillus, an anemoreceptor that either precludes overstimulation in the exposed bark habitat or functions as a gravity receptor. Sexual reproduction and strong sclerotization were important pre-adaptations for colonizing the bark of trees that facilitated the exploitation of living resources (e.g. lichens) and served as predator defence, respectively. Overall, our results indicate that ecological factors are most important for the observed pattern of convergent evolution of arboreal life in oribatid mites, supporting an adaptationist view of evolution. PMID:19535377

Maraun, Mark; Erdmann, Georgia; Schulz, Garvin; Norton, Roy A.; Scheu, Stefan; Domes, Katja

2009-01-01

81

Neural network models for earthquake magnitude prediction using multiple seismicity indicators.  

PubMed

Neural networks are investigated for predicting the magnitude of the largest seismic event in the following month based on the analysis of eight mathematically computed parameters known as seismicity indicators. The indicators are selected based on the Gutenberg-Richter and characteristic earthquake magnitude distribution and also on the conclusions drawn by recent earthquake prediction studies. Since there is no known established mathematical or even empirical relationship between these indicators and the location and magnitude of a succeeding earthquake in a particular time window, the problem is modeled using three different neural networks: a feed-forward Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation (LMBP) neural network, a recurrent neural network, and a radial basis function (RBF) neural network. Prediction accuracies of the models are evaluated using four different statistical measures: the probability of detection, the false alarm ratio, the frequency bias, and the true skill score or R score. The models are trained and tested using data for two seismically different regions: Southern California and the San Francisco bay region. Overall the recurrent neural network model yields the best prediction accuracies compared with LMBP and RBF networks. While at the present earthquake prediction cannot be made with a high degree of certainty this research provides a scientific approach for evaluating the short-term seismic hazard potential of a region. PMID:17393560

Panakkat, Ashif; Adeli, Hojjat

2007-02-01

82

Seasonal changes in multiple indices of body composition in professional football players.  

PubMed

We examined the seasonal variability of indicators of adiposity and generic and population-specific equations of estimating body fat in professional football players. Anthropometric data of 35 outfield players (age, 20±4 years; stature, 1.82±0.06?m; body mass 77.1±7.3?kg) were collected over a playing season. There were a significant main effects for time for all indicators (p<0.001). Post hoc analysis revealed significant changes in body composition between July and mid-August (?4SF-DW: 1.6?mm, p<0.001; ?4SF-R: 2.4?mm, p=0.002; ?5SF: 2.0?mm, p<0.002; ?8SF: 3.8?mm, p=0.001; Reilly et al.: 0.4%, p=0.001; Durnin and Wormsley: 0.7%, p<0.001). Although all indicators were sensitive to detect small changes in body composition between training mesocycles, we advocate the use of the sum of 4 skinfolds by Reilly et al. to monitor changes in body composition in professional football players; if an estimate of percent body fat is required, the population-specific equation by Reilly et al. may be utilised. PMID:24816888

Iga, J; Scott, M; George, K; Drust, B

2014-11-01

83

Method and apparatus for managing multiple lock indicators in a multiprocessor computer system  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a system for implementing exclusive read-modify-write operations. The operations having a set of distinct transactions including an interlock read command to retrieve information stored at a specified location and restrict access to the stored information by subsequent interlock read commands, and an unlock write command to store information in the specified location and restore access to the stored information. The system comprising: a pended bus; a plurality of first nodes coupled to the pended bus, each functioning as a commander node to initiate the interlock read and unlock write commands; a second node coupled to the pended bus, functioning as a responder node; storage means, including the specified location, for storing information; lock means, associated with the storage means and operable between an unlocked condition and a locked condition, for permitting access to the storage means when in an unlocked condition and for denying access to the storage means when in a locked condition; command means for generating a lock status indication; status response means for transmitting to a first node which generated an interlock means command, at an unspecified time subsequent to initiation of the interlock read command. The lock status message including the lock status indication.

Gillett, R.B. Jr.; Williams, D.D.

1989-09-19

84

Multiple Sclerosis Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... in La Junta, CO more info 06 2014 Multiple Sclerosis Foundation Gala honoring Dr. Daniel Kantor, MD in ... LLC. Website Design by SimplexWeb © Copyright 2000-2013 Multiple Sclerosis Foundation - All Rights Reserved

85

Multiple sclerosis - discharge  

MedlinePLUS

Your doctor has told you that you have multiple sclerosis. This disease affects the brain and spinal cord ( ... bladder is not working correctly. Some people with multiple sclerosis need to use a urinary catheter . This is ...

86

Multiple Intelligences and Business Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tests the viability of using Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences as a structure for identifying knowledge diversity in business students and whether such knowledge increases identification of self and others as potential sources of knowledge. The results from business students with substantial work histories indicate that the Multiple Intelligence Preference Inventory gives a valid and reliable indication of

Joyce Martin

2003-01-01

87

Indication of colloidal calcium in freshwaters using multiple processing and analysis tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies of freshwaters indicate that Ca is retained during ultrafiltration together with colloidal material. It has been uncertain however if the retained fraction of Ca is actually associated with the colloidal material or if the enrichment is an artefact. Experimental studies have clearly shown that free Ca ions can be retained during ultrafiltration. This retention is claimed to originate from electrostatic repulsion of sulphate ions by the filtration membrane, with subsequent retention of cations (including Ca) to maintain charge balance in the solution. But other studies of natural freshwaters suggest that there might also be a true colloidal fraction of Ca present. An obvious problem would be to distinguish the two causes of retention from each other. The Ca speciation in the Amazon/Purús rivers and the Kalix river (a boreal river in northern Sweden) was compared using combined analysis with ICP-MS and Ca ISE (ion-selective electrode). Analysis was performed on unfiltered samples and on solutions from cross-flow ultrafiltration experiments. Results obtained from this combined analysis of unfiltered samples from the Amazon/Púrus and Kalix rivers are in excellent agreement with each other and indicate that on average about 84% of the total Ca is in true dissolved form. The newly developed combination of flow field-flow fractionation (FlFFF) coupled on-line to ICP-MS has been used to study the size distribution and nature of colloidal material in the Kalix river. Mainly two types of colloids are present in this river. A carbon rich form, probably consisting of humic substances, and a Fe-rich form which is larger. Size distribution spectra produced with FlFFF ICP-MS show that a fraction of Ca is associated with the smaller organic rich colloidal phase. ICP-MS and ISE analysis from ultrafiltered retentate fractions show that colloidal Ca as well as free Ca2+ ions are enriched during cross-flow ultrafiltration. The results give important information about how ultrafiltration affects the sample during processing and has implications for the quantification of the colloidal fraction. The use of ISE makes colloidal quantification of Ca possible.

Dahlqvist, R.; Benedetti, M.; Andersson, K.; Ingri, J.

2003-04-01

88

Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

We Are Beating Multiple Myeloma Now. Join Us. Multiple myeloma patients have options today because the status quo just a few years ago was, ... Support our success. Donate now. If you have multiple myeloma, you have options. At the MMRF, we’re ...

89

Neutron multiplicity analysis tool  

Microsoft Academic Search

I describe the capabilities of the EXCOM (EXcel based COincidence and Multiplicity) calculation tool which is used to analyze experimental data or simulated neutron multiplicity data. The input to the program is the count-rate data (including the multiplicity distribution) for a measurement, the isotopic composition of the sample and relevant dates. The program carries out deadtime correction and background subtraction

Scott L

2010-01-01

90

Multiple sclerosis and pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis causes disability in young adults and, like most autoimmune diseases, affects women more commonly than men. The disease can therefore present at a time when many have, or are considering, starting a family. The effect of pregnancy on the outcome of multiple sclerosis is reviewed and the management of pregnant women who have multiple sclerosis is discussed. PMID:12185217

Lorenzi, A; Ford, H

2002-01-01

91

Predictive value of strength loss as an indicator of muscle damage across multiple drop jumps.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to compare the time-course of indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage after 50 and 100 drop jumps. A high-force, low intensity exercise protocol was used to avoid discrepancies regarding metabolic fatigue immediately after exercise. Healthy untrained men performed 50 ("50 group", n = 13) or 100 ("100 group", n = 13) intermittent (30-s interval between each jump) drop jumps, respectively, from the height of 0.5 m with a counter-movement to a 90° knee flexion angle and immediate maximal rebound. Voluntary and electrically evoked knee extensor strength was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer immediately before and at 2 min after exercise, as well as 3, 7, and 14 days after exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity and muscle soreness within 7 days after exercise were also determined. The results showed that the decrease in voluntary isometric and isokinetic torque as well as 100 Hz stimulation torque at the end of the 50 and 100 drop jumps was very similar, while substantial differences were found in low-frequency fatigue, shift in optimal knee joint angle, muscle soreness, and CK activity. In addition, there was slower muscle strength recovery after the 100 drop jumps. It is concluded that the predictive value of strength loss immediately after exercise as an indicator of muscle damage decreases as the jump number increases. Still, stimuli must be large enough for muscle torque to reach the reduction plateau. Therefore, magnitude of exercise becomes a major factor in accuracy of muscle damage predictions. PMID:21574783

Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Venck?nas, Tomas; Kamandulis, Sigitas

2011-06-01

92

Complete mitochondrial genome phylogeographic analysis of killer whales (Orcinus orca) indicates multiple species  

PubMed Central

Killer whales (Orcinus orca) currently comprise a single, cosmopolitan species with a diverse diet. However, studies over the last 30 yr have revealed populations of sympatric “ecotypes” with discrete prey preferences, morphology, and behaviors. Although these ecotypes avoid social interactions and are not known to interbreed, genetic studies to date have found extremely low levels of diversity in the mitochondrial control region, and few clear phylogeographic patterns worldwide. This low level of diversity is likely due to low mitochondrial mutation rates that are common to cetaceans. Using killer whales as a case study, we have developed a method to readily sequence, assemble, and analyze complete mitochondrial genomes from large numbers of samples to more accurately assess phylogeography and estimate divergence times. This represents an important tool for wildlife management, not only for killer whales but for many marine taxa. We used high-throughput sequencing to survey whole mitochondrial genome variation of 139 samples from the North Pacific, North Atlantic, and southern oceans. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that each of the known ecotypes represents a strongly supported clade with divergence times ranging from ?150,000 to 700,000 yr ago. We recommend that three named ecotypes be elevated to full species, and that the remaining types be recognized as subspecies pending additional data. Establishing appropriate taxonomic designations will greatly aid in understanding the ecological impacts and conservation needs of these important marine predators. We predict that phylogeographic mitogenomics will become an important tool for improved statistical phylogeography and more precise estimates of divergence times. PMID:20413674

Morin, Phillip A.; Archer, Frederick I.; Foote, Andrew D.; Vilstrup, Julia; Allen, Eric E.; Wade, Paul; Durban, John; Parsons, Kim; Pitman, Robert; Li, Lewyn; Bouffard, Pascal; Abel Nielsen, Sandra C.; Rasmussen, Morten; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Harkins, Timothy

2010-01-01

93

[Vaccination and multiple sclerosis].  

PubMed

Vaccinations to prevent communicable diseases are, like in other chronic diseases, of special importance in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Various bacterial and viral infections have been shown to induce relapses of MS. Reports of possible adverse effects of vaccinations on the course of multiple sclerosis have led patients and treating physicians to exercise caution in the use of vaccines. A number of vaccines have been studied with respect to the risk in MS patients. Some vaccines, for example against yellow fever, are not indicated in MS due to the risk of MS exacerbation. In contrast, tetanus or hepatitis B vaccines do not represent a risk for manifestation or disease progression of MS. Before and during immunomodulatory therapy of MS special attention should be given to adequate protection against vaccine preventable diseases.This paper reviews the indications and specific side effects of vaccinations in MS patients. Additionally, issues of vaccination under immunomodulatory therapy of MS are discussed. PMID:19838662

Löbermann, M; Winkelmann, A; Reisinger, E C; Zettl, U K

2010-02-01

94

Practice Parameters for the Non-Respiratory Indications for Polysomnography and Multiple Sleep Latency Testing for Children  

PubMed Central

Background: Although a level 1 nocturnal polysomnogram (PSG) is often used to evaluate children with non-respiratory sleep disorders, there are no published evidence-based practice parameters focused on the pediatric age group. In this report, we present practice parameters for the indications of polysomnography and the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) in the assessment of non-respiratory sleep disorders in children. These practice parameters were reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). Methods: A task force of content experts was appointed by the AASM to review the literature and grade the evidence according to the American Academy of Neurology grading system. Recommendations For PSG and MSLT Use: PSG is indicated for children suspected of having periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) for diagnosing PLMD. (STANDARD) The MSLT, preceded by nocturnal PSG, is indicated in children as part of the evaluation for suspected narcolepsy. (STANDARD) Children with frequent NREM parasomnias, epilepsy, or nocturnal enuresis should be clinically screened for the presence of comorbid sleep disorders and polysomnography should be performed if there is a suspicion for sleep-disordered breathing or periodic limb movement disorder. (GUIDELINE) The MSLT, preceded by nocturnal PSG, is indicated in children suspected of having hypersomnia from causes other than narcolepsy to assess excessive sleepiness and to aid in differentiation from narcolepsy. (OPTION) The polysomnogram using an expanded EEG montage is indicated in children to confirm the diagnosis of an atypical or potentially injurious parasomnia or differentiate a parasomnia from sleep-related epilepsy (OPTION) Polysomnography is indicated in children suspected of having restless legs syndrome (RLS) who require supportive data for diagnosing RLS. (OPTION) Recommendations Against PSG Use: Polysomnography is not routinely indicated for evaluation of children with sleep-related bruxism. (STANDARD) Conclusions: The nocturnal polysomnogram and MSLT are useful clinical tools for evaluating pediatric non-respiratory sleep disorders when integrated with the clinical evaluation. Citation: Aurora RN; Lamm CI; Zak RS; Kristo DA; Bista SR; Rowley JA; Casey KR. Practice parameters for the non-respiratory indications for polysomnography and multiple sleep latency testing for children. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1467-1473. PMID:23115395

Aurora, R. Nisha; Lamm, Carin I.; Zak, Rochelle S.; Kristo, David A.; Bista, Sabin R.; Rowley, James A.; Casey, Kenneth R.

2012-01-01

95

Multiple Core Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nuclei of galaxies often show complicated density structures and perplexing kinematic signatures. In the past we have reported numerical experiments indicating a natural tendency for galaxies to show nuclei offset with respect to nearby isophotes and for the nucleus to have a radial velocity different from the galaxy's systemic velocity. Other experiments show normal mode oscillations in galaxies with large amplitudes. These oscillations do not damp appreciably over a Hubble time. The common thread running through all these is that galaxies often show evidence of ringing, bouncing, or sloshing around in unexpected ways, even though they have not been disturbed by any external event. Recent observational evidence shows yet another phenomenon indicating the dynamical complexity of central regions of galaxies: multiple cores (M31, Markarian 315 and 463 for example). These systems can hardly be static. We noted long-lived multiple core systems in galaxies in numerical experiments some years ago, and we have more recently followed up with a series of experiments on multiple core galaxies, starting with two cores. The relevant parameters are the energy in the orbiting clumps, their relative.masses, the (local) strength of the potential well representing the parent galaxy, and the number of cores. We have studied the dependence of the merger rates and the nature of the final merger product on these parameters. Individual cores survive much longer in stronger background potentials. Cores can survive for a substantial fraction of a Hubble time if they travel on reasonable orbits.

Miller, R.H.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

96

Multiple Scattering Tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple scattering represents a challenge for numerous modern tomographic imaging techniques. In this Letter, we derive an appropriate line integral that allows for the tomographic reconstruction of angular resolved scattering distributions, even in the presence of multiple scattering. The line integral is applicable to a wide range of imaging techniques utilizing various kinds of probes. Here, we use x-ray grating interferometry to experimentally validate the framework and to demonstrate additional structural sensitivity, which exemplifies the impact of multiple scattering tomography.

Modregger, Peter; Kagias, Matias; Peter, Silvia; Abis, Matteo; Guzenko, Vitaliy A.; David, Christian; Stampanoni, Marco

2014-07-01

97

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “multiple endocrine neoplasia” was first used by Steiner in the late 1960s when he described three distinct endocrine\\u000a disorders. The first disorder, multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN 1) (also known as Wermer syndrome), described patients\\u000a with familial pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic islet cell tumors. The second syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia\\u000a type II (MEN 2) (also known as

Christine S. Landry; Thereasa Rich; Camilo Jimenez; Elizabeth G. Grubbs; Jeffrey E. Lee; Nancy D. Perrier

98

Multiple Indices of Diffusion Identifies White Matter Damage in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

The study of multiple indices of diffusion, including axial (DA), radial (DR) and mean diffusion (MD), as well as fractional anisotropy (FA), enables WM damage in Alzheimer's disease (AD) to be assessed in detail. Here, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were performed on scans of 40 healthy elders, 19 non-amnestic MCI (MCIna) subjects, 14 amnestic MCI (MCIa) subjects and 9 AD patients. Significantly higher DA was found in MCIna subjects compared to healthy elders in the right posterior cingulum/precuneus. Significantly higher DA was also found in MCIa subjects compared to healthy elders in the left prefrontal cortex, particularly in the forceps minor and uncinate fasciculus. In the MCIa versus MCIna comparison, significantly higher DA was found in large areas of the left prefrontal cortex. For AD patients, the overlap of FA and DR changes and the overlap of FA and MD changes were seen in temporal, parietal and frontal lobes, as well as the corpus callosum and fornix. Analysis of differences between the AD versus MCIna, and AD versus MCIa contrasts, highlighted regions that are increasingly compromised in more severe disease stages. Microstructural damage independent of gross tissue loss was widespread in later disease stages. Our findings suggest a scheme where WM damage begins in the core memory network of the temporal lobe, cingulum and prefrontal regions, and spreads beyond these regions in later stages. DA and MD indices were most sensitive at detecting early changes in MCIa. PMID:21738785

O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O.; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Des; Bartley, Máiréad; Collins, D. Rónán; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

2011-01-01

99

Multiple quantum solid-state NMR indicates a parallel, not antiparallel, organization of ?-sheets in Alzheimer's ?-amyloid fibrils  

PubMed Central

Senile plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease contain deposits of fibrils formed by 39- to 43-residue ?-amyloid peptides with possible neurotoxic effects. X-ray diffraction measurements on oriented fibril bundles have indicated an extended ?-sheet structure for Alzheimer's ?-amyloid fibrils and other amyloid fibrils, but the supramolecular organization of the ?-sheets and other structural details are not well established because of the intrinsically noncrystalline, insoluble nature of amyloid fibrils. Here we report solid-state NMR measurements, using a multiple quantum (MQ) 13C NMR technique, that probe the ?-sheet organization in fibrils formed by the full-length, 40-residue ?-amyloid peptide (A?1–40). Although an antiparallel ?-sheet organization often is assumed and is invoked in recent structural models for full-length ?-amyloid fibrils, the MQNMR data indicate an in-register, parallel organization. This work provides site-specific, atomic-level structural constraints on full-length ?-amyloid fibrils and applies MQNMR to a significant problem in structural biology. PMID:11069287

Antzutkin, Oleg N.; Balbach, John J.; Leapman, Richard D.; Rizzo, Nancy W.; Reed, Jennifer; Tycko, Robert

2000-01-01

100

Multiple UAV teams for multiple tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a search and prosecute mission, multiple heterogeneous unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs that carry different resources need to perform the classify, prosecute and battle damage assessment (BDA) tasks on targets sequentially. Depending on the target resource requirement, it may be necessary to deploy a coalition of UAVs to perform the action. In this paper, we propose coalition formation algorithms that

P. B. Sujit; J. Sousa; F. Pereira

2009-01-01

101

Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis in R--A Tutorial in Measurement Invariance with Continuous and Ordinal Indicators  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) is among the most productive extensions of structural equation modeling. Many researchers conducting cross-cultural or longitudinal studies are interested in testing for measurement and structural invariance. The aim of the present paper is to provide a tutorial in MG-CFA using the freely…

Hirschfeld, Gerrit; von Brachel, Ruth

2014-01-01

102

Fractions--Rectangle Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive applet provides a visual model of fraction multiplication using rectangular arrays. The applet offers both a demonstration/exploration mode ("show me") and a practice mode ("test me") in which students arrange the rectangle to display a given multiplication problem. Teaching ideas and applet instructions are available through the links at the top of the page.

2007-01-01

103

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Several genetic syndromes are associated with multiple endocrine tumors. In this chapter, we focus on Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia\\u000a (MEN) types 2 and 1. Von Hippel Lindau and Neurofibromatosis will be discussed in other sections.

Yariv J. Houvras; Gilbert H. Daniels

104

Orchestrating Multiple Intelligences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education policymakers often go astray when they attempt to integrate multiple intelligences theory into schools, according to the originator of the theory, Howard Gardner, and his colleagues. The greatest potential of a multiple intelligences approach to education grows from the concept of a profile of intelligences. Each learner's intelligence…

Moran, Seana; Kornhaber, Mindy; Gardner, Howard

2006-01-01

105

Combination of Multiple Searches  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TREC-3 project at Virginia Tech focused on methods for combining the evidence from multiple retrieval runs and queries to improve retrieval performance over any single retrieval method or query. The largest improvements result from the combination of retrieval paradigms rather than from the use of multiple similar queries.

Joseph A. Shaw; Edward A. Fox

1994-01-01

106

Different Patterns of White Matter Degeneration Using Multiple Diffusion Indices and Volumetric Data in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Patients  

PubMed Central

Alzheime?s disease (AD) represents the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that causes cognitive decline in old age. In its early stages, AD is associated with microstructural abnormalities in white matter (WM). In the current study, multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and brain volumetric measurements were employed to comprehensively investigate the landscape of AD pathology. The sample comprised 58 individuals including cognitively normal subjects (controls), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients. Relative to controls, both MCI and AD subjects showed widespread changes of anisotropic fraction (FA) in the corpus callosum, cingulate and uncinate fasciculus. Mean diffusivity and radial changes were also observed in AD patients in comparison with controls. After controlling for the gray matter atrophy the number of regions of significantly lower FA in AD patients relative to controls was decreased; nonetheless, unique areas of microstructural damage remained, e.g., the corpus callosum and uncinate fasciculus. Despite sample size limitations, the current results suggest that a combination of secondary and primary degeneration occurrs in MCI and AD, although the secondary degeneration appears to have a more critical role during the stages of disease involving dementia. PMID:23300797

Alves, Gilberto Sousa; O’Dwyer, Laurence; Jurcoane, Alina; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Knöchel, Christian; Prvulovic, David; Sudo, Felipe; Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Valente, Letice; Moreira, Denise; Fu?er, Fabian; Karakaya, Tarik; Pantel, Johannes; Engelhardt, Eliasz; Laks, Jerson

2012-01-01

107

Different patterns of white matter degeneration using multiple diffusion indices and volumetric data in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer patients.  

PubMed

Alzheime?s disease (AD) represents the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that causes cognitive decline in old age. In its early stages, AD is associated with microstructural abnormalities in white matter (WM). In the current study, multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and brain volumetric measurements were employed to comprehensively investigate the landscape of AD pathology. The sample comprised 58 individuals including cognitively normal subjects (controls), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD patients. Relative to controls, both MCI and AD subjects showed widespread changes of anisotropic fraction (FA) in the corpus callosum, cingulate and uncinate fasciculus. Mean diffusivity and radial changes were also observed in AD patients in comparison with controls. After controlling for the gray matter atrophy the number of regions of significantly lower FA in AD patients relative to controls was decreased; nonetheless, unique areas of microstructural damage remained, e.g., the corpus callosum and uncinate fasciculus. Despite sample size limitations, the current results suggest that a combination of secondary and primary degeneration occurrs in MCI and AD, although the secondary degeneration appears to have a more critical role during the stages of disease involving dementia. PMID:23300797

Alves, Gilberto Sousa; O'Dwyer, Laurence; Jurcoane, Alina; Oertel-Knöchel, Viola; Knöchel, Christian; Prvulovic, David; Sudo, Felipe; Alves, Carlos Eduardo; Valente, Letice; Moreira, Denise; Fußer, Fabian; Fu?er, Fabian; Karakaya, Tarik; Pantel, Johannes; Engelhardt, Eliasz; Laks, Jerson

2012-01-01

108

On Multiple-Layered Vortices  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of an ongoing effort to find ways to make vortex flow fields decompose more quickly, photographs and observations are presented of vortex flow fields that indicate the presence of multiple layers of fluid rotating about a common axis. A survey of the literature indicates that multiple-layered vortices form in waterspouts, tornadoes and lift-generated vortices of aircraft. An explanation for the appearance of multiple-layered structures in vortices is suggested. The observations and data presented are intended to improve the understanding of the formation and persistence of vortex flow fields.

Rossow, Vernon J.

2011-01-01

109

Multiple scattering technique lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Bernouilli-Ricatti equation is based on the single scattering description of the lidar backscatter return. In practice, especially in low visibility conditions, the effects of multiple scattering can be significant. Instead of considering these multiple scattering effects as a nuisance, we propose here to use them to help resolve the problems of having to assume a backscatter-to-extinction relation and specifying a boundary value for a position far remote from the lidar station. To this end, we have built a four-field-of-view lidar receiver to measure the multiple scattering contributions. The system has been described in a number of publications that also discuss preliminary results illustrating the multiple scattering effects for various environmental conditions. Reported here are recent advances made in the development of a method of inverting the multiple scattering data for the determination of the aerosol scattering coefficient.

Bissonnette, Luc R.

1992-01-01

110

Multiple objective multiple allocation hub location problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hub networks are used to connect supply and demand nodes without establishing direct connections between any origin-destination nodes. The issue is to find optimum hub locations and allocate non-hub nods to them at minimum cost and\\/or travel time. Multiple allocation hub location problems deal with network in which non-hub nodes can be allocated to more than one hub. In this

Masoud Mirzaei; Mahdi Bashiri

2010-01-01

111

Using multiple chemical indicators to assess sources of nitrate and age of groundwater in a karstic spring basin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human health and ecological concerns have arisen due to a steady increase in nitrate-N concentrations during the past 40 years in Fannin Springs (0.3-4.7 mg/L), a regional discharge point with an average flow of >2.8 m3/second (>100 ft3/second) for water from the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA). Multiple chemical indicators (major dissolved species, 15N and 18O of nitrate, dissolved gases, 78 pesticides and degradates, and 67 organic compounds typically found in domestic and industrial wastewater) and transient tracers (3H/3He, chlorofluorocarbons [CFCs], sulfur hexafluoride [SF6]) were analyzed in water samples from nine wells along three transects and in spring water to assess groundwater age and potential contaminant sources. Land use is predominantly agricultural (52 percent) and forest (31 percent) in the 320 km2 (124 mi2) spring basin, which was delineated from a potentiometric-surface map of the UFA using high-resolution water-level data. Nitrate-N concentrations were highly variable in the oxic UFA and ranged from <0.02 to 4.7 mg/L. ?? 15N-NO3 values (3.4-9.9 per mil) indicated that nitrate contamination originated from inorganic sources (synthetic fertilizer) and organic sources (manure spreading or waste disposal). Higher nitrate concentrations and the younger age of spring water relative to water from upgradient wells indicate better communication with N sources at the surface. Apparent ages of groundwater correlated positively with well depth (P < 0.05) and were younger in water from wells nearer to the spring (<8 years) compared with other wells (10-50 years). Most transient tracer concentrations were consistent with binary mixing curves representing mixtures of water recharged during the past 10 years and older water (recharged before 1940). Young water mixing fractions ranged from 0.07 to 0.90. Trace levels of herbicides found in groundwater and spring water were indicative of applications for vegetative control in agricultural and other land-use types.

Katz, B.; Copeland, R.; Greenhalgh, T.; Ceryak, R.; Zwanka, W.

2005-01-01

112

Sustainability Indicators for Multiple Criteria Decision Making in Water Resources: An Evaluation of Soil Tillage Practices using Web-HIPRE  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Agricultural nonpoint source pollutant loadings — sediment, pesticides, and nutrients — are characterized by the difficulty\\u000a and cost of their control, the large areas involved, and their significant impact on water resources systems. This paper considers\\u000a a multiple-attribute decision making problem in which three soil tillage alternatives — conventional tillage, no-till, and\\u000a ridge-till — are evaluated based on a finite

Jason K. Levyl; Keith W. Hipell; D. Marc Kilgour

113

Glutathione in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, characterised mainly as an autoimmune neurodegenerative disorder. Its cause is unknown but multifactorial; however, some studies suggest that oxidative stress may be one of the sources, or a consequence of the disease, from loss of oxidant/antioxidant balance. This review studies glutathione, one of the most important agents of the endogenous antioxidant defence system, protecting cells from damage caused by oxidative stress. It evaluates glutathione and the enzymes glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in various forms and stages of the disease. Analysis of a literature search suggests that the scientific community is not unanimous in its views, so more studies are required of patients with different forms of the disease and its manifestations, taking into account that the body functions as a whole and reacts in a compensatory manner. It would seem imperative to achieve a consensus on the pathogenesis responsible for severe disability, and explore sensitive biomarkers of its progression and indicators of oxidative stress. It is also important to promote the development of new therapies, with more studies on other substances such as acrolein, lipoic acid and dimethyl fumarate. Clarification of the mechanisms involved in oxidative stress, in different forms of multiple sclerosis, could result in improvements in the monitoring and prognosis of the disease, with subsequent increases in a patient's quality of life. PMID:23888609

Ferreira, B; Mendes, F; Osório, N; Caseiro, A; Gabriel, A; Valado, A

2013-01-01

114

Ultrastructure of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The electron microscopic features of 11 stereotaxic brain biopsies that demonstrated inflammatory primary demyelination consistent both morphologically and clinically with multiple sclerosis are addressed. Degeneration of inner oligodendroglial loops and uniform widening of inner myelin lamellae antedated complete destruction of myelin sheaths. Perivascular lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells were in intimate contact with myelin sheaths. Astrocytes proliferated even away from demyelinated areas. In areas of chronic, established demyelination, oligodendrocyte numbers were greatly decreased, and fields of completely demyelinated axons were seen among astrocytic processes. Axonal injury, evidenced by the formation of axonal swellings, was apparent in maximally affected areas. At the edge of acute lesions with demyelinated axons, oligodendrocytes were preserved morphologically. Thinly myelinated axons indicative of central nervous system-type remyelination by oligodendrocytes were observed primarily at the edges of plaques. An unusual inclusion observed in presumed macrophages was "polelike" bodies 0.04- to 0.7-microns thick. Linearly arrayed, their presumably proteinaceous crystalline substance was moderately electron-dense. Many were membrane-bound and appeared to arise from the endoplasmic reticulum. We conclude that disturbance of the myelinating function of oligodendrocytes may be a critical event in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. PMID:8191643

Rodriguez, M; Scheithauer, B

1994-01-01

115

Multiple Principal Investigators  

Cancer.gov

Below is information to learn about NIH definitions, policies, and awards available to apply for support using the Multiple Principal Investigator (PI) model that supports team science. Answers to FAQs are included.

116

What Is Multiple Myeloma?  

MedlinePLUS

... Multiple myeloma is a cancer formed by malignant plasma cells. Normal plasma cells are found in the bone marrow and ... to an infection, they mature and change into plasma cells. Plasma cells make the antibodies (also called ...

117

Mobile multiple access study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple access techniques (FDMA, CDMA, TDMA) for the mobile user and attempts to identify the current best technique are discussed. Traffic loading is considered as well as voice and data modulation and spacecraft and system design. Emphasis is placed on developing mobile terminal cost estimates for the selected design. In addition, design examples are presented for the alternative techniques of multiple access in order to compare with the selected technique.

1977-01-01

118

Multiplication as Combinations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students explore how to use multiplication to find the number of combinations possible in various situations. They follow the Cyberchase kids through two short videos as they explore creating a matrix and a tree diagram to solve the number of combinations; looking for patterns across data and leading to the conclusion that the same solutions could have been found through multiplication (counting principle). The lesson plan includes two student worksheets, two assessment options, and an answer key (rtf).

Education, Wnet O.

2006-01-01

119

Multiple endocrine neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes are a family of genetic conditions characterized by a predisposition to the\\u000a development of neoplasms in multiple endocrine glands. The pathologic change in affected glands is characteristically multicentric\\u000a and may be expressed as hyperplasia, adenoma, or carcinoma. The MEN syndromes are inherited in an autosomal dominant manner\\u000a and are classified according to the pattern

Julie A. Miller; Jeffrey A. Norton

120

Pyrochemical multiplicity counter development  

SciTech Connect

Impure plutonium-bearing materials from pyrochemical processes often display both significant self-multiplication and variable ({alpha},n) reaction rates. Standard neutron coincidence counting techniques usually fail to accurately measure these materials. Neutron multiplicity counters measure the third moment of the neutron multiplicity distribution and thus make it possible to deduce the fertile plutonium mass of a sample even when both the self-multiplication and the ({alpha},n) reaction rate are unknown. A multiplicity counter suitable for measuring pyrochemical materials has been designed and built. This paper describes the results of characterization studies for the new counter. The counter consists of 126 helium-3 tubes arranged in 4 concentric rings in a polyethylene moderator; the average spacing between the tubes is 1.59 cm. The end plugs for the counter are made of graphite, and the 24.1- by 37.5-cm sample cavity is cadmium lined. The counter consists of two distinct halves from which the neutron counts are summed. The counter is capable of operation in either a freestanding mode with the two halves coupled together by an external cabinet or in a glove-box mode with the two halves placed around a glovebox well and then mated. For a {sup 252}Cf source centered in the sample cavity, the measured efficiency of the new multiplicity counter is 57.7% and its die-away time is 47.2{mu}s. 8 refs., 9 figs.

Langner, D.G.; Dytlewski, N.; Krick, M.S.

1991-01-01

121

IRON IN MULTIPLE MYELOMA  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma is a non-curable B cell malignancy in which iron metabolism plays an important role. Patients with this disorder almost universally suffer from a clinically significant anemia, which is often symptomatic, and which is due to impaired iron utilization. Recent studies indicate that the proximal cause of dysregulated iron metabolism and anemia in these patients is cytokine-induced upregulation of hepcidin expression. Malignant myeloma cells are dependent on an increased influx of iron and therapeutic efforts are being made to target this requirement. The studies detailing the characteristics and biochemical abnormalities in iron metabolism causing anemia and the initial attempts to target iron therapeutically are described in this review. PMID:23879589

VanderWall, Kristina; Daniels-Wells, Tracy R; Penichet, Manuel; Lichtenstein, Alan

2013-01-01

122

Fixed points of multiplicative contraction mappings on multiplicative metric spaces  

E-print Network

In this paper, we first discussed multiplicative metric mapping by giving some topological properties of the relevant multiplicative metric space. As an interesting result of our discussions, we observed that the set of positive real numbers $\\mathbb{R}_+$ is a complete multiplicative metric space with respect to the multiplicative absolute value function. Furthermore, we introduced concept of multiplicative contraction mapping and proved some fixed point theorems of such mappings on complete multiplicative metric spaces

Muttalip Ozavsar; Adem Cengiz Cevikel

2012-05-23

123

Quantum Multiple Scattering: Correspondence between  

E-print Network

Quantum Multiple Scattering: Correspondence between Particle and Photon Scattering A thesis Multiple Scattering: Correspondence between Particle and Photon Scattering Sheng Li, June 2003 Thesis advisor: Prof. Eric J. Heller This thesis discusses the quantum multiple scattering theory of both par

Heller, Eric

124

Multiple Intelligences and Business Diversity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results from 97 business students with substantial work histories indicate that the Multiple Intelligence Preference Inventory gives a valid and reliable indication of their preferred intelligences. Awareness of these results is associated with assessments of self and others as knowledge sources. This information can help in recognizing,…

Martin, Joyce

2003-01-01

125

Multiple eccrine hidrocystomas.  

PubMed

The clinical and pathological features and treatment of two patients with multiple eccrine hidrocystomas are presented. The first case is characterized by multiple pearly papules with a bluish hue located in the periorbital region and the bridge of the nose. The second case is characterized by multiple, skin-coloured papules located in the periorbital area, forehead, chin and nose. Both were exacerbated by a hot and humid environment. Histopathologically, both demonstrated a unilocular cyst located in the dermis, with a 2-3-layer wall composed of cuboidal epithelium that was non-keratinizing. Treatment with topical atropine sulphate 1% in aqueous solution three times a day was instituted in the first case; however, this was poorly tolerated because of blurred vision and nausea. The lesions were subsequently hyfrecated with a good response. The second case was treated with topical atropine sulphate 1% in aqueous solution three times a day with a good response. PMID:15250898

Lee, Michael R; Ryman, William

2004-08-01

126

Rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Despite the lack of a definitive remedy for central nervous system demyelination in multiple sclerosis, certain manifestations of the disease are treatable. Recognition and identification of specific impairments, disabilities, and handicaps faced by the patient afford the physician the best opportunity to provide effective intervention. Impairments are ameliorated with difficulty; however, when comprehensive methods of rehabilitation are applied to the associated disabilities and handicaps, meaningful improvements can be achieved. The goal of rehabilitation in multiple sclerosis is to maximize the patient's physical, emotional, social, and vocational independence. Through the multidisciplinary efforts of numerous health-care workers in close cooperation with the patient and the family, this goal can be attained. PMID:2528038

Erickson, R P; Lie, M R; Wineinger, M A

1989-07-01

127

Neutron multiplicity analysis tool  

SciTech Connect

I describe the capabilities of the EXCOM (EXcel based COincidence and Multiplicity) calculation tool which is used to analyze experimental data or simulated neutron multiplicity data. The input to the program is the count-rate data (including the multiplicity distribution) for a measurement, the isotopic composition of the sample and relevant dates. The program carries out deadtime correction and background subtraction and then performs a number of analyses. These are: passive calibration curve, known alpha and multiplicity analysis. The latter is done with both the point model and with the weighted point model. In the current application EXCOM carries out the rapid analysis of Monte Carlo calculated quantities and allows the user to determine the magnitude of sample perturbations that lead to systematic errors. Neutron multiplicity counting is an assay method used in the analysis of plutonium for safeguards applications. It is widely used in nuclear material accountancy by international (IAEA) and national inspectors. The method uses the measurement of the correlations in a pulse train to extract information on the spontaneous fission rate in the presence of neutrons from ({alpha},n) reactions and induced fission. The measurement is relatively simple to perform and gives results very quickly ({le} 1 hour). By contrast, destructive analysis techniques are extremely costly and time consuming (several days). By improving the achievable accuracy of neutron multiplicity counting, a nondestructive analysis technique, it could be possible to reduce the use of destructive analysis measurements required in safeguards applications. The accuracy of a neutron multiplicity measurement can be affected by a number of variables such as density, isotopic composition, chemical composition and moisture in the material. In order to determine the magnitude of these effects on the measured plutonium mass a calculational tool, EXCOM, has been produced using VBA within Excel. This program was developed to help speed the analysis of Monte Carlo neutron transport simulation (MCNP) data, and only requires the count-rate data to calculate the mass of material using INCC's analysis methods instead of the full neutron multiplicity distribution required to run analysis in INCC. This paper describes what is implemented within EXCOM, including the methods used, how the program corrects for deadtime, and how uncertainty is calculated. This paper also describes how to use EXCOM within Excel.

Stewart, Scott L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

128

Practical Multiple Sequence Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple sequence alignment as a means of comparing DNA, RNA, or amino acid sequences is an essential precondition for various analyses, including structure prediction, modeling binding sites, phylogeny, or function prediction. This range of applications implies a demand for versatile, flexible, and specialized methods to compute accurate alignments. This chapter summarizes the key algorithmic insights gained in the past years to facilitate an easy understanding of the current multiple sequence alignment literature and to enable the readers to use and apply current tools in their own research.

Rausch, Tobias; Reinert, Knut

129

Hereditary multiple exostosis.  

PubMed

Hereditary multiple exostosis is an intriguing genetic condition with a clinical impact in the field of orthopaedics, paediatrics and oncology. In this review we highlight the current knowledge about this condition from a clinical and scientific point of view. This gives us more insight into the molecular mechanisms and current models on which therapeutic agents are based. It allows for a multidisciplinary approach to the management of this complex condition. There is currently no exact pathological model that can accurately describe all the findings in the research on Hereditary Multiple Exostosis. Promising treatments with blocking agents are currently under investigation. PMID:24563962

Ryckx, Andries; Somers, Jan F A; Allaert, Lieven

2013-12-01

130

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes  

PubMed Central

The multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes consist of three distinct disease entities. They have in common adenomatous, carcinomatous or hyperplastic involvement of a variety of endocrine glands, and an autosomal dominant inheritance. MEN I includes hyperparathyroidism, islet cell and pituitary tumors. The components of MEN IIa are hyperparathyroidism, medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. MEN IIb includes multiple neuromas, medullary thyroid carcinoma and pheochromocytoma. Effective tests are available for the early detection of components of the syndromes in potentially affected patients. Screening can lead to therapeutic intervention before clinical sequelae ensue. PMID:6247851

Pont, Allan

1980-01-01

131

High frequency of antiphospholipid antibodies in relapse of multiple sclerosis: a possible indicator of inflammatory-thrombotic processes.  

PubMed

The exact prevalence and pathogenic role of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in multiple sclerosis (MS) remain unclear. This observational laboratory-blinded study evaluated the rate of aPL positivity in healthy controls and MS patients in different disease phases to recognize their frequency and possible pathogenic meaning. Reactivity for anti-cardiolipin, anti-?2 glycoprotein I, anti-prothrombin, anti-annexin V (IgG and IgM) was studied by enzyme immunoassays in 60 healthy controls and 100 consecutive MS patients [58 relapsing-remitting (RR) patients in remission, 26 RR patients in relapse, and 16 secondary progressive patients]. The overall rate of positivity for at least one aPL was significantly higher in MS patients compared to controls (32 % vs. 7 %, respectively, p < 0.0001), and in relapsing phase compared to those remitting or secondary progressive (53.8, 20.7 and 37.5 %, respectively, p = 0.002). In the single aPL analysis, the rate of positivity was significantly higher in MS patients compared to controls for anti-prothrombin IgM (7 % vs. 0, p = 0.05), and in relapsing phase compared to remitting and secondary progressive phases for anti-?2 glycoprotein I IgM (26.9, 1.7, 6.3 %, respectively, p < 0.0001), anti-prothrombin IgM (15.4, 3.4, 6.3 %, respectively, p = 0.05) and IgG (19.2, 5.2, 0 %, respectively, p = 0.05). We showed a significant aPL increase in MS patients compared to healthy controls, particularly during disease relapse which was also associated with significantly higher values of anti-?2 glycoprotein I and anti-prothrombin. These data suggest that antiphospholipid antibody occurrence in multiple sclerosis could be related to modification of structure and function of proteins involved in the inflammatory-thrombotic processes during disease re-activation. PMID:24847961

Koudriavtseva, Tatiana; D'Agosto, Giovanna; Mandoj, Chiara; Sperduti, Isabella; Cordiali-Fei, Paola

2014-11-01

132

Simplifying Algebraic Expressions: Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning object from Wisc-Online covers simplifying algebraic expressions using multiplication. The unit's activities include defining the terminology associated with algebraic operations, using the fundamental laws of algebra to simplify those expressions, removing the symbols of grouping and changing the signs of the appropriate terms to simplify expressions. Practice questions are also included.

Blohowiak, Chad; Jensen, Douglas; Reed, Allen

2011-02-01

133

What about multiple intelligence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gardner (1983) produced a multiple intelligence theory to question the previous generalised measurements for intelligence. He challenged these earlier theories of intelligence by producing a theory in which a group of intelligences could be identified in order to be more specific in the assessment of an individual's ability. Gardner proposed the following intelligences: verbal; mathematical; musical accomplishment; spatially analysing the

Jack K. Garlovsky

134

Multiplication in Newton's Principia  

E-print Network

Newton in his Principia gives an ingenious generalization of the Hellenistic theory of ratios and inspired experimentally gives a tensor-like definition of multiplication of quantities measured with his ratios. An extraordinary feature of his definition is generality: namely his definition a priori allows non commutativity of multiplication of measured quantities, which may give a non-trivial linkage to experimental facts subject to quantum mechanics discovered some two hundred years later. Mathematical scheme he introduces with this ingenious definition is closely related to the contemporary approach in spectral geometry. His definition reveals in particular that commutativity of the multiplication of quantities with physical dimension has the status of experimental assumption and does not have to be fulfilled in reality, although neither the mathematical tools nor experimental evidence could allow Newton to carry out the case when the multiplication is noncommutative. We present a detailed analysis of his definition as well as a linkage to the theory of representations of algebras with involution (and with normal forms of von Neumann algebras and Jordan Banach algebras).

Jaroslaw Wawrzycki

2012-09-24

135

Multiple Intelligences: A Collection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As a concise resource for Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and its implications for schooling around the world, this collection is designed for educators, parents, and others interested in education. The first section discusses Gardner and his background, and the second section expounds his theory. The third section explores the…

Fogarty, Robin, Ed.; Bellanca, James, Ed.

136

Multiple Grammars and MOGUL  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Optionality is a central phenomenon in second language acquisition (SLA), for which any adequate theory must account. Amaral and Roeper (this issue; henceforth A&R) offer an appealing approach to it, using Roeper's Multiple Grammars Theory, which was created with first language in mind but which extends very naturally to SLA. They include…

Truscott, John

2014-01-01

137

Reasoning About Multiplication & Division  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 7-minute video features Drew Crandall working with his third grade class to develop concepts involving properties of operations and the relationship between multiplication and division. His approach allows students to learn from each other, to construct and revise their own meaning, and to develop communication skills. A downloadable transcript of the video is available (doc).

2013-01-01

138

Mastering the Multiplication Facts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this paper is to share the results of a six-week research project (after baseline data was collected) that focused on three different strategies (flashcards, interactive games, and music) and their effectiveness in helping fifth grade students memorize the basic multiplication facts. Many teachers face a serious problem when their…

D'Ettorre, Jenna

2009-01-01

139

Multiple Intelligences Meet Standards.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the five years since a Trappe, Maryland elementary school put Gardner's multiple-intelligences theory into practice, students' overall achievement and confidence have risen substantially. Specialists helped teachers develop standards for grading students' art work and oral presentations. To prepare students for state assessments, written…

Greenhawk, Jan

1997-01-01

140

Combining Multiple Heuristics Online  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present black-box techniques for learning how to inter- leave the execution of multiple heuristics in order to improve average-case performance. In our model, a user is given a set of heuristics whose only observable behavior is their running time. Each heuristic can compute a solution to any problem instance, but its running time varies across instances. The user solves

Matthew J. Streeter; Daniel Golovin; Stephen F. Smith

2007-01-01

141

On Multiple Identities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identity is the complex way a person identifies with, and is identified by, his environment. Multiple identities result from the many ways a person has been successfully identified. Identities coexist; sometimes the dominance of one over others becomes evident, and a vertical structure of identities arises. (CS)

Graumann, Carl F.

1983-01-01

142

Multiple Choice Test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site presents a guide to developing and deploying effective multiple choice tests. The site also discusses the costs and benefits of this method, as well as the philosophy of this commonly used assessment method. Links to more detailed information are included as well.

Parkes, Jay; Guide, Field-Tested L.

143

Multiple equilibrium laboratory devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Devices{* } will be demonstrated and videotapes played of a number of laboratory studies that exhibit multiple equilibrium. All devices have two competing effects driving the flow. In two of them, temperature and salinity oppose each other. In another, air and water compete. In a fourth, wave propagation is opposed by inertia. Connection with hypothesized ocean behavior will be made. {* } Whitehead, J. A. 2000 Stratified Convection with Multiple States. Ocean Modelling, 2, 109-121. Whitehead, J. A. W. Gregory Lawson and John Salzig. 2001 Multistate flow devices for geophysical fluid dynamics and climate. American Journal of Physics, 69 546-553. Whitehead, J. A. and P. G. Baines. 2000. Hydraulic Jump Location as a Multiple Equilibrium feature. 2000 Ocean Sciences Meeting, American Geophysical Union, San Antonio Texas, January 25, 2000. Abstract: EOS 80 #46 (Supplement), OS125. Whitehead, J. A. , M. L. E. Timmermans, W. Gregory Lawson, S. N. Bulgakov, A. M. Zatarian, J. F. A. Medina, and John Salzig, Laboratory studies of thermally and/or Salinity-driven flows with partial mixing: Part 1 Stommel transitions and multiple flow states. In preparation

Whitehead, J. A.

2001-12-01

144

IMMUNOLOGY OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ke yW ords autoimmunity, autoimmune mechanisms, neuroimmunology, demyelinating dieseases, EAE ? Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) develops in young adults with a complex pre- disposing genetic trait and probably requires an inciting environmental insult such as a viral infection to trigger the disease. The activation of CD4+ autoreactive T cells and their differentiation into a Th1 phenotype is a crucial event

Mireia Sospedra; Roland Martin

2005-01-01

145

Automatic multiple applicator electrophoresis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Easy-to-use, economical device permits electrophoresis on all known supporting media. System includes automatic multiple-sample applicator, sample holder, and electrophoresis apparatus. System has potential applicability to fields of taxonomy, immunology, and genetics. Apparatus is also used for electrofocusing.

Grunbaum, B. W.

1977-01-01

146

Multiple endocrine neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) is characterized by tumours involving two or more endocrine glands within a single patient. There are two major forms of MEN: type 1 (MEN1, Wermer's syndrome) and type 2 (MEN2, Sipple's syndrome). MEN1 is characterized by the combined occurrence of tumours in the parathyroids, pancreatic islet cells and anterior pituitary; MEN2 is characterized by the association

Rajesh V. Thakker

2009-01-01

147

Multiple sclerosis and pregnancy.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis is one of the main reasons for invalidation of young adults of both sexes. The disease is more common in women than in men. The illness begins most frequently in patients between the ages of 20 and 40 years, which is also the most fertile period for women. MS is an immune-mediated disease with chronic evolution marked by exacerbations and remissions that amplify the degree of disability. The most common clinical picture is the one with relapse and remission whose evolution is greatly improved after immunomodulatory treatment. We have revised the literature together with the data from the national multiple sclerosis society and the cases that are in the National Programme of Multiple Sclerosis, mainly the ones that are assigned to the regional center of Ia?i, at the Neurology Clinic inside the Clinical Rehabilitation Hospital Ia?i. Pregnancy is quite frequent in female patients with MS. Certain risks are present during pregnancy, birth and breastfeeding and certain protocols must be applied, such as interrupting the immunomodulatory treatment before the conception. Child delivery must be closely monitored and it must take into consideration the dysfunction that the patient has and be adapted to the existing deficits. There are some methods that may be used during delivery for female patients with multiple sclerosis in order to make this process smooth and reduce the risk of postpartum complications. Multiple sclerosis is an invalidating disease, with a high prevalence in women. Pregnancy in patients with MS is not such a natural phenomenon as in a healthy female and it requires a multidisciplinary team in order to ensure the safety of both the mother and the newborn. PMID:24741771

Popescu, C D

2014-01-01

148

Intronic splicing of hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1): a biologically relevant indicator of poor outcome in multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

In this study, we show that the hyaluronan synthase 1 (HAS1) gene undergoes aberrant intronic splicing in multiple myeloma (MM). In addition to HAS1 full length (HAS1FL), we identify 3 novel splice variants of HAS1, HAS1Va, HAS1Vb, and HAS1Vc, detected in patients with MM or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). HAS1Vb and HAS1Vc undergo intronic splicing with creation of a premature stop codon. MM cells expressing one or more HAS1 variants synthesize extracellular and/or intracellular hyaluronan (HA). Expression of the HAS1Vb splice variant was significantly correlated with reduced survival (P = .001). Together, alternative HAS1 gene splicing, the correlations between HAS1 splicing and HA synthesis, and the correlations between HAS1 splicing and reduced survival of MM patients support the hypothesis that the family of HAS1 protein plays a significant role in disease progression. Further, expression of HAS1Vb, in conjunction with HAS1FL and/or other HAS1 variants, may lead to accumulation of intracellular HA molecules and an impact on receptor for HA-mediated motility (RHAMM)-mediated mitotic abnormalities in MM. This study highlights the potential importance of HAS1 and its alternative splicing in pathophysiology of MGUS and MM. (Blood. 2005;105: 4836-4844) PMID:15731173

Adamia, Sophia; Reiman, Tony; Crainie, Mary; Mant, Michael J.; Belch, Andrew R.; Pilarski, Linda M.

2005-01-01

149

Abnormal Nerve Conduction Study Findings Indicating the Existence of Peripheral Neuropathy in Multiple Sclerosis and Neuromyelitis Optica  

PubMed Central

Objective. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) has been reported in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, there have been limited reports of peripheral neuropathy as a complication of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). In this paper, we showed the characteristics and differences between peripheral neuropathy as a complication of MS and NMO. Method. We analyzed a series of 58 MS and 28 NMO patients and evaluated nerve conduction studies (NCS) in 21 MS and 5 NMO patients. Results. Six of the 58 MS and 3 of the 28 NMO patients revealed abnormal NCS findings. Three (5.2%) of the 58 MS patients fulfilled the criteria for CIDP. One (3.6%) of the 28 NMO patients showed peripheral neuropathy at the same time of NMO relapse, although CIDP was not seen in NMO. The other 5 (3 MS and 2 NMO) patients were complicated with neuropathy caused by concomitant diabetes mellitus and Sjögren's syndrome. Conclusion. Frequency of abnormal NCS findings might exhibit no significant difference between MS and NMO, although the cause and pathophysiology of peripheral neuropathy were different in MS and in NMO. There might be a group of NMO who were affected simultaneously in the central and peripheral nervous tissues. PMID:24308009

Warabi, Yoko; Yamazaki, Mikihiro; Shimizu, Toshio; Nagao, Masahiro

2013-01-01

150

Expression of L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) as a prognostic and therapeutic indicator in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

L-type amino-acid transporter 1 (LAT1) plays a key role in cell growth and survival. To determine the prognostic significance of LAT1 in multiple myeloma (MM), we investigated the expression of LAT1 and its functional subunit, 4Fc heavy chain (CD98), on myeloma cells by immunohistochemistry in 100 newly diagnosed MM patients. High expression (moderate or strong staining intensity) of LAT1 and CD98 was detected in 56% and 45% of patients, respectively. The LAT1 expression score was positively correlated with Ki-67 index (r = 0.631, P < 0.001), and there was a statistically significant difference in Durie-Salmon stage between patients with high and low LAT1 expression (P = 0.03). In 43 patients treated with melphalan and prednisolone, the overall response rate was significantly higher in the high LAT1 expression group (60.0%) than in the low LAT1 expression group (17.6%) (P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis confirmed that high expression of LAT1 was a significant prognostic factor for predicting poor overall survival independently from the International Staging System (both P = 0.01). Here, we show that the overexpression of LAT1 is significantly associated with high proliferation and poor prognosis in newly diagnosed MM patients. Thus, LAT1 may be a promising pathological marker for identifying high-risk MM. PMID:25220100

Isoda, Atsushi; Kaira, Kyoichi; Iwashina, Masanori; Oriuchi, Noboru; Tominaga, Hideyuki; Nagamori, Shushi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu; Oyama, Tetsunari; Asao, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Morio; Sawamura, Morio

2014-11-01

151

Dynamic determination of kinetic parameters for the interaction between polypeptide hormones and cell-surface receptors in the perfused rat liver by the multiple-indicator dilution method  

SciTech Connect

Hepatic elimination of epidermal growth factor (EGF) via receptor-mediated endocytosis was studied by a multiple-indicator dilution method in the isolated perfused rat liver, in which cell polarity and spatial organization are maintained. In this method EGF was given with inulin, an extracellular reference, as a bolus into the portal vein, and dilution curves of both compounds in the hepatic vein effluent were analyzed. Analysis of the dilution curve for EGF, compared with that for somatostatin, which showed no specific binding to isolated liver plasma membranes, resulted as follows: (i) both extraction ratio and distribution volume of {sup 125}I-labeled EGF decreased as the injected amount of unlabeled EGF increased; (ii) the ratio plot of the dilution curve for EGF exhibited an upward straight line initially for a short period of time, whereas the ratio plot of somatostatin gradually decreased. The multiple-indicator dilution method was used for other peptides also. Insulin and glucagon, known to have hepatocyte receptors, behaved similarly to EGF in shape of their ratio plots. The kinetic parameters calculated by this analysis were comparable with reported values obtained by in vitro direct binding measurements at equilibrium using liver homogenates. They conclude that the multiple-indicator dilution method is a good tool for analyzing the dynamics of peptide hormones-cell-surface receptor interaction under a condition in which spatial architecture of the liver is maintained.

Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Sakamoto, S.; Fuwa, T.; Hanano, M. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

1988-11-01

152

Multiple zeros of polynomials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For polynomials of higher degree, iterative numerical methods must be used. Four iterative methods are presented for approximating the zeros of a polynomial using a digital computer. Newton's method and Muller's method are two well known iterative methods which are presented. They extract the zeros of a polynomial by generating a sequence of approximations converging to each zero. However, both of these methods are very unstable when used on a polynomial which has multiple zeros. That is, either they fail to converge to some or all of the zeros, or they converge to very bad approximations of the polynomial's zeros. This material introduces two new methods, the greatest common divisor (G.C.D.) method and the repeated greatest common divisor (repeated G.C.D.) method, which are superior methods for numerically approximating the zeros of a polynomial having multiple zeros. These methods were programmed in FORTRAN 4 and comparisons in time and accuracy are given.

Wood, C. A.

1974-01-01

153

Subcritical multiplication determination studies  

SciTech Connect

A series of measurements and improvements to computational techniques are in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory that are aimed at better understanding the determination of the reactivity of subcritical systems from measurements of the apparent multiplication of the system. Such studies are being performed in order to improve the special nuclear material (SNM) assays of unknown systems such as those encountered in SNM safeguards, arms-control verification, imports of foreign-generated SNM, etc. Improved techniques and understanding are needed since measured multiplication is not always an invariant characteristic of a subcritical system, especially if one has a system with no significant intrinsic internal neutron source that is illuminated nonuniformly with an external source (i.e., a non-normal mode system).

Estes, G.P.; Goulding, C.A.

1995-07-01

154

Multiple Miniature Avionic Displays  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A display screen for displaying multiple sets of information is provided. In one embodiment, an aviation display screen includes a main window and a plurality of miniature windows. The main window is adapted to illustrate one set of information. Each miniature window is adapted to display a set of avionic information. The avionic display is further adapted to toggle a select set of avionic information in one of the miniature windows into the main window.

Rye, Jeffrey M. (Inventor); Dorneich, Michael C. (Inventor); Gannon, Aaron J. (Inventor)

2008-01-01

155

Multiple Osteolytic Lesions  

PubMed Central

Several systemic diseases initially present with various oral manifestations. Investigation of these oral symptoms may at times lead to the diagnosis of grave underlying life-threatening conditions. We present one such case, where the patient manifested with gross enlargement of the mandible, along with lesions in the lower limbs. These lesions were the initial manifestation and on further investigations the patient was diagnosed with multiple myeloma. PMID:24516769

Vinayachandran, Divya; Sankarapandian, Sathasivasubramanian

2013-01-01

156

Fatigue in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue is among the most common, yet least understood, symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) [1·]. It can profoundly disrupt\\u000a the occupational and social functioning of patients, and is recognized as a criterion for MS disability by the Social Security\\u000a Administration. Most approaches to fatigue assessment can be classified as either self-report scales or performance-based\\u000a measures of motor or cognitive output.

Lauren B. Krupp; Christopher Christodoulou

2001-01-01

157

Multiple Primary Cancer Monograph  

Cancer.gov

To identify groups of cancer survivors that are at increased risk for multiple primary cancers, Radiation Epidemiology Branch (REB) investigators led a collaborative effort to provide the first comprehensive population-based analysis of the risk of subsequent cancer in the U.S. The 500-page monograph utilized data from nine cancer registries participating in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program from 1973 to 2000.

158

Long-term Effects of the Family Bereavement Program on Multiple Indicators of Grief in Parentally Bereaved Children and Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Objectives This paper reports on results from a randomized experimental trial of the effects of the Family Bereavement Program (FBP) on multiple measures of grief experienced by parentally-bereaved children and adolescents over a six year period of time. Method Participants were 244 youth (ages 8–16, mean age = 11.4 years) from 156 families that had experienced the death of a parent. The sample consisted of 53% boys; ethnicity was 67% non-Hispanic white and 33% ethnic minority. Families were randomly assigned to the FBP (N=135) or a literature control condition (N=109). Two grief measures, the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG) and the Intrusive Grief Thoughts Scale (IGTS) were administered at four times over six years, pre-test, post-test, eleven-month and six-year follow-ups. A third measure, an adaptation of the Inventory of Traumatic Grief (ITG) was administered only at the six-year follow-up. Results The FBP showed a greater reduction as compared to controls in their level of problematic grief (IGTS) at post-test and six-year follow-up and in the percent at clinical levels of problematic grief at the post-test. The FBP also reduced scores on a dimension of the ITG, Social Detachment/Insecurity, at six-year follow-up for three subgroups; those who experienced lower levels of grief at program entry, older youth, and boys. Conclusion These are the first findings from a randomized trial with long-term follow-up of the effects of a program to reduce problematic levels of grief of parentally-bereaved youth. PMID:20350025

Sandler, Irwin N.; Ma, Yue; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Ayers, Tim S.; Wolchik, Sharlene; Kennedy, Cara L.; Millsap, Roger

2009-01-01

159

Multiple gene analyses of caligid copepods indicate that the reduction of a thoracic appendage in Pseudocaligus represents convergent evolution  

PubMed Central

Background The Caligidae is a family of parasitic copepods containing over 30 recognised genera. They are commercially important parasites as they cause disease in numerous finfish aquaculture facilities globally. Morphological features are used to distinguish between the genera and Pseudocaligus has traditionally been differentiated from Caligus solely by the presence of a much reduced form of the fourth thoracic leg. Currently there are numerous DNA sequences available for Caligus spp. but only the type species, Pseudocaligus brevipedis, has molecular data available, so systematic studies using molecular phylogenetic analyses have been limited. Methods Three gene regions, SSU rDNA, 16S and CO1, for Pseudocaligus fugu from puffer fish from Japan and Pseudocaligus uniartus from rabbit fish from Indonesia are sequenced and molecular phylogenetic analyses performed in order to infer phylogenetic relationships between Pseudocaligus and other caligid copepods. Results The analysis revealed that there was no discrete grouping of Pseudocaligus spp. and that they had a polyphyletic distribution within Caligus taxa. Pseudocaligus fugu grouped with Caligus elongatus and contained a unique synapomorphy in the SSU rDNA region only seen in members of that clade. Pseudocaligus uniartus formed a well-supported group, in the SSU rDNA analyses, with a Caligus sp. that also infects rabbit fish, but was unresolved in the other analyses. Pseudocaligus brevipedis consistently and robustly grouped with Caligus curtus and C. centrodonti in all analyses. The majority of Lepeophtheirus spp. form a monophyletic sister group to the Caligus clade; however, L. natalensis is unresolved in all analyses and does not form part of the main Lepeophtheirus clade. Conclusions These findings do not support the morphological-based distinction between Pseudocaligus and Caligus, suggesting that the reduced fourth leg is a feature that has evolved on multiple occasions throughout caligid evolution. Congruent molecular phylogenetic data support groupings based on the presence of morphological features, such as lunules, geography and host fish type rather than appendage morphology. Therefore, we support the synonymy of Pseudocaligus with Caligus. PMID:24286135

2013-01-01

160

Multiplication in curvature processing.  

PubMed

Multiplication rather than addition of neural signals is believed to underpin a variety of sensory processes, yet the evidence for multiplication is rare. Here we provide psychophysical evidence for neural multiplication in human visual processing of shape. We show that the curvature of a contour is likely detected by a mechanism that multiplies rather than adds the signals from afferent sub-units that detect parts of the curve. Using a novel perceptual after-effect, in which the perceived shape of a sinusoidal-shaped contour is altered following adaptation to a contour of slightly different sinusoidal shape, a pronounced 'dip' in the size of the after-effect is found when the adapting contour is broken into segments of a particular length and spacing. Simulations reveal that the presence and shape of the dip is only expected if the afferent sub-units to curvature detectors are multiplied. The after-effect itself is then best explained in terms of the population response of a range of such curvature detectors tuned to different curvatures. PMID:19271933

Gheorghiu, Elena; Kingdom, Frederick A A

2009-01-01

161

Multiple protein structure alignment.  

PubMed Central

A method was developed to compare protein structures and to combine them into a multiple structure consensus. Previous methods of multiple structure comparison have only concatenated pairwise alignments or produced a consensus structure by averaging coordinate sets. The current method is a fusion of the fast structure comparison program SSAP and the multiple sequence alignment program MULTAL. As in MULTAL, structures are progressively combined, producing intermediate consensus structures that are compared directly to each other and all remaining single structures. This leads to a hierarchic "condensation," continually evaluated in the light of the emerging conserved core regions. Following the SSAP approach, all interatomic vectors were retained with well-conserved regions distinguished by coherent vector bundles (the structural equivalent of a conserved sequence position). Each bundle of vectors is summarized by a resultant, whereas vector coherence is captured in an error term, which is the only distinction between conserved and variable positions. Resultant vectors are used directly in the comparison, which is weighted by their error values, giving greater importance to the matching of conserved positions. The resultant vectors and their errors can also be used directly in molecular modeling. Applications of the method were assessed by the quality of the resulting sequence alignments, phylogenetic tree construction, and databank scanning with the consensus. Visual assessment of the structural superpositions and consensus structure for various well-characterized families confirmed that the consensus had identified a reasonable core. PMID:7849601

Taylor, W. R.; Flores, T. P.; Orengo, C. A.

1994-01-01

162

Input Multiplicities in Process Control.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes research investigating potential effect of input multiplicity on multivariable chemical process control systems. Several simple processes are shown to exhibit the possibility of theoretical developments on input multiplicity and closely related phenomena are discussed. (JN)

Koppel, Lowell B.

1983-01-01

163

Factors and Multiples Puzzle  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This puzzle, played with cards on a board (downloadable file), provides an interesting context in which students can apply their knowledge of number properties. Students attempt to arrange 25 numbers and 10 property headings into a 5 by 5 grid so that each number satisfies two conditions. Properties addressed include primes, square and triangular numbers, specific sets of multiples and factors, and parity. It can be worked individually or in small groups cooperatively. The Teachers' Notes page offers suggestions for implementation, discussion questions, ideas for extension and support, and links to an article, "Using Games in the Classroom" (catalogued separately).

2010-02-01

164

Multiple-pass reflectometer  

SciTech Connect

The multiple-pass reflectometer has been shown to be a convenient and precise instrument for measuring absolute spectral reflectance values in excess of 0.99. Given here is an extension of earlier work. We present details of the setup, operation, parameter optimization, and some limitations of the reflectometer. For a carefully aligned instrument the precision of the measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the computer fit of a straight line to the data. For the uv and visible spectral regions, typical reflectance precision is a few parts in 10/sup 4/. Systematic errors due to nonuniform photosurfaces and astigmatism have been minimized for the setup described here.

Edwards, D.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM); Baumeister, P.

1981-11-15

165

Multiple choice questions revisited.  

PubMed

MCQs of the multiple true/false (MTF) variety were widely used in summative assessment 25 years ago. They could test a number of skills in addition to recall of factual knowledge, and were reliable, discriminatory, reproducible and cost-effective. However, there are now considerable doubts about their construct validity, mainly because of the varying responses of examinees to negative countermarking and the 'don't know' option, and the strategies they use when sitting examinations. Extended matching and one-from-five questions are now preferable, and negative countermarking is outmoded. MTF questions are still valuable in formative assessment and revision but are not recommended for summative examinations. PMID:15203517

Anderson, John

2004-03-01

166

Modeling Multiple Information Seeking Episodes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of information retrieval and information seeking behavior focuses on a multi-dimensional conceptual model called MISE (multiple information-seeking episodes). Identifies eight different reasons why people engage in multiple information-seeking episodes, characterizes them in terms of traits of Multiple Information Seeking Episode…

Lin, Shin-jeng; Belkin, Nicholas J.

2000-01-01

167

Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer  

DOEpatents

A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibres to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands.

Dovichi, Norman J. (Edmonton, CA); Zhang, Jian Z. (Edmonton, CA)

1995-01-01

168

Multiple symbol differential detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A differential detection technique for multiple phase shift keying (MPSK) signals is provided which uses a multiple symbol observation interval on the basis of which a joint decision is made regarding the phase of the received symbols. In accordance with the invention, a first difference phase is created between first and second received symbols. Next, the first difference phase is correlated with the possible values thereof to provide a first plurality of intermediate output signals. A second difference phase is next created between second and third received symbols. The second difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a second plurality of intermediate output signals. Next, a third difference phase is created between the first and third symbols. The third difference phase is correlated with plural possible values thereof to provide a third plurality of intermediate output signals. Each of the first plurality of intermediate outputs are combined with each of the second plurality of intermediate outputs and each of the third plurality of intermediate outputs to provide a plurality of possible output values. Finally, a joint decision is made by choosing from the plurality of possible output values the value which represents the best combined correlation of the first, second and third difference values with the possible values thereof.

Divsalar, Dariush (inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (inventor)

1991-01-01

169

Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer  

DOEpatents

A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

1995-08-08

170

Phase-multiplication holography  

SciTech Connect

This disclosure relates generally to nondestructive testing for identifying structural characteristics of an object by scanned holographic techniques using a known source of radiation, such as electromagnetic or acoustical radiation. It is an object of this invention to provide an apparatus and method for synthetic aperture expansion in holographic imaging applications to construct fringe patterns capable of holographic reproduction where aperture restrictions in nondestructive testing applications would conventionally make such imaging techniques impossible. The apparatus and method result in the production of a sharply defined frontal image of structural characteristics which could not otherwise be imaged because they occur either near the surface of the object or are confined by geometry restricting aperture dimensions available for scanning purposes. The depth of the structural characteristic below the surface of the object can also be determined by the reconstruction parameters which produce the sharpest focus. Lateral resolution is established by simulated reduction in the radiation wavelength and may easily be an order of magnitude less than the electromagnetic wavelength in the material or 2 times the standard depth of penetration. Since the phase multiplication technique is performed on the detected data, the penetration depth available due to the longer wavelength signals applied to the test object remains unchanged. The phase multiplication technique can also be applied to low frequency acoustic holography, resulting in a test which combines excellent penetration of difficult materials with high resolution images.

Collins, H.D.; Prince, J.M.; Davis, T.J.

1982-01-25

171

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN-2) is a hereditary syndrome that is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern.\\u000a MEN-2A, MEN-2B, and familial medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) comprise the MEN-2 syndrome. A germline mutation in the RET proto-oncogene\\u000a is responsible for the MEN-2 syndrome. Recent data indicate that in 99% of MEN-2 cases, a germline RET mutation can be identified

Michael E. Gertner; Electron Kebebew

2004-01-01

172

Responsiveness of Great Lakes Wetland Indicators to Human Disturbances at Multiple Spatial Scales: A Multi-Assemblage Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developing indicators of ecosystem condition is a priority in the Great Lakes, but little is known about appropriate spatial scales to characterize disturbance or response for most indicators. We surveyed birds, fish, amphibians, aquatic macroinvertebrates, wetland vegetation, and diatoms at 276 coastal wetland locations throughout the U.S. Great Lakes coastal region during 2002–2004. We assessed the responsiveness of 66 candidate

John C. Brazner; Nicolas P. Danz; Anett S. Trebitz; Gerald J. Niemi; Ronald R. Regal; Tom Hollenhorst; George E. Host; Euan D. Reavie; Terry N. Brown; JoAnn M. Hanowski; Carol A. Johnston; Lucinda B. Johnson; Robert W. Howe; Jan J. H. Ciborowski

2007-01-01

173

EVALUATING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLAND INDICATORS USING MULTIPLE TAXONOMIC GROUPS: GEOGRAPHIC AND GEOMORPHIC INFLUENCES  

EPA Science Inventory

This work arises from a MED collaboration with the GLEI consortium funded by and EPA Star Grant. Results confirm that developing effective indicators for Great Lakes coastal wetlands requires determination of the geographic range and ecosystem type where indicators are appropriat...

174

Bayes multiple decision functions  

PubMed Central

This paper deals with the problem of simultaneously making many (M) binary decisions based on one realization of a random data matrix X. M is typically large and X will usually have M rows associated with each of the M decisions to make, but for each row the data may be low dimensional. Such problems arise in many practical areas such as the biological and medical sciences, where the available dataset is from microarrays or other high-throughput technology and with the goal being to decide which among of many genes are relevant with respect to some phenotype of interest; in the engineering and reliability sciences; in astronomy; in education; and in business. A Bayesian decision-theoretic approach to this problem is implemented with the overall loss function being a cost-weighted linear combination of Type I and Type II loss functions. The class of loss functions considered allows for use of the false discovery rate (FDR), false nondiscovery rate (FNR), and missed discovery rate (MDR) in assessing the quality of decision. Through this Bayesian paradigm, the Bayes multiple decision function (BMDF) is derived and an efficient algorithm to obtain the optimal Bayes action is described. In contrast to many works in the literature where the rows of the matrix X are assumed to be stochastically independent, we allow a dependent data structure with the associations obtained through a class of frailty-induced Archimedean copulas. In particular, non-Gaussian dependent data structure, which is typical with failure-time data, can be entertained. The numerical implementation of the determination of the Bayes optimal action is facilitated through sequential Monte Carlo techniques. The theory developed could also be extended to the problem of multiple hypotheses testing, multiple classification and prediction, and high-dimensional variable selection. The proposed procedure is illustrated for the simple versus simple hypotheses setting and for the composite hypotheses setting through simulation studies. The procedure is also applied to a subset of a microarray data set from a colon cancer study.

Wu, Wensong; Peña, Edsel A.

2014-01-01

175

Multiple hypothesis clustering and multiple frame assignment tracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracking and initiating large numbers of closely spaced objects can pose significant real-time challenges to current state-of-the-art tracking systems. Cluster or group tracking has been suggested to reduce the computational complexity when closely spaced targets move with similar dynamical properties. While modern individual object tracking systems make association decisions over multiple frames of data, most cluster tracking systems make single-frame clustering decisions. In this paper we illustrate an extension of multiple frame assignment (MFA) individual object tracking to multiple frame cluster MFA tracking. In our approach, multiple single-frame clustering hypotheses are formed and the best clustering is selected over multiple frames of data. In recent work we formulated multiple frame cluster tracking assignment problems and demonstrated a single-frame cluster MFA tracking architecture. The work discussed in this paper extends the previous work and illustrates a multiple hypothesis clustering, multiple frame assignment (MHC-MFA), tracking system. We present simulations studies that motivate the benefits of the multiple frame cluster tracking approach over single-frame cluster tracking and discuss the computational efficiency of the multiple frame cluster tracking approach.

Gadaleta, Sabino; Poore, Aubrey B.; Roberts, Sean; Slocumb, Benjamin J.

2004-08-01

176

Inversion of multiple thermal indicators: quantitative methods of determining paleoheat flux and geological parameters. I. Theoretical development for paleoheat flux  

SciTech Connect

The quantitative inversion of present-day downhole thermal indicator information enables (a) assessment of the effective paleoheat flux recorded by thermal indicators, and (b) determination of geological parameters related to the dynamical burial history of sedimentary strata. The logic of the general inversion scheme underlying seven thermal indicators, viz. vitrinite reflectance, sterane, and/or hopane isomers, sterane atomatization, optical rotation, /sup 39/Ar//sup 40/Ar, pollen translucency, and fission scar tracks in apatite is presented, and their capability for resolving paleoheat flux is noted.

Lerche, I.

1988-01-01

177

Multiple sclerosis and depression.  

PubMed

Clinically significant depression can affect up to 50% of patients with multiple sclerosis over the course of their lifetime. It is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality and is regarded by patients as one of the main determinants of their quality of life. This review summarizes current perspectives relating to diagnosis, the utility of self report screening questionnaires, warning signs of suicidal intent and the biological and psychosocial variables implicated in mood change. In particular, the association between depression and structural brain abnormalities, including those derived from diffusion tensor imaging, is highlighted. Depression is treatable, as the results from randomized controlled trials of antidepressant medication, cognitive behavior therapy and mindfulness therapy, reveal. These positive findings are offset by data showing that depression in a neurological setting is often overlooked and under treated. PMID:22058085

Feinstein, Anthony

2011-11-01

178

Pomalidomide for multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Once characterized by a very poor outcome, multiple myeloma (MM) now has a significantly prolonged survival, with major improvements allowed by the use of 'novel agents': proteasome inhibitors (first-in-class bortezomib) and immunomodulatory compounds (IMiDs; first-in-class thalidomide and lenalidomide). However, the vast majority - if not all - of patients with MM ultimately end up being refractory to all existing drugs, including these efficient novel agents. There is a clear unmet medical need in this situation, which warrants the development of the next generation of proteasome inhibitors and IMiDs, as well as new drug classes. This drug profile focuses on pomalidomide, the next generation IMiD, recently approved by the US FDA and the EMA for patients with relapsed or refractory MM who have received at least two prior therapies, including lenalidomide and bortezomib, and have demonstrated disease progression on their last therapy. PMID:25265911

Fouquet, Guillemette; Bories, Claire; Guidez, Stéphanie; Renaud, Loïc; Herbaux, Charles; Javed, Sahir; Facon, Thierry; Leleu, Xavier

2014-12-01

179

On Multiple Einstein Rings  

E-print Network

A number of recent surveys for gravitational lenses have found examples of double Einstein rings. Here, we investigate analytically the occurrence of multiple Einstein rings. We prove, under very general assumptions, that at most one Einstein ring can arise from a mass distribution in a single plane lensing a single background source. Two or more Einstein rings can therefore only occur in multi-plane lensing. Surprisingly, we show that it is possible for a single source to produce more than one Einstein ring. If two point masses (or two isothermal spheres) in different planes are aligned with observer and source on the optical axis, we show that there are up to three Einstein rings. We also discuss the image morphologies for these two models if axisymmetry is broken, and give the first instances of magnification invariants in the case of two lens planes.

M. C. Werner; J. An; N. W. Evans

2008-04-23

180

Dancing with Multiple Partners  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transmembrane proteins, such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and integrins, activate intracellular signaling pathways through interactions with downstream binding partners. Woodside discusses two examples in which GPCRs and integrins interact in a noncompeting manner with more than one partner. The specific GPCR described is the thrombin receptor, in experiments where G protein peptides selectively block signaling through a particular G protein that does not appear to inhibit coupling of the receptor to other G proteins. The second system described is the αIIbβ3 integrin and its activation of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Syk. Syk appeared capable of interacting with both the integrin and intracellular domains of immune response receptors, because binding of Syk to the integrin was not inhibited by peptides based on the Syk binding site in immune response receptors. Thus, multiple, noncompeting binding partners add to the complexity of signal transduction outputs from a single receptor complex.

Darren G. Woodside (Texas Biotechnology Corporation; REV)

2002-03-19

181

Multiple intratesticular cysts.  

PubMed

Intratesticular cysts, once thought to be a rarity, are now being reported with an increasing prevalence as a result of the wider use of scrotal ultrasound scanning. Despite greater understanding of intratesticular cysts, their management remains unclear. Treatment has included enucleation and even radical orchiectomy over fear of the possibility of an associated malignancy. A more conservative approach with serial ultrasound scanning has been advocated if a clear distinction can be made between neoplastic and non-neoplastic testicular cysts. However, in view of the benign nature of such cysts, even repeated ultrasound scanning may not be necessary and may be considered over-treatment. In this study we present clinical and morphological characteristics of multiple cysts in the right testicle in a 62-year-old patient, where a slightly nodular lesion in the right testicle was detected. PMID:23658871

Kang, Sung Min; Hwang, Dae Sung; Lee, Jung Woo; Chon, Won Hee; Park, Nam Cheol; Park, Hyun Jun

2013-04-01

182

Multiple Intratesticular Cysts  

PubMed Central

Intratesticular cysts, once thought to be a rarity, are now being reported with an increasing prevalence as a result of the wider use of scrotal ultrasound scanning. Despite greater understanding of intratesticular cysts, their management remains unclear. Treatment has included enucleation and even radical orchiectomy over fear of the possibility of an associated malignancy. A more conservative approach with serial ultrasound scanning has been advocated if a clear distinction can be made between neoplastic and non-neoplastic testicular cysts. However, in view of the benign nature of such cysts, even repeated ultrasound scanning may not be necessary and may be considered over-treatment. In this study we present clinical and morphological characteristics of multiple cysts in the right testicle in a 62-year-old patient, where a slightly nodular lesion in the right testicle was detected. PMID:23658871

Kang, Sung Min; Hwang, Dae Sung; Lee, Jung Woo; Chon, Won Hee; Park, Nam Cheol

2013-01-01

183

Swamp Works- Multiple Projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that utilized multiple fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, for the design and assembly of a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, for the design and assembly of a portable four monitor hyper wall strip that could extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill that could be utilized on a next generation robot or rover, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and creation of a new outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory.

Carelli, Jonathan M.; Schuler, Jason M.; Chandler, Meredith L.

2013-01-01

184

Mixed Mode Matrix Multiplication  

SciTech Connect

In modern clustering environments where the memory hierarchy has many layers (distributed memory, shared memory layer, cache,...), an important question is how to fully utilize all available resources and identify the most dominant layer in certain computations. When combining algorithms on all layers together, what would be the best method to get the best performance out of all the resources we have? Mixed mode programming model that uses thread programming on the shared memory layer and message passing programming on the distributed memory layer is a method that many researchers are using to utilize the memory resources. In this paper, they take an algorithmic approach that uses matrix multiplication as a tool to show how cache algorithms affect the performance of both shared memory and distributed memory algorithms. They show that with good underlying cache algorithm, overall performance is stable. When underlying cache algorithm is bad, superlinear speedup may occur, and an increasing number of threads may also improve performance.

Meng-Shiou Wu; Srinivas Aluru; Ricky A. Kendall

2004-09-30

185

Multiple asteroid rendezvous missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Asteroid missions, centered on multiple asteroid rendezvous missions to main belt asteroids, are discussed and the required solar electric propulsion for these missions as well as the current performance estimates are examined. A brief statistical analysis involving asteroid availability transfer requirements and propulsion system capabilities is given, leading to a prediction that 5 to 8 asteroids can be encountered with a single launch. Measurement techniques include visual imaging, radio tracking, magnetometry, and in the case of landers, seismometry. The spacecraft will be propelled by a solar electric system with a power level of 25 kW to 40 kW and tour possibilities for 13 different asteroids have been developed. Preliminary estimates of asteroid triaxiality are made to calculate the effect of close orbits.

Bender, D. F.; Friedlander, A. L.

1979-01-01

186

AM with Multiple Merlins  

E-print Network

We introduce and study a new model of interactive proofs: AM(k), or Arthur-Merlin with k non-communicating Merlins. Unlike with the better-known MIP, here the assumption is that each Merlin receives an independent random challenge from Arthur. One motivation for this model (which we explore in detail) comes from the close analogies between it and the quantum complexity class QMA(k), but the AM(k) model is also natural in its own right. We illustrate the power of multiple Merlins by giving an AM(2) protocol for 3SAT, in which the Merlins' challenges and responses consist of only n^{1/2+o(1)} bits each. Our protocol has the consequence that, assuming the Exponential Time Hypothesis (ETH), any algorithm for approximating a dense CSP with a polynomial-size alphabet must take n^{(log n)^{1-o(1)}} time. Algorithms nearly matching this lower bound are known, but their running times had never been previously explained. Brandao and Harrow have also recently used our 3SAT protocol to show quasipolynomial hardness for approximating the values of certain entangled games. In the other direction, we give a simple quasipolynomial-time approximation algorithm for free games, and use it to prove that, assuming the ETH, our 3SAT protocol is essentially optimal. More generally, we show that multiple Merlins never provide more than a polynomial advantage over one: that is, AM(k)=AM for all k=poly(n). The key to this result is a subsampling theorem for free games, which follows from powerful results by Alon et al. and Barak et al. on subsampling dense CSPs, and which says that the value of any free game can be closely approximated by the value of a logarithmic-sized random subgame.

Scott Aaronson; Russell Impagliazzo; Dana Moshkovitz

2014-01-27

187

Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Multiple Symptom Validity Indices in Psychotic and Non-Psychotic Psychiatric Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although it is recognized that significant cognitive deficits are inherent in many psychiatric disorders, there is minimal research on whether the deficits can cause a failing score on symptom validity tests (SVTs). The performances of 104 and 178 patients with psychotic disorders and non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, respectively, on seven SVTs were examined. Analyses indicate that most of these SVTs have

Ryan W. Schroeder; Paul S. Marshall

2011-01-01

188

Comparison of the Multiple-sample means with composite sample results for fecal indicator bacteria by quantitative PCR and culture  

EPA Science Inventory

ABSTRACT: Few studies have addressed the efficacy of composite sampling for measurement of indicator bacteria by QPCR. In this study, composite results were compared to single sample results for culture- and QPCR-based water quality monitoring. Composite results for both methods ...

189

Empathic Multiple Tutoring Agents for Multiple Learner Interface  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a multiple user e-learning interface with multiple tutoring character agents. The character agents use eye movement information to facilitate empathy-relevant reasoning and behavior. Eye Information is used to monitor user's attention and interests, to personalize the agent behaviors, and for exchanging information of different learners. The system reacts to multiple users' eye information in real-time and the

Hua Wang; Jie Yang; Mark H. Chignell; Mitsuru Ishizuka

2006-01-01

190

Phylogeographical Analysis of mtDNA Data Indicates Postglacial Expansion from Multiple Glacial Refugia in Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou)  

PubMed Central

Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ?1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544–22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record that caribou were distributed in these areas during the Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the last glacial maximum substantially shaped the phylogeographical structure of this large mammalian North American species that will be affected by climatic change. Therefore, the presented results will be essential for future conservation planning in woodland caribou. PMID:23285137

Klutsch, Cornelya F. C.; Manseau, Micheline; Wilson, Paul J.

2012-01-01

191

Phylogeographical analysis of mtDNA data indicates postglacial expansion from multiple glacial refugia in woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou).  

PubMed

Glacial refugia considerably shaped the phylogeographical structure of species and may influence intra-specific morphological, genetic, and adaptive differentiation. However, the impact of the Quaternary ice ages on the phylogeographical structure of North American temperate mammalian species is not well-studied. Here, we surveyed ~1600 individuals of the widely distributed woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) using mtDNA control region sequences to investigate if glacial refugia contributed to the phylogeographical structure in this subspecies. Phylogenetic tree reconstruction, a median-joining network, and mismatch distributions supported postglacial expansions of woodland caribou from three glacial refugia dating back to 13544-22005 years. These three lineages consisted almost exclusively of woodland caribou mtDNA haplotypes, indicating that phylogeographical structure was mainly shaped by postglacial expansions. The putative centres of these lineages are geographically separated; indicating disconnected glacial refugia in the Rocky Mountains, east of the Mississippi, and the Appalachian Mountains. This is in congruence with the fossil record that caribou were distributed in these areas during the Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the last glacial maximum substantially shaped the phylogeographical structure of this large mammalian North American species that will be affected by climatic change. Therefore, the presented results will be essential for future conservation planning in woodland caribou. PMID:23285137

Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Manseau, Micheline; Wilson, Paul J

2012-01-01

192

Mutational Analysis of the Pullulanase-Type Debranching Enzyme of Maize Indicates Multiple Functions in Starch Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Plants contain two types of ?(1?6) glucan hydrolase (starch-debranching enzyme [DBE]). Mutations that affect the pullulanase-type DBE have not been described, although defects in isoamylase-type DBE, known in many plant species, indicate a function in starch biosynthesis. We describe a null mutation of a pullulanase-type DBE gene, a Mutator insertion in maize Zpu1. Plants homozygous for the zpu1-204 mutation are impaired in transient and storage starch degradation. Thus, hydrolytic activity of pullulanase-type DBE contributes to starch catabolism. Developing zpu1-204 endosperm accumulates branched maltooligosaccharides not found in the wild type and is deficient in linear maltooligosaccharides, indicating that the pullulanase-type DBE functions in glucan hydrolysis during kernel starch formation. Furthermore, in a background deficient in isoamylase-type DBE, zpu1-204 conditions a significant accumulation of phytoglycogen in the kernel that is not seen in the wild type. Therefore, pullulanase-type DBE partially compensates for the defect in isoamylase-type DBE, suggesting a function during starch synthesis as well as degradation. PMID:12615940

Dinges, Jason R.; Colleoni, Christophe; James, Martha G.; Myers, Alan M.

2003-01-01

193

The Distributive Property: The Core of Multiplication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a sequence of learning activities that lead to using the area model of multiplication to understand the distributive property (DP). The connection between area and multiplication is an important one, both for algebraic thinking and for geometry, as indicated in two of the critical areas for the third grade in the Common Core…

Kinzer, Cathy J.; Stanford, Ted

2013-01-01

194

Applying Multiple Query Optimization in Mobile Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We apply multiple query optimization to batches of pull (on-demand) requests in a mobile database system. The resulting view can answer several queries at once, and it is broadcast on a view channel dedicated to common answers of multiple queries rather than over individual downlink channels. A performance study is conducted that simulates different query workloads. The results indicate a

Rajeswari Malladi; Karen C. Davis

2003-01-01

195

Planetary orbits in multiple star systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The orbital stability and origin of planetary orbits in multiple star systems are considered in relation to the possibility of life existing on planets in such systems. Results of statistical studies of orbital stability in a range of multiple systems are presented which indicate that a planet can stay in a stable orbit in a (visual) binary system if it

R. S. Harrington

1981-01-01

196

Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the most sensitive to toxic air contaminants in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region.

Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

2013-12-01

197

Cytogenetics of multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Great studies of multiple myeloma (MM) strongly suggested that specific chromosomal changes are of prognostic significance in patients with MM1. We have performed cytogenetic analysis and recently fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on 43 cases of MM. Clonal chromosomal changes were present in 24 (56%) cases. Hyperdiploid karyotype was found in 12 (50%) cases, hypodiploid in 8 (33%) cases, and 4 (17%) cases had a pseudodiploid karyotype. The most common numerical abnormalities were gains of whole chromosomes 15, 11, 3 and 6. Whole chromosome losses were also frequent involving chromosomes X, 13, 14, and 8. Most cases showed also structural rearrangements 71% (n = 17): del(1p), dup(1q), del(5q), del(13q), del(17p) and t(11;14)(q13;q32) (n = 4, 17%). Chromosome -13/13q deletion was found in 42% (n = 10) cases; complete loss of 13 was observed in 67% (n = 7) cases, whereas 33% (n = 3) had interstitial deletions. In the majority of the cases there was a mixture of abnormal and normal metaphases. PMID:20432732

Trci?, Ruzica Lasan; Skelin, Ika Kardum; Susterci?, Dunja; Planinc-Peraica, Ana; Ajdukovi?, Radmila; Haris, Visnja; Kusec, Rajko; Begovi?, Davor

2010-03-01

198

Multiple Gluon Exchange Webs  

E-print Network

Webs are weighted sets of Feynman diagrams which build up the logarithms of correlators of Wilson lines, and provide the ingredients for the computation of the soft anomalous dimension. We present a general analysis of multiple gluon exchange webs (MGEWs) in correlators of semi-infinite non-lightlike Wilson lines, as functions of the exponentials of the Minkowski cusp angles, $\\alpha_{ij}$, formed between lines $i$ and $j$. We compute a range of webs in this class, connecting up to five Wilson lines through four loops, we give an all-loop result for a special class of diagrams, and we discover a new kind of relation between webs connecting different numbers of Wilson lines, based on taking collinear limits. Our results support recent conjectures, stating that the contribution of any MGEW to the soft anomalous dimension is a sum of products of polylogarithms, each depending on a single cusp angle, and such that their symbol alphabet is restricted to $\\alpha_{i j}$ and $1 - \\alpha_{i j}^2$. Finally, we construc...

Falcioni, Giulio; Harley, Mark; Magnea, Lorenzo; White, Chris D

2014-01-01

199

Multiple Gluon Exchange Webs  

E-print Network

Webs are weighted sets of Feynman diagrams which build up the logarithms of correlators of Wilson lines, and provide the ingredients for the computation of the soft anomalous dimension. We present a general analysis of multiple gluon exchange webs (MGEWs) in correlators of semi-infinite non-lightlike Wilson lines, as functions of the exponentials of the Minkowski cusp angles, $\\alpha_{ij}$, formed between lines $i$ and $j$. We compute a range of webs in this class, connecting up to five Wilson lines through four loops, we give an all-loop result for a special class of diagrams, and we discover a new kind of relation between webs connecting different numbers of Wilson lines, based on taking collinear limits. Our results support recent conjectures, stating that the contribution of any MGEW to the soft anomalous dimension is a sum of products of polylogarithms, each depending on a single cusp angle, and such that their symbol alphabet is restricted to $\\alpha_{i j}$ and $1 - \\alpha_{i j}^2$. Finally, we construct a simple basis of functions, defined through a one-dimensional integral representation in terms of powers of logarithms, which has all the expected analytic properties. This basis allows us to compactly express the results of all MGEWs computed so far, and we conjecture that it is sufficient for expressing all MGEWs at any loop order.

Giulio Falcioni; Einan Gardi; Mark Harley; Lorenzo Magnea; Chris D. White

2014-07-13

200

Multiple stage railgun  

DOEpatents

A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

Hawke, Ronald S. (Livermore, CA); Scudder, Jonathan K. (Pleasanton, CA); Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA)

1982-01-01

201

Multiple gluon exchange webs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Webs are weighted sets of Feynman diagrams which build up the logarithms of correlators of Wilson lines, and provide the ingredients for the computation of the soft anomalous dimension. We present a general analysis of multiple gluon exchange webs (MGEWs) in correlators of semi-infinite non-lightlike Wilson lines, as functions of the exponentials of the Minkowski cusp angles, $\\alpha_{ij}$, formed between lines $i$ and $j$. We compute a range of webs in this class, connecting up to five Wilson lines through four loops, we give an all-loop result for a special class of diagrams, and we discover a new kind of relation between webs connecting different numbers of Wilson lines, based on taking collinear limits. Our results support recent conjectures, stating that the contribution of any MGEW to the soft anomalous dimension is a sum of products of polylogarithms, each depending on a single cusp angle, and such that their symbol alphabet is restricted to $\\alpha_{i j}$ and $1 - \\alpha_{i j}^2$. Finally, we construct a simple basis of functions, defined through a one-dimensional integral representation in terms of powers of logarithms, which has all the expected analytic properties. This basis allows us to compactly express the results of all MGEWs computed so far, and we conjecture that it is sufficient for expressing all MGEWs at any loop order.

Falcioni, Giulio; Gardi, Einan; Harley, Mark; Magnea, Lorenzo; White, Chris D.

2014-10-01

202

Multiple cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)  

Microsoft Academic Search

From our series of 203 patients with cerebral vascular lesions, 18 (9%) could be included in the multiple arteriovenous malformation category. There were five patients with Rendu-Osler-Weber, one with Wyburn-Mason syndromes and two with concurrent arteriovenous malformations. The remaining ten patients (4%) had multiple brain arteriovenous malformations. Careful angiography with magnification is necessary to try to diagnose multiple brain AVMs,

R. A. Willinsky; P. Lasjaunias; K. Terbrugge; P. Burrows

1990-01-01

203

Multiple tree-ring isotopes as environmental indicators of diffuse atmospheric pollution in a peri-urban area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The combined analyses of tree-ring ?13C, ?18O, ?15N, 206Pb/207Pb, 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/208Pb isotope ratios of three red spruce specimens from the Tantaré ecological reserve located 40 km northwest of Québec City (Canada) were studied with the aim of reconstructing environmental conditions and unravel past air-quality changes of the 1880-2007 period. To separate the tree-ring ?18O and ?13C patterns induced by natural conditions from those generated by anthropogenic perturbations, a linear regression was applied between the most explicative meteorological parameters and the isotopic series for the period of low pollution (1880 to 1909). The model equations were then applied to the most recent part of the series (1910-2007) to verify if climatic conditions have remained the main driver of the tree-ring isotopic variations. The good fit between the modeled and measured ?18O series for the entire studied period suggests that the assimilation of oxygen by red spruce trees is not significantly affected by pollution stress near Québec City. However, the deviation between the measured and modeled ?13C values for the 1944-2007 period indicates that diffuse pollution affected carbon assimilation by the investigated trees. To independently validate if atmospheric pollution could have generated the deviation between the measured and the estimated ?13C values, a linear regression was applied between the portion of the residual ?13C values and atmospheric pollution (Canadian fossil fuel proxy from 1958 to 2000). The nice fit between the modeled ?13C values from the combination of the two regression analyses based on climate and emission proxy strongly supports the hypothesis that there is a natural and an anthropogenic portion in the ?13C variations of the studied specimens. The short-term variations of the red spruce ?15N series are correlated with the instrumentally measured amounts of provincial N emissions for the 1990 to 2006 period (longest measurements available). Additionally, the long-term decrease of the ?15N series after 1956 is linked to the low isotopic values of NOx emitted by car exhausts, as expressed by the provincial number of cars which reflect the amount of transport-related N deposition at the provincial scale. The 208Pb/206Pb and 204Pb/206Pb ratios as a function of 206Pb/207Pb of the 1880-1919 period reflect a mixture of natural lead from the mineral soil horizon and mainly anthropogenic lead from north-eastern American coal combustion. The lower Pb ratios of the 1920-1989 period correlate well with the introduction of leaded additives to gasoline characterized by lower ratios relative to coal combustion. Inferring the lead sources of the 1990-2008 period is not as straightforward because lead can potentially derive from three main sources: coal combustion, burnt recycled material and natural lead present in soils. Our results show the great potential of tree-ring stable isotopes to record pollution events in the context of peri-urban diffuse pollution, and to prolong the pollution history in regions where direct measurements of pollutants only covers a relatively short period.

Doucet, A.; Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Ouarda, T. B.; Marion, J.

2010-12-01

204

Thalamic neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis is still regarded primarily as a disease of the white matter. However, recent evidence suggests that there may be significant involvement of gray matter. Here, we have used magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in vivo and histopathology postmortem to estimate thalamic neuronal loss in patients with multiple sclerosis. Our results show that neuronal loss in multiple sclerosis can be substantial (30-35% reduction). We conclude that a neurodegenerative pathology may make a major contribution to the genesis of symptoms in multiple sclerosis. PMID:12402265

Cifelli, Alberto; Arridge, Marzena; Jezzard, Peter; Esiri, Margaret M; Palace, Jacqueline; Matthews, Paul M

2002-11-01

205

Design of Controllers for a Multiple Input Multiple Output System  

E-print Network

A method of controller design for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system is needed that will not give the high order controllers of modern control theory but will be more systematic than the “ad hoc” method. The objective of this method...

Harris, Amanda Lynne

2012-07-16

206

MULTIPLE STRESS COMPONENTS FROM MULTIPLE CUTS FOR THE CONTOUR METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

An extension of the contour method is presented which allows the measurement of multiple stress components by making multiple cuts. In the contour method, a body is carefully cut in two using wire electric discharge machining (EDM). The contours, or shapes, of the cut surfaces are then measured and used to calculate the original residual stress normal to the cut

P. Pagliaro; M. B. Prime; B. Zuccarello

207

Homeopathy in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common disease of the central nervous system affecting people between the ages of 20 and 40 years in the UK, Northern Europe and the USA. No definitive treatment yet exists to halt the almost inevitable decline in function and accumulation of disability over the years in sufferers. Management is largely directly of symptoms which arise variably in the course of the condition. Such problems as urinary incontinence, sexual dysfunction, cramps and spasms, tremor and trigeminal neuralgia can often be helped to some extent using conventional therapies. These treatments though are not effective in everyone, or cause unacceptable side-effects and there are some commonly reported symptoms, such as fatigue or emotional lability for which there are no generally accepted treatments. Here, a knowledge of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) can bring benefits to the person with MS. CAM is widely used by people with MS and some studies in this area are briefly summarised. It is interesting to reflect what lies behind all this CAM use and what that might tell conventional medicine about just what it is the MS sufferer really wants from their carers. Homeopathy is a form of CAM unique in the UK in having been available in the NHS since the foundation in 1948. Medical homeopaths in the UK have always been concerned with the integration of the best of conventional and complementary treatments for the benefit of their patients. Glasgow Homeopathic Hospital has around 100 admissions each year of people with MS at different stages of the condition and aims at an integrated response to their distress. Different therapeutic modalities are employed, but a homeopathic approach in particular is of benefit in MS. By its nature, it is a whole-person approach and allows for complete individualisation of treatment, taking account of the minutiae of someone's life. This is discussed and some examples of homeopathic treatments, which seem to be more generalisable for commonly encountered MS symptoms, are given. PMID:12604318

Whitmarsh, Thomas E

2003-02-01

208

Swamp Works- Multiple Projects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

My Surface Systems internship over the summer 2013 session covered a broad range of projects that ranged multiple aspects and fields of engineering and technology. This internship included a project to create a command center for a 120 ton regolith bin, a design and build for a blast shield to add further protection for the Surface Systems engineers, a design for a portable four monitor hyper wall that can extend as large as needed, research and programming a nano drill for a next generation robot, and social media tasks including the making of videos, posting to social networking websites and implementation of a new weekly outreach program to help spread the word about the Swamp Works laboratory. The objectives for the command center were to create a central computer controlled area for the still in production lunar regolith bin. It needed to be easy to use and the operating systems had to be Linux. The objectives for the hyper wall were to build a mobile transport of monitors that could potentially attach to one another. It needed to be light but sturdy, and have the ability to last. The objectives for the blast shield included a robust design that could withstand a small equipment malfunction, while also being convenient for use. The objectives for the nano-drill included the research and implementation of programming for vertical and horizontal movement. The hyper wall and blasts shield project were designed by me in the Pro/Engineer/Creo2 software. Each project required a meeting with the Swamp Works engineers and was declared successful.

Carelli, Jonathan M.

2013-01-01

209

Sarcoidosis presenting with multiple tattoo granulomata  

Microsoft Academic Search

A patient with sarcoidosis, multiple tattoo granulomata and arthritis is described. A combination of tattoo granulomata unrelated to any one colour in the tattoo and granulomatous inflammation elsewhere is indicative of sarcoidosis.

J. M. I. Iveson; J. A. Cotterill; V. Wright

1975-01-01

210

Multiple Surveys of Students and Survey Fatigue  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This chapter reviews the literature on survey fatigue and summarizes a research project that indicates that administering multiple surveys in one academic year can significantly suppress response rates in later surveys. (Contains 4 tables.)

Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.; Weitzer, William H.

2004-01-01

211

Multiple Intelligences for Differentiated Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is an intricate literacy to Gardner's multiple intelligences theory that unlocks key entry points for differentiated learning. Using a well-articulated framework, rich with graphic representations, Williams provides a comprehensive discussion of multiple intelligences. He moves the teacher and students from curiosity, to confidence, to…

Williams, R. Bruce

2007-01-01

212

The problem with multiple robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The issues that can arise in research associated with multiple, robotic agents are discussed. Two particular multi-robot projects are presented as examples. This paper was written in the hope that it might ease the transition from single to multiple robot research.

Huber, Marcus J.; Kenny, Patrick G.

1994-01-01

213

Kinesiology: Challenges of Multiple Agendas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the challenge of how the fi eld of kinesiology can exploit the advantages of multiple agendas while minimizing the disadvantages. Agendas here are the scholarly themes that help organize the field of study explicitly or implicitly and that give emphases to it with respect to its content and impact in society. The issue of multiple agendas is

Karl M. Newell

2007-01-01

214

Teaching for Mastery of Multiplication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The strategies for learning multiplication concepts are discussed. The strategies involve introduction of the multiplication concepts through problem solutions with linkage between new concepts and prior knowledge, provision of concrete experiences and semi-concrete representations prior to purely symbolic notations, explicit teaching of the rules…

Wallace, Ann H.; Gurganus, Susan P.

2005-01-01

215

Parameters of Multiple College Attendance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is a report analyzing the multiple community college attendance patterns of students from nine colleges in the Los Angeles Community College District (California) from 1990-2000. The assessment utilizes the Multiple College Index (MCI), which is a measure based on the proportion of units a student earns at different colleges. The study…

Dillon, Paul H.

216

Multiplication Fact Fluency Using Doubles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Not knowing multiplication facts creates a gap in a student's mathematics development and undermines confidence and disposition toward further mathematical learning. Learning multiplication facts is a first step in proportional reasoning, "the capstone of elementary arithmetic and the gateway to higher mathematics" (NRC 2001, p. 242). Proportional…

Flowers, Judith M.; Rubenstein, Rheta N.

2010-01-01

217

Multiple Regression Assumptions. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Digest presents a discussion of the assumptions of multiple regression that is tailored to the practicing researcher. The focus is on the assumptions of multiple regression that are not robust to violation, and that researchers can deal with if violated. Assumptions of normality, linearity, reliability of measurement, and homoscedasticity are…

Osborne, Jason W.; Waters, Elaine

218

Multiple AUVS for coastal oceanography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the recent developments of the project Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vehicles for Coastal Oceanography, of the University of Porto. The project envisages the development of a highly operational and low-cost system for scientific and environmental data collection in the Portuguese coastal waters. The project activities suggested the development of a generalized vehicle (GV) control architecture for multiple vehicles.

J. Sousa; N. Cruz; A. Matos; F. Lobo Pereira

1997-01-01

219

Generalized Constrained Multiple Correspondence Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes a comprehensive approach, generalized constrained multiple correspondence analysis, for imposing both row and column constraints on multivariate discrete data. Each set of discrete data is decomposed into several submatrices and then multiple correspondence analysis is applied to explore relationships among the decomposed submatrices.…

Hwang, Heungsun; Takane, Yoshio

2002-01-01

220

Multiple Intelligences Centers and Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based upon Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, this book guides elementary school teachers through the process of using classroom learning centers and projects by providing choices for students. The guide is divided into two sections, providing the theoretical background and information on how to develop multiple intelligences learning…

Chapman, Carolyn; Freeman, Lynn

221

Multiple criteria water supply planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models and associated analytical techniques are proposed to select, within a multiple objective framework, the best combination of long-term water supply strategies for the regional municipality of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. The problem is formulated as a multiple criteria integer program with interdependent actions. To solve the problem, different types of interdependence must be addressed. Due to the large number of

Siamak Rajabi; K. W. Hipel; D. Marc Kilgour

1997-01-01

222

The Philosophy of Multiple Comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on the 1989 Miller Memorial Lecture at Stanford University. The topic was chosen because of Rupert Miller's long involvement and significant contributions to multiple comparison procedures and theory. Our emphasis will be on the major questions that have received relatively little attention--on what one wants multiple comparisons to do, on why one wants to do that,

John W. Tukey

1991-01-01

223

Quantum computation and real multiplication  

E-print Network

We propose a construction of anyon systems associated to quantum tori with real multiplication and the embedding of quantum tori in AF algebras. These systems generalize the Fibonacci anyons, with weaker categorical properties, and are obtained from the basic modules and the real multiplication structure.

Matilde Marcolli; John Napp

2013-12-12

224

Multiple Indicators of Poor Diet Quality in Children and Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes Are Associated with Higher Body Mass Index Percentile but not Glycemic Control  

PubMed Central

Background Diet is a cornerstone of type 1 diabetes treatment, and poor diet quality may affect glycemic control and other health outcomes. Yet diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes remains understudied. Objective To evaluate multiple indicators of diet quality in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their associations with hemoglobin A1c and body mass index percentile. Design In this cross-sectional study, participants completed 3-day diet records, and data were abstracted from participants’ medical records. Diet quality indicators included servings of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains; Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) score; Nutrient Rich Foods 9.3 score (NRF 9.3); and glycemic index. Participants/setting Children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes ?1 year, aged 8 to 18 years, were recruited at routine clinic visits. Of 291 families enrolled, 252 provided diet data. Statistical analyses Associations of diet quality indicators to HbA1c and body mass index percentile were examined using analysis of covariance and multiple linear regression. Results Participants demonstrated low adherence to dietary guidelines; mean HEI-2005 score was 53.4±11.0 (range = 26.7 to 81.2). Intake of fruit, vegetables, and whole grains was less than half the recommended amount. Almost half of the participants’ daily energy intake was derived from refined-grain products, desserts, chips, and sweetened beverages. Higher fruit (P=0.04) and whole-grain (P=0.03) intake were associated with lower HbA1c in unadjusted, but not adjusted analyses; vegetable intake, HEI-2005 score, NRF 9.3 score, and glycemic index were not associated with HbA1c. Higher fruit (P=0.01) and whole-grain (P=0.04) intake and NRF 9.3 score (P=0.02), but not other diet quality indicators, were associated with lower body mass index percentile in adjusted analyses. Conclusions Data demonstrate poor diet quality in youth with type 1 diabetes and provide support for the importance of diet quality for weight management. Future research on determinants of dietary intake and methods to promote improved diet quality would be useful to inform clinical care. PMID:23102173

Nansel, Tonja R.; Haynie, Denise L.; Lipsky, Leah M.; Laffel, Lori M. B.; Mehta, Sanjeev N.

2014-01-01

225

Multiple Participants, Multiple Locations, Multiple Time Zones and Multitasking in the Synchronous Cyber Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the use of the synchronous cyber classroom with multiple participants from multiple locations and time-zones in socially networked learning communities around the world. It reports enhanced cognitive function, higher participation and lower attrition rates, and collaborative teaching and learning during facilitated synchronous sessions. Data was drawn from a seven year trial of synchronous teaching and learning with

Megan Hastie; Nian-shing Chen; Ross J. Todd

2008-01-01

226

Characterization of IGH locus breakpoints in multiple myeloma indicates a subset of translocations appear to occur in pregerminal center B cells.  

PubMed

Translocations in myeloma are thought to occur solely in mature B cells in the germinal center through class switch recombination (CSR). We used a targeted captured technique followed by massively parallel sequencing to determine the exact breakpoints in both the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus and the partner chromosome in 61 presentation multiple myeloma samples. The majority of samples (62%) have a breakpoint within the switch regions upstream of the IGH constant genes and are generated through CSR in a mature B cell. However, the proportion of CSR translocations is not consistent between cytogenetic subgroups. We find that 100% of t(4;14) are CSR-mediated; however, 21% of t(11;14) and 25% of t(14;20) are generated through DH-JH recombination activation gene-mediated mechanisms, indicating they occur earlier in B-cell development at the pro-B-cell stage in the bone marrow. These 2 groups also generate translocations through receptor revision, as determined by the breakpoints and mutation status of the segments used in 10% and 50% of t(11;14) and t(14;20) samples, respectively. The study indicates that in a significant number of cases the translocation-based etiological events underlying myeloma may arise at the pro-B-cell hematological progenitor cell level, much earlier in B-cell development than was previously thought. PMID:23435460

Walker, Brian A; Wardell, Christopher P; Johnson, David C; Kaiser, Martin F; Begum, Dil B; Dahir, Nasrin B; Ross, Fiona M; Davies, Faith E; Gonzalez, David; Morgan, Gareth J

2013-04-25

227

Multiplicative processes in visual cognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Central Limit Theorem (CLT) is certainly one of the most important results in the field of statistics. The simple fact that the addition of many random variables can generate the same probability curve, elucidated the underlying process for a broad spectrum of natural systems, ranging from the statistical distribution of human heights to the distribution of measurement errors, to mention a few. An extension of the CLT can be applied to multiplicative processes, where a given measure is the result of the product of many random variables. The statistical signature of these processes is rather ubiquitous, appearing in a diverse range of natural phenomena, including the distributions of incomes, body weights, rainfall, and fragment sizes in a rock crushing process. Here we corroborate results from previous studies which indicate the presence of multiplicative processes in a particular type of visual cognition task, namely, the visual search for hidden objects. Precisely, our results from eye-tracking experiments show that the distribution of fixation times during visual search obeys a log-normal pattern, while the fixational radii of gyration follow a power-law behavior.

Credidio, H. F.; Teixeira, E. N.; Reis, S. D. S.; Moreira, A. A.; Andrade, J. S.

2014-03-01

228

Repeated multiple maternities in triplet families.  

PubMed

In earlier studies, scientists have attempted to identify genetic and environmental factors affecting the rate of multiple maternities among humans. We contribute to these studies by analysing the frequencies of multiple maternities in sibships containing triplets. Use of the Hellin transformation is included in evaluation of the triplet rate. Our results indicate greater frequencies of repeated multiple maternities in the sibships than expected, based on population frequencies. The excesses obtained are more marked in triplet maternities than in twin maternities. The transformed triplet rate shows results similar to the twinning rate. The findings also indicate that in families, the influence of maternal factors on the frequencies of multiple maternities is stronger than the influence of paternal factors. PMID:24717303

Fellman, Johan; Eriksson, Aldur W

2014-06-01

229

Forum: A Multiple-Conclusion  

E-print Network

Forum: A Multiple] provides some primitives for concurrency but lacks abstraction mechanisms. In this paper we present Forum. To illustrate the new expressive strengths of Forum, we specify in it a sequent calculus proof system

Miller, Dale

230

Multiple Antibiotic Resistance Operon Assays.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An isolated and cloned region of a bacterial chromosome containing a multiple antibiotic resistance operon is disclosed. A description of the structure and function of the operon is provided as are assorted recombinant DNA constructs involving the operon ...

S. B. Levy

2004-01-01

231

Multiple Sclerosis and Vitamin D  

MedlinePLUS

... e100 Neurology Andrew J. Solomon Multiple sclerosis and vitamin D This information is current as of October ... vitamin D Andrew J. Solomon, MD WHAT IS VITAMIN D AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT IN MS? ...

232

A Semantics of Multiple Inheritance  

Microsoft Academic Search

this paper is to present a clean semantics of multiple inheritance and to show that, in the context of strongly-typed, statically-scoped languages, a sound typechecking algorithm exists. Multiple inheritance is also interpreted in a broad sense: instead of being limited to objects, it is extended in a natural way to union types and to higher-order functional types. This constitutes a

Luca Cardelli

1988-01-01

233

Let's Practice Multiplication and Division!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use the games below to improve your multiplication and division skills. Today, we are going to play some fun games that help us get better at multiplication and division. Follow the directions below: 1. Choose one of the following games. If you are a boy, you may wish to play with the catapult in Flight of the Knight. If you are a girl, you could ...

Aycock, Miss

2009-04-15

234

A multiple armature railgun launcher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Railgun launchers with multiple armatures, which can distribute the accelerating force on the projectile, supply each armature with gun current for acceleration through its own set of rails. Test results are reported which confirm the feasibility of this concept; it is shown that the control of current distribution to multiple armatures is possible. Attention is given to gun behavior for the case of high length/diameter projectiles.

Challita, Antonios; Maas, Brian L.; Bauer, David P.; Heyse, Mark

1993-01-01

235

Progress in Multiple Sclerosis Genetics  

PubMed Central

A genetic component in the susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS) has long been known, and the first and major genetic risk factor, the HLA region, was identified in the 1970’s. However, only with the advent of genome-wide association studies in the past five years did the list of risk factors for MS grow from 1 to over 50. In this review, we summarize the search for MS risk genes and the latest results. Comparison with data from other autoimmune and neurological diseases and from animal models indicates parallels and differences between diseases. We discuss how these translate into an improved understanding of disease mechanisms, and address current challenges such as genotype-phenotype correlations, functional mechanisms of risk variants and the missing heritability. PMID:23730204

Goris, An; Pauwels, Ine; Dubois, Benedicte

2012-01-01

236

Genetics Home Reference: Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia  

MedlinePLUS

... literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... definitions Reviewed February 2008 What is multiple epiphyseal dysplasia? Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia is a disorder of cartilage ...

237

Interger multiplication with overflow detection or saturation  

SciTech Connect

High-speed multiplication is frequently used in general-purpose and application-specific computer systems. These systems often support integer multiplication, where two n-bit integers are multiplied to produce a 2n-bit product. To prevent growth in word length, processors typically return the n least significant bits of the product and a flag that indicates whether or not overflow has occurred. Alternatively, some processors saturate results that overflow to the most positive or most negative representable number. This paper presents efficient methods for performing unsigned or two's complement integer multiplication with overflow detection or saturation. These methods have significantly less area and delay than conventional methods for integer multiplication with overflow detection and saturation.

Schulte, M.J.; Balzola, P.I.; Akkas, A.; Brocato, R.W.

2000-01-11

238

The MARVEL assembly for neutron multiplication  

SciTech Connect

A new multiplying test assembly is under development at Idaho National Laboratory to support research, validation, evaluation, and learning. The item is comprised of three stacked, highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders, each 11.4 cm in diameter and having a combined height of up to 11.7 cm. The combined mass of all three cylinders is 20.3 kg of HEU. Calculations for the bare configuration of the assembly indicate a multiplication level of >3.5 (keff=0.72). Reflected configurations of the assembly, using either polyethylene or tungsten, are possible and have the capability of raising the assembly's multiplication level to greater than 10. This paper describes simulations performed to assess the assembly's multiplication level under different conditions and describes the resources available at INL to support the use of these materials. We also describe some preliminary calculations and test activities using the assembly to study neutron multiplication.

David L. Chichester; Mathew T. Kinlaw

2013-10-01

239

Convergence characteristics of the multiple input, multiple output LMS algorithm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The convergence characteristics of the multiple input, multiple output LMS algorithm, as applied to active noise and vibration control systems, are examined. The mean square error during the convergence process, as well as the final converged value, are examined analytically and in computer simulation. It is shown that the ratio of number of error sensors to number of control sources has a significant influence upon both the converging and converged value of the mean square error. Other active control system variables, such as the inherent time delays and structural/acoustic transfer functions, are also shown to have a significant influence upon the convergence process.

Snyder, Scott D.; Hansen, Colin H.; Clark, Robert L.

1992-01-01

240

Use of multiple dimensions in learned discriminations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many naturally occurring categories vary across multiple stimulus dimensions (e.g. size, color, texture). When humans cat- egorize multidimensional stimuli on the basis of a single dimension this has been taken to indicate use of a rule that could be verbalized. Sorting on the basis of all the stimulus dimensions ('overall similarity' or 'family resemblance') has been taken to indicate a

Stephen E. G. Lea; A. J. Wills

2008-01-01

241

[Multiple myeloma with D immunoglobulin].  

PubMed

The immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma is a rare form of multiple myeloma and affects a young population. It is characterized by its clinical severity and poor prognosis. We report four cases of multiple myeloma immunoglobulin D diagnosed and supported in the university hospital Center of Sale and Rabat-Morocco. We propose to study the epidemiological, clinical and biological characteristics of this rare type of monoclonal gammopathy. Through the observations reported, the clinical aspect of myeloma is characterized by the high frequency of extra-bone manifestations including impaired kidney function. The immunoglobulin D multiple myeloma is mainly type ?, the IgD ? is rare, the predominance of ? light chains could be explained by rearrangements at the immunoglobulin genes. Bence-Jones proteinuria is almost constant in the multiple myeloma immunoglobulin D, it is mainly type ?, reflecting excess production of light chains by plasma cells. The marrow is invaded by plasma cells in very different proportions of up to 95%. It's a clinical entity, difficult to diagnose, particularly when low homogeneous band on electrophoresis goes unnoticed for an eye inexperienced or when immune serum anti-IgD was not used during the immunotyping. PMID:22008139

Benchekroun, Laila; Ouzzif, Zohra; Bouabdillah, Mounya; Jaouhar, Nouzha; Aoufir, Fatiha; Aoufi, Farida; Chabraoui, Layachi

2011-01-01

242

Modularization to Support Multiple Brand Platforms  

E-print Network

Methods to determine acceptable architecture for multiple platforms supporting multiple brands must represent both platform cost saving commonization as well as revenue enhancing brand distinctions. Functional architecting ...

Agus, Sudjianto

2001-09-09

243

Nanoliter Reactors Improve Multiple Displacement Amplification  

E-print Network

Nanoliter Reactors Improve Multiple Displacement Amplification of Genomes from Single Cells Yann) Nanoliter reactors improve multiple displacement amplification of genomes from single cells. PLoS Genet 3

Quake, Stephen R.

244

In muscle lengthening surgery multiple aponeurotomy does not improve intended acute effects and may counter-indicate: an assessment by finite element modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal was to assess the effects of multiple aponeurotomy on mechanics of muscle with extramuscular myofascial connections. Using finite element modelling, effects of combinations of the intervention carried out at a proximal (P), an intermediate (I) and a distal (D) location were studied: (1) Case P, (2) Case P-I, (3) Case P-D and (4) Case P-I-D. Compared to Case

Can A. Yucesoy; Zeynep ?eref-Ferlengez; Peter A. Huijing

2011-01-01

245

Analysis of the long control region of bovine papillomavirus type 1 associated with sarcoids in equine hosts indicates multiple cross-species transmission events and phylogeographical structure.  

PubMed

Papillomaviruses are a family of slowly evolving DNA viruses and their evolution is commonly linked to that of their host species. However, whilst bovine papillomavirus-1 (BPV-1) primarily causes warts in its natural host, the cow, it can also cause locally aggressive and invasive skin tumours in equids, known as sarcoids, and thus provides a rare contemporary example of cross-species transmission of a papillomavirus. Here, we describe the first phylogenetic analysis of BPV-1 in equine sarcoids to our knowledge, allowing us to explore the evolutionary history of BPV-1 and investigate its cross-species association with equids. A phylogenetic analysis of the BPV-1 transcriptional promoter region (the long control region or LCR) was conducted on 15 bovine and 116 equine samples from four continents. Incorporating previous estimates for evolutionary rates in papillomavirus implied that the genetic diversity in the LCR variants was ancient and predated domestication of both equids and cattle. The phylogeny demonstrated geographical segregation into an ancestral group (African, South American and Australian samples), and a more recently derived, largely European clade. Whilst our data are consistent with BPV-1 originating in cattle, we found evidence of multiple, probably relatively recent, cross-species transmission events into horses. We also demonstrated the high prevalence of one particular sequence variant (variant 20), and suggest this may indicate that this variant shows a fitness advantage in equids. Although strong host specificity remains the norm in papillomaviruses, our results demonstrate that exceptions to this rule exist and can become epidemiologically relevant. PMID:25185436

Trewby, Hannah; Ayele, Gizachew; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe; Brandt, Sabine; Campo, M Saveria; Del Fava, Claudia; Marais, Johan; Leonardi, Leonardo; Vanselow, Barbara; Biek, Roman; Nasir, Lubna

2014-12-01

246

Subpixel resolution from multiple images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple images taken from similar locations and under similar lighting conditions contain similar, but not identical, information. Slight differences in instrument orientation and position produces mismatches between the projected pixel grids. These mismatches ensure that any point on the ground is sampled differently in each image. If all the images can be registered with respect to each other to a small fraction of a pixel accuracy, then the information from the multiple images can be combined to increase linear resolution by roughly the square root of the number of images. In addition, the gray-scale resolution of the composite image is also improved. We describe methods for multiple image registration and combination, and discuss some of the problems encountered in developing and extending them. We display test results with 8:1 resolution enhancement, and Viking Orbiter imagery with 2:1 and 4:1 enhancements.

Cheeseman, Peter; Kanefsky, Rob; Stutz, John; Kraft, Richard

1994-01-01

247

Normalized Compression Distance of Multiples  

E-print Network

Normalized compression distance (NCD) is a parameter-free similarity measure based on compression. The NCD between pairs of objects is not sufficient for all applications. We propose an NCD of finite multisets (multiples) of objacts that is metric and is better for many applications. Previously, attempts to obtain such an NCD failed. We use the theoretical notion of Kolmogorov complexity that for practical purposes is approximated from above by the length of the compressed version of the file involved, using a real-world compression program. We applied the new NCD for multiples to retinal progenitor cell questions that were earlier treated with the pairwise NCD. Here we get significantly better results. We also applied the NCD for multiples to synthetic time sequence data. The preliminary results are as good as nearest neighbor Euclidean classifier.

Cohen, Andrew R

2012-01-01

248

Multiple meteoroid impact in Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the late 1950's, geophysical field parties undertaking gravity surveys across Antarctica observed over a large area of Wilkes Land (> 240km across) an exceptionally pronounced negative free air anomaly ((to -158.3 mgal). This area was later interpreted as a possible meteor impact site because the gravity profiles were similar to those of known impact sites (apparent rim structures, circular basins, central peaks or rings), they possessed appropriate aspect ratios (e.g., crater diameter vs crater depth), anomalously steep negative free air gravity anomaly gradients (to 4.71 mgal/km) were characteristic of impact craters and uncharacteristic of solely mantle-related or geologic crustal variations, etc. The condition of the ice covering the anomaly (heavily crevassed), the apparent lack of isostatic compensation with surrounding environs, etc suggested the impact was geologically recent and that perhaps a tektite strewn field was associated with it. The distance from the postulated impact to the Australian strewn field was appropriate as are the ages of the tektites there. This early work has been augmented with the detection of a dominant cluster of negative free air gravity anomalies crossing the continental-oceanic boundary, and the East and West Antarctic structural boundary (i.e., Transantarctic Mountains). These anomalies are coincident with complex subglacial craterform topographic features inferred from radiosounding (to -500m below MSL). The major interior positive free air gravity anomalies are associated with subglacial topographic highs. The elliptical distribution of the negative gravity anomalies resemble known multiple impact distributions (scatter ellipses with the larger anomalies forward and the lesser ones aft). This more recent information favors expanding the original proposal to that of a multiple meteoroid impact. The multiple impact hypotheses would explain aeromagnetic surveys revealing ring-shaped structures in the subglacial rock surface much like those of known impact structures (the magnetic anomalies are unusual in magnitude themselves: amplitudes to 3600nT for sensors at 3.5 km elevation). Deviations from this topography can be attributed to glacial scour. Certainly glacial surging should accompany such an impact. The distribution of the apparent impact structures extends beyond the original discovery and on the basis of negative free air anomalies, into the Wilkes Subglacial Basin to the south, athwart the Transantarctic Mountains and into the Ross Embayment to the east. No multiple impact sites of comparable size on Earth have been reported. The above suggestions have been augmented by recent work on cores taken from the Ross Sea which has revealed the presence of material of high magnetic susceptibility often taken as an indicator of meteor impact and tektites. The age of this material is placed in the Late Pliocene. The oldest ages reported for meteorites collected from the Antarctic Blue Ice is ca. 700,000y.

Weihoupt, J. W.; Rice, A.; van der Hoeven, F.

2006-12-01

249

Multiple Imputation Strategies for Multiple Group Structural Equation Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although structural equation modeling software packages use maximum likelihood estimation by default, there are situations where one might prefer to use multiple imputation to handle missing data rather than maximum likelihood estimation (e.g., when incorporating auxiliary variables). The selection of variables is one of the nuances associated…

Enders, Craig K.; Gottschall, Amanda C.

2011-01-01

250

The Multiple Factors of Multiple Sclerosis: A Darwinian Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, is often referred to as a multifactorial disease, but there is little consensus as to what factors are involved, besides genetic susceptibility and childhood infectious agents. The purpose of this paper is to identify plausible, environmental factors that contribute to the aetiology of MS. Design: Review of the

ASHTON F. EMBRY

2004-01-01

251

Convergence and Discriminant: Assessing Multiple Traits Using Multiple Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple traits of language proficiency as well as test method effects were concurrently analyzed to investigate interrelations of construct validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity using multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) matrices. A total of 585 test takers' scores were derived from the field test of the "Pearson Test of English…

Pae, Hye K.

2012-01-01

252

[HLA and familial multiple sclerosis].  

PubMed

Some data suggest an environmental perhaps a viral factor but also of a genetic factor in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. Among the latter is the notably increased risk for a twin when the other twin has the disease, a risk further increased if they are monozygotic. There is also a greater than chance frequency of common HLA haplotypes in 2 affected siblings. The frequency of familial forms of multiple sclerosis is estimated at approximately 6 p. 100. We have studied 14 families of which 12 included 2 members with multiple sclerosis and 2 with 3 affected members. Parental relation between patients was parent to child (7 cases), brother to sister (5 cases), sister to sister including two pairs of twins (4 cases) and cousin to cousin on the mother's side (2 cases). When compared with non-familial multiple sclerosis there were no particular features in clinical disorders or course: 4 forms were progressive, the others evolving by episodes. In 26 patients in whom HLA antigens were determined, the DR2 antigen was present 19 times, the B7 antigen 9 times and the A3 antigen 7 times. In the 8 pairs of siblings with multiple sclerosis, 2 were HLA-identical and 5 semi-identical. One pair had no common haplotype. Grouping of HLA in 22 healthy members allowed 8 genealogic trees to be established. If a gene for susceptibility to multiple sclerosis exists, it is of low penetration, of dominant transmission and of limited frequency. It probably lies close to the region D of chromosome 6, because of the disequilibrium of crossed linking with A3, B7 and DR2 antigens. PMID:3823705

Barroche, G; Perrier, P; Raffoux, C; Gehin, P; Streiff, F; Weber, M

1986-01-01

253

Polarimetry with multiple mirror telescopes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The polarizations of multiple mirror telescopes are calculated using Mueller calculus. It is found that the Multiple Mirror Telescope (MMT) produces a constant depolarization that is a function of wavelength and independent of sky position. The efficiency and crosstalk are modeled and experimentally verified. The two- and four-mirror new generation telescopes are found to produce sinusoidal depolarization for which an accurate interpretation of the incident Stokes vector requires inverse matrix calculations. Finally, the depolarization of f/1 paraboloids is calculated and found to be less than 0.1 percent at 3000 A.

West, S. C.

1986-01-01

254

Multiple order common path spectrometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention relates to a dispersive spectrometer. The spectrometer allows detection of multiple orders of light on a single focal plane array by splitting the orders spatially using a dichroic assembly. A conventional dispersion mechanism such as a defraction grating disperses the light spectrally. As a result, multiple wavelength orders can be imaged on a single focal plane array of limited spectral extent, doubling (or more) the number of spectral channels as compared to a conventional spectrometer. In addition, this is achieved in a common path device.

Newbury, Amy B. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

255

SPSS Tutorial for Multiple Comparisons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Authored by Laura Little of the University of Washington, this tutorial exposes students to conducting multiple comparisons in SPSS. This html based tutorial provides extensive screen shots and an example data set. Topics covered in the tutorial include: one way ANOVA, preplanned contrasts, Bonferroni, Post Hoc Tukey's HSD, and Scheffe's multiple contrasts. This is a great example of how to use statistical tools such as SPSS in a psychological statistics course. Little does excellent work in providing a step by step approach to learning these methods.

Little, Laura

2009-03-11

256

Variant morphology in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

A 45-year-old man presented to the clinic with the chief complaints of low back pain, marked weight loss, and pallor of 2 months duration. He was found to have severe normocytic anemia with leukoerythroblastosis. Bone marrow aspirate resulted in a dry tap. Marrow trephine biopsy showed findings initially interpreted as poorly differentiated carcinoma involving marrow. Immunohistochemistry and protein studies established a diagnosis of IgG Kappa multiple myeloma. Correlation of marrow biopsy findings with clinical, radiological and immunological data remain an essential part of the diagnostic evaluation of multiple myeloma. PMID:25332545

Koduri, Prasad R; Gowrishankar, Swarnalata; Malladi, Vijay Kumar

2014-09-01

257

Multiple Spontaneous Simultaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhages  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in different arterial territories is an uncommon event. We report on two cases of multiple spontaneous simultaneous ICH for which we could find no specific cause. A 73-year-old man, with no related medical history, was admitted to the hospital with simultaneous bithalamic ICH, and subsequently died of recurrent pneumonia. Second patient was a 60-year-old man who presented with simultaneous ICH in the pons and thalamus; he died of recurrent bleeding. We review the possible pathological mechanisms, clinical and radiologic features of simultaneous multiple ICH. PMID:25045650

Seo, Jin-Suk; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Kwon, Jeong-Taik

2014-01-01

258

Multiple resonant railgun power supply  

DOEpatents

A multiple repetitive resonant railgun power supply provides energy for repetitively propelling projectiles from a pair of parallel rails. A plurality of serially connected paired parallel rails are powered by similar power supplies. Each supply comprises an energy storage capacitor, a storage inductor to form a resonant circuit with the energy storage capacitor and a magnetic switch to transfer energy between the resonant circuit and the pair of parallel rails for the propelling of projectiles. The multiple serial operation permits relatively small energy components to deliver overall relatively large amounts of energy to the projectiles being propelled.

Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Nunnally, William C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1988-01-01

259

Development of a Multimorbidity Illness Perceptions Scale (MULTIPleS)  

PubMed Central

Background Illness perceptions are beliefs about the cause, nature and management of illness, which enable patients to make sense of their conditions. These perceptions can predict adjustment and quality of life in patients with single conditions. However, multimorbidity (i.e. patients with multiple long-term conditions) is increasingly prevalent and a key challenge for future health care delivery. The objective of this research was to develop a valid and reliable measure of illness perceptions for multimorbid patients. Methods Candidate items were derived from previous qualitative research with multimorbid patients. Questionnaires were posted to 1500 patients with two or more exemplar long-term conditions (depression, diabetes, osteoarthritis, coronary heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Data were analysed using factor analysis and Rasch analysis. Rasch analysis is a modern psychometric technique for deriving unidimensional and intervally-scaled questionnaires. Results Questionnaires from 490 eligible patients (32.6% response) were returned. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five potential subscales ‘Emotional representations’, ‘Treatment burden’, ‘Prioritising conditions’, ‘Causal links’ and ‘Activity limitations’. Rasch analysis led to further item reduction and the generation of a summary scale comprising of items from all scales. All scales were unidimensional and free from differential item functioning or local independence of items. All scales were reliable, but for each subscale there were a number of patients who scored at the floor of the scale. Conclusions The MULTIPleS measure consists of five individual subscales and a 22-item summary scale that measures the perceived impact of multimorbidity. All scales showed good fit to the Rasch model and preliminary evidence of reliability and validity. A number of patients scored at floor of each subscale, which may reflect variation in the perception of multimorbidity. The MULTIPleS measure will facilitate research into the impact of illness perceptions on adjustment, clinical outcomes, quality of life, and costs in patients with multimorbidity. PMID:24376504

Gibbons, Chris J.; Kenning, Cassandra; Coventry, Peter A.; Bee, Penny; Bundy, Christine; Fisher, Louise; Bower, Peter

2013-01-01

260

Sequential Test Strategies for Multiple Fault Isolation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing near optimal test sequencing algorithms for diagnosing multiple faults in redundant (fault-tolerant) systems. The computational complexity of solving the optimal multiple-fault isolation problem is super-exponential, that is, it is much more difficult than the single-fault isolation problem, which, by itself, is NP-hard. By employing concepts from information theory and Lagrangian relaxation, we present several static and dynamic (on-line or interactive) test sequencing algorithms for the multiple fault isolation problem that provide a trade-off between the degree of suboptimality and computational complexity. Furthermore, we present novel diagnostic strategies that generate a static diagnostic directed graph (digraph), instead of a static diagnostic tree, for multiple fault diagnosis. Using this approach, the storage complexity of the overall diagnostic strategy reduces substantially. Computational results based on real-world systems indicate that the size of a static multiple fault strategy is strictly related to the structure of the system, and that the use of an on-line multiple fault strategy can diagnose faults in systems with as many as 10,000 failure sources.

Shakeri, M.; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Raghavan, V.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Kell, T.

1997-01-01

261

Kinesiology: Challenges of Multiple Agendas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the challenge of how the field of kinesiology can exploit the advantages of multiple agendas while minimizing the disadvantages. Agendas here are the scholarly themes that help organize the field of study explicitly or implicitly and that give emphases to it with respect to its content and impact in society. The issue of…

Newell, Karl M.

2007-01-01

262

Multiple Intelligence for Every Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an overview of multiple intelligence (MI) theory along with practical applications of the model. In particular, three basic aspects of the theory (teaching strategies, curricular adaptations, and student assessment) are described relative to the infusion of MI theory in general education classrooms to ensure appropriate inclusion for students with mild to moderate disabilities.

Pokey Stanford

2003-01-01

263

Enhancing Learning through Multiple Intelligences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated whether there was a significant difference between multiple intelligence instruction (MII) and traditionally designed science instruction (TDSI) on fourth grade students' understanding of concepts associated with the "Diversity of Living Things" unit. Students' intelligence types were also examined. There were two…

Ozdemir, Pinar; Guneysu, Sibel; Tekkaya, Ceren

2006-01-01

264

Multiple Literacies Theory: Exploring Futures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the contributions of philosophy, art and science to education through the conceptual, theoretical, and methodological usefulness of a Deleuze-Guattarian conceptual framework that informs multiple literacies theory (MLT). Education lends itself to Deleuze's notion of connecting and creating through philosophy, art and…

Masny, Diana

2011-01-01

265

MAIN THEOREM OF COMPLEX MULTIPLICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In [S, Ch. IV, ?18] the Main Theorem of complex multiplication is proved in a manner that uses some adelic formalism. However, [S] uses a framework for algebraic geometry that has long been abandoned, so many of the beautiful ideas there are somewhat shrouded in mystery for the reader who is unfamiliar with the pre-Grothendieck approaches to algebraic geometry and

BRIAN CONRAD

266

Multiple Pathways for All Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Maine has been focusing on the importance of postsecondary training. Maine's Skowhegan Area High School (SAHS) and Somerset Career and Technical Center (SCTC) have partnered in a Multiple Pathways initiative (funded by the Nellie Mae Education Foundation) to increase students' high school completion rate and to increase enrollment in postsecondary…

Stirling, Lee Anna

2012-01-01

267

Overhearing Single and Multiple Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2 spontaneous speech experiments, this study found that multiple perspectives improved overhearers' abilities to select abstract shapes from an array, although single-perspective descriptions were more detailed. Prior findings that overhearers performed better when listening in on dialogues (Fox Tree, 1999) can best be understood as an…

Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.

2008-01-01

268

Childhood Multiple Sclerosis: A Review  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that is increasingly recognized as a disease that affects children. Similar to adult-onset MS, children present with visual and sensory complaints, as well as weakness, spasticity, and ataxia. A lumbar puncture can be helpful in diagnosing MS when…

Waldman, Amy; O'Connor, Erin; Tennekoon, Gihan

2006-01-01

269

Genetics Home Reference: Multiple sclerosis  

MedlinePLUS

... to nerve cells. Multiple sclerosis is considered an autoimmune disorder; autoimmune disorders occur when the immune system malfunctions and attacks ... genetic condition can be inherited? If a genetic disorder runs in my family, what are the ... cell ; cell membrane ; double vision ; fever ; gene ; ...

270

Interoperability of multiple autonomous databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Database systems were a solution to the problem of shared access to heterogeneous files created by multiple autonomous applications in a centralized environment. To make data usage easier, the files were replaced by a globally integrated database. To a large extent, the idea was successful, and many databases are now accessible through local and long-haul networks. Unavoidably, users now need

Witold Litwin; Leo Mark; Nick Roussopoulos

1990-01-01

271

Consensus of multiple nonholonomic systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers the consensus of multiple nonholonomic systems such that a group of systems converges to a desired trajectory. Cooperative control laws are proposed and analyzed with the aid of results from graph theory and Lyapunov analysis. The proposed control laws are decentralized. Robustness of the proposed control laws to communication delays is also considered. As an application of

Wenjie Dong; Jay A. Farrell

2008-01-01

272

Fungible Weights in Multiple Regression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Every set of alternate weights (i.e., nonleast squares weights) in a multiple regression analysis with three or more predictors is associated with an infinite class of weights. All members of a given class can be deemed "fungible" because they yield identical "SSE" (sum of squared errors) and R[superscript 2] values. Equations for generating…

Waller, Niels G.

2008-01-01

273

Becoming a Multiple Intelligences School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The motivation to help students learn has moved many educators to explore multiple intelligences (MI) theory as a tool to help more children succeed. This book relates a decade of experiences in applying MI theory at New City School, an independent St. Louis elementary school. Directed toward educational leaders, the book focuses on the centrality…

Hoerr, Thomas R.

274

Multiple antibiotic resistance and efflux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple antibiotic resistance in bacteria was at first thought to be caused exclusively by the combination of several resistance genes, each coding for resistance to a single drug. More recently, it became clear that such phenotypes are often achieved by the activity of drug efflux pumps. Some of these efflux pumps exhibit an extremely wide specificity covering practically all antibiotics,

Hiroshi Nikaido

1998-01-01

275

Matrix Multiplication on Heterogeneous Platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we address the issue of implementing matrix multiplication on heterogeneous platforms. We target two different classes of heterogeneous computing resources: heterogeneous networks of workstations and collections of heterogeneous clusters. Intuitively, the problem is to load balance the work with different speed resources while minimizing the communication volume. We formally state this problem in a geometric framework and

Olivier Beaumont; Vincent Boudet; Fabrice Rastello; Yves Robert

2001-01-01

276

Characteristics of Multiple Comparison Procedures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple comparison procedures (MCPs), in the context of analysis of variance, are becoming more popular than the overall F tests. An attempt is made to clarify confusion among the different MCPs by systematically comparing and contrasting the procedures in terms of their purposes, restrictions, robustness to assumptions, and other special…

Yusuf, Mian Muhammad; And Others

277

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with

Francesca Marini; Alberto Falchetti; Francesca Del Monte; Silvia Carbonell Sala; Alessia Gozzini; Ettore Luzi; Maria Luisa Brandi

2006-01-01

278

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combined clinical and laboratory investigations of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) have resulted in an increased understanding of this disorder which may be inherited as an autosomal dominant condition. Defining the features of each disease manifestation in MEN1 has improved patient management and treatment, and has also facilitated a screening protocol to be instituted. The application of the techniques

A A J Pannett; R V Thakker

1999-01-01

279

Multiplication: It's in the Cards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 4-lesson unit assumes student understanding of multiplication; it uses patterns, properties of the operation, and games to develop fact fluency. The unit included student recording sheets, questions for students and teachers, links to online applets, and suggestions for assessment and extension.

2013-01-01

280

Multiple Resources and Brain Laterality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two studies were completed to test the multiple resources model of information processing using tachistoscopic lateralized-input techniques. In Exp. 1 37 normal, dextral subjects, 18 men aged 18-21yr. and 19 women 18-21yr. responded manually to a visuo-sp...

E. H. Galluscio

1984-01-01

281

Symptomatic Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Besides immunomodulation and immunosuppression, the specific treatment of symptoms is an essential component of the overall management of multiple sclerosis (MS). Symptomatic treatment is aimed at the elimination or reduction of symptoms impairing the functional abilities and quality of life of the affected patients. Moreover, with symptomatic treatment the development of a secondary physical impairment due to an existing one

T. Henze; P. Rieckmann; K. V. Toyka

2006-01-01

282

Fashion, Paper Dolls and Multiplicatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The multiplicative principle is the tool allowing the counting of groups that can be described by a sequence of events. An event is a subset of sample space, i.e. a collection of possible outcomes, which may be equal to or smaller than the sample space as a whole. It is important that students understand this basic principle early on and know how…

Ura, Suzana Kaori; Stein-Barana, Alzira C. M.; Munhoz, Deisy P.

2011-01-01

283

Robust automated multiple view inspection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Automated Multiple View Inspection (AMVI) has been developed for automated defect detection of manufactured objects, and the framework was success- fully implemented for calibrated image sequences. How- ever, it is not easy to be implemented in industrial environments because the calibration is a difficult and an unstable process. To overcome these disadvantages, the robust AMVI strategy, which assumes that

Luis Pizarro; Domingo Mery; Rafael Delpiano; Miguel Carrasco

2008-01-01

284

Multiple teleportation via the partially entangled states  

E-print Network

We investigate the multiple teleportation with some nonmaximally entangled channels. The efficiencies of two multiple teleportation protocols, the separate multiple teleportation protocol (SMTP) and the global multiple teleportation protocol (GMTP), are calculated. We show that GMTP is more efficient than SMTP.

Meiyu Wang; Fengli Yan

2009-03-08

285

On the Time Required to Perform Multiplication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The time required to perform multiplication is investigated. A lower bound on the time required to perform multiplication, as well as multiplication modulo N, is derived and it is shown that these lower bounds can be approached. Then a lower bound on the amount of time required to perform the most significant part of multiplication (⌞xy\\/N⌟) is derived.

Shmuel Winograd; Yorktown Heights

1967-01-01

286

Stability and transition in multiple production lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the dynamical model of the multiple production lines composed of M parallel and u series machines. We extend the single-series production line model to the multiple production lines. We study the effect of the multiple lines on the dynamical behavior of the production process. We apply the linear stability analysis to the production process in the multiple lines.

Takashi Nagatani

2004-01-01

287

Iron chelation and multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Histochemical and MRI studies have demonstrated that MS (multiple sclerosis) patients have abnormal deposition of iron in both gray and white matter structures. Data is emerging indicating that this iron could partake in pathogenesis by various mechanisms, e.g., promoting the production of reactive oxygen species and enhancing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Iron chelation therapy could be a viable strategy to block iron-related pathological events or it can confer cellular protection by stabilizing hypoxia inducible factor 1?, a transcription factor that normally responds to hypoxic conditions. Iron chelation has been shown to protect against disease progression and/or limit iron accumulation in some neurological disorders or their experimental models. Data from studies that administered a chelator to animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of MS, support the rationale for examining this treatment approach in MS. Preliminary clinical studies have been performed in MS patients using deferoxamine. Although some side effects were observed, the large majority of patients were able to tolerate the arduous administration regimen, i.e., 6–8 h of subcutaneous infusion, and all side effects resolved upon discontinuation of treatment. Importantly, these preliminary studies did not identify a disqualifying event for this experimental approach. More recently developed chelators, deferasirox and deferiprone, are more desirable for possible use in MS given their oral administration, and importantly, deferiprone can cross the blood–brain barrier. However, experiences from other conditions indicate that the potential for adverse events during chelation therapy necessitates close patient monitoring and a carefully considered administration regimen. PMID:24397846

Weigel, Kelsey J.; Lynch, Sharon G.; LeVine, Steven M.

2014-01-01

288

In silico modeling indicates the development of HIV-1 resistance to multiple shRNA gene therapy differs to standard antiretroviral therapy  

PubMed Central

Background Gene therapy has the potential to counter problems that still hamper standard HIV antiretroviral therapy, such as toxicity, patient adherence and the development of resistance. RNA interference can suppress HIV replication as a gene therapeutic via expressed short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs). It is now clear that multiple shRNAs will likely be required to suppress infection and prevent the emergence of resistant virus. Results We have developed the first biologically relevant stochastic model in which multiple shRNAs are introduced into CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells. This model has been used to track the production of gene-containing CD4+ T cells, the degree of HIV infection, and the development of HIV resistance in lymphoid tissue for 13 years. In this model, we found that at least four active shRNAs were required to suppress HIV infection/replication effectively and prevent the development of resistance. The inhibition of incoming virus was shown to be critical for effective treatment. The low potential for resistance development that we found is largely due to a pool of replicating wild-type HIV that is maintained in non-gene containing CD4+ T cells. This wild-type HIV effectively out-competes emerging viral strains, maintaining the viral status quo. Conclusions The presence of a group of cells that lack the gene therapeutic and is available for infection by wild-type virus appears to mitigate the development of resistance observed with systemic antiretroviral therapy. PMID:20932334

2010-01-01

289

Multiple spiral patterns in a cardiac tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is the major cause of sudden cardiac death, the leading cause of death in the industrialized world. However, the mechanisms for its onset are still not well understood. Recent experiments indicate that VF is induced by transitions of cardiac electric propagationg waves from a single spiral wave to multiple waves. To further understand the underlying mechanism of VF, we investigated the interaction between two waves in a two-dimensional excitable media. Three types of multiple spirals including multi-arm spirals have been found depending on the rotation direction and the distance among spiral waves.

Bai, Zhanguo; Li, Xia

2009-11-01

290

Stable isotope values (?18O & ?13C) of multiple ostracode species in a large Neotropical lake as indicators of past changes in hydrology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern lake hydrodynamics, ostracode species autecology, stable isotopes (?18O and ?13C) of multiple ostracode species, ostracode taphonomy and sediment geochemistry were studied to improve interpretation of the late Pleistocene-early Holocene (?24-10 ka) stable isotope record of ostracodes in sediment core PI-6 from Lago Petén Itzá, northern Guatemala. Oxygen and carbon stable isotopes in modern and fossil species assemblages of Lago Petén Itzá were used as indicators of changes in the balance between evaporation and precipitation, past lake level and carbon source. Ostracode taphonomy was used to detect past periods of strong currents, high-energy environments, and possible partial or full mixing of the lake. The modern lake water isotopic composition displays clear seasonal differences that are independent of lake level fluctuations. Modern benthic species displayed lower ?18O and ?13C values than nektobenthic species, with differences of 3.0‰ and 5.3‰, respectively. Valves of nektobenthic species display higher values of ?13C because these ostracodes live in shallower environments among abundant algae and aquatic plants, where productivity is high. The benthic species Limnocythere opesta Brehm, 1939 displayed the smallest average offset from ?18O water (+0.3‰) and the largest offset from ?13CDIC values (-4.1‰) among studied ostracode species. Nektobenthic species Heterocypris punctata Keyser, 1975 displayed the smallest difference relative to the ?13CDIC values (-0.1‰). Late Pleistocene-early Holocene climate conditions and water levels in Lago Petén Itzá can be summarized as follows: 1) high lake levels and cold conditions (Last Glacial Maximum [LGM], ?24-19 ka), 2) fluctuating lake levels and cold conditions (Heinrich Stadial 1 [HS1], ?19-15 ka), 3) high lake levels and warm and wetter conditions (Bølling-Allerød [BA], ?15-13 ka), 4) low lake levels and dry conditions (Younger Dryas [YD], ?13-11.5 ka) and 5) high lake levels and warm and wetter conditions (early Holocene, ?11.5-10.0 ka). Average lake level fluctuation in Lago Petén Itzá during the late Pleistocene-early Holocene was as much as ?25 m. Ostracode analyses suggest that the LGM was characterized by relatively low ?18O (+4.7 to +6.0‰), and ?13C values (-7.1 to -6.4‰) in ostracode valves, high inferred water depths and high percentages of broken adult and juvenile valves (>66%), suggesting a high-energy environment, strong currents, partial to full mixing, downslope transport, colder water temperatures and wetter conditions. An increase in the relative abundance of the benthic species L. opesta and higher numbers of broken valves suggest heavy precipitation events during the LGM (?23.7, 21.7, 20.8 and 20.1 ka). HS1 was predominantly dry, but we identified times when lake levels were slightly higher, at the onset of the deglacial and a brief period (?17-16 ka) between HS1b and HS1a. All studied climate proxies indicate wetter and warmer conditions and lake system stability during the BA. Lake levels dropped during the YD and gradually increased during the Preboreal and early Holocene. We demonstrate that modern and fossil ostracode isotopic signatures, species assemblages and taphonomy can be used together with physical and geochemical variables in Lago Petén Itzá sediments to make high-resolution inferences about late Pleistocene-early Holocene environmental changes in the lowland Neotropics.

Pérez, Liseth; Curtis, Jason; Brenner, Mark; Hodell, David; Escobar, Jaime; Lozano, Socorro; Schwalb, Antje

2013-04-01

291

Multiple states in river and lake ecosystems.  

PubMed Central

Nonlinear models of ecosystem dynamics that incorporate positive feedbacks and multiple, internally reinforced states have considerable explanatory power. However, linear models may be adequate, particularly if ecosystem behaviour is primarily controlled by external processes. In lake ecosystems, internal (mainly biotic) processes are thought to have major impacts on system behaviour, whereas in rivers, external (mainly physical) factors have traditionally been emphasized. We consider the hypothesis that models that exhibit multiple states are useful for understanding the behaviour of lake ecosystems, but not as useful for understanding stream ecosystems. Some of the best-known examples of multiple states come from lake ecosystems. We review some of these examples, and we also describe examples of multiple states in rivers. We conclude that the hypothesis is an oversimplification; the importance of physical forcing in rivers does not eliminate the possibility of internal feedbacks that create multiple states, although in rivers these feedbacks are likely to include physical as well as biotic processes. Nonlinear behaviour in aquatic ecosystems may be more common than current theory indicates. PMID:12079525

Dent, C Lisa; Cumming, Graeme S; Carpenter, Stephen R

2002-01-01

292

Sequential Testing Algorithms for Multiple Fault Diagnosis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we consider the problem of constructing optimal and near-optimal test sequencing algorithms for multiple fault diagnosis. The computational complexity of solving the optimal multiple-fault isolation problem is super-exponential, that is, it is much more difficult than the single-fault isolation problem, which, by itself, is NP-hard. By employing concepts from information theory and AND/OR graph search, we present several test sequencing algorithms for the multiple fault isolation problem. These algorithms provide a trade-off between the degree of suboptimality and computational complexity. Furthermore, we present novel diagnostic strategies that generate a diagnostic directed graph (digraph), instead of a diagnostic tree, for multiple fault diagnosis. Using this approach, the storage complexity of the overall diagnostic strategy reduces substantially. The algorithms developed herein have been successfully applied to several real-world systems. Computational results indicate that the size of a multiple fault strategy is strictly related to the structure of the system.

Shakeri, Mojdeh; Raghavan, Vijaya; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

1997-01-01

293

Autonomic Disorders in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease leading to disseminated lesions of the central nervous system resulting in both somatomotor and autonomic disturbances. These involve the central centers of the autonomic nervous system, as well as the automatic control and pathway systems. All autonomic functions may be disordered individually or in combined form. There is no other disease with a clinical picture so multifaceted. Besides cardiovascular dysfunctions disorders of bladder and rectum have become apparent. Somatomotor and autonomic disturbances occur with similar frequency; however the focused exam often heavily favors somatomotor symptoms. Autonomic disturbances should primarily be taken into account on history taking and clinical examination. Individual diagnosis and treatment is a secondary feature. Impairments of the autonomic nervous systems in multiple sclerosis are frequently overlooked. PMID:21603189

Lensch, E.; Jost, W. H.

2011-01-01

294

Multinational trends in multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Reported mortality rates from multiple myeloma have been increasing in all industrialized countries in the last 20 years. The rate of increase shows a strong interaction with age: it is slow in persons aged 55 to 59, and increases steadily with increasing age to reach rates of increase in excess of 4% per year in persons 85 years and older. The rate of increase is moderately consistent across sexes and countries. Multiple myeloma is one of the best ascertained cancers, which argues against better ascertainment as the sole cause of the increasing trend. Cohort plots in the United States suggest a parallel shift upward in risk between the birth cohorts of 1870 and 1910, with no evidence of differential effects in the elderly. This suggests a real increase is occurring as a result of some general environmental factors. PMID:2264645

Schwartz, J

1990-01-01

295

Tolerogenic vaccines for Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Tolerogenic vaccines represent a new class of vaccine designed to re-establish immunological tolerance, restore immune homeostasis, and thereby reverse autoimmune disease. Tolerogenic vaccines induce long-term, antigen-specific, inhibitory memory that blocks pathogenic T cell responses via loss of effector T cells and gain of regulatory T cell function. Substantial advances have been realized in the generation of tolerogenic vaccines that inhibit experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in a preclinical setting, and these vaccines may be a prequel of the tolerogenic vaccines that may have therapeutic benefit in Multiple Sclerosis. The purpose here is to provide a snapshot of the current concepts and future prospects of tolerogenic vaccination for Multiple Sclerosis, along with the central challenges to clinical application. PMID:23357858

Mannie, Mark D.; Curtis, II, Alan D.

2013-01-01

296

Method for deploying multiple spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for deploying multiple spacecraft is disclosed. The method can be used in a situation where a first celestial body is being orbited by a second celestial body. The spacecraft are loaded onto a single spaceship that contains the multiple spacecraft and the spacecraft is launched from the second celestial body towards a third celestial body. The spacecraft are separated from each other while in route to the third celestial body. Each of the spacecraft is then subjected to the gravitational field of the third celestial body and each of the spacecraft assumes a different, independent orbit about the first celestial body. In those situations where the spacecraft are launched from Earth, the Sun can act as the first celestial body, the Earth can act as the second celestial body and the Moon can act as the third celestial body.

Sharer, Peter J. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

297

Subcritical multiple-ion shocks  

SciTech Connect

Low Mach number collisionless shocks in a multiple-ion plasma are investigated theoretically using multiple-ion Rankine-Hugoniot relations (MIRHR) and hybrid simulations. The derived MIRHR permit tractable solutions for perpendicular shocks. It is found that starting from a synchronous flow of a mixture of different ion species, light ions and heavy ions jump to different downstream velocities. Although the resulting differential velocities between the species are unstable, they produce coherent gyration of the ion species around each other. This gyration excites standing ion hybrid waves in the downstream region. Both of these effects (the jump of different ion species ot different downstream velocities and the excitation of the ion hybrid waves) are confirmed by hybrid simulations.

Motschmann, U.; Sauer, K.; Roatsch, T. (Space Research Inst., Berlin (West Germany)); McKenzie, J.F. (Max-Planck-Inst. for Aeronomy, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany))

1991-08-01

298

Remyelinating strategies in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the CNS characterized by infiltration of immune cells and progressive damage to myelin sheaths and neurons. In recent years, the importance of the neuronal compartment in the early pathology of multiple sclerosis has become increasingly clear. Direct axonal damage within the early stages of inflammation as well as neuronal injury as a result of chronic demyelination are essential factors for the development of long-term disability in patients. Viewing MS as both inflammatory and neurodegenerative has significant implications for treatment, with remyelination of denuded axons to protect neurons from damage being necessary in addition to controlling inflammation. Here, we review recent molecular insights into key molecules and pathways controlling the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and the regenerative process of remyelination in MS and discuss the resulting options regarding remyelinating treatment strategies. PMID:25331418

Luessi, Felix; Kuhlmann, Tanja; Zipp, Frauke

2014-11-01

299

Clinical trials in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

This chapter discusses topics in the design of clinical trials for Multiple Sclerosis. This nontechnical discussion introduces concepts such as phases of trials, basic design strategies and the importance of the question at hand and the outcomes. The chapter discusses the concept of Bayesian statistical design versus Frequentist approaches. A host of modern designs ranging from adaptive designs to treatment paradigms to targeted designs are introduced. Strategies for treatment selection, randomized withdrawal designs and futility designs are covered. Finally how to evaluate multiple drugs in an era of limited placebo controlled trials are discussed and the chapter ends with the competing demands of the shortest trials to get efficacy answers for immediate goals versus the value of long term studies for future outcomes and long term safety. PMID:24507530

Cutter, Gary; Kappos, Ludwig

2014-01-01

300

Immunologic mechanisms of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis is widely recognized as the most commonly identified cause of progressive neurologic disability in young adults throughout the developed world. The disorder is clinically suspected when patients experience either acute attacks of neurologic compromise or instead are afflicted by a steadily progressive deterioration in functional capabilities. The pathophysiology of acute exacerbations is thought to be related to the development of inflammation and its consequences, within strategic and often discrete central nervous system tract systems. Although a myriad of hypotheses have been formulated to explain the underpinnings of the mechanisms that contribute to both the predilection and triggering of the multiphasic inflammatory events that personify multiple sclerosis, much remains to be done to understand fully the specific set and sequence of events that produce the disease and its cardinal features. PMID:19068403

Frohman, Elliot M; Eagar, Todd; Monson, Nancy; Stuve, Olaf; Karandikar, Nitin

2008-11-01

301

Inverse Relationships (Multiplication and Division)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity for the interactive white board (free access with registration) provides an opportunity for learners to practice building the fact family sets to reinforce the inverse relationship between multiplication and division. A set of three numbers are displayed and the learner drags the numbers and the operation down into the spaces to create a number fact (equation). The goal is to find all four facts in the family.

2012-07-13

302

Laryngopharyngeal Dysmotility in Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

  This study investigated the swallowing physiology of 13 patients [age 27-69 years (mean = 45 years)] with multiple sclerosis\\u000a (MS) who had Kurtzke Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores ranging from 2 to 9 (mean = 6) and who complained of difficulty\\u000a swallowing. Videofluoroscopic recordings of the patients' calibrated liquid and paste bolus swallows were analyzed and compared\\u000a with publi-shed

Suzanne S. Abraham; Paul T. Yun

2002-01-01

303

Eigenvalue multiplicity and volume growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let $G$ be a finite group with symmetric generating set $S$, and let $c = \\\\max_{R > 0} |B(2R)|\\/|B(R)|$ be the doubling constant of the corresponding Cayley graph, where $B(R)$ denotes an $R$-ball in the word-metric with respect to $S$. We show that the multiplicity of the $k$th eigenvalue of the Laplacian on the Cayley graph of $G$ is bounded

James R. Lee; Yury Makarychev

2008-01-01

304

CHARGED PARTICLE MULTIPLICITIES AT BRAHMS.  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the measurement of charged particle multiplicity densities dN/d{eta} in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions as function of {eta} and the centrality of the collisions. This distributions were extracted from data collected by the BRAHMS collaboration during the first RHK run with gold ions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 130A {center_dot} GeV. The analysis method is described and, results are compared to some model predictions.

DEBBE, R., FOR THE BRAHMS COLLABORATION

2001-07-30

305

Sense-making and Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 14-minute video UK teacher Sally Hill uses patterns to help her students learn the multiples of four and understand how to apply that knowledge to more complex multi-digit problems. Head teacher Kate Frood discusses the school's guiding principles and her own style of leadership. The page includes a link to a pdf document summarizing K-4 Mental Math Strategies [cataloged separately].

2012-01-01

306

Cognitive rehabilitation in Multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive impairments are frequent in Multiple sclerosis (MS). However, most studies about efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation interventions have been criticized in terms of methods and\\/or design. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation in MS patients with a cognitive intervention (ProCogSEP* program), compared to a control intervention (discussion program). Twenty MS patients have completed

H. Brissart; M. Leroy; E. Morele; C. Baumann; E. Spitz; M. Debouverie

2012-01-01

307

Bone health in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

People who are disabled with multiple sclerosis (MS) may be at increased risk of osteoporosis. This review discusses issues\\u000a relevant to bone health in MS and makes practical recommendations regarding prevention and screening for osteoporosis and\\u000a fracture risk in MS. A search of the literature up until 5 April 2011 was performed using key search terms, and articles pertinent\\u000a to

J. C. Gibson; G. D. Summers

308

Multiple Sclerosis and Blood Transfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has recently been suggested that multiple sclerosis (MS) may be triggered by a retrovirally encoded superantigen. If true, then MS should be associated with risk factors that predispose to retroviral infection. Blood transfusions represent one such risk factor. 150 Scottish patients with 'clinically definite' or 'probable' MS and 150 age-\\/sex-matched neurological controls were questioned about blood transfusion. 7 (4.7%)

R. J. Swingler

1993-01-01

309

FRACTIONAL DYNAMICS AT MULTIPLE TIMES.  

PubMed

A continuous time random walk (CTRW) imposes a random waiting time between random particle jumps. CTRW limit densities solve a fractional Fokker-Planck equation, but since the CTRW limit is not Markovian, this is not sufficient to characterize the process. This paper applies continuum renewal theory to restore the Markov property on an expanded state space, and compute the joint CTRW limit density at multiple times. PMID:23378670

Meerschaert, Mark M; Straka, Peter

2012-11-01

310

Pain in multiple system atrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is a recognized feature of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) but has never been studied in multiple system atrophy\\u000a (MSA), the commonest cause of atypical parkinsonism. We retrospectively analysed histories of pain in 100 consecutive cases\\u000a of clinically probable MSA. Details were obtained from the medical records of 100 patients with MSA, comprising 82 with the\\u000a striatonigral degeneration (SND) type

F. Tison; G. K. Wenning; M. A. Volonte; W. R. Poewe; P. Henry; N. P. Quinn

1996-01-01

311

Melanoma Multiple Primary Rules Matrix  

Cancer.gov

Cutaneous Melanoma Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C440 – C449 (Excludes melanoma of any other site) * P r e p ar e o n e abs tr a c t. U s e t h e hi s t o lo g y c o di ng r u le s t o as s i gn th e ap pr o p r iat e h is to lo

312

Kidney Multiple Primary Rules Matrix  

Cancer.gov

Kidney Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C649 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * P r e p ar e o n e abs tr a c t. U s e t h e hi s t o lo g y c o di ng r u le s t o as s i gn th e ap pr o p r iat

313

Colon Multiple Primary Rules Matrix  

Cancer.gov

Colon Multiple Primary Rules – Matrix C180-C189 (Excludes lymphoma and leukemia M9590 – 9989 and Kaposi sarcoma M9140) * P r e p ar e o n e abs tr a c t. U s e t h e hi s t o lo g y c o di ng r u le s t o as s i gn th e ap pr o p

314

Multiple-Segment Climbing Robots  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple-segment climbing robots developed to perform such tasks as inspection, sandblasting, welding, and painting on towers and other structures. Look and move like caterpillars. Video camera mounted on one of segments rotated to desired viewing angle. Used in remote inspection of structure, to view motion of robot and/or provides video feedback for control of motion, and/or to guide operation of head mounted on foremost segment with motorized actuators.

Kerley, James; May, Edward; Eklund, Wayne

1994-01-01

315

The paradox of multiple elections  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Assume that voters must choose between voting yes (Y) and voting no (N) on three propositions on a referendum. If the winning\\u000a combination is NYY on the first, second, and third propositions, respectively, the paradox of multiple elections is that NYY can receive the fewest votes of the 23?=?8 combinations. Several variants of this paradox are illustrated, and necessary

Steven J. Brams; D. Marc Kilgour; William S. Zwicker

1998-01-01

316

Multiple man-machine interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

1981-01-01

317

FORESTRY 347 MULTIPLE RESOURCE SILVICULTURE  

E-print Network

FORESTRY 347 MULTIPLE RESOURCE SILVICULTURE Autumn 2008 Instructor: John Goodburn Office: Rm. 409 Science Complex Telephone: 243-4295 Email: goodburn@forestry.umt.edu Office hours: Mon. 3:00 - 5:00 pm.m. Rm. 301 Forestry Bldg. Lab/Field Work Wed or Thur. 2:10 - 6:00 p.m. In Field or Rm. 106 (W) & 206(H

Vonessen, Nikolaus

318

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2 (MEN2) is a rare hereditary complex disorder characterized by the presence of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), unilateral or bilateral pheochromocytoma (PHEO) and other hyperplasia and\\/or neoplasia of different endocrine tissues within a single patient. MEN2 has been reported in approximately 500 to 1000 families worldwide and the prevalence has been estimated at approximately 1:30,000. Two

Francesca Marini; Alberto Falchetti; Francesca Del Monte; Silvia Carbonell Sala; Isabella Tognarini; Ettore Luzi; Maria Luisa Brandi

2006-01-01

319

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I is a rare autosomal dominant disorder with many endocrine and nonendocrine manifestations.\\u000a Hyperparathyroidism, islet cell tumors, and pituitary tumors are diagnosed most commonly in these patients. There is controversy\\u000a regarding treatment of the different manifestations and screening modalities of this disorder because no large series has\\u000a determined the best therapeutic approach. Our institution advocates

Rasa Zarnegar; Laurent Brunaud; Orlo H. Clark

2002-01-01

320

Multiple-access bosonic communications  

SciTech Connect

The maximum rates for reliably transmitting classical information over bosonic multiple-access channels (MACs) are derived when the transmitters are restricted to coherent-state encodings. Inner and outer bounds for the ultimate capacity region of the bosonic MAC are also presented. It is shown that the sum-rate upper bound is achievable with a coherent-state encoding and that the entire region is asymptotically achievable in the limit of large mean input photon numbers.

Yen, Brent J.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2005-12-15

321

Protocol for multiple node network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

1995-01-01

322

Optical multiple object tracking techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two multichannel multiple-object tracking techniques are reviewed. In the diffraction grating technique, the input scene is picked up by a TV camera and imaged onto a liquid-crystal light valve (LCLV), and the output side of the light valve is illuminated with a suitably polarized and collimated coherent laser beam to yield a reflected beam with polarization modulated according to the intensity of the incoherent input. This reflected beam passes through a beam splitter cube and an analyzer, resulting in an intensity modulated coherent image. An array of spectrum islands containing the information of the input appears after crossing a contact screen/lens combination. In the multiple-focus hololens technique, the scene of moving objects is sent into the LCTVSLM through a camera; a collimated laser beam is incident upon the LCTV screen; a low-pass filter is inserted between the LCTVSLM and the hololens for the removal of the high order diffractions due to the grid structure of the LCTV. The feasibility of the LCTVSLM and multiple-focus hololens technique is demonstrated.

Liu, Hua-Kuang; Chao, Tien-Hsin

1989-01-01

323

[Personal identity and multiple personality].  

PubMed

The present study analyses the internal organization of self concepts in a woman who meets the DSM III criteria of multiple personality disorder. The aim of this single case study, was to assess the personal identity of this patient, the degree of internal coherence and the hierarchical structure of the descriptions of self and others in the frame of cognitive theories of personality. After the clinical observation, the experimental procedure is presented. It consists in asking the patient to describe her different roles or alternated personalities (N = 12), as well as the target persons of her familial and social environment (N = 8) on the basis of a preestablished list of adjectives (extracted from the 16 P.F. Cattell sphere of personality). The factorial analysis of the contingency table: traits attributed x persons described shows a Guttman like hierarchical structure. Similarities and differences between the descriptions can be ordered on a unidimensional order, the multiple roles or personalities being no more complex nor simple than the target persons. The present results have been discussed in reference to cognitive theories of personality and their utility in studying personal identity and multiple personality. PMID:3223683

de Bonis, M; Charlot, V; Hardy, P; Féline, A

1988-01-01

324

A multiple armature railgun launcher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As longer projectiles are accelerated, the efficiency (projectile mass/launch mass) of the launch package decreases. The reduction in efficiency makes launching projectiles with a L/D (length-to-diameter ratio) greater than 20 undesirable. EM guns have several launch characteristics that differ from conventional guns. Higher launch velocities are achievable in EM guns because sonic gas velocities do not limit the projectile velocity. Acceleration profiles for EM guns are more constant. The acceleration forces can be distributed on the projectile easily because the accelerating force can be distributed with multiple armatures. These characteristics combine to make EN guns a very attractive approach for launching very long (i.e.. high L/D ratio) projectiles. Railgun launchers with multiple armatures can distribute the accelerating force. Each armature is supplied gun current for acceleration through its own set of rails. This multi-rail, multi-armature concept was tested at the railgun test facility. The results demonstrated feasibility. We were able to control current distribution to multiple armatures. This paper describes the theory and test results for multi-armature launch of high L/D projectiles.

Heyse, Mark W.; Challita, Antonios; Maas, Brian L.; Bauer, David P.

1993-01-01

325

Immune Tolerance in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Summary Multiple sclerosis is believed to be mediated by T cells specific for myelin antigens that circulate harmlessly in the periphery of healthy individuals until they are erroneously by an environmental stimulus. Upon activation, the T cells enter the central nervous system and orchestrate an immune response against myelin. To understand the initial steps in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, it is important to identify the mechanisms that maintain T-cell tolerance to myelin antigens and to understand how some myelin-specific T cells escape tolerance and what conditions lead to their activation. Central tolerance strongly shapes the peripheral repertoire of myelin-specific T cells, as most myelin-specific T cells are eliminated by clonal deletion in the thymus. Self-reactive T cells that escape central tolerance are generally capable only of low-avidity interactions with antigen-presenting cells. Despite the low avidity of these interactions, peripheral tolerance mechanisms are required to prevent spontaneous autoimmunity. Multiple peripheral tolerance mechanisms for myelin-specific T cells have been indentified, the most important of which appears to be regulatory T cells. While most studies have focused on CD4+ myelin-specific T cells, interesting differences in tolerance mechanisms and the conditions that abrogate these mechanisms have recently been described for CD8+ myelin-specific T cells. PMID:21488900

Goverman, Joan M.

2011-01-01

326

Traditional multiplicity adjustment methods in clinical trials.  

PubMed

This tutorial discusses important statistical problems arising in clinical trials with multiple clinical objectives based on different clinical variables, evaluation of several doses or regiments of a new treatment, analysis of multiple patient subgroups, etc. Simultaneous assessment of several objectives in a single trial gives rise to multiplicity. If unaddressed, problems of multiplicity can undermine integrity of statistical inferences. The tutorial reviews key concepts in multiple hypothesis testing and introduces main classes of methods for addressing multiplicity in a clinical trial setting. General guidelines for the development of relevant and efficient multiple testing procedures are presented on the basis of application-specific clinical and statistical information. Case studies with common multiplicity problems are used to motivate and illustrate the statistical methods presented in the tutorial, and software implementation of the multiplicity adjustment methods is discussed. PMID:24114861

Dmitrienko, Alex; D'Agostino, Ralph

2013-12-20

327

Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis  

SciTech Connect

An array of epidemiological results and databases on test animal indicate that risk of cancer and atherosclerosis can be up- or down-regulated by diet through a range of 200%. Other factors contribute incrementally and include the natural terrestrial environment and various human activities that jointly produce complex exposures to endotoxin-producing microorganisms, ionizing radiations, and chemicals. Ordinary personal habits and simple physical irritants have been demonstrated to affect the immune response and risk of disease. There tends to be poor statistical correlation of long-term risk with single agent exposures incurred throughout working careers. However, Agency recommendations for control of hazardous exposures to humans has been substance-specific instead of contextually realistic even though there is consistent evidence for common mechanisms of toxicological and carcinogenic action. That behavior seems to be best explained by molecular stresses from cellular oxygen metabolism and phagocytosis of antigenic invasion as well as breakdown of normal metabolic compounds associated with homeostatic- and injury-related renewal of cells. There is continually mounting evidence that marrow stroma, comprised largely of monocyte-macrophages and fibroblasts, is important to phagocytic and cytokinetic response, but the complex action of the immune process is difficult to infer from first-principle logic or biomarkers of toxic injury. The many diverse database studies all seem to implicate two important processes, i.e., the univalent reduction of molecular oxygen and breakdown of aginuine, an amino acid, by hydrolysis or digestion of protein which is attendant to normal antigen-antibody action. This behavior indicates that protection guidelines and risk coefficients should be context dependent to include reference considerations of the composite action of parameters that mediate oxygen metabolism. A logic of this type permits the realistic common-scale modeling of multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of ?what dose does?? in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of ?what dose is?? Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

Jones, T.D.

1999-01-24

328

MULTIPLE SULFUR ISOTOPE FRACTIONATIONS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: A CASE STUDY WITH SULFATE REDUCERS  

E-print Network

MULTIPLE SULFUR ISOTOPE FRACTIONATIONS IN BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS: A CASE STUDY WITH SULFATE REDUCERS*, DONALD E. CANFIELD**, and KIRSTEN S. HABICHT** ABSTRACT. Multiple sulfur isotope measurements of sulfur disproportionation indicate that different types of metabolic processes impart differ- ent multiple isotope

Kaufman, Alan Jay

329

42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages...45 Multiple survivors. Multiple survivors of the same smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms...

2013-10-01

330

42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request Packages...45 Multiple survivors. Multiple survivors of the same smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms...

2012-10-01

331

42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request...Multiple survivors. Multiple survivors of the same smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms...

2011-10-01

332

42 CFR 102.45 - Multiple survivors.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Procedures for Filing Request...Multiple survivors. Multiple survivors of the same smallpox vaccine recipient or vaccinia contact may file Request Forms...

2010-10-01

333

Manifold Integration: Data Integration on Multiple Manifolds  

E-print Network

the structure of the data set by combining multiple measurements in each manifold using data integration techniques. In this dissertation, I present a new concept, manifold integration, a data integration method using the structure of data expressed in multiple...

Choi, Hee Youl

2011-08-08

334

The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior  

PubMed Central

Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's Verbal Behavior, the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms convergent multiple control and divergent multiple control. We point out some implications for applied work and discuss examples of the role of multiple control in humor, poetry, problem solving, and recall. Joint control and conditional discrimination are discussed as special cases of multiple control. We suggest that multiple control is a useful analytic tool for interpreting virtually all complex behavior, and we consider the concepts of derived relations and naming as cases in point. PMID:22532752

Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C; Sundberg, Mark L

2011-01-01

335

[Oculomotor system and multiple sclerosis].  

PubMed

Disorders of ocular motility due to multiple sclerosis can cause significant symptoms, such as blurred vision, diplopia, oscillopsia and dizziness. The spectrum of ocular motor disorders is broad due to the multifocal nature of the disease. The most frequent disorders include dysmetric saccades, impaired smooth pursuit, internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), impaired vestibulo-ocular reflex, misalignment of visual axes, impaired vergence and gaze-evoked nystagmus. Patients with abnormal eye movements are more handicapped than patients without ocular motility disorders as eye movement disorders and gait disturbances are both caused by an extensive involvement of the brainstem and cerebellum. PMID:25074654

Höh, A E; Beisse, C

2014-08-01

336

Ermakov Systems with Multiplicative Noise  

E-print Network

Using the Euler-Maruyama numerical method, we present calculations of the Ermakov-Lewis invariant and the dynamic, geometric, and total phases for several cases of stochastic parametric oscillators, including the simplest case of the stochastic harmonic oscillator. The results are compared with the corresponding numerical noiseless cases to evaluate the effect of the noise. Besides, the noiseless cases are analytic and their analytic solutions are briefly presented. The Ermakov-Lewis invariant is not affected by the multiplicative noise in the three particular examples presented in this work, whereas there is a shift effect in the case of the phases

E. Cervantes-Lopez; P. B. Espinoza; A. Gallegos; H. C. Rosu

2014-06-02

337

Multiple sclerosis and pregnancy prescriptions.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major neurologic disorder which preferentially affects young women of childbearing age. In the last two decades, a number of disease-modifying therapies have become available to treat relapsing forms of MS. None of these agents is approved for use in pregnancy. The timing of treatment versus conception, and risk of drug pregnancy exposures, are frequent discussion topics when caring for MS patients. This editorial will try to put into context available data, approaches, controversies and future needs. PMID:25406727

Coyle, Patricia K

2014-12-01

338

Superficial radiotherapy for multiple keratoacanthomas.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 76-year-old Caucasian woman who attended our clinic with multiple keratoacanthomas. Radiotherapy was considered a viable and effective option in such an old patient, who could not be a good surgical candidate for number and distribution of the lesions, and for the age. After a 12-month follow-up, we observed the complete and global disappearance of the lesions; the patient was therefore very satisfied especially in view of the clinical outcome. According to our point of view, radiotherapy allows the physician to obtain a good oncological radicality and excellent cosmetic results too. PMID:25032245

Bruscino, N; Corradini, D; Campolmi, P; Massi, D; Palleschi, G M

2014-01-01

339

Smart card multiple function badge  

SciTech Connect

Smart cards are credit card-sized computers with integrated data storage, an operating system to manage the data, and built-in security features that protect the data. They are used to distribute information to remote sites, providing the same or greater reliability, data integrity, and information security than a network system. However, smart cards may provide greater functionality at a lower cost than network systems. The US Department of Energy Hanford Site is developing the smart card to be used as a multiple function identification badge that will service various data management requirements on the Site. This paper discusses smart card technology and the proposed Hanford Site applications.

Nelson, R.A.

1993-06-01

340

Birth Cohort Effects in Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: To identify potential birth cohort effects in multiple sclerosis in Sweden and particularly in Stockholm county.METHODS: Data on multiple causes of death from multiple sclerosis during 1962 to 1995 in Sweden and 1968 to 1995 in Stockholm county were analyzed using age-period-cohort models and curvature.RESULTS: Mortality from multiple sclerosis was higher in Sweden than in Stockholm county, with stable

Ya-Ping Jin; Jesús De Pedro-Cuesta; Gonzalo López-Abente; Hans Link

2003-01-01

341

Unbalanced Quantized Multiple State Video Coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple state video coding (MSVC) is a multiple description scheme based on frame-wise splitting of the video sequence into two or more subsequences. Each subsequence is encoded separately to generate descriptions which can be decoded independently. Due to subsequence splitting, the prediction gain decreases. But since reconstruction capabilities improve, error resilience of the system increases. Our focus is on multiple

Sila Ekmekci Flierl; Thomas Sikora; Pascal Frossard

2006-01-01

342

Lattice Multiplication in a Preservice Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses the algorithm for multiplication that is referred to as lattice multiplication. Evidence of how the author's preservice students' conceptual understanding of the algorithm grew through the semester is given. In addition, the author extends the conceptualization of the algorithm from the multiplication of whole numbers to the…

Nugent, Patricia M.

2007-01-01

343

The Multiple Control of Verbal Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amid the novel terms and original analyses in Skinner's "Verbal Behavior", the importance of his discussion of multiple control is easily missed, but multiple control of verbal responses is the rule rather than the exception. In this paper we summarize and illustrate Skinner's analysis of multiple control and introduce the terms "convergent…

Michael, Jack; Palmer, David C.; Sundberg, Mark L.

2011-01-01

344

Hypnosis creates multiple personality: Myth or reality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since before the turn of the century, multiple personality has been associated with hysteria and hypnosis. The myth that hypnosis can create multiple personality is examined in this paper by reviewing studies that have suggested or implied a casual link between hypnosis and multiple personality. While it is possible that personality fragments can appear under hypnosis, there is no evidence

Bennett G. Braun

1984-01-01

345

Deconstructing Calculation Methods, Part 3: Multiplication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this third of a series of four articles, the author deconstructs the primary national strategy's approach to written multiplication. The approach to multiplication, as set out on pages 12 to 15 of the primary national strategy's "Guidance paper" "Calculation" (DfES, 2007), is divided into six stages: (1) mental multiplication using…

Thompson, Ian

2008-01-01

346

Key multiplicity issues in clinical drug development.  

PubMed

Much progress has been made over the past decade with the development of novel methods for addressing increasingly more complex multiplicity problems arising in confirmatory Phase III clinical trials. This includes traditional problems with a single source of multiplicity, for example, analysis of multiple endpoints or dose-placebo contrasts. In addition, more advanced problems with several sources of multiplicity have attracted attention in clinical drug development. These problems include two or more families of objectives such as multiple endpoints evaluated at multiple dose levels or in multiple patient populations. This paper provides a review of concepts that play a central role in defining and solving multiplicity problems (error rate definitions) and introduces main classes of multiple testing procedures widely used in clinical trials (nonparametric, semiparametric, and parametric procedures). The paper also presents recent advances in multiplicity research, including gatekeeping procedures for clinical trials with multiple sets of objectives. The concepts and methods introduced in the paper are illustrated using several case studies on the basis of real clinical trials. Software implementation of commonly used multiple testing and gatekeeping procedures is discussed. PMID:23044723

Dmitrienko, Alex; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Huque, Mohammad F

2013-03-30

347

Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We propose functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis for exploring associations among multiple sets of functions. The proposed method includes functional canonical correlation analysis as a special case when only two sets of functions are considered. As in classical multiple-set canonical correlation analysis, computationally, the…

Hwang, Heungsun; Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Woodward, Todd S.

2012-01-01

348

Multiple channel data acquisition system  

DOEpatents

A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler. 25 figs.

Crawley, H.B.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Meyer, W.T.; Gorbics, M.S.; Thomas, W.D.; McKay, R.L.; Homer, J.F. Jr.

1990-05-22

349

Innovative Agents in Multiple Myeloma  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) remains an incurable cancer of the bone marrow plasma cells. However, the overall survival of patients with MM has increased dramatically within the past decade. This is due, in part, to newer agents such as immunomodulatory drugs (lenalidomide, thalidomide, and pomalidomide) and proteasome inhibitors (bortezomib, carfilzomib, MLN9708). These and several other new classes of drugs have arisen from an improved understanding of the complex environment in which genetic changes occur. Improved understanding of genetic events will enable clinicians to better stratify risk before and during therapy, tailor treatment, and test the value of personalized interventions. The ultimate goal in this incurable disease setting is to reduce the impact of cancer- or chemotherapy-related side effects. Nurses and advanced practitioners are integral to the treatment team. Thus, each should be aware of changes to the current drug landscape. Targeted drugs with sophisticated mechanisms of action are currently under investigation. Patients gain access to newer drugs within the context of clinical trials. Awareness of such trials will help accrual and determine if therapeutic benefit exists. In this article, we will describe new agents with unique and targeted mechanisms of action that have activity in patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. PMID:25089218

Faiman, Beth; Richards, Tiffany

2014-01-01

350

Multiple sclerosis and sexual dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system characterized by episodic and progressive neurologic dysfunction resulting from inflammatory and autoimmune reactions. The underlying pathogenesis of MS remains largely unclear. However, it is currently accepted as a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease. Among other clinical manifestations, sexual dysfunction (SD) is a painful but still underreported and underdiagnosed symptom of the disorder. SD in MS patients may result from a complex set of conditions and may be associated with multiple anatomic, physiologic, biologic, medical and psychological factors. SD arises primarily from lesions affecting the neural pathways involved in physiologic function. In addition, psychological factors, the side effects of medications and physical symptoms such as fatigue, muscular weakness, menstrual changes, pain and concerns about bladder and bowel incontinence may also be involved. Since MS primarily affects young people, SD secondary to MS may have a great impact on quality of life. Thus, maintaining a healthy sexual life with MS is an important priority. The treatment of SD requires multidisciplinary teamwork and cooperation among specialists, individual patients, partners and the society. PMID:22447199

Guo, Zhen-Ni; He, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Hong-Liang; Wu, Jiang; Yang, Yi

2012-01-01

351

Multiple pure tone noise prediction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a fully numerical method for predicting multiple pure tones, also known as “Buzzsaw” noise. It consists of three steps that account for noise source generation, nonlinear acoustic propagation with hard as well as lined walls inside the nacelle, and linear acoustic propagation outside the engine. Noise generation is modeled by steady, part-annulus computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. A linear superposition algorithm is used to construct full-annulus shock/pressure pattern just upstream of the fan from part-annulus CFD results. Nonlinear wave propagation is carried out inside the duct using a pseudo-two-dimensional solution of Burgers' equation. Scattering from nacelle lip as well as radiation to farfield is performed using the commercial solver ACTRAN/TM. The proposed prediction process is verified by comparing against full-annulus CFD simulations as well as against static engine test data for a typical high bypass ratio aircraft engine with hardwall as well as lined inlets. Comparisons are drawn against nacelle unsteady pressure transducer measurements at two axial locations as well as against near- and far-field microphone array measurements outside the duct. This is the first fully numerical approach (no experimental or empirical input is required) to predict multiple pure tone noise generation, in-duct propagation and far-field radiation. It uses measured blade coordinates to calculate MPT noise.

Han, Fei; Sharma, Anupam; Paliath, Umesh; Shieh, Chingwei

2014-12-01

352

[Neuropsychological investigation in multiple sclerosis].  

PubMed

We studied neuropsychological performance in 10 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Neuropsychological test batteries consisted of Mini-Mental State Examination, Digist Span, Paired Associate Learning Test (PAL), Benton Visual Retention Test, Kohs Block-Design Test, Digit Symbol Subtest in WAIS, 'Kanahiroi" Test, Verbal Fluency and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. In accordance with cerebral lesions on MRI, patients were divided into three groups. A: Multiple-confluent lesions, B: Discrete lesions, C: No lesion. In MS patients as a whole, performance of PAL, "Kanahiroi" Test and Verbal Fluency were significantly impaired compared with 10 age and education matched normal controls (p < 0.05), while other tests were not. In four out of five patients of A group, more than four neuropsychological tests showed below mean -2SD score of normal controls, whereas in patients of B and C group, less than three neuropsychological tests showed below -2SD score of normal controls. In conclusion, severity of cognitive impairment in patients with MS correlated with lesion extent on MRI. Patients with MS exhibited significant cognitive impairment on tasks of recent memory and mental processing speed. It is suggested that MS patients show the features of subcortical dementia. PMID:8476663

Tei, H; Soma, Y; Maruyama, S

1993-02-01

353

Multiple channel data acquisition system  

DOEpatents

A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler.

Crawley, H. Bert (Ames, IA); Rosenberg, Eli I. (Ames, IA); Meyer, W. Thomas (Ames, IA); Gorbics, Mark S. (Ames, IA); Thomas, William D. (Boone, IA); McKay, Roy L. (Ames, IA); Homer, Jr., John F. (Ames, IA)

1990-05-22

354

Full potential multiple scattering theory  

SciTech Connect

A practical method for performing self-consistent electronic structure calculations based upon full-potential multiple-scattering theory is presented. Solutions to the single site Schroedinger equation are obtained by solving coupled channel integral equations for a potential which is analytically continued out to the circumscribing sphere. This potential coincides with the full cell potential inside each atomic cell. Scattering matrices and wavefunctions for the full cell potential are obtained from surface Wronskian relations. The charge density is obtained from the single particle Green`s function. This Green`s function is computed using the cell scattering matrices and wavefunctions using the layer multiple scattering theory. Self consistent solutions require a solution at each iteration to the Poisson equation. The Poisson equation is solved using a variational cellular method. In the approach a local solution to each cell is augmented by adding a series of regular harmonics (solutions to Laplace`s equation). Minimizing the coulomb energy, subject to continuity of the potential across all cell boundary provides an expression for the coefficients of the regular harmonics. This method is applied to BCC Nb. Calculated properties converge well in angular momentum and show comparable accuracy to full potential linearized muffin-tin orbital calculations.

MacLaren, J.M. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Physics

1994-10-20

355

Correlation of multiple sclerosis (MS) incidence trends with solar and geomagnetic indices: Time to revise the method of reporting MS epidemiological data  

PubMed Central

Background: Recently, we introduced solar related geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) as a potential environmental risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to test probable correlation between solar activities and GMD with long-term variations of MS incidence. Methods: After a systematic review, we studied the association betwee n alterations in the solar wind velocity (VSW) and planetary A index (AP, a GMD index) with MS incidence in Tehran and western Greece, during the 23rd solar cycle (1996–2008), by an ecological-correlational study. Results: We found moderate to strong correlations among MS incidence of Tehran with VSW (rS = 0.665, P = 0.013), with 1 year delay, and also with AP (rS = 0.864, P = 0.001) with 2 year delay. There were very strong correlations among MS incidence data of Greece with VSW (r = 0.906, P < 0.001) and with AP (r = 0.844, P = 0.001), both with 1 year lag. Conclusion: It is the first time that a hypothesis has introduced an environmental factor that may describe MS incidence alterations; however, it should be reminded that correlation does not mean necessarily the existence of a causal relationship. Important message of these findings for researchers is to provide MS incidence reports with higher resolution for consecutive years, based on the time of disease onset and relapses, not just the time of diagnosis. Then, it would be possible to further investigate the validity of GMD hypothesis or any other probable environmental risk factors.

Abdollahi, Fahimeh; Sajedi, Seyed Aidin

2014-01-01

356

Protoplanetary Disks in Multiple Star Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most stars are born in multiple systems, so the presence of a stellar companion may commonly influence planet formation. Theory indicates that companions may inhibit planet formation in two ways. First, dynamical interactions can tidally truncate circumstellar disks. Truncation reduces disk lifetimes and masses, leaving less time and material for planet formation. Second, these interactions might reduce grain-coagulation efficiency, slowing planet formation in its earliest stages. I present three observational studies investigating these issues. First is a spatially resolved Submillimeter Array (SMA) census of disks in young multiple systems in the Taurus-Auriga star-forming region to study their bulk properties. With this survey, I confirmed that disk lifetimes are preferentially decreased in multiples: single stars have detectable millimeter-wave continuum emission twice as often as components of multiples. I also verified that millimeter luminosity (proportional to disk mass) declines with decreasing stellar separation. Furthermore, by measuring resolved-disk radii, I quantitatively tested tidal-truncation theories: results were mixed, with a few disks much larger than expected. I then switch focus to the grain-growth properties of disks in multiple star systems. By combining SMA, Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy (CARMA), and Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations of the circumbinary disk in the UZ Tau quadruple system, I detected radial variations in the grain-size distribution: large particles preferentially inhabit the inner disk. Detections of these theoretically predicted variations have been rare. I related this to models of grain coagulation in gas disks and find that our results are consistent with growth limited by radial drift. I then present a study of grain growth in the disks of the AS 205 and UX Tau multiple systems. By combining SMA, Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), and VLA observations, I detected radial variations of the grain-size distribution in the AS 205 A disk, but not in the UX Tau A disk. I find that some combination of radial drift and fragmentation limits growth in the AS 205 A disk. In the final chapter, I summarize my findings that, while multiplicity clearly influences bulk disk properties, it does not obviously inhibit grain growth. Other investigations are suggested.

Harris, Robert J.

357

Multiple-stage integrating accelerometer  

DOEpatents

An accelerometer assembly is provided for use in activating a switch in response to multiple acceleration pulses in series. The accelerometer includes a housing forming a chamber. An inertial mass or piston is slidably disposed in the chamber and spring biased toward a first or reset position. A damping system is also provided to damp piston movement in response to first and subsequent acceleration pulses. Additionally, a cam, including a Z-shaped slot, and cooperating follower pin slidably received therein are mounted to the piston and the housing. The middle or cross-over leg of the Z-shaped slot cooperates with the follower pin to block or limit piston movement and prevent switch activation in response to a lone acceleration pulse. The switch of the assembly is only activated after two or more separate acceleration pulses are sensed and the piston reaches the end of the chamber opposite the reset position.

Devaney, H.F.

1984-06-27

358

Multiple sclerosis in South Africa.  

PubMed

Since there are no well-documented epidemiological studies on multiple sclerosis (MS) in South Africa, we devised a questionnaire to determine qualitative data. Responses were obtained from 430 patients: 91% had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, 64% had lumbar punctures and 49% had evoked potentials to establish the diagnosis of MS. A total of 71% of the respondents were aged 30 - 59 years, 73% were female, and 89% were white. In terms of MS type, 46% had relapsing-remitting MS, 13% secondary progressive MS, 12% primary progressive MS, 12% benign MS, and 17% not known. Disease-modifying treatment was not used by 32% of respondents, and 30% were treated with methotrexate and 22% with interferon beta. These findings are similar to those in the literature, except for the under-utilisation of interferons as disease-modifying treatment. PMID:18637312

Modi, Girish; Mochan, Andre; du Toit, Madelein; Stander, Ivan

2008-05-01

359

2014 Multiple Sclerosis Therapeutic Update  

PubMed Central

Rapid advances are occurring in multiple sclerosis disease modifying therapies. Recent therapeutic advances include modifications to improve tolerability of existing products (e.g. interferon beta and glatiramer acetate), development of novel anti-neuroinflammatory medications (e.g. fingolimod, teriflunomide and dimethyl fumarate, daclizumab, alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab) and investigation of treatments in progressive MS (e.g. natalizumab, mastinib, natalizumab, siponimod). The impact of vitamin D supplementation on the disease course in relapsing MS patients is also being studied in several clinical trials. This article reviews the current state of the field with a forward look to the next phase of MS research that could focus on strategies to promote remyelination and provide neuronal protection. PMID:24707333

Cree, Bruce A. C.

2014-01-01

360

Multiple-stage integrating accelerometer  

DOEpatents

An accelerometer assembly is provided for use in activating a switch in response to multiple acceleration pulses in series. The accelerometer includes a housing forming a chamber. An inertial mass or piston is slidably disposed in the chamber and spring biased toward a first or reset position. A damping system is also provided to damp piston movement in response to first and subsequent acceleration pulses. Additionally, a cam, including a Z-shaped slot, and cooperating follower pin slidably received therein are mounted to the piston and the housing. The middle or cross-over leg of the Z-shaped slot cooperates with the follower pin to block or limit piston movement and prevent switch activation in response to a lone acceleration pulse. The switch of the assembly is only activated after two or more separate acceleration pulses are sensed and the piston reaches the end of the chamber opposite the reset position.

Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM)

1986-01-01

361

Painful and involuntary Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Importance of the field Pain, dysphagia, respiratory problems, sexual and cardiovascular dysfunctions may occur in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Areas covered in the field In the present review we attempt to summarize the current knowledge on the impact that pain, dysphagia, respiratory problems, sexual and cardiovascular dysfunctions have in patients with MS. What the reader will gain The current understanding on pain, dysphagia, respiratory problems, sexual and cardiovascular dysfunctions and future research perspectives to expand the knowledge of this field. Take home message To effectively manage MS it is essential that these symptoms are recognised as early as possible and treated by a rehabilitative multidisciplinary approach, based on proven scientific evidence. PMID:21323633

Bagnato, Francesca; Centonze, Diego; Galgani, Simonetta; Grasso, Maria Grazia; Haggiag, Shalom; Strano, Stefano

2010-01-01

362

Standardized multiple output power supply  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive program to develop a prototype model of a standardized multiple output power supply for use in space flight applications is described. The prototype unit was tested and evaluated to assure that the design would provide near optimum performance for the planned application. The prototype design used a dc-to-dc converter incorporating reqenerative current feedback with a time-ratio controlled duty cycle to achieve high efficiency over a wide variation of input voltage and output loads. The packaging concept uses a mainframe capable of accommodating up to four inverter/regulator modules with one common input filter and housekeeping module. Each inverter/regulator module provides a maximum of 100 watts or 10 amperes. Each module is adaptable to operate at any voltage between 4.0 volts and 108 volts. The prototype unit contains +5, + or - 15 and +28 volt modules.

Ragusa, E. V.

1975-01-01

363

Coherent and incoherent multiple scattering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare two different models of transport of light in a disordered system with a spherical Gaussian distribution of scatterers. A coupled dipole model, taking into account all interference effects, is compared to an incoherent model, using a random walk of particles. Besides the well-known coherent backscattering effect and a well pronounced forward lobe, the incoherent model reproduces extremely well all scattering features. In an experiment with cold atoms, we use the momentum recoil imparted on the center of mass of the sample as a partial probe of the light-scattering properties. We find that the force acting on the center of mass of the atoms is not well suited to exhibit the coherence effects in light propagation under multiple-scattering conditions.

Chabé, Julien; Rouabah, Mohamed-Taha; Bellando, Louis; Bienaimé, Tom; Piovella, Nicola; Bachelard, Romain; Kaiser, Robin

2014-04-01

364

Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

2010-01-01

365

A multiple-objective optimal exploration strategy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Exploration for natural resources is accomplished through partial sampling of extensive domains. Such imperfect knowledge is subject to sampling error. Complex systems of equations resulting from modelling based on the theory of correlated random fields are reduced to simple analytical expressions providing global indices of estimation variance. The indices are utilized by multiple objective decision criteria to find the best sampling strategies. The approach is not limited by geometric nature of the sampling, covers a wide range in spatial continuity and leads to a step-by-step procedure. ?? 1988.

Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.

1988-01-01

366

A multiple imputation strategy for sequential multiple assignment randomized trials.  

PubMed

Sequential multiple assignment randomized trials (SMARTs) are increasingly being used to inform clinical and intervention science. In a SMART, each patient is repeatedly randomized over time. Each randomization occurs at a critical decision point in the treatment course. These critical decision points often correspond to milestones in the disease process or other changes in a patient's health status. Thus, the timing and number of randomizations may vary across patients and depend on evolving patient-specific information. This presents unique challenges when analyzing data from a SMART in the presence of missing data. This paper presents the first comprehensive discussion of missing data issues typical of SMART studies: we describe five specific challenges and propose a flexible imputation strategy to facilitate valid statistical estimation and inference using incomplete data from a SMART. To illustrate these contributions, we consider data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trial of Intervention and Effectiveness, one of the most well-known SMARTs to date. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24919867

Shortreed, Susan M; Laber, Eric; Scott Stroup, T; Pineau, Joelle; Murphy, Susan A

2014-10-30

367

Clustering of multiple sclerosis in Galion, Ohio, 1982-1985  

SciTech Connect

Epidemiologic evidence indicates that the outbreak of 30-40 cases of multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating syndromes in Galion, Ohio, USA, during 1982-1985 was related to an excess concentration of heavy-metal wastes, especially of cadmium and chromium in sewage and river water. Both multiple sclerosis and myasthenia gravis were diagnosed by board-certified neurologists.

Ingalls, T.H. (Boston Univ. School of Medicine, MA (USA))

1989-09-01

368

The Impact of Multiple Fluency Interventions on a Single Subject  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates the effectiveness of multiple fluency interventions on a single subject in grade three. Fluency interventions, including choral reading, echo reading, repeated reading, audio book modeling, and teacher modeling were implemented over a period of eight weeks. Results indicated that using multiple fluency strategies, rather…

Morra, Jennifer; Tracey, Dianne H.

2006-01-01

369

Improving Multiple Fault Diagnosability using Possible Conflicts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple fault diagnosis is a difficult problem for dynamic systems. Due to fault masking, compensation, and relative time of fault occurrence, multiple faults can manifest in many different ways as observable fault signature sequences. This decreases diagnosability of multiple faults, and therefore leads to a loss in effectiveness of the fault isolation step. We develop a qualitative, event-based, multiple fault isolation framework, and derive several notions of multiple fault diagnosability. We show that using Possible Conflicts, a model decomposition technique that decouples faults from residuals, we can significantly improve the diagnosability of multiple faults compared to an approach using a single global model. We demonstrate these concepts and provide results using a multi-tank system as a case study.

Daigle, Matthew J.; Bregon, Anibal; Biswas, Gautam; Koutsoukos, Xenofon; Pulido, Belarmino

2012-01-01

370

BG-12 in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an orally administered agent that has been used for over 40 years for the treatment of psoriasis. Recent work demonstrates both DMF immunomodulatory and neuroprotective actions in vitro and in animal models of autoreactive central nervous system inflammation and neurodegeneration. DMF acts through chemical modification of the repressor protein Keap1, allowing stabilization and nuclear translocation of the transcription factor Nrf2, with subsequent downstream activation of a cascade of several cytoprotective and antioxidant pathways. Additionally, suppression of transcription factor NF-?B-mediated proinflammatory signaling results in the inhibition of proinflammatory responses and induction of anti-inflammatory cytokines. BG-12 is an orally administered, enteric-coated microtablet preparation of DMF. In two phase III, relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) trials, BG-12 led to a 44 to 53% reduction in annualized relapse rate and a 71 to 85% reduction in new T2 lesions on magnetic resonance imaging. The most common side effects of BG-12 are cutaneous flushing and gastrointestinal symptoms, with the highest incidence in the first month after starting treatment. No serious safety signals were seen during the phase II and III trials, including no increased risk of opportunistic infections or cancer. Altogether, BG-12's novel mechanism of action appears to provide a favorable balance of efficacy, safety, and tolerability for treatment of relapsing MS. PMID:23709213

Phillips, J Theodore; Fox, Robert J

2013-02-01

371

Spectral clustering on multiple manifolds.  

PubMed

Spectral clustering (SC) is a large family of grouping methods that partition data using eigenvectors of an affinity matrix derived from the data. Though SC methods have been successfully applied to a large number of challenging clustering scenarios, it is noteworthy that they will fail when there are significant intersections among different clusters. In this paper, based on the analysis that SC methods are able to work well when the affinity values of the points belonging to different clusters are relatively low, we propose a new method, called spectral multi-manifold clustering (SMMC), which is able to handle intersections. In our model, the data are assumed to lie on or close to multiple smooth low-dimensional manifolds, where some data manifolds are separated but some are intersecting. Then, local geometric information of the sampled data is incorporated to construct a suitable affinity matrix. Finally, spectral method is applied to this affinity matrix to group the data. Extensive experiments on synthetic as well as real datasets demonstrate the promising performance of SMMC. PMID:21690009

Wang, Yong; Jiang, Yuan; Wu, Yi; Zhou, Zhi-Hua

2011-07-01

372

Extending SATPLAN to Multiple Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-agent planning is a core issue in the multi-agent systems field. In this work we focus on the coordination of multiple agents in a setting where agents are able to achieve individual goals that may be either independent, or necessary for the achievement of a global common goal. The agents are able to generate individual plans in order to achieve their own goals, but, as they share the same environment, they need to find a coordinated course of action that avoids harmful (or negative) interactions, and benefits from positive interactions, whenever this is possible. Moreover, agents are interested in finding plans with optimal length where preference is given to the length of the joint plan. We formalize these problems in a more general way with respect to previous works and present a coordination algorithm which provides the optimal solution in the case of two agents. In this algorithm, agents use ?-SATPLAN as the underlying planner for generating individual and joint consistent plans. This planner is an extension of the well known classical planner SATPLAN, aiming to deal with negative and positive interactions and, therefore, with multi-agent planning problem. Finally we present the experimental results using the multi-agent planning problems from the domains proposed and used in classical planning, which demonstrate the effectiveness of ?-SATPLAN and the coordination algorithm.

Dimopoulos, Yannis; Hashmi, Muhammad Adnan; Moraitis, Pavlos

373

Islamic fasting and multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background Month-long daytime Ramadan fasting pose s major challenges to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in Muslim countries. Physicians should have practical knowledge on the implications of fasting on MS. We present a summary of database searches (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed) and a mini-symposium on Ramadan fasting and MS. In this symposium, we aimed to review the effect of fasting on MS and suggest practical guidelines on management. Discussion In general, fasting is possible for most stable patients. Appropriate amendment of drug regimens, careful monitoring of symptoms, as well as providing patients with available evidence on fasting and MS are important parts of management. Evidence from experimental studies suggests that calorie restriction before disease induction reduces inflammation and subsequent demyelination and attenuates disease severity. Fasting does not appear to have unfavorable effects on disease course in patients with mild disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score ?3). Most experts believed that during fasting (especially in summer), some MS symptoms (fatigue, fatigue perception, dizziness, spasticity, cognitive problems, weakness, vision, balance, gait) might worsen but return to normal levels during feasting. There was a general consensus that fasting is not safe for patients: on high doses of anti-convulsants, anti-spastics, and corticosteroids; with coagulopathy or active disease; during attacks; with EDSS score ?7. Summary These data suggest that MS patients should have tailored care. Fasting in MS patients is a challenge that is directly associated with the spiritual belief of the patient. PMID:24655543

2014-01-01

374

Multiple Myeloma and Kidney Disease  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) has a high incidence rate in the elderly. Responsiveness to treatments differs considerably among patients because of high heterogeneity of MM. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common clinical feature in MM patients, and treatment-related mortality and morbidity are higher in MM patients with CKD than in patients with normal renal function. Recent advances in diagnostic tests, chemotherapy agents, and dialysis techniques are providing clinicians with novel approaches for the management of MM patients with CKD. Once reversible factors, such as hypercalcemia, have been corrected, the most common cause of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in MM patients is tubulointerstitial nephropathy, which results from very high circulating concentrations of monoclonal immunoglobulin free light chains (FLC). In the setting of AKI, an early reduction of serum FLC concentration is related to kidney function recovery. The combination of extended high cutoff hemodialysis and chemotherapy results in sustained reductions in serum FLC concentration in the majority of patients and a high rate of independence from dialysis. PMID:24288486

Noiri, Eisei

2013-01-01

375

MRI mimics of multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is based on the demonstration of dissemination of lesions in space (DIS) and in time (DIT), as well as on the exclusion of an alternative neurologic disorder. As a paraclinical tool brain and/or spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), showing typical lesion morphology, characteristic distribution of lesions, or involvement or specific anatomic structures, can support the diagnosis of MS. But from an imaging perspective a considerable amount of inherited and acquired disorders may manifest with radiologic evidence of DIT, DIS, or both. Hypoxic-ischemic vasculopathy, specially small-vessel disease, inflammatory disorders, vasculitis, and non-MS idiopathic inflammatory disorders, as well as some toxic, metabolic, and infectious disorders, may present mimicking MS on MR examinations and should be included in the differential diagnosis of MS-like lesions. Careful evaluation of associated findings on MRI, the so-called MRI red flags, such as the presence of infarcts, microbleeds, meningeal enhancement, and calcifications among others, are very helpful in suggesting a diagnosis other than MS. Complement MRI findings to patient's history, demographics, and serologic findings are crucial to achieve the correct diagnosis. We will review the most frequent radiologic appearance and differential features from the most frequent MS mimickers. PMID:24507523

Aliaga, Esther Sánchez; Barkhof, Frederik

2014-01-01

376

Skin segmentation using multiple thresholding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The segmentation of skin regions in color images is a preliminary step in several applications. Many different methods for discriminating between skin and non-skin pixels are available in the literature. The simplest, and often applied, methods build what is called an "explicit skin cluster" classifier which expressly defines the boundaries of the skin cluster in certain color spaces. These binary methods are very popular as they are easy to implement and do not require a training phase. The main difficulty in achieving high skin recognition rates, and producing the smallest possible number of false positive pixels, is that of defining accurate cluster boundaries through simple, often heuristically chosen, decision rules. In this study we apply a genetic algorithm to determine the boundaries of the skin clusters in multiple color spaces. To quantify the performance of these skin detection methods, we use recall and precision scores. A good classifier should provide both high recall and high precision, but generally, as recall increases, precision decreases. Consequently, we adopt a weighted mean of precision and recall as the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. Keeping in mind that different applications may have sharply different requirements, the weighting coefficients can be chosen to favor either high recall or high precision, or to satisfy a reasonable tradeoff between the two, depending on application demands. To train the genetic algorithm (GA) and test the performance of the classifiers applying the GA suggested boundaries, we use the large and heterogeneous Compaq skin database.

Gasparini, Francesca; Schettini, Raimondo

2006-01-01

377

Inherited predisposition to multiple myeloma  

PubMed Central

Multiple myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematologic malignancy in the United States, after non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Family pedigree analyses of high-risk families, case-control studies and racial disparities in disease incidence all point to a potential inherited predisposition to MM. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified susceptibility loci in a number of cancers and such studies are currently underway in MM. To date, GWASs in MM have identified several potential regions of interest for further study on chromosomes 3p22, 7p15.3, 8q24 and 2p23.3. In addition, several targets of paraproteins (so called ‘paratargs’) in MM have been identified. Hyperphosphorylation of the paratarg protein, which is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, appears a common mechanism underlying the antigenicity of these proteins. One particular protein, hyperphosphorylated paratarg-7 (pP-7) is a common target in persons with myeloma and has also been identified in affected members of several high-risk MM families. It appears that the frequency of pP-7 as an antigenic target may be particularly high in African American patients with MM, which could be part of the explanation for observed racial disparities in the incidence of MM. In this review we focus on available data in the area of inherited predisposition to MM, and highlight future research directions. PMID:23926460

Koura, Divya T.

2013-01-01

378

Potassium channels - multiplicity and challenges  

PubMed Central

The development of our knowledge of the function, structure and pharmacology of K+ channels is briefly outlined. This is the most diverse of all the ion channel families with at least 75 coding genes in mammals. Alternative splicing as well as variations in the channel subunits and accessory proteins that co-assemble to form the functional channel add to the multiplicity. Whereas diversity of this order suggests that it may be possible to develop new classes of drug, for example, for immunomodulation and some diseases of the central nervous system, the ubiquity of K+ channels imposes stringent requirements for selectivity. Animal toxins from the snake, bee and scorpion provide useful leads, though only in a few instances (e.g. with apamin) it has been possible to produce non-peptidic analogues of high potency. The scale of the resources needed to identify, and characterize fully, specific K+ channel as targets and then develop modulators with the required selectivity presents a challenge to both academic and applied pharmacologists. PMID:16402122

Jenkinson, Donald H

2006-01-01

379

[Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2].  

PubMed

The term multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) was introduced by Steiner et al. in 1968 to describe disorders that include a combination of endocrine tumors. The Wermer syndrome was designed as MEN 1 and the Sipple syndrome as MEN 2. Sizemore et al. (1974) completed that the MEN 2 category included 2 subgroups: patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), pheochromocytoma, and parathyroid disease and a normal appearance (MEN 2A) and other without parathyroid disease but with mucosal neuromas and mesodermal abnormalities (MEN 2B). MTC is usually the first tumor diagnosed. The diagnosis of MTC has several implications: disease extent should be evaluated, pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism should be screened and whether the MTC is sporadic or hereditary should be determined by a direct analysis of the RET proto-oncogene. Here, the pathological characteristics, genetic abnormalities, and clinical features of MEN 2 are discussed. The diagnostic and therapeutic approaches used to patients with clinical disease and carriers identified through familiar screening are also described. Progresses related especially to genetic screening and earlier intervention have permitted an improvement in the long-term outcome. However, treatment for disseminated disease is still ineffective. PMID:16444355

Maia, Ana Luiza; Gross, Jorge Luiz; Puñales, Marcia Khaled

2005-10-01

380

The thalamus and multiple sclerosis  

PubMed Central

The paired thalamic nuclei are gray matter (GM) structures on both sides of the third ventricle that play major roles in cortical activation, relaying sensory information to the higher cortical centers that influence cognition. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the human CNS that affects both the white matter (WM) and GM. A number of clinical observations as well as recent neuropathologic and neuroimaging studies have clearly demonstrated extensive involvement of the thalamus, basal ganglia, and neocortex in patients with MS. Modern MRI techniques permit visualization of GM lesions and measurement of atrophy. These contemporary methods have fundamentally altered our understanding of the pathophysiologic nature of MS. Evidence confirms the contention that GM injury can be detected in the earliest phases of MS, and that iron deposition and atrophy of deep gray nuclei are closely related to the magnitude of inflammation. Extensive involvement of GM, and particularly of the thalamus, is associated with a wide range of clinical manifestations including cognitive decline, motor deficits, fatigue, painful syndromes, and ocular motility disturbances in patients with MS. In this review, we characterize the neuropathologic, neuroimaging, and clinical features of thalamic involvement in MS. Further, we underscore the contention that neuropathologic and neuroimaging correlative investigations of thalamic derangements in MS may elucidate not heretofore considered pathobiological underpinnings germane to understanding the ontogeny, magnitude, and progression of the disease process. PMID:23296131

Minagar, Alireza; Barnett, Michael H.; Benedict, Ralph H.B.; Pelletier, Daniel; Pirko, Istvan; Sahraian, Mohamad Ali; Frohman, Elliott

2013-01-01

381

Optimal assessment of multiple cues.  

PubMed Central

In a wide range of contexts from mate choice to foraging, animals are required to discriminate between alternative options on the basis of multiple cues. How should they best assess such complex multicomponent stimuli? Here, we construct a model to investigate this problem, focusing on a simple case where a 'chooser' faces a discrimination task involving two cues. These cues vary in their accuracy and in how costly they are to assess. As an example, we consider a mate-choice situation where females choose between males of differing quality. Our model predicts the following: (i) females should become less choosy as the cost of finding new males increases; (ii) females should prioritize cues differently depending on how choosy they are; (iii) females may sometimes prioritize less accurate cues; and (iv) which cues are most important depends on the abundance of desirable mates. These predictions are testable in mate-choice experiments where the costs of choice can be manipulated. Our findings are applicable to other discrimination tasks besides mate choice, for example a predator's choice between palatable and unpalatable prey, or an altruist's choice between kin and non-kin. PMID:12908986

Fawcett, Tim W; Johnstone, Rufus A

2003-01-01

382

Inventory verification measurements using neutron multiplicity counting  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a series of neutron multiplicity measurements of large plutonium samples at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The measurements were corrected for bias caused by neutron energy spectrum shifts and nonuniform multiplication, and are compared with calorimetry/isotopics. The results show that multiplicity counting can increase measurement throughput and yield good verification results for some inventory categories. The authors provide recommendations on the future application of the technique to inventory verification.

Ensslin, N.; Foster, L.A.; Harker, W.C.; Krick, M.S.; Langner, D.G.

1998-12-31

383

Multiple pterygium syndrome: evolution of the phenotype.  

PubMed Central

The clinical features of the multiple pterygium syndrome are multiple congenital joint contractures, multiple skin webs, camptodactyly, vertebral anomalies, short stature, ptosis, and antimongoloid eye slant. We present 11 new cases to show the evolution of the full phenotype from birth and to confirm autosomal recessive inheritance. We emphasise morbidity secondary to respiratory impairment and that conductive deafness may be part of the syndrome. Images PMID:3430553

Thompson, E M; Donnai, D; Baraitser, M; Hall, C M; Pembrey, M E; Fixsen, J

1987-01-01

384

Multiple acousto-optic q-switch  

DOEpatents

An improved dynamic moire interferometer comprised of a lasing medium providing a plurality of beams of coherent light, a multiple q-switch producing multiple trains of 100,000 or more pulses per second, a combining means collimating multiple trains of pulses into substantially a single train and directing beams to specimen gratings affixed to a test material, and a controller, triggering and sequencing the emission of the pulses with the occurrence and recording of a dynamic loading event.

Deason, Vance A. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1993-01-01

385

Patterns and Management of Crop Multiple Pathosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of multiple pathosystems has played a central role in the development of botanical epidemiology, leading to a number\\u000a of approaches and concepts. Multiple pathosystems are facts, which are experienced by many non-cultivated, or cultivated,\\u000a plant communities. The shapes and composition of multiple pathosystems vary in space and time because of their inherent structure\\u000a of relationships, and also in

Serge Savary; B. Mille; B. Rolland; P. Lucas

2006-01-01

386

Patterns and management of crop multiple pathosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of multiple pathosystems has played a central role in the development of botanical epidemiology, leading to a number\\u000a of approaches and concepts.Multiple pathosystems are facts, which are experienced by many non-cultivated, or cultivated, plant\\u000a communities. The shapes and composition of multiple pathosystems vary in space and time because of their inherent structure\\u000a of relationships, and also in response

Serge Savary; B. Mille; B. Rolland; P. Lucas

387

Multiplication: An Adventure in Number Sense  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students learn their multiplication tables, but also build their reasoning about numbers, their relationships and their patterns in the multiplication table. The tutorial begins with a multiplication applet and leads the student through a number of different strategies for stream lining the number of multiplication facts from 100 down to thirteen. Each page in the unit consists of dialogs between a student and a mentor, as well as illustrations, summaries and suggestions for further explorations and activities. Users can skip dialogs if they wish, going directly for the summaries and activities.

2005-01-01

388

An analysis of multiple component mooring lines  

E-print Network

Response Optimi zation Of Mul ti pl e Component Mooring Lines 64 1 x LIST OF SYMBOLS ~Smb o1 Defini ti on Catenary parameter a 1 Catenary parameter for lower line of a multiple component line '2 Catenary parameter for upper line of a multiple... Response Optimi zation Of Mul ti pl e Component Mooring Lines 64 1 x LIST OF SYMBOLS ~Smb o1 Defini ti on Catenary parameter a 1 Catenary parameter for lower line of a multiple component line '2 Catenary parameter for upper line of a multiple...

Walters, Thomas Robert

2012-06-07

389

Algebraic Expressions - Number Line Model for Multiplication  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive Java learning tool allows a teacher to demonstrate and explore with students number line models for two simple variable expressions for multiplication. The first expression is a variable with an understood coefficient of one and the second is the multiplication of a variable by a coefficient. Sliders are used to select the value of the variable (-10 to 10) and the coefficient (0 to 10). Check boxes show or hide the algebraic expression, the expression with substitution, the notation shown for multiplication, the result, and a model for the multiplication, shown as jumps along a number line.

Maine, Edc I.

2010-08-26

390

Multiplicative Expansion of Microvascular Network: Intussusceptive Angiogenesis  

Cancer.gov

Meetings & Events Home Agenda Speaker Biosketches Abstracts Logistics Contact Abstracts Multiplicative Expansion of Microvascular Network: Intussusceptive Angiogenesis Steven J. Mentzer, MD  [ View bio ] (Harvard Medical School, Boston,

391

Hemorrhoids - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hemorrhoids - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Simplified (????) Chinese - Traditional (????) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Hemorrhoid Surgery English (Arabic) ????? ???????? - ??????? Multimedia Patient ...

392

Arthritis - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Simplified (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian ( ... Chinese - Simplified) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) Arthritis Arthrite - français (French) Bilingual PDF Health Information ...

393

Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. Anal Disorders - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian ( ... ??? ?????? - ??????? Bilingual Health Information Translations French (français) Barium Enema Lavement baryté - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

394

Neurologic Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Neurologic Diseases - Multiple Languages Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian ( ... Chinese - Traditional) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations French (français) ... EEG (Électroencéphalogramme) - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

395

Fractures - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Chinese - Traditional (????) French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian ( ... of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases French (français) Bone Fractures Fractures osseuses - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

396

Concussion - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) ... Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Return to top Korean (???) Types of Brain Injury ???? ?? - ??? ( ...

397

Phenylketonuria - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Phenylketonuria - Multiple Languages Arabic (???????) Spanish (español) Arabic (???????) Phenylketonuria or PKU English (Arabic) ???? ????? ??????? -- ??? ...

398

Monthly distribution of multiple sclerosis patients' births  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of an integrated geographical and environmental epidemiological study of multiple sclerosis (MS) in Budapest's Pesterzsébet district, many biometeorological variables were specifically examined. Also, the monthly distribution of birthdates of MS patients resident in the district was plotted. Patients reliably diagnosed with MS were found to have been born in greater numbers in the months of April and October, precisely 6 months apart. This finding indicates the presence of natural non-genetic factors in the creation of MS susceptibility, affecting the nervous system at the crucial time of myelination.

Bharanidharan, Padmanabhan

399

[Current treatment of multiple sclerosis].  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune and degenerative disorder. In the past decades, the introduction of parenteral immunomodulatory therapies brought significant progress. These agents increase the number of relapses (shubs) by about 30%, and some of them has been shown to halter the accumulation of neurological symptoms and the development of disability. As first-line agents, interferon beta and glatiramer acetate (consisting of amino acids) can be used. Some new therapeutic strategies have been developed as a result of biotechnological development. The advantage of humanised monoclonal antibodies is that they affect the autoimmune inflammatory process more selectively. Among monoclonal antibodies, natalizumab, which binds to alpha-4-beta-1 integrin receptors and inhibits the migration of T-lymphocytes into the central nervous system, is available from February 2010 in Hungary, recommended as second-line treatment. The efficacy of natalizumab in decreasing relapse rate is > 60%. However, its use is associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in one out of 1000 treated patient. Currently it is recommended as second-line treatment, if the patient has active disease despite immunomodulatory therapy. Among orally administered agents, a preparation containing fingolimod is expected to become available next year, and another pill, cladribin has been also found to be efficient in randomised, controlled phase III trials. Fingolimod acts on sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors-1 (S1P1). Cladribine is a purine nucleotide analogue, and its efficacy is based on long-term reduction of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Further promising oral immunomodulatory agents are laquinimod and BG000012 (dimethylfumarate), which are currently being tested in phase III clinical trials in relapsing-remitting MS. The most efficient treatment should be chosen on the basis of the activity, aetiology and the posited pathomechanism of the disease. With the increasing number of therapeutic options, choosing the treatment that is optimal for the patient while also considering side effects might be challenging for both the patients and physicians. PMID:21710707

Csépány, Tünde

2011-02-01

400

Multiple imitation mechanisms in children.  

PubMed

Four studies using a computerized paradigm investigated whether children's imitation performance is content-specific and to what extent dependent on other cognitive processes such as trial-and-error learning, recall, and observational learning. Experiment 1 showed that 3-year-olds could successfully imitate what we call novel cognitive rules (e.g., first ? second ? third), which involved responding to 3 different pictures whose spatial configuration varied randomly from trial to trial. However, these same children failed to imitate what we call novel motor-spatial rules (e.g., up ? down ? right), which involved responding to 3 identical pictures that remained in a fixed spatial configuration from trial to trial. Experiment 2 showed that this dissociation was not due to a general difficulty in encoding motor-spatial content, as children successfully recalled, following a 30-s delay, a new motor-spatial sequence that had been learned by trial and error. Experiment 3 replicated these results and further demonstrated that 3-year-olds can infer a novel motor-spatial sequence following observation of a partially correct and partially incorrect response-a dissociation between imitation and observational learning (or emulation learning). Finally, Experiment 4 presented 3-year-olds with "familiar" motor-spatial sequences that involved making a linear response (e.g., left ? middle ? right) as well as "novel" motor-spatial sequences (e.g., right ? up ? down) used in Experiments 1-3 that were nonlinear and always involved a change in direction. Children had no difficulty imitating familiar motor-spatial sequences but again failed to imitate novel motor-spatial sequences. These results suggest that there may be multiple, dissociable imitation learning mechanisms that are content-specific. More importantly, the development of these imitation systems appears to be independent of the operations of other cognitive systems, including trial and error learning, recall, and observational learning. PMID:22201448

Subiaul, Francys; Anderson, Sarah; Brandt, Janina; Elkins, Jenny

2012-07-01

401

Knowledge repositories for multiple uses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the life cycle of a complex physical device or part, for example, the docking bay door of the Space Station, there are many uses for knowledge about the device or part. The same piece of knowledge might serve several uses. Given the quantity and complexity of the knowledge that must be stored, it is critical to maintain the knowledge in one repository, in one form. At the same time, because of quantity and complexity of knowledge that must be used in life cycle applications such as cost estimation, re-design, and diagnosis, it is critical to automate such knowledge uses. For each specific use, a knowledge base must be available and must be in a from that promotes the efficient performance of that knowledge base. However, without a single source knowledge repository, the cost of maintaining consistent knowledge between multiple knowledge bases increases dramatically; as facts and descriptions change, they must be updated in each individual knowledge base. A use-neutral representation of a hydraulic system for the F-111 aircraft was developed. The ability to derive portions of four different knowledge bases is demonstrated from this use-neutral representation: one knowledge base is for re-design of the device using a model-based reasoning problem solver; two knowledge bases, at different levels of abstraction, are for diagnosis using a model-based reasoning solver; and one knowledge base is for diagnosis using an associational reasoning problem solver. It was shown how updates issued against the single source use-neutral knowledge repository can be propagated to the underlying knowledge bases.

Williamson, Keith; Riddle, Patricia

1991-01-01

402

Multiple Fixed-Point Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the construction and investigation of multiple fixed-point cells usable for the calibration of thermocouples at temperatures above 1100° C. These fixed-point cells made of pure graphite are characterized by a simple construction as well as by a flexible application. The cylindrical basic mount is equipped with a central hole for the insertion of a thermocouple, and with eight drill holes containing exchangeable cartridges which surround the central bore axially symmetrically. The cartridges are filled with different metal-carbon (Me-C) eutectics: cobalt-carbon (Co-C), nickel-carbon (Ni-C), palladium-carbon (Pd-C), and rhodium-carbon (Rh-C). The melting temperatures of the different Me-C eutectics of the cartridges were compared to the melting temperatures of commonly used Me-C eutectic fixed-point cells of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt by using a Pt/Pd thermocouple (Co-C, Ni-C) and Type B thermocouples (Pd-C, Rh-C). The uncertainties (k = 2 ) of the emfs measured at the inflection points of the melting curves are in the order of a few \\upmu V which correspond to temperature equivalents between 0.3 K and 0.6 K. Furthermore, the difference between the melting temperatures of the Co-C and Ni-C cartridges was found to be 4.2 K by using simultaneously two sets of four cartridges filled with the two materials and placed alternately in the eight outer holes of one basic mount.

Edler, F.; Ederer, P.

2014-08-01

403

Multiple Fixed-Point Cell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes the construction and investigation of multiple fixed-point cells usable for the calibration of thermocouples at temperatures above 1100 C. These fixed-point cells made of pure graphite are characterized by a simple construction as well as by a flexible application. The cylindrical basic mount is equipped with a central hole for the insertion of a thermocouple, and with eight drill holes containing exchangeable cartridges which surround the central bore axially symmetrically. The cartridges are filled with different metal-carbon (Me-C) eutectics: cobalt-carbon (Co-C), nickel-carbon (Ni-C), palladium-carbon (Pd-C), and rhodium-carbon (Rh-C). The melting temperatures of the different Me-C eutectics of the cartridges were compared to the melting temperatures of commonly used Me-C eutectic fixed-point cells of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt by using a Pt/Pd thermocouple (Co-C, Ni-C) and Type B thermocouples (Pd-C, Rh-C). The uncertainties () of the emfs measured at the inflection points of the melting curves are in the order of a few V which correspond to temperature equivalents between 0.3 K and 0.6 K. Furthermore, the difference between the melting temperatures of the Co-C and Ni-C cartridges was found to be 4.2 K by using simultaneously two sets of four cartridges filled with the two materials and placed alternately in the eight outer holes of one basic mount.

Edler, F.; Ederer, P.

2014-07-01

404

Management and prognosis of multiple myeloma.  

PubMed

Patients with asymptomatic or smoldering multiple myeloma should not be treated but should be observed closely for progression. For symptomatic myeloma, chemotherapy is indicated. Melphalan, the agent of choice, should be given with prednisone for 1 week of every 6 weeks, If melphalan brings no response, or response and then relapse, cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan) should be give intravenously every 4 weeks or orally every day. BCNU, CCNU, and doxorubicin (Adriamycin) have also shown activity in myeloma. Hypercalcemia occurs in one-third of patients and should be countered with hydration, corticosteroids, Neutra-Phos, or mithramycin. Long-term hemodialysis has achieved some success. The combination of sodium flouride and calcium carbonate produces new bone formation; it seems a useful adjunct in treatment for myelomatous bone disease. Radiation should be utilized only for severe, localized pain or for solitary lesions. Survival with multiple myeloma varies, mean durations being 2 to 3 years. Multivariate analysis indicates that serum creatinine and calcium levels are the most significant indicators regarding 2-year survival. We have found monoclonal proteinuria not significantly more frequent with renal insufficiency than with normal renal function, renal insufficiency not significantly more frequent with lambda than with kappa chains, and survival not significantly greater with IgG myeloma than with IgA. PMID:792581

Kyle, R A; Elveback, L R

1976-12-01

405

Low-multiplicity Burst Search at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory  

E-print Network

Results are reported from a search for low-multiplicity neutrino bursts in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Such bursts could indicate the detection of a nearby core-collapse supernova explosion. The data were taken from ...

Chen, Min

406

Extending the capacity of multiple access channels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple access techniques which allow a communication medium to be shared between different users represent one of the most challenging topics in digital communications. In terms of the number of users that can be accommodated on a given channel, there are two distinct classes of multiple access techniques. The first class includes the well-known FDMA, TDMA, and OCDMA. On a

Hikmet Sari; Frederik Vanhaverbeke; Marc Moeneclaey

2000-01-01

407

Multiple-Inlet/Single-Outlet Orifice Plate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orifice plate for control of flow has multiple slanted inlets leading to single outlet. Multiple-inlet/single-outlet orifice less susceptible to blockage than single hole drilled through plate perpendicular to its surface. Easily calibrated for various flow rates and fits in place of simple orifice plate with no other modifications.

Godown, Robert L.

1990-01-01

408

Literacy Activities that Tap Kids' Multiple Intelligences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents suggestions for helping students learn to read and appreciate literature by tapping into their multiple intelligences (spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, mathematical-logical, interpersonal, verbal-linguistic, and intrapersonal). The paper describes the eight intelligences. A teacher reproducible sheet presents a multiple intelligences…

Nicholson-Nelson, Kristen

1998-01-01

409

Multiple Intelligences: Its Tensions and Possibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores the tensions between Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences and current educational policies emphasizing standardized and predictable outcomes. The article situates Gardner's theory within the historical interests among psychometricians in identifying those core processes that constitute human intelligence. Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences provides a significant contrast to the models of mind that have traditionally been used

Elliot W. Eisner

2004-01-01

410

Visual Simulation of Multiple Unmixable Fluids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel grid-based method for simulating multiple unmixable fluids moving and interacting. Unlike previous methods that can only represent the interface between two fluids (usually between liquid and gas), this method can handle an arbitrary number of fluids through multiple inde- pendent level sets coupled with a constrain condition. To capture the fluid surface more accurately, we extend

Wen Zheng; Jun-hai Yong; Jean-claude Paul

2007-01-01

411

Multiple sclerosis: a complicated picture of autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, has expanded considerably in recent years. New insights have been provided by not only animal models but also studies of patients, often in conjunction with experimental therapies. It is accepted that autoimmune T cells mediate the early steps of new multiple sclerosis lesions, and although uncertainties remain about the specific targets of autoreactive

Roland Martin; Henry F McFarland

2007-01-01

412

Multiple hemorrhoidal bandings in a single session  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to evaluate the risks of multiple hemorrhoidal bandings in a single session. METHODS: We retrospectively examined all of the patients who had hemorrhoidal bandings from July 1989 to August 1992. RESULTS: Patients with multiple hemorrhoidal banding in a single session when compared with patients with single banding had greater discomfort and pain (29

Henry H. Lee; Robert J. Spencer; Robert W. Beart

1994-01-01

413

Ratio Rule Mining from Multiple Data Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both multiple source data mining and streaming data mining problems have attracted much attention in the past decade. In contrast to traditional association-rule mining, to capture the quantitative association knowledge, a new paradigm called Ratio Rule (RR) was proposed recently. We extend this framework to mining ratio rules from multiple source data streams which is a novel and challenging problem.

Jun Yan; Qiang Yang; Benyu Zhang; Qiansheng Cheng; Zheng Chen

414

Object tracking using multiple motion modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an object tracking system that utilises a hybrid multi-layer motion segmentation and optical flow algorithm. While many tracking systems seek to combine multiple modalities such as motion and depth or multiple inputs within a fusion system to improve tracking robustness, current systems have avoided the combination of motion and optical flow. This combination allows the use of

Simon Denman; Clinton Fookes; Sridha Sridharan; Vinod Chandran

2008-01-01

415

Managing Multiple Goals in Real Learning Contexts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding students' multiple goals in real learning contexts is an emerging area of importance for educators and researchers investigating student motivation in classrooms. This qualitative study conducted over an academic year investigates the multiple goals articulated by seven 11-year-old students and explores relationships between goals…

Mansfield, Caroline F.

2009-01-01

416

Multiple Intelligences: A Collection. K-12.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Divided into five concise sections, this book introduces and examines the personage of Howard Gardner and his theory of multiple intelligences. The articles explore practical applications and implications of the theory and provide supporting evidence applicable to all children. Special applications of the multiple intelligences theory, including…

Fogarty, Robin, Ed.; Bellanca, James, Ed.

417

Schooling Built on the Multiple Intelligences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article features a school built on multiple intelligences. As the first multiple intelligences school in the world, the Key Learning Community shapes its students' days to include significant time in the musical, spatial and bodily-kinesthetic intelligences, as well as the more traditional areas of logical-mathematical and linguistics. In…

Kunkel, Christine D.

2009-01-01

418

29 CFR 788.15 - Multiple crews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Multiple crews. 788.15 Section 788.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.15 Multiple crews. In many cases an employer who operates a sawmill or...

2012-07-01

419

29 CFR 788.15 - Multiple crews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Multiple crews. 788.15 Section 788.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.15 Multiple crews. In many cases an employer who operates a sawmill or...

2011-07-01

420

29 CFR 788.15 - Multiple crews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Multiple crews. 788.15 Section 788.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.15 Multiple crews. In many cases an employer who operates a sawmill or...

2010-07-01

421

29 CFR 788.15 - Multiple crews.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Multiple crews. 788.15 Section 788.15 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued...MORE THAN EIGHT EMPLOYEES ARE EMPLOYED § 788.15 Multiple crews. In many cases an employer who operates a sawmill or...

2013-07-01

422

Advanced multiple scattering algorithms for electron transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new multiple scattering or Condensed History algorithms are developed to enhance the Monte Carlo simulation of electron transport problems. These algorithms overcome the computational burdens of single collision models by ``condensing'' multiple collisions into large steps. Thus, these methods describe the cumulative effect of many electron interactions that occur in a given step. Although current Condensed History schemes are

Danny Ray Tolar Jr.

1999-01-01

423

Distributed Manipulation of Multiple Objects using Ropes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a system in which multiple robots cooperate to move multiple objects such as groups of boxes using a constrained prehensile manip- ulation mode, by wrapping ropes around them. The system consists of three manipulation skills: tieing ropes around objects, affecting rotations using a floss- ing manipulation gait, and affecting translations using a ratcheting manipulation gait. We present

Bruce Randall Donald; Larry Gariepy; Daniela Rust

2000-01-01

424

Multiple medical problems following agent orange exposure.  

PubMed

A patient exposed to agent orange and a gunshot wound during the Vietnam War has developed multiple medical problems including nocardiosis, onychomycosis (Trichophyton rubrum), multiple thromboembolic episodes, hemochromatosis, diabetes mellitus type 2, diabetic neuropathy, activated protein C resistance (without Leyden V 1st mutation), degree A-V block, lung cancer (metastatic adenocarcinoma), carpal tunnel syndrome and arthritis. PMID:18084883

Ambrus, J L; Islam, A; Akhter, S; Dembinski, W; Kulaylat, M; Ambrus, C M

2004-01-01

425

Regularized Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Multiple-set canonical correlation analysis (Generalized CANO or GCANO for short) is an important technique because it subsumes a number of interesting multivariate data analysis techniques as special cases. More recently, it has also been recognized as an important technique for integrating information from multiple sources. In this paper, we…

Takane, Yoshio; Hwang, Heungsun; Abdi, Herve

2008-01-01

426

Multiple Testing with Modified Bonferroni Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the issue of multiple testing and overall Type I error rates in contexts other than multiple comparisons of means. It demonstrates, using a 5 x 5 correlation matrix, the application of 5 recently developed modified Bonferroni procedures developed by the following authors: (1) Y. Hochberg (1988); (2) B. S. Holland and M. D.…

Li, Jianmin; And Others

427

Wand-based Multiple Camera Studio Calibration  

Microsoft Academic Search

To meet the demands of the many emerging multiple camera studio systems in entertainment content production, a novel wand-based system is presented for calibration of both intrinsic (focal length,lens distortion) and extrinsic (position, orientation) parame ters of multiple cameras. Full metric calibration is obtained solely from observations of a wand comprising two visible markers at a known fixed distance. It

Joel Mitchelson; Adrian Hilton

2003-01-01

428

Trend Toward Multiple Authorship: Update and Extension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Updated by five years the research of Strahan (1982) who noted trend toward multiple authorship in "Journal of Counseling Psychology" (JCP) articles, and also examined "The Counseling Psychologist" (TCP). Concluded that the trend toward multiple authorship in JCP and TCP may be leveling off. (Author/KS)

Zook, Avery, II

1987-01-01

429

Personal identity, multiple personality, and hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of multiple personality ia critically examined in the light of its historical development. Various conceptions of multiple personality are considered: aa a diagnostic fashion; aa a product of shaping in therapy; as a product of hypnotic suggestion; as simulation; and aa an extension of characteristica found in “normal” personslitiea. These considerations lead to the conclusion that the significant

J. P. Sutcliffe; Jean Jones

1962-01-01

430

Students' Reasoning with Reversible Multiplicative Relationships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an 8-month teaching experiment, I investigated how 4 sixth-grade students reasoned with reversible multiplicative relationships. One type of problem involved a known quantity that was a whole number multiple of an unknown quantity, and students were asked to determine the value of the unknown quantity. To solve these problems, students needed…

Hackenberg, Amy J.

2010-01-01

431

A multiple bit upset tolerant SRAM memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

SRAMs are used nowadays in almost every electronic product. However, as technology shrinks transistor sizes, single and multiple bit upsets only observable in space applications previously are now reported at ground level. This article presents a high level technique to protect SRAM memories against multiple upsets based on correcting codes. The proposed technique combines Reed Solomon code and Hamming code

Gustavo Neuberger; Luigi Carro; Ricardo Augusto da Luz Reis

2003-01-01

432

Decimal multiplication using compact BCD multiplier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decimal multiplication is an integral part of financial, commercial, and internet-based computations. The basic building block of a decimal multiplier is a single digit multiplier. It accepts two Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) inputs and gives a product in the range [0, 81] represented by two BCD digits. A novel design for single digit decimal multiplication that reduces the critical path

R. K. James; T. K. Shahana; K. P. Jacob; S. Sasi

2008-01-01

433

Fixed Point Decimal Multiplication Using RPS Algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decimal multiplication is an integral part of financial, commercial, and Internet-based computations. A novel design for single digit decimal multiplication that reduces the critical path delay and area for an iterative multiplier is proposed in this research. The partial products are generated using single digit multipliers, and are accumulated based ona novel RPS algorithm. This design uses n single digit

Rekha K. James; T. K. Shahana; K. Poulose Jacob; Sreela Sasi

2008-01-01

434

Constructive Multiple-Choice Testing System  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The newly developed computerized Constructive Multiple-choice Testing system is introduced. The system combines short answer (SA) and multiple-choice (MC) formats by asking examinees to respond to the same question twice, first in the SA format, and then in the MC format. This manipulation was employed to collect information about the two…

Park, Jooyong

2010-01-01

435

A Best-Evidence Synthesis of The Relationship of Multiple Intelligence Instructional Approaches and Student Achievement Indicators In Secondary School Classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to synthesize the literature in order to assess and quantify (if possible) the relationship between MI instructional approaches and student achievement indicators in secondary school classrooms (grades 6-12). This study employed the best-evidence synthesis methodology devised by Robert Slavin. Criteria for study inclusio n included germaneness, minimization of bias, and validity. This study allows

Ethan E Hodge

2005-01-01

436

Taking a "Simple View" of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills as a Predictor of Multiple Measures of Third-Grade Reading Comprehension  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the validity evidence of first-grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) scores for predicting third-grade reading comprehension scores. We used the "simple view" of reading as the theoretical foundation for examining the extent to which DIBELS subtest scores predict…

Munger, Kristen A.; Blachman, Benita A.

2013-01-01

437

Multipl skleroz: bilimsel araflt›rmalardan tedaviye -Multipl sklerozda yeni yönelimler  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple sclerosis: from research to therapy -New directions in multiple sclerosis- New insights into the heterogeneous immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis have led to an abundance of potential new therapeutic strategies. While the current immunomodulatory drugs have demonstrated beneficial effects on the disease, more effective and tolerable therapies are re- quired. Several novel disease modifying strategies; particularly oral therapies under investigation

Rana Karabudak

438

Blind Identification and Equalization for Multiple-Input/Multiple-Output Channels*  

E-print Network

1789 Blind Identification and Equalization for Multiple-Input/Multiple-Output Channels* Ye Li t K-input/multiple-output (MIMO) channels have to b e identified explicitly or implicitly. This paper deals with the blind application in blind channel equalization and sig- nal separation. We first investigate the identifiability

Liu, K. J. Ray

439

A generic input device for the multiple master multiple slave system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing demand for input devices designed for the severely handicapped led to development of modular features for the open architecture multiple master multiple slave (M3S) system. With its central safety monitor, M3S allows individuals suffering from cerebral palsy, paraplegia, or multiple sclerosis, and other physically debilitating illnesses greater autonomy by allowing them to access a wide range of input

Chiun-fan Chen; Yi-chu Chang; Heng-Yin Chen; Jin-shin Lai; Fok-ching Chong

2004-01-01

440

Boredom and Distraction in Multiple Unmanned Boredom and Distraction in Multiple Unmanned Vehicle Supervisory Control  

E-print Network

Boredom and Distraction in Multiple Unmanned 1 Boredom and Distraction in Multiple Unmanned Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA Operators currently controlling Unmanned Aerial Vehicles report operator input every 10, 20, or 30 minutes were tested in a four-hour study using a multiple unmanned

Cummings, Mary "Missy"

441

NEXAFS multiple scattering calculations of KO2.  

PubMed

Since many years the oxidation of alkali metals has being attracted much interest due to the catalytic properties of metal promoters and the simple electronic structure of alkali atoms. The alkali-oxides phase diagram indicates that the interaction of oxygen with alkali metals can lead to the formation of different atomic O2- ions and molecular O2(-) and O(2)2- ions. Potassium superoxide has been prepared in situ and high resolution O k-edge absorption NEXAFS spectra have been measured at the VUV beam-line at ELETTRA facility. The experimental data have been analyzed by multiple scattering approach deriving many geometrical and electronic details. In particular, we have found that the growth material structure is of the KO2 type with an O-O distance of about 1.35A and that the transition involving single pi molecular empty state of the superoxide O2(-) anion has a fine structure. Multiple Scattering self consistent calculation indicates that the bond between oxygen anion and K atom is totally ionic and that the fine structure is essentially due to solid state effects. PMID:11512907

Pedio, M; Wu, Z Y; Benfatto, M; Mascaraque, A; Michel, E; Crotti, C; Peloi, M; Comicioli, C

2001-03-01

442

Insights into the evolution of freshwater sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae: Spongillina): Barcoding and phylogenetic data from Lake Tanganyika endemics indicate multiple invasions and unsettle existing taxonomy.  

PubMed

Sponges are a conspicuous element in many benthic habitats including in Africa's oldest, deepest lake, Lake Tanganyika. Despite their prevalence and pivotal ecological role as filter feeders, knowledge of the evolutionary history of sponges is in its infancy. Here, we provide the first molecular analysis targeting the evolution of sponges from Lake Tanganyika. Independent markers indicate the occurrence of several colonisation events which have shaped the current Tanganyikan lacustrine sponge biodiversity. This is in contrast to a range of previously studied organisms that have diversified within the lake from single lineages. Our tree reconstructions indicate the presence of two genera, Oncosclera and Eunapius, which are globally distributed. Therefore, we reject the hypothesis of monophyly for the sponges from Lake Tanganyika and challenge existing higher taxonomic structure for freshwater sponges. PMID:21669294

Erpenbeck, Dirk; Weier, Tina; de Voogd, Nicole J; Wörheide, Gert; Sutcliffe, Patricia; Todd, Jonathan A; Michel, Ellinor

2011-10-01

443

Inversion of multiple thermal indicators: quantitative methods of determining paleoheat flux and geological parameters. II. Theoretical development for chemical, physical, and geological parameters  

SciTech Connect

Using the logic for quantitative inversion of present-day downhole thermal indicators, the inversion procedure can be used to determine unknown, or poorly known, chemical and physical parameters as well as other geological quantities of interest which impact on burial history and thermal history of an evolving sedimentary basin. Some such quantities are: amount of erosion and timing of unconformities, paleo-overpressuring, stratigraphic age, timing of igneous intrusion and insertion temperature, overthrust timing and frictional heating, fault and slump timing, effect due to emplacement of a radioactive layer, and salt emplacement and dissolution timing. Combining a priori unknown values of these chemical/physical and geological parameters with unknown (a priori) paleoheat flux variations, a theoretical scheme, called thermal indicator tomography, is developed for the systematic determination of all parameters at the same time and on the same footing.

Lerche, I.

1988-02-01

444

Fuel poverty in Scotland: refining spatial resolution in the Scottish Fuel Poverty Indicator using a GIS-based multiple risk index.  

PubMed

Fuel poverty describes a complex interaction between households with low income and energy inefficiency. The Scottish Executive has charged local Scottish authorities with the task of eradicating fuel poverty by 2016. In order to direct investment and tackle fuel poverty, a local authority must know which areas are more likely to contain fuel poor households. Currently, local area fuel poverty indicators, based on small area statistics, are used to identify target areas. This paper proposes an innovative methodology for refinement of the Scottish Fuel Poverty Indicator using GIS as a framework for integrating census data with georeferenced energy efficiency data on local housing stock. This allows a multi-scale mapping of fuel poverty risk at both a census output area level and an individual dwelling level. The proposed methodology highlights small areas, and households, possibly susceptible to fuel poverty previously masked by the aggregation of statistics to large geographic units. PMID:18248843

Morrison, Colin; Shortt, Niamh

2008-12-01

445

Objectively-assessed and self-reported sedentary time in relation to multiple socioeconomic status indicators among adults in England: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the associations between socioeconomic position (SEP) and multidomain self-reported and objectively-assessed sedentary time (ST). Design Cross-sectional. Setting General population households in England. Participants 2289 adults aged 16–96?years who participated in the 2008 Health Survey for England. Outcomes Accelerometer-measured ST, and self-reported television time, non-television leisure-time sitting and occupational sitting/standing. We examined multivariable associations between household income, social class, education, area deprivation for each SEP indicator (including a 5-point composite SEP score computed by aggregating individual SEP indicators) and each ST indicator using generalised linear models. Results Accelerometry-measured total ST and occupational sitting/standing were positively associated with SEP score and most of its constituent SEP indicators, while television time was negatively associated with SEP score and education level. Area-level deprivation was largely unrelated to ST. Those in the lowest composite SEP group spent 64 (95% CIs 52 to 76) and 72 (48 to 98), fewer minutes/day in total ST and occupational sitting/standing compared to those in the top SEP group, and an additional 48 (35–60) min/day watching television (p<0.001 for linear trend). Stratified analyses showed that these associations between composite SEP score and total ST were evident only among participants who were in employment. Conclusions Occupational sitting seems to drive the positive association between SEP and total ST. Lower SEP is linked to higher TV viewing times. PMID:25377012

Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Coombs, Ngaire; Rowlands, Alex; Shelton, Nicola; Hillsdon, Melvyn

2014-01-01

446

P300 Wave Changes in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In patients with multiple sclerosis among other symptoms occur cognitive dysfunctions, which can be shown by P300 wave changes. Goal: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that patients with multiple sclerosis have reduced amplitude and prolonged latency, longer than 300 ± 10 ms. Methods: The study included group of patients with multiple sclerosis and control group. After reviewing the medical records both groups of 14 participants were subjected to the same testing procedures auditory cognitive potentials (P300). Results: We have shown that patients with multiple sclerosis don’t have prolonged P300 target stimulus latency, but they have a longer P300 frequent stimulus latency for 18 ms. From 14 patients seven had a pathological P300 target stimulus amplitude, and even 12 patient had pathological P300 frequent stimulus amplitude. Conclusion: People with multiple sclerosis have altered P300 which indicates the presence of cognitive dysfunction in these patients. PMID:24167393

Ivica, Nikolina; Titlic, Marina; Pavelin, Sanda

2013-01-01

447

A method for extracting burned areas from Landsat TM/ETM+ images by soft aggregation of multiple Spectral Indices and a region growing algorithm  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since fire is a major threat to forests and wooded areas in the Mediterranean environment of Southern Europe, systematic regional fire monitoring is a necessity. Satellite data constitute a unique cost-effective source of information on the occurrence of fire events and on the extent of the area burned. Our objective is to develop a (semi-)automated algorithm for mapping burned areas from medium spatial resolution (30 m) satellite data. In this article we present a multi-criteria approach based on Spectral Indices, soft computing techniques and a region growing algorithm; theoretically this approach relies on the convergence of partial evidence of burning provided by the indices. Our proposal features several innovative aspects: it is flexible in adapting to a variable number of indices and to missing data; it exploits positive and negative evidence (bipolar information) and it offers different criteria for aggregating partial evidence in order to derive the layers of candidate seeds and candidate region growing boundaries. The study was conducted on a set of Landsat TM images, acquired for the year 2003 over Southern Europe and pre-processed with the LEDAPS (Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System) processing chain for deriving surface spectral reflectance ?i in the TM bands. The proposed method was applied to show its flexibility and the sensitivity of the accuracy of the resulting burned area maps to different aggregation criteria and thresholds for seed selection. Validation performed over an entire independent Landsat TM image shows the commission and omission errors to be below 21% and 3%, respectively.

Stroppiana, D.; Bordogna, G.; Carrara, P.; Boschetti, M.; Boschetti, L.; Brivio, P. A.

2012-04-01

448

The relation between inflammation and neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis brains  

PubMed Central

Some recent studies suggest that in progressive multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration may occur independently from inflammation. The aim of our study was to analyse the interdependence of inflammation, neurodegeneration and disease progression in various multiple sclerosis stages in relation to lesional activity and clinical course, with a particular focus on progressive multiple sclerosis. The study is based on detailed quantification of different inflammatory cells in relation to axonal injury in 67 multiple sclerosis autopsies from different disease stages and 28 controls without neurological disease or brain lesions. We found that pronounced inflammation in the brain is not only present in acute and relapsing multiple sclerosis but also in the secondary and primary progressive disease. T- and B-cell infiltrates correlated with the activity of demyelinating lesions, while plasma cell infiltrates were most pronounced in patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) and primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) and even persisted, when T- and B-cell infiltrates declined to levels seen in age matched controls. A highly significant association between inflammation and axonal injury was seen in the global multiple sclerosis population as well as in progressive multiple sclerosis alone. In older patients (median 76 years) with long-disease duration (median 372 months), inflammatory infiltrates declined to levels similar to those found in age-matched controls and the extent of axonal injury, too, was comparable with that in age-matched controls. Ongoing neurodegeneration in these patients, which exceeded the extent found in normal controls, could be attributed to confounding pathologies such as Alzheimer's or vascular disease. Our study suggests a close association between inflammation and neurodegeneration in all lesions and disease stages of multiple sclerosis. It further indicates that the disease processes of multiple sclerosis may die out in aged patients with long-standing disease. PMID:19339255

Frischer, Josa M.; Bramow, Stephan; Dal-Bianco, Assunta; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.; Rauschka, Helmut; Schmidbauer, Manfred; Laursen, Henning; Sorensen, Per Soelberg

2009-01-01

449

Multiple indices of soil nitrogen status and temperature regulate microbial C allocation to CO2, substrate choices, and contributions to SOM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The response of microbial resource demand to many environmental variables, including temperature and natural organic and inorganic N variability, remains poorly understood. Furthermore, we do not understand how these variables can influence CO2 release vs. C retention in cell walls, which as microbial necromass can generate long-lived soil organic matter (SOM). We explore microbial resource demand and C retention vs. release in one temperate forest and two boreal forests along a climate gradient. We characterized SOM C:N and inorganic N, extracellular enzyme activity (E), and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) concentration and ?13C. Experimental warming permitted us to assess how interactions between soil N status and warming influence resource demand and C flows through microbes in the two boreal soils. For all soils, we used ?13C of respired CO2 and ?13CPLFA to generate indices of C allocation to biomass vs. to respiratory costs (?), useful for cross-site comparisons. Decreasing values of ? indicate a greater proportion of 13C-enriched C allocated to respiration relative to PLFA-C; changes in ? with warming or N status thus imply that these variables can influence the physiological mechanisms determining the fate of microbial C after it is imported into the cell. We thus were able to assess the influence of soil N status and warming on substrate decay via E, the fate of microbial C from diverse substrates via ?, and one index of microbial composition relevant to SOM formation [PLFA]. In all soils, E often varied with N status in ways predicted by stoichiometric theory. For example, the ratio of exo-enzymes associated with labile C decay to those linked to organic N decay (EC:N) increased with inorganic N, and EC:N declined as substrate C:N increased. In contrast to measures of decay, all soils exhibited distinct responses of microbial composition and C allocation to N status and warming. In the temperate forest soils, Gram+ bacteria responded positively to organic N availability and Gram- bacteria to inorganic N, while fungi responded positively to declines in both measures of soil N status. In the more northern boreal soils, actinomycete [PLFA] increased with inorganic N, while that of more southern boreal soils increased with substrate C:N; in both boreal soils, Gram+ bacteria increased with temperature. Given that cell walls of these microbes exhibit distinct propensities for forming long-lived SOM, our work illustrates how similar variation in N status and temperature can drive divergent patterns of biomass relevant to SOM formation. Sensitivity of patterns of C allocation to these variables also contrasted between these soils. In the temperate soils, ? did not vary with soil N status nor with E, implying that microbes' C allocation patterns were not driven N status or by the C's organic precursor. In both boreal soils, ? declined with warming, and as EC or EC:N increased. Though N status of the boreal soils drove resource demand similarly as in the temperate forest, the fate of boreal microbial C varied with N status and temperature. Because microbial C substrate use varied with warming in the boreal soils, ? highlights how the fate of microbial C may vary with the identity of its organic precursor, which in turn is influenced by environmental conditions like temperature and soil N status.

Billings, S. A.; Ziegler, S. E.

2012-12-01

450

Multiple-patient simulations: guidelines and examples.  

PubMed

Multiple-patient simulations may be used to promote the development of leadership skills as well as patient care management. Multiple-patient simulations create opportunities that mimic real interactions encountered in clinical practice. In addition to promoting the development of these essential skills among students, these simulations also meet the needs of new graduate nurses. The purpose of this article is to provide educators with guidelines on how to create and implement a multiple-patient simulation and examples for application. PMID:25330269

Horsley, Trisha Leann; Bensfield, Linda A; Sojka, Sandra; Schmitt, Ann

2014-01-01

451

Multiple-fold clustered processor mesh array  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The multiple-fold clustered processor mesh array is a triangular organization of clustered processing elements. This multiple-fold array maintains functional equivalence to the nearest neighbor mesh computer with uni-directional interprocessor communications, but with half the number of connection wires. In addition, the connectivity of the multiple-folded organization is superior to the standard square mesh due to the improved connectivity between the clustered processors. One of the primary application areas targeted is High Performance Architectures for image processing.

Pechanek, Gerald G.; Vassiliadis, Stamatis; Delgado, Jose G.

1993-01-01

452

On the multiple structure of atmospheric vortices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various scales of the multiple-vortex phenomena observed in atmospheric vortices are reviewed and summarized. The nonaxisymmetric feature clearly seen in small-scale vortices such as tornadoes is also recognized in the vortices of tropical cyclones. On the basis of both the physical resemblances and the swirl ratio similarity, this asymmetry in tropical cyclones is concluded to be a manifestation of multiple vortices. It is suggested that the evolution of a vortex from one-cell to two-cell to multiple vortices is a common feature in nature found not only in tornadoes, but also in other kinds of vortices, ranging from dust devils to tropical cyclones.

Mitsuta, Yasushi; Monji, Nobutaka; Ishikawa, Hirohiko

1987-12-01

453

A Multiple Network Approach to Corporate Governance  

E-print Network

In this work, we consider Corporate Governance ties among companies from a multiple network perspective. Such a structurenaturally arises from the close interrelation between the Shareholding Network and the Board of Directors network. Inorder to capture the simultaneous effects on both networks on Corporate Governance, we propose to model the Corporate Governance multiple network structure via tensor analysis. In particular, we consider the TOPHITS model, based on the PARAFAC tensor decomposition, to show that tensor techniques can be successfully applied in this context. After providing some empirical results from the Italian financial market in the univariate case, we will show that a tensor-based multiple network approach can reveal important information.

Bonacina, Fausto; Moretto, Enrico; Stefani, Silvana; Torriero, Anna

2014-01-01

454

Multiple pipelines drilled under flooded Mississippi  

SciTech Connect

The installation of a multiple pipeline crossing of the Mississippi River near Geismer, La. was part of the construction of a products pipeline. Crews worked around-the-clock on pipe pull through a bore under the Mississippi River during major flood conditions to complete the multiple line crossing. Explains that as the water level rose, efforts to raise the access road proved successful, and drilling mud and fuel began arriving and were unloaded on a continuous basis during the pull. Points out that crossing the river with directional drillers was a major achievement and a first for multiple lines in a single hole for such a distance.

O'Donnell, H.W.

1983-05-01

455

Multiple scattering lidar returns from stratus clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Multiple scattering lidar returns from stratus clouds were measured using a multi-field-of-view (MFOV) lidar operating at 1.054 microns. The detector consists of four concentric silicon photodiodes which define half-angle fields of view (FOV) of 3.8, 12.5, 25 and 38.5 mrad. The central FOV receives the conventional lidar signal, while the outer FOV's receive only multiply scattered contributions. The ratios of the signals in the outer FOV's to the signal in the central FOV is an indication of the lateral spreading of the scattered component of the laser pulse as it propagates through the cloud. MFOV lidar returns from stratus clouds measured between October 1991 and March 1992 can be divided into two distinct types, those with large multiple scattering ratios and those with small ratios. An example of each type of return is shown. Both measurements were made at an elevation angle of 45 degrees. Clouds with small multiple scattering signals probably have a high concentration of much larger particles on the order of hundreds of micrometers in size. This is a typical size range for suspended ice crystals or precipitations. Stratus clouds often have a high concentration of ice crystals even when there is no precipitation. Large ice crystals would give smaller signals in the outer FOV's because much of the scattered intensity is contained in a narrow diffraction peak with an angular width on the order of milliradians. The result is that for a given extinction, many more orders of scattering are required for the laser pulse to spread out. So far we have not been able to do simulations of MFOV lidar returns from ice crystal clouds because of uncertainties about the phase function of the crystals, particularly the magnitude of the backscatter peak at 180 degrees. On two occasions, MFOV lidar returns measured just prior to snowfall, showed a striking vertical profile. An example is shown. From 900 to 1300m, the multiply scattered signals are negligible compared to the return in the central FOV. Abruptly, at 1300m strong signals begin in the outer FOVs. These results could be explained by the presence of a cloud layer composed of water droplets at a range of 1300m (or 900m above ground) with snow precipitations forming at the bottom of the cloud. By measuring the polarization ratio of lidar signals, Pal and Carswell have observed snow precipitating from a cloud layer composed of water droplets. Based on these results, we believe that analysis of multiple scattering lidar returns can yield important information on the phase of cloud particles.

Hutt, D. L.; Bissonnette, L. R.

1992-01-01

456

The Multiple Sclerosis Self-Management Scale  

PubMed Central

Background: The Multiple Sclerosis Self-Management Scale (MSSM) is currently the only measure that was developed specifically to address self-management among individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). While good internal consistency (? = 0.85) and construct validity have been demonstrated, other psychometric properties have not been established. This study was undertaken to evaluate the criterion validity, test-retest reliability, and face validity of the MSSM. Methods: Thirty-one individuals with MS who met the inclusion criteria were recruited to complete a series of questionnaires at two time points. At Time 1, participants completed the MSSM and two generic self-management tools—the Partners in Health (PIH-12) and the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ)—as well as a short questionnaire to capture participants' opinions about the MSSM. At Time 2, approximately 2 weeks after Time 1, participants completed the MSSM again. Results: The available MSSM factors showed moderate to high correlations with both PIH-12 and heiQ and were deemed to have satisfactory test-retest reliability. Face validity pointed to areas of the MSSM that need to be revised in future work. As indicated by the participants, some dimensions of MS self-management are missing in the MSSM and some items such as medication are redundant. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for the reliability and validity of the MSSM; however, further changes are required for both researchers and clinicians to use the tool meaningfully in practice. PMID:25061429

Ghahari, Setareh; Khoshbin, Lana S.

2014-01-01

457

Learning multiple routes in homing pigeons  

PubMed Central

The aerial lifestyle of central-place foraging birds allows wide-ranging movements, raising fundamental questions about their remarkable navigation and memory systems. For example, we know that pigeons (Columba livia), long-standing models for avian navigation, rely on individually distinct routes when homing from familiar sites. But it remains unknown how they cope with the task of learning several routes in parallel. Here, we examined how learning multiple routes influences homing in pigeons. We subjected groups of pigeons to different training protocols, defined by the sequence in which they were repeatedly released from three different sites, either sequentially, in rotation or randomly. We observed that pigeons from all groups successfully developed and applied memories of the different release sites (RSs), irrespective of the training protocol, and that learning several routes in parallel did not impair their capacity to quickly improve their homing efficiency over multiple releases. Our data also indicated that they coped with increasing RS uncertainty by adjusting both their initial behaviour upon release and subsequent homing efficiency. The results of our study broaden our understanding of avian route following and open new possibilities for studying learning and memory in free-flying animals. PMID:24718093

Flack, Andrea; Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora

2014-01-01

458

Learning multiple routes in homing pigeons.  

PubMed

The aerial lifestyle of central-place foraging birds allows wide-ranging movements, raising fundamental questions about their remarkable navigation and memory systems. For example, we know that pigeons (Columba livia), long-standing models for avian navigation, rely on individually distinct routes when homing from familiar sites. But it remains unknown how they cope with the task of learning several routes in parallel. Here, we examined how learning multiple routes influences homing in pigeons. We subjected groups of pigeons to different training protocols, defined by the sequence in which they were repeatedly released from three different sites, either sequentially, in rotation or randomly. We observed that pigeons from all groups successfully developed and applied memories of the different release sites (RSs), irrespective of the training protocol, and that learning several routes in parallel did not impair their capacity to quickly improve their homing efficiency over multiple releases. Our data also indicated that they coped with increasing RS uncertainty by adjusting both their initial behaviour upon release and subsequent homing efficiency. The results of our study broaden our understanding of avian route following and open new possibilities for studying learning and memory in free-flying animals. PMID:24718093

Flack, Andrea; Guilford, Tim; Biro, Dora

2014-01-01

459

Multiple operations on the same patient  

PubMed Central

Background: Here, we present to practicing spine surgeons and an even broader professional audience a case in which one spine surgeon, operating in his own outpatient surgery facility, performed a staggering number of procedures or “multiple operations on the same patient” (MOSP). In the vacuum of information regarding the multiply operated patient, the authors are without any guidance or even knowledge as to whether or not MOSP is a complete aberration or occurs with some documentable frequency within the medical/surgical profession. Case Report: The authors report a very extraordinary case of a woman, who, between April 4, 2000, and April 17, 2002, underwent 27 operative procedures on various parts of her spine. Within this same time frame, she additionally had one operation on each shoulder and an arthroscopy of the left knee. Each operation was performed at the same outpatient spine surgery center by the same surgeon and each was accompanied by a full operative report. Conclusions: As there is little information regarding MOSP, future documentation and reports are required so that the extent and degree of MOSP can be better evaluated. Furthermore, it is critical to examine multiple quality concerns, including indications for surgery, examination of patients’ personality traits in order to understand why one individual would subject herself to such a multitude of operations in such a short period of time, and some examination of the surgeon's motivations and practice patterns. PMID:22905330

Cohen, Fred L.; Roberts, Gary W.

2012-01-01

460

Multiple health behaviours: overview and implications  

PubMed Central

Background More remains unknown than known about how to optimize multiple health behaviour change. Methods After reviewing the prevalence and comorbidities among major chronic disease risk behaviours for adults and youth, we consider the origins and applicability of high-risk and population strategies to foster multiple health behaviour change. Results Findings indicate that health risk behaviours are prevalent, increase with age and co-occur as risk behaviour clusters or bundles. Conclusions We conclude that both population and high-risk strategies for health behaviour intervention are warranted, potentially synergistic and need intervention design that accounts for substitute and complementary relationships among bundled health behaviours. To maximize positive public health impact, a pressing need exists for bodies of basic and translational science that explain health behaviour bundling. Also needed is applied science that elucidates the following: (1) the optimal number of behaviours to intervene upon; (2) how target behaviours are best selected (e.g. greatest health impact; patient preference or positive effect on bundled behaviours); (3) whether to increase healthy or decrease unhealthy behaviours; (4) whether to intervene on health behaviours simultaneously or sequentially and (5) how to achieve positive synergies across individual-, group- and population-level intervention approaches. PMID:22363028

Spring, Bonnie; Moller, Arlen C.; Coons, Michael J.

2012-01-01

461

Perceived Multiple Intelligences Among Male and Female Chinese Gifted Students in Hong Kong: The Structure of the Student Multiple Intelligences Profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the structure of perceived multiple intelligences of 1,464 Chinese gifted students using the Student Multiple Intelligences Profile. To evaluate whether perceived multiple intelligences could be applied adequately across boys and girls, a model hypothesizing different degrees of equivalence across the two gender groups was tested using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. The results indicated that the structure of

David W. Chan

2006-01-01

462

A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Relating Multiple SNPs within Multiple Genes to Disease Risk  

PubMed Central

A variety of methods have been proposed for studying the association of multiple genes thought to be involved in a common pathway for a particular disease. Here, we present an extension of a Bayesian hierarchical modeling strategy that allows for multiple SNPs within each gene, with external prior information at either the SNP or gene level. The model involves variable selection at the SNP level through latent indicator variables and Bayesian shrinkage at the gene level towards a prior mean vector and covariance matrix that depend on external information. The entire model is fitted using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Simulation studies show that the approach is capable of recovering many of the truly causal SNPs and genes, depending upon their frequency and size of their effects. The method is applied to data on 504?SNPs in 38 candidate genes involved in DNA damage response in the WECARE study of second breast cancers in relation to radiotherapy exposure. PMID:24490143

Duan, Lewei; Thomas, Duncan C.

2013-01-01

463

Detection and location of multiple events by MARS. Final report. [Multiple Arrival Recognition System  

SciTech Connect

Seismic data from two explosions was processed using the Systems Science and Software MARS (Multiple Arrival Recognition System) seismic event detector in an effort to determine their relative spatial and temporal separation on the basis of seismic data alone. The explosions were less than 1.0 kilometer apart and were separated by less than 0.5 sec in origin times. The seismic data consisted of nine local accelerograms (r < 1.0 km) and four regional (240 through 400 km) seismograms. The MARS processing clearly indicates the presence of multiple explosions, but the restricted frequency range of the data inhibits accurate time picks and hence limits the precision of the event location.

Wang, J.; Masso, J.F.; Archambeau, C.B.; Savino, J.M.

1980-09-01

464

What Happens After Treatment for Multiple Myeloma?  

MedlinePLUS

... Article Close Push escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Multiple Myeloma + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » After Treatment TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » What ...

465

Stereotactic radiosurgery for multiple brain metastases.  

PubMed

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) alone has become one of the treatment options for patients with 1-4 metastases as the detrimental effects of whole brain radiation therapy on neurocognition and quality of life are becoming well known. Multiple randomized control trials also failed to show overall survival benefit of adding whole brain radiation therapy to SRS. However, the role of SRS in multiple brain metastases, especially those with ?4 tumors, remains controversial. The literature is emerging, and the limited evidence suggests that the local control benefit is independent of the number of metastases, and that patients with more than four brain metastases have similar overall survival compared to those with 2-4 tumors. This review aims at summarizing the current evidence of SRS for multiple brain metastases, divided into limited (2-3) and multiple (?4) lesions. It also reviews the technical aspects and cost-effectiveness of SRS. PMID:25034143

Lam, Tai-Chung; Sahgal, Arjun; Chang, Eric L; Lo, Simon S

2014-10-01

466

Mindboggle: Automated brain labeling with multiple atlases  

E-print Network

Background: To make inferences about brain structures or activity across multiple individuals, one first needs to determine the structural correspondences across their image data. We have recently developed Mindboggle as ...

Klein, Arno

467

Oil Spills - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Oil Spills - Multiple Languages Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Khmer (Khmer) Laotian ( ... Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Tips for Coping with the Oil Spill Disaster -- Managing Your Stress English Konsèy pou Siviv ...

468

Multiple-quanta vortices at columnar defects  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of the formation of multiple-quanta vortices on columnar defects (CD's) produced by ion irradiation is discussed. It is shown that the upper-critical field for localized superconductivity near CD's depends nonmonotonously on the CD radius.

Buzdin, A.I. (Material Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States))

1993-05-01

469

7 CFR 783.8 - Multiple benefits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... § 783.8 Multiple benefits. Persons may not receive or retain payments for production losses from trees, vines and bushes under this part if they have been compensated under another program for the same loss. However, this restriction does not...

2010-01-01

470

New Drugs for Multiple Myeloma Consolidation Therapy  

Cancer.gov

In this trial, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients who have undergone induction therapy will be treated with consolidation therapy consisting of dexamethasone and the drug bortezomib, and some will also be randomly assigned to receive a third drug called lenalidomide.

471

Earthquakes - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Earthquakes - Multiple Languages Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Spanish (español) Haitian ... Kreyol) Parent Guidelines for Helping Children After an Earthquake English Konsèy pou paran ka ede timoun yo ...

472

Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Breathing Problems - Multiple Languages French (français) Hindi (??????) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian ( ... Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (??????????) French (français) Incentive Spirometer Spiromètre incitatif - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

473

Brain Diseases - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... please enable JavaScript. Brain Diseases - Multiple Languages French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) Russian (???????) Somali (af Soomaali) Spanish (español) Ukrainian (??????????) French (français) Brain Scan Scintigraphie cérébrale - français (French) Bilingual PDF ...

474

Brain Cancer - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Brain Cancer - Multiple Languages French (français) Japanese (???) Korean (???) ... Information Translations Return to top Somali (af Soomaali) Brain Scan Sawiridda ... Cáncer de cerebro Return to top Ukrainian (??????????) Brain ...

475

Improving the quality of multiple sequence alignment  

E-print Network

Multiple sequence alignment is an important bioinformatics problem, with applications in diverse types of biological analysis, such as structure prediction, phylogenetic analysis and critical sites identification. In recent years, the quality...

Lu, Yue