Science.gov

Sample records for multiple microprocessor system

  1. Microprocessor controlled portable TLD system.

    PubMed

    Apathy, I; Deme, S; Feher, I

    1996-01-01

    An up-to-date microprocessor controlled thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system for environmental and space dose measurements has been developed. The earlier version of the portable TLD system, Pille, was successfully used on Soviet orbital stations as well as on the US Space Shuttle, and for environmental monitoring. The new portable TLD system, Pille'95, consists of a reader and TL bulb dosemeters, and each dosemeter is provided with an EEPROM chip for automatic identification. The glow curve data are digitised and analysed by the program of the reader. The measured data and the identification number appear on the LED display of the reader. Up to several thousand measured data together with the glow curves can be stored on a removable flash memory card. The whole system is supplied either from built-in rechargeable batteries or from the mains of the space station. PMID:11540052

  2. Microprocessor controlled portable TLD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apathy, I.; Deme, S.; Feher, I.

    1996-01-01

    An up-to-date microprocessor controlled thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) system for environmental and space dose measurements has been developed. The earlier version of the portable TLD system, Pille, was successfully used on Soviet orbital stations as well as on the US Space Shuttle, and for environmental monitoring. The new portable TLD system, Pille'95, consists of a reader and TL bulb dosemeters, and each dosemeter is provided with an EEPROM chip for automatic identification. The glow curve data are digitised and analysed by the program of the reader. The measured data and the identification number appear on the LED display of the reader. Up to several thousand measured data together with the glow curves can be stored on a removable flash memory card. The whole system is supplied either from built-in rechargeable batteries or from the mains of the space station.

  3. SEU induced errors observed in microprocessor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Asenek, V.; Underwood, C.; Oldfield, M.; Velazco, R.; Rezgui, S.; Cheynet, P.; Ecoffet, R.

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, the authors present software tools for predicting the rate and nature of observable SEU induced errors in microprocessor systems. These tools are built around a commercial microprocessor simulator and are used to analyze real satellite application systems. Results obtained from simulating the nature of SEU induced errors are shown to correlate with ground-based radiation test data.

  4. A MICROPROCESSOR ASCII CHARACTER BUFFERING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A microprocessor buffering system (MBS) was developed at the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory -Cincinnati (EMSL-CI) to provide an efficient transfer for serial ASCII information between intelligent instrument systema and a Data General NOVA laboratory automation co...

  5. Microprocessor controlled advanced battery management systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, W. T.

    1978-01-01

    The advanced battery management system described uses the capabilities of an on-board microprocessor to: (1) monitor the state of the battery on a cell by cell basis; (2) compute the state of charge of each cell; (3) protect each cell from reversal; (4) prevent overcharge on each individual cell; and (5) control dual rate reconditioning to zero volts per cell.

  6. A microprocessor controlled pressure scanning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    A microprocessor-based controller and data logger for pressure scanning systems is described. The microcomputer positions and manages data from as many as four 48-port electro-mechanical pressure scanners. The maximum scanning rate is 80 pressure measurements per second (20 ports per second on each of four scanners). The system features on-line calibration, position-directed data storage, and once-per-scan display in engineering units of data from a selected port. The system is designed to be interfaced to a facility computer through a shared memory. System hardware and software are described. Factors affecting measurement error in this type of system are also discussed.

  7. Microprocessor-based cardiopulmonary monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The system uses a dedicated microprocessor for transducer control and data acquisition and analysis. No data will be stored in this system, but the data will be transmitted to the onboard data system. The data system will require approximately 12 inches of rack space and will consume only 100 watts of power. An experiment specific control panel, through a series of lighted buttons, will guide the operator through the test series providing a smaller margin of error. The experimental validity of the system was verified, and the reproducibility of data and reliability of the system checked. In addition, ease of training, ease of operator interaction, and crew acceptance were evaluated in actual flight conditions.

  8. Data transmission system with distributed microprocessors

    DOEpatents

    Nambu, Shigeo

    1985-01-01

    A data transmission system having a common request line and a special request line in addition to a transmission line. The special request line has priority over the common request line. A plurality of node stations are multi-drop connected to the transmission line. Among the node stations, a supervising station is connected to the special request line and takes precedence over other slave stations to become a master station. The master station collects data from the slave stations. The station connected to the common request line can assign a master control function to any station requesting to be assigned the master control function within a short period of time. Each station has an auto response control circuit. The master station automatically collects data by the auto response controlling circuit independently of the microprocessors of the slave stations.

  9. Modular, Microprocessor-Controlled Flash Lighting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiefer, Dwayne; Gray, Elizabeth; Skupinski, Robert; Stachowicz, Arthur; Birchenough, William

    2006-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled lighting system generates brief, precisely timed, high-intensity flashes of light for scientific imaging at frame rates up to about 1 kHz. The system includes an array of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that are driven in synchronism with an externally generated timing signal (for example, a timing signal generated by a video camera). The light output can be varied in peak intensity, pulse duration, pulse delay, and pulse rate, all depending on the timing signal and associated externally generated control signals. The array of LEDs comprises as many as 16 LED panels that can be attached together. Each LED panel is a module consisting of a rectangular subarray of 10 by 20 LEDs of advanced design on a printed-circuit board in a mounting frame with a power/control connector. The LED panels are controlled by an LED control module that contains an AC-to-DC power supply, a control board, and 8 LED-panel driver boards. In prior LED panels, the LEDs are packaged at less than maximum areal densities in bulky metal housings that reduce effective active areas. In contrast, in the present LED panels, the LEDs are packed at maximum areal density so as to afford 100-percent active area and so that when panels are joined side by side to form the array, there are no visible seams between them and the proportion of active area is still 100 percent. Each panel produces an illuminance of .5 x 10( exp 4) lux at a distance of 5.8 in. (approx.1.6 cm). The LEDs are driven according to a pulse-width-modulation control scheme that makes it safe to drive the LEDs beyond their rated steady-state currents in order to generate additional light during short periods. The drive current and the pulse-width modulation for each LED panel can be controlled independently of those of the other 15 panels. The maximum allowable duration of each pulse of drive current is a function of the amount of overdrive, the total time to be spent in overdrive operation, and the limitations

  10. Microprocessor based 32 channel PCM telemetry system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, N. N.

    1987-08-01

    The details of a 32 channel PCM telemetry system developed to acquire data from flight experiments conducted on Pushpak aircraft and to be conducted on LCRA aircraft are presented. The system is designed using Intel 8085A central processing unit with its associated peripherals like 8255, 8251 and 8155. The system can be programmed to handle up to 32 channels of analog data. The bit rate can also be varied up to 56 Kilobits/sec.

  11. Microprocessor systems for industrial process control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, F. H.

    1980-01-01

    Six computers operate synchronously and are interconnected by three independent data buses. Processors control one subsystem. Some can control buses to transfer data at 1 megabit per second. Every 2.5 msec each processor examines list of things to do during next interval. This spacecraft control system could be adapted for controlling complex industrial processes.

  12. Human supervision and microprocessor control of an optical tracking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigley, W. J.; Vandenberg, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Gunners using small calibre anti-aircraft systems have not been able to track high-speed air targets effectively. Substantial improvement in the accuracy of surface fire against attacking aircraft has been realized through the design of a director-type weapon control system. This system concept frees the gunner to exercise a supervisory/monitoring role while the computer takes over continuous target tracking. This change capitalizes on a key consideration of human factors engineering while increasing system accuracy. The advanced system design, which uses distributed microprocessor control, is discussed at the block diagram level and is contrasted with the previous implementation.

  13. Feasibility study of a microprocessor based oculometer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varanasi, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The elimination of redundancy in data to maximize processing speed and minimize storage requirements were objectives in a feasibility study of a microprocessor based oculometer system that would be portable in size and flexible in use. The appropriate architectural design of the signal processor, improved optics, and the reduction of size, weight, and power to the system were investigated. A flow chart is presented showing the strategy of the design. The simulation for developing microroutines for the high speed algorithmic processor subsystem is discussed as well as the Karhunen-Loeve transform technique for data compression.

  14. Security policy concepts for microprocessor-based systems

    SciTech Connect

    Axline, R.M. Jr.; Ormesher, R.C.

    1989-03-01

    This report presents security policies for microprocessor-based systems and gives an example of how to enforce these policies, using an independent, hardware-based monitor, in a hypothetical single-processor system. The purpose of these policies is to detect erroneous behavior of the microprocessor system and to guarantee that accesses (read, write, or execute), by executable procedures,to the various system resources (other procedure, data areas, and peripheral ports) are in accordance with rules that are defined precisely and completely. We present the main result of our research as a ''Second-Order Security Policy'', which describes a segmentation of system resources into a number of ''Blocks'' and defines access rights of each ''Process Block'' to all Blocks in the system. The hardware-monitor example is a conceptual design of an independent monitor that we believe can be built to enforce the second-order policy in real time. This approach will be effective in preventing erroneous accesses to data structures and peripherals and in detecting errors in the transfer of program control from Block to Block. 9 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Microprocessor tester for the treat upgrade reactor trip system

    SciTech Connect

    Lenkszus, F.R.; Bucher, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    The upgrading of the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) Facility at ANL-Idaho has been designed to provide additional experimental capabilities for the study of core disruptive accident (CDA) phenomena. In addition, a programmable Automated Reactor Control System (ARCS) will permit high-power transients up to 11,000 MW having a controlled reactor period of from 15 to 0.1 sec. These modifications to the core neutronics will improve simulation of LMFBR accident conditions. Finally, a sophisticated, multiply-redundant safety system, the Reactor Trip System (RTS), will provide safe operation for both steady state and transient production operating modes. To insure that this complex safety system is functioning properly, a Dedicated Microprocessor Tester (DMT) has been implemented to perform a thorough checkout of the RTS prior to all TREAT operations.

  16. Microprocessor systems for self-control of vital bodily functions.

    PubMed

    Yumatov, E A

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a fundamentally novel approach to an urgent medico-social problem of providing the timely medical care. To maintain people's health and life in their everyday activities, a new concept of the medical instrument-making industry was put forward. This concept was developed in terms of the theory of functional systems, which revealed the universal rules of self-regulation of bodily functions. The practical realization of the above-mentioned concept involved the construction, patenting, and production of a number of original devices capable of warning the patient about disorders in basic bodily functions. These devices included a Heart Protection System, a Stress Doser, a Physiological Clock, a Ration Controller, and a Mother-Fetus Controller. They can all be regarded as informational household microprocessor-based instruments of the 21st century. PMID:11211990

  17. Microprocessor-based control of the photovoltaic solar power system for an AM radio station

    SciTech Connect

    Much, C. H.; Rothenheber, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor-based controller for a 15 kW photovoltaic power system powering an AM radio station keeps dc bus voltage between desired limits, governs battery operation, monitors safety conditions, and provides status reporting. The microprocessor also facilitates complicated algorithms that improve performance. The first three months of system operation are presented.

  18. A multi-microprocessor system for finite element structural analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, H. F.; Sawyer, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    During the last few years, advances in microprocessor technology have spurred a renewed interest in special-purpose computers. The microprocessor has become small, inexpensive, and powerful enough to be considered as a building block for special-purpose hardware. A description is presented of the architecture of a prototype 'finite element machine' currently being built. Attention is given to details regarding the finite element analysis problem, the arrangement of the processors as finite element nodes in the structural model, the influence of the architecture on the solution algorithm, interprocessor communication primitives, and the performance of the finite element machine.

  19. APPLICATION OF PORTABLE MICROPROCESSOR-BASED SYSTEM FOR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL FIELD TESTING OF NEUROTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A portable microprocessor-based system designated PEARL II has been developed for neurotoxicity testing in human populations. PEARL II provides a flexible and powerful data acquisition capability to record sensory evoked potentials (auditory, visual and somotosensory), event-rela...

  20. Orbit determination software development for microprocessor based systems: Evaluation and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenitz, C. M.; Mcgarry, F. E.; Tasaki, K. K.

    1980-01-01

    A guide is presented for National Aeronautics and Space Administration management personnel who stand to benefit from the lessons learned in developing microprocessor-based flight dynamics software systems. The essential functional characteristics of microprocessors are presented. The relevant areas of system support software are examined, as are the distinguishing characteristics of flight dynamics software. Design examples are provided to illustrate the major points presented, and actual development experience obtained in this area is provided as evidence to support the conclusions reached.

  1. Loran-C digital word generator for use with a KIM-1 microprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickum, J. D.

    1977-01-01

    The problem of translating the time of occurrence of received Loran-C pulses into a time, referenced to a particular period of occurrence is addressed and applied to the design of a digital word generator for a Loran-C sensor processor package. The digital information from this word generator is processed in a KIM-1 microprocessor system which is based on the MOS 6502 CPU. This final system will consist of a complete time difference sensor processor for determining position information using Loran-C charts. The system consists of the KIM-1 microprocessor module, a 4K RAM memory board, a user interface, and the Loran-C word generator.

  2. Measuring barometric pressure with a manifold pressure sensor in a microprocessor based engine control system

    SciTech Connect

    Pauwels, M.A.; Wright, D.O.

    1986-07-15

    A microprocessor based electronic engine control system is described for an internal combustion engine, a method for updating the stored ambient pressure signal by measuring the ambient barometric pressure during engine operation using a manifold pressure sensor. The method consists of: generating timing signals indicating the rotational position of an engine member and including a signal indicating a predetermined rotational position in the rotation of the engine member; generating a pressure signal from the manifold pressure sensor representing the pressure surrounding the sensor in response to the predetermined rotational position; reading the value of ambient barometric pressure stored in the memory of the microprocessor; comparing the value of the barometric pressure stored in the memory of the microprocessor and the value of the pressure signal; increasing the value of the barometric pressure by one unit to generate a new barometric pressure value when the value of the pressure signal is greater than the value of the barometric pressure; comparing the new barometric pressure value with a predetermined fixed constant representing the maximum barometric pressure; and storing in the memory of the microprocessor either the new barometric pressure value if equal to or less than the fixed constant or the value of the maximum barometric pressure if the new barometric pressure value is greater than the fixed constant.

  3. Non Radiation Hardened Microprocessors in Spaced Based Remote Sensing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decoursey, Robert J.; Estes, Robert F.; Melton, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    The CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) mission is a comprehensive suite of active and passive sensors including a 20Hz 230mj Nd:YAG lidar, a visible wavelength Earth-looking camera and an imaging infrared radiometer. CALIPSO flies in formation with the Earth Observing System Post-Meridian (EOS PM) train, provides continuous, near-simultaneous measurements and is a planned 3 year mission. CALIPSO was launched into a 98 degree sun synchronous Earth orbit in April of 2006 to study clouds and aerosols and acquires over 5 gigabytes of data every 24 hours. The ground track of one CALIPSO orbit as well as high and low intensity South Atlantic Anomaly outlines is shown. CALIPSO passes through the SAA several times each day. Spaced based remote sensing systems that include multiple instruments and/or instruments such as lidar generate large volumes of data and require robust real-time hardware and software mechanisms and high throughput processors. Due to onboard storage restrictions and telemetry downlink limitations these systems must pre-process and reduce the data before sending it to the ground. This onboard processing and realtime requirement load may mean that newer more powerful processors are needed even though acceptable radiation-hardened versions have not yet been released. CALIPSO's single board computer payload controller processor is actually a set of four (4) voting non-radiation hardened COTS Power PC 603r's built on a single width VME card by General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems (GDAIS). Significant radiation concerns for CALIPSO and other Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites include the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), the north and south poles and strong solar events. Over much of South America and extending into the South Atlantic Ocean the Van Allen radiation belts dip to just 200-800km and spacecraft entering this area are subjected to high energy protons and experience higher than normal Single Event Upset

  4. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) color displays software description microprocessor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Plyler, Valerie E.; Dickson, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the software created for the Sperry Microprocessor Color Display System used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV). The software delivery known as the 'baseline display system', is the one described in this document. Throughout this publication, module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes procedures and common variables referenced by a particular module. The system described supports the Research Flight Deck (RFD) of the TSRV. The RFD contains eight cathode ray tubes (CRTs) which depict a Primary Flight Display, Navigation Display, System Warning Display, Takeoff Performance Monitoring System Display, and Engine Display.

  5. A microprocessor-based position control system for a telescope secondary mirror

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorell, K. R.; Barrows, W. F.; Clappier, R. R.; Lee, G. K.

    1983-01-01

    The pointing requirements for the Shuttle IR Telescope Facility (SIRTF), which consists of an 0.85-m cryogenically cooled IR telescope, call for an image stability of 0.25 arcsec. Attention is presently given to a microprocessor-based position control system developed for the control of the SIRTF secondary mirror, employing a special control law (to minimize energy dissipation), a precision capacitive position sensor, and a specially designed power amplifier/actuator combination. The microprocessor generates the command angular position and rate waveforms in order to maintain a 90 percent dwell time/10 percent transition time ratio independently of chop frequency or amplitude. Performance and test results of a prototype system designed for use with a demonstration model of the SIRTF focal plane fine guidance sensor are presented.

  6. The use of commercial, distributed microprocessor control systems in the modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR)

    SciTech Connect

    Klapka, R.E.; Zgliczynski, J.B. ); Knobel, P.E. )

    1991-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to summarize how the inherent safety characteristics and simplified design features of the MHTGR enable the use of modern, commercially proven distributed microprocessor control systems to automatically control the MHTGR plant.

  7. Evaluation of the IMP-16 microprocessor orbit determination system filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenitz, C. M.; Tasaki, K. K.

    1979-01-01

    The results of the numerical tests performed in evaluating the interplanetary monitoring platform-16 orbit determination system are presented. The system is capable of performing orbit determination from satellite to satellite tracking data in applications technology satellite range and range rate format. The estimation scheme used is a Kalman filter, sequential (recursive) estimator. Descriptions of the tests performed and tabulations of the numerical results are included.

  8. Microprocessors in fluid power engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Microprocessors and digital electronics may well take over most control functions in engineering and will also open up many new possibilities. This IMechE conference provided a forum of engineers to discuss the state of the technology. Subjects covered include: analogue valves and hydraulic controls; transducers; use of microprocessors in off-line processing activities; and the use of microprocessors in closed loop processing. Papers include a review of the application of microprocessors to electrohydraulic control systems; test rig control; a low cost microprocessor to fluid power interface valve; micro-electronics in flowmeters and other transducers; on-line monitoring of mining hydraulic systems; and computer controlled pneumatic servo drives.

  9. A distributed microprocessor system for spacecraft control and data handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennels, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The specific requirements for spacecraft computing systems are considered. These requirements are partly related to the constraints of limited resources of power, weight, and volume. Another important factor is the requirement of extremely high reliability. These reliability requirements have led to introduction of automated redundancy techniques on board the spacecraft. The various redundant computers check each other and provide recovery procedures when a computer is found to have failed. Past and future capabilities are considered along with distributed processing requirements. System considerations are discussed, taking into account suboptimum computer throughput, sensitivity to software modifications, hierarchic timing, I/O granularity, restricted communications, synchronous functions, hierarchic control, and concurrent error detection. A description is presented of the Unified Data System (UDS), which consists of a set of standard microcomputers connected by several buses. Attention is also given to synchronization and timing, the executive control structure, the programming language, and the executive program.

  10. Microprocessor-controlled tester for evaluation of the Self-Energized Credential System (SECS)

    SciTech Connect

    Corlis, N.E.

    1980-03-01

    The Self-Energized Credential System (SECS) was developed for use in the Plutonium Protection System (PPS) installed at Hanford, Washington. Evaluation and development of the SECS system was enhanced by the use of a microprocessor-controlled portal tester. This tester used infrared (ir) beam sensors to provide information on the direction of travel of the credential wearer and to detect inoperative credentials. A printed record of the portal number, actual code read, time, and direction of the credential passage provided information essential to an assessment of the operability of the SECS.

  11. Development of a microprocessor controller for stand-alone photovoltaic power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millner, A. R.; Kaufman, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    A controller for stand-alone photovoltaic systems has been developed using a low power CMOS microprocessor. It performs battery state of charge estimation, array control, load management, instrumentation, automatic testing, and communications functions. Array control options are sequential subarray switching and maximum power control. A calculator keypad and LCD display provides manual control, fault diagnosis and digital multimeter functions. An RS-232 port provides data logging or remote control capability. A prototype 5 kW unit has been built and tested successfully. The controller is expected to be useful in village photovoltaic power systems, large solar water pumping installations, and other battery management applications.

  12. Microprocessor control system for 200-kilowatt Mod-OA wind turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyland, T. W.; Birchenough, A. G.

    1982-01-01

    The microprocessor system and program used to control the operation of the 200-kW Mod-OA wind turbines is described. The system is programmed to begin startup and shutdown sequences automatically and to control yaw motion. Rotor speed and power output are controlled with integral and proportional control of the blade pitch angle. Included in the report are a description of the hardware and a discussion of the software programming technique. A listing of the PL/M software program is given.

  13. Microprocessor-based, solar-cell-parameter measurement system. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Oxborrow, R.R.

    1988-06-01

    The effects of the space environment on solar cells has, to date, been largely modeled and approximated in the design of solar arrays. Restrictions such as weight and cost have precluded direct analysis of the long-term effects of radiation in space. At the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), a simple circuit has been devised that facilitates in-situ data collection and analysis of these effects. The circuit includes an op-amp and a high-beta transistor for cell voltage biasing. When coupled to a microprocessor-based controller system, this circuit has the capability to measure and store data pertaining to solar-cell performance I-V curves. The complete system consists of an NSC 800 microprocessor, D/A and A/D components, analog multiplexers and demultiplexers, biasing transistors and op-amps. This design provides a compact, low power, accurate method for I-V measurement and data storage. Such a system may be used to observe and monitor an array of test cells and their performance degradation in both the space environment and terrestrial applications.

  14. Briefing: Microprocessors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Roy A.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the basic concepts and technology behind the functions computers perform, describes the miniaturization of computer components, discusses the development of the microprocessor and the microcomputer, and makes projections concerning the future of the microcomputer market. Information is provided on the features, costs, and manufacturers of…

  15. System and method for leveraging human physiological traits to control microprocessor frequency

    DOEpatents

    Shye, Alex; Pan, Yan; Scholbrock, Benjamin; Miller, J. Scott; Memik, Gokhan; Dinda, Peter A; Dick, Robert P

    2014-03-25

    A system and method for leveraging physiological traits to control microprocessor frequency are disclosed. In some embodiments, the system and method may optimize, for example, a particular processor-based architecture based on, for example, end user satisfaction. In some embodiments, the system and method may determine, for example, whether their users are satisfied to provide higher efficiency, improved reliability, reduced power consumption, increased security, and a better user experience. The system and method may use, for example, biometric input devices to provide information about a user's physiological traits to a computer system. Biometric input devices may include, for example, one or more of the following: an eye tracker, a galvanic skin response sensor, and/or a force sensor.

  16. Design and implementation of a microprocessor controlled integrated voice communications system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. J.; Moore, T. R.

    The effects of implementation of microprocessors and LSI circuits to produce a new generation of integrated voice communications systems (IVCS) are explored. The IVCS includes a headset as a loudspeaker and function keys for communications over various facilities. The design concept integrates radio and telephone communications channels, push button circuit selection, push-to-talk switches, a loudspeaker in the console, and intercom dialing capability. No single component failure is permitted to make the entire system inoperative, and hard-wiring is eliminated. Additionally, rewiring is ameliorated by the flexible nature of LSI. Block diagrams are provided for the circuitry of the system, which is intended for use in ATC, air defense networks, C3 applications, public safety, police and fire systems, and corporate communications.

  17. Microprocessor-based interface for oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    Ocean floor imaging system incorporates five identical microprocessor-based interface units each assigned to specific sonar instrument to simplify system. Central control module based on same microprocessor eliminates need for custom tailoring hardware interfaces for each instrument.

  18. A microprocessor based anti-aliasing filter for a PCM system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, D. C.; Sandlin, D. R.

    1984-01-01

    Described is the design and evaluation of a microprocessor based digital filter. The filter was made to investigate the feasibility of a digital replacement for the analog pre-sampling filters used in telemetry systems at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (DFRF). The digital filter will utilize an Intel 2920 Analog Signal Processor (ASP) chip. Testing includes measurements of: (1) the filter frequency response and, (2) the filter signal resolution. The evaluation of the digital filter was made on the basis of circuit size, projected environmental stability and filter resolution. The 2920 based digital filter was found to meet or exceed the pre-sampling filter specifications for limited signal resolution applications.

  19. Microprocessor based control for wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Absi, M.; Dodd, C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper will discuss the design of a microprocessor based control system for a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT). A control philosophy is developed and the reasons for a microprocessor control are discussed. 5 refs.

  20. Microprocessor control of a wind turbine generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnecco, A. J.; Whitehead, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    A microprocessor based system was used to control the unattended operation of a wind turbine generator. The turbine and its microcomputer system are fully described with special emphasis on the wide variety of tasks performed by the microprocessor for the safe and efficient operation of the turbine. The flexibility, cost and reliability of the microprocessor were major factors in its selection.

  1. MICROPROCESSOR-BASED DATA-ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR A BOREHOLE RADAR.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Jerry A.; Wright, David L.

    1987-01-01

    An efficient microprocessor-based system is described that permits real-time acquisition, stacking, and digital recording of data generated by a borehole radar system. Although the system digitizes, stacks, and records independently of a computer, it is interfaced to a desktop computer for program control over system parameters such as sampling interval, number of samples, number of times the data are stacked prior to recording on nine-track tape, and for graphics display of the digitized data. The data can be transferred to the desktop computer during recording, or it can be played back from a tape at a latter time. Using the desktop computer, the operator observes results while recording data and generates hard-copy graphics in the field. Thus, the radar operator can immediately evaluate the quality of data being obtained, modify system parameters, study the radar logs before leaving the field, and rerun borehole logs if necessary. The system has proven to be reliable in the field and has increased productivity both in the field and in the laboratory.

  2. Digital multiplexing of analog data in a microprocessor controlled data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to explore the ramifications of doing the multiplexing function in the digital domain and of using the microprocessor to replace the hardwired control logic which resides in the typical analog to digital converter. Two types of conversion (one working in parallel inputs, and one in sequential order) strategies are discussed where the microprocessor is in full control of the conversion. One advantage of using a digital multiplexor is that, contrary to an analog multiplexor, it does not degrade the fidelity of the conversion process.

  3. Devices and systems-on-chip for photonic communication links in a microprocessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Mark T.

    For the first time, high-performance photonic devices and electronic-photonic systems-on-chip are monolithically integrated in an advanced CMOS microelectronics fabrication process. This includes a silicon optical resonator termed the "spoked-ring" cavity that meets the constraints of thin-SOI microelectronics CMOS processes and enables energy efficient modulators and thermally tunable filters. For low-loss fiber-to-chip optical coupling, a phased-array antenna concept is demonstrated, and the 45 nm CMOS microelectronics process is shown to support a near ideal implementation of the device using the crystalline silicon and polysilicon material layers that comprise the active region and gate, respectively, of the native MOSFET transistors. The active devices and vertical grating couplers are implemented in large-scale electronic-photonic systems-on-chip to demonstrate a wavelength stabilized, microring-based chip-to-chip communications link and an 11-channel wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) transmitter. The link is shown to be robust against thermal environmental variations which is critical for operation in realistic systems. The chip-to-chip link is then used to demonstrate a CPU-to-memory communication link, the first demonstration of its kind. The first microprocessor with photonic I/O is demonstrated as part of this work, with substantial implications for computer architecture. Advanced photonic device technology demonstrations, including photonic crystals, a quantum-correlated photon-pair source, an active photonic device platform in a 32 nm SOI node, and a 180 nm bulk silicon process, are presented to show the wide range of applications that monolithic integration could support in the future of photonics. These results taken together show that monolithic integration directly into CMOS microelectronics processes does allow high performance photonics, and is a viable approach to build large-scale electronic-photonic systems with a realistic path to

  4. Analysis of the Intel 386 and i486 microprocessors for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility is analyzed of upgrading the Intel 386 microprocessor, which has been proposed as the baseline processor for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS), to the more advanced i486 microprocessors. The items compared between the two processors include the instruction set architecture, power consumption, the MIL-STD-883C Class S (Space) qualification schedule, and performance. The advantages of the i486 over the 386 are (1) lower power consumption; and (2) higher floating point performance. The i486 on-chip cache does not have parity check or error detection and correction circuitry. The i486 with on-chip cache disabled, however, has lower integer performance than the 386 without cache, which is the current DMS design choice. Adding cache to the 386/386 DX memory hierachy appears to be the most beneficial change to the current DMS design at this time.

  5. Analysis of the Intel 386 and i486 microprocessors for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility is analyzed of upgrading the Intel 386 microprocessor, which has been proposed as the baseline processor for the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Data Management System (DMS), to the more advanced i486 microprocessors. The items compared between the two processors include the instruction set architecture, power consumption, the MIL-STD-883C Class S (Space) qualification schedule, and performance. The advantages of the i486 over the 386 are (1) lower power consumption; and (2) higher floating point performance. The i486 on-chip cache does not have parity check or error detection and correction circuitry. The i486 with on-chip cache disabled, however, has lower integer performance than the 386 without cache, which is the current DMS design choice. Adding cache to the 386/387 DX memory hierarchy appears to be the most beneficial change to the current DMS design at this time.

  6. Performance of microprocessor controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, R.S.; Turner, L.W.; Overhults, D.G. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    United States animal production systems are at the threshold of a major new method for daily management of environmental control -- the integrated microprocessor-based environmental control system. Widespread adoption of this technology has the potential for dramatic improvement in production efficiencies through lower management costs, improved energy savings, and better feed conversion efficiencies. However, the technical problems of transient surge protection and appropriate mechanical backup systems have not been adequately addressed by the industry. The goals of this research were to identify the degree to which transient surge protection was being provided by current manufacturers, and to illustrate the implementation of microprocessor environmental control systems with mechanical backup. Transient open circuit over-voltage tests (ANSI/IEEE C62.41-1980) were performed on 16 environmental control units: a maximum of 800 V spike was applied to the power supplies, and up to 100 V spike applied to temperature sensor lines. Under these relatively mild tests, no failures were noted due to power supply transients, but three units failed when subjected to transients on their temperature sensor lines. Mechanical backup systems were designed to provide essential life-support during critical conditions of extreme outside conditions and extreme animal densities. The design and installation of environmental control systems for (1) a gestation unit and (2) a broiler house was performed. An overview of the process, and difficulties noted, is presented. Both systems incorporated mechanical backups. 20 refs.

  7. Cumulative Timers for Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Battle, John O.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed to equip future microprocessors with electronic cumulative timers, for essentially the same reasons for which land vehicles are equipped with odometers (total-distance-traveled meters) and aircraft are equipped with Hobbs meters (total-engine-operating time meters). Heretofore, there has been no way to determine the amount of use to which a microprocessor (or a product containing a microprocessor) has been subjected. The proposed timers would count all microprocessor clock cycles and could only be read by means of microprocessor instructions but, like odometers and Hobbs meters, could never be reset to zero without physically damaging the chip.

  8. Multiple System Atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple System Atrophy Information Page Condensed from Multiple System Atrophy ... Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Multiple System Atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

  9. Aerospace Applications of Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the state of microprocessor applications is presented. Current and future requirements and associated technological advances which allow effective exploitation in aerospace applications are discussed.

  10. MICROPROCESSOR CONTROL OF ROTOGRAVURE AIRFLOWS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the technical and economic viability of using micro-processor-based control technology to collect volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a paper coating operation. The microprocessor-based control system monitors and controls both the airflow rate and...

  11. A TRNSYS microprocessor controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piessens, L. P.; Beckman, W. A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    A truth table approach is employed to model the operation of a microprocessor controller for a solar energy system. Using the simulation code TRNSYS, a parameter is added to stop iteration procedures which potentially could become endless as the program seeks a solution to a set of governing equations at the same time as a pump or switch is turned off, thus creating a stable mode of iteration. The simulation of control logic also includes comparisons between input signals in order to arrive at a choice of output control signals. Temperatures are the normal input signals, and additional input may be mass flow rate, insolation, and night setbacks. Techniques for identifying typographical errors in the control logic are explored, as are the effects of the time step size chosen. Results are presented of simulations of month-long operation of a solar system and primary loop control strategies.

  12. Small Microprocessor for ASIC or FPGA Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleyner, Igor; Katz, Richard; Blair-Smith, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    A small microprocessor, suitable for use in applications in which high reliability is required, was designed to be implemented in either an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The design is based on commercial microprocessor architecture, making it possible to use available software development tools and thereby to implement the microprocessor at relatively low cost. The design features enhancements, including trapping during execution of illegal instructions. The internal structure of the design yields relatively high performance, with a significant decrease, relative to other microprocessors that perform the same functions, in the number of microcycles needed to execute macroinstructions. The problem meant to be solved in designing this microprocessor was to provide a modest level of computational capability in a general-purpose processor while adding as little as possible to the power demand, size, and weight of a system into which the microprocessor would be incorporated. As designed, this microprocessor consumes very little power and occupies only a small portion of a typical modern ASIC or FPGA. The microprocessor operates at a rate of about 4 million instructions per second with clock frequency of 20 MHz.

  13. Microprocessor Seminar, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Workshop sessions and papers were devoted to various aspects of microprocessor and large scale integrated circuit technology. Presentations were made on advanced LSI developments for high reliability military and NASA applications. Microprocessor testing techniques were discussed, and test data were presented. High reliability procurement specifications were also discussed.

  14. Non-radiation hardened microprocessors in space-based remote sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeCoursey, R.; Melton, Ryan; Estes, Robert R., Jr.

    2006-09-01

    The CALIPSO (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) mission is a comprehensive suite of active and passive sensors including a 20Hz 230mj Nd:YAG lidar, a visible wavelength Earth-looking camera and an imaging infrared radiometer. CALIPSO flies in formation with the Earth Observing System Post-Meridian (EOS PM) train, provides continuous, near-simultaneous measurements and is a planned 3 year mission. CALIPSO was launched into a 98 degree sun synchronous Earth orbit in April of 2006 to study clouds and aerosols and acquires over 5 gigabytes of data every 24 hours. Figure 1 shows the ground track of one CALIPSO orbit as well as high and low intensity South Atlantic Anomaly outlines. CALIPSO passes through the SAA several times each day. Spaced based remote sensing systems that include multiple instruments and/or instruments such as lidar generate large volumes of data and require robust real-time hardware and software mechanisms and high throughput processors. Due to onboard storage restrictions and telemetry downlink limitations these systems must pre-process and reduce the data before sending it to the ground. This onboard processing and realtime requirement load may mean that newer more powerful processors are needed even though acceptable radiation-hardened versions have not yet been released. CALIPSO's single board computer payload controller processor is actually a set of four (4) voting non-radiation hardened COTS Power PC 603r's built on a single width VME card by General Dynamics Advanced Information Systems (GDAIS). Significant radiation concerns for CALIPSO and other Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites include the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), the north and south poles and strong solar events. Over much of South America and extending into the South Atlantic Ocean (see figure 1) the Van Allen radiation belts dip to just 200-800km and spacecraft entering this area are subjected to high energy protons and experience higher than

  15. Microprocessor CCTV controlled for safeguards applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeneman, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    An integral part of a state of the art Alarm Display and Assessment System is the closed circuit television (CCTV) subsystem. It is in this portion of the system where all video signals are switched, recorded, and replayed for surveillance and assessment purposes. This paper presents the implementation of one such CCTV subsystem. This implementation incorporates two Motorola M6809 microprocessors as video controllers that collectively have the capability of initiating the recording of multiple alarm scenes, switching any live or recorded video from any camera to any one of the assessment monitors, annotating or identifying all video scenes, verifying the presence of video on all cameras, and reporting critical component failures to a host LSI-11/23 system computer. Included in this system are: a rigid video disc recorder, a video routing switcher, character generators for annotation, a video presence detector, and manual switchers.

  16. Multiple system atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000757.htm Multiple system atrophy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare condition that causes ...

  17. A microprocessor-based cardiotachometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, J. A.; Crosier, W. G.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a highly accurate and reliable cardiotachometer for measuring the heart rate of test subjects is discussed. It measures heart rate over the range of 30 to 250 beats/minute and gives instantaneous (beat to beat) updates on the system output so that occasional noise artifacts or ectopic beats could be more easily identified except that occasional missed beats caused by switching ECG leads should not cause a change in the output. The cardiotachometer uses an improved analog filter and R-wave detector and an Intel 8080A microprocessor to handle all of the logic and arithmetic necessary. By using the microprocessor, future hardware modifications could easily be made if functional changes were needed.

  18. Microprocessor control of multiple peak power tracking DC/DC converters for use with solar cell arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Martin E. (Inventor); Jermakian, Joel (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method and an apparatus is provided for efficiently controlling the power output of a solar cell array string or a plurality of solar cell array strings to achieve a maximum amount of output power from the strings under varying conditions of use. Maximum power output from a solar array string is achieved through control of a pulse width modulated DC/DC buck converter which transfers power from a solar array to a load or battery bus. The input voltage from the solar array to the converter is controlled by a pulse width modulation duty cycle, which in turn is controlled by a differential signal controller. By periodically adjusting the control voltage up or down by a small amount and comparing the power on the load or bus with that generated at different voltage values a maximum power output voltage may be obtained. The system is totally modular and additional solar array strings may be added to the system simply by adding converter boards to the system and changing some constants in the controller's control routines.

  19. A Simple Microprocessor Breadboard System for Use in Microelectronics or Computer Education--Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    Provides instructions for programming a system described in a previous article in this journal. Lists three programs: (1) a check that the system is functioning correctly; (2) a monitor program; and (3) a program which adds hex numbers from 00 to 0F and stores the result in memory location 20. (SK)

  20. A real-time microprocessor QRS detector system with a 1-ms timing accuracy for the measurement of ambulatory HRV.

    PubMed

    Ruha, A; Sallinen, S; Nissilä, S

    1997-03-01

    The design, test methods and results of an ambulatory QRS detector are presented. The device is intended for the accurate measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) and reliable QRS detection in both ambulatory and clinical use. The aim of the design work was to achieve high QRS detection performance in terms of timing accuracy and reliability, without compromising the size and power consumption of the device. The complete monitor system consists of a host computer and the detector unit. The detector device is constructed of a commonly available digital signal processing (DSP) microprocessor and other components. The QRS detection algorithm uses optimized prefiltering in conjunction with a matched filter and dual edge threshold detection. The purpose of the prefiltering is to attenuate various noise components in order to achieve improved detection reliability. The matched filter further improves signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and symmetries the QRS complex for the threshold detection, which is essential in order to achieve the desired performance. The decision for detection is made in real-time and no search-back method is employed. The host computer is used to configure the detector unit, which includes the setting of the matched filter impulse response, and in the retrieval and postprocessing of the measurement results. The QRS detection timing accuracy and detection reliability of the detector system was tested with an artificially generated electrocardiogram (ECG) signal corrupted with various noise types and a timing standard deviation of less than 1 ms was achieved with most noise types and levels similar to those encountered in real measurements. A QRS detection error rate (ER) of 0.1 and 2.2% was achieved with records 103 and 105 from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database, respectively. PMID:9216129

  1. Microprocessor-controlled phase-measurement system for 2856-MHz pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.D.; Schwarz, H.

    1982-04-01

    A computer controlled phase detection system used to measure and stabilize the phase of high power rf pulses in the two mile Stanford Linear Accelerator has been developed. This system measures the phase of a 1 ..mu..sec 2856 50 MW rf pulse with respect to a CW reference signal at the same frequency at a 180 Hz rate with < 0.2/sup 0/ resolution.

  2. A microprocessor based high speed packet switch for satellite communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arozullah, M.; Crist, S. C.

    1980-01-01

    The architectures of a single processor, a three processor, and a multiple processor system are described. The hardware circuits, and software routines required for implementing the three and multiple processor designs are presented. A bit-slice microprocessor was designed and microprogrammed. Maximum throughput was calculated for all three designs. Queue theoretic models for these three designs were developed and utilized to obtain analytical expressions for the average waiting times, overall average response times and average queue sizes. From these expressions, graphs were obtained showing the effect on the system performance of a number of design parameters.

  3. Monolithic silicon photonics in a sub-100nm SOI CMOS microprocessor foundry: progress from devices to systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popović, Miloš A.; Wade, Mark T.; Orcutt, Jason S.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Sun, Chen; Georgas, Michael; Moss, Benjamin; Kumar, Rajesh; Alloatti, Luca; Pavanello, Fabio; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Nammari, Kareem; Notaros, Jelena; Atabaki, Amir; Leu, Jonathan; Stojanović, Vladimir; Ram, Rajeev J.

    2015-02-01

    We review recent progress of an effort led by the Stojanović (UC Berkeley), Ram (MIT) and Popović (CU Boulder) research groups to enable the design of photonic devices, and complete on-chip electro-optic systems and interfaces, directly in standard microelectronics CMOS processes in a microprocessor foundry, with no in-foundry process modifications. This approach allows tight and large-scale monolithic integration of silicon photonics with state-of-the-art (sub-100nm-node) microelectronics, here a 45nm SOI CMOS process. It enables natural scale-up to manufacturing, and rapid advances in device design due to process repeatability. The initial driver application was addressing the processor-to-memory communication energy bottleneck. Device results include 5Gbps modulators based on an interleaved junction that take advantage of the high resolution of the sub-100nm CMOS process. We demonstrate operation at 5fJ/bit with 1.5dB insertion loss and 8dB extinction ratio. We also demonstrate the first infrared detectors in a zero-change CMOS process, using absorption in transistor source/drain SiGe stressors. Subsystems described include the first monolithically integrated electronic-photonic transmitter on chip (modulator+driver) with 20-70fJ/bit wall plug energy/bit (2-3.5Gbps), to our knowledge the lowest transmitter energy demonstrated to date. We also demonstrate native-process infrared receivers at 220fJ/bit (5Gbps). These are encouraging signs for the prospects of monolithic electronics-photonics integration. Beyond processor-to-memory interconnects, our approach to photonics as a "More-than- Moore" technology inside advanced CMOS promises to enable VLSI electronic-photonic chip platforms tailored to a vast array of emerging applications, from optical and acoustic sensing, high-speed signal processing, RF and optical metrology and clocks, through to analog computation and quantum technology.

  4. Automated recognition of helium speech. Phase I: Investigation of microprocessor based analysis/synthesis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinek, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    This is the Final Report of Electronic Design Associates on its Phase I SBIR project. The purpose of this project is to develop a method for correcting helium speech, as experienced in diver-surface communication. The goal of the Phase I study was to design, prototype, and evaluate a real time helium speech corrector system based upon digital signal processing techniques. The general approach was to develop hardware (an IBM PC board) to digitize helium speech and software (a LAMBDA computer based simulation) to translate the speech. As planned in the study proposal, this initial prototype may now be used to assess expected performance from a self contained real time system which uses an identical algorithm. The Final Report details the work carried out to produce the prototype system. Four major project tasks were: a signal processing scheme for converting helium speech to normal sounding speech was generated. The signal processing scheme was simulated on a general purpose (LAMDA) computer. Actual helium speech was supplied to the simulation and the converted speech was generated. An IBM-PC based 14 bit data Input/Output board was designed and built. A bibliography of references on speech processing was generated.

  5. Bi-directional communication interface for microprocessor-to-system/370

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    The design and operation of a bi-directional communication interface between a microcomputer and the IBM System/370 is documented. The hardware unit interconnects a modem to interface to the S/370, the microcomputer with an EIA I/O port, and a terminal for sending and receiving data from either the microcomputer or the S/370. Also described is the software necessary for the two-way interface. This interface is designed so that no modifications need to be made to the terminal, modem, or microcomputer.

  6. Microprocessor for speech recognition

    SciTech Connect

    Ishizuka, H.; Watari, M.; Sakoe, H.; Chiba, S.; Iwata, T.; Matsuki, T.; Kawakami, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A new single-chip microprocessor for speech recognition has been developed utilizing multi-processor architecture and pipelined structure. By DP-matching algorithm, the processor recognizes up to 340 isolated words or 40 connected words in realtime. 6 references.

  7. Data acquisition and command system for use with a microprocessor-based control chassis. [PIGMI-Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Martinez, V.A. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is developing the technology to build smaller, less expensive, and more reliable proton linear accelerators for medical applications, and has designed a powerful, simple, inexpensive, and reliable control and data acquisition system that is central to the program development. The system is a NOVA-3D minicomputer interfaced to several outlying microprocessor-based controllers, which accomplish control and data acquisition through data I/O chasis. The equipment interface chassis, which can issue binary commands, read binary data, issue analog commands, and read timed and untimed analog data is described.

  8. Synchronous clock stopper for microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchin, David A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A synchronous clock stopper circuit for inhibiting clock pulses to a microprocessor in response to a stop request signal, and for reinstating the clock pulses in response to a start request signal thereby to conserve power consumption of the microprocessor when used in an environment of limited power. The stopping and starting of the microprocessor is synchronized, by a phase tracker, with the occurrences of a predetermined phase in the instruction cycle of the microprocessor in which the I/O data and address lines of the microprocessor are of high impedance so that a shared memory connected to the I/O lines may be accessed by other peripheral devices. The starting and stopping occur when the microprocessor initiates and completes, respectively, an instruction, as well as before and after transferring data with a memory. Also, the phase tracker transmits phase information signals over a bus to other peripheral devices which signals identify the current operational phase of the microprocessor.

  9. Automated mixed traffic transit vehicle microprocessor controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marks, R. A.; Cassell, P.; Johnston, A. R.

    1981-01-01

    An improved Automated Mixed Traffic Vehicle (AMTV) speed control system employing a microprocessor and transistor chopper motor current controller is described and its performance is presented in terms of velocity versus time curves. The on board computer hardware and software systems are described as is the software development system. All of the programming used in this controller was implemented using FORTRAN. This microprocessor controller made possible a number of safety features and improved the comfort associated with starting and shopping. In addition, most of the vehicle's performance characteristics can be altered by simple program parameter changes. A failure analysis of the microprocessor controller was generated and the results are included. Flow diagrams for the speed control algorithms and complete FORTRAN code listings are also included.

  10. Microprocessor control of broiler house ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, F.W.; Allison, J.M.

    1983-06-01

    An M6800 microprocessor control system for ventilation fans, supplemental heaters, and air inlet slots is presented. The control system uses inputs from temperature sensors, both inside and outside the house, along with the desired environmental conditions inside to calculate the required ventilation for heat and moisture control.

  11. Application of a microprocessor to a spacecraft attitude control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, D. H.; Hermann, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    The attitude control system (ACS) microprocessor development work spanned three main design areas: hardware and instruction set, ACS firmware, and hardware firmware verification testing. The processor hardware utilizes two parallel 4 bit microprocessors. The firmware includes data processing for five sensors, four attitude control laws, and telemetry and commands.

  12. A microprocessor based satellite borne packet switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crist, S. C.; Burnell, J. F.; Arozullah, M.

    1979-01-01

    Design considerations applicable to a space-borne single microprocessor based packet switch are identified. These include system architecture decisions and microprocessor selection. The division of tasks among different subroutines is discussed. The primary design criterion is to maximize throughput. The extension to a multi-satellite network is discussed. The maximum throughput attainable is derived. A queue theoretic model has been developed and expressions for average response times and average queue sizes are obtained. A number of graphs showing the effect of various design parameters on the average response time and the average queue sizes are presented.

  13. Microprocessor Design Using Hardware Description Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mita, Rosario; Palumbo, Gaetano

    2008-01-01

    The following paper has been conceived to deal with the contents of some lectures aimed at enhancing courses on digital electronic, microelectronic or VLSI systems. Those lectures show how to use a hardware description language (HDL), such as the VHDL, to specify, design and verify a custom microprocessor. The general goal of this work is to teach…

  14. Verification of the FtCayuga fault-tolerant microprocessor system. Volume 1: A case study in theorem prover-based verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivas, Mandayam; Bickford, Mark

    1991-01-01

    The design and formal verification of a hardware system for a task that is an important component of a fault tolerant computer architecture for flight control systems is presented. The hardware system implements an algorithm for obtaining interactive consistancy (byzantine agreement) among four microprocessors as a special instruction on the processors. The property verified insures that an execution of the special instruction by the processors correctly accomplishes interactive consistency, provided certain preconditions hold. An assumption is made that the processors execute synchronously. For verification, the authors used a computer aided design hardware design verification tool, Spectool, and the theorem prover, Clio. A major contribution of the work is the demonstration of a significant fault tolerant hardware design that is mechanically verified by a theorem prover.

  15. Multiple single-board-computer system for the KEK positron generator control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Kazuo; Abe, Isamu; Enomoto, Atsushi; Otake, Yuji; Urano, Takao

    1986-06-01

    The KEK positron generator is controlled by means of a distributed microprocessor network. The control system is composed of three kinds of equipment: device controllers for the linac equipment, operation management stations and a communication network. Individual linac equipment has its own microprocessor-based controller. A multiple single board computer (SBC) system is used for communication control and for equipment surveillance; it has a database containing communication and linac equipment status information. The linac operation management that should be the most soft part in the control system, is separated from the multiple SBC system and is carried out by work-stations. The principle that every processor executes only one task is maintained throughout the control system. This made the software architecture very simple.

  16. A TRNSYS microprocessor controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piessens, L. P.; Beckman, W. A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    A control component for use with the TRNSYS simulation program was developed that simulates the operation of a microprocessor controller. The component uses a truth table in combination with comparisons between input signals to generate appropriate output control signals. Although temperatures are normal input signals, other inputs such as flow rate and solar radiation can also be used. Together with other standard TRNSYS components, proportional control, night setbacks, and time delays can be simulated. Examples are given of normal operation, and of situations in which instabilities occur. The use of the truth table for error detection is illustrated. Some general rules for selecting timestep and error bounds are formulated. An economic comparison is made between on/off and optimal control strategy to illustrate the use of the model.

  17. Transient upsets in microprocessor controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, R. E.; Masson, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    The modeling and analysis of transient faults in microprocessor based controllers are discussed. Such controllers typically consist of a microprocessor, read only memory storing and application program, random access memory for data storage, and input/output devices for external communications. The effects of transient faults on the performance of the controller are reviewed. An instruction level perspective of performance is taken which is the basis of a useful high level program state description of the microprocessor controller. A transition matrix is defined which determines the controller's response to transient fault arrivals.

  18. OS friendly microprocessor architecture: Hardware level computer security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungwirth, Patrick; La Fratta, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    We present an introduction to the patented OS Friendly Microprocessor Architecture (OSFA) and hardware level computer security. Conventional microprocessors have not tried to balance hardware performance and OS performance at the same time. Conventional microprocessors have depended on the Operating System for computer security and information assurance. The goal of the OS Friendly Architecture is to provide a high performance and secure microprocessor and OS system. We are interested in cyber security, information technology (IT), and SCADA control professionals reviewing the hardware level security features. The OS Friendly Architecture is a switched set of cache memory banks in a pipeline configuration. For light-weight threads, the memory pipeline configuration provides near instantaneous context switching times. The pipelining and parallelism provided by the cache memory pipeline provides for background cache read and write operations while the microprocessor's execution pipeline is running instructions. The cache bank selection controllers provide arbitration to prevent the memory pipeline and microprocessor's execution pipeline from accessing the same cache bank at the same time. This separation allows the cache memory pages to transfer to and from level 1 (L1) caching while the microprocessor pipeline is executing instructions. Computer security operations are implemented in hardware. By extending Unix file permissions bits to each cache memory bank and memory address, the OSFA provides hardware level computer security.

  19. Microprocessors in physics experiments at SLAC

    SciTech Connect

    Rochester, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    The increasing size and complexity of high energy physics experiments is changing the way data are collected. To implement a trigger or event filter requires complex logic which may have to be modified as the experiment proceeds. Simply to monitor a detector, large amounts of data must be processed on line. The use of microprocessors or other programmable devices can help to achieve these ends flexibly and economically. At SLAC, a number of microprocessor-based systems have been built and are in use in experimental setups, and others are now being developed. This talk is a review of existing systems and their use in experiments, and of developments in progress and future plans.

  20. Hot spot mitigation in microprocessors by application of single phase microchannel heat sink and microprocessor floor planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Anjali

    Poor thermal management in high frequency microprocessors results in thermal and mechanical stresses in the chip due to leakage losses, occurrence of hot spots and large temperature gradients. A micro-fluidics based cooling scheme of single phase microchannel heat sinks is found to be most promising cooling solution. Microchannel heat sinks have high cooling capability because of its high surface area to volume ratio and high heat transfer coefficient. Besides the fluid flow, heat transfer mechanism in microchannel heat sinks is affected by its installation on the microprocessor chip. Since microchannel heat sinks are capable of reducing only the average temperature rise of the microprocessor chip, technique of microprocessor floor planning can be applied to reduce hot spot temperature, mitigate multiple hot spots and reduce large temperature gradients on the surface of microprocessor chip. In this study, adequate installation of the microchannel heat sink on the processor chip has been proposed to extract maximum heat from the device. Microprocessor floor planning has also been explored to obtain an optimum chip floor plan on grounds of low performance penalty, low hot spot temperature and minimum number hot spots. The dependence of maximum hot spot temperature of the chip on pressure gradient across the microchannels has also been discussed.

  1. The design of a microprocessor-based data logger

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leap, K.J.; Dedini, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a microprocessor-based data logger, which collects and digitizes analog voltage signals from a continuous-measuring instrumentation system and transmits serial data to a magnetic tape recorder, is discussed. The data logger was assembled from commercially-available components and can be user-programmed for greater flexibility. A description of the data logger hardware and software designs, general operating instructions, the microprocessor program listing, and electrical schematic diagrams are presented.

  2. Formal verification of an avionics microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivas, Mandayam, K.; Miller, Steven P.

    1995-01-01

    Formal specification combined with mechanical verification is a promising approach for achieving the extremely high levels of assurance required of safety-critical digital systems. However, many questions remain regarding their use in practice: Can these techniques scale up to industrial systems, where are they likely to be useful, and how should industry go about incorporating them into practice? This report discusses a project undertaken to answer some of these questions, the formal verification of the AAMPS microprocessor. This project consisted of formally specifying in the PVS language a rockwell proprietary microprocessor at both the instruction-set and register-transfer levels and using the PVS theorem prover to show that the microcode correctly implemented the instruction-level specification for a representative subset of instructions. Notable aspects of this project include the use of a formal specification language by practicing hardware and software engineers, the integration of traditional inspections with formal specifications, and the use of a mechanical theorem prover to verify a portion of a commercial, pipelined microprocessor that was not explicitly designed for formal verification.

  3. [Multiple system atrophy].

    PubMed

    Damon-Perrière, Nathalie; Tison, François; Meissner, Wassilios G

    2010-09-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder of unknown etiology. It is the most frequent disorder among atypical parkinsonism with an estimated prevalence of 2 to 5 per 100 000 inhabitants. The clinical symptoms are rapidly progressing with a mean survival ranging between 6 to 9 years. The diagnosis is based on consensus criteria that have been revised in 2008. The diagnostic criteria allow defining "possible", "probable" and "definite" MSA. The latter requires post mortem confirmation of striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar degeneration with alpha-synuclein containing glial cytoplasmic inclusions. The diagnosis of "possible" and "probable" MSA is based on the variable presence and severity of parkinsonism, cerebellar dysfunction, autonomic failure and pyramidal signs. According to the revised criteria, atrophy of putamen, pons, middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) or cerebellum on brain magnetic resonance imaging are considered to be additional features for the diagnosis of "possible" MSA. T2-weighted brain imaging may further reveal a putaminal hypointensity, a hyperintense lateral putaminal rim, the so called "hot cross bun sign" and MCP hyperintensities. Cardiovascular examination, urodynamic testing and anal sphincter electromyography may be helpful for the diagnosis of autonomic failure. Some patients may respond to levodopa, but usually to a lesser extent than those suffering from Parkinson's disease, and high doses are already required in early disease stages. No specific therapy is available for cerebellar dysfunction, while effective treatments exist for urinary and cardiovascular autonomic failure. Physical therapy may help to improve the difficulties of gait and stance, and to prevent their complications. In later disease stages, speech therapy becomes necessary for the treatment of dysarthria and dysphagia. Percutaneous gastrostomy is sometimes necessary in patients with severe dysphagia. Beyond these strategies, psychological

  4. Daily weather direct readout microprocessor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davisson, L. D.; Davisson, J. B.

    1976-01-01

    The work completed included a study of the requirements and hardware and software implementation techniques for NIMBUS ESMR and TWERLE direct readout applications using microprocessors. Many microprocessors were studied for this application. Because of the available Interdata development capabilities, it was concluded that future implementations be on an Interdata microprocessor which was found adequate for the task.

  5. Microprocessor utilization in search and rescue missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, M.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of performing the same task in real time using microprocessor technology was determined. The least square algorithm was implemented on an Intel 8080 microprocessor. Results indicated that a microprocessor could easily match the IBM implementation in accuracy and be performed inside the time limitations set.

  6. Test vectors development and optimization for a microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timoc, C. C.; Hess, L. M.; Stott, F. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a method for generating and optimizing test vectors for a microprocessor, with the aid of a fault simulator implemented entirely by hardware. The development and optimization of test vectors has been done on a tester, with the fault simulator plugged directly into the test head. The fault simulator is capable of automatically injecting over a thousand single or multiple stuck faults in the sequential and combinatorial parts of the microprocessor. The test vectors developed by a programmer working interactively with the tester were applied through the tester to the fault simulator, and the percent of faults detected was measured. The vectors were developed and optimized for the 1802 microprocessor, with the objective of detecting 100% of the single stuck faults with a minimum set of vectors. Experimental results show that 99.7% of the single stuck faults are being detected with approximately 14,000 vectors.

  7. High-speed, automatic controller design considerations for integrating array processor, multi-microprocessor, and host computer system architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, S. A.; Leyland, J. A.; Warmbrodt, W.

    1985-01-01

    Modern control systems must typically perform real-time identification and control, as well as coordinate a host of other activities related to user interaction, online graphics, and file management. This paper discusses five global design considerations which are useful to integrate array processor, multimicroprocessor, and host computer system architectures into versatile, high-speed controllers. Such controllers are capable of very high control throughput, and can maintain constant interaction with the nonreal-time or user environment. As an application example, the architecture of a high-speed, closed-loop controller used to actively control helicopter vibration is briefly discussed. Although this system has been designed for use as the controller for real-time rotorcraft dynamics and control studies in a wind tunnel environment, the controller architecture can generally be applied to a wide range of automatic control applications.

  8. Performance of microprocessor controllers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, R.S.; Turner, L.W.; Overhults, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    United States animal production systems are at the threshold of a major new method for daily management of environmental control -- the integrated microprocessor-based environmental control system. Widespread adoption of this technology has the potential for dramatic improvement in production efficiencies through lower management costs, improved energy savings, and better feed conversion efficiencies. However, the technical problems of transient surge protection and appropriate mechanical backup systems have not been adequately addressed by the industry. The goals of this research were to identify the degree to which transient surge protection was being provided by current manufacturers, and to illustrate the implementation of microprocessor environmental control systems with mechanical backup. Transient open circuit over-voltage tests (ANSI/IEEE C62.41-1980) were performed on 16 environmental control units: a maximum of 800 V spike was applied to the power supplies, and up to 100 V spike applied to temperature sensor lines. Under these relatively mild tests, no failures were noted due to power supply transients, but three units failed when subjected to transients on their temperature sensor lines. Mechanical backup systems were designed to provide essential life-support during critical conditions of extreme outside conditions and extreme animal densities. The design and installation of environmental control systems for (1) a gestation unit and (2) a broiler house was performed. An overview of the process, and difficulties noted, is presented. Both systems incorporated mechanical backups. 20 refs.

  9. Low-cost microprocessor controlled shadowband radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalsky, J. J.; Lebaron, B. A.; Harrison, L. C.

    1985-06-01

    This paper describes the second phase in the development of a low-cost microprocessor-controlled rotating shadowband radiometer at PNL. The initial work, to develop a solar photometer, resulted in a mechanical design that is adopted for the solar radiometer with only minor changes. The goals of this effort are: (1) to improve the data acquisition system; and (2) to derive corrections for the silicon cell-based pyranometer that would allow measurements of total horizontal, diffuse horizontal, and direct normal solar radiation approaching first-class instrumentation accuracy at a fraction of the cost. Significant progress on temperature, cosine and spectral corrections is achieved.

  10. Microprocessor realizations of range rate filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The performance of five digital range rate filters is evaluated. A range rate filter receives an input of range data from a radar unit and produces an output of smoothed range data and its estimated derivative range rate. The filters are compared through simulation on an IBM 370. Two of the filter designs are implemented on a 6800 microprocessor-based system. Comparisons are made on the bases of noise variance reduction ratios and convergence times of the filters in response to simulated range signals.

  11. A microprocessor-controlled CCD star tracker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, P. M.; Goss, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The STELLAR (Star Tracker for Economical Long Life Attitude Reference) utilizes an image sensing Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) operating under microprocessor control. This approach results in a new type of high-accuracy star tracker which can be adapted to a wide variety of different space flight applications through software changes only. The STELLAR determines two-axis star positions by computing the element and the interelement interpolated centroid positions of the star images. As many as 10 stars may be tracked simultaneously, providing significantly increased stability and accuracy. A detailed description of the STELLAR is presented along with measurements of system performance obtained from an operating breadboard model.

  12. Microprocessor-controlled photovoltaic-array loading unit

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D.F.

    1982-08-01

    Described is a microprocessor-controlled test system in operation at the Photovoltaics Advanced Systems Test Facility located at Sandia National Laboratories. The test system is designed to measure the total energy output of photovoltaic arrays. The theory, installation, operation, and calibration of the test system are described.

  13. Hardware Fault Simulator for Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, L. M.; Timoc, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    Breadboarded circuit is faster and more thorough than software simulator. Elementary fault simulator for AND gate uses three gates and shaft register to simulate stuck-at-one or stuck-at-zero conditions at inputs and output. Experimental results showed hardware fault simulator for microprocessor gave faster results than software simulator, by two orders of magnitude, with one test being applied every 4 microseconds.

  14. Kepler's Multiple Planet Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    Among the 1800 Kepler targets that have candidate planets, 20% have two or more candidate planets. While most of these objects have not yet been confirmed as true planets, several considerations strongly suggest that the vast majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Virtually all candidate systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations (assuming a nominal mass-radius relationship). Statistical studies performed on these candidates reveal a great deal about the architecture of planetary systems, including the typical spacing of orbits and flatness of planetary systems. The distribution of observed period ratios shows that the vast majority of candidate pairs are neither in nor near low-order mean motion resonances. Nonetheless, there are small but statistically significant excesses of candidate pairs both in resonance and spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance, particularly near the 2:1 resonance. The characteristics of the confirmed Kepler multi-planet systems will also be discussed.

  15. A microprocessor revolution in data collection?

    PubMed

    Feeney, G

    1983-08-01

    The possibility of using microprocessors in census and survey data production is studied. Currently there is a bottleneck in census and survey data production in the stage where the information on the questionnaires is transformed into computer-medium records for further processing. This includes coding, data entry, and manual editing. Field operations are completed in a matter of weeks or months, as are computer tabulation and offset printing. Yet it is not uncommon to have to wait 1 year for the results of a survey and 2 or more years for the majority of census reports. Much of the time is accounted for by coding, editing, and data entry operations. If a microprocessor were used, it might be possible for final survey results to be available within a week of the end of field operations. The article envisions a scenario where an enumerator device is used. Such a device is within reach of current technology and something similar is already being used in telephone surveys. The technical challenge lies in packaging such a system for use by enumerators in the field, and at a cost that is not prohibitive. For the last 20 years the cost of information processing has been declining rapidly; another 20 years of comparable development would put enumerator devices within easy reach. The extent of the market is another important consideration, since production volume is necessary to reduce costs. The market would be large since every world government and every large business is more or less continually engaged in collecting information. The use of microprocessors in survey data collection would increase both the data quality and the speed with which data could be produced. Moreover, these effects might reduce costs, making another cost argument in their favor. PMID:12265686

  16. Multiple system atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the part of the nervous system that controls important functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and sweating. ... getting worse. The goal of treatment is to control symptoms. ... or mild tremors. But, for many people with MSA these medicines ...

  17. Multiple robot systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, Antal K.

    1987-01-01

    Viewgraphs from a presentation on multiple robot systems in space are included. Topics covered include categories of robots in space; scenarios of robot applications in space; some characteristics of robots in space; and some interesting problems and issues.

  18. Microprocessor-Based Neural-Pulse-Wave Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kojima, G. K.; Bracchi, F.

    1983-01-01

    Microprocessor-based system analyzes amplitudes and rise times of neural waveforms. Displaying histograms of measured parameters helps researchers determine how many nerves contribute to signal and specify waveform characteristics of each. Results are improved noise rejection, full or partial separation of overlapping peaks, and isolation and identification of related peaks in different histograms. 2

  19. Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic ( ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

  20. Small private key MQPKS on an embedded microprocessor.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic (MQ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to MQ cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key MQ scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key MQ scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing MQ on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key MQ scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

  1. Scalable Analysis Techniques for Microprocessor Performance Counter Metrics

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, D H; Vetter, J S

    2002-07-24

    Contemporary microprocessors provide a rich set of integrated performance counters that allow application developers and system architects alike the opportunity to gather important information about workload behaviors. These counters can capture instruction, memory, and operating system behaviors. Current techniques for analyzing data produced from these counters use raw counts, ratios, and visualization techniques to help users make decisions about their application source code. While these techniques are appropriate for analyzing data from one process, they do not scale easily to new levels demanded by contemporary computing systems. Indeed, the amount of data generated by these experiments is on the order of tens of thousands of data points. Furthermore, if users execute multiple experiments, then we add yet another dimension to this already knotty picture. This flood of multidimensional data can swamp efforts to harvest important ideas from these valuable counters. Very simply, this paper addresses these concerns by evaluating several multivariate statistical techniques on these datasets. We find that several techniques, such as statistical clustering, can automatically extract important features from this data. These derived results can, in turn, be feed directly back to an application developer, or used as input to a more comprehensive performance analysis environment, such as a visualization or an expert system.

  2. Multiple pass laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Brueckner, Keith A.; Jorna, Siebe; Moncur, N. Kent

    1977-01-01

    A laser amplification method for increasing the energy extraction efficiency from laser amplifiers while reducing the energy flux that passes through a flux limited system which includes apparatus for decomposing a linearly polarized light beam into multiple components, passing the components through an amplifier in delayed time sequence and recombining the amplified components into an in phase linearly polarized beam.

  3. An assembler for the MOS Technology 6502 microprocessor as implemented in jolt (TM) and KIM-1 (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilley, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    Design of low-cost, microcomputer-based navigation receivers, and the assembler are described. The development of computer software for microprocessors is materially aided by the assembler program using mnemonic variable names. The flexibility of the environment provided by the IBM's Virtual Machine Facility and the Conversational Monitor System, make possible the convenient assembler access. The implementation of the assembler for the microprocessor chip serves a part of the present need and forms a model for support of other microprocessors.

  4. MULTIPLE ECH LAUNCHER CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    GREEN,M.T; PONCE,D; GRUNLOH,H.J; ELLIS,R.A; GROSNICKLE,W.H; HUMPHREY,R.L

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 The addition of new, high power gyrotrons to the heating and current drive arsenal at DIII-D, required a system upgrade for control of fully steerable ECH Launchers. Each launcher contains two pointing mirrors with two degrees of mechanical freedom. The two flavors of motion are called facet and tilt. Therefore up to four channels of motion per launcher need to be controlled. The system utilizes absolute encoders to indicate mirror position and therefore direction of the microwave beam. The launcher movement is primarily controlled by PLC, but future iterations of design, may require this control to be accomplished by a CPU on fast bus such as Compact PCI. This will be necessary to accomplish real time position control. Safety of equipment and personnel is of primary importance when controlling a system of moving parts. Therefore multiple interlocks and fault status enunciators have been implemented. This paper addresses the design of a Multiple ECH Launcher Control System, and characterizes the flexibility needed to upgrade to a real time position control system in the future.

  5. Concurrent detection of transient faults in microprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.Z.

    1989-01-01

    A large number of errors in digital systems are due to the presence of transient faults. This is especially true of microprocessor-based systems working in a radiation environment that experience transient faults due to single event upsets. These upsets cause a temporary change in the state of the system without any permanent damage. Because of their random and non-recurring nature, transient faults are difficult to detect and isolate, hence they become a source of major concern, especially in critical real-time application areas. Concurrent detection of these errors is necessary for real-time operation. Most existing fault tolerance schemes either use redundancy to mask effects of transient faults or monitor the system for abnormal operations and then perform recovery operation. Although very effective, redundancy schemes incur substantial overhead that makes them unsuitable for small systems. Most monitoring schemes, on the other hand, only detect control flow errors. A new approach called Concurrent Processor Monitoring for on-line detection of transient faults is proposed that attempts to achieve higher error coverage with small error detection latency. The concept of the execution profile of an instruction is defined and is used for detecting control flow and execution errors. To implement this scheme, a watchdog processor is designed for monitoring operations of the main processor. The effectiveness of this technique is demonstrated through computer simulations.

  6. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H. Bert; Rosenberg, Eli I.; Meyer, W. Thomas; Gorbics, Mark S.; Thomas, William D.; McKay, Roy L.; Homer, Jr., John F.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler.

  7. Multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Crawley, H.B.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Meyer, W.T.; Gorbics, M.S.; Thomas, W.D.; McKay, R.L.; Homer, J.F. Jr.

    1990-05-22

    A multiple channel data acquisition system for the transfer of large amounts of data from a multiplicity of data channels has a plurality of modules which operate in parallel to convert analog signals to digital data and transfer that data to a communications host via a FASTBUS. Each module has a plurality of submodules which include a front end buffer (FEB) connected to input circuitry having an analog to digital converter with cache memory for each of a plurality of channels. The submodules are interfaced with the FASTBUS via a FASTBUS coupler which controls a module bus and a module memory. The system is triggered to effect rapid parallel data samplings which are stored to the cache memories. The cache memories are uploaded to the FEBs during which zero suppression occurs. The data in the FEBs is reformatted and compressed by a local processor during transfer to the module memory. The FASTBUS coupler is used by the communications host to upload the compressed and formatted data from the module memory. The local processor executes programs which are downloaded to the module memory through the FASTBUS coupler. 25 figs.

  8. Microprocessor control of offshore enhanced oil recovery project

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.; Lechler, R.; Long, W.

    1983-01-01

    The proportioning of natural gas liquids among 6 injection wells is described and controlling the corresponding gas necessary to maintain a specified liquid to gas ratio for each individual well is discussed. To accomplish this proportioning, the system selects a master well, controls both liquid and gas header pressure, and calculates corrected flow rates. In addition to these functions the microprocessor also prints on demand both instantaneous flow rates and cumulative volume injected for each well.

  9. Evolution of a standard microprocessor-based space computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, M.

    1980-01-01

    An existing in inventory computer hardware/software package (B-1 RFS/ECM) was repackaged and applied to multiple missile/space programs. Concurrent with the application efforts, low risk modifications were made to the computer from program to program to take advantage of newer, advanced technology and to meet increasingly more demanding requirements (computational and memory capabilities, longer life, and fault tolerant autonomy). It is concluded that microprocessors hold promise in a number of critical areas for future space computer applications. However, the benefits of the DoD VHSIC Program are required and the old proliferation problem must be revised.

  10. Using benchmarks for radiation testing of microprocessors and FPGAs

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather; Robinson, William H.; Rech, Paolo; Aguirre, Miguel; Barnard, Arno; Desogus, Marco; Entrena, Luis; Garcia-Valderas, Mario; Guertin, Steven M.; Kaeli, David; Kastensmidt, Fernanda Lima; Kiddie, Bradley T.; Sanchez-Clemente, Antonio; Reorda, Matteo Sonza; Sterpone, Luca; Wirthlin, Michael

    2015-12-17

    Performance benchmarks have been used over the years to compare different systems. These benchmarks can be useful for researchers trying to determine how changes to the technology, architecture, or compiler affect the system's performance. No such standard exists for systems deployed into high radiation environments, making it difficult to assess whether changes in the fabrication process, circuitry, architecture, or software affect reliability or radiation sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a benchmark suite for high-reliability systems that is designed for field-programmable gate arrays and microprocessors. As a result, we describe the development process and report neutron test data for the hardware and software benchmarks.

  11. Models of Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Fellner, Lisa; Wenning, Gregor K.; Stefanova, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a predominantly sporadic, adult-onset, fatal neurodegenerative disease of unknown etiology. MSA is characterized by autonomic failure, levodopa-unresponsive parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia and pyramidal signs in any combination. MSA belongs to a group of neurodegenerative disorders termed α-synucleinopathies, which also include Parkinson’s disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Their common pathological feature is the occurrence of abnormal α-synuclein positive inclusions in neurons or glial cells. In MSA, the main cell type presenting aggregates composed of α-synuclein are oligodendroglial cells. This pathological hallmark, also called glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs), is associated with progressive and profound neuronal loss in various regions of the brain. The development of animal models of MSA is justified by the limited understanding of the mechanisms of neurodegeneration and GCIs formation, which is paralleled by a lack of therapeutic strategies. Two main types of rodent models have been generated to replicate different features of MSA neuropathology. On one hand, neurotoxin-based models have been produced to reproduce neuronal loss in substantia nigra pars compacta and striatum. On the other hand, transgenic mouse models with overexpression of α-synuclein in oligodendroglia have been used to reproduce GCIs-related pathology. This chapter gives an overview of the atypical Parkinson’s syndrome MSA and summarizes the currently available MSA animal models and their relevance for pre-clinical testing of disease-modifying therapies. PMID:24338664

  12. A microprocessor-based one dimensional optical data processor for spatial frequency analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. L.; Ballard, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    A high degree of accuracy was obtained in measuring the spatial frequency spectrum of known samples using an optical data processor based on a microprocessor, which reliably collected intensity versus angle data. Stray light control, system alignment, and angle measurement problems were addressed and solved. The capabilities of the instrument were extended by the addition of appropriate optics to allow the use of different wavelengths of laser radiation and by increasing the travel limits of the rotating arm to + or - 160 degrees. The acquisition, storage, and plotting of data by the computer permits the researcher a free hand in data manipulation such as subtracting background scattering from a diffraction pattern. Tests conducted to verify the operation of the processor using a 25 mm diameter pinhole, a 39.37 line pairs per mm series of multiple slits, and a microscope slide coated with 1.091 mm diameter polystyrene latex spheres are described.

  13. Educational Implications of Microelectronics and Microprocessors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, N. D. C., Ed.

    This conference report explores microelectronic technology, its effect on educational methods and objectives, and its implications for educator responsibilities. Two main areas were considered: the significance of the likely impact of the large scale introduction of microprocessors and microelectronics on commercial and industrial processes, the…

  14. A microarchitecture for resource-limited superscalar microprocessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, Todd David

    1999-11-01

    Microelectronic components in space and satellite systems must be resistant to total dose radiation, single-even upset, and latchup in order to accomplish their missions. The demand for inexpensive, high-volume, radiation hardened (rad-hard) integrated circuits (ICs) is expected to increase dramatically as the communication market continues to expand. Motorola's Complementary Gallium Arsenide (CGaAsTM) technology offers superior radiation tolerance compared to traditional CMOS processes, while being more economical than dedicated rad-hard CMOS processes. The goals of this dissertation are to optimize a superscalar microarchitecture suitable for CGaAsTM microprocessors, develop circuit techniques for such applications, and evaluate the potential of CGaAsTM for the development of digital VLSI circuits. Motorola's 0.5 mum CGaAsTM process is summarized and circuit techniques applicable to digital CGaAsTM are developed. Direct coupled FET, complementary, and domino logic circuits are compared based on speed, power, area, and noise margins. These circuit techniques are employed in the design of a 600 MHz PowerPCTM arithmetic logic unit. The dissertation emphasizes CGaASTM-specific design considerations, specifically, low integration level. A baseline superscalar microarchitecture is defined and SPEC95 integer benchmark simulations are used to evaluate the applicability of advanced architectural features to microprocessors having low integration levels. The performance simulations center around the optimization of a simple superscalar core, small-scale branch prediction, instruction prefetching, and an off-chip primary data cache. The simulation results are used to develop a superscalar microarchitecture capable of outperforming a comparable sequential pipeline, while using only 500,000 transistors. The architecture, running at 200 MHz, is capable of achieving an estimated 153 MIPS, translating to a 27% performance increase over a comparable traditional pipelined

  15. Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chen; Wade, Mark T; Lee, Yunsup; Orcutt, Jason S; Alloatti, Luca; Georgas, Michael S; Waterman, Andrew S; Shainline, Jeffrey M; Avizienis, Rimas R; Lin, Sen; Moss, Benjamin R; Kumar, Rajesh; Pavanello, Fabio; Atabaki, Amir H; Cook, Henry M; Ou, Albert J; Leu, Jonathan C; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Asanović, Krste; Ram, Rajeev J; Popović, Miloš A; Stojanović, Vladimir M

    2015-12-24

    Data transport across short electrical wires is limited by both bandwidth and power density, which creates a performance bottleneck for semiconductor microchips in modern computer systems--from mobile phones to large-scale data centres. These limitations can be overcome by using optical communications based on chip-scale electronic-photonic systems enabled by silicon-based nanophotonic devices. However, combining electronics and photonics on the same chip has proved challenging, owing to microchip manufacturing conflicts between electronics and photonics. Consequently, current electronic-photonic chips are limited to niche manufacturing processes and include only a few optical devices alongside simple circuits. Here we report an electronic-photonic system on a single chip integrating over 70 million transistors and 850 photonic components that work together to provide logic, memory, and interconnect functions. This system is a realization of a microprocessor that uses on-chip photonic devices to directly communicate with other chips using light. To integrate electronics and photonics at the scale of a microprocessor chip, we adopt a 'zero-change' approach to the integration of photonics. Instead of developing a custom process to enable the fabrication of photonics, which would complicate or eliminate the possibility of integration with state-of-the-art transistors at large scale and at high yield, we design optical devices using a standard microelectronics foundry process that is used for modern microprocessors. This demonstration could represent the beginning of an era of chip-scale electronic-photonic systems with the potential to transform computing system architectures, enabling more powerful computers, from network infrastructure to data centres and supercomputers. PMID:26701054

  16. Single-chip microprocessor that communicates directly using light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chen; Wade, Mark T.; Lee, Yunsup; Orcutt, Jason S.; Alloatti, Luca; Georgas, Michael S.; Waterman, Andrew S.; Shainline, Jeffrey M.; Avizienis, Rimas R.; Lin, Sen; Moss, Benjamin R.; Kumar, Rajesh; Pavanello, Fabio; Atabaki, Amir H.; Cook, Henry M.; Ou, Albert J.; Leu, Jonathan C.; Chen, Yu-Hsin; Asanović, Krste; Ram, Rajeev J.; Popović, Miloš A.; Stojanović, Vladimir M.

    2015-12-01

    Data transport across short electrical wires is limited by both bandwidth and power density, which creates a performance bottleneck for semiconductor microchips in modern computer systems—from mobile phones to large-scale data centres. These limitations can be overcome by using optical communications based on chip-scale electronic-photonic systems enabled by silicon-based nanophotonic devices8. However, combining electronics and photonics on the same chip has proved challenging, owing to microchip manufacturing conflicts between electronics and photonics. Consequently, current electronic-photonic chips are limited to niche manufacturing processes and include only a few optical devices alongside simple circuits. Here we report an electronic-photonic system on a single chip integrating over 70 million transistors and 850 photonic components that work together to provide logic, memory, and interconnect functions. This system is a realization of a microprocessor that uses on-chip photonic devices to directly communicate with other chips using light. To integrate electronics and photonics at the scale of a microprocessor chip, we adopt a ‘zero-change’ approach to the integration of photonics. Instead of developing a custom process to enable the fabrication of photonics, which would complicate or eliminate the possibility of integration with state-of-the-art transistors at large scale and at high yield, we design optical devices using a standard microelectronics foundry process that is used for modern microprocessors. This demonstration could represent the beginning of an era of chip-scale electronic-photonic systems with the potential to transform computing system architectures, enabling more powerful computers, from network infrastructure to data centres and supercomputers.

  17. Constructive Multiple-Choice Testing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jooyong

    2010-01-01

    The newly developed computerized Constructive Multiple-choice Testing system is introduced. The system combines short answer (SA) and multiple-choice (MC) formats by asking examinees to respond to the same question twice, first in the SA format, and then in the MC format. This manipulation was employed to collect information about the two…

  18. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, Douglas N.

    1996-01-01

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film.

  19. Multiple target laser ablation system

    DOEpatents

    Mashburn, D.N.

    1996-01-09

    A laser ablation apparatus and method are provided in which multiple targets consisting of material to be ablated are mounted on a movable support. The material transfer rate is determined for each target material, and these rates are stored in a controller. A position detector determines which target material is in a position to be ablated, and then the controller controls the beam trigger timing and energy level to achieve a desired proportion of each constituent material in the resulting film. 3 figs.

  20. The development of a microprocessor-controlled linearly-actuated valve assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    The development of a proportional fluid control valve assembly is presented. This electromechanical system is needed for space applications to replace the current proportional flow controllers. The flow is controlled by a microprocessor system that monitors the control parameters of upstream pressure and requested volumetric flow rate. The microprocessor achieves the proper valve stem displacement by means of a digital linear actuator. A linear displacement sensor is used to measure the valve stem position. This displacement is monitored by the microprocessor system as a feedback signal to close the control loop. With an upstream pressure between 15 and 47 psig, the developed system operates between 779 standard CU cm/sec (SCCS) and 1543 SCCS.

  1. Hardware additions to microprocessor architecture aid software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sievers, M. W.

    1976-01-01

    An address trap (breakpoint) mechanism and last-in-first-out (LIFO) address stack are suggested as two additions to the basic microprocessor architecture whose functions are solely to aid the programmer. These devices provide the programmer with the ability to specify address breakpoints and to trace program execution back through N instructions, where N is the depth of the stack. Both devices, plus interface logic and buffering, have been designed for an INTEL 8080-based system using approximately 25 integrated-circuit packages.

  2. Fast computational scheme of image compression for 32-bit microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasperovich, Leonid

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a new computational scheme of image compression based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT), underlying JPEG and MPEG International Standards. The algorithm for the 2-d DCT computation uses integer operations (register shifts and additions / subtractions only); its computational complexity is about 8 additions per image pixel. As a meaningful example of an on-board image compression application we consider the software implementation of the algorithm for the Mars Rover (Marsokhod, in Russian) imaging system being developed as a part of Mars-96 International Space Project. It's shown that fast software solution for 32-bit microprocessors may compete with the DCT-based image compression hardware.

  3. Use of microprocessors in a neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, P.L.; Cutts, D.

    1981-01-01

    Microprocessors are a fundamental part of the neutrino detector for Experiment 734, a study of ..nu..e elastic scattering at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Four DEC LSI-11s are interfaced each to 1/4 of the detector apparatus via programmable scan controllers and to the central DEC 11-34 via separate DMA links. These microprocessors act in parallel to collect and reformat data from ..nu.. events; further, they can act independently, orchestrating an elaborate variety of calibrations asynchronously in different regions of the apparatus. Our micros have proved to be very valuable for a number of reasons. It is much easier to manage a large detector in separate pieces. Each LSI-11 can run in stand-alone mode, allowing independent installation or checkout of different parts of the detector. When operational the apparatus must be continuously calibrated; with a very large number of separate detector elements, distributed intelligence is most useful.

  4. Marine and Human Systems: Addressing Multiple Scales and Multiple Stressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, E. E.; Bundy, A.; Chuenpagdee, R.; Maddison, L.; Svendsen, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) project aims to develop a comprehensive understanding of, and predictive capacity of ocean responses to accelerating global change and the consequent effects on the Earth System and human society. Understanding the changing ecology and biogeochemistry of marine ecosystems and their sensitivity and resilience to multiple drivers, pressures and stressors is critical to developing responses that will help reduce the vulnerability of marine-dependent human communities. The cumulative pressure of anthropogenic activities on marine systems is already apparent and is projected to increase in the next decades. Policy- and decision-makers need assessments of the status and trends of marine habitats, species, and ecosystems to promote sustainable human activities in the marine environment, particularly in light of global environmental change and changing social systems and human pressures. The IMBER community recently undertook a synthesis and evaluation of approaches for ecosystem-based marine governance, integrated modeling of marine social-ecological systems, and the social and ecological consequences of changing marine ecosystems. The outcomes of this activity provide assessments of current understanding, indicate approaches needed to predict the effects of multiple stressors, at multiple scales, on marine ecosystems and dependent human populations, and highlight approaches for developing innovative societal responses to changing marine ecosystems.

  5. Evolutionary Processes in Multiple Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Eggleton, P P; Kisseleva-Eggleton, L

    2006-02-14

    There are several ways in which triple stars can evolve in somewhat unusual ways. They discuss two situations where Case A Roche-lobe overflow, followed by a merger, can produce anomalous wide binaries such as {gamma} Per; and Kozai cycles in triples with non-parallel orbits, which can produce merged rapidly-rotating stars like AB Dor, and which can also lead to the delayed ejection of one component of a multiple, as may have been observed in T Tau in 1998.

  6. Hardware math for the 6502 microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissel, R.; Currie, J.

    1985-01-01

    A floating-point arithmetic unit is described which is being used in the Ground Facility of Large Space Structures Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The experiment uses two complete inertial measurement units and a set of three gimbal torquers in a closed loop to control the structural vibrations in a flexible test article (beam). A 6502 (8-bit) microprocessor controls four AMD 9511A floating-point arithmetic units to do all the computation in 20 milliseconds.

  7. Simplified microprocessor design for VLSI control applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, K.

    1991-01-01

    A design technique for microprocessors combining the simplicity of reduced instruction set computers (RISC's) with the richer instruction sets of complex instruction set computers (CISC's) is presented. They utilize the pipelined instruction decode and datapaths common to RISC's. Instruction invariant data processing sequences which transparently support complex addressing modes permit the formulation of simple control circuitry. Compact implementations are possible since neither complicated controllers nor large register sets are required.

  8. NSC 800, 8-bit CMOS microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suszko, S. F.

    1984-01-01

    The NSC 800 is an 8-bit CMOS microprocessor manufactured by National Semiconductor Corp., Santa Clara, California. The 8-bit microprocessor chip with 40-pad pin-terminals has eight address buffers (A8-A15), eight data address -- I/O buffers (AD(sub 0)-AD(sub 7)), six interrupt controls and sixteen timing controls with a chip clock generator and an 8-bit dynamic RAM refresh circuit. The 22 internal registers have the capability of addressing 64K bytes of memory and 256 I/O devices. The chip is fabricated on N-type (100) silicon using self-aligned polysilicon gates and local oxidation process technology. The chip interconnect consists of four levels: Aluminum, Polysi 2, Polysi 1, and P(+) and N(+) diffusions. The four levels, except for contact interface, are isolated by interlevel oxide. The chip is packaged in a 40-pin dual-in-line (DIP), side brazed, hermetically sealed, ceramic package with a metal lid. The operating voltage for the device is 5 V. It is available in three operating temperature ranges: 0 to +70 C, -40 to +85 C, and -55 to +125 C. Two devices were submitted for product evaluation by F. Stott, MTS, JPL Microprocessor Specialist. The devices were pencil-marked and photographed for identification.

  9. The Effects of Microprocessors on Industry, Society and Employment: A Meeting of the Frontier Group on Strategies for Change in a Technological Society (Bath, England, March 13, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, N. D. C.

    Discussed are the multiple impacts of microelectronics on society. Included are discussions of the problem of predicting effects, difficulty of exploiting new technology, manpower consequences, and needs within the United Kingdom relating to microprocessors. (RE)

  10. Distributed microprocessor control of the heliostat field for the THEMIS power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barani-Cabanne, M.-D.

    1984-06-01

    A distributed control system implemented for the heliostats directing sunlight to the power tower aperture of the THEMIS solar electric power plant is detailed. Microprocessors were installed in each heliostat, with operations guided by safety and maximized power delivery requirements, constant communications with a central control computer, and accommodation to experimental operating conditions. THEMIS was operated in parallel with the French electric grid. The microprocessors were programmed to ensure maximized solar energy capture at the tower aperture and to remove the flux during shutdowns. Attention was also given to controlling the flux distribution within the receiver aperture. Fully automated operations could not be realized, so a three-level optimized control hierarchy was defined: the central control computer, a microcomputer controlling groups of heliostats, and individual heliostat microprocessors. Individual heliostats could be taken off-line for maintenance. A bus-based system was devised to route the message traffic among the hierarchical components along paths designed as a Petri grid.

  11. Typical motions in multiple systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anosova, Joanna P.

    1990-01-01

    In very old times, people counted - one, two, many. The author wants to show that they were right. Consider the motions of isolated bodies: (1) N = 1 - simple motion; (2) N = 2 - Keplerian orbits; and (3) N = 3 - this is the difficult problem. In general, this problem can be studied only by computer simulations. The author studied this problem over many years (see, e.g., Agekian and Anosova, 1967; Anosova, 1986, 1989 a,b). The principal result is that two basic types of dynamics take place in triple systems. The first special type is the stable hierarchical systems with two almost Keplerian orbits. The second general type is the unstable triple systems with complicated motions of the bodies. By random choice of the initial conditions, by the Monte-Carlo method, the stable systems comprised about approx. 10% of the examined cases; the unstable systems comprised the other approx. 90% of cases under consideration. In N greater than 3, the studies of dynamics of such systems by computer simulations show that we have in general also the motions roughly as at the cases 1 - 3 with the relative negative or positive energies of the bodies. In the author's picture, the typical trajectories of the bodies in unstable triple systems of the general type of dynamics are seen. Such systems are disrupted always after close triple approaches of the bodies. These approaches play a role like the gravitational slingshot. Often, the velocities of escapers are very large. On the other hand, the movie also shows the dynamical processes of a formation, dynamical evolution and disruption of the temporary wide binaries in triples and a formation of final hard massive binaries in the final evolution of triples.

  12. Design description of a microprocessor based Engine Monitoring and Control unit (EMAC) for small turboshaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baez, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    Research programs have demonstrated that digital electronic controls are more suitable for advanced aircraft/rotorcraft turbine engine systems than hydromechanical controls. Commercially available microprocessors are believed to have the speed and computational capability required for implementing advanced digital control algorithms. Thus, it is desirable to demonstrate that off-the-shelf microprocessors are indeed capable of performing real time control of advanced gas turbine engines. The engine monitoring and control (EMAC) unit was designed and fabricated specifically to meet the requirements of an advanced gas turbine engine control system. The EMAC unit is fully operational in the Army/NASA small turboshaft engine digital research program.

  13. New On-board Microprocessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, R.

    Two new processor devices have been developed for the use on board of spacecrafts. An 8-bit 8032-microcontroller targets typical controlling applications in instruments and sub-systems, or could be used as a main processor on small satellites, whereas the LEON 32-bit SPARC processor can be used for high performance controlling and data processing tasks. The ADV80S32 is fully compliant to the Intel 80x1 architecture and instruction set, extended by additional peripherals, 512 bytes on-chip RAM and a bootstrap PROM, which allows downloading the application software using the CCSDS PacketWire pro- tocol. The memory controller provides a de-multiplexed address/data bus, and allows to access up to 16 MB data and 8 MB program RAM. The peripherals have been de- signed for the specific needs of a spacecraft, such as serial interfaces compatible to RS232, PacketWire and TTC-B-01, counters/timers for extended duration and a CRC calculation unit accelerating the CCSDS TM/TC protocol. The 0.5 um Atmel manu- facturing technology (MG2RT) provides latch-up and total dose immunity; SEU fault immunity is implemented by using SEU hardened Flip-Flops and EDAC protection of internal and external memories. The maximum clock frequency of 20 MHz allows a processing power of 3 MIPS. Engineering samples are available. For SW develop- ment, various SW packages for the 8051 architecture are on the market. The LEON processor implements a 32-bit SPARC V8 architecture, including all the multiply and divide instructions, complemented by a floating-point unit (FPU). It includes several standard peripherals, such as timers/watchdog, interrupt controller, UARTs, parallel I/Os and a memory controller, allowing to use 8, 16 and 32 bit PROM, SRAM or memory mapped I/O. With on-chip separate instruction and data caches, almost one instruction per clock cycle can be reached in some applications. A 33-MHz 32-bit PCI master/target interface and a PCI arbiter allow operating the device in a plug-in card

  14. Genetics Home Reference: multiple system atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... OPCA progressive autonomic failure with multiple system atrophy SDS Shy-Drager syndrome sporadic olivopontocerebellar atrophy Related Information ... A, Hulot JS, Morrison KE, Renton A, Sussmuth SD, Landwehrmeyer BG, Ludolph A, Agid Y, Brice A, ...

  15. Data and results of a laboratory investigation of microprocessor upset caused by simulated lightning-induced analog transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology was developed a assess the upset susceptibility/reliability of a computer system onboard an aircraft flying through a lightning environment. Upset error modes in a general purpose microprocessor were studied. The upset tests involved the random input of analog transients which model lightning induced signals onto interface lines of an 8080 based microcomputer from which upset error data was recorded. The program code on the microprocessor during tests is designed to exercise all of the machine cycles and memory addressing techniques implemented in the 8080 central processing unit. A statistical analysis is presented in which possible correlations are established between the probability of upset occurrence and transient signal inputs during specific processing states and operations. A stochastic upset susceptibility model for the 8080 microprocessor is presented. The susceptibility of this microprocessor to upset, once analog transients have entered the system, is determined analytically by calculating the state probabilities of the stochastic model.

  16. Decisions and the evolution of memory: multiple systems, multiple functions.

    PubMed

    Klein, Stanley B; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John; Chance, Sarah

    2002-04-01

    Memory evolved to supply useful, timely information to the organism's decision-making systems. Therefore, decision rules, multiple memory systems, and the search engines that link them should have coevolved to mesh in a coadapted, functionally interlocking way. This adaptationist perspective suggested the scope hypothesis: When a generalization is retrieved from semantic memory, episodic memories that are inconsistent with it should be retrieved in tandem to place boundary conditions on the scope of the generalization. Using a priming paradigm and a decision task involving person memory, the authors tested and confirmed this hypothesis. The results support the view that priming is an evolved adaptation. They further show that dissociations between memory systems are not--and should not be--absolute: Independence exists for some tasks but not others. PMID:11990320

  17. Inventory and Billing Systems for Multiple Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Lavon

    Washington State University developed a comprehensive supplies inventory system and a generalized billing system with multiple users in mind. The supplies inventory control system developed for Central Stores, a self-sustaining service center that purchases and warehouses office, laboratory, and hardware supplies, was called AIMS, An Inventory…

  18. Hand-held multiple system gas chromatograph

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2001-01-01

    A multiple parallel hand-held gas chromatograph (GC) system which includes several independent GCs. Each independent GC has its own injector, separation column, detector and oven and the GCs are mounted in a light weight hand-held assembly. Each GC operates independently and simultaneously. Because of different coatings in different separation columns, different retention times for the same gas will be measured. Thus, for a GC system with multiple parallel GCs, the system can measure, in a short period, different retention times and provide a cross-reference in the determination of the measured gas and to become a two-dimensional system for direct field use.

  19. Application of a microprocessor controlled lidar to tropospheric ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. W.; Bufton, J. L.; Matloff, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    A microprocessor controlled lidar system under construction at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is described and the problems in making space-based measurements of tropospheric ozone are considered. The differential absorption lidar using a dual wavelength, pulsed CO2 laser and direct detection receiver can significantly improve the existing global data base on tropospheric ozone burden. Sensitivity to tropospheric ozone can be obtained in the spaceborne version of lidar by selecting laser lines located in the wings of the target zone lines. Simulation studies using various laser line pairs in the P-branch of the CO2 9.4 micron band show that the ozone burden retrieval may be weighted to particular altitude regions. These simulation studies are based on numerical integration of differences in absorption coefficient at the two selected laser wavelengths using the AFGL absorption line parameter compilations, U.S. Standard Atmosphere ozone profile, and laser software. Simulation, data collection and reduction are performed by a microprocessor subsystem of the CO2 lidar.

  20. A Systematic Methodology for Verifying Superscalar Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivas, Mandayam; Hosabettu, Ravi; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    1999-01-01

    We present a systematic approach to decompose and incrementally build the proof of correctness of pipelined microprocessors. The central idea is to construct the abstraction function by using completion functions, one per unfinished instruction, each of which specifies the effect (on the observables) of completing the instruction. In addition to avoiding the term size and case explosion problem that limits the pure flushing approach, our method helps localize errors, and also handles stages with interactive loops. The technique is illustrated on pipelined and superscalar pipelined implementations of a subset of the DLX architecture. It has also been applied to a processor with out-of-order execution.

  1. Using benchmarks for radiation testing of microprocessors and FPGAs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Quinn, Heather; Robinson, William H.; Rech, Paolo; Aguirre, Miguel; Barnard, Arno; Desogus, Marco; Entrena, Luis; Garcia-Valderas, Mario; Guertin, Steven M.; Kaeli, David; et al

    2015-12-17

    Performance benchmarks have been used over the years to compare different systems. These benchmarks can be useful for researchers trying to determine how changes to the technology, architecture, or compiler affect the system's performance. No such standard exists for systems deployed into high radiation environments, making it difficult to assess whether changes in the fabrication process, circuitry, architecture, or software affect reliability or radiation sensitivity. In this paper, we propose a benchmark suite for high-reliability systems that is designed for field-programmable gate arrays and microprocessors. As a result, we describe the development process and report neutron test data for themore » hardware and software benchmarks.« less

  2. Space Station multiple access communications system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Nanci A.

    1986-01-01

    The development of a multiple access communications system (MACS) for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station is discussed. The communications capabilities of the FHMA, CDMA, TDMA, SDMA, and FDMA techniques are evaluated; FDMA was selected for the space-to-space communications on the Space Station because of its lower complexity and growth capability. The proposed space-to-space multiple access system for the Space Station is a digitally modulated Ku-band FDMA system with a distributed architecture; this system would transmit on frequencies between 13.4 and 13.7 GHz and receive on frequencies between 14.6 and 14.89 GHz, and the bandwidth will support seven high-data-rate users and 12 low-data-rate users. The IF components and antennas for the MACS are examined. A multiple access breadboard design is described.

  3. Kramers' rate for systems with multiplicative noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosas, Alexandre; Pinto, Italo'Ivo Lima Dias; Lindenberg, Katja

    2016-07-01

    Kramers' rate for the passage of trajectories X (t ) over an energy barrier due to thermal or other fluctuations is usually associated with additive noise. We present a generalization of Kramers' rate for systems with multiplicative noise. We show that the expression commonly used in the literature for multiplicative noise is not correct, and we present results of numerical integrations of the Langevin equation for d X (t )/d t evolving in a quartic bistable potential which corroborate our claim.

  4. Kramers' rate for systems with multiplicative noise.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Alexandre; Pinto, Italo'Ivo Lima Dias; Lindenberg, Katja

    2016-07-01

    Kramers' rate for the passage of trajectories X(t) over an energy barrier due to thermal or other fluctuations is usually associated with additive noise. We present a generalization of Kramers' rate for systems with multiplicative noise. We show that the expression commonly used in the literature for multiplicative noise is not correct, and we present results of numerical integrations of the Langevin equation for dX(t)/dt evolving in a quartic bistable potential which corroborate our claim. PMID:27575071

  5. Spacecraft Multiple Array Communication System Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian U.; Desilva, Kanishka; Sham, Catherine C.

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the NASA Johnson Space Center is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations, design validation, and performance verification. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space and ground environment in which the tools operate. In this paper, a spacecraft communication system with multiple arrays is simulated. Multiple array combined technique is used to increase the radio frequency coverage and data rate performance. The technique is to achieve phase coherence among the phased arrays to combine the signals at the targeting receiver constructively. There are many technical challenges in spacecraft integration with a high transmit power communication system. The array combining technique can improve the communication system data rate and coverage performances without increasing the system transmit power requirements. Example simulation results indicate significant performance improvement can be achieved with phase coherence implementation.

  6. The microprocessor-aided design of radioelectronic equipment Programming, typical solutions, and debugging methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksenko, A. G.; Galitsyn, A. A.; Ivannikov, A. D.

    Some basic principles in the design of digital equipment by microprocessors in the framework of CAM are discussed. Attention is given to technical and programming problems in improving the interface between microcomputers and control objects, the effective control of microprocessing systems, complex debugging techniques in microcomputer and microprocessing programs. Particular consideration is given to the design of digital filters.

  7. Dynamic characterization and microprocessor control of the NASA/UVA proof mass actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, D. C.; Inman, D. J.; Horner, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    The self-contained electromagnetic-reaction-type force-actuator system developed by NASA/UVA for the verification of spacecraft-structure vibration-control laws is characterized and demonstrated. The device is controlled by a dedicated microprocessor and has dynamic characteristics determined by Fourier analysis. Test data on a cantilevered beam are shown.

  8. Performance of code division multiple access systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, C. L.; Huth, G. K.; Batson, B. H.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of code division multiple-access (CDMA) systems is determined using direct sequence spectral spreading. Under relatively ideal conditions, the degradation in system performance as a function of the number of users is shown to have a threshold effect. This basic limitation in the number of users of the system is further limited if the powers are unequal. For two users, system performance as a function of their power ratio also has a threshold effect. System performance as a function of the amount of spectral spreading is determined. The performance of both coded and uncoded systems is predicted.

  9. Satellite multiple access systems for mobile communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    This paper considers multiple access techniques for a mobile radio system which incorporates a geosynchronous orbiting satellite repeater through which mobile terminals communicate. The communication capacities of FDMA, TDMA and CDMA systems are examined for a 4 MHz bandwidth system to serve up to 10,000 users. An FDMA system with multibeam coverage is analyzed in detail. The system includes an order-wire network for demand-access control and reassignment of satellite channels. Satellite and terminal configurations are developed to a block diagram level and system costs and implementation requirements are discussed.

  10. Multiple System Atrophy with Orthostatic Hypotension (Shy-Drager Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple System Atrophy with Orthostatic Hypotension Information Page Synonym(s): Shy- ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Multiple System Atrophy with Orthostatic Hypotension? Multiple system atrophy with ...

  11. Automatic multi-banking of memory for microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiker, G. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A microprocessor system is provided with added memories to expand its address spaces beyond its address word length capacity by using indirect addressing instructions of a type having a detectable operations code and dedicating designated address spaces of memory to each of the added memories, one space to a memory. By decoding each operations code of instructions read from main memory into a decoder to identify indirect addressing instructions of the specified type, and then decoding the address that follows in a decoder to determine which added memory is associated therewith, the associated added memory is selectively enabled through a unit while the main memory is disabled to permit the instruction to be executed on the location to which the effective address of the indirect address instruction points, either before the indirect address is read from main memory or afterwards, depending on how the system is arranged by a switch.

  12. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    SciTech Connect

    Amy E. Lewis, Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-09-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera’s user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  13. Information Technologies for the 1980's: Lasers and Microprocessors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, William D.

    This discussion of the development and application of lasers and microprocessors to information processing stresses laser communication in relation to capacity, reliability, and cost and the advantages of this technology to real-time information access and information storage. The increased capabilities of microprocessors are reviewed, and a…

  14. Microprocessor-based single particle calibration of scintillation counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazumdar, G. K. D.; Pathak, K. M.

    1985-01-01

    A microprocessor-base set-up is fabricated and tested for the single particle calibration of the plastic scintillator. The single particle response of the scintillator is digitized by an A/D converter, and a 8085 A based microprocessor stores the pulse heights. The digitized information is printed. Facilities for CRT display and cassette storing and recalling are also made available.

  15. Microprocessors: An Understandable Guide for the Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okinaka, Russell T.

    A microprocessor constitutes the heart and soul of a personal computer. Indeed, the quality of a personal computer is determined largely by the type of microprocessor that is included within its circuitry. Since the microcomputer revolution began in the late 1970s, these special chips have gone through a series of improvements and modifications.…

  16. Multiple Fault Isolation in Redundant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattipati, Krishna R.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Iverson, David

    1997-01-01

    Fault diagnosis in large-scale systems that are products of modern technology present formidable challenges to manufacturers and users. This is due to large number of failure sources in such systems and the need to quickly isolate and rectify failures with minimal down time. In addition, for fault-tolerant systems and systems with infrequent opportunity for maintenance (e.g., Hubble telescope, space station), the assumption of at most a single fault in the system is unrealistic. In this project, we have developed novel block and sequential diagnostic strategies to isolate multiple faults in the shortest possible time without making the unrealistic single fault assumption.

  17. Multiple Fault Isolation in Redundant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pattipati, Krishna R.

    1997-01-01

    Fault diagnosis in large-scale systems that are products of modem technology present formidable challenges to manufacturers and users. This is due to large number of failure sources in such systems and the need to quickly isolate and rectify failures with minimal down time. In addition, for fault-tolerant systems and systems with infrequent opportunity for maintenance (e.g., Hubble telescope, space station), the assumption of at most a single fault in the system is unrealistic. In this project, we have developed novel block and sequential diagnostic strategies to isolate multiple faults in the shortest possible time without making the unrealistic single fault assumption.

  18. Multiple Intelligences Theory in Turkish Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Osman Nafiz

    2006-01-01

    Turkey can be regarded as a cultural bridge between the East and the West. After Turkish Republic was established by Ataturk in 1923, many radical revolutions, including the Turkish Education System, were made in order for Turkey to reach the level of contemporary civilizations. In the last two decades, Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory has been…

  19. Establishment of cells to monitor Microprocessor through fusion genes of microRNA and GFP

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutsui, Motomu; Hasegawa, Hitoki; Adachi, Koichi; Miyata, Maiko; Huang, Peng; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hamaguchi, Michinari; Iwamoto, Takashi

    2008-08-08

    Microprocessor, the complex of Drosha and DGCR8, promotes the processing of primary microRNA to precursor microRNA, which is a crucial step for microRNA maturation. So far, no convenient assay systems have been developed for observing this step in vivo. Here we report the establishment of highly sensitive cellular systems where we can visually monitor the function of Microprocessor. During a series of screening of transfectants with fusion genes of the EGFP cDNA and primary microRNA genes, we have obtained certain cell lines where introduction of siRNA against DGCR8 or Drosha strikingly augments GFP signals. In contrast, these cells have not responded to Dicer siRNA; thus they have a unique character that GFP signals should be negatively and specifically correlated to the action of Microprocessor among biogenesis of microRNA. These cell lines can be useful tools for real-time analysis of Microprocessor action in vivo and identifying its novel modulators.

  20. Multiple vehicle coordination and cooperative estimation for target tracking with applications to autonomous underwater vehicle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triplett, Benjamin

    2008-07-01

    The subjects of Multi-vehicle coordinated control and fin-actuated underwater vehicles are receiving significant attention. Coordinated control is becoming more practical as advances in technology increase the areas of application in which systems of multiple vehicles could accomplish challenging tasks that are difficult or infeasible for a single vehicle to complete. Advances in sensor technology, improvements in wireless communication systems, and increases in microprocessor computation speed, all contribute to the creation of successful coordinated control systems. Coordinated target tracking, in which several pursuit autonomous pursuit vehicles follow and maintain state knowledge of a target vehicle, is the coordinated multiple-vehicle problem that is studied in this dissertation. Results show that multiple vehicles can be used to advantage in the target tracking problem, and that the sharing of target state information, whether data from measurements or estimates, improves the target tracking results. A fin-actuated underwater vehicle (FUV) was created as a hardware test platform for the application and study of both geometric methods in control and multiple-vehicle coordination. Combined with simulation based on geometric control methods, the FUV demonstrates remarkably good agreement between theory and experiment. Simple maneuvers such as forward swimming and turning, as well as more complicated agile maneuvers such as snap-turns are demonstrated by the robot and in simulation. Further, the robot is used with feedback control and radio communication in order to accomplish a number of individual and multi-vehicle tasks, such as radio-control, autonomous trajectory tracking, and coordinated heading control.

  1. Stress Effects on Multiple Memory System Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Deborah; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Extensive behavioural, pharmacological, and neurological research reports stress effects on mammalian memory processes. While stress effects on memory quantity have been known for decades, the influence of stress on multiple memory systems and their distinct contributions to the learning process have only recently been described. In this paper, after summarizing the fundamental biological aspects of stress/emotional arousal and recapitulating functionally and anatomically distinct memory systems, we review recent animal and human studies exploring the effects of stress on multiple memory systems. Apart from discussing the interaction between distinct memory systems in stressful situations, we will also outline the fundamental role of the amygdala in mediating such stress effects. Additionally, based on the methods applied in the herein discussed studies, we will discuss how memory translates into behaviour. PMID:27034845

  2. The microprocessor-based synthesizer controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wick, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    Implementation and performance of the microprocessor-based controllers and Dana Digiphase Synthesizer (DCO) installed in the Deep Space Network exciter in the 64-meter and 34-meter subnets to support uplink tuning required for the Voyager-Saturn Encounter is discussed. Test data in tests conducted during the production of the controllers verified the design objective for phase control accuracy of 10 to the - 12 power cycles in eight hours during ramping. Tests conducted require a phase error between a theoretical calculated value and the actual phase of no greater than + or - 1 cycle. Tests included (1) a ramp over a period of eight hours using a ramp rate which covers the synthesizer tuning range (40-51 MHz) and (2) a ramp sequence using the maximum rate (+ or kHz/s) over the tuning range.

  3. Optical-fiber/microprocessor-based remote velocity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, M. M.; Wolfe, J. P.

    A remote velocity sensor has been developed that uses both a fiber optic system to monitor the position of an object and a microprocessor to track the object's position and calculate its average forward velocity between fiducial points (marks on a code plate). Sensing does not require electrical power at the sensing site, and the data are transmitted to the processing site by optical fibers whose inherent advantages include essential immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). A feasibility model was designed, built, and evaluated that has a position resolution of 0.4 mm and is capable of calculating velocities up to 2.1 m/s with the particular code plate used.

  4. Multiple Fault Isolation in Redundant Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shakeri, M.; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Raghavan, V.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Iverson, David L.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the problem of sequencing tests to isolate multiple faults in redundant (fault-tolerant) systems with minimum expected testing cost (time). It can be shown that single faults and minimal faults, i.e., minimum number of failures with a failure signature different from the union of failure signatures of individual failures, together with their failure signatures, constitute the necessary information for fault diagnosis in redundant systems. In this paper, we develop an algorithm to find all the minimal faults and their failure signatures. Then, we extend the Sure diagnostic strategies [1] of our previous work to diagnose multiple faults in redundant systems. The proposed algorithms and strategies are illustrated using several examples.

  5. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Prototype Development

    SciTech Connect

    D.L. Chichester; S.A. Pozzi; J.L. Dolan; M.T. Kinlaw; S.J. Thompson; A.C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J.T. Johnson; S.M. Watson

    2013-09-01

    This document serves as both an FY2103 End-of-Year and End-of-Project report on efforts that resulted in the design of a prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter leveraged upon the findings of previous project efforts. The prototype design includes 32 liquid scintillator detectors with cubic volumes 7.62 cm in dimension configured into 4 stacked rings of 8 detectors. Detector signal collection for the system is handled with a pair of Struck Innovative Systeme 16-channel digitizers controlled by in-house developed software with built-in multiplicity analysis algorithms. Initial testing and familiarization of the currently obtained prototype components is underway, however full prototype construction is required for further optimization. Monte Carlo models of the prototype system were performed to estimate die-away and efficiency values. Analysis of these models resulted in the development of a software package capable of determining the effects of nearest-neighbor rejection methods for elimination of detector cross talk. A parameter study was performed using previously developed analytical methods for the estimation of assay mass variance for use as a figure-of-merit for system performance. A software package was developed to automate these calculations and ensure accuracy. The results of the parameter study show that the prototype fast neutron multiplicity counter design is very nearly optimized under the restraints of the parameter space.

  6. Integrally regulated solar array demonstration using an Intel 8080 microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrik, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    A concept for regulating the voltage of a solar array by using a microprocessor to effect discrete voltage changes was demonstrated. Eight shorting switches were employed to regulate a simulated array at set-point voltages between 10,000 and 15,000 volts. The demonstration showed that the microprocessor easily regulated the solar array output voltage independently of whether or not the switched cell groups were binary sized in voltage. In addition, the microprocessor provided logic memory capability to perform additional tasks such as locating and insolating a faulty switch.

  7. Application of Microprocessor-Based Equipment in Nuclear Power Plants - Technical Basis for a Qualification Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.

    2001-08-24

    This document (1) summarizes the most significant findings of the ''Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Systems'' program initiated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); (2) documents a comparative analysis of U.S. and European qualification standards; and (3) provides recommendations for enhancing regulatory guidance for environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related systems. Safety-related I&C system upgrades of present-day nuclear power plants, as well as I&C systems of Advanced Light-Water Reactors (ALWRs), are expected to make increasing use of microprocessor-based technology. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) recognized that the use of such technology may pose environmental qualification challenges different from current, analog-based I&C systems. Hence, it initiated the ''Qualification of Advanced Instrumentation and Control Systems'' program. The objectives of this confirmatory research project are to (1) identify any unique environmental-stress-related failure modes posed by digital technologies and their potential impact on the safety systems and (2) develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance using these findings. Previous findings from this study have been documented in several technical reports. This final report in the series documents a comparative analysis of two environmental qualification standards--Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Std 323-1983 and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60780 (1998)--and provides recommendations for environmental qualification of microprocessor-based systems based on this analysis as well as on the findings documented in the previous reports. The two standards were chosen for this analysis because IEEE 323 is the standard used in the U.S. for the qualification of safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants, and IEC 60780 is its European counterpart. In addition, the IEC document was published in 1998, and should

  8. Multiple system atrophy: pathogenic mechanisms and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Jellinger, Kurt A; Wenning, Gregor K

    2016-06-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a unique proteinopathy that differs from other α-synucleinopathies since the pathological process resulting from accumulation of aberrant α-synuclein (αSyn) involves the oligodendroglia rather than neurons, although both pathologies affect multiple parts of the brain, spinal cord, autonomic and peripheral nervous system. Both the etiology and pathogenesis of MSA are unknown, although animal models have provided insight into the basic molecular changes of this disorder. Accumulation of aberrant αSyn in oligodendroglial cells and preceded by relocation of p25α protein from myelin to oligodendroglia results in the formation of insoluble glial cytoplasmic inclusions that cause cell dysfunction and demise. These changes are associated with proteasomal, mitochondrial and lipid transport dysfunction, oxidative stress, reduced trophic transport, neuroinflammation and other noxious factors. Their complex interaction induces dysfunction of the oligodendroglial-myelin-axon-neuron complex, resulting in the system-specific pattern of neurodegeneration characterizing MSA as a synucleinopathy with oligodendroglio-neuronopathy. Propagation of modified toxic αSyn species from neurons to oligodendroglia by "prion-like" transfer and its spreading associated with neuronal pathways result in a multi-system involvement. No reliable biomarkers are currently available for the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of MSA. Multidisciplinary research to elucidate the genetic and molecular background of the deleterious cycle of noxious processes, to develop reliable diagnostic biomarkers and to deliver targets for effective treatment of this hitherto incurable disorder is urgently needed. PMID:27098666

  9. Electronic Design Automation (EDA) Roadmap Taskforce Report, Design of Microprocessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    The goal of this project was to support the establishment of tool interoperability standards for the semiconductor industry. Accomplishments include the publication of the 'EDA Industry Standards Roadmap - 1996' and the 'EDA Roadmap Taskforce Report - Design of Microprocessors.'

  10. Microprocessor control and networking for the amps breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Stephen A.

    1987-01-01

    Future space missions will require more sophisticated power systems, implying higher costs and more extensive crew and ground support involvement. To decrease this human involvement, as well as to protect and most efficiently utilize this important resource, NASA has undertaken major efforts to promote progress in the design and development of autonomously managed power systems. Two areas being actively pursued are autonomous power system (APS) breadboards and knowledge-based expert system (KBES) applications. The former are viewed as a requirement for the timely development of the latter. Not only will they serve as final testbeds for the various KBES applications, but will play a major role in the knowledge engineering phase of their development. The current power system breadboard designs are of a distributed microprocessor nature. The distributed nature, plus the need to connect various external computer capabilities (i.e., conventional host computers and symbolic processors), places major emphasis on effective networking. The communications and networking technologies for the first power system breadboard/test facility are described.

  11. Proceedings: DISE Workshop on Microprocessors and Education (Fort Collins, Colorado, August 16-18, 1976).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittsburgh Univ., PA. Dept. of Electrical Engineering.

    Papers presented during four sessions of a workshop, which addressed the role of microprocessors in education, are included in this publication. The issues covered involved seven areas: (1) views of the microelectronics industry; (2) microprocessor architecture; (3) microprocessor chip design; (4) microprocessor software; (5) the impact of…

  12. Trieste conference on digital microelectronics and microprocessors in particle physics: Summary and concluding remarks

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, T.

    1988-08-01

    This paper is a written version of the Concluding Remarks presented at the International Conference on the Impact of Digital Microelectronics and Microprocessors on Particle Physics. The Conference emphasized on-line data acquisition and triggering problems in high energy physics. Among the participants there was a clearly growing consensus that as these real time systems become larger they require more attention from the beginning to overall system coherence and manageability issues. We consider what this means for SSC/LHC era detectors. Given the interesting results on pixel silicon, neural networks, and parallel microprocessor based computers presented at Trieste, we speculate on some surprisingly simple, though still very radical, ideas on systems solutions for those huge detectors.

  13. Multiple Bifurcations of a Cylindrical Dynamical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Ning; Cao, Qingjie

    2016-03-01

    This paper focuses on multiple bifurcations of a cylindrical dynamical system, which is evolved from a rotating pendulum with SD oscillator. The rotating pendulum system exhibits the coupling dynamics property of the bistable state and conventional pendulum with the ho- moclinic orbits of the first and second type. A double Andronov-Hopf bifurcation, two saddle-node bifurcations of periodic orbits and a pair of homoclinic bifurcations are detected by using analytical analysis and nu- merical calculation. It is found that the homoclinic orbits of the second type can bifurcate into a pair of rotational limit cycles, coexisting with the oscillating limit cycle. Additionally, the results obtained herein, are helpful to explore different types of limit cycles and the complex dynamic bifurcation of cylindrical dynamical system.

  14. [Susceptibility gene in multiple system atrophy (MSA)].

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate molecular bases of multiple system atrophy (MSA), we first focused on recently identified MSA multiplex families. Though linkage analyses followed by whole genome resequencing, we have identified a causative gene, COQ2, for MSA. We then conducted comprehensive nucleotide sequence analysis of COQ2 of sporadic MSA cases and controls, and found that functionally deleterious COQ2 variants confer a strong risk for developing MSA. COQ2 encodes an enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of coenzyme Q10. Decreased synthesis of coenzyme Q10 is considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of MSA through decreased electron transport in mitochondria and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. PMID:25672683

  15. Systemic Sclerosis with Multiple Pulmonary Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Parinita; Reddy, Venkata Siva Prasad; Sharma, Tarun; Salim, Nabil Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic autoimmune multisystem disorder characterized by endothelial dysfunction and fibroblast dysfunction, which results in progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs more frequently the lungs and gastro intestinal tract. Pulmonary involvement is common in the course of SSc, with Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD) and Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) being the leading causes of death. Here we report, case of an elderly female patient presenting with Diffuse SSc with multiple uncommon pulmonary manifestations like ILD with Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) pattern (usually less common), PAH and right sided pleural effusion. PMID:27504339

  16. Video Scene Recognition System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Robert Y.; Sallak, Rashid M.

    1983-03-01

    Microprocessors are used to show a possible implementation of a multiprocessoi system for video scene recognition operations. The system was designed in the multiple input stream and multiple data stream (MIMD) configuration. "Autonomous cooperation" among the working processors is supervised by a global operating system, the heart of which is the scheduler. The design of the scheduler and the overall operations of the system are discussed.

  17. Design of a microprocessor-based Control, Interface and Monitoring (CIM unit for turbine engine controls research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaat, J. C.; Soeder, J. F.

    1983-01-01

    High speed minicomputers were used in the past to implement advanced digital control algorithms for turbine engines. These minicomputers are typically large and expensive. It is desirable for a number of reasons to use microprocessor-based systems for future controls research. They are relatively compact, inexpensive, and are representative of the hardware that would be used for actual engine-mounted controls. The Control, Interface, and Monitoring Unit (CIM) contains a microprocessor-based controls computer, necessary interface hardware and a system to monitor while it is running an engine. It is presently being used to evaluate an advanced turbofan engine control algorithm.

  18. Force regulation in multiple-manipulator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, John T.; Murphy, Steve H.

    1992-01-01

    A new intuitively appealing interpretation of the internal force in a multiple-arm system is presented. The static gravity-free case is considered where internal force has a well-founded physical meaning. The case is extended to the general dynamic case by removing the inertial force through balancing it with the minimum amount of contact force. The remaining component in the contact force is considered to be the sole contributor to the inertial force. Existing techniques for force control can be used to obtain various stabilizing force set point control laws. Particular attention is given to the motion control strategy for multiple arm systems. Three types of control laws, feedback linearization, arms-as-actuators, and passive control, are addressed. The first two techniques provide simplified control tuning but require much model information. The latter approach is considered to be very robust with respect to the model, but good transient performance is more challenging to obtain. It is suggested to combine one of the model-based approaches with the passive control approach.

  19. Multiple channel optical data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, G.E.; Goff, D.R.

    1985-02-22

    A multiple channel optical data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote sensors monitoring specific process variable are interrogated by means of a single optical fiber connecting the remote station/sensors to a base station. The remote station/sensors derive all power from light transmitted through the fiber from the base station. Each station/sensor is individually accessed by means of a light modulated address code sent over the fiber. The remote station/sensors use a single light emitting diode to both send and receive light signals to communicate with the base station and provide power for the remote station. The system described can power at least 100 remote station/sensors over an optical fiber one mile in length.

  20. Multiple beam antenna/switch system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In the study of the Multiple Beam Antenna/Switch for the space to ground link (SGL) uplink and downlink services, several issues related to system engineering, antenna, transmit/receive, and switch systems were addressed and the results are provided. Bandwidth allocation at Ku band is inadequate to serve the data rate requirements for the forward and return services. Rain and depolarization effects at EHF, especially at Ka band, pose a significant threat to the link availabilities at heavy rain areas. Hardware induced effects such as the nonlinear characteristics of the power amplifier may necessitate the use of linearizers and limiters. It is also important to identify the components that are susceptible to the space radiation effects and shield or redesign them with rad-hard technologies for meeting the requirements of the space environment.

  1. GPS/MEMS IMU/Microprocessor Board for Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gender, Thomas K.; Chow, James; Ott, William E.

    2009-01-01

    A miniaturized instrumentation package comprising a (1) Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, (2) an inertial measurement unit (IMU) consisting largely of surface-micromachined sensors of the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) type, and (3) a microprocessor, all residing on a single circuit board, is part of the navigation system of a compact robotic spacecraft intended to be released from a larger spacecraft [e.g., the International Space Station (ISS)] for exterior visual inspection of the larger spacecraft. Variants of the package may also be useful in terrestrial collision-detection and -avoidance applications. The navigation solution obtained by integrating the IMU outputs is fed back to a correlator in the GPS receiver to aid in tracking GPS signals. The raw GPS and IMU data are blended in a Kalman filter to obtain an optimal navigation solution, which can be supplemented by range and velocity data obtained by use of (l) a stereoscopic pair of electronic cameras aboard the robotic spacecraft and/or (2) a laser dynamic range imager aboard the ISS. The novelty of the package lies mostly in those aspects of the design of the MEMS IMU that pertain to controlling mechanical resonances and stabilizing scale factors and biases.

  2. Test report for single event effects of the 80386DX microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, R. Kevin; Schwartz, Harvey R.; Nichols, Donald K.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Section 514 Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing and Analysis Group has performed a series of SEE tests of certain strategic registers of Intel's 80386DX CHMOS 4 microprocessor. Following a summary of the test techniques and hardware used to gather the data, we present the SEE heavy ion and proton test results. We also describe the registers tested, along with a system impact analysis should these registers experience a single event upset.

  3. MicroShell Minimalist Shell for Xilinx Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werne, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    MicroShell is a lightweight shell environment for engineers and software developers working with embedded microprocessors in Xilinx FPGAs. (MicroShell has also been successfully ported to run on ARM Cortex-M1 microprocessors in Actel ProASIC3 FPGAs, but without project-integration support.) Micro Shell decreases the time spent performing initial tests of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) designs, simplifies running customizable one-time-only experiments, and provides a familiar-feeling command-line interface. The program comes with a collection of useful functions and enables the designer to add an unlimited number of custom commands, which are callable from the command-line. The commands are parameterizable (using the C-based command-line parameter idiom), so the designer can use one function to exercise hardware with different values. Also, since many hardware peripherals instantiated in FPGAs have reasonably simple register-mapped I/O interfaces, the engineer can edit and view hardware parameter settings at any time without stopping the processor. MicroShell comes with a set of support scripts that interface seamlessly with Xilinx's EDK tool. Adding an instance of MicroShell to a project is as simple as marking a check box in a library configuration dialog box and specifying a software project directory. The support scripts then examine the hardware design, build design-specific functions, conditionally include processor-specific functions, and complete the compilation process. For code-size constrained designs, most of the stock functionality can be excluded from the compiled library. When all of the configurable options are removed from the binary, MicroShell has an unoptimized memory footprint of about 4.8 kB and a size-optimized footprint of about 2.3 kB. Since MicroShell allows unfettered access to all processor-accessible memory locations, it is possible to perform live patching on a running system. This can be useful, for instance, if a bug is

  4. Robot motion tracking system with multiple views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamano, Hiroshi; Saito, Hideo

    2001-10-01

    In such a space where human workers and industrial robots work together, it has become necessary to monitor a robot motion for the safety. For such robot surveillance, we propose a robot tracking system from multiple view images. In this system, we treat tracking robot movement problem as an estimation problem of each pose parameter through all frames. This tracking algorithm consists of four stages, image generating stage, estimation stage, parameter searching stage, and prediction stage. At the first stage, robot area of real image is extracted by background subtraction. Here, Yuv color system is used because of reducing the change of lighting condition. By calibrating extrinsic and intrinsic parameters of all cameras with Tsai's method, we can project 3D model of the robot onto each camera. In the next stage, correlation of the input image and projected model image is calculated, which is defined by the area of robots in real and 3D images. At third stage, the pose parameters of the robot are estimated by maximizing the correlation. For computational efficiency, a high dimensional pose parameter space is divided into many low dimensional sub-spaces in accordance with the predicted pose parameters in the previous flame. We apply the proposed system for pose estimation of 5-axis robot manipulator. The estimated pose parameters are successfully matched with the actual pose of the robots.

  5. MPACT Fast Neutron Multiplicity System Design Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; S. A. Pozzi; J. L. Dolan; M. T. Kinlaw; A. C. Kaplan; M. Flaska; A. Enqvist; J. T. Johnsom; S. M. Watson

    2012-10-01

    This report documents work performed by Idaho National Laboratory and the University of Michigan in fiscal year (FY) 2012 to examine design parameters related to the use of fast-neutron multiplicity counting for assaying plutonium for materials protection, accountancy, and control purposes. This project seeks to develop a new type of neutron-measurement-based plutonium assay instrument suited for assaying advanced fuel cycle materials. Some current-concept advanced fuels contain high concentrations of plutonium; some of these concept fuels also contain other fissionable actinides besides plutonium. Because of these attributes the neutron emission rates of these new fuels may be much higher, and more difficult to interpret, than measurements made of plutonium-only materials. Fast neutron multiplicity analysis is one approach for assaying these advanced nuclear fuels. Studies have been performed to assess the conceptual performance capabilities of a fast-neutron multiplicity counter for assaying plutonium. Comparisons have been made to evaluate the potential improvements and benefits of fast-neutron multiplicity analyses versus traditional thermal-neutron counting systems. Fast-neutron instrumentation, using for example an array of liquid scintillators such as EJ-309, have the potential to either a) significantly reduce assay measurement times versus traditional approaches, for comparable measurement precision values, b) significantly improve assay precision values, for measurement durations comparable to current-generation technology, or c) moderating improve both measurement precision and measurement durations versus current-generation technology. Using the MCNPX-PoliMi Monte Carlo simulation code, studies have been performed to assess the doubles-detection efficiency for a variety of counter layouts of cylindrical liquid scintillator detector cells over one, two, and three rows. Ignoring other considerations, the best detector design is the one with the most

  6. The Challenge of Multiple Perspectives: Multiple Solution Tasks for Students Incorporating Diverse Tools and Representation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the role of multiple solution tasks (MST) incorporating multiple learning tools and representation systems (MTRS) in encouraging each student to develop multiple perspectives on the learning concepts under study and creativity of thought. Specifically, two types of MST were used, namely tasks that allowed and demanded…

  7. Probabilistic deployment for multiple sensor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Ming; Ferrari, Silvia

    2005-05-01

    The performance of many multi-sensor systems can be significantly improved by using a priori environmental information and sensor data to plan the movements of sensor platforms that are later deployed with the purpose of improving the quality of the final detection and classification results. However, existing path planning algorithms and ad-hoc data processing (e.g., fusion) techniques do not allow for the systematic treatment of multiple and heterogeneous sensors and their platforms. This paper presents a method that combines Bayesian network inference with probabilistic roadmap (PRM) planners to utilize the information obtained by different sensors and their level of uncertainty. The uncertainty of prior sensed information is represented by entropy values obtained from the Bayesian network (BN) models of the respective sensor measurement processes. The PRM algorithm is modified to utilize the entropy distribution in optimizing the path of posterior sensor platforms that have the following objectives: (1) improve the quality of the sensed information, i.e., through fusion, (2) minimize the distance traveled by the platforms, and (3) avoid obstacles. This so-called Probabilistic Deployment (PD) method is applied to a demining system comprised of ground-penetrating radars (GPR), electromagnetic (EMI), and infrared sensors (IR) installed on ground platforms, to detect and classify buried mines. Numerical simulations show that PD is more efficient than path planning techniques that do not utilize a priori information, such as complete coverage, random coverage method, or PRM methods that do not utilize Bayesian inference.

  8. The biological microprocessor, or how to build a computer with biological parts.

    PubMed

    Moe-Behrens, Gerd Hg

    2013-01-01

    Systemics, a revolutionary paradigm shift in scientific thinking, with applications in systems biology, and synthetic biology, have led to the idea of using silicon computers and their engineering principles as a blueprint for the engineering of a similar machine made from biological parts. Here we describe these building blocks and how they can be assembled to a general purpose computer system, a biological microprocessor. Such a system consists of biological parts building an input / output device, an arithmetic logic unit, a control unit, memory, and wires (busses) to interconnect these components. A biocomputer can be used to monitor and control a biological system. PMID:24688733

  9. The biological microprocessor, or how to build a computer with biological parts

    PubMed Central

    Moe-Behrens, Gerd HG

    2013-01-01

    Systemics, a revolutionary paradigm shift in scientific thinking, with applications in systems biology, and synthetic biology, have led to the idea of using silicon computers and their engineering principles as a blueprint for the engineering of a similar machine made from biological parts. Here we describe these building blocks and how they can be assembled to a general purpose computer system, a biological microprocessor. Such a system consists of biological parts building an input / output device, an arithmetic logic unit, a control unit, memory, and wires (busses) to interconnect these components. A biocomputer can be used to monitor and control a biological system. PMID:24688733

  10. A lightweight security scheme for wireless body area networks: design, energy evaluation and proposed microprocessor design.

    PubMed

    Selimis, Georgios; Huang, Li; Massé, Fabien; Tsekoura, Ioanna; Ashouei, Maryam; Catthoor, Francky; Huisken, Jos; Stuyt, Jan; Dolmans, Guido; Penders, Julien; De Groot, Harmke

    2011-10-01

    In order for wireless body area networks to meet widespread adoption, a number of security implications must be explored to promote and maintain fundamental medical ethical principles and social expectations. As a result, integration of security functionality to sensor nodes is required. Integrating security functionality to a wireless sensor node increases the size of the stored software program in program memory, the required time that the sensor's microprocessor needs to process the data and the wireless network traffic which is exchanged among sensors. This security overhead has dominant impact on the energy dissipation which is strongly related to the lifetime of the sensor, a critical aspect in wireless sensor network (WSN) technology. Strict definition of the security functionality, complete hardware model (microprocessor and radio), WBAN topology and the structure of the medium access control (MAC) frame are required for an accurate estimation of the energy that security introduces into the WBAN. In this work, we define a lightweight security scheme for WBAN, we estimate the additional energy consumption that the security scheme introduces to WBAN based on commercial available off-the-shelf hardware components (microprocessor and radio), the network topology and the MAC frame. Furthermore, we propose a new microcontroller design in order to reduce the energy consumption of the system. Experimental results and comparisons with other works are given. PMID:21373804

  11. High-speed video recording system using multiple CCD imagers and digital storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racca, Roberto G.; Clements, Reginald M.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes a fully solid state high speed video recording system. Its principle of operation is based on the use of several independent CCD imagers and an array of liquid crystal light valves that control which imager receives the light from the subject. The imagers are exposed in rapid succession and are then read out sequentially at standard video rate into digital memory, generating a time-resolved sequence with as many frames as there are imagers. This design allows the use of inexpensive, consumer-grade camera modules and electronics. A microprocessor-based controller, designed to accept up to ten imagers, handles all phases of the recording: exposure timing, image digitization and storage, and sequential playback onto a standard video monitor. The system is capable of recording full screen black and white images with spatial resolution similar to that of standard television, at rates of about 10,000 images per second in pulsed illumination mode. We have designed and built two optical configurations for the imager multiplexing system. The first one involves permanently splitting the subject light into multiple channels and placing a liquid crystal shutter in front of each imager. A prototype with three CCD imagers and shutters based on this configuration has allowed successful three-image video recordings of phenomena such as the action of an air rifle pellet shattering a piece of glass, using a high-intensity pulsed light emitting diode as the light source. The second configuration is more light-efficient in that it routes the entire subject light to each individual imager in sequence by using the liquid crystal cells as selectable binary switches. Despite some operational limitations, this method offers a solution when the available light, if subdivided among all the imagers, would not allow a sufficiently short exposure time.

  12. Study of limitations and attributes of microprocessor testing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccaskill, R.; Sohl, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    All microprocessor units have a similar architecture from which a basic test philosophy can be adopted and used to develop an approach to test each module separately in order to verify the functionality of each module within the device using the input/output pins of the device and its instruction set; test for destructive interaction between functional modules; and verify all timing, status information, and interrupt operations of the device. Block and test flow diagrams are given for the 8080, 8008, 2901, 6800, and 1802 microprocessors. Manufacturers are listed and problems encountered in testing the modules are discussed. Test equipment and methods are described.

  13. Novel therapeutic approaches in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2015-02-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic, adult onset, relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by autonomic abnormalities associated with parkinsonism, cerebellar dysfunction, pyramidal signs, or combinations thereof. Treatments that can halt or reverse the progression of MSA have not yet been identified. MSA is neuropathologically defined by the presence of α-synuclein-containing inclusions, particularly in the cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes (glial cytoplasmic inclusions, GCIs), which are associated with neurodegeneration. The mechanisms by which oligodendrocytic α-synuclein inclusions cause neuronal death in MSA are not completely understood. The MSA neurodegenerative process likely comprises cell-to-cell transmission of α-synuclein in a prion-like manner, α-synuclein aggregation, increased oxidative stress, abnormal expression of tubulin proteins, decreased expression of neurotrophic factors, excitotoxicity and microglial activation, and neuroinflammation. In an attempt to block each of these pathogenic mechanisms, several pharmacologic approaches have been tried and shown to exert neuroprotective effects in transgenic mouse or cellular models of MSA. These include sertraline, paroxetine, and lithium, which hamper arrival of α-synuclein to oligodendroglia; rifampicin, lithium, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, which inhibit α-synuclein aggregation in oligodendrocytes; riluzole, rasagiline, fluoxetine and mesenchymal stem cells, which exert neuroprotective actions; and minocycline and intravenous immunoglobulins, which reduce neuroinflammation and microglial activation. These and other potential therapeutic strategies for MSA are summarized in this review. PMID:24928797

  14. [Multiple system atrophy - synuclein and neuronal degeneration].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Mari

    2011-11-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder that encompasses olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), striatonigral degeneration (SND) and Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS). The histopathological hallmarks are α-synuclein (AS) positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in oligodendroglias. AS aggregation is also found in glial nuclear inclusions (GNIs), neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), neuronal nuclear inclusions (NNIs) and dystrophic neurties. Reviewing the pathological features of 102 MSA cases, OPCA-type was relatively more frequent and SND-type was less frequent in Japanese MSA cases, which suggested different phenotypic pattern of MSA might exist between races, compared to the relatively high frequency of SND-type in western countries. In early stage of MSA, NNIs, NCIs and diffuse homogenous stain of AS in neuronal nuclei and cytoplasm were observed in various vulnerable lesions including the pontine nuclei, putamen, substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, inferior olivary nucleus, intermediolateral column of thoracic cord, lower motor neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons, in additions to GCIs. These findings indicated that the primary nonfibrillar and fibrillar AS aggregation also occurred in neurons. Therefore both the direct involvement of neurons themselves and the oligodendroglia-myelin-axon mechanism may synergistically accelerate the degenerative process of MSA. PMID:22277386

  15. Novel Therapeutic Approaches in Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Palma, Jose-Alberto; Kaufmann, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic, adult onset, relentlessly, progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by autonomic abnormalities associated with parkinsonism, cerebellar dysfunction, pyramidal signs, or combinations thereof. Treatments that can halt or reverse the progression of MSA have not yet been identified. MSA is neuropathologically defined by the presence of α-synuclein–containing inclusions, particularly in the cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes (glial cytoplasmic inclusions, GCIs), which are associated with neurodegeneration. The mechanisms by which oligodendrocytic α-synuclein inclusions cause neuronal death in MSA are not completely understood. The MSA neurodegenerative process likely comprise cell-to-cell transmission of α-synuclein in a prion-like manner, α-synuclein aggregation, increased oxidative stress, abnormal expression of tubulin proteins, decreased expression of neurotrophic factors, excitotoxicity and microglial activation, and neuroinflammation. In an attempt to block each of these pathogenic mechanisms, several pharmacologic approaches have been tried and shown to exert neuroprotective effects in transgenic mouse or cellular models of MSA. These include sertraline, paroxetine, and lithium, which hamper arrival of α-synuclein to oligodendroglia; rifampicin, lithium, and non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs, which inhibit α-synuclein aggregation in oligodendrocytes; riluzole, rasagiline, fluoxetine and mesenchimal stem cells, which exert neuroprotective actions; and minocycline and intravenous immunoglobulins, which reduce neuroinflammation and microglial activation. These and other potential therapeutic strategies for MSA are summarized in this review. PMID:24928797

  16. Towards translational therapies for multiple system atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Kuzdas-Wood, Daniela; Stefanova, Nadia; Jellinger, Kurt A.; Seppi, Klaus; Schlossmacher, Michael G.; Poewe, Werner; Wenning, Gregor K.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder of uncertain etiopathogenesis manifesting with autonomic failure, parkinsonism, and ataxia in any combination. The underlying neuropathology affects central autonomic, striatonigral and olivopontocerebellar pathways and it is associated with distinctive glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs, Papp-Lantos bodies) that contain aggregates of α-synuclein. Current treatment options are very limited and mainly focused on symptomatic relief, whereas disease modifying options are lacking. Despite extensive testing, no neuroprotective drug treatment has been identified up to now; however, a neurorestorative approach utilizing autologous mesenchymal stem cells has shown remarkable beneficial effects in the cerebellar variant of MSA. Here, we review the progress made over the last decade in defining pathogenic targets in MSA and summarize insights gained from candidate disease-modifying interventions that have utilized a variety of well-established preclinical MSA models. We also discuss the current limitations that our field faces and suggest solutions for possible approaches in cause-directed therapies of MSA. PMID:24598411

  17. The Single Event Effect Characteristics of the 486-DX4 Microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouba, Coy; Choi, Gwan

    1996-01-01

    This research describes the development of an experimental radiation testing environment to investigate the single event effect (SEE) susceptibility of the 486-DX4 microprocessor. SEE effects are caused by radiation particles that disrupt the logic state of an operating semiconductor, and include single event upsets (SEU) and single event latchup (SEL). The relevance of this work can be applied directly to digital devices that are used in spaceflight computer systems. The 486-DX4 is a powerful commercial microprocessor that is currently under consideration for use in several spaceflight systems. As part of its selection process, it must be rigorously tested to determine its overall reliability in the space environment, including its radiation susceptibility. The goal of this research is to experimentally test and characterize the single event effects of the 486-DX4 microprocessor using a cyclotron facility as the fault-injection source. The test philosophy is to focus on the "operational susceptibility," by executing real software and monitoring for errors while the device is under irradiation. This research encompasses both experimental and analytical techniques, and yields a characterization of the 486-DX4's behavior for different operating modes. Additionally, the test methodology can accommodate a wide range of digital devices, such as microprocessors, microcontrollers, ASICS, and memory modules, for future testing. The goals were achieved by testing with three heavy-ion species to provide different linear energy transfer rates, and a total of six microprocessor parts were tested from two different vendors. A consistent set of error modes were identified that indicate the manner in which the errors were detected in the processor. The upset cross-section curves were calculated for each error mode, and the SEU threshold and saturation levels were identified for each processor. Results show a distinct difference in the upset rate for different configurations of

  18. SEU characterization and design dependence of the SA3300 microprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, F.W.; Treece, R.K.; Axness, C.L.; Hughes, K.H.; Hash, G.L.; Hass, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    The SA3300 16-bit microprocessor is a key component for interplanetary space probes to be launched in the 1990's. A full SEU characterization of the D-latches of the SA3300 is given, including pattern sensitivity and temperature. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  19. A radiation-hardened 16/32-bit microprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, K.J.; Treece, R.K.; Giddings, A.E.

    1989-01-01

    A radiation-hardened 16/32-bit microprocessor has been fabricated and tested. Our initial evaluation has demonstrated that it is functional after a total gamma dose of 5Mrad(Si) and is immune to SEU from Krypton ions. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Advanced Electricity. Microprocessors and Robotics. Curriculum Development. Bulletin 1803.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern Louisiana Univ., Hammond.

    This model instructional unit was developed to aid industrial arts/technology education teachers in Louisiana to teach a course on microprocessors and robotics in grades 11 and 12. It provides guidance on model performance objectives, current technology content, sources, and supplemental materials. Following a course description, rationale, and…

  1. Nonanalytic function generation routines for 16-bit microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soeder, J. F.; Shaufl, M.

    1980-01-01

    Interpolation techniques for three types (univariate, bivariate, and map) of nonanalytic functions are described. These interpolation techniques are then implemented in scaled fraction arithmetic on a representative 16 bit microprocessor. A FORTRAN program is described that facilitates the scaling, documentation, and organization of data for use by these routines. Listings of all these programs are included in an appendix.

  2. A microprocessor-based beam sweep control unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, R.; Mertens, P.

    1981-10-01

    Using a microprocessor a beam sweep control module has been developed that facilitates ion beam experiments or ion implantation at a constant ion beam density. The density is regulated by varying the amplitude of an x- y-deflection system. The control unit supplies an analogue output voltage which is employed to adjust this amplitude. In our experiment a commercially available DANFYSIK Model 730 beam sweep system has been modified to enable external amplitude control. The control unit can be operated manually or by computer support. In any case the initial ion beam density and ion dose are to be set manually. Four functions (START, STOP, RESET, optional: SHUTTER) are controlled via push buttons or external signals. Coincident with the START-signal the shutter is opened. The ion charge on the target is now accumulated for 10 s. If deviations larger than 2% full scale from the initial beam density are measured the analogue output voltage of the control unit is changed. In case the initial value cannot be regulated within a limited voltage range, a warning is given (lamp and level). Under normal operation the shutter is closed when the preset ion dose has been accumulated. The control unit is manufactured in a standard NIM housing (four units) and has the following features: analogue instruments for (1) ion current and (2) deviation between initial and actual ion current, (3) three digits and one exponent to preset the ion charge, digital displays for (4) accumulated ion charge and (5) time, and (6) a potentiometer to set the initial control voltage, i.e. the ion beam density. The combination of these features together with the simple three - pushbutton - operation makes the instrument a very versatile tool for ion beam experiments.

  3. Multiple-channel Streaming Delivery for Omnidirectional Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Yoshio; Nagahara, Hajime; Yachida, Masahiko

    An omnidirectional vision is an imaging system that can capture a surrounding image in whole direction by using a hyperbolic mirror and a conventional CCD camera. This paper proposes a streaming server that can efficiently transfer movies captured by an omnidirectional vision system through the Internet. The proposed system uses multiple channels to deliver multiple movies synchronously. Through this method, the system enables clients to view the different direction of omnidirectional movies and also support the function to change the view are during playback period. Our evaluation experiments show that our proposed streaming server can effectively deliver multiple movies via multiple channels.

  4. Use of electronic microprocessor-based instrumentation by the U.S. geological survey for hydrologic data collection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shope, William G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is acquiring a new generation of field computers and communications software to support hydrologic data-collection at field locations. The new computer hardware and software mark the beginning of the Survey's transition from the use of electromechanical devices and paper tapes to electronic microprocessor-based instrumentation. Software is being developed for these microprocessors to facilitate the collection, conversion, and entry of data into the Survey's National Water Information System. The new automated data-collection process features several microprocessor-controlled sensors connected to a serial digital multidrop line operated by an electronic data recorder. Data are acquired from the sensors in response to instructions programmed into the data recorder by the user through small portable lap-top or hand-held computers. The portable computers, called personal field computers, also are used to extract data from the electronic recorders for transport by courier to the office computers. The Survey's alternative to manual or courier retrieval is the use of microprocessor-based remote telemetry stations. Plans have been developed to enhance the Survey's use of the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite telemetry by replacing the present network of direct-readout ground stations with less expensive units. Plans also provide for computer software that will support other forms of telemetry such as telephone or land-based radio.

  5. Neural signal sampling via the low power wireless pico system.

    PubMed

    Cieslewski, Grzegorz; Cheney, David; Gugel, Karl; Sanchez, Justin C; Principe, Jose C

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a powerful new low power wireless system for sampling multiple channels of neural activity based on Texas Instruments MSP430 microprocessors and Nordic Semiconductor's ultra low power high bandwidth RF transmitters and receivers. The system's development process, component selection, features and test methodology are presented. PMID:17946727

  6. Multiple Thesauri in Online Library Bibliographic Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Carol A.

    This report responds to the need for North American libraries to provide computer support for multiple subject lists or controlled vocabularies as they automate separate catalogs using specialized thesauri for certain subject areas, materials, and audiences in addition to their main library catalogs. The focus of the report is the integration of…

  7. Multiple operating system rotation environment moving target defense

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Nathaniel; Thompson, Michael

    2016-03-22

    Systems and methods for providing a multiple operating system rotation environment ("MORE") moving target defense ("MTD") computing system are described. The MORE-MTD system provides enhanced computer system security through a rotation of multiple operating systems. The MORE-MTD system increases attacker uncertainty, increases the cost of attacking the system, reduces the likelihood of an attacker locating a vulnerability, and reduces the exposure time of any located vulnerability. The MORE-MTD environment is effectuated by rotation of the operating systems at a given interval. The rotating operating systems create a consistently changing attack surface for remote attackers.

  8. Optical detector calibrator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strobel, James P. (Inventor); Moerk, John S. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An optical detector calibrator system simulates a source of optical radiation to which a detector to be calibrated is responsive. A light source selected to emit radiation in a range of wavelengths corresponding to the spectral signature of the source is disposed within a housing containing a microprocessor for controlling the light source and other system elements. An adjustable iris and a multiple aperture filter wheel are provided for controlling the intensity of radiation emitted from the housing by the light source to adjust the simulated distance between the light source and the detector to be calibrated. The geared iris has an aperture whose size is adjustable by means of a first stepper motor controlled by the microprocessor. The multiple aperture filter wheel contains neutral density filters of different attenuation levels which are selectively positioned in the path of the emitted radiation by a second stepper motor that is also controlled by the microprocessor. An operator can select a number of detector tests including range, maximum and minimum sensitivity, and basic functionality. During the range test, the geared iris and filter wheel are repeatedly adjusted by the microprocessor as necessary to simulate an incrementally increasing simulated source distance. A light source calibration subsystem is incorporated in the system which insures that the intensity of the light source is maintained at a constant level over time.

  9. Multiple channel secure communication using chaotic system encoding

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    fA new method to encrypt signals using chaotic systems has been developed that offers benefits over conventional chaotic encryption methods. The method simultaneously encodes multiple plaintext streams using a chaotic system; a key is required to extract the plaintext from the chaotic cipertext. A working prototype demonstrates feasibility of the method by simultaneously encoding and decoding multiple audio signals using electrical circuits.

  10. Simulated fault injection - A methodology to evaluate fault tolerant microprocessor architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Gwan S.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.; Carreno, Victor A.

    1990-01-01

    A simulation-based fault-injection method for validating fault-tolerant microprocessor architectures is described. The approach uses mixed-mode simulation (electrical/logic analysis), and injects transient errors in run-time to assess the resulting fault impact. As an example, a fault-tolerant architecture which models the digital aspects of a dual-channel real-time jet-engine controller is used. The level of effectiveness of the dual configuration with respect to single and multiple transients is measured. The results indicate 100 percent coverage of single transients. Approximately 12 percent of the multiple transients affect both channels; none result in controller failure since two additional levels of redundancy exist.

  11. Prototype microprocessor controller. [for STDN antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarur, J.; Kraeuter, R.

    1980-01-01

    A microcomputer controller for STDN antennas was developed. The microcomputer technology reduces the system's physical size by the implementation in firmware of functions. The reduction in the number of components increases system reliability and similar benefit is derived when a graphic video display is substituted for several control and indicator panels. A substantial reduction in the number of cables, connectors, and mechanical switches is achieved. The microcomputer based system is programmed to perform calibration and diagnostics, to update the satellite orbital vector, and to communicate with other network systems. The design is applicable to antennas and lasers.

  12. A multiple-input multiple-output system for modeling the cardiac dynamics.

    PubMed

    Monzon, Jorge E; Picaza, Carlos Alvarez; Pisarello, Maria I

    2011-01-01

    We describe the dynamics of the cardiovascular system by finding the input-output relationships in the state space of a functional cardiac model, based on state equations and observability criteria of control theory. The unit step response of the multiple-input multiple-output system model illustrates the damping effect of the arterial wall to the pulsatility of the heart. Our results show that hypertensive patients exhibit a lower inertia of the blood flow. PMID:22254491

  13. A rocket-borne data-manipulation experiment using a microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, L. L.; Smith, L. G.; Voss, H. D.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a data-manipulation experiment using a Z-80 microprocessor is described. The instrumentation is included in the payloads of two Nike Apache sounding rockets used in an investigation of energetic particle fluxes. The data from an array of solid-state detectors and an electrostatic analyzer is processed to give the energy spectrum as a function of pitch angle. The experiment performed well in its first flight test: Nike Apache 14.543 was launched from Wallops Island at 2315 EST on 19 June 1978. The system was designed to be easily adaptable to other data-manipulation requirements and some suggestions for further development are included.

  14. Automatic testing of microprocessors in radiation environments

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, R.C.

    1984-04-01

    A system for the acquisition of real-time failure data has been designed for in-situ total ionizing dose testing of large-scale integrated circuits. System selection considerations are discussed. Data acquisition and analysis features are described using the Intel MCS-51 microcontroller family as an example.

  15. Structural system reliability under multiple failure modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahadevan, S.; Chamis, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a computational method for system reliability estimation of propulsion structures. The failure domain of the entire structural system is computed through the union of failure regions for various critical system failure modes. The effect of non-critical progressive damage is incorporated through structural reanalysis, resulting in the construction of several linear segments to approximately cover the system failure domain. An adaptive damage imposition scheme is outlined for the sake of computational efficiency. The proposed method is used to construct the system survival cdf (cumulative distribution function) of a two-rotor system.

  16. Method and system of integrating information from multiple sources

    DOEpatents

    Alford, Francine A.; Brinkerhoff, David L.

    2006-08-15

    A system and method of integrating information from multiple sources in a document centric application system. A plurality of application systems are connected through an object request broker to a central repository. The information may then be posted on a webpage. An example of an implementation of the method and system is an online procurement system.

  17. Multiple IMU system development, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landey, M.; Mckern, R.

    1974-01-01

    A redundant gimballed inertial system is described. System requirements and mechanization methods are defined and hardware and software development is described. Failure detection and isolation algorithms are presented and technology achievements described. Application of the system as a test tool for shuttle avionics concepts is outlined.

  18. Microprocessors: Laboratory Simulation of Industrial Control Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedeon, David V.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a course to make technical managers more aware of computer technology and how data loggers, programmable controllers, and larger computer systems interact in a hierarchical configuration of manufacturing process control. (SK)

  19. Dynamical configurations of celestial systems comprised of multiple irregular bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Yun; Baoyin, Hexi; Li, Junfeng

    2016-09-01

    This manuscript considers the main features of the nonlinear dynamics of multiple irregular celestial body systems. The gravitational potential, static electric potential, and magnetic potential are considered. Based on the three established potentials, we show that three conservative values exist for this system, including a Jacobi integral. The equilibrium conditions for the system are derived and their stability analyzed. The equilibrium conditions of a celestial system comprised of n irregular bodies are reduced to 12n - 9 equations. The dynamical results are applied to simulate the motion of multiple-asteroid systems. The simulation is useful for the study of the stability of multiple irregular celestial body systems and for the design of spacecraft orbits to triple-asteroid systems discovered in the solar system. The dynamical configurations of the five triple-asteroid systems 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 216 Kleopatra, and 136617 1994CC, and the six-body system 134340 Pluto are calculated and analyzed.

  20. Integrated multiple-input multiple-output visible light communications systems: recent progress and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Dominic; Haas, Harald; Rajbhandari, Sujan; Chun, Hyunchae; Faulkner, Grahame; Cameron, Katherine; Jalajakumari, Aravind V. N.; Henderson, Robert; Tsonev, Dobroslav; Ijaz, Muhammad; Chen, Zhe; Xie, Enyuan; McKendry, Jonathan J. D.; Herrnsdorf, Johannes; Gu, Erdan; Dawson, Martin D.

    2015-01-01

    Solid state lighting systems typically use multiple Light Emitting Diode (LED) die within a single lamp, and multiple lamps within a coverage space. This infrastructure forms the transmitters for Visible Light Communications (VLC), and the availability of low-cost detector arrays offers the possibility of building Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) transmission systems. Different approaches to optical MIMO are being investigated as part of a UK government funded research programme, `Ultra-Parallel Visible Light Communications' (UPVLC). In this paper we present a brief review of the area and report results from systems that use integrated subsystems developed as part of the project. The scalability of these approaches and future directions will also be discussed.

  1. Microprocessor-based integration of microfluidic control for the implementation of automated sensor monitoring and multithreaded optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ezra, Elishai; Maor, Idan; Bavli, Danny; Shalom, Itai; Levy, Gahl; Prill, Sebastian; Jaeger, Magnus S; Nahmias, Yaakov

    2015-08-01

    Microfluidic applications range from combinatorial synthesis to high throughput screening, with platforms integrating analog perfusion components, digitally controlled micro-valves and a range of sensors that demand a variety of communication protocols. Currently, discrete control units are used to regulate and monitor each component, resulting in scattered control interfaces that limit data integration and synchronization. Here, we present a microprocessor-based control unit, utilizing the MS Gadgeteer open framework that integrates all aspects of microfluidics through a high-current electronic circuit that supports and synchronizes digital and analog signals for perfusion components, pressure elements, and arbitrary sensor communication protocols using a plug-and-play interface. The control unit supports an integrated touch screen and TCP/IP interface that provides local and remote control of flow and data acquisition. To establish the ability of our control unit to integrate and synchronize complex microfluidic circuits we developed an equi-pressure combinatorial mixer. We demonstrate the generation of complex perfusion sequences, allowing the automated sampling, washing, and calibrating of an electrochemical lactate sensor continuously monitoring hepatocyte viability following exposure to the pesticide rotenone. Importantly, integration of an optical sensor allowed us to implement automated optimization protocols that require different computational challenges including: prioritized data structures in a genetic algorithm, distributed computational efforts in multiple-hill climbing searches and real-time realization of probabilistic models in simulated annealing. Our system offers a comprehensive solution for establishing optimization protocols and perfusion sequences in complex microfluidic circuits. PMID:26227212

  2. Modernization of the multiple launch rocket system embedded system software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mockensturm, Jeffrey J.

    1995-03-01

    Weapon systems in the Department of Defense (DOD) are becoming increasingly reliant on embedded software. As the size and level of complexity of these software development efforts have increased, the management of these programs has become more challenging. Additionally, as the Army strives to digitize the future battlefield, the demand for software will only increase. This thesis reviews the software development efforts associated with modernizing the Army's Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS). The thesis begins by presenting a background discussion of the Army's Fire Direction Data Manager (FDDM) development. After the FDDM background discussion, a case study of the troubled FDDM software development effort is presented. The FDDM case study follows the general format presented in the May 1992 General Accounting Office report on the FDDM software development difficulties. Following the FDDM review, the current MLRS software development effort, the Improved Fire Control System (IFCS), is presented. Next, the FDDM case study is reviewed to determine the software development lessons learned. Using the FDDM software lessons learned, the IFCS program is analyzed to determine the software risks, and to review the risk mitigation strategies of that program. The objective of the thesis is to provide insight into the use of modern software management methods in reducing software development program risk.

  3. G-cueing microcontroller (a microprocessor application in simulators)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horattas, C. G.

    1980-01-01

    A g cueing microcontroller is described which consists of a tandem pair of microprocessors, dedicated to the task of simulating pilot sensed cues caused by gravity effects. This task includes execution of a g cueing model which drives actuators that alter the configuration of the pilot's seat. The g cueing microcontroller receives acceleration commands from the aerodynamics model in the main computer and creates the stimuli that produce physical acceleration effects of the aircraft seat on the pilots anatomy. One of the two microprocessors is a fixed instruction processor that performs all control and interface functions. The other, a specially designed bipolar bit slice microprocessor, is a microprogrammable processor dedicated to all arithmetic operations. The two processors communicate with each other by a shared memory. The g cueing microcontroller contains its own dedicated I/O conversion modules for interface with the seat actuators and controls, and a DMA controller for interfacing with the simulation computer. Any application which can be microcoded within the available memory, the available real time and the available I/O channels, could be implemented in the same controller.

  4. Microprocessor Control For Liquid-Cooled Garment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, Charles S.

    1990-01-01

    Automatic control system maintains temperature of water-cooled garment within comfort zone while wearer's level of physical activity varies. Uncomfortable overshoots and undershoots of temperature eliminated. Designed for use in space suit, adaptable to other protective garments and to enclosed environments operating according to similar principles.

  5. A rocket-borne microprocessor-based experiment for investigation of energetic particles in the D and E regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braswell, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    An energetic experiment using the Z80 family of microcomputer components is described. Data collected from the experiment allowed fast and efficient postprocessing, yielding both energy-spectrum and pitch-angle distribution of energetic particles in the D and E regions. Advanced microprocessor system architecture and software concepts were used in the design to cope with the large amount of data being processed. This required the Z80 system to operate at over 80% of its total capacity. The microprocessor system was included in the payloads of three rockets launched during the Energy Budget Campaign at ESRANGE, Kiruna, Sweden in November 1980. Based on preliminary examination of the data, the performance of the experiment was satisfactory and good data were obtained on the energy spectrum and pitch-angle distribution of the particles.

  6. Using reconfigurable functional units in conventional microprocessors.

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, Arun F.

    2010-09-01

    Scientific applications use highly specialized data structures that require complex, latency sensitive graphs of integer instructions for memory address calculations. Working with the Univeristy of Wisconsin, we have demonstrated significant differences between the Sandia's applications and the industry standard SPEC-FP (standard performance evaluation corporation-floating point) suite. Specifically, integer dataflow performance is critical to overall system performance. To improve this performance, we have developed a configurable functional unit design that is capable of accelerating integer dataflow.

  7. A Decision Support System for Solving Multiple Criteria Optimization Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filatovas, Ernestas; Kurasova, Olga

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, multiple criteria optimization has been investigated. A new decision support system (DSS) has been developed for interactive solving of multiple criteria optimization problems (MOPs). The weighted-sum (WS) approach is implemented to solve the MOPs. The MOPs are solved by selecting different weight coefficient values for the criteria…

  8. Supporting multiple control systems at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Nicklaus, Dennis J.; /Fermilab

    2009-10-01

    The Fermilab control system, ACNET, is used for controlling the Tevatron and all of its pre-accelerators. However, other smaller experiments at Fermilab have been using different controls systems, in particular DOOCS and EPICS. This paper reports some of the steps taken at Fermilab to integrate support for these outside systems. We will describe specific tools that we have built or adapted to facilitate interaction between the architectures. We also examine some of the difficulties that arise from managing this heterogeneous environment. Incompatibilities as well as common elements will be described.

  9. Seismic isolation systems with distinct multiple frequencies

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, Ralph W.

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for isolating a building or other structure from smic vibratory motion which provides increased assurance that large horizontal motion of the structure will not occur than is provided by other isolation systems. Increased assurance that large horizontal motion will not occur is achieved by providing for change of the natural frequency of the support and structure system in response to displacement of the structure beyond a predetermined value. The natural frequency of the support and structure system may be achieved by providing for engaging and disengaging of the structure and some supporting members in response to motion of the supported structure.

  10. Dynamics of the castor multiple system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvienko, A. S.; Kiyaeva, O. V.; Orlov, V. V.

    2015-01-01

    The orbital motions in the visual triple system α Gem (Castor) have been studied. The orbital elements for the inner AB pair have been determined by the apparent motion parameters (AMP) method. The AMP method is shown to yield satisfactory results. A family of elliptical orbits has been constructed by the AMP method on a short arc for the outer AB-C pair. The motions of the components in the Castor visual triple system are probably a superposition of two perturbed elliptical orbits. The stability region for the triple system has been estimated.

  11. Adaptable Transponder for Multiple Telemetry Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor); Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention is a stackable telemetry circuit board for use in telemetry systems for satellites and other purposes. The present invention incorporates previously-qualified interchangeable circuit boards, or "decks," that perform functions such as power, signal receiving and transmission, and processing. Each deck is adapted to serve a range of telemetry applications. This provides flexibility in the construction of the stackable telemetry circuit board and significantly reduces the cost and time necessary to develop a telemetry system.

  12. Software simulator for multiple computer simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogrady, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    A description is given of the structure and use of a computer program that simulates the operation of a parallel processor simulation system. The program is part of an investigation to determine algorithms that are suitable for simulating continous systems on a parallel processor configuration. The simulator is designed to accurately simulate the problem-solving phase of a simulation study. Care has been taken to ensure the integrity and correctness of data exchanges and to correctly sequence periods of computation and periods of data exchange. It is pointed out that the functions performed during a problem-setup phase or a reset phase are not simulated. In particular, there is no attempt to simulate the downloading process that loads object code into the local, transfer, and mapping memories of processing elements or the memories of the run control processor and the system control processor. The main program of the simulator carries out some problem-setup functions of the system control processor in that it requests the user to enter values for simulation system parameters and problem parameters. The method by which these values are transferred to the other processors, however, is not simulated.

  13. Multiple strategies of reasoning for expert systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Yuchuan; Kulikowski, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    In expert systems the heuristics used for combining the weight of evidence can be based on probabilistic, fuzzy set, or subjective confidence factors. Although the underlying assumptions for each of the methods differ, it can be shown that there are correspondences between them and that it is possible to develop a model of expert reasoning for medical consultation using any one of the methods. The authors have developed a system for representing expert knowledge, called ESMES, which is an outgrowth of the expert scheme developed earlier at Rutgers. ESMES allows the use of alternative strategies in the solution of a consultation problem. The authors report on the performance of ESMES for a prototype glaucoma consultation model, using reasoning mechanisms similar to those of the expert, MYCIN, Internist I, and Prospector systems. 9 references.

  14. Exoplanet orbital eccentricity: multiplicity relation and the Solar System.

    PubMed

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L

    2015-01-01

    The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here on a strong anticorrelation of orbital eccentricity with multiplicity (number of planets in the system) among cataloged radial velocity (RV) systems. The mean, median, and rough distribution of eccentricities of Solar System planets fits an extrapolation of this anticorrelation to the eight-planet case rather precisely despite the fact that no more than two Solar System planets would be detectable with RV data comparable to that in the exoplanet sample. Moreover, even if regarded as a single or double planetary system, the Solar System lies in a reasonably heavily populated region of eccentricity-multiplicity space. Thus, the Solar System is not anomalous among known exoplanetary systems with respect to eccentricities when its multiplicity is taken into account. Specifically, as the multiplicity of a system increases, the eccentricity decreases roughly as a power law of index -1.20. A simple and plausible but ad hoc and model-dependent interpretation of this relationship implies that ∼ 80% of the one-planet and 25% of the two-planet systems in our sample have additional, as yet undiscovered, members but that systems of higher observed multiplicity are largely complete (i.e., relatively rarely contain additional undiscovered planets). If low eccentricities indeed favor high multiplicities, habitability may be more common in systems with a larger number of planets. PMID:25512527

  15. Exoplanet orbital eccentricity: Multiplicity relation and the Solar System

    PubMed Central

    Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin L.

    2015-01-01

    The known population of exoplanets exhibits a much wider range of orbital eccentricities than Solar System planets and has a much higher average eccentricity. These facts have been widely interpreted to indicate that the Solar System is an atypical member of the overall population of planetary systems. We report here on a strong anticorrelation of orbital eccentricity with multiplicity (number of planets in the system) among cataloged radial velocity (RV) systems. The mean, median, and rough distribution of eccentricities of Solar System planets fits an extrapolation of this anticorrelation to the eight-planet case rather precisely despite the fact that no more than two Solar System planets would be detectable with RV data comparable to that in the exoplanet sample. Moreover, even if regarded as a single or double planetary system, the Solar System lies in a reasonably heavily populated region of eccentricity−multiplicity space. Thus, the Solar System is not anomalous among known exoplanetary systems with respect to eccentricities when its multiplicity is taken into account. Specifically, as the multiplicity of a system increases, the eccentricity decreases roughly as a power law of index –1.20. A simple and plausible but ad hoc and model-dependent interpretation of this relationship implies that ∼80% of the one-planet and 25% of the two-planet systems in our sample have additional, as yet undiscovered, members but that systems of higher observed multiplicity are largely complete (i.e., relatively rarely contain additional undiscovered planets). If low eccentricities indeed favor high multiplicities, habitability may be more common in systems with a larger number of planets. PMID:25512527

  16. Optoelectronic System Measures Distances to Multiple Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Abramovici, Alexander; Bartman, Randall; Chapsky, Jacob; Schmalz, John; Coste, Keith; Litty, Edward; Lam, Raymond; Jerebets, Sergei

    2007-01-01

    An optoelectronic metrology apparatus now at the laboratory-prototype stage of development is intended to repeatedly determine distances of as much as several hundred meters, at submillimeter accuracy, to multiple targets in rapid succession. The underlying concept of optoelectronic apparatuses that can measure distances to targets is not new; such apparatuses are commonly used in general surveying and machining. However, until now such apparatuses have been, variously, constrained to (1) a single target or (2) multiple targets with a low update rate and a requirement for some a priori knowledge of target geometry. When fully developed, the present apparatus would enable measurement of distances to more than 50 targets at an update rate greater than 10 Hz, without a requirement for a priori knowledge of target geometry. The apparatus (see figure) includes a laser ranging unit (LRU) that includes an electronic camera (photo receiver), the field of view of which contains all relevant targets. Each target, mounted at a fiducial position on an object of interest, consists of a small lens at the output end of an optical fiber that extends from the object of interest back to the LRU. For each target and its optical fiber, there is a dedicated laser that is used to illuminate the target via the optical fiber. The targets are illuminated, one at a time, with laser light that is modulated at a frequency of 10.01 MHz. The modulated laser light is emitted by the target, from where it returns to the camera (photodetector), where it is detected. Both the outgoing and incoming 10.01-MHz laser signals are mixed with a 10-MHz local-oscillator to obtain beat notes at 10 kHz, and the difference between the phases of the beat notes is measured by a phase meter. This phase difference serves as a measure of the total length of the path traveled by light going out through the optical fiber and returning to the camera (photodetector) through free space. Because the portion of the path

  17. Applications of a downhole programmable microprocessor for a geothermal borehole inspection tool

    SciTech Connect

    Jermance, R.L.; Moore, T.K.; Archuleta, J.; Hinz, K.

    1987-01-01

    The high-temperature scanning borehole inspection system is currently being developed jointly by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Westfalische Berggewerkschaftskasse (WBK) of West Germany. The downhole instrument is a digital televiewer that utilized a microprocessor to digitize, process and transmit the acoustic information to the surface acquisition and control system. The primary operation of the downhole acoustic assembly uses a piezoelectric crystal acting as a receiver-transmitter which is mounted on the rotating head. The crystal emits a burst of acoustic energy that propagates through the borehole fluid with a portion of the energy reflected by the borehole wall back to the crystal. The time of travel and the amplitude of the reflected signal are conditioned by the microprocessor and transmitted along with other pertinent data to the surface data processing center. This instrument has been designed specifically for use in geothermal borehole environments to determine the location of fractures intersecting the borehole and provide information concerning overall borehole conditions. It may also be used for definitive casing inspection. The instrument essentially eliminates operator interaction for downhole control and simplifies assembly and maintenance procedures.

  18. ARCHITECTURE AND DYNAMICS OF KEPLER'S CANDIDATE MULTIPLE TRANSITING PLANET SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Ragozzine, Darin; Holman, Matthew J.; Carter, Joshua A.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Steffen, Jason H.; Ford, Eric B.; Shporer, Avi; Rowe, Jason F.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Ciardi, David; Gautier, Thomas N. III; and others

    2011-11-01

    About one-third of the {approx}1200 transiting planet candidates detected in the first four months of Kepler data are members of multiple candidate systems. There are 115 target stars with two candidate transiting planets, 45 with three, 8 with four, and 1 each with five and six. We characterize the dynamical properties of these candidate multi-planet systems. The distribution of observed period ratios shows that the vast majority of candidate pairs are neither in nor near low-order mean-motion resonances. Nonetheless, there are small but statistically significant excesses of candidate pairs both in resonance and spaced slightly too far apart to be in resonance, particularly near the 2:1 resonance. We find that virtually all candidate systems are stable, as tested by numerical integrations that assume a nominal mass-radius relationship. Several considerations strongly suggest that the vast majority of these multi-candidate systems are true planetary systems. Using the observed multiplicity frequencies, we find that a single population of planetary systems that matches the higher multiplicities underpredicts the number of singly transiting systems. We provide constraints on the true multiplicity and mutual inclination distribution of the multi-candidate systems, revealing a population of systems with multiple super-Earth-size and Neptune-size planets with low to moderate mutual inclinations.

  19. Multiple Viewpoints System/ Software Engineering for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondelle, Gael; Panunzio, Marco; Pequery, Jerome; Bats, Melanie; Garcia, Gerald; Brun, Cedric

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a return of experience on using viewpoint-oriented modeling to design on-board software for satellites. First, we demonstrate the interest of integrating heterogeneous viewpoints in a tool to cover the development process of an embedded system. Then, we recall the Space Component Model, its implementation with Obeo Designer, and the capability to extend it with specific purpose Domain Specific Languages. Last, we expose further viewpoints that could be implemented to address new aspects like safety or interoperability.

  20. Advanced multiple access concepts in mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ananasso, Fulvio

    1990-01-01

    Some multiple access strategies for Mobile Satellite Systems (MSS) are discussed. These strategies were investigated in the context of three separate studies conducted for the International Maritime Satellite Organization (INMARSAT) and the European Space Agency (ESA). Satellite-Switched Frequency Division Multiple Access (SS-FDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Frequency-Addressable Beam architectures are addressed, discussing both system and technology aspects and outlining advantages and drawbacks of either solution with associated relevant hardware issues. An attempt is made to compare the considered option from the standpoint of user terminal/space segment complexity, synchronization requirements, spectral efficiency, and interference rejection.

  1. Exoplanetary System Dynamics: Planetary Multiplicity and Mass Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoe, Mari; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Turner, Edwin

    2015-12-01

    Recently numerous systems consisting of multiple exoplanets have been discovered. Using a dataset of 375 systems (500 planets) discovered by the radial velocity method and 365 systems (899 planets) containing planet candidates found by the Kepler Mission, we investigate the dependence of the dynamical structure of planetary systems on their multiplicity and the masses of the member planets. We classify the planetary system by three parameters: planetary multiplicity, planetary mass, and the evolutionary stage of the central star. We normalize planetary masses by the mass of the central star and divide the planets into small and large categories by a cut at $10^{-4}$. The central star is classified into main-sequence or giant according to its evolutionary stage. We focus on the angular momentum deficit (AMD) of the systems and the orbital separation between adjacent planets normalized by their Hill radii. We find that in all categories the system AMD decreases with increasing multiplicity. This suggests that in order for multiple systems to be stable, each planet's orbit must be relatively circular. In addition, we find that the distribution of orbital eccentricities of the massive planets and low-mass planets differs. In particular, only high-mass planets have eccentricities larger than 0.4. In the low-mass systems around main sequence stars, we find that the orbital separation decreases with increasing multiplicity. In addition, the orbital separation around main-sequence stars is wider than that around giants. Furthermore, the minimum orbital separation is about 6.4 for non-resonant pairs. This paper presents the statistical properties of the dynamical structure of multiple planetary systems and discusses their formation.

  2. DIATEST, A System for Programme Control of Multiple Choice Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Christer

    The DIATEST responder system is a control system for fully programed running of diagnostic tests of multiple-choice type. The system makes use of the control unit earlier developed at the Institute of Technology for programed four-screen slide projection and the electronic response analyser (ESAU). Presentation of a question is done audiovisually,…

  3. MULTIPLE PROJECTIONS SYSTEM (MPS): USER'S MANUAL VERSION 2.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a user's manual for Multiple Projections System (MPS) Version 2.0, based on the 3% reasonable further progress (RFP) tracking system that was developed in FY92/FY93. The 3% RFP tracking system is a Windows application, and enhancements to convert the 3% RFP track...

  4. The NP Draconii Multiple Star System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Barker, Thurburn; McNaughton, Abby; Robertson, Rachel; Smith, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Otero and Dubovsky used the ASAS-3 (Pojmanski 2002), Hipparcos (Perryman et al 1997) and Northern Sky Variability Survey (NSVS; Wozniak et al 2004) databases to determine elements for 80 eclipsing binaries. NP Draconii (NSV 22984) was identified by Otero and Dubovsky (IBVS Number 5557, 2004) as a possible Algol type variable with an ephemeris of HJD Min I = 2448604.780+3.10886E days based on 84 observations over 326 days with about 2 to 4 observations on any one night. We decided to further refine the ephemeris and observe NP Dra in VRI filters, with the goal of determining the elements of the system.NP Dra is a V = 9.0 system located at J2000 = 17h 35m 16s and +55d 00' 12". We observed NP Dra August 2, 3 and September 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 2015 UT using the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute 0.4-m telescope in V, R, and I with 20 second exposure times in each filter. Observations in each filter were repeated about every 3 minutes each night of observing.From our light curves we determined the period using the Date Compensated Discrete Fourier Transform function (Ferraz-Mello 1981) which is part of the open source code VSTAR (AAVSO). The period derived from the observations is 2.2755 days. Superimposed on this period is another period of 0.6398 days. We will present the V, R, and I light curves, period determination and implication

  5. Switched steerable multiple beam antenna system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Richard S.

    1988-09-01

    A steerable multibeam five element cross-feed cluster antenna system is described. The feed power is divided into five branches. Each branch includes a switching network comprised of a plurality of time delay elements each individually controlled by a respective electromagnetic latching switch. Frequency independent individual two-dimensional beam steering at intermediate (IF) scanning frequencies is thereby provided wherein discrete incremental time delays are introduced by the switching networks into each branch and the signals recombined thereafter to form each beam. The electromagnetic latched switching reduces power consumption and permits higher power switching and reciprocal coincident tranmsit and receive operation. Frequency independence due to incremental time delay switching permits coincident reciprocal operation and steering for transmit-receive signal paths carrying different transmit-receive frequencies. Diagonal quarter wave plates in the waveguides alter polarization from the circular to orthogonal linear to provide transmitter-receiver isolation.

  6. Observations of Hierarchical Solar-type Multiple Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Tokovinin, Andrei; Mason, Brian D.; Hartkopf, William I.; Riddle, Reed L.

    2015-10-01

    Twenty multiple stellar systems with solar-type primaries were observed at high angular resolution using the PALM-3000 adaptive optics system at the 5 m Hale telescope. The goal was to complement the knowledge of hierarchical multiplicity in the solar neighborhood by confirming recent discoveries by the visible Robo-AO system with new near-infrared observations with PALM-3000. The physical status of most, but not all, of the new pairs is confirmed by photometry in the Ks band and new positional measurements. In addition, we resolved for the first time five close sub-systems: the known astrometric binary in HIP 17129AB, companions to the primaries of HIP 33555, and HIP 118213, and the companions to the secondaries in HIP 25300 and HIP 101430. We place the components on a color-magnitude diagram and discuss each multiple system individually.

  7. Module comprising IC memory stack dedicated to and structurally combined with an IC microprocessor chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, John C. (Inventor); Indin, Ronald J. (Inventor); Shanken, Stuart N. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A computer module is disclosed in which a stack of glued together IC memory chips is structurally integrated with a microprocessor chip. The memory provided by the stack is dedicated to the microprocessor chip. The microprocessor and its memory stack may be connected either by glue and/or by solder bumps. The solder bumps can perform three functions--electrical interconnection, mechanical connection, and heat transfer. The electrical connections in some versions are provided by wire bonding.

  8. Methodology on high ratio multiple configuration systems in image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua; Ding, Quanxin; Zhou, Liwei

    2014-12-01

    The method of a multiple configuration on high ratio systems in image sensor is an important subject. In such an experimental configuration, for aim to break through to large ratio multiple configuration systems bottlenecks, achieve the field of continuous transformation, effect system close to the theoretical limit and configuration dexterity, such as the purpose, method in the design of the integrated sensor system process, the core technology of such a system are thoroughly analyzed and the factors important to the compromise. Theory is studied based on the theory of Gaussian optical system error distribution and comprehensive balancing algorithm; Global optimization method, developed at a system design thought and the optimization model. Results solved the MTF matching problem, research and evaluations shows that the zoom ratio of more than one hundred results in system MTF and so on as qualitative criterion to achieve requirements.

  9. Using Multiple Unmanned Systems for a Site Security Task

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew O. Anderson; Curtis W. Nielsen; Mark D. McKay; Derek C. Wadsworth; Ryan C. Hruska; John A. Koudelka

    2009-04-01

    Unmanned systems are often used to augment the ability of humans to perform challenging tasks. While the value of individual unmanned vehicles have been proven for a variety of tasks, it is less understood how multiple unmanned systems should be used together to accomplish larger missions such as site security. The purpose of this paper is to discuss efforts by researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to explore the utility and practicality of operating multiple unmanned systems for a site security mission. This paper reviews the technology developed for a multi-agent mission and summarizes the lessons-learned from a technology demonstration.

  10. Systemic inflammation and multiple organ injury in traumatic hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huaizheng; Xiao, Xuefei; Sun, Chuanzheng; Sun, Dao; Li, Yayong; Yang, Mingshi

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic hemorrhagic shock (HS) is a severe outcome of traumatic injury that accounts for numerous traumatic deaths. In the process of traumatic HS, both hemorrhage and trauma can trigger a complex cascade of posttraumatic events that are related to inflammatory and immune responses, which may lead to multiple organ injury or even death. From a mechanistic perspective, systemic inflammation and organ injury are involved coagulation, the complement system, impaired microcirculation and inflammatory signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the systemic inflammation and multiple organ injury in post-traumatic HS. PMID:25961533

  11. MULTIPLE PROJECTIONS SYSTEM (MPS) - USER'S MANUAL VERSION 1.0

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is a user's manual for version 1.0 of the Multiple Projections Systems (MPS), a computer system that can perform "what if" scenario analysis and report the final results (i.e., Rate of Further Progress - ROP - inventories) to EPA (i.e., the Aerometric Information Retri...

  12. MOOSES: Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapp, Jon; Wehby, Joseph

    The Multiple Option Observation System for Experimental Studies (MOOSES) is a flexible data collection and analysis package for applied behavioral research that addresses the needs of researchers interested in live coding of observational data. MOOSES allows the researcher to design a coding system for a particular research question. General types…

  13. Multiple Learner Errors and Feedback: A Challenge for ICALL Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heift, Trude

    2003-01-01

    Describes a web-based intelligent computer assisted language learning (ICALL) system for German that provides error-specific feedback suited to learner expertise. Focuses on the Domain Knowledge and Filtering Module. Concludes with a study that supports the need for a CALL system that addresses multiple errors by considering language teaching…

  14. A survey of the state of the art and focused research in range systems, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yao, K.

    1986-01-01

    Many communication, control, and information processing subsystems are modeled by linear systems incorporating tapped delay lines (TDL). Such optimized subsystems result in full precision multiplications in the TDL. In order to reduce complexity and cost in a microprocessor implementation, these multiplications can be replaced by single-shift instructions which are equivalent to powers of two multiplications. Since, in general, the obvious operation of rounding the infinite precision TDL coefficients to the nearest powers of two usually yield quite poor system performance, the optimum powers of two coefficient solution was considered. Detailed explanations on the use of branch-and-bound algorithms for finding the optimum powers of two solutions are given. Specific demonstration of this methodology to the design of a linear data equalizer and its implementation in assembly language on a 8080 microprocessor with a 12 bit A/D converter are reported. This simple microprocessor implementation with optimized TDL coefficients achieves a system performance comparable to the optimum linear equalization with full precision multiplications for an input data rate of 300 baud. The philosophy demonstrated in this implementation is dully applicable to many other microprocessor controlled information processing systems.

  15. Experimental research on transient radiation effects in microprocessors based on SPARC-V8 architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuanfu, Zhao; Hongchao, Zheng; Long, Fan; Suge, Yue; Maoxin, Chen; Shougang, Du

    2015-11-01

    An experimental system is developed for the transient radiation effects testing of an anti-radiation hardened processor. Based on this system, the transient radiation effects in a microprocessor based on SPARC-V8 architecture was investigated. The dose-rate-soft-error index parameters of the processor were determined according to the test results, as were the influences on the function and timing parameters of the processor. The power supply balance is affected, which caused the system to reset and be the main source of soft errors. The results showed the circuit recovery time is primarily determined by the internal PLL, while the core power and the output-low-IO ports are more sensitive to the transient dose rate effect. The power-integrity-hardened design is proposed to mitigate the transient radiation effect.

  16. Microprocessor-based multichannel flutter monitor using dynamic strain gage signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    Two microprocessor-based multichannel monitors for monitoring strain gage signals during aerodynamic instability (flutter) testing in production type turbojet engines were described. One system monitors strain gage signals in the time domain and gives an output indication whenever the signal amplitude of any gage exceeds a pre-set alarm or abort level for that particular gage. The second system monitors the strain gage signals in the frequency domain and therefore is able to use both the amplitude and frequency information. Thus, an alarm signal is given whenever the spectral content of the strain gage signal exceeds, at any point, its corresponding amplitude vs. frequency limit profiles. Each system design is described with details on design trade-offs, hardware, software, and operating experience.

  17. The MOS silicon gate technology and the first microprocessors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faggin, F.

    2015-12-01

    Today we are so used to the enormous capabilities of microelectronics that it is hard to imagine what it might have been like in the early Sixties and Seventies when much of the technology we use today was being developed. This paper will first present a brief history of microelectronics and computers, taking us to the threshold of the inventions of the MOS silicon gate technology and the microprocessor. These two creations provided the basic technology that would allow only a few years later to merge microelectronics and computers into the first commercial monolithic computer. By the late Seventies, the first monolithic computer weighting less than one gram, occupying a volume of less than one cubic centimeter, dissipating less than one Watt, and selling for less than ten dollars, could perform more information processing than the UNIVAC I, the first commercial electronic computer introduced in 1951, made with 5200 vacuum tubes, dissipating 125kW, weighting 13 metric tons, occupying a room larger than 35m2, and selling for more than one million dollars per unit. The first-person story of the SGT and the early microprocessors will be told by the Italian-born physicist who led both projects.

  18. The application of the ADSP-21020 40-bit floating point DSP microprocessor in a digital Doppler radar

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, S.H.; Morrison, R.E.

    1991-08-26

    A continuous wave doppler radar system has been designed which is portable, easily deployable and can be remotely controlled. The system is immune to ground clutter and is used for wind speed detection and direction determination. Nearly real time digital signal processing is performed by an Analog Devices ADSP-21020, a 40-bit floating point Digital Signal Processing (DSP) microprocessor. This paper provides an overview of the design of the system including the radio frequency (RF) to digital interface. The various DSP detection algorithms are discussed and compared to system performance and sensitivity. Finally, DSP performance is compared to the performance of an earlier system using Analog Device's ADSP-2100. 6 refs.

  19. Exchange interactions in systems with multiple magnetic sites.

    PubMed

    Paul, Satadal; Misra, Anirban

    2010-06-24

    Nonequivalent magnetic interactions in systems with multiple magnetic centers can be explored through a proper description of exchange coupling. The magnetic exchange coupling constant (J) in systems with two magnetic sites is reliably estimated using Heisenberg-Dirac-van Vleck (HDVV) model through broken symmetry approach (BS) within a density functional theory (DFT) framework. However, in case of systems with multiple magnetic centers, exchange coupling constants, evaluated through state-of-the-art techniques, are often found to be inadequate to produce a correct fingerprint of the nature of magnetic interactions therein. This work suggests a new scheme to estimate exchange coupling constants in such systems. In this strategy, distribution of spins on magnetic sites in the ground state of systems with multiple magnetic centers is computed. On the basis of this spin mapping, exchange coupling constants between specific pairs are estimated through BS-DFT approach while keeping all other paramagnetic atoms magnetically inactive. Nonetheless, the effect of magnetically inert paramagnetic sites is already taken into account by the process of spin mapping, which is further justified through expressing the HDVV Hamiltonian in terms of spin density operators. We employ this technique to hypothetical benchmark systems, H(3)He(3) and H(4)He(4) followed by real molecules, cationic manganese trimer, 1,3,5-benzenetriyltris (N-tert-butyl nitroxide), and a pentanuclear manganese complex. Results are found to be concordant with the already established nature of magnetic interaction in these systems. This strategy is different from the most popular scheme to compute J in systems with multiple magnetic centers in the sense that it avoids the formation of a large matrix out of different spin configurations and thus provides a reliable and computationally economic way to address the magnetic interactions in non isotropic systems with multiple magnetic sites. PMID:20496941

  20. Multiple sex chromosome systems in howler monkeys (Platyrrhini, Alouatta)

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Eliana Ruth; Nieves, Mariela; Mudry, Marta Dolores

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In light of the multiple sex chromosome systems observed in howler monkeys (Alouatta Lacépède, 1799) a combined cladistic analysis using chromosomal and molecular characters was applied to discuss the possible origin of these systems. Mesoamerican and South American howlers were karyologically compared. FISH analysis using the chromosome painting probes for the #3 and #15 human chromosomes was applied to corroborate the homeology of the sexual systems. We found that the HSA3/15 syntenic association, present in the sex chromosome systems of South American Howlers, is not present in those of Mesoamerican ones. The autosomes involved in the translocation that formed the sexual systems in the Mesoamerican and South American species are different, thus suggesting an independent origin. Parsimony analysis resolved the phylogenetic relationships among howler species, demonstrating utility of the combined approach. A hypothesis for the origin of the multiple sex chromosome systems for the genus is proposed. PMID:24744833

  1. Intrinsic Variability in Multiple Systems and Clusters: Open Questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampens, P.

    2006-04-01

    It is most interesting and rewarding to probe the stellar structure of stars which belong to a system originating from the same parent cloud as this provides additional and more accurate constraints for the models. New results on pulsating components in multiple systems and clusters are beginning to emerge regularly. Based on concrete studies, I will present still unsolved problems and discuss some of the issues which may affect our understanding of the pulsation physics in such systems but also in general.

  2. Multiple-state quantum Otto engine, 1D box system

    SciTech Connect

    Latifah, E.; Purwanto, A.

    2014-03-24

    Quantum heat engines produce work using quantum matter as their working substance. We studied adiabatic and isochoric processes and defined the general force according to quantum system. The processes and general force are used to evaluate a quantum Otto engine based on multiple-state of one dimensional box system and calculate the efficiency. As a result, the efficiency depends on the ratio of initial and final width of system under adiabatic processes.

  3. Multiple-User, Multitasking, Virtual-Memory Computer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Generazio, Edward R.; Roth, Don J.; Stang, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Computer system designed and programmed to serve multiple users in research laboratory. Provides for computer control and monitoring of laboratory instruments, acquisition and anlaysis of data from those instruments, and interaction with users via remote terminals. System provides fast access to shared central processing units and associated large (from megabytes to gigabytes) memories. Underlying concept of system also applicable to monitoring and control of industrial processes.

  4. Identification of Severe Multiple Contingencies in Electric PowerSystems

    SciTech Connect

    Donde, Vaibhav; Lopez, Vanessa; Lesieutre, Bernard; Pinar, Ali; Yang, Chao; Meza, Juan

    2006-06-14

    In this work, we propose a computationally feasible approachtodetect severe multiple contingencies. We pose a contingency analysisproblem using a nonlinear optimization framework, which enables ustodetect the fewest possible transmission line outages resulting ina systemfailure of specified severity, and the most severe system failure causedby removing a specified number of transmission lines from service.Illustrations using a three bus system and the IEEE ~;30 bus system aimto exhibit the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  5. System For Research On Multiple-Arm Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backes, Paul G.; Hayati, Samad; Tso, Kam S.; Hayward, Vincent

    1991-01-01

    Kali system of computer programs and equipment provides environment for research on distributed programming and distributed control of coordinated-multiple-arm robots. Suitable for telerobotics research involving sensing and execution of low level tasks. Software and configuration of hardware designed flexible so system modified easily to test various concepts in control and programming of robots, including multiple-arm control, redundant-arm control, shared control, traded control, force control, force/position hybrid control, design and integration of sensors, teleoperation, task-space description and control, methods of adaptive control, control of flexible arms, and human factors.

  6. Systemic Multiple Aneurysms Caused by Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gui, Xinyu; Li, Fangda; Wu, Lingeer; Zheng, Yuehong

    2016-07-01

    Systemic multiple aneurysms are rare and usually associated with collagen tissue disease, such as Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) or Marfan syndrome. In the present case, we describe a 39-year-old male patient with systemic multiple aneurysms and acute intraperitoneal hemorrhage who was clinically diagnosed with vascular EDS. Coil embolization of the distal segment of the common hepatic artery was performed, which resolved the patient's symptoms. With this case presentation, we aim to increase the awareness of vascular EDS among clinicians and emphasize the extreme fragility of the arteries in patients with vascular EDS. PMID:27206743

  7. A Low Cost Matching Motion Estimation Sensor Based on the NIOS II Microprocessor

    PubMed Central

    González, Diego; Botella, Guillermo; Meyer-Baese, Uwe; García, Carlos; Sanz, Concepción; Prieto-Matías, Manuel; Tirado, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the implementation of a matching-based motion estimation sensor on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and NIOS II microprocessor applying a C to Hardware (C2H) acceleration paradigm. The design, which involves several matching algorithms, is mapped using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology. These algorithms, as well as the hardware implementation, are presented here together with an extensive analysis of the resources needed and the throughput obtained. The developed low-cost system is practical for real-time throughput and reduced power consumption and is useful in robotic applications, such as tracking, navigation using an unmanned vehicle, or as part of a more complex system. PMID:23201989

  8. A low cost matching motion estimation sensor based on the NIOS II microprocessor.

    PubMed

    González, Diego; Botella, Guillermo; Meyer-Baese, Uwe; García, Carlos; Sanz, Concepción; Prieto-Matías, Manuel; Tirado, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This work presents the implementation of a matching-based motion estimation sensor on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and NIOS II microprocessor applying a C to Hardware (C2H) acceleration paradigm. The design, which involves several matching algorithms, is mapped using Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology. These algorithms, as well as the hardware implementation, are presented here together with an extensive analysis of the resources needed and the throughput obtained. The developed low-cost system is practical for real-time throughput and reduced power consumption and is useful in robotic applications, such as tracking, navigation using an unmanned vehicle, or as part of a more complex system. PMID:23201989

  9. Detection and location of multiple events by MARS. Final report. [Multiple Arrival Recognition System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Masso, J.F.; Archambeau, C.B.; Savino, J.M.

    1980-09-01

    Seismic data from two explosions was processed using the Systems Science and Software MARS (Multiple Arrival Recognition System) seismic event detector in an effort to determine their relative spatial and temporal separation on the basis of seismic data alone. The explosions were less than 1.0 kilometer apart and were separated by less than 0.5 sec in origin times. The seismic data consisted of nine local accelerograms (r < 1.0 km) and four regional (240 through 400 km) seismograms. The MARS processing clearly indicates the presence of multiple explosions, but the restricted frequency range of the data inhibits accurate time picks and hence limits the precision of the event location.

  10. COED Transactions, Vol. IX, No. 6, June 1977. An Introductory Course in Microprocessors and Microcomputers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcovitz, Alan B., Ed.

    This paper describes an introductory course in microprocessors and microcomputers implemented at Grossmont College. The current state-of-the-art in the microprocessor field is discussed, with special emphasis on the 8-bit MOS single-chip processors which are the most commonly used devices. Objectives and guidelines for the course are presented,…

  11. MIMD (multiple instruction multiple data) multiprocessor system for real-time image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirsch, Peter; Jeschke, Hartwig

    1991-06-01

    Anovel MIMD (Multiple Instruction Multiple Data) based architecture consisting of multiple processing elements (PE) has been developed. This architecture is adapted to real-time processing of sequences of different tasks for local image segments. Each PE contains an arithmetic processing unit (APU), adapted to parallel processing of low level operations, and a high level and control processor (HLCP) for medium and high level operations and control of the PE. This HLCP can be a standard signal processor or a RISC processor. Because of the local control of each PE by the HLCP and a SIMD structure of the APU, the overall system architecture is characterized as MIMD based with a local SIMD structure for low level processing. Due to an overlapped computation and communication the multiprocessor system achieves a linear speedup compared to a single processing element. Main parts of the PE have been realized as two ASICs in a 1.5 jim CMOS-Process. With a system clock rate of 25MHz, each PE provides a peak performance of 400 Mega operations per second (MOPS).

  12. The DIII-D ECH multiple gyrotron control system

    SciTech Connect

    Ponce, D.; Lohr, J.; Tooker, J.F.; Cary, W.P.; Harris, T.E.

    1997-11-01

    DIII-D`s ECH upgrade with 1 MW, 110 GHz gyrotrons is ongoing, and with it, an upgrade of the control system. The ECH Multiple Gyrotron Control System uses software distributed among networked computers, interfaced to a programmable logic controller (PLC), the timing and pulse system, power supplies, vacuum and wave guide controls, and instrumentation. During DIII-D operations, the system will allow a chief and a co-operator to control and monitor a number of gyrotrons from different manufacturers. The software, written using LabVIEW, allows for remote and multiple operator control. Thus any supported computer can become a control station and multiple projects can be simultaneously accommodated. Each operator can be given access to the controls of all gyrotrons or to a subset of controls. Status information is also remotely available. The use of a PLC simplifies the hardware and software design. It reduces interlock and control circuitry, includes monitoring for slow analog signals, and allows one software driver to efficiently interface to a number of systems. In addition, the interlock logic can be easily changed and control points can be forced as needed. The pulse system is designed around arbitrary function generators. Various modulation schemes can be accommodated, including real-time control of the modulation. This discussion will include the hardware and software design of the control system and its current implementation.

  13. A multiple objective optimization approach to aircraft control systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabak, D.; Schy, A. A.; Johnson, K. G.; Giesy, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of an aircraft lateral control system, subject to several performance criteria and constraints, is considered. While in the previous studies of the same model a single criterion optimization, with other performance requirements expressed as constraints, has been pursued, the current approach involves a multiple criteria optimization. In particular, a Pareto optimal solution is sought.

  14. A Summarization System for Chinese News from Multiple Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsin-Hsi; Kuo, June-Jei; Huang, Sheng-Jie; Lin, Chuan-Jie; Wung, Hung-Chia

    2003-01-01

    Proposes a summarization system for multiple documents that employs named entities and other signatures to cluster news from different sources, as well as punctuation marks, linking elements, and topic chains to identify the meaningful units (MUs). Using nouns and verbs to identify similar MUs, focusing and browsing models are applied to represent…

  15. SENTINEL: A Multiple Engine Information Retrieval and Visualization System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kevin L.; Frieder, Ophir; Knepper, Margaret M.; Snowberg, Eric J.

    1999-01-01

    Describes SENTINEL, a prototype information-retrieval system that is a fusion of multiple information-retrieval technologies, integrating n-grams, a vector space model, and a neural network training rule. Discusses three-dimensional visualization capability, precision and recall, mathematical representation of a document, query building, and…

  16. Building a cognitive map by assembling multiple path integration systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ranxiao Frances

    2016-06-01

    Path integration and cognitive mapping are two of the most important mechanisms for navigation. Path integration is a primitive navigation system which computes a homing vector based on an animal's self-motion estimation, while cognitive map is an advanced spatial representation containing richer spatial information about the environment that is persistent and can be used to guide flexible navigation to multiple locations. Most theories of navigation conceptualize them as two distinctive, independent mechanisms, although the path integration system may provide useful information for the integration of cognitive maps. This paper demonstrates a fundamentally different scenario, where a cognitive map is constructed in three simple steps by assembling multiple path integrators and extending their basic features. The fact that a collection of path integration systems can be turned into a cognitive map suggests the possibility that cognitive maps may have evolved directly from the path integration system. PMID:26442503

  17. (3749) BALAM: A VERY YOUNG MULTIPLE ASTEROID SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Vokrouhlicky, David

    2009-11-20

    Binaries and multiple systems among small bodies in the solar system have received wide attention over the past decade. This is because their observations provide a wealth of data otherwise inaccessible for single objects. We use numerical integration to prove that the multiple asteroid system (3749) Balam is very young, in contrast to its previously assumed age of 0.5-1 Gyr related to the formation of the Flora family. This work is enabled by a fortuitous discovery of a paired component to (3749) Balam. We first show that the proximity of the (3749) Balam and 2009 BR60 orbits is not a statistical fluke of otherwise quasi-uniform distribution. Numerical integrations then strengthen the case and allow us to prove that 2009 BR60 separated from the Balam system less than a million years ago. This is the first time the age of a binary asteroid can be estimated with such accuracy.

  18. Multiple Etalon Systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gary, G. A.; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael

    2003-02-01

    Multiple etalon systems are discussed that meet the science requirements for a narrow-passband imaging system for the 4-meter National Solar Observatory (NSO)/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer that works in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, an intermediate-band imager, and broadband high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations are described that provide a spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5 pm and reduce parasitic light levels to 10-4 as required for precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like (Telecentric Etalon SOlar Spectrometer) triple etalon system provides a spectral purity of 10-5. The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon; allow the use of more stable blocking filters, and have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass (Cavallini-like) system can provide a competing configuration. Such a dual-etalon design can provide high contrast. The selection of the final focal plane instrument will depend on a trade-off between an ideal instrument and practical reality. The trade study will include the number of etalons, their aperture sizes, complexities of the optical train, number of blocking filters, configuration of the electronic control system, computer interfaces, temperature controllers, etalon controllers, and their associated feedback electronics. The heritage of single and multiple etalon systems comes from their use in several observatories, including the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik (KIS, Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will benefit from the experience gained at these observatories.

  19. Multiple-etalon systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Multiple etalon systems are discussed that meet the science requirements for a narrow-passband imaging system for the 4-meter National Solar Observatory (NSO)/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (ATST). A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer that works in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, an intermediate-band imager, and broadband high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations are described that provide a spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5 micron and reduce parasitic light levels to 10(exp -4) as required for precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like (Telecentric Etalon SOlar Spectrometer) triple etalon system provides a spectral purity of 10(exp -5). The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon; allow the use of more stable blocking filters, and have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass (Cavallini-like) system can provide a competing configuration. Such a dual-etalon design can provide high contrast. The selection of the final focal plane instrument will depend on a trade-off between an ideal instrument and practical reality. The trade study will include the number of etalons, their aperture sizes, complexities of the optical train, number of blocking filters, configuration of the electronic control system, computer interfaces, temperature controllers, etalon controllers, and their associated feedback electronics. The heritage of single and multiple etalon systems comes from their use in several observatories, including the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Solar Observatory, Sacramento Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer-Institut fur Sonnenphysik (KIS, Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will benefit from the experience gained at these

  20. NEXT Propellant Management System Integration With Multiple Ion Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Soulas, George C.; Herman, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    As a critical part of the NEXT test validation process, a multiple-string integration test was performed on the NEXT propellant management system and ion thrusters. The objectives of this test were to verify that the PMS is capable of providing stable flow control to multiple thrusters operating over the NEXT system throttling range and to demonstrate to potential users that the NEXT PMS is ready for transition to flight. A test plan was developed for the sub-system integration test for verification of PMS and thruster system performance and functionality requirements. Propellant management system calibrations were checked during the single and multi-thruster testing. The low pressure assembly total flow rates to the thruster(s) were within 1.4 percent of the calibrated support equipment flow rates. The inlet pressures to the main, cathode, and neutralizer ports of Thruster PM1R were measured as the PMS operated in 1-thruster, 2-thruster, and 3-thruster configurations. It was found that the inlet pressures to Thruster PM1R for 2-thruster and 3-thruster operation as well as single thruster operation with the PMS compare very favorably indicating that flow rates to Thruster PM1R were similar in all cases. Characterizations of discharge losses, accelerator grid current, and neutralizer performance were performed as more operating thrusters were added to the PMS. There were no variations in these parameters as thrusters were throttled and single and multiple thruster operations were conducted. The propellant management system power consumption was at a fixed voltage to the DCIU and a fixed thermal throttle temperature of 75 C. The total power consumed by the PMS was 10.0, 17.9, and 25.2 W, respectively, for single, 2-thruster, and 3-thruster operation with the PMS. These sub-system integration tests of the PMS, the DCIU Simulator, and multiple thrusters addressed, in part, the NEXT PMS and propulsion system performance and functionality requirements.

  1. System configured for applying multiple modifying agents to a substrate

    DOEpatents

    Propp, W. Alan; Argyle, Mark D.; Janikowski, Stuart K.; Fox, Robert V.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Miller, David L.

    2003-11-25

    The present invention is related to the modifying of substrates with multiple modifying agents in a single continuous system. At least two processing chambers are configured for modifying the substrate in a continuous feed system. The processing chambers can be substantially isolated from one another by interstitial seals. Additionally, the two processing chambers can be substantially isolated from the surrounding atmosphere by end seals. Optionally, expansion chambers can be used to separate the seals from the processing chambers.

  2. System Configured For Applying Multiple Modifying Agents To A Substrate.

    DOEpatents

    Propp, W. Alan; Argyle, Mark D.; Janikowski, Stuart K.; Fox, Robert V.; Toth, William J.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Allen, Charles A.; Miller, David L.

    2005-11-08

    The present invention is related to the modifying of substrates with multiple modifying agents in a single continuous system. At least two processing chambers are configured for modifying the substrate in a continuous feed system. The processing chambers can be substantially isolated from one another by interstitial seals. Additionally, the two processing chambers can be substantially isolated from the surrounding atmosphere by end seals. Optionally, expansion chambers can be used to separate the seals from the processing chambers.

  3. The Capacity Gain of Orbital Angular Momentum Based Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output System.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuofan; Zheng, Shilie; Chen, Yiling; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chi, Hao; Zhang, Xianmin

    2016-01-01

    Wireless communication using electromagnetic wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has attracted increasing interest in recent years, and its potential to increase channel capacity has been explored widely. In this paper, we compare the technique of using uniform linear array consist of circular traveling-wave OAM antennas for multiplexing with the conventional multiple-in-multiple-out (MIMO) communication method, and numerical results show that the OAM based MIMO system can increase channel capacity while communication distance is long enough. An equivalent model is proposed to illustrate that the OAM multiplexing system is equivalent to a conventional MIMO system with a larger element spacing, which means OAM waves could decrease the spatial correlation of MIMO channel. In addition, the effects of some system parameters, such as OAM state interval and element spacing, on the capacity advantage of OAM based MIMO are also investigated. Our results reveal that OAM waves are complementary with MIMO method. OAM waves multiplexing is suitable for long-distance line-of-sight (LoS) communications or communications in open area where the multi-path effect is weak and can be used in massive MIMO systems as well. PMID:27146453

  4. The Capacity Gain of Orbital Angular Momentum Based Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuofan; Zheng, Shilie; Chen, Yiling; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chi, Hao; Zhang, Xianmin

    2016-05-01

    Wireless communication using electromagnetic wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has attracted increasing interest in recent years, and its potential to increase channel capacity has been explored widely. In this paper, we compare the technique of using uniform linear array consist of circular traveling-wave OAM antennas for multiplexing with the conventional multiple-in-multiple-out (MIMO) communication method, and numerical results show that the OAM based MIMO system can increase channel capacity while communication distance is long enough. An equivalent model is proposed to illustrate that the OAM multiplexing system is equivalent to a conventional MIMO system with a larger element spacing, which means OAM waves could decrease the spatial correlation of MIMO channel. In addition, the effects of some system parameters, such as OAM state interval and element spacing, on the capacity advantage of OAM based MIMO are also investigated. Our results reveal that OAM waves are complementary with MIMO method. OAM waves multiplexing is suitable for long-distance line-of-sight (LoS) communications or communications in open area where the multi-path effect is weak and can be used in massive MIMO systems as well.

  5. The Capacity Gain of Orbital Angular Momentum Based Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuofan; Zheng, Shilie; Chen, Yiling; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chi, Hao; Zhang, Xianmin

    2016-01-01

    Wireless communication using electromagnetic wave carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) has attracted increasing interest in recent years, and its potential to increase channel capacity has been explored widely. In this paper, we compare the technique of using uniform linear array consist of circular traveling-wave OAM antennas for multiplexing with the conventional multiple-in-multiple-out (MIMO) communication method, and numerical results show that the OAM based MIMO system can increase channel capacity while communication distance is long enough. An equivalent model is proposed to illustrate that the OAM multiplexing system is equivalent to a conventional MIMO system with a larger element spacing, which means OAM waves could decrease the spatial correlation of MIMO channel. In addition, the effects of some system parameters, such as OAM state interval and element spacing, on the capacity advantage of OAM based MIMO are also investigated. Our results reveal that OAM waves are complementary with MIMO method. OAM waves multiplexing is suitable for long-distance line-of-sight (LoS) communications or communications in open area where the multi-path effect is weak and can be used in massive MIMO systems as well. PMID:27146453

  6. SEU characterization and design dependence of the SA3300 microprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, F.W.; Treece, R.K.; Hass, K.J.; Hash, G.L.; Axness, C.L. ); Hughes, K.L. ); Buchner, S.P.; Kang, K. )

    1990-12-01

    The SEU vulnerability of the SA3300 16-bit microprocessor has been characterized, and the effects of two different design revisions on error rate have been explored. The authors have found that the threshold for upset depends on the data pattern written into the general purpose registers. With all bits in the general purpose registers set to logic one, a design with 2-{mu}m n- and p-channel transistor lengths had a threshold LET of 35 MeV-cm{sup 2}/mg at 25{degrees} C and 4.5 volt operation. With all zero's stored in the registers the upset threshold increased by more than a factor of two to 83 MeV- cm{sup 2}/mg. A second design revision, with 1.25-{mu}m and 1.75-{mu}m n- and p-channel transistor lengths, respectively, was more vulnerable to upset, but exhibited a smaller dependence on logic state.

  7. A radiation-hardened 16/32-bit microprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Hass, K.J.; Treece, R.K.; Giddings, A.E. )

    1989-12-01

    This paper reports on the development of single chip radiation-hardened 16/32-bit microprocessor. This device, the SA3300, is an emulation of National Semiconductor's NS32C016. The SA3300 is designed to withstand high levels of ionizing radiation and is resistant to single event upset (SEU) caused by heavy ions. New techniques were used to improve immunity to SEU effects in combinational logic. The authors' testing has demonstrated that the SA3300 is functional after a total gamma dose of 5 Mrad(Si). The device does not latch up from SEU, and parts without SEU resistors have an SEU linear energy transfer (LET) upset threshold greater than 28 MeV/mg/cm{sup 2}.

  8. Low-cost microprocessor-based photon correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, N. S.; Choudhary, D. M.

    1983-04-01

    A simple cost-effective microprocessor-based correlator is described which can be used for Gaussian as well as non-Gaussian light sources. Error calculations are presented to show that there is no significant improvement in accuracy by adopting 4-bit word length in preference to 3-bit word length. The instrument can also be used in Raman and Raleigh scattering experiments. A few experimental results are presented bringing out the importance of correlation averaging in S/N enhancement. Some autocorrelograms for fluctuations in the scattered light from polystyrene spheres suspended in water are also presented. The instrument can sample 1500 points and calculate 85 correlations in each scan. All the parameters such as number of samples, number of correlations, number of scans, and the sampling time are user programmable.

  9. Application of microprocessors to spacecraft synthetic aperture radar processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A ground-based digital synthetic aperture radar (SAR) processor capable of correlating images from raw spacecraft data at real-time rates is currently under development. The processor design requirements are particularly formidable due to (1) range migration effects resulting from planetary curvature and rotation, (2) antenna beam pointing errors, and (3) variation of the Doppler reference function with changing orbital parameters. Based upon the current effort, this paper describes a candidate real-time on-board SAR processing implementation approach that might evolve for future spacecraft applications. Key features include the use of custom large scale integration (LSI) charge-coupled device (CCD) technology to accomplish the correlation functions and microprocessor technology to effect control.

  10. Satisfying STEM Education Using the Arduino Microprocessor in C Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffer, Brandyn M.

    There exists a need to promote better Science Technology Engineering and Math (STEM) education at the high school level. To satisfy this need a series of hands-on laboratory assignments were created to be accompanied by 2 educational trainers that contain various electronic components. This project provides an interdisciplinary, hands-on approach to teaching C programming that meets several standards defined by the Tennessee Board of Education. Together the trainers and lab assignments also introduce key concepts in math and science while allowing students hands-on experience with various electronic components. This will allow students to mimic real world applications of using the C programming language while exposing them to technology not currently introduced in many high school classrooms. The developed project is targeted at high school students performing at or above the junior level and uses the Arduino Mega open-source Microprocessor and software as the primary control unit.

  11. Transient fault behavior in a microprocessor: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duba, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    An experimental analysis is described which studies the susceptibility of a microprocessor based jet engine controller to upsets caused by current and voltage transients. A design automation environment which allows the run time injection of transients and the tracing from their impact device to the pin level is described. The resulting error data are categorized by the charge levels of the injected transients by location and by their potential to cause logic upsets, latched errors, and pin errors. The results show a 3 picoCouloumb threshold, below which the transients have little impact. An Arithmetic and Logic Unit transient is most likely to result in logic upsets and pin errors (i.e., impact the external environment). The transients in the countdown unit are potentially serious since they can result in latched errors, thus causing latent faults. Suggestions to protect the processor against these errors, by incorporating internal error detection and transient suppression techniques, are also made.

  12. Multi-crop area estimation and mapping on a microprocessor/mainframe network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheffner, E.

    1985-01-01

    The data processing system is outlined for a 1985 test aimed at determining the performance characteristics of area estimation and mapping procedures connected with the California Cooperative Remote Sensing Project. The project is a joint effort of the USDA Statistical Reporting Service-Remote Sensing Branch, the California Department of Water Resources, NASA-Ames Research Center, and the University of California Remote Sensing Research Program. One objective of the program was to study performance when data processing is done on a microprocessor/mainframe network under operational conditions. The 1985 test covered the hardware, software, and network specifications and the integration of these three components. Plans for the year - including planned completion of PEDITOR software, testing of software on MIDAS, and accomplishment of data processing on the MIDAS-VAX-CRAY network - are discussed briefly.

  13. A microprocessor-based digital feeder monitor with high-impedance fault detection

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Tyska, W.; Russell, B.D.

    1994-12-31

    The high impedance fault detection technology developed at Texas A&M University after more than a decade of research, funded in large part by the Electric Power Research Institute, has been incorporated into a comprehensive monitoring device for overhead distribution feeders. This digital feeder monitor (DFM) uses a high waveform sampling rate for the ac current and voltage inputs in conjunction with a high-performance reduced instruction set (RISC) microprocessor to obtain the frequency response required for arcing fault detection and power quality measurements. Expert system techniques are employed to assure security while maintaining dependability. The DFM is intended to be applied at a distribution substation to monitor one feeder. The DFM is packaged in a non-drawout case which fits the panel cutout for a GE IAC overcurrent relay to facilitate retrofits at the majority of sites were electromechanical overcurrent relays already exist.

  14. Microprocessor-controlled pulsatile flow loop for hemodynamic studies.

    PubMed

    Lynch, T G; Hobson, R W; Pawel, H E

    1986-03-01

    Validation of spectral analytic techniques in the clinical assessment and quantitation of vascular stenoses has been aided by use of in vitro flow loops. We have used a recently developed microprocessor-controlled pulsatile flow model to examine the influence of varying stenoses on Doppler-shifted peak systolic frequencies. A nonaxisymmetric, vertically oriented stenosis was produced by extrinsic compression of latex rubber tubing 12 mm in diameter, reducing the cross-sectional area (CSA) by 25, 40, 50, 60, 70, 85, and 97%. A rolling diaphragm pump, driven through a slider-crank mechanism by a microprocessor-controlled stepper motor, generated characteristic arterial pulse waves at a rate of 75 cycles per minute. Using an 8 MHz, continuous-wave, directional Doppler velocimeter, the Doppler-shifted frequencies were recorded at the stenosis. Four sets of observations were made at each of the stenoses, and the peak systolic frequency (PSF) was determined using a spectrum analyzer. The PSF in the absence of an obstructing stenosis was 2.56 +/- 0.03 (KHz +/- SEM). This increased significantly (P less than 0.05) to 4.80 +/- 0.09 when the CSA was reduced by 50%, to 5.90 +/- 0.37 when the CSA was reduced by 60% (P less than 0.05), to 8.40 +/- 0.10 when the CSA was reduced by 70% (P less than 0.05), and to 17.84 +/- 0.89 when the CSA was reduced by 85% (P less than 0.05). These data establish the utility of this pulsatile flow model, confirming the direct relationship between the Doppler-shifted PSF and the percentage reduction in CSA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3951221

  15. Multiple Etalon Systems for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Sigwarth, Michael; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Multiple etalons systems are discussed that meet the 4-meter NSO/Advance Technology Solar Telescope (http://www.nso.edu/ATST/index.html) instrument and science requirements for a narrow bandpass imaging system. A multiple etalon system can provide an imaging interferometer working in four distinct modes: as a spectro-polarimeter, a filter-vector magnetograph, and a wide-band and broad-band high-resolution imager. Specific dual and triple etalon configurations will be described that provides spectrographic passband of 2.0-3.5nm and reduces parasitic light levels to 1/10000 as required by precise polarization measurement, e.g., Zeeman measurements of magnetic sensitive lines. A TESOS-like triple etalon system provides for spectral purity of 100 thousandths. The triple designs have the advantage of reducing the finesse requirement on each etalon, allowing much more stable blocking filters, and can have very high spectral purity. A dual-etalon double-pass Cavallini-like configuration can provide a competing configuration. This design can provide high contrast with only a double etalon. The selection of the final focal plan instrument will depend on a trade-off of the ideal instrument versus reality, the number of etalons, the aperture of etalons, the number of blocking filters the electronic control system and computer interfaces, the temperature control and controllers for the etalons and the electronics. The use of existing experience should provide significant cost savings. The heritage of use of etalons and multiple etalon systems in solar physics come from a number of observatories, which includes MSFC Solar Observatory (NASA), Sac Peak Observatory (NSO), and Kiepenheuer Institute for Solar Physics (Germany), Mees Solar Observatory (University of Hawaii), and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory (Italy). The design of the ATST multiple etalon system will reply on the existing experience from these observatories.

  16. Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, T.F.; Ng, M.; Wan, W.L.

    1996-12-31

    We consider using Galerkin projection methods for solving multiple related linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)} for 1 {le} i {le} s, where A{sup (i)} and b{sup (i)} are different in general. We start with the special case where A{sup (i)} = A and A is symmetric positive definite. The method generates a Krylov subspace from a set of direction vectors obtained by solving one of the systems, called the seed system, by the CG method and then projects the residuals of other systems orthogonally onto the generated Krylov subspace to get the approximate solutions. The whole process is repeated with another unsolved system as a seed until all the systems are solved. We observe in practice a super-convergence behaviour of the CG process of the seed system when compared with the usual CG process. We also observe that only a small number of restarts is required to solve all the systems if the right-hand sides are close to each other. These two features together make the method particularly effective. In this talk, we give theoretical proof to justify these observations. Furthermore, we combine the advantages of this method and the block CG method and propose a block extension of this single seed method. The above procedure can actually be modified for solving multiple linear systems A{sup (i)}x{sup (i)} = b{sup (i)}, where A{sup (i)} are now different. We can also extend the previous analytical results to this more general case. Applications of this method to multiple related linear systems arising from image restoration and recursive least squares computations are considered as examples.

  17. Distributed magnetic field positioning system using code division multiple access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prigge, Eric A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An apparatus and methods for a magnetic field positioning system use a fundamentally different, and advantageous, signal structure and multiple access method, known as Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA). This signal architecture, when combined with processing methods, leads to advantages over the existing technologies, especially when applied to a system with a large number of magnetic field generators (beacons). Beacons at known positions generate coded magnetic fields, and a magnetic sensor measures a sum field and decomposes it into component fields to determine the sensor position and orientation. The apparatus and methods can have a large `building-sized` coverage area. The system allows for numerous beacons to be distributed throughout an area at a number of different locations. A method to estimate position and attitude, with no prior knowledge, uses dipole fields produced by these beacons in different locations.

  18. Alternative multiple-access techniques for mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Patrick O.; Geraniotis, Evaggelos

    1989-01-01

    The use of Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) to satisfy the diverse requirements of a generic (land, maritime, aeronautical) mobile satellite system (MSS) network design is discussed. Comparisons between CDMA and Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) show that a CDMA network design can support significantly more voice channel allocations than FDMA when relatively simple CDMA correlation receivers are employed, provided that there is sufficient space segment equivalent isotropically radiated power (EIRP). The use of more advanced CDMA receivers can improve the spectral and power efficiency. Although the use of CDMA may not gain immediate and widespread support in the international MSS community, provision for the use of CDMA for a domestic system in the U.S., and possibly for a regional system throughout North America, is likely.

  19. Delay Independent Criterion for Multiple Time-delay Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. J.; Liu, K. F. R.; Yeh, K.; Chen, C. W.; Chung, P. Y.

    Based on the fuzzy Lyapunov method, this work addresses the stability conditions for nonlinear systems with multiple time delays to ensure the stability of building structure control systems. The delay independent conditions are derived via the traditional Lyapunov and fuzzy Lyapunov methods for multiple time-delay systems as approximated by the Tagagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model. The fuzzy Lyapunov function is defined as a fuzzy blending of quadratic Lyapunov functions. A parallel distributed compensation (PDC) scheme is utilized to construct a global fuzzy logic control (FLC) by blending all linear local state feedback controllers in the controller design procedure. Furthermore, the H infinity performance and robustness of the design for modeling errors also need to be considered in the stability conditions.

  20. A novel multiple target tracking system for UAV platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Steven; Zhang, Libin

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce Genex's innovative multiple target tracking system (i.e. SmartMTI algorithm and our miniature DSP/FPGA data processing hardware). SmartMTI is designed for intelligent surveillance on moving platforms such as UAVs (unmmaned Aerial Vehicle), UGV (unmanned ground vehicle), and manned moving platforms. It uses our state-machine MTI framework to seamlessly integrate our state-of-the-art motion detection and target tracking methods to create multiple target following and inter-object 'awareness', thus allowing the system to robustly handle difficult situations such as targets under merging, occlusion, and disappearing conditions. Preliminary tests show that, once implemented on our miniaturized DSP/FPGA hardware, our system can detect and track multiple targets in real time with extremely low miss-detection rate. The SmartMTI design effort leverages Genex's expertise and experience in real-time surveillance system design for the Army's AMCOM's SCORPION or "Glide Bomb" program, NUWC's CERBERUS program, BMDO's missile seeker program, Air Force's UAV auto-navigation and surveillance program, and DARPA's Future Combat System (FCS) program.

  1. Multiple-input, multiple-output system identification for characterization of limb stiffness dynamics.

    PubMed

    Perreault, E J; Kirsch, R F; Acosta, A M

    1999-05-01

    This study presents time-domain and frequency-domain, multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) linear system identification techniques that can be used to estimate the dynamic endpoint stiffness of a multijoint limb. The stiffness of a joint or limb arises from a number of physiological mechanisms and is thought to play a fundamental role in the control of posture and movement. Estimates of endpoint stiffness can therefore be used to characterize its modulation during physiological tasks and may provide insight into how the nervous system normally controls motor behavior. Previous MIMO stiffness estimates have focused upon the static stiffness components only or assumed simple parametric models with elastic, viscous, and inertial components. The method presented here captures the full stiffness dynamics during a relatively short experimental trial while assuming only that the system is linear for small perturbations. Simulation studies were performed to investigate the performance of this approach under typical experimental conditions. It was found that a linear MIMO description of endpoint stiffness dynamics was sufficient to describe the displacement responses to small stochastic force perturbations. Distortion of these linear estimates by nonlinear centripetal and Coriolis forces was virtually undetectable for these perturbations. The system identification techniques were also found to be robust in the presence of significant output measurement noise and input coupling. These results indicate that the approach described here will allow the estimation of endpoint stiffness dynamics in an experimentally efficient manner with minimal assumptions about the specific form of these properties. PMID:10365425

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A WIRELINE CPT SYSTEM FOR MULTIPLE TOOL USAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen P. Farrington; Martin L. Gildea; J. Christopher Bianchi

    1999-08-01

    The first phase of development of a wireline cone penetrometer system for multiple tool usage was completed under DOE award number DE-AR26-98FT40366. Cone penetrometer technology (CPT) has received widespread interest and is becoming more commonplace as a tool for environmental site characterization activities at several Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Although CPT already offers many benefits for site characterization, the wireline system can improve CPT technology by offering greater utility and increased cost savings. Currently the use of multiple CPT tools during a site characterization (i.e. piezometric cone, chemical sensors, core sampler, grouting tool) must be accomplished by withdrawing the entire penetrometer rod string to change tools. This results in multiple penetrations being required to collect the data and samples that may be required during characterization of a site, and to subsequently seal the resulting holes with grout. The wireline CPT system allows multiple CPT tools to be interchanged during a single penetration, without withdrawing the CPT rod string from the ground. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a system by which various tools can be placed at the tip of the rod string depending on the type of information or sample desired. Under the base contract, an interchangeable piezocone and grouting tool was designed, fabricated, and evaluated. The results of the evaluation indicate that success criteria for the base contract were achieved. In addition, the wireline piezocone tool was validated against ASTM standard cones, the depth capability of the system was found to compare favorably with that of conventional CPT, and the reliability and survivability of the system were demonstrated.

  3. Precision control of multiple quantum cascade lasers for calibration systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Pratt, Richard M.; Stahl, Robert D.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2014-01-01

    We present a precision, 1-A, digitally interfaced current controller for quantum cascade lasers, with demonstrated temperature coefficients for continuous and 40-kHz full-depth square-wave modulated operation, of 1-2 ppm/ °C and 15 ppm/ °C, respectively. High precision digital to analog converters (DACs) together with an ultra-precision voltage reference produce highly stable, precision voltages, which are selected by a multiplexer (MUX) chip to set output currents via a linear current regulator. The controller is operated in conjunction with a power multiplexing unit, allowing one of three lasers to be driven by the controller, while ensuring protection of controller and all lasers during operation, standby, and switching. Simple ASCII commands sent over a USB connection to a microprocessor located in the current controller operate both the controller (via the DACs and MUX chip) and the power multiplexer.

  4. Precision control of multiple quantum cascade lasers for calibration systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taubman, Matthew S. Myers, Tanya L.; Pratt, Richard M.; Stahl, Robert D.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2014-01-15

    We present a precision, 1-A, digitally interfaced current controller for quantum cascade lasers, with demonstrated temperature coefficients for continuous and 40-kHz full-depth square-wave modulated operation, of 1–2 ppm/ °C and 15 ppm/ °C, respectively. High precision digital to analog converters (DACs) together with an ultra-precision voltage reference produce highly stable, precision voltages, which are selected by a multiplexer (MUX) chip to set output currents via a linear current regulator. The controller is operated in conjunction with a power multiplexing unit, allowing one of three lasers to be driven by the controller, while ensuring protection of controller and all lasers during operation, standby, and switching. Simple ASCII commands sent over a USB connection to a microprocessor located in the current controller operate both the controller (via the DACs and MUX chip) and the power multiplexer.

  5. Precision Control of Multiple Quantum Cascade Lasers for Calibration Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Taubman, Matthew S.; Myers, Tanya L.; Pratt, Richard M.; Stahl, Robert D.; Cannon, Bret D.

    2014-01-15

    We present a precision, digitally interfaced current controller for quantum cascade lasers, with demonstrated DC and modulated temperature coefficients of 1- 2 ppm/ºC and 15 ppm/ºC respectively. High linearity digital to analog converters (DACs) together with an ultra-precision voltage reference, produce highly stable, precision voltages. These are in turn selected by a low charge-injection multiplexer (MUX) chip, which are then used to set output currents via a linear current regulator. The controller is operated in conjunction with a power multiplexing unit, allowing one of three lasers to be driven by the controller while ensuring protection of controller and all lasers during operation, standby and switching. Simple ASCII commands sent over a USB connection to a microprocessor located in the current controller operate both the controller (via the DACs and MUX chip) and the power multiplexer.

  6. Expanding the spectrum of neuronal pathology in multiple system atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Cykowski, Matthew D.; Coon, Elizabeth A.; Powell, Suzanne Z.; Jenkins, Sarah M.; Benarroch, Eduardo E.; Low, Phillip A.; Schmeichel, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy is a sporadic alpha-synucleinopathy that typically affects patients in their sixth decade of life and beyond. The defining clinical features of the disease include progressive autonomic failure, parkinsonism, and cerebellar ataxia leading to significant disability. Pathologically, multiple system atrophy is characterized by glial cytoplasmic inclusions containing filamentous alpha-synuclein. Neuronal inclusions also have been reported but remain less well defined. This study aimed to further define the spectrum of neuronal pathology in 35 patients with multiple system atrophy (20 male, 15 female; mean age at death 64.7 years; median disease duration 6.5 years, range 2.2 to 15.6 years). The morphologic type, topography, and frequencies of neuronal inclusions, including globular cytoplasmic (Lewy body-like) neuronal inclusions, were determined across a wide spectrum of brain regions. A correlation matrix of pathologic severity also was calculated between distinct anatomic regions of involvement (striatum, substantia nigra, olivary and pontine nuclei, hippocampus, forebrain and thalamus, anterior cingulate and neocortex, and white matter of cerebrum, cerebellum, and corpus callosum). The major finding was the identification of widespread neuronal inclusions in the majority of patients, not only in typical disease-associated regions (striatum, substantia nigra), but also within anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, basal forebrain and hypothalamus. Neuronal inclusion pathology appeared to follow a hierarchy of region-specific susceptibility, independent of the clinical phenotype, and the severity of pathology was duration-dependent. Neuronal inclusions also were identified in regions not previously implicated in the disease, such as within cerebellar roof nuclei. Lewy body-like inclusions in multiple system atrophy followed the stepwise anatomic progression of Lewy body-spectrum disease inclusion pathology in 25.7% of patients

  7. Multiple-Agent Air/Ground Autonomous Exploration Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Tarbell, Mark; Dohm, James M.

    2007-01-01

    Autonomous systems of multiple-agent air/ground robotic units for exploration of the surfaces of remote planets are undergoing development. Modified versions of these systems could be used on Earth to perform tasks in environments dangerous or inaccessible to humans: examples of tasks could include scientific exploration of remote regions of Antarctica, removal of land mines, cleanup of hazardous chemicals, and military reconnaissance. A basic system according to this concept (see figure) would include a unit, suspended by a balloon or a blimp, that would be in radio communication with multiple robotic ground vehicles (rovers) equipped with video cameras and possibly other sensors for scientific exploration. The airborne unit would be free-floating, controlled by thrusters, or tethered either to one of the rovers or to a stationary object in or on the ground. Each rover would contain a semi-autonomous control system for maneuvering and would function under the supervision of a control system in the airborne unit. The rover maneuvering control system would utilize imagery from the onboard camera to navigate around obstacles. Avoidance of obstacles would also be aided by readout from an onboard (e.g., ultrasonic) sensor. Together, the rover and airborne control systems would constitute an overarching closed-loop control system to coordinate scientific exploration by the rovers.

  8. Mean-field limit of systems with multiplicative noise.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Miguel A; Colaiori, Francesca; Castellano, Claudio

    2005-11-01

    A detailed study of the mean-field solution of Langevin equations with multiplicative noise is presented. Three different regimes depending on noise intensity (weak, intermediate, and strong noise) are identified by performing a self-consistent calculation on a fully connected lattice. The most interesting, strong-noise, regime is shown to be intrinsically unstable with respect to the inclusion of fluctuations, as a Ginzburg criterion shows. On the other hand, the self-consistent approach is shown to be valid only in the thermodynamic limit, while for finite systems the critical behavior is found to be different. In this last case, the self-consistent field itself is broadly distributed rather than taking a well defined mean value; its fluctuations, described by an effective zero-dimensional multiplicative noise equation, govern the critical properties. These findings are obtained analytically for a fully connected graph, and verified numerically both on fully connected graphs and on random regular networks. The results presented here shed some doubt on what is the validity and meaning of a standard mean-field approach in systems with multiplicative noise in finite dimensions, where each site does not see an infinite number of neighbors, but a finite one. The implications of all this on the existence of a finite upper critical dimension for multiplicative noise and Kardar-Parisi-Zhang problems are briefly discussed. PMID:16383683

  9. The optimization of complex systems with respect to multiple criteria.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beeson, R. M.; Meisel, W. S.

    1971-01-01

    A difficult aspect of system optimization is the choice of a single cost function relating system parameters to the quality of the design; there are generally conflicting criteria by which the system can be evaluated. This paper discusses the problem of optimization with respect to multiple criteria, i.e., with a vector-valued cost function, without prespecifying constraints or the weighting of the criteria. The paper discusses theoretical results concerning the set of non-inferior solutions so generated and a computational algorithm for obtaining a characteristic set of non-inferior solutions.

  10. Sensing using eigenchannels in radio-frequency multiple-input, multiple-output communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikhazi, Nicolas; Young, William F.; Nguyen, Hung

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the use of multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) communication technology as a radio frequency (RF) sensor. We suggest some possible measures for determining how the changes in MIMO channel are related to objects moving through the MIMO channel. Initially, we examine the singular values of the channel matrix. We further demonstrate the effects of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in conjunction with the target physical properties in the creation of eigenchannels. These eigenchannels represent the key factor in the ability of a MIMO system to perform as an effective sensor. Another important feature of MIMO technology is that it allows us to capture spatial information about the target, beyond the typical time and frequency information. Preliminary experimental results at 750 MHz demonstrate that targets can be detected and distinguished based on these simple measures. For example, a vehicular target is distinguishable from a person or groups of people. Our concept is closely related to a MIMO radar approach. However, a key difference is that we make use of the natural process of establishing a MIMO communication link rather than interrogate a specific physical region via a pulsed RF waveform. MIMO communications requires sounding of the physical environment and the creation of a channel matrix in order to maximize data throughput. We leverage this information about the area of interest already captured by the communication system. This allows the use of a MIMO system for both sensing and communication.

  11. Orbital Stability of Spacecraft Exploring Multiple Asteroid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Keaton; Marchis, F.; Bellerose, J.

    2011-05-01

    Space missions to study the composition and formation histories of multiple asteroid systems require the identification of safe orbits for the observing spacecraft. To identify regions of orbital stability, we developed an n-body simulation and Monte Carlo scheme to test a large selection of orbits around the components of multiple asteroid systems. Our n-body program integrates the equations of motion of the spacecraft, asteroid system components, and the sun for 20 days, taking into account solar radiation pressure on the spacecraft and modeling asteroids as systems of rigid points when their shape model is known. We utilized a Monte Carlo scheme to test the stability of polar and retrograde orbits from uniformly distributed starting positions with normally distributed tangential velocities around each component. We present preliminary results of simulations testing hundreds of thousands of polar and retrograde orbits around the components of the 2001 SN263 near-earth triple asteroid system, and the (90) Antiope doublet and (45) Eugenia triple systems in the main-belt. These systems are potential targets for several space mission concepts, including: the Amor mission to visit and land on the components of 2001 SN263, Jones et al. (LPSC 42, #2695, 2011), the Diversity mission to explore several asteroid systems including (45) Eugenia and (90) Antiope, Marchis et al. (LPSC 42, #2062, 2011), and the ASTER mission to visit a NEA multiple asteroid, Sukhanov et al. (Cosmic Research 48-5, p. 443-450, 2010). Analysis of stable regions in position and velocity may assist in planning scientific orbits and instrumental specifications for such missions.

  12. FOREVER ALONE? TESTING SINGLE ECCENTRIC PLANETARY SYSTEMS FOR MULTIPLE COMPANIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Bailey, J.; Salter, G. S.; Wright, D.; Wang Songhu; Zhou Jilin; Butler, R. P.; Jones, H. R. A.; O'Toole, S. J.; Carter, B. D.

    2013-09-15

    Determining the orbital eccentricity of an extrasolar planet is critically important for understanding the system's dynamical environment and history. However, eccentricity is often poorly determined or entirely mischaracterized due to poor observational sampling, low signal-to-noise, and/or degeneracies with other planetary signals. Some systems previously thought to contain a single, moderate-eccentricity planet have been shown, after further monitoring, to host two planets on nearly circular orbits. We investigate published apparent single-planet systems to see if the available data can be better fit by two lower-eccentricity planets. We identify nine promising candidate systems and perform detailed dynamical tests to confirm the stability of the potential new multiple-planet systems. Finally, we compare the expected orbits of the single- and double-planet scenarios to better inform future observations of these interesting systems.

  13. Stochastic dynamics of a delayed bistable system with multiplicative noise

    SciTech Connect

    Dung, Nguyen Tien E-mail: dungnt@fpt.edu.vn

    2014-05-15

    In this paper we investigate the properties of a delayed bistable system under the effect of multiplicative noise. We first prove the existence and uniqueness of the positive solution and show that its moments are uniformly bounded. Then, we study stochastic dynamics of the solution in long time, the lower and upper bounds for the paths and an estimate for the average value are provided.

  14. System and process for pulsed multiple reaction monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Belov, Mikhail E

    2013-05-17

    A new pulsed multiple reaction monitoring process and system are disclosed that uses a pulsed ion injection mode for use in conjunction with triple-quadrupole instruments. The pulsed injection mode approach reduces background ion noise at the detector, increases amplitude of the ion signal, and includes a unity duty cycle that provides a significant sensitivity increase for reliable quantitation of proteins/peptides present at attomole levels in highly complex biological mixtures.

  15. Computation of subsonic flow around airfoil systems with multiple separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, K.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical method for computing the subsonic flow around multi-element airfoil systems was developed, allowing for flow separation at one or more elements. Besides multiple rear separation also sort bubbles on the upper surface and cove bubbles can approximately be taken into account. Also, compressibility effects for pure subsonic flow are approximately accounted for. After presentation the method is applied to several examples and improved in some details. Finally, the present limitations and desirable extensions are discussed.

  16. Emergy evaluation of contrasting dairy systems at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Mathieu; Peyraud, Jean-Louis; Lecomte, Philippe; Corson, Michael S; Wilfart, Aurélie

    2013-11-15

    Emergy accounting (EmA) was applied to a range of dairy systems, from low-input smallholder systems in South Mali (SM), to intermediate-input systems in two regions of France, Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR), to high-input systems on Reunion Island (RI). These systems were studied at three different levels: whole-farm (dairy system and cropping system), dairy-system (dairy herd and forage land), and herd (animals only). Dairy farms in SM used the lowest total emergy at all levels and was the highest user of renewable resources. Despite the low quality of resources consumed (crop residues and natural pasture), efficiency of their use was similar to that of industrialised inputs by intensive systems in RI, PC and BR. In addition, among the systems studied, SM dairy farms lay closest to environmental sustainability, contradicting the usual image of high environmental impact of cattle production in developing countries. EmA also revealed characteristics of the three intensive systems. Systems from RI and PC had lower resource transformation efficiency and higher environmental impacts than those from BR, due mainly to feeding strategies that differed due to differing socio-climatic constraints. Application of EmA at multiple levels revealed the importance of a multi-level analysis. While the whole-farm level assesses the overall contribution of the system to its environment, the dairy-system level is suitable for comparison of multi-product systems. In contrast, the herd level focuses on herd management and bypasses debates about definition of system boundaries by excluding land management. Combining all levels highlights the contribution of livestock to the global agricultural system and identifies inefficiencies and influences of system components on the environment. PMID:23792889

  17. A microprocessor card software server to support the Quebec health microprocessor card project.

    PubMed

    Durant, P; Bérubé, J; Lavoie, G; Gamache, A; Ardouin, P; Papillon, M J; Fortin, J P

    1995-01-01

    The Quebec Health Smart Card Project is advocating the use of a memory card software server[1] (SCAM) to implement a portable medical record (PMR) on a smart card. The PMR is viewed as an object that can be manipulated by SCAM's services. In fact, we can talk about a pseudo-object-oriented approach. This software architecture provides a flexible and evolutive way to manage and optimize the PMR. SCAM is a generic software server; it can manage smart cards as well as optical (laser) cards or other types of memory cards. But, in the specific case of the Quebec Health Card Project, SCAM is used to provide services between physicians' or pharmacists' software and IBM smart card technology. We propose to expose the concepts and techniques used to provide a generic environment to deal with smart cards (and more generally with memory cards), to obtain a dynamic an evolutive PMR, to raise the system global security level and the data integrity, to optimize significantly the management of the PMR, and to provide statistic information about the use of the PMR. PMID:8591193

  18. Report on the formal specification and partial verification of the VIPER microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, Bishop; Hunt, Warren A., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The formal specification and partial verification of the VIPER microprocessor is reviewed. The VIPER microprocessor was designed by RSRE, Malvern, England, for safety critical computing applications (e.g., aircraft, reactor control, medical instruments, armaments). The VIPER was carefully specified and partially verified in an attempt to provide a microprocessor with completely predictable operating characteristics. The specification of VIPER is divided into several levels of abstraction, from a gate-level description up to an instruction execution model. Although the consistency between certain levels was demonstrated with mechanically-assisted mathematical proof, the formal verification of VIPER was never completed.

  19. [The Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System MSDS. Discussion of a documentation standard for multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Pette, M; Eulitz, M

    2002-02-01

    The MSDS (multiple sclerosis documentation system) has been developed at the Department of Neurology, Technical University of Dresden, Germany, during the last 4 years. The first version of this database application has been in use since October 2000. The MSDS manages information on MS patients, their treating physicians, patient history (symptoms, other diseases, biographical history, family history, habits, medication), clinical signs, results of laboratory examinations (blood chemistry, autoantibodies, borrelia serology, evoked potentials, cranial and spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging), clinical scores relevant for MS, and biosamples. In principle, MSDS allows online data input and semiautomatically generates reports to all general practitioners and neurologists treating the respective patient. Patient information sheets and internal treatment guidelines are part of the system. During a 3-month evaluation, the first version of MSDS was tested at eight university multiple sclerosis ambulatory care units and one general neurology hospital. The overall judgement was favorable. Suggestions for changes and improvements, as well as practical experiences, were considered when developing MSDS 2.0, which will be available by the end of 2001. PMID:11975090

  20. Surveillance systems integrating multiple sensors for enhanced situational awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Anda, J. B.; Van Anda, J. D.

    2005-05-01

    In the modern world of high value security systems a successful installation requires the sensors to produce more than just good IR images, preprocessed data from these images, imagery in multiple bands fused in intelligent ways with each other and with non imaging information such as Laser ranging is required. This paper describes a system where LW uncooled, color TV, low light level TV, and laser ranging information are fused in a integral Pan and Tilt system to provide a sensor suite with exceptional capabilities for seamlessly integration into an advanced security system. Advances integrated in this system includes the advances sensor suite, sensible symbology for situational awareness in case of operator intervention, parallax and focus tracking through zoom and sensor changes to enhance auto tracking and motion detection algorithms.

  1. Presenting Multiple Drug Alerts in an Ambulatory Electronic Prescribing System

    PubMed Central

    Weinger, M.B.; Gregg, W.M.; Johnson, K.B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objective This study explores alternative approaches to the display of drug alerts, and examines whether and how human-factors based interface design can be used to improve the prescriber’s perception about drug alert presentation, signal detection from noisy alert data, and their comprehension of clinical decision support during electronic prescribing. Methods We reviewed issues with presenting multiple drug alerts in electronic prescribing systems. User-centered design, consisting of iterative usability and prototype testing was applied. After an iterative design phase, we proposed several novel drug alert presentation interfaces; expert evaluation and formal usability testing were applied to access physician prescribers’ perceptions of the tools. We mapped drug alert attributes to different interface constructs. We examined four different interfaces for presenting multiple drug alerts. Results A TreeDashboard View was better perceived than a text-based ScrollText View with respect to the ability to detect critical information, the ability to accomplish tasks, and the perceptional efficacy of finding information. Conclusion A robust model for studying multiple drug-alert presentations was developed. Several drug alert presentation interfaces were proposed. The TreeDashboard View was better perceived than the text-based ScrollText View in delivering multiple drug alerts during a simulation of electronic prescribing. PMID:25024753

  2. Wireline system for multiple direct push tool usage

    DOEpatents

    Bratton, Wesley L.; Farrington, Stephen P.; Shinn, II, James D.; Nolet, Darren C.

    2003-11-11

    A tool latching and retrieval system allows the deployment and retrieval of a variety of direct push subsurface characterization tools through an embedded rod string during a single penetration without requiring withdrawal of the string from the ground. This enables the in situ interchange of different tools, as well as the rapid retrieval of soil core samples from multiple depths during a single direct push penetration. The system includes specialized rods that make up the rod string, a tool housing which is integral to the rod string, a lock assembly, and several tools which mate to the lock assembly.

  3. Solutions on high-resolution multiple configuration system sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hua; Ding, Quanxin; Guo, Chunjie; Zhou, Liwei

    2014-11-01

    For aim to achieve an improved resolution in modern image domain, a method of continuous zoom multiple configuration, with a core optics is attempt to establish model by novel principle on energy transfer and high accuracy localization, by which the system resolution can be improved with a level in nano meters. A comparative study on traditional vs modern methods can demonstrate that the dialectical relationship and their balance is important, among Merit function, Optimization algorithms and Model parameterization. The effect of system evaluated criterion that MTF, REA, RMS etc. can support our arguments qualitatively.

  4. A Test of Stellar Cohabitation in Multiple Transiting Planet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morehead, Robert C.; Ford, E. B.

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler mission has discovered over 2,300 exoplanet candidates, including more than 885 associated with target stars with multiple transiting planet candidates. While these putative multiple planet systems are predicted to have an extremely low false positive rate, it is important to test what fraction are indeed transiting a single star and what fraction are some sort of blend (e.g., one transiting planet and an eclipsing binary, or two planet-hosting stars blended within the photometric aperture). We perform such a test for stellar cohabitation using the observed distribution of ξ, the period-normalized transit duration ratio of pairs of transiting planet candidates. We developed a Bayesian framework to estimate the probability that two candidates orbit the target star based on the observed orbital periods and light curve properties with an emphasis on ξ. For priors distributions, we use empirical planet, binary star, and hierarchical triple star occurrence rates and galactic population synthesis models. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we calculate the implied distributions of ξ for all plausible blend scenarios; i.e., a planet around the target star and a background or physically associated eclipsing binary star, a planet around the the target star and a planet around a background or physically associated secondary star, as well as a single star with two planets and no blend. Finally, we compute the posterior probability that a given pair of transiting planet candidates are indeed a pair of planets in orbit around the target star given the observed values. We present the results of our test for a selection Kepler multiple planet candidates and for systems confirmed through other methods, such as transit timing variations. We demonstrate the utility of this technique for the confirmation and characterization of multiple transiting planet systems.

  5. Multiple well systems with non-Darcy flow.

    PubMed

    Mijic, Ana; Mathias, Simon A; LaForce, Tara C

    2013-01-01

    Optimization of groundwater and other subsurface resources requires analysis of multiple-well systems. The usual modeling approach is to apply a linear flow equation (e.g., Darcy's law in confined aquifers). In such conditions, the composite response of a system of wells can be determined by summating responses of the individual wells (the principle of superposition). However, if the flow velocity increases, the nonlinear losses become important in the near-well region and the principle of superposition is no longer valid. This article presents an alternative method for applying analytical solutions of non-Darcy flow for a single- to multiple-well systems. The method focuses on the response of the central injection well located in an array of equally spaced wells, as it is the well that exhibits the highest pressure change within the system. This critical well can be represented as a single well situated in the center of a closed square domain, the width of which is equal to the well spacing. It is hypothesized that a single well situated in a circular region of the equivalent plan area adequately represents such a system. A test case is presented and compared with a finite-difference solution for the original problem, assuming that the flow is governed by the nonlinear Forchheimer equation. PMID:23039097

  6. Planet formation in multiple stellar systems: GG Tau A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Folco, E.; Dutrey, A.; Guilloteau, S.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Lacour, S.; Berger, J.-P.; Köhler, R.; Piétu, V.

    2014-12-01

    GG Tau is a hierarchical quadruple system of young, low-mass stars. Because of its well-studied bright circumbinary ring of dust and gas surrounding the main binary GG Tau A, it is a unique laboratory to study planet formation in the disturbed environment of binary/multiple stellar systems. We have started a large observing program of GG Tau A that combines several high-resolution instruments in a multi-wavelength approach. We have recently reported the detection of a new low-mass companion in GG Tau A that turns out to itself be a triple system. This discovery was possible thanks to the very high angular resolution of the near-IR instrument PIONIER on the VLT interferometer, and was confirmed with sub-aperture masking techniques on VLT/NaCo. The detected close binary GG Tau Ab (ρ = 0.032'', or about 5 AU) provides a natural explanation for two enigmas: the discrepancy between the dynamical mass and the spectral type estimates in GG Tau A, and the absence of dust thermal emission in the vicinity of the Ab component. GRAVITY will provide the adequate angular resolution to complete the astrometric characterization of the close binary in the next 10 years. With now 5 coeval low-mass stars, GG Tau is an ideal laboratory to calibrate stellar evolution tracks at young ages (few Myr). Beyond this peculiar system, GRAVITY also has a strong potential to study the impact of multiplicity on the existence of disks, and in fine on planet formation mechanisms in multiple systems.

  7. Bioerodible system for sequential release of multiple drugs.

    PubMed

    Sundararaj, Sharath C; Thomas, Mark V; Dziubla, Thomas D; Puleo, David A

    2014-01-01

    Because many complex physiological processes are controlled by multiple biomolecules, comprehensive treatment of certain disease conditions may be more effectively achieved by administration of more than one type of drug. Thus, the objective of the present research was to develop a multilayered, polymer-based system for sequential delivery of multiple drugs. The polymers used were cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) complexed with Pluronic F-127 (P). After evaluating morphology of the resulting CAPP system, in vitro release of small molecule drugs and a model protein was studied from both single and multilayered devices. Drug release from single-layered CAPP films followed zero-order kinetics related to surface erosion of the association polymer. Release studies from multilayered CAPP devices showed the possibility of achieving intermittent release of one type of drug as well as sequential release of more than one type of drug. Mathematical modeling accurately predicted the release profiles for both single layer and multilayered devices. The present CAPP association polymer-based multilayer devices can be used for localized, sequential delivery of multiple drugs for the possible treatment of complex disease conditions, and perhaps for tissue engineering applications, that require delivery of more than one type of biomolecule. PMID:24096151

  8. Proposed statistical performance measures for microprocessor-based transmission-line protective relays. Part 1: Explanation of the statistics

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents practical calculations and novel techniques for collecting performance data from protective relays. The methods are focused on, but not limited to, microprocessor-based transmission line relaying systems. Standard definitions are presented for Availability, Dependability, Security, Hardware MTBF, Relaying MTBF, Repair Time, and other measures of interest for specific relay types. The paper explains the novel concept of Exposures, the key to a standardized security measure. A companion paper, Part 2--Collection and Uses of Data, gives practical guidelines for gathering and calculation of results. With these standard measures, relay users will be able to compile the first consistent industry-wide data base for relay performance assessment.

  9. System and method for inventorying multiple remote objects

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis L.; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2007-10-23

    A system and method of inventorying multiple objects utilizing a multi-level or a chained radio frequency identification system. The system includes a master tag and a plurality of upper level tags and lower level tags associated with respective objects. The upper and lower level tags communicate with each other and the master tag so that reading of the master tag reveals the presence and absence of upper and lower level tags. In the chained RF system, the upper and lower level tags communicate locally with each other in a manner so that more remote tags that are out of range of some of the upper and lower level tags have their information relayed through adjacent tags to the master tag and thence to a controller.

  10. System and method for inventorying multiple remote objects

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis L.; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2009-12-29

    A system and method of inventorying multiple objects utilizing a multi-level or a chained radio frequency identification system. The system includes a master tag and a plurality of upper level tags and lower level tags associated with respective objects. The upper and lower level tags communicate with each other and the master tag so that reading of the master tag reveals the presence and absence of upper and lower level tags. In the chained RF system, the upper and lower level tags communicate locally with each other in a manner so that more remote tags that are out of range of some of the upper and lower level tags have their information relayed through adjacent tags to the master tag and thence to a controller.

  11. Multiple ray cluster rendering for interactive integral imaging system.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Shaohui; Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Mingcai; Li, Weiming; Hong, Tao; Nam, Dongkyung; Lee, Jin-Ho; Wu, Enhua; Wang, Haitao; Kim, Ji-Yeun

    2013-04-22

    In this paper, we present an efficient Computer Generated Integral Imaging (CGII) method, called multiple ray cluster rendering (MRCR). Based on the MRCR, an interactive integral imaging system is realized, which provides accurate 3D image satisfying the changeable observers' positions in real time. The MRCR method can generate all the elemental image pixels within only one rendering pass by ray reorganization of multiple ray clusters and 3D content duplication. It is compatible with various graphic contents including mesh, point cloud, and medical data. Moreover, multi-sampling method is embedded in MRCR method for acquiring anti-aliased 3D image result. To our best knowledge, the MRCR method outperforms the existing CGII methods in both the speed performance and the display quality. Experimental results show that the proposed CGII method can achieve real-time computational speed for large-scale 3D data with about 50,000 points. PMID:23609712

  12. Multiple fuel supply system for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Crothers, William T.

    1977-01-01

    A multiple fuel supply or an internal combustion engine wherein phase separation of components is deliberately induced. The resulting separation permits the use of a single fuel tank to supply components of either or both phases to the engine. Specifically, phase separation of a gasoline/methanol blend is induced by the addition of a minor amount of water sufficient to guarantee separation into an upper gasoline phase and a lower methanol/water phase. A single fuel tank holds the two-phase liquid with separate fuel pickups and separate level indicators for each phase. Either gasoline or methanol, or both, can be supplied to the engine as required by predetermined parameters. A fuel supply system for a phase-separated multiple fuel supply contained in a single fuel tank is described.

  13. Simultaneous real-time monitoring of multiple cortical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Disha; Hill, N. Jeremy; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Ritaccio, Anthony L.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Real-time monitoring of the brain is potentially valuable for performance monitoring, communication, training or rehabilitation. In natural situations, the brain performs a complex mix of various sensory, motor or cognitive functions. Thus, real-time brain monitoring would be most valuable if (a) it could decode information from multiple brain systems simultaneously, and (b) this decoding of each brain system were robust to variations in the activity of other (unrelated) brain systems. Previous studies showed that it is possible to decode some information from different brain systems in retrospect and/or in isolation. In our study, we set out to determine whether it is possible to simultaneously decode important information about a user from different brain systems in real time, and to evaluate the impact of concurrent activity in different brain systems on decoding performance. Approach. We study these questions using electrocorticographic signals recorded in humans. We first document procedures for generating stable decoding models given little training data, and then report their use for offline and for real-time decoding from 12 subjects (six for offline parameter optimization, six for online experimentation). The subjects engage in tasks that involve movement intention, movement execution and auditory functions, separately, and then simultaneously. Main results. Our real-time results demonstrate that our system can identify intention and movement periods in single trials with an accuracy of 80.4% and 86.8%, respectively (where 50% would be expected by chance). Simultaneously, the decoding of the power envelope of an auditory stimulus resulted in an average correlation coefficient of 0.37 between the actual and decoded power envelopes. These decoders were trained separately and executed simultaneously in real time. Significance. This study yielded the first demonstration that it is possible to decode simultaneously the functional activity of multiple

  14. MACSIMS : multiple alignment of complete sequences information management system

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Julie D; Muller, Arnaud; Waterhouse, Andrew; Procter, Jim; Barton, Geoffrey J; Plewniak, Frédéric; Poch, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Background In the post-genomic era, systems-level studies are being performed that seek to explain complex biological systems by integrating diverse resources from fields such as genomics, proteomics or transcriptomics. New information management systems are now needed for the collection, validation and analysis of the vast amount of heterogeneous data available. Multiple alignments of complete sequences provide an ideal environment for the integration of this information in the context of the protein family. Results MACSIMS is a multiple alignment-based information management program that combines the advantages of both knowledge-based and ab initio sequence analysis methods. Structural and functional information is retrieved automatically from the public databases. In the multiple alignment, homologous regions are identified and the retrieved data is evaluated and propagated from known to unknown sequences with these reliable regions. In a large-scale evaluation, the specificity of the propagated sequence features is estimated to be >99%, i.e. very few false positive predictions are made. MACSIMS is then used to characterise mutations in a test set of 100 proteins that are known to be involved in human genetic diseases. The number of sequence features associated with these proteins was increased by 60%, compared to the features available in the public databases. An XML format output file allows automatic parsing of the MACSIM results, while a graphical display using the JalView program allows manual analysis. Conclusion MACSIMS is a new information management system that incorporates detailed analyses of protein families at the structural, functional and evolutionary levels. MACSIMS thus provides a unique environment that facilitates knowledge extraction and the presentation of the most pertinent information to the biologist. A web server and the source code are available at . PMID:16792820

  15. Homeostatic dysregulation proceeds in parallel in multiple physiological systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Wang, Shengrui; Milot, Emmanuel; Bergeron, Patrick; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fried, Linda P; Cohen, Alan A

    2015-12-01

    An increasing number of aging researchers believes that multi-system physiological dysregulation may be a key biological mechanism of aging, but evidence of this has been sparse. Here, we used biomarker data on nearly 33, 000 individuals from four large datasets to test for the presence of multi-system dysregulation. We grouped 37 biomarkers into six a priori groupings representing physiological systems (lipids, immune, oxygen transport, liver function, vitamins, and electrolytes), then calculated dysregulation scores for each system in each individual using statistical distance. Correlations among dysregulation levels across systems were generally weak but significant. Comparison of these results to dysregulation in arbitrary 'systems' generated by random grouping of biomarkers showed that a priori knowledge effectively distinguished the true systems in which dysregulation proceeds most independently. In other words, correlations among dysregulation levels were higher using arbitrary systems, indicating that only a priori systems identified distinct dysregulation processes. Additionally, dysregulation of most systems increased with age and significantly predicted multiple health outcomes including mortality, frailty, diabetes, heart disease, and number of chronic diseases. The six systems differed in how well their dysregulation scores predicted health outcomes and age. These findings present the first unequivocal demonstration of integrated multi-system physiological dysregulation during aging, demonstrating that physiological dysregulation proceeds neither as a single global process nor as a completely independent process in different systems, but rather as a set of system-specific processes likely linked through weak feedback effects. These processes--probably many more than the six measured here--are implicated in aging. PMID:26416593

  16. Formal verification of a microcoded VIPER microprocessor using HOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, Karl; Arora, Tejkumar; Leung, Tony; Kalvala, Sara; Schubert, E. Thomas; Windley, Philip; Heckman, Mark; Cohen, Gerald C.

    1993-01-01

    The Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) and members of the Hardware Verification Group at Cambridge University conducted a joint effort to prove the correspondence between the electronic block model and the top level specification of Viper. Unfortunately, the proof became too complex and unmanageable within the given time and funding constraints, and is thus incomplete as of the date of this report. This report describes an independent attempt to use the HOL (Cambridge Higher Order Logic) mechanical verifier to verify Viper. Deriving from recent results in hardware verification research at UC Davis, the approach has been to redesign the electronic block model to make it microcoded and to structure the proof in a series of decreasingly abstract interpreter levels, the lowest being the electronic block level. The highest level is the RSRE Viper instruction set. Owing to the new approach and some results on the proof of generic interpreters as applied to simple microprocessors, this attempt required an effort approximately an order of magnitude less than the previous one.

  17. Formal proof of the AVM-1 microprocessor using the concept of generic interpreters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windley, P.; Levitt, K.; Cohen, G. C.

    1991-01-01

    A microprocessor designated AVM-1 was designed to demonstrate the use of generic interpreters in verifying hierarchically decomposed microprocessor specifications. This report is intended to document the high-order language (HOL) code verifying AVM-1. The organization of the proof is discussed and some technical details concerning the execution of the proof scripts in HOL are presented. The proof scripts used to verify AVM-1 are also presented.

  18. Heavy ion test results for the 68020 microprocessor and the 68882 coprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Velazco, R.; Karoui, S. 46, Av. Felix Viallet, 38031, Grenoble Cedex ); Chapuis, T. ); Benezech, D. ); Rosier, L.H. )

    1992-06-01

    This paper will present a set of techniques allowing to perform heavy ions testing on present 32-bits microprocessors. The authors study particularly how the program executed by the circuit during the irradiation can modify the calculated upset cross-section. The approach will be illustrated by experimental results obtained on both the Motorola 68020 microprocessor and its coprocessor 68882, by means of particle accelerators as well as a Cf{sup 252} fission-decay source equipment.

  19. Timing high-speed microprocessor circuits using picosecond imaging circuit analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, Steven E.; McManus, Moyra K.; Manzer, Dennis G.

    2001-04-01

    IBM Research has developed a time resolved imaging technique, Picosecond Imaging Circuit Analysis (PICA), which uses single photon events to analyze signals in modern microprocessors on a picosecond time scale. This paper will describe the experimental setup as well as the data management software. A case study of a particularly hard debug problem on a state of the art microprocessor will demonstrate the application of the PICA method.

  20. Novel Public Key Encryption Technique Based on Multiple Chaotic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Ranjan

    2005-08-01

    Public key encryption was first introduced by Diffie and Hellman in 1976. Since then, the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol has been used in developing public key systems such as Rivest-Shamir-Adleman and elliptic curve cryptography. Chaotic functions, so far, have been used for symmetric cryptography only. In this Letter we propose, for the first time, a methodology to use multiple chaotic systems and a set of linear functions for key exchange over an insecure channel. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Letter that reports the use of chaotic systems for public key cryptography. We have shown that the security of the proposed algorithm grows as (NP)m, where N, P, and m are large numbers that can be chosen as the parameters of the cryptosystem.

  1. Novel public key encryption technique based on multiple chaotic systems.

    PubMed

    Bose, Ranjan

    2005-08-26

    Public key encryption was first introduced by Diffie and Hellman in 1976. Since then, the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol has been used in developing public key systems such as Rivest-Shamir-Adleman and elliptic curve cryptography. Chaotic functions, so far, have been used for symmetric cryptography only. In this Letter we propose, for the first time, a methodology to use multiple chaotic systems and a set of linear functions for key exchange over an insecure channel. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Letter that reports the use of chaotic systems for public key cryptography. We have shown that the security of the proposed algorithm grows as (NP)(m), where N, P, and m are large numbers that can be chosen as the parameters of the cryptosystem. PMID:16197262

  2. Development of a multiple-microhole aerostatic air bearing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Kuang-Chao; Ho, Chi-Chung; Mou, Jong-I.

    2002-09-01

    New types of aerostatic air bearing and linear slide systems have been developed. The prototype of a multiple-microhole, instead of a porous-type, air bearing was developed and the surface roughness was improved by finished process. Instead of the conventional drilling process, the air bearing pads were fabricated by using microfabrication technology in this research. The spectral element method was employed to simulate the pressure distribution of air bearing and a comparison was made with experimental results. A granite straight edge was used as linear slide to guide the moving table that was supported by the developed air bearing system. A laser interferometer system was used to assess the performance of the stage.

  3. Multiple-Point Mass Flux Measurement System Using Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, Amy F.; Elam, Kristie A.; Clem, Michelle M.

    2009-01-01

    A multiple-point Rayleigh scattering diagnostic is being developed to provide mass flux measurements in gas flows. Spectroscopic Rayleigh scattering is an established flow diagnostic that has the ability to provide simultaneous density, temperature, and velocity measurements. Rayleigh scattered light from a focused 18 Watt continuous-wave laser beam is directly imaged through a solid Fabry-Perot etalon onto a CCD detector which permits spectral analysis of the light. The spatial resolution of the measurements is governed by the locations of interference fringes, which can be changed by altering the etalon characteristics. A prototype system has been used to acquire data in a Mach 0.56 flow to demonstrate feasibility of using this system to provide mass flux measurements. Estimates of measurement uncertainty and recommendations for system improvements are presented

  4. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities

    PubMed Central

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems. PMID:27384384

  5. Charging system with galvanic isolation and multiple operating modes

    SciTech Connect

    Kajouke, Lateef A.; Perisic, Milun; Ransom, Ray M.

    2013-01-08

    Systems and methods are provided for operating a charging system with galvanic isolation adapted for multiple operating modes. A vehicle charging system comprises a DC interface, an AC interface, a first conversion module coupled to the DC interface, and a second conversion module coupled to the AC interface. An isolation module is coupled between the first conversion module and the second conversion module. The isolation module comprises a transformer and a switching element coupled between the transformer and the second conversion module. The transformer and the switching element are cooperatively configured for a plurality of operating modes, wherein each operating mode of the plurality of operating modes corresponds to a respective turns ratio of the transformer.

  6. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems.

  7. Comparing fault susceptibility of multiple ISAs and operating systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyłek, Sławomir

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a research that aims to compare effects of faults on different configurations of computer systems. The study covers comparison of susceptibility to faults of x86, AMD64, ARM, PowerPC, MIPS architectures and Linux, FreeBSD, Minix operating systems. An emulation based software implemented fault injection technique was used to perform experiments. The problem of choosing an adequate number of tests in experiments is followed by report with collected results where multiple aspects of test runs were analyzed: providing correct computation result, availability of the system under test and error messages. The research allows to determine characteristics of susceptibility to faults of each platform and is a first step towards designing new fault tolerance solutions and assessing their effectiveness.

  8. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities.

    PubMed

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems. PMID:27384384

  9. Lung function measurement with multiple-breath-helium washout system.

    PubMed

    Wang, J-Y; Suddards, M E; Mellor, C J; Owers-Bradley, J R

    2013-04-01

    Multiple-breath-washout (MBW) measurements are regarded as a sensitive technique which can reflect the ventilation inhomogeneity of respiratory airways. Typically nitrogen is used as the tracer gas and is washed out by pure oxygen in multiple-breath-nitrogen washout (MBNW) tests. In this study, instead of using nitrogen, (4)He is used as the tracer gas with smaller gas density which may be able to reach deeper into our lungs in a given time and the helium washout results may be more sensitive to the ventilation inhomogeneity in small airways. A multiple-breath-helium-washout (MBHW) system developed for the lung function study is also presented. Quartz tuning forks with a resonance frequency of 32,768Hz have been used for detecting the change of the respiratory gas density. The resonance frequency of the quartz tuning fork decreases linearly with increasing density of the surrounding gas. Knowing the CO2 concentration from the infrared carbon dioxide detector, the helium concentration can be determined. Results from 14 volunteers (3 mild asthmatics, 4 tobacco smokers, 1 with asthma history, 1 with COPD history, 5 normal) have shown that mild asthmatics have higher ventilation inhomogeneity in either conducting or acinar airways (or both). A feature has been found in washout curve of single breaths from 4 tobacco smokers with different length of smoking history which may indicate the early stage of respiratory ventilation inhomogeneity in acinar airways. PMID:22835436

  10. The role of information system in multiple sclerosis management.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Sima; Ahmadi, Golchehreh; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2014-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of central nervous system. The multiple sclerosis information system (MSIS), such as other information system (IS), depends on identification, collection and processing of data for producing useful information. Lack of the integrated IS for collecting standard data causes undesirable effects on exchanging, comparing, and managing. The aim of this study was to recognize the role of the IS in the MS management and determine the advantages and barriers in implementing of the MSIS. The present study was a nonsystematized review that was done in order to recognize the role of the IS in the MS management. In this study, electronic scientific resources such as scientific magazines and books and published topics at conferences were used. We used key words (IS, chronic disease management, and multiple sclerosis), their combination or their synonyms in title, key words, abstracts, and text of English articles and published reports from 1980 until 2013, and by using search engines such as Google, Google Scholar and scientific databases and electronic issues such as iPubMed, sufficiently important difference, Scopus, Medlib, and Magiran for gathering information. More than 200 articles and reports were collected and assessed and 139 of them. Findings showed that the MSIS can reduce of disease expenses through continuously collecting correct, accurate, sufficient, and timely patients and disease nature information; recoding; editing; processing; exchanging, and distributing among different health care centers. Although the MSIS has many advantages; but, we cannot ignore cultural, economic, technical, organizational, and managerial barriers. Therefore, it is necessary to do studies for preventing, reducing, and controlling them. One of the ways is to recognize the advantages of the MSIS and usage information technology in optimizing disease management. PMID:25709660

  11. Multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, W L; Fang, A; Nguyen, B T; Raphel, J K; Jagannathan, L; Raghavan, R; Bryan, R N; Miller, G A

    1997-01-01

    For the purpose of developing multiple, complementary, fully labeled electronic brain atlases and an atlas-based neuroimaging system for analysis, quantification, and real-time manipulation of cerebral structures in two and three dimensions, we have digitized, enhanced, segmented, and labeled the following print brain atlases: Co-Planar Stereotaxic Atlas of the Human Brain by Talairach and Tournoux, Atlas for Stereotaxy of the Human Brain by Schaltenbrand and Wahren, Referentially Oriented Cerebral MRI Anatomy by Talairach and Tournoux, and Atlas of the Cerebral Sulci by Ono, Kubik, and Abernathey. Three-dimensional extensions of these atlases have been developed as well. All two- and three-dimensional atlases are mutually preregistered and may be interactively registered with an actual patient's data. An atlas-based neuroimaging system has been developed that provides support for reformatting, registration, visualization, navigation, image processing, and quantification of clinical data. The anatomical index contains about 1,000 structures and over 400 sulcal patterns. Several new applications of the brain atlas database also have been developed, supported by various technologies such as virtual reality, the Internet, and electronic publishing. Fusion of information from multiple atlases assists the user in comprehensively understanding brain structures and identifying and quantifying anatomical regions in clinical data. The multiple brain atlas database and atlas-based neuroimaging system have substantial potential impact in stereotactic neurosurgery and radiotherapy by assisting in visualization and real-time manipulation in three dimensions of anatomical structures, in quantitative neuroradiology by allowing interactive analysis of clinical data, in three-dimensional neuroeducation, and in brain function studies. PMID:9148878

  12. The role of information system in multiple sclerosis management

    PubMed Central

    Ajami, Sima; Ahmadi, Golchehreh; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of central nervous system. The multiple sclerosis information system (MSIS), such as other information system (IS), depends on identification, collection and processing of data for producing useful information. Lack of the integrated IS for collecting standard data causes undesirable effects on exchanging, comparing, and managing. The aim of this study was to recognize the role of the IS in the MS management and determine the advantages and barriers in implementing of the MSIS. The present study was a nonsystematized review that was done in order to recognize the role of the IS in the MS management. In this study, electronic scientific resources such as scientific magazines and books and published topics at conferences were used. We used key words (IS, chronic disease management, and multiple sclerosis), their combination or their synonyms in title, key words, abstracts, and text of English articles and published reports from 1980 until 2013, and by using search engines such as Google, Google Scholar and scientific databases and electronic issues such as iPubMed, sufficiently important difference, Scopus, Medlib, and Magiran for gathering information. More than 200 articles and reports were collected and assessed and 139 of them. Findings showed that the MSIS can reduce of disease expenses through continuously collecting correct, accurate, sufficient, and timely patients and disease nature information; recoding; editing; processing; exchanging, and distributing among different health care centers. Although the MSIS has many advantages; but, we cannot ignore cultural, economic, technical, organizational, and managerial barriers. Therefore, it is necessary to do studies for preventing, reducing, and controlling them. One of the ways is to recognize the advantages of the MSIS and usage information technology in optimizing disease management. PMID:25709660

  13. A randomized clinical trial of lithium in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Saccà, Francesco; Marsili, Angela; Quarantelli, Mario; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo; Brunetti, Arturo; Carbone, Rosa; Pane, Chiara; Puorro, Giorgia; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Salvatore, Elena; Tucci, Tecla; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    The aim of our study was to test the safety and tolerability of lithium in multiple system atrophy (MSA). The study was randomized, placebo-controlled, and double-blind. The primary endpoint of the study was safety and tolerability. An interim analysis, performed 1 year after the first patient was randomized, showed a higher proportion of trial abandon (P < 0.01) and a higher number of adverse events (P < 0.02) in the lithium group. The trial was stopped by the Data Monitoring Committee. Overall, lithium was not well tolerated, and we do not encourage future studies with lithium in MSA patients. PMID:22932748

  14. Multiprocessor system with multiple concurrent modes of execution

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Daniel; Ceze, Luis H; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin

    2013-12-31

    A multiprocessor system supports multiple concurrent modes of speculative execution. Speculation identification numbers (IDs) are allocated to speculative threads from a pool of available numbers. The pool is divided into domains, with each domain being assigned to a mode of speculation. Modes of speculation include TM, TLS, and rollback. Allocation of the IDs is carried out with respect to a central state table and using hardware pointers. The IDs are used for writing different versions of speculative results in different ways of a set in a cache memory.

  15. Failure management of multiple gimbal inertial systems for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, D. W.; Mckern, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    A failure detection and isolation technique for use with four gimbaled inertial measurement units (IMU) is presented. By using simulated boost and entry shuttle trajectories with specific gimbaled IMU models, failure detection thresholds are developed based on red-line life dependent requirements and warning thresholds within the red-line thresholds based on expected worst case IMU performance. Using these trajectories, established trajectory threshold, and multiple IMU models, various failure detection and isolation techniques are evaluated for application in both powered and unpowered flight phases. The adequacy of the systems for both attitude and velocity detection methods is evaluated and recommendations for space shuttle applications are made.

  16. Flocking of multi-agent systems with multiple groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Gangshan; Zheng, Yuanshi; Wang, Long

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we consider the flocking problem of multi-agent systems with multiple groups. First, some algorithms using local information are designed to divide the agents into any pre-assigned number of groups in fixed and switching heterogeneous networks, respectively. Based on algebraic graph theory and Barbalat's lemma, convergence criteria are established to ensure velocity alignment and cohesion of each subgroup as well as collision avoidance between any agents in the whole group. Second, an algorithm for homogeneous networks is studied. Simulation examples are finally presented to verify the effectiveness of our theoretical results.

  17. Simplified dead-time compensator for multiple delay SISO systems.

    PubMed

    Torrico, Bismark Claure; Correia, Wilkley Bezerra; Nogueira, Fabrício Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a dead-time compensation structure able to deal with stable and unstable multiple delay single input single output (SISO) systems. The proposed method aims to simplify the primary controller by replacing it for FIR filters placed at the feedback path. Such modification reduces the total number of parameters to be tuned which facilitates the overall design in comparison with other primary controllers normally considered. Simulation results show a better performance for the proposed control approach compared with other dead-time compensator (DTC) recently proposed in the literature. PMID:26593966

  18. Multiple-Flat-Panel System Displays Multidimensional Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundo, Daniel; Levit, Creon; Henze, Christopher; Sandstrom, Timothy; Ellsworth, David; Green, Bryan; Joly, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    The NASA Ames hyperwall is a display system designed to facilitate the visualization of sets of multivariate and multidimensional data like those generated in complex engineering and scientific computations. The hyperwall includes a 77 matrix of computer-driven flat-panel video display units, each presenting an image of 1,280 1,024 pixels. The term hyperwall reflects the fact that this system is a more capable successor to prior computer-driven multiple-flat-panel display systems known by names that include the generic term powerwall and the trade names PowerWall and Powerwall. Each of the 49 flat-panel displays is driven by a rack-mounted, dual-central-processing- unit, workstation-class personal computer equipped with a hig-hperformance graphical-display circuit card and with a hard-disk drive having a storage capacity of 100 GB. Each such computer is a slave node in a master/ slave computing/data-communication system (see Figure 1). The computer that acts as the master node is similar to the slave-node computers, except that it runs the master portion of the system software and is equipped with a keyboard and mouse for control by a human operator. The system utilizes commercially available master/slave software along with custom software that enables the human controller to interact simultaneously with any number of selected slave nodes. In a powerwall, a single rendering task is spread across multiple processors and then the multiple outputs are tiled into one seamless super-display. It must be noted that the hyperwall concept subsumes the powerwall concept in that a single scene could be rendered as a mosaic image on the hyperwall. However, the hyperwall offers a wider set of capabilities to serve a different purpose: The hyperwall concept is one of (1) simultaneously displaying multiple different but related images, and (2) providing means for composing and controlling such sets of images. In place of elaborate software or hardware crossbar switches, the

  19. Multiwavelength optical code-division-multiple-access communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Cedric Fung

    1999-10-01

    There has been tremendous interest in applying spread spectrum and code division multiple access (CDMA) techniques to fiber optic communication systems. In this dissertation, we review the previous work on optical CDMA systems, and we propose and then demonstrate new optical CDMA system designs. The explosive growth in bandwidth demand during the recent years have compelled engineers to achieve one bit per hertz or more bandwidth utilization in optical fibers. We point out that in order to achieve efficient bandwidth utilization, full orthogonality is required in optical CDMA system. At the same time, one would like to avoid having an optical local oscillator, which significantly increases the system complexity. We have studied two spectrally encoded optical CDMA systems, both of which give us full orthogonality. A balanced optical detector, which `computes' the difference between two photodetectors signals, is used to obtain negative outputs from positive-only optical intensity signals, thus achieving full orthogonality in both systems. The first system, complementary spectral intensity encoding, is a fully non-coherent. A novel balanced transmitter has been invented for this system. Unfortunately, the performance of this system is limited by beat noise interference, sometimes called speckle noise. In the second system, spectral phase encoding, a multi-wavelength mode-locked laser source is employed. Spectral phase encoding is applied to various frequency components. By sending the unmodulated carrier along the optical fiber to the receiver, we can achieve the effect of coherent demodulation without using an optical local oscillator. While this system can avoid speckle noise, it is eventually limited by cumulative shot noise. We will show in this dissertation, that cumulative shot noise is unavoidable in all optical CDMA systems. Therefore the ultimate achievable performance of optical CDMA systems under shot noise limitation will be analyzed in this work. Lastly

  20. Metal halogen battery system with multiple outlet nozzle for hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Bjorkman, Jr., Harry K.

    1983-06-21

    A metal halogen battery system, including at least one cell having a positive electrode and a negative electrode contacted by aqueous electrolyte containing the material of said metal and halogen, store means whereby halogen hydrate is formed and stored as part of an aqueous material, means for circulating electrolyte through the cell and to the store means, and conduit means for transmitting halogen gas formed in the cell to a hydrate former whereby the hydrate is formed in association with the store means, said store means being constructed in the form of a container which includes a filter means, said filter means being inoperative to separate the hydrate formed from the electrolyte, said system having, a hydrate former pump means associated with the store means and being operative to intermix halogen gas with aqueous electrolyte to form halogen hydrate, said hydrate former means including, multiple outlet nozzle means connected with the outlet side of said pump means and being operative to minimize plugging, said nozzle means being comprised of at least one divider means which is generally perpendicular to the rotational axes of gears within the pump means, said divider means acting to divide the flow from the pump means into multiple outlet flow paths.

  1. Active immunization therapies for Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Achim; Tierney, Lanay; Mandler, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Vaccination is increasingly being investigated as a potential treatment for synucleinopathies, a group of neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, and dementia with Lewy bodies associated with α-synuclein pathology. All lack a causal therapy. Development of novel, disease-altering treatment strategies is urgently needed. Vaccination has positioned itself as a prime strategy for addressing these diseases because it is broadly applicable, requires infrequent administration, and maintains low production costs for treating a large population or as a preventive measure. Current evidence points to a causal role of misfolded α-synuclein in the development and progression of synucleinopathies. In the past decade, significant progress in active immunization against α-synuclein has been shown both in preclinical animal models and in early clinical development. In this review, we describe the state-of-the-art in active immunization approaches to synucleinopathies, with a focus on advances in Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple-system atrophy (MSA). We first review preclinical animal models, highlighting their progress in translation to the clinical setting. We then discuss current clinical applications, stressing different approaches taken to address α-synuclein pathology. Finally, we address challenges, trends, and future perspectives of current vaccination programs. PMID:26260853

  2. Complex dynamics in a prey predator system with multiple delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gakkhar, Sunita; Singh, Anuraj

    2012-02-01

    The complex dynamics is explored in a prey predator system with multiple delays. Holling type-II functional response is assumed for prey dynamics. The predator dynamics is governed by modified Leslie-Gower scheme. The existence of periodic solutions via Hopf-bifurcation with respect to both delays are established. An algorithm is developed for drawing two-parametric bifurcation diagram with respect to two delays. The domain of stability with respect to τ1 and τ2 is thus obtained. The complex dynamical behavior of the system outside the domain of stability is evident from the exhaustive numerical simulation. Direction and stability of periodic solutions are also determined using normal form theory and center manifold argument.

  3. The nature of the autonomic dysfunction in multiple system atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, Samir M.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David

    2002-01-01

    The concept that multiple system atrophy (MSA, Shy-Drager syndrome) is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system is several decades old. While there has been renewed interest in the movement disorder associated with MSA, two recent consensus statements confirm the centrality of the autonomic disorder to the diagnosis. Here, we reexamine the autonomic pathophysiology in MSA. Whereas MSA is often thought of as "autonomic failure", new evidence indicates substantial persistence of functioning sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves even in clinically advanced disease. These findings help explain some of the previously poorly understood features of MSA. Recognition that MSA entails persistent, constitutive autonomic tone requires a significant revision of our concepts of its diagnosis and therapy. We will review recent evidence bearing on autonomic tone in MSA and discuss their therapeutic implications, particularly in terms of the possible development of a bionic baroreflex for better control of blood pressure.

  4. Inference and learning in sparse systems with multiple states

    SciTech Connect

    Braunstein, A.; Ramezanpour, A.; Zhang, P.; Zecchina, R.

    2011-05-15

    We discuss how inference can be performed when data are sampled from the nonergodic phase of systems with multiple attractors. We take as a model system the finite connectivity Hopfield model in the memory phase and suggest a cavity method approach to reconstruct the couplings when the data are separately sampled from few attractor states. We also show how the inference results can be converted into a learning protocol for neural networks in which patterns are presented through weak external fields. The protocol is simple and fully local, and is able to store patterns with a finite overlap with the input patterns without ever reaching a spin-glass phase where all memories are lost.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of an ultrasonic multiple transducer cardiac imaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popp, R. L.; Brown, O. R.; Harrison, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    An ultrasonic multiple-transducer imaging system for intracardiac structure visualization is developed in order to simplify visualization of the human heart in vivo without radiation hazard or invasion of the body. Results of the evaluation of the diagnostic accuracy of the devised system in a clinical setting for adult patients are presented and discussed. Criteria are presented for recognition of mitral valva prolapse, mitral stenosis, pericardial effusion, atrial septal defect, and left ventricular dyssynergy. The probable cause for false-positive and false-negative diagnoses is discussed. However, hypertrophic myopathy and congestive myopathy were unable to be detected. Since only qualitative criteria were used, it was not possible to differentiate patients with left ventricular volume overload from patients without cardiac pathology.

  6. Multiple Chaos Synchronization System for Power Quality Classification in a Power System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cong-Hui; Lin, Chia-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes multiple chaos synchronization (CS) systems for power quality (PQ) disturbances classification in a power system. Chen-Lee based CS systems use multiple detectors to track the dynamic errors between the normal signal and the disturbance signal, including power harmonics, voltage fluctuation phenomena, and voltage interruptions. Multiple detectors are used to monitor the dynamic errors between the master system and the slave system and are used to construct the feature patterns from time-domain signals. The maximum likelihood method (MLM), as a classifier, performs a comparison of the patterns of the features in the database. The proposed method can adapt itself without the need for adjustment of parameters or iterative computation. For a sample power system, the test results showed accurate discrimination, good robustness, and faster processing time for the detection of PQ disturbances. PMID:24764771

  7. Simultaneous Real-Time Monitoring of Multiple Cortical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Disha; Hill, N. Jeremy; Brunner, Peter; Gunduz, Aysegul; Ritaccio, Anthony L.; Schalk, Gerwin

    2014-01-01

    Objective Real-time monitoring of the brain is potentially valuable for performance monitoring, communication, training or rehabilitation. In natural situations, the brain performs a complex mix of various sensory, motor, or cognitive functions. Thus, real-time brain monitoring would be most valuable if (a) it could decode information from multiple brain systems simultaneously, and (b) this decoding of each brain system were robust to variations in the activity of other (unrelated) brain systems. Previous studies showed that it is possible to decode some information from different brain systems in retrospect and/or in isolation. In our study, we set out to determine whether it is possible to simultaneously decode important information about a user from different brain systems in real time, and to evaluate the impact of concurrent activity in different brain systems on decoding performance. Approach We study these questions using electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals recorded in humans. We first document procedures for generating stable decoding models given little training data, and then report their use for offline and for real-time decoding from 12 subjects (6 for offline parameter optimization, 6 for online experimentation). The subjects engage in tasks that involve movement intention, movement execution and auditory functions, separately, and then simultaneously. Main results Our real-time results demonstrate that our system can identify intention and movement periods in single trials with an accuracy of 80.4% and 86.8%, respectively (where 50% would be expected by chance). Simultaneously, the decoding of the power envelope of an auditory stimulus resulted in an average correlation coefficient of 0.37 between the actual and decoded power envelope. These decoders were trained separately and executed simultaneously in real time. Significance This study yielded the first demonstration that it is possible to decode simultaneously the functional activity of multiple

  8. The HD 5980 multiple system: Masses and evolutionary status

    SciTech Connect

    Koenigsberger, Gloria; Gamen, Roberto; Barbá, Rodolfo E-mail: nmorrell@lco.edu E-mail: rgamen@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar E-mail: ngonzalez@astro.uni-bonn.de E-mail: rbarba@dfuls.cl

    2014-10-01

    New spectroscopic observations of the LBV/WR multiple system HD 5980 in the Small Magellanic Cloud are used to address the question of the masses and evolutionary status of the two very luminous stars in the 19.3 day eclipsing binary system. Two distinct components of the N V 4944 Å line are detected in emission and their radial velocity variations are used to derive masses of 61 and 66 M {sub ☉}, under the assumption that binary interaction effects on this atomic transition are negligible. We propose that this binary system is the product of quasi-chemically homogeneous evolution with little or no mass transfer. Thus, both of these binary stars may be candidates for gamma-ray burst progenitors or even pair instability supernovae. Analysis of the photospheric absorption lines belonging to the third-light object in the system confirm that it consists of an O-type star in a 96.56 day eccentric orbit (e = 0.82) around an unseen companion. The 5:1 period ratio and high eccentricities of the two binaries suggest that they may constitute a hierarchical quadruple system.

  9. Microprocessors as a tool in determining correlation between sferics and tornado genesis: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, D.R.

    1980-09-01

    Sferics - atmospheric electromagnetic radiation - can be directly correlated, it is believed, to the genesis of tornadoes and other severe weather. Sferics are generated by lightning and other atmospheric disturbances that are not yet entirely understood. The recording and analysis of the patterns in which sferics events occur, it is hoped, will lead to accurate real-time prediction of tornadoes and other severe weather. Collection of the tremendous amount of sferics data generated by one storm system becomes cumbersome when correlation between at least two stations is necessary for triangulation. Microprocessor-based computing systems have made the task of data collection and manipulation inexpensive and manageable. The original paper on this subject delivered at MAECON '78 dealt with hardware interfacing. Presented were hardware and software tradeoffs, as well as design and construction techniques to yield a cost effective system. This updated paper presents an overview of where the data comes from, how it is collected, and some current manipulation and interpretation techniques used.

  10. Enabling dynamic interoperability with multiple community of interest (COI) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armbruster, Austin; Martens, Eric J.; Corman, David E.

    2007-04-01

    A range of Community of Interest (COI) Infospheres and systems is being independently developed and deployed by separate elements of U. S. forces and potential coalition partners. Because future operations will increasingly rely on seamless exchange of information between coalition partners, it is critical that all tactical and command elements be able to dynamically interact with these diverse systems. Solving this issue requires that each network element (platform, commander, war-fighter, etc.) be able to span, dynamically join and leave different COI systems as operational requirements dictate. The COI Interoperability Agent (CIA) is the centerpiece of our solution. It will enable each battle space entity to join, interact with, and leave multiple COIs. Each CIA consists of a common core containing the Information Router, COI Initiator (COIN) factory, Platform Initiator (PIN) factory, and Security Manager Components along with one or more platform modules and COI modules. Bi-directional information flow is directed by the Information Router. The COIN enables dynamic connection to a COI. A COIN consists of two parts: 1) a Java Jar file containing the COI Module code establishing a COI connection and 2) a data component that configures the COI Module. The CIA uses the COIN factory to load and configure new COI Modules. The PIN factory fills a similar role for Platform Modules. The Platform Module contains code to link to a specific tactical entity. The CIA concept provides a path for the war-fighter to dynamically connect to multiple COIs without a priori knowledge of COIs that will be needed.

  11. Predicting Flood Hazards in Systems with Multiple Flooding Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, A.; Schubert, J.; Cheng, L.; AghaKouchak, A.; Sanders, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Delineating flood zones in systems that are susceptible to flooding from a single mechanism (riverine flooding) is a relatively well defined procedure with specific guidance from agencies such as FEMA and USACE. However, there is little guidance in delineating flood zones in systems that are susceptible to flooding from multiple mechanisms such as storm surge, waves, tidal influence, and riverine flooding. In this study, a new flood mapping method which accounts for multiple extremes occurring simultaneously is developed and exemplified. The study site in which the method is employed is the Tijuana River Estuary (TRE) located in Southern California adjacent to the U.S./Mexico border. TRE is an intertidal coastal estuary that receives freshwater flows from the Tijuana River. Extreme discharge from the Tijuana River is the primary driver of flooding within TRE, however tide level and storm surge also play a significant role in flooding extent and depth. A comparison between measured flows at the Tijuana River and ocean levels revealed a correlation between extreme discharge and ocean height. Using a novel statistical method based upon extreme value theory, ocean heights were predicted conditioned up extreme discharge occurring within the Tijuana River. This statistical technique could also be applied to other systems in which different factors are identified as the primary drivers of flooding, such as significant wave height conditioned upon tide level, for example. Using the predicted ocean levels conditioned upon varying return levels of discharge as forcing parameters for the 2D hydraulic model BreZo, the 100, 50, 20, and 10 year floodplains were delineated. The results will then be compared to floodplains delineated using the standard methods recommended by FEMA for riverine zones with a downstream ocean boundary.

  12. Two Suns in The Sky: Stellar Multiplicity in Exoplanet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, D. R.; Henry, T. J.; Mason, B. D.; Subasavage, J. P.; Jao, W. C.; Beaulieu, T. D.; Hambly, N. C.

    2005-12-01

    We present results of a reconnaissance for stellar companions to all 131 radial-velocity-detected candidate extrasolar planetary systems known as of July 1, 2005. Common proper motion (CPM) companions were investigated using the multi-epoch STScI Digitized Sky Surveys (DSS), and confirmed by matching the trigonometric parallax distances of the primaries to companion distances estimated photometrically using SuperCOSMOS plate, CCD optical and 2MASS infrared photometry. We evaluate whether the ``companions" listed in the Washington Double Star Catalog (WDS) are gravitationally bound to the primary or coincidental alignments in the sky. We also attempt to confirm or refute companions listed in the Catalog of Nearby Stars (CNS), Hipparcos, and Duquennoy & Mayor, 1991. Our findings indicate that a lower limit of 29 (22%) of the 131 exoplanet systems have stellar companions, and an additional 7 (5%) have candidate companions. We report a previously unknown stellar companion to planet host HD 38529, and identify a companion candidate to HD 188015. We confirm 16 previously reported stellar companions to exoplanet hosts, and report 8 additional companions --- these are known stellar companions, but previously not recognized to be in exoplanet systems. In addition, we have confirmed the gravitational connection for a WDS entry for HD 222582. We have also found evidence for 20 entries in WDS that are not gravitationally bound companions --- they do not show any related proper motion in the DSS plates. At least three, and possibly five of the exoplanet systems are contained within triple star systems, and of these, HD 38529 may have a fourth stellar companion as well. Two of the exoplanet systems contain white dwarf companions. These results indicate that solar systems are found in a variety of stellar multiplicity environments -- singles, binaries, triples, and possibly quadruples; and that planets survive post-main-sequence evolution of companion stars.

  13. Systemic Mastocytosis with Smoldering Multiple Myeloma: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Gwenalyn; Ying, Liu; Hurford, Matthew; Odaimi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a disease characterized by a clonal infiltration of mast cells affecting various tissues of the body. It is grouped into six different subtypes according to the World Health Organization classification. It is called indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) when there is no evidence of end organ dysfunction, while the presence of end organ dysfunction defines aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM). When SM coexists with a clonal hematological disorder, it is classified as systemic mastocytosis with associated clonal hematological nonmast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD). Over 80% of SM-AHNMD cases involve disorders of the myeloid cell lines. To our knowledge, there are only 8 reported cases to date of SM associated with a plasma cell disorder. We report a patient with ISM who was found to have concomitant smoldering multiple myeloma. His disease later progressed to ASM. We discuss this rare association between SM and a plasma cell disorder, and potential common pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the two disorders will be reviewed. We also discuss prognostic factors in SM as well as the management options considered during the evolution of the patient's disease. PMID:27293930

  14. Multiple Scattering in Random Mechanical Systems and Diffusion Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feres, Renato; Ng, Jasmine; Zhang, Hong-Kun

    2013-10-01

    This paper is concerned with stochastic processes that model multiple (or iterated) scattering in classical mechanical systems of billiard type, defined below. From a given (deterministic) system of billiard type, a random process with transition probabilities operator P is introduced by assuming that some of the dynamical variables are random with prescribed probability distributions. Of particular interest are systems with weak scattering, which are associated to parametric families of operators P h , depending on a geometric or mechanical parameter h, that approaches the identity as h goes to 0. It is shown that ( P h - I)/ h converges for small h to a second order elliptic differential operator on compactly supported functions and that the Markov chain process associated to P h converges to a diffusion with infinitesimal generator . Both P h and are self-adjoint (densely) defined on the space of square-integrable functions over the (lower) half-space in , where η is a stationary measure. This measure's density is either (post-collision) Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution or Knudsen cosine law, and the random processes with infinitesimal generator respectively correspond to what we call MB diffusion and (generalized) Legendre diffusion. Concrete examples of simple mechanical systems are given and illustrated by numerically simulating the random processes.

  15. Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett

    2007-08-01

    According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual’s cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a "good-enough" response instead of deliberating for the "best" response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included.

  16. Systemic Mastocytosis with Smoldering Multiple Myeloma: Report of a Case.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Sassine; Garcia, Gwenalyn; Ying, Liu; Hurford, Matthew; Odaimi, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a disease characterized by a clonal infiltration of mast cells affecting various tissues of the body. It is grouped into six different subtypes according to the World Health Organization classification. It is called indolent systemic mastocytosis (ISM) when there is no evidence of end organ dysfunction, while the presence of end organ dysfunction defines aggressive systemic mastocytosis (ASM). When SM coexists with a clonal hematological disorder, it is classified as systemic mastocytosis with associated clonal hematological nonmast cell lineage disease (SM-AHNMD). Over 80% of SM-AHNMD cases involve disorders of the myeloid cell lines. To our knowledge, there are only 8 reported cases to date of SM associated with a plasma cell disorder. We report a patient with ISM who was found to have concomitant smoldering multiple myeloma. His disease later progressed to ASM. We discuss this rare association between SM and a plasma cell disorder, and potential common pathophysiologic mechanisms linking the two disorders will be reviewed. We also discuss prognostic factors in SM as well as the management options considered during the evolution of the patient's disease. PMID:27293930

  17. Dynamic status of the wide multiple system α Centauri + Proxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matvienko, A. S.; Orlov, V. V.

    2014-04-01

    We study the dynamics of a wide multiple system α Centauri + Proxima. The total energy of the system was estimated according to the available observational data on masses, coordinates, proper motions, and radial velocities of its components. To account for the effect of the observational data errors on the result, we have implemented the Monte Carlo method. From N = 106 statistical tests we show that with the probability of about 90% the motion is hyperbolic, i.e., α Cen AB and Proxima will after a while diverge from each other by a considerable distance. We also perform numerical modeling of dynamic evolution of the wide pair α Cen AB + Proxima in the regular field of the Galaxy. The trajectory of relative motion is constructed. The components diverge from each other by a distance of 20 pc over the time scale of about 200 Myr. The critical parameter for determining the dynamic status of the system is the radial velocity of the C component (Proxima), known with an error of 200 ms-1. For a reliable determination of the nature of motions in the system, we have to decrease the radial velocity error by at least an order of magnitude.

  18. Using Approximate Bayesian Computation to Probe Multiple Transiting Planet Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morehead, Robert C.

    2015-08-01

    The large number of multiple transiting planet systems (MTPS) uncovered with Kepler suggest a population of well-aligned planetary systems. Previously, the distribution of transit duration ratios in MTPSs has been used to place constraints on the distributions of mutual orbital inclinations and orbital eccentricities in these systems. However, degeneracies with the underlying number of planets in these systems pose added challenges and make explicit likelihood functions intractable. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) offers an intriguing path forward. In its simplest form, ABC proposes from a prior on the population parameters to produce synthetic datasets via a physically-motivated model. Samples are accepted or rejected based on how close they come to reproducing the actual observed dataset to some tolerance. The accepted samples then form a robust and useful approximation of the true posterior distribution of the underlying population parameters. We will demonstrate the utility of ABC in exoplanet populations by presenting new constraints on the mutual inclination and eccentricity distributions in the Kepler MTPSs. We will also introduce Simple-ABC, a new open-source Python package designed for ease of use and rapid specification of general models, suitable for use in a wide variety of applications in both exoplanet science and astrophysics as a whole.

  19. Multiple Classifier System for Remote Sensing Image Classification: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Zhang, Wei; Tan, Kun; Liu, Yi; Liu, Sicong

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, multiple classifier system (MCS) or classifier ensemble has shown great potential to improve the accuracy and reliability of remote sensing image classification. Although there are lots of literatures covering the MCS approaches, there is a lack of a comprehensive literature review which presents an overall architecture of the basic principles and trends behind the design of remote sensing classifier ensemble. Therefore, in order to give a reference point for MCS approaches, this paper attempts to explicitly review the remote sensing implementations of MCS and proposes some modified approaches. The effectiveness of existing and improved algorithms are analyzed and evaluated by multi-source remotely sensed images, including high spatial resolution image (QuickBird), hyperspectral image (OMISII) and multi-spectral image (Landsat ETM+). Experimental results demonstrate that MCS can effectively improve the accuracy and stability of remote sensing image classification, and diversity measures play an active role for the combination of multiple classifiers. Furthermore, this survey provides a roadmap to guide future research, algorithm enhancement and facilitate knowledge accumulation of MCS in remote sensing community. PMID:22666057

  20. Multiple system atrophy: current and future approaches to management

    PubMed Central

    Flabeau, Olivier; Meissner, Wassilios G.; Tison, François

    2010-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder without any effective treatment in slowing or stopping disease progression. It is characterized by poor levodopa responsive Parkinsonism, cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal signs and autonomic failure in any combination. Current therapeutic strategies are primarily based on dopamine replacement and improvement of autonomic failure. However, symptomatic management remains disappointing and no curative treatment is yet available. Recent experimental evidence has confirmed the key role of alpha-synuclein aggregation in the pathogenesis of MSA. Referring to this hypothesis, transgenic and toxic animal models have been developed to assess candidate drugs for MSA. The standardization of diagnosis criteria and assessment procedures will allow large multicentre clinical trials to be conducted. In this article we review the available symptomatic treatment, recent results of studies investigating potential neuroprotective drugs, and future approaches for the management in MSA. PMID:21179616

  1. Simultaneous multiple degrees of freedom (DoF) measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, G.; Strube, S.; Köchert, P.; Danzebrink, H.-U.; Flügge, J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a newly developed highly accurate interferometric 6° of freedom (DoF) measurement system with Ångström resolution for displacement and μrad resolution for angle measurement, respectively. The new interferometer is based on a modified homodyne Twyman–Green interferometer concept. It uses a novel signal acquisition and processing approach whereby a spatial interferogram is captured by a CMOS camera and the registered fringe pattern is transformed into its frequency spectrum [1]. The spectral representation of a movement of e.g. a positioning stage is analyzed for its major components: the phase information directly correlates with the displacement of the stage, while a possible rotational motion causes a shift in the frequency spectrum. The developed compact 6 DoF head uses multiple rays in parallel to detect x–y–z displacements and roll-pitch-yaw movements.

  2. Redundancy management of multiple inertial systems for Space Shuttle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dove, D. W.; Mckern, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Failure detection and isolation techniques are developed for application to off-the-shelf type four-gimbaled inertial measurement units such as the KT-70 or Carousel IV. By using simulated boost and entry shuttle trajectories with specific gimbaled IMU models, failure detection thresholds are developed based upon red-line life dependent requirements and warning thresholds are given within the red-line thresholds based upon expected worst case IMU performance. Using these trajectories, established trajectory thresholds, and multiple IMU models, various failure detection and isolation techniques are evaluated for application in both powered and unpowered flight phases. The adequacy of off-the-shelf systems for both attitude and velocity detection methods is evaluated and recommendations for shuttle application are made.

  3. [Genetic aspects in multiple sclerosis. II: HLA system].

    PubMed

    De Rezende, P A; Arruda, W O

    1996-09-01

    Review of studies about HLA antigens and multiple sclerosis (MS). The HLA system, in special class II antigens, subregions DR and DQ, is probably involved in the immunopathogenesis of MS. Haplotype DRB1*1501.DQA1*0102.DQB1*0602, corresponding to phenotype DR2.Dw2.DQ6, is positively associated with MS in several caucasoid populations. Clinical heterogeneity of MS, as well as different diagnostic criteria adopted by investigators are potential sources of confusion and may lead to discrepant results. A better standardization of clinical and laboratorial methodology, appropriate subdivision of patients with different clinical forms of MS, may allow a more accurate evaluation of the role of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:9109989

  4. Multiple delivery cesium oven system for negative ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Bansal, G.; Bhartiya, S.; Pandya, K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Singh, M. J.; Soni, J.; Gahlaut, A.; Parmar, K. G.; Chakraborty, A.

    2012-02-15

    Distribution of cesium in large negative ion beam sources to be operational in ITER, is presently based on the use of three or more cesium ovens, which operate simultaneously and are controlled remotely. However, use of multiple Cs ovens simultaneously is likely to pose difficulties in operation and maintenance of the ovens. An alternate method of Cs delivery, based on a single oven distribution system is proposed as one which could reduce the need of simultaneous operation of many ovens. A proof of principle experiment verifying the concept of a multinozzle distributor based Cs oven has been carried out at Institute for Plasma Research. It is also observed that the Cs flux is not controlled by Cs reservoir temperature after few hours of operation but by the temperature of the distributor which starts behaving as a Cs reservoir.

  5. Operational effectiveness of a Multiple Aquila Control System (MACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.; Flynn, J. D.; Frey, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    The operational effectiveness of a multiple aquila control system (MACS) was examined under a variety of remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) mission configurations. The set of assumptions and inputs used to form the rules under which a computerized simulation of MACS was run is given. The characteristics that are to govern MACS operations include: the battlefield environment that generates the requests for RPV missions, operating time-lines of the RPV-peculiar equipment, maintenance requirements, and vulnerability to enemy fire. The number of RPV missions and the number of operation days are discussed. Command, control, and communication data rates are estimated by determining how many messages are passed and what information is necessary in them to support ground coordination between MACS sections.

  6. Single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system

    DOEpatents

    Fasching, George E.; Keech, Jr., Thomas W.

    1980-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensor circuits each monitors a specific process variable and each transmits measurement values over a single transmission line to a master interrogating station when addressed by said master interrogating station. Typically, as many as 330 remote stations may be parallel connected to the transmission line which may exceed 7,000 feet. The interrogation rate is typically 330 stations/second. The master interrogating station samples each station according to a shared, charging transmit-receive cycle. All remote station address signals, all data signals from the remote stations/sensors and all power for all of the remote station/sensors are transmitted via a single continuous terminated coaxial cable. A means is provided for periodically and remotely calibrating all remote sensors for zero and span. A provision is available to remotely disconnect any selected sensor station from the main transmission line.

  7. Microprocessor controlled anodic stripping voltameter for trace metals analysis in tap water

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, R.G.; Park, F.W.; Kirsten, F.A.; Phillips, S.L.; Binnall, E.P.

    1981-04-01

    The construction and use of a portable, microprocessor controlled anodic stripping voltameter for on-site simultaneous metal analysis of copper, lead and cadmium in tap water is discussed. The instrumental system is comprised of a programmable controller which permits keying in analytical parameters such as sparge time and plating time; a rotating cell for efficient oxygen removal and amalgam formation; and, a magnetic tape which can be used for data storage. Analysis time can be as short as 10 to 15 minutes. The stripping analysis is based on a pre-measurement step during which the metals from a water sample are concentrated into a thin mercury film by deposition from an acetate solution of pH 4.5. The concentrated metals are then electrochemically dissolved from the film by application of a linearly increasing anodic potential. Typical peak-shaped curves are obtained. The heights of these curves are related to the concentration of metals in the water by calibration data. Results of tap water analysis showed 3 +- 1 ..mu..g/L lead, 22 +- 0.3 ..mu..g/L copper, and less than 0.2 ..mu..g/L cadmium for a Berkeley, California tap water, and 1 to 1000 ..mu..g/L Cu, 1 to 2 ..mu..g/L Pb for ten samples of Seattle, Washington tap water. Recommendations are given for a next generation instrument system.

  8. A Spectroscopic and Mineralogical Study of Multiple Asteroid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, Sean S.; Emery, J. P.; Marchis, F.; Enriquez, J.; Assafin, M.

    2013-10-01

    There are currently ~200 identified multiple asteroid systems (MASs). These systems display a large diversity in heliocentric distance, size/mass ratio, system angular momentum, mutual orbital parameters, and taxonomic class. These characteristics are simplified under the nomenclature of Descamps and Marchis (2008), which divides MASs into four types: Type-1 - large asteroids with small satellites; Type-2 - similar size double asteroids; Type-3 - small asynchronous systems; and Type-4 - contact-binary asteroids. The large MAS diversity suggests multiple formation mechanisms are required to understand their origins. There are currently three broad formation scenarios: 1) ejecta from impacts; 2) catastrophic disruption followed by rotational fission; and 3) tidal disruption. The taxonomic class and mineralogy of the MASs coupled with the average density and system angular momentum provide a potential means to discriminate between proposed formation mechanisms. We present visible and near-infrared (NIR) spectra spanning 0.45 - 2.45 μm for 23 Main Belt MASs. The data were primarily obtained using the Southern Astrophysical Research Telescope (SOAR) Goodman High Throughput Spectrograph (August 2011 - July 2012) for the visible data and the InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF) SpeX Spectrograph (August 2008 - May 2013) for the IR data. Our data were supplemented using previously published data when necessary. The asteroids' Bus-DeMeo taxonomic classes are determined using the MIT SMASS online classification routines. Our sample includes 3 C-types, 1 X-type, 1 K-type, 1 L-type, 4 V-types, 10 S-types, 2 Sq- or Q-types, and 1 ambiguous classification. We calculate the 1- and 2-μm band centers, depths, and areas to determine the pyroxene mineralogy (molar Fs and Wo) of the surfaces using empirically derived equations. The NIR band analysis allows us to determine the S-type subclasses, S(I) - S(VII), which roughly tracks olivine-pyroxene chemistry. A comparison of the orbital

  9. Implementation of the DAST ARW II control laws using an 8086 microprocessor and an 8087 floating-point coprocessor. [drones for aeroelasticity research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, G. L.; Berthold, G.; Abbott, L.

    1982-01-01

    A 5 MHZ single-board microprocessor system which incorporates an 8086 CPU and an 8087 Numeric Data Processor is used to implement the control laws for the NASA Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing, Aeroelastic Research Wing II. The control laws program was executed in 7.02 msec, with initialization consuming 2.65 msec and the control law loop 4.38 msec. The software emulator execution times for these two tasks were 36.67 and 61.18, respectively, for a total of 97.68 msec. The space, weight and cost reductions achieved in the present, aircraft control application of this combination of a 16-bit microprocessor with an 80-bit floating point coprocessor may be obtainable in other real time control applications.

  10. The mineralogy and internal structure of Multiple Asteroid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, S. S.; Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.; Enriquez, J. E.; Assafin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Currently there are more than ~225 identified multiple asteroid systems (MASs). These systems exhibit a large diversity in physical and orbital characteristics indicating that multiple formation mechanisms are likely responsible for their formation. The hypothesized formation mechanisms, however, still require observational evidence for their testing and refinement. The critical piece of evidence required for this task is the internal structure, or porosity, of the MASs. In turn, the estimation of internal structure requires both the density of the MAS and the identification of an appropriate meteorite analog or mineral composition. With the aim to identify the mineralogy and meteorite analogs for MASs, we present the results of a visible and near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectral (0.45 - 2.45 µm) survey and analysis of 42 Main Belt MASs. The NIR reflectance spectra for S- and V-type asteroids contain two broad absorptions centered near 1- and 2-µm (Band I and II) due to olivine and pyroxene. Through a parameterization of these two bands coupled with laboratory measurements to serve as a calibration, it is possible to measure the mineralogy and identify meteorite analogs. Using a custom band parameter analysis code, the Spectral Analysis Routine for Asteroids (SARA), we perform an analysis of the S- and V-type MASs in our sample to determine the relative/modal abundances, as well as ordinary chondrite and HED meteorite analogs. Using the results of previous studies and presence/absence of the 0.7 μm absorption feature associated with CM chondrites, we also assign meteorite analogs for C-type MASs. Using the MAS density estimates from Marchis et al. (2012) and measured meteorite bulk and grain porosities from Consolmagno et al. (2008), we are able to estimate the porosity for 13 MASs. We find all porosities to be commensurate with the predications based upon the MAS formation hypotheses.

  11. Recent advances in microprocessor control and variable speed drive strategies for small wood-fired boilers: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Clunie, R.; Guibord, R.; Gregoire, R.

    1994-01-01

    Saunders Brothers' wood products company has watched the steady growth of its neighboring community in Westbrook to the point where neighborhood housing is now within a few feet of the plant property. The Saunders Brothers' boiler plant consists of two HRT boilers which burn only bark and wood sawmill wastes and shavings generated by the manufacturing plant. Although technically in compliance with State of Maine environmental laws, Saunders Brothers was concerned with the visible emissions and fly ash emanating from the plant site. Wishing to maintain its status as a good neighbor, in 1989 Saunders Brothers' boiler plant was extensively renovated. Part of these modifications consisted of changing over to automatic microprocessor combustion controls and installing AC variable frequency drives on the combustion air fans and fuel feed screws. The purpose of adopting the microprocessor-based combustion control approach to solve the air pollution problem at Saunders Brothers was two-fold. The control package takes complete control of the fuel feed and combustion processes. By accurately metering the fuel supply and the air supply to the firebox, usual large air volumes and resultant velocities are reduced and controlled. At the same time all particulate emissions are greatly reduced, and all visible emissions are eliminated. A side benefit of installing the new combustion control system was an expected fuel savings of approximately 20% to 25%.

  12. The early-type multiple system QZ Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, P.; Lorenz, R.; Drechsel, H.; Abseim, A.

    2001-02-01

    We present an analysis of the early-type quadruple system QZ Car, consisting of an eclipsing and a non-eclipsing binary. The spectroscopic investigation is based on new high dispersion echelle and CAT/CES spectra of H and He lines. The elements for the orbit of the non-eclipsing pair could be refined. Lines of the brighter component of the eclipsing binary were detected in near-quadrature spectra, while signatures of the fainter component could be identified in only few spectra. Lines of the primary component of the non-eclipsing pair and of both components of the eclipsing pair were found to be variable in position and strength; in particular, the He ii 4686 emission line of the brighter eclipsing component is strongly variable. An ephemeris for the eclipsing binary QZ Car valid at present was derived Prim. Min. = hel. JD 2448687.16 + 5fd9991 * E. The relative orbit of the two binary constituents of the multiple system is discussed. In contrast to earlier investigations we found radial velocity changes of the systemic velocities of both binaries, which were used - together with an O-C analysis of the expected light-time effect - to derive approximate parameters of the mutual orbit of the two pairs. It is shown that this orbit and the distance to QZ Car can be further refined by minima timing and interferometry. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

  13. Multiple Interests of Users in Collaborative Tagging Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au Yeung, Ching-Man; Gibbins, Nicholas; Shadbolt, Nigel

    Performance of recommender systems depends on whether the user profiles contain accurate information about the interests of the users, and this in turn relies on whether enough information about their interests can be collected. Collaborative tagging systems allow users to use their own words to describe their favourite resources, resulting in some user-generated categorisation schemes commonly known as folksonomies. Folksonomies thus contain rich information about the interests of the users, which can be used to support various recommender systems. Our analysis of the folksonomy in Delicious reveals that the interests of a single user can be very diverse. Traditional methods for representing interests of users are usually not able to reflect such diversity. We propose a method to construct user profiles of multiple interests from folksonomies based on a network clustering technique. Our evaluation shows that the proposed method is able to generate user profiles which reflect the diversity of user interests and can be used as a basis of providing more focused recommendation to the users.

  14. Operating system for a real-time multiprocessor propulsion system simulator. User's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing and evaluating experimental hardware and software systems to help meet future needs for real-time, high-fidelity simulations of air-breathing propulsion systems. Specifically, the real-time multiprocessor simulator project focuses on the use of multiple microprocessors to achieve the required computing speed and accuracy at relatively low cost. Operating systems for such hardware configurations are generally not available. A real time multiprocessor operating system (RTMPOS) that supports a variety of multiprocessor configurations was developed at Lewis. With some modification, RTMPOS can also support various microprocessors. RTMPOS, by means of menus and prompts, provides the user with a versatile, user-friendly environment for interactively loading, running, and obtaining results from a multiprocessor-based simulator. The menu functions are described and an example simulation session is included to demonstrate the steps required to go from the simulation loading phase to the execution phase.

  15. Music recommendation system for biofied building considering multiple residents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Takahiro; Mita, Akira

    2012-04-01

    This research presents a music recommendation system based on multiple users' communication excitement and productivity. Evaluation is conducted on following two points. 1, Does songA recommended by the system improve the situation of dropped down communication excitement? 2, Does songB recommended by the system improve the situation of dropped down and productivity of collaborative work? The objective of this system is to recommend songs which shall improve the situation of dropped down communication excitement and productivity. Songs are characterized according to three aspects; familiarity, relaxing and BPM(Beat Per Minutes). Communication excitement is calculated from speech data obtained by an audio sensor. Productivity of collaborative brainstorming is manually calculated by the number of time-series key words during mind mapping. First experiment was music impression experiment to 118 students. Based on 1, average points of familiarity, relaxing and BPM 2, cronbach alpha factor, songA(high familiarity, high relaxing and high BPM song) and songB(high familiarity, high relaxing and low BPM) are selected. Exploratory experiment defined dropped down communication excitement and dropped down and productivity of collaborative work. Final experiment was conducted to 32 first meeting students divided into 8 groups. First 4 groups had mind mapping 1 while listening to songA, then had mind mapping 2 while listening songB. Following 4 groups had mind mapping 1 while listening to songB, then had mind mapping 2 while listening songA. Fianl experiment shows two results. Firstly, ratio of communication excitement between music listening section and whole brain storming is 1.27. Secondly, this system increases 69% of average productivity.

  16. Application of a dedicated micro-processor for automatic data acquisition of load strain and acoustic-emission data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, G. H.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes an automatic system for acquisition, logging and analysis of stress, strain and acoustic emission data. The complete system is a combination of several standard items of equipment and a newly developed intelligent data logger which has the capability to send data directly to a large scale computer for reduction and plotting. The data logging and all interfacing with peripheral equipment are accomplished using digital electronics. The heart of the system is a four-bit microprocessor and digital cassette tape unit. The system, which is controlled by instructions from a cathode ray tube terminal, has the capability to transmit data from the cassette unit to a large computer via a time sharing option. Typical results are presented for acoustic emission count rate and total count curves superimposed on stress-strain diagrams for boron/epoxy advanced composites.

  17. A Multiple-Channel Sub-Band Transient Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Smith

    1998-11-01

    We have developed a unique multiple-channel sub-band transient detection system to record transient electromagnetic signals in carrier-dominated radio environments; the system has been used to make unique observations of weak, transient HF signals. The detection system has made these observations possible through improved sensitivity compared to conventional broadband transient detection systems; the sensitivity improvement is estimated to be at least 20 dB. The increase in sensitivity has been achieved through subdivision of the band of interest (an 18 MHz tunable bandwidth) into eight sub-band independent detection channels, each with a 400 kHz bandwidth and its own criteria. The system generates a system trigger signal when a predetermined number of channels (typically five) trigger within a predetermined window of time (typically 100 ~s). Events are recorded with a broadband data acquisition system sampling at 50 or 100 Msample/s, so despite the fact that the detection system operates on portions of the signal confined to narrow bands, data acquisition is broadband. Between May and September of 1994, the system was used to detect and record over six thousand transient events in the frequency band from 3 to 30 MHz. Approximately 500 of the events have been characterized as paired bursts of radio noise with individual durations of 2 to 10 ps and separations between the bursts of 5 to 160 ps. The paired transients are typically 5 to 40 dB brighter than the background electromagnetic spectrum between carrier signals. We have termed these events SubIonospheric Pulse Pairs (SIPPS) and presently have no explanation as to their source. Our observations of SIPPS resemble observations of TransIonospheric Pulse Pairs (TIPPs) recorded by the Blackboard instrument on the ALEXIS satellite; the source of TIPP events is also unknown. Most of the recorded SIPP events do not exhibit frequency dispersion, implying propagation along a line-of-sight (groundwave) path; but seven of

  18. Energy Expenditure and Activity of Transfemoral Amputees Using Mechanical and Microprocessor-Controlled Prosthetic Knees

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Kenton R.; Levine, James A.; Brey, Robert H.; McCrady, Shelly K.; Padgett, Denny J.; Joyner, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To quantify the energy efficiency of locomotion and free-living physical activity energy expenditure of transfemoral amputees using a mechanical and microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee. Design Repeated-measures design to evaluate comparative functional outcomes. Setting Exercise physiology laboratory and community free-living environment. Participants Subjects (N=15; 12 men, 3 women; age, 42±9y; range, 26 –57y) with transfemoral amputation. Intervention Research participants were long-term users of a mechanical prosthesis (20±10y as an amputee; range, 3–36y). They were fitted with a microprocessor-controlled knee prosthesis and allowed to acclimate (mean time, 18±8wk) before being retested. Main Outcome Measures Objective measurements of energy efficiency and total daily energy expenditure were obtained. The Prosthetic Evaluation Questionnaire was used to gather subjective feedback from the participants. Results Subjects demonstrated significantly increased physical activity–related energy expenditure levels in the participant’s free-living environment (P=.04) after wearing the microprocessor-controlled prosthetic knee joint. There was no significant difference in the energy efficiency of walking (P=.34). When using the microprocessor-controlled knee, the subjects expressed increased satisfaction in their daily lives (P=.02). Conclusions People ambulating with a microprocessor-controlled knee significantly increased their physical activity during daily life, outside the laboratory setting, and expressed an increased quality of life. PMID:18586142

  19. Rotating dipole and quadrupole field for a multiple cathode system

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, X.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kewisch, J.; Litvinenko, V.; Meng, W.; Pikin, A.; Ptitsyn, V.; Rao, T.; Sheehy, B.; Skarita, J.; Wang, E.; Wu, Q.; Xin, T.

    2011-03-28

    A multiple cathode system has been designed to provide the high average current polarized electron bunches for the future electron-ion collider eRHIC [1]. One of the key research topics in this design is the technique to generate a combined dipole and quadrupole rotating field at high frequency (700 kHz). This type of field is necessary for combining bunches from different cathodes to the same axis with minimum emittance growth. Our simulations and the prototype test results to achieve this will be presented. The future eRHIC project, next upgrade of EHIC, will be the first electron-heavy ion collider in the world. For polarized-electron and polarized proton collisions, it requires a polarized electron source with high average current ({approx}50 mA), short bunch ({approx}3 mm), emittance of about 20 {micro}m and energy spread of {approx}1% at 10 MeV. The state-of-art polarized electron cathode can generate average current of about more than 1 mA, but much less than 50 mA. The current is limited by the quantum efficiency, lifetime, space charge and ultra-high vacuum requirement of the polarized cathode. A possible approach to achieve the 50 mA beam is to employ multiple cathodes, such as 20 cathodes, and combine the multiple bunched beams from cathodes to the same axis. We name it as 'Gatling gun' because its operations bear similarity to a multi-barrel Gatling gun. The electron spin direction is not affected by electric field but will follow to the direction of the magnetic bending. This requires that, to preserve the spin polarization from cathode, the fixed bending field after the solenoid and the rotating bending field in combiner must be either a pair of electric bendings or a pair of magnetic bendings. We choose the scheme with a pair of magnetic bendings because it is much easier than the scheme with a pair of electric bendings at our 200 keV electron energy level.

  20. A Putative Multiple-Demand System in the Macaque Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Andrew H.; Buckley, Mark J.; Mitchell, Anna S.; Sallet, Jerome; Duncan, John

    2016-01-01

    In humans, cognitively demanding tasks of many types recruit common frontoparietal brain areas. Pervasive activation of this “multiple-demand” (MD) network suggests a core function in supporting goal-oriented behavior. A similar network might therefore be predicted in nonhuman primates that readily perform similar tasks after training. However, an MD network in nonhuman primates has not been described. Single-cell recordings from macaque frontal and parietal cortex show some similar properties to human MD fMRI responses (e.g., adaptive coding of task-relevant information). Invasive recordings, however, come from limited prespecified locations, so they do not delineate a macaque homolog of the MD system and their positioning could benefit from knowledge of where MD foci lie. Challenges of scanning behaving animals mean that few macaque fMRI studies specifically contrast levels of cognitive demand, so we sought to identify a macaque counterpart to the human MD system using fMRI connectivity in 35 rhesus macaques. Putative macaque MD regions, mapped from frontoparietal MD regions defined in humans, were found to be functionally connected under anesthesia. To further refine these regions, an iterative process was used to maximize their connectivity cross-validated across animals. Finally, whole-brain connectivity analyses identified voxels that were robustly connected to MD regions, revealing seven clusters across frontoparietal and insular cortex comparable to human MD regions and one unexpected cluster in the lateral fissure. The proposed macaque MD regions can be used to guide future electrophysiological investigation of MD neural coding and in task-based fMRI to test predictions of similar functional properties to human MD cortex. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In humans, a frontoparietal “multiple-demand” (MD) brain network is recruited during a wide range of cognitively demanding tasks. Because this suggests a fundamental function, one might expect a similar

  1. Fundamentals of direct liquefaction of municipal solid waste in a semicontinuous, microprocessor-controlled autoclave

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D.; Joshi, D.; Kim, W.J.; Zhao, Y.

    1986-07-01

    The program was initiated in March 1984 and consisted of modifying existing autoclave and a real-time digital microprocessor control system so that it could be operated in a semi-continuous mode. This consisted of controlling inlet gases and outlet gases continuously during the MSW liquefaction in the autoclave. The various components of MSW were studied in order to obtain meaningful data, not confused by the different thermokinetics of more than one distinct MSW component. Feedstocks included wood flour, cardboard, newsprint and rice (starch), as well as the important model compounds ..cap alpha..-cellulose and lignin. It was found that these MSW components could be converted to liquid oils and a high-heating value residual solid at temperatures of 325/sup 0/C to 400/sup 0/C and pressures of 1000 psi to 3000 psi. This is a temperature level of about 100/sup 0/C lower than that required for coal liquefaction. This one-year research program proved the feasibility of converting MSW to liquid fuel products and solid fuel by-products of high heating values.

  2. Design of a Multiple Drug Delivery System Directed at Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Sundararaj, Sharath C.; Thomas, Mark V.; Peyyala, Rebecca; Dziubla, Thomas D.; Puleo, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Periodontal disease is highly prevalent, with 90% of the world population affected by either periodontitis or its preceding condition, gingivitis. These conditions are caused by bacterial biofilms on teeth, which stimulate a chronic inflammatory response that leads to loss of alveolar bone and, ultimately, the tooth. Current treatment methods for periodontitis address specific parts of the disease, with no individual treatment serving as a complete therapy. The present research sought to demonstrate development of a multiple drug delivery system for stepwise treatment of different stages of periodontal disease. More specifically, multilayered films were fabricated from an association polymer comprising cellulose acetate phthalate and Pluronic F-127 to achieve sequential release of drugs. The four types of drugs used were metronidazole, ketoprofen, doxycycline, and simvastatin to eliminate infection, inhibit inflammation, prevent tissue destruction, and aid bone regeneration, respectively. Different erosion times and adjustable sequential release profiles were achieved by modifying the number of layers or by inclusion of a slower-eroding polymer layer. Analysis of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory bioactivity showed that drugs released from the devices retained 100% bioactivity. The multilayered CAPP delivery system offers a versatile approach for releasing different drugs based on the pathogenesis of periodontitis and other conditions. PMID:23948165

  3. Emission current control system for multiple hollow cathode devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, John R. (Inventor); Hancock, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An emission current control system for balancing the individual emission currents from an array of hollow cathodes has current sensors for determining the current drawn by each cathode from a power supply. Each current sensor has an output signal which has a magnitude proportional to the current. The current sensor output signals are averaged, the average value so obtained being applied to a respective controller for controlling the flow of an ion source material through each cathode. Also applied to each controller are the respective sensor output signals for each cathode and a common reference signal. The flow of source material through each hollow cathode is thereby made proportional to the current drawn by that cathode, the average current drawn by all of the cathodes, and the reference signal. Thus, the emission current of each cathode is controlled such that each is made substantially equal to the emission current of each of the other cathodes. When utilized as a component of a multiple hollow cathode ion propulsion motor, the emission current control system of the invention provides for balancing the thrust of the motor about the thrust axis and also for preventing premature failure of a hollow cathode source due to operation above a maximum rated emission current.

  4. Multiple Sclerosis and the Blood-Central Nervous System Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Alan M.

    2013-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is isolated from the blood system by a physical barrier that contains efflux transporters and catabolic enzymes. This blood-CNS barrier (BCNSB) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS). It binds and anchors activated leukocytes to permit their movement across the BCNSB and into the CNS. Once there, these immune cells target particular self-epitopes and initiate a cascade of neuroinflammation, which leads to the breakdown of the BCNSB and the formation of perivascular plaques, one of the hallmarks of MS. Immunomodulatory drugs for MS are either biologics or small molecules, with only the latter having the capacity to cross the BCNSB and thus have a propensity to cause CNS side effects. However, BCNSB penetration is a desirable feature of MS drugs that have molecular targets within the CNS. These are nabiximols and dalfampridine, which target cannabinoid receptors and potassium channels, respectively. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, present on endothelial cells of the BCNSB, also serves as a drug discovery target since it interacts with α4-β1-integrin on leucocytes. The MS drug natalizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against α4-β1-integrin, blocks this interaction and thus reduces the movement of immune cells into the CNS. This paper further elaborates on the role of the BCNSB in the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of MS. PMID:23401746

  5. Orbits of Four Young Triple-lined Multiple Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    Each of the nearby triple systems HIP 7601, 13498, 23824, and 113597 (HD 10800, 18198, 35877, 217379) consist of solar-type dwarfs with comparable masses, where all three components are resolved spectrally, while the outer pairs are resolved both visually and spectrally. These stars are relatively young (between 100 and 600 Myr) and chromospherically active (X-ray sources), although they rotate slowly. I determine the spectroscopic orbits of the inner subsystems (periods 19.4, 14.1, 5.6, 20.3 days) and the orbits of the outer systems (periods 1.75, 51, 27, 500 years, respectively). For HIP 7601 and 13498, the combined spectro-interferometric outer orbits produce direct measurement of the masses of all of the components, allowing for a comparison with stellar models. The 6708 Å lithium line is present and its strength is measured in each component individually by subtracting the contributions of the other components. The inner and outer orbits of HIP 7601 are nearly circular, likely co-planar, and have a modest period ratio of 1:33. This study contributes to the characterization of hierarchical multiplicity in the solar neighborhood and provides data for testing stellar evolutionary models and chronology.

  6. Design of a multiple drug delivery system directed at periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Sundararaj, Sharath C; Thomas, Mark V; Peyyala, Rebecca; Dziubla, Thomas D; Puleo, David A

    2013-11-01

    Periodontal disease is highly prevalent, with 90% of the world population affected by either periodontitis or its preceding condition, gingivitis. These conditions are caused by bacterial biofilms on teeth, which stimulate a chronic inflammatory response that leads to loss of alveolar bone and, ultimately, the tooth. Current treatment methods for periodontitis address specific parts of the disease, with no individual treatment serving as a complete therapy. The present research sought to demonstrate development of a multiple drug delivery system for stepwise treatment of different stages of periodontal disease. More specifically, multilayered films were fabricated from an association polymer comprising cellulose acetate phthalate and Pluronic F-127 to achieve sequential release of drugs. The four types of drugs used were metronidazole, ketoprofen, doxycycline, and simvastatin to eliminate infection, inhibit inflammation, prevent tissue destruction, and aid bone regeneration, respectively. Different erosion times and adjustable sequential release profiles were achieved by modifying the number of layers or by inclusion of a slower-eroding polymer layer. Analysis of antibiotic and anti-inflammatory bioactivity showed that drugs released from the devices retained 100% bioactivity. The multilayered CAPP delivery system offers a versatile approach for releasing different drugs based on the pathogenesis of periodontitis and other conditions. PMID:23948165

  7. Multiple System Atrophy. Using Clinical Pharmacology to Reveal Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Jens; Shibao, Cyndya; Biaggioni, Italo

    2015-01-01

    Despite similarities in their clinical presentation, patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) have residual sympathetic tone and intact post-ganglionic noradrenergic fibers, whereas patients with pure autonomic failure (PAF) and Parkinson’s disease (PD) have efferent post-ganglionic autonomic denervation. These differences are apparent biochemically, with near normal plasma norepinephrine in MSA but very low levels in PAF, and in neurophysiological testing. These differences are also reflected in the response patients have to drugs that interact with the autonomic nervous system. E.g., the ganglionic blocker trimethaphan reduce residual sympathetic tone and lower blood pressure in MSA but less so in PAF. Conversely, the α2-antagonist yohimbine produces a greater increase in blood pressure in MSA compared to PAF, although significant overlap exists. In normal subjects the norepinephrine reuptake (NET) inhibitor atomoxetine has little effect on blood pressure because the peripheral effects of NET inhibition that result in noradrenergic vasoconstriction, are counteracted by the increase in brain norepinephrine which reduces sympathetic outflow (a clonidine-like effect). In patients with autonomic failure and intact peripheral noradrenergic fibers only the peripheral vasoconstriction is apparent. This translates to a significant pressor effect of atomoxetine in MSA, but not in PAF patients. Thus, pharmacological probes can be used to understand the pathophysiology of the different forms of autonomic failure, assist in the diagnosis, and aid in the management of orthostatic hypotension. PMID:25757803

  8. Multiple system atrophy: using clinical pharmacology to reveal pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Jens; Shibao, Cyndya; Biaggioni, Italo

    2015-02-01

    Despite similarities in their clinical presentation, patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) have residual sympathetic tone and intact post-ganglionic noradrenergic fibers, whereas patients with pure autonomic failure (PAF) and Parkinson disease have efferent post-ganglionic autonomic denervation. These differences are apparent biochemically, as well as in neurophysiological testing, with near normal plasma norephrine in MSA but very low levels in PAF. These differences are also reflected in the response patients have to drugs that interact with the autonomic nervous system. For example, the ganglionic blocker trimethaphan reduces residual sympathetic tone and lowers blood pressure in MSA, but less so in PAF. Conversely, the α2-antagonist yohimbine produces a greater increase in blood pressure in MSA compared to PAF, although significant overlap exists. In normal subjects, the norepinephrine reuptake (NET) inhibitor atomoxetine has little effect on blood pressure because the peripheral effects of NET inhibition that result in noradrenergic vasoconstriction are counteracted by the increase in brain norepinephrine, which reduces sympathetic outflow (a clonidine-like effect). In patients with autonomic failure and intact peripheral noradrenergic fibers, only the peripheral vasoconstriction is apparent. This translates to a significant pressor effect of atomoxetine in MSA, but not in PAF patients. Thus, pharmacological probes can be used to understand the pathophysiology of the different forms of autonomic failure, assist in the diagnosis, and aid in the management of orthostatic hypotension. PMID:25757803

  9. Optimization and Performance Modeling of Stencil Computations on Modern Microprocessors

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, Kaushik; Kamil, Shoaib; Williams, Samuel; Oliker, Leonid; Shalf, John; Yelick, Katherine

    2007-06-01

    Stencil-based kernels constitute the core of many important scientific applications on blockstructured grids. Unfortunately, these codes achieve a low fraction of peak performance, due primarily to the disparity between processor and main memory speeds. In this paper, we explore the impact of trends in memory subsystems on a variety of stencil optimization techniques and develop performance models to analytically guide our optimizations. Our work targets cache reuse methodologies across single and multiple stencil sweeps, examining cache-aware algorithms as well as cache-oblivious techniques on the Intel Itanium2, AMD Opteron, and IBM Power5. Additionally, we consider stencil computations on the heterogeneous multicore design of the Cell processor, a machine with an explicitly managed memory hierarchy. Overall our work represents one of the most extensive analyses of stencil optimizations and performance modeling to date. Results demonstrate that recent trends in memory system organization have reduced the efficacy of traditional cache-blocking optimizations. We also show that a cache-aware implementation is significantly faster than a cache-oblivious approach, while the explicitly managed memory on Cell enables the highest overall efficiency: Cell attains 88% of algorithmic peak while the best competing cache-based processor achieves only 54% of algorithmic peak performance.

  10. Designing an Electronic Patient Management System for Multiple Sclerosis: Building a Next Generation Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Raimar; Haase, Rocco; Eisele, Judith Christina; Thomas, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Background Technologies like electronic health records or telemedicine devices support the rapid mediation of health information and clinical data independent of time and location between patients and their physicians as well as among health care professionals. Today, every part of the treatment process from diagnosis, treatment selection, and application to patient education and long-term care may be enhanced by a quality-assured implementation of health information technology (HIT) that also takes data security standards and concerns into account. In order to increase the level of effectively realized benefits of eHealth services, a user-driven needs assessment should ensure the inclusion of health care professional perspectives into the process of technology development as we did in the development process of the Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System 3D. After analyzing the use of information technology by patients suffering from multiple sclerosis, we focused on the needs of neurological health care professionals and their handling of health information technology. Objective Therefore, we researched the status quo of eHealth adoption in neurological practices and clinics as well as health care professional opinions about potential benefits and requirements of eHealth services in the field of multiple sclerosis. Methods We conducted a paper-and-pencil–based mail survey in 2013 by sending our questionnaire to 600 randomly chosen neurological practices in Germany. The questionnaire consisted of 24 items covering characteristics of participating neurological practices (4 items), the current use of network technology and the Internet in such neurological practices (5 items), physicians’ attitudes toward the general and MS-related usefulness of eHealth systems (8 items) and toward the clinical documentation via electronic health records (4 items), and physicians’ knowledge about the Multiple Sclerosis Documentation System (3 items). Results From 600 mailed

  11. Identification of limit cycles in multi-nonlinearity, multiple path systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. R.; Barron, O. L.

    1979-01-01

    A method of analysis which identifies limit cycles in autonomous systems with multiple nonlinearities and multiple forward paths is presented. The FORTRAN code for implementing the Harmonic Balance Algorithm is reported. The FORTRAN code is used to identify limit cycles in multiple path and nonlinearity systems while retaining the effects of several harmonic components.

  12. Multiple sensor expert system for diagnostic reasoning, monitoring and control of mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agogino, Alice M.; Srinivas, Sampath; Schneider, Kenneth M.

    1988-04-01

    This paper describes an expert systems architecture for integrating multiple sensors for diagnostic reasoning, monitoring and supervisory control of mechanical systms in automated manufacturing and process control. The IDES (Influence Diagram based Expert System) performs probabilistic inference and expected value decision making. It integrates dynamic sensor readings, statistical data and subjective expertise in symbolic and numerical data structures and is designed for real time performance. An application using acoustic, current and force sensors on a numerically-controlled milling machine is described. In this example, the fusion of information from multiple sensors achieves effective prediction and control performance with relatively simple signal processing.

  13. Multiple mean motion resonances in the HR 8799 planetary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goździewski, Krzysztof; Migaszewski, Cezary

    2014-06-01

    HR 8799 is a nearby star hosting at least four ˜10 mJup planets in wide orbits up to ˜70 au, detected through the direct, high-contrast infrared imaging. Large companions and debris discs reported interior to ˜10 au, and exterior to ˜100 au indicate massive protoplanetary disc in the past. The dynamical state of the HR 8799 system is not yet fully resolved, due to limited astrometric data covering tiny orbital arcs. We construct a new orbital model of the HR 8799 system, assuming rapid migration of the planets after their formation in wider orbits. We found that the HR 8799 planets are likely involved in double Laplace resonance, 1e:2d:4c:8b MMR. Quasi-circular planetary orbits are coplanar with the stellar equator and inclined by ˜25° to the sky plane. This best-fitting orbital configuration matches astrometry, debris disc models, and mass estimates from cooling models. The multiple mean motion resonance (MMR) is stable for the age of the star ˜160 Myr, for at least 1 Gyr unless significant perturbations to the N-body dynamics are present. We predict four configurations with the fifth hypothetical innermost planet HR 8799f in ˜9.7 au, or ˜7.5 au orbit, extending the MMR chain to triple Laplace resonance 1f:2e:4d:8c:16b MMR or to the 1f:3e:6d:12c:24b MMR, respectively. Our findings may establish strong boundary conditions for the system formation and its early history.

  14. Blind decorrelation and deconvolution algorithm for multiple-input multiple-output system: II. Analysis and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Da-Ching; Yu, Tommy; Yao, Kung; Pottie, Gregory J.

    1999-11-01

    For single-input multiple-output (SIMO) systems blind deconvolution based on second-order statistics has been shown promising given that the sources and channels meet certain assumptions. In our previous paper we extend the work to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems by introducing a blind deconvolution algorithm to remove all channel dispersion followed by a blind decorrelation algorithm to separate different sources from their instantaneous mixture. In this paper we first explore more details embedded in our algorithm. Then we present simulation results to show that our algorithm is applicable to MIMO systems excited by a broad class of signals such as speech, music and digitally modulated symbols.

  15. Kinematics and dynamics of robotic systems with multiple closed loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chang-De

    The kinematics and dynamics of robotic systems with multiple closed loops, such as Stewart platforms, walking machines, and hybrid manipulators, are studied. In the study of kinematics, focus is on the closed-form solutions of the forward position analysis of different parallel systems. A closed-form solution means that the solution is expressed as a polynomial in one variable. If the order of the polynomial is less than or equal to four, the solution has analytical closed-form. First, the conditions of obtaining analytical closed-form solutions are studied. For a Stewart platform, the condition is found to be that one rotational degree of freedom of the output link is decoupled from the other five. Based on this condition, a class of Stewart platforms which has analytical closed-form solution is formulated. Conditions of analytical closed-form solution for other parallel systems are also studied. Closed-form solutions of forward kinematics for walking machines and multi-fingered grippers are then studied. For a parallel system with three three-degree-of-freedom subchains, there are 84 possible ways to select six independent joints among nine joints. These 84 ways can be classified into three categories: Category 3:3:0, Category 3:2:1, and Category 2:2:2. It is shown that the first category has no solutions; the solutions of the second category have analytical closed-form; and the solutions of the last category are higher order polynomials. The study is then extended to a nearly general Stewart platform. The solution is a 20th order polynomial and the Stewart platform has a maximum of 40 possible configurations. Also, the study is extended to a new class of hybrid manipulators which consists of two serially connected parallel mechanisms. In the study of dynamics, a computationally efficient method for inverse dynamics of manipulators based on the virtual work principle is developed. Although this method is comparable with the recursive Newton-Euler method for

  16. Distributed Microprocessor Automation Network for Synthesizing Radiotracers Used in Positron Emission Tomography [PET

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Russell, J. A. G.; Alexoff, D. L.; Wolf, A. P.

    1984-09-01

    This presentation describes an evolving distributed microprocessor network for automating the routine production synthesis of radiotracers used in Positron Emission Tomography. We first present a brief overview of the PET method for measuring biological function, and then outline the general procedure for producing a radiotracer. The paper identifies several reasons for our automating the syntheses of these compounds. There is a description of the distributed microprocessor network architecture chosen and the rationale for that choice. Finally, we speculate about how this network may be exploited to extend the power of the PET method from the large university or National Laboratory to the biomedical research and clinical community at large. (DT)

  17. Precision Optical Gauging With Image Sensing Camera And Programmable Microprocessor Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, , Perry; Mauritz, Karl

    1980-08-01

    An effective approach to the design of a line scan camera controller is covered in this paper. Primary features of the controller, other than the microprocessor operation, which are covered, include camera data compression and presentation to the microprocessor, mathematical capability for efficient mensuration, real-time capability for machine and process interface, and steps to make the hardware more versatile in order to complement the flexibility of software. A detailed example is given in the application of the controller to the production sizing and grading of spherical bearing rollers under the dual constraints of high thruput (2400 rollers/hour) and high accuracy (50 microinches).

  18. Neutron beam irradiation study of workload dependence of SER in a microprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    Michalak, Sarah E; Graves, Todd L; Hong, Ted; Ackaret, Jerry; Sonny, Rao; Subhasish, Mitra; Pia, Sanda

    2009-01-01

    It is known that workloads are an important factor in soft error rates (SER), but it is proving difficult to find differentiating workloads for microprocessors. We have performed neutron beam irradiation studies of a commercial microprocessor under a wide variety of workload conditions from idle, performing no operations, to very busy workloads resembling real HPC, graphics, and business applications. There is evidence that the mean times to first indication of failure, MTFIF defined in Section II, may be different for some of the applications.

  19. Individual classification of buried transistors in live microprocessors by functional infrared emission spectral microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oblefias, Wilma; Soriano, Maricor; Tarun, Alvarado; Saloma, Caesar

    2006-10-01

    The authors classify good, leaky, and broken field effect transistors (FET's) in a live 90nm flip-chip microprocessor using functional infrared emission spectral microscopy. The FET's are in the active layer that is sandwiched between a thick heat-absorbing silicon material and a highly reflecting grid of metal interconnects. Together they are optically imaged only as a single bright blob. They classify FET's individually from their distinct electroluminescence spectra that are recovered efficiently by spectral decomposition of the detected composite spectrum. Leaky FET's have no apparent structural damage and are detectable only in live microprocessors.

  20. Comparison of PSF maxima and minima of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnam, Challa; Lakshmana Rao, Vadlamudi; Lachaa Goud, Sivagouni

    2006-10-01

    In the present paper, and a series of papers to follow, the Fourier analytical properties of multiple annuli coded aperture (MACA) and complementary multiple annuli coded aperture (CMACA) systems are investigated. First, the transmission function for MACA and CMACA is derived using Fourier methods and, based on the Fresnel-Kirchoff diffraction theory, the formulae for the point spread function are formulated. The PSF maxima and minima are calculated for both the MACA and CMACA systems. The dependence of these properties on the number of zones is studied and reported in this paper.

  1. Multiple dopant injection system for small rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakala, G. G.; Raines, N. G.

    1992-07-01

    The Diagnostics Test Facility (DTF) at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC) was designed and built to provide a standard rocket engine exhaust plume for use in the research and development of engine health monitoring instrumentation. A 1000 lb thrust class liquid oxygen (LOX)-gaseous hydrogen (GH2) fueled rocket engine is used as the subscale plume source to simulate the SSME during experimentation and instrument development. The ability of the DTF to provide efficient, and low cost test operations makes it uniquely suited for plume diagnostic experimentation. The most unique feature of the DTF is the Multiple Dopant Injection System (MDIS) that is used to seed the exhaust plume with the desired element or metal alloy. The dopant injection takes place at the fuel injector, yielding a very uniform and homogeneous distribution of the seeding material in the exhaust plume. The MDIS allows during a single test firing of the DTF, the seeding of the exhaust plume with up to three different dopants and also provides distilled water base lines between the dopants. A number of plume diagnostic-related experiments have already utilized the unique capabilities of the DTF.

  2. FBXO7 mutations in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Conedera, Silvio; Apaydin, Hulya; Li, Yuanzhe; Yoshino, Hiroyo; Ikeda, Aya; Matsushima, Takashi; Funayama, Manabu; Nishioka, Kenya; Hattori, Nobutaka

    2016-04-01

    Mutations in the F-box only protein 7 (FBXO7) gene, located on chromosome 22q12-q13, have recently been identified as having distinct clinical features in patients with hereditary Parkinson's disease (PD). Pathologically, α-synuclein-positive inclusions have been identified using anti-FBXO7 antibody staining techniques. In the present study, we screened entire exons of FBXO7 from 271 patients (231 PD and 40 multiple system atrophy [MSA]), of which 221 samples were of Japanese origin. The PD patients (n = 231) comprised 31 autosomal dominant, 82 autosomal recessive, and 118 sporadic forms. The 40 cases of MSA consisted of 8 autosomal dominant, 2 autosomal recessive, and 30 sporadic forms. We detected a Turkish patient with autosomal recessive inheritance, harboring a homozygous truncating mutation, Arg498Stop (p.R498X), in the FBXO7 gene. Consequently, we evaluated her and assessed the correlation between her clinical manifestations and genotypic analysis, although the FBXO7 p.R498X gene has lower frequency than others. Her age at onset was 17 years, and she clinically manifested with progressive parkinsonism and cognitive decline. In contrast, no pathogenic mutations in FBXO7 among PD and MSA patients of Japanese or other ethnicities were observed. Based on recent literature, we reviewed and compared the clinical findings and population differences between documented FBXO7 cases. PMID:26882974

  3. [Mechanism of neuronal degeneration of multiple system atrophy].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Mari; Sone, Mie

    2009-09-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder that encompasses olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), striatonigral degeneration (SND) and Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS). The histopathological hallmarks are alpha-synuclein (AS) positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in oligodendroglias. AS aggregation is also found in glial nuclear inclusions (GNIs), neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), neuronal nuclear inclusions (NNIs) and dystrophic neurites. Reviewing the pathological features in 102 MSA cases revealed that the, OPCA-type was relatively more frequent and SND-type was less frequent in Japanese MSA cases. The frequency of the SND-type is relatively high in Western countries. This different in the dominant type suggests that the phenotypic patterns of MSA may vary with the race. In early stages of MSA, in addition to GCIs, NNIs, NCIs, and diffuse homogenous stain of AS in neuronal nuclei and cytoplasm were observed in various vulnerable lesions including the pontine nuclei, putamen, substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, inferior olivary nucleus, intermediolateral column of the thoracic cord, lower motor neurons, and cortical pyramidal neurons. These findings indicated that the primary nonfibrillar and fibrillar AS aggregation also occurred in neurons. Therefore, both the direct involvement of neurons themselves and the oligodendroglia-myelin-axon mechanism may synergistically accelerate the degenerative process of MSA. PMID:19803404

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging in the characterization of multiple system atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Rulseh, Aaron Michael; Keller, Jiri; Rusz, Jan; Syka, Michael; Brozova, Hana; Rusina, Robert; Havrankova, Petra; Zarubova, Katerina; Malikova, Hana; Jech, Robert; Vymazal, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disease that remains poorly understood, and the diagnosis of MSA continues to be challenging. We endeavored to improve the diagnostic process and understanding of in vivo characteristics of MSA by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and methods Twenty MSA subjects, ten parkinsonian dominant (MSA-P), ten cerebellar dominant (MSA-C), and 20 healthy volunteer subjects were recruited. Fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity maps were processed using tract-based spatial statistics. Diffusion data were additionally evaluated in the basal ganglia. A support vector machine was used to assess diagnostic utility, leave-one-out cross-validation in the evaluation of classification schemes, and receiver operating characteristic analyses to determine cutoff values. Results We detected widespread changes in the brain white matter of MSA subjects; however, no group-wise differences were found between MSA-C and MSA-P subgroups. Altered DTI metrics in the putamen and middle cerebellar peduncles were associated with a positive parkinsonian and cerebellar phenotype, respectively. Concerning clinical applicability, we achieved high classification performance on mean diffusivity data in the combined bilateral putamen and middle cerebellar peduncle (accuracy 90.3%±9%, sensitivity 86.5%±11%, and specificity 99.3%±4%). Conclusion DTI in the middle cerebellar peduncle and putamen may be used in the diagnosis of MSA with a high degree of accuracy. PMID:27616888

  5. Decreased Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Multiple System Atrophy Cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Barca, Emanuele; Kleiner, Giulio; Tang, Guomei; Ziosi, Marcello; Tadesse, Saba; Masliah, Eliezer; Louis, Elan D; Faust, Phyllis; Kang, Un J; Torres, Jose; Cortes, Etty P; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul G; Kuo, Sheng-Han; Quinzii, Catarina M

    2016-07-01

    In familial and sporadic multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients, deficiency of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has been associated with mutations in COQ2, which encodes the second enzyme in the CoQ10 biosynthetic pathway. Cerebellar ataxia is the most common presentation of CoQ10 deficiency, suggesting that the cerebellum might be selectively vulnerable to low levels of CoQ10 To investigate whether CoQ10 deficiency represents a common feature in the brains of MSA patients independent of the presence of COQ2 mutations, we studied CoQ10 levels in postmortem brains of 12 MSA, 9 Parkinson disease (PD), 9 essential tremor (ET) patients, and 12 controls. We also assessed mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme activities, oxidative stress, mitochondrial mass, and levels of enzymes involved in CoQ biosynthesis. Our studies revealed CoQ10 deficiency in MSA cerebellum, which was associated with impaired CoQ biosynthesis and increased oxidative stress in the absence of COQ2 mutations. The levels of CoQ10 in the cerebella of ET and PD patients were comparable or higher than in controls. These findings suggest that CoQ10 deficiency may contribute to the pathogenesis of MSA. Because no disease modifying therapies are currently available, increasing CoQ10 levels by supplementation or upregulation of its biosynthesis may represent a novel treatment strategy for MSA patients. PMID:27235405

  6. Updated Diagnostic Criteria and Staging System for Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, S Vincent

    2016-01-01

    There has been remarkable progress made in the diagnosis and treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). The median survival of the disease has doubled as a result of several new active drugs. These advances have necessitated a revision of the disease definition and staging of MM. Until recently, MM was defined by the presence of end-organ damage, specifically hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia, and bone lesions (CRAB features) that can be attributed to the clonal process. In 2014, the International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) updated the diagnostic criteria for MM to add three specific biomarkers that can be used to diagnose the disease in patients who did not have CRAB features: clonal bone marrow plasma cells greater than or equal to 60%, serum free light chain (FLC) ratio greater than or equal to 100 provided involved FLC level is 100 mg/L or higher, or more than one focal lesion on MRI. In addition, the definition was revised to allow CT and PET-CT to diagnose MM bone disease. These changes enable early diagnosis and allow the initiation of effective therapy to prevent the development of end-organ damage for patients who are at the highest risk. A new staging system has been developed that incorporates high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities in addition to standard laboratory markers of prognosis. PMID:27249749

  7. Quantitative pathological changes in the cerebellum of multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder associated with parkinsonism, ataxia, and autonomic dysfunction. Its pathology is primarily subcortical comprising vacuolation, neuronal loss, gliosis, and α-synucleinimmunoreactive glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCI). To quantify cerebellar pathology in MSA, the density and spatial pattern of the pathological changes were studied in α-synuclein-immunolabelled sections of the cerebellar hemisphere in 10 MSA and 10 control cases. In MSA, densities of Purkinje cells (PC) were decreased and vacuoles in the granule cell layer (GL) increased compared with controls. In six MSA cases, GCI were present in cerebellar white matter. In the molecular layer (ML) and GL of MSA, vacuoles were clustered, the clusters exhibiting a regular distribution parallel to the edge of the folia. Purkinje cells were randomly or regularly distributed with large gaps between surviving cells. Densities of glial cells and surviving neurons in the ML and surviving cells and vacuoles in the GL were negatively correlated consistent with gliosis and vacuolation in response to neuronal loss. Principal components analysis (PCA) suggested vacuole densities in the ML and vacuole density and cell losses in the GL were the main source of neuropathological variation among cases. The data suggest that: (1) cell losses and vacuolation of the GCL and loss of PC were the most significant pathological changes in the cases studied, (2) pathological changes were topographically distributed, and (3) cerebellar pathology could influence cerebral function in MSA via the cerebello-dentato-thalamic tract. PMID:26443310

  8. Multiple solutions for a singular quasilinear elliptic system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Chen, Caisheng; Xiu, Zonghu

    2013-01-01

    We consider the multiplicity of nontrivial solutions of the following quasilinear elliptic system -div(|x|(-ap)|∇u|(p-2)∇u) + f₁(x)|u|(p-2) u = (α/(α + β))g(x)|u| (α-2) u|v| (β) + λh₁(x)|u| (γ-2) u + l₁(x), -div(|x|(-ap) |∇v| (p-2)∇v) + f₂(x)|v| (p-2) v = (β/(α + β))g(x)|v|(β-2) v|u|(α) + μh 2(x)|v|(γ-2)v + l 2(x), u(x) > 0, v(x) > 0, x ∈ ℝ(N), where λ, μ > 0, 1 < p < N, 1 < γ < p < α + β < p* = Np/(N-pd), 0 ≤ a < (N - p)/p, a ≤ b < a + 1, d = a + 1 - b > 0. The functions f₁(x), f₂(x), g(x), h₁(x), h₂(x), l₁(x), and l₂(x) satisfy some suitable conditions. We will prove that the problem has at least two nontrivial solutions by using Mountain Pass Theorem and Ekeland's variational principle. PMID:24282377

  9. Transmission of multiple system atrophy prions to transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Joel C.; Giles, Kurt; Oehler, Abby; Middleton, Lefkos; Dexter, David T.; Gentleman, Steve M.; DeArmond, Stephen J.; Prusiner, Stanley B.

    2013-01-01

    Prions are proteins that adopt alternative conformations, which become self-propagating. Increasing evidence argues that prions feature in the synucleinopathies that include Parkinson’s disease, Lewy body dementia, and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Although TgM83+/+ mice homozygous for a mutant A53T α-synuclein transgene begin developing CNS dysfunction spontaneously at ∼10 mo of age, uninoculated TgM83+/− mice (hemizygous for the transgene) remain healthy. To determine whether MSA brains contain α-synuclein prions, we inoculated the TgM83+/− mice with brain homogenates from two pathologically confirmed MSA cases. Inoculated TgM83+/− mice developed progressive signs of neurologic disease with an incubation period of ∼100 d, whereas the same mice inoculated with brain homogenates from spontaneously ill TgM83+/+ mice developed neurologic dysfunction in ∼210 d. Brains of MSA-inoculated mice exhibited prominent astrocytic gliosis and microglial activation as well as widespread deposits of phosphorylated α-synuclein that were proteinase K sensitive, detergent insoluble, and formic acid extractable. Our results provide compelling evidence that α-synuclein aggregates formed in the brains of MSA patients are transmissible and, as such, are prions. The MSA prion represents a unique human pathogen that is lethal upon transmission to Tg mice and as such, is reminiscent of the prion causing kuru, which was transmitted to chimpanzees nearly 5 decades ago. PMID:24218576

  10. Code Division Multiple Access system candidate for integrated modular avionics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Antonio J.; Gagliardi, Robert M.

    1991-02-01

    There are government and industry trends towards avionics modularity and integrated avionics. Key requirements implicit in these trends are suitable data communication concepts compatible with the integration concept. In this paper we explore the use ofCode Division Multiple Access (CDMA) techniques as an alternative to collision detection and collision avoidance multiple access techniques.

  11. Multiple system atrophy: alpha-synuclein and neuronal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Mari

    2007-10-01

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic neurodegenerative disorder that encompasses olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), striatonigral degeneration (SND) and Shy-Drager syndrome (SDS). The histopathological hallmark is the formation of alpha-synuclein-positive glial cytoplasmic inclusions (GCIs) in oligodendroglia. alpha-synuclein aggregation is also found in glial nuclear inclusions, neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions (NCIs), neuronal nuclear inclusions (NNIs) and dystrophic neurites. We evaluated the pathological features of 102 MSA cases, and presented the pathological spectrum of MSA and initial features of alpha-synuclein accumulation. We found that 39% of the 102 cases showed equivalent SND and OPCA pathologies, 33% showed OPCA- and 22% showed SND-predominant pathology, whereas 6% showed extremely mild changes. Our pathological analysis indicated that OPCA-type was relatively more frequent and SND-type was less frequent in Japanese MSA cases, compared to the relatively high frequency of SND-type in Western countries, suggesting that different phenotypic patterns of MSA may exist between races. In the early stage, in addition to GCIs, NNIs and diffuse homogenous alpha-synuclein staining in neuronal nuclei and cytoplasm were observed in lesions in the pontine nuclei, putamen, substantia nigra, locus ceruleus, inferior olivary nucleus, intermediolateral column of thoracic spinal cord, lower motor neurons and cortical pyramidal neurons. A subgroup of MSA cases with severe temporal atrophy showed numerous NCIs, particularly in the limbic system. These findings suggest that primary non-fibrillar and fibrillar alpha-synuclein aggregation also occur in neurons. The oligo-myelin-axon-neuron complex mechanism, along with the direct involvement of neurons themselves, may synergistically accelerate the degenerative process of MSA. PMID:18018485

  12. TRAIL/TRAIL Receptor System and Susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    García-León, Juan Antonio; Pinto-Medel, María Jesús; Oliver-Martos, Begoña; Ortega-Pinazo, Jesús; Suardíaz, Margarita; García-Trujillo, Lucía; Guijarro-Castro, Cristina; Benito-León, Julián; Prat, Isidro; Varadé, Jezabel; Álvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Urcelay, Elena

    2011-01-01

    The TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)/TRAIL receptor system participates in crucial steps in immune cell activation or differentiation. It is able to inhibit proliferation and activation of T cells and to induce apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes, and seems to be implicated in autoimmune diseases. Thus, TRAIL and TRAIL receptor genes are potential candidates for involvement in susceptibility to multiple sclerosis (MS). To test whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genes encoding TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 are associated with MS susceptibility, we performed a candidate gene case-control study in the Spanish population. 59 SNPs in the TRAIL and TRAIL receptor genes were analysed in 628 MS patients and 660 controls, and validated in an additional cohort of 295 MS patients and 233 controls. Despite none of the SNPs withstood the highly conservative Bonferroni correction, three SNPs showing uncorrected p values<0.05 were successfully replicated: rs4894559 in TRAIL gene, p = 9.8×10−4, OR = 1.34; rs4872077, in TRAILR-1 gene, p = 0.005, OR = 1.72; and rs1001793 in TRAILR-2 gene, p = 0.012, OR = 0.84. The combination of the alleles G/T/A in these SNPs appears to be associated with a reduced risk of developing MS (p = 2.12×10−5, OR = 0.59). These results suggest that genes of the TRAIL/TRAIL receptor system exerts a genetic influence on MS. PMID:21814551

  13. Kynurenines and Multiple Sclerosis: The Dialogue between the Immune System and the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Rajda, Cecilia; Majláth, Zsófia; Pukoli, Dániel; Vécsei, László

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, in which axonal transection takes place in parallel with acute inflammation to various, individual extents. The importance of the kynurenine pathway in the physiological functions and pathological processes of the nervous system has been extensively investigated, but it has additionally been implicated as having a regulatory function in the immune system. Alterations in the kynurenine pathway have been described in both preclinical and clinical investigations of multiple sclerosis. These observations led to the identification of potential therapeutic targets in multiple sclerosis, such as synthetic tryptophan analogs, endogenous tryptophan metabolites (e.g., cinnabarinic acid), structural analogs (laquinimod, teriflunomid, leflunomid and tranilast), indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors (1MT and berberine) and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase inhibitors (nicotinylalanine and Ro 61-8048). The kynurenine pathway is a promising novel target via which to influence the immune system and to achieve neuroprotection, and further research is therefore needed with the aim of developing novel drugs for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. PMID:26287161

  14. COED Transactions, Vol. XI, No. 12, December 1979. Some Alternate Applications of Microprocessor Trainers in Support of Undergraduate Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Eugene E., Ed.

    Ways are described for the use of a microprocessor trainer in undergraduate laboratories. Listed are microcomputer applications that have been used as demonstrations and which provide signals for other experiments which are not related to microprocessors. Information and figures are provided for methods to do the following: direct generation of…

  15. Extreme inputs/outputs for multiple input multiple output linear systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, David Ora

    2005-09-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the auto spectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the auto spectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input auto spectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one will result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.

  16. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Linear Systems Extreme Inputs/Outputs

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smallwood, David O.

    2007-01-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the autospectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the autospectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input autospectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one willmore » result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.« less

  17. Tremor in Multiple System Atrophy – a review

    PubMed Central

    Kaindlstorfer, Christine; Granata, Roberta; Wenning, Gregor Karl

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by a rapidly progressive course. The clinical presentation can include autonomic failure, parkinsonism, and cerebellar signs. Differentiation from Parkinson’s disease (PD) is difficult if there is levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, rest tremor, lack of cerebellar ataxia, or mild/delayed autonomic failure. Little is known about tremor prevalence and features in MSA. Methods We performed a PubMed search to collect the literature on tremor in MSA and considered reports published between 1900 and 2013. Results Tremor is a common feature among MSA patients. Up to 80% of MSA patients show tremor, and patients with the parkinsonian variant of MSA are more commonly affected. Postural tremor has been documented in about half of the MSA population and is frequently referred to as jerky postural tremor with evidence of minipolymyoclonus on neurophysiological examination. Resting tremor has been reported in about one-third of patients but, in contrast to PD, only 10% show typical parkinsonian “pill-rolling” rest tremor. Some patients exhibit intention tremor associated with cerebellar dysmetria. In general, MSA patients can have more than one tremor type owing to a complex neuropathology that includes both the basal ganglia and pontocerebellar circuits. Discussion Tremor is not rare in MSA and might be underrecognized. Rest, postural, action and intention tremor can all be present, with jerky tremulous movements of the outstretched hands being the most characteristic. However, reviewing the data on tremor in MSA suggests that not every shaky movement satisfies tremor criteria; therefore, further studies are needed. PMID:24116345

  18. SHC2 gene copy number in multiple system atrophy (MSA)

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Marcus C.; Garland, Emily M.; Hedges, Lora; Womack-Nunley, Bethany; Hamid, Rizwan; Phillips, John A.; Shibao, Cyndya A.; Raj, Satish R.; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a sporadic, late onset, rapidly-progressing neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by autonomic failure, together with parkinsonian, cerebellar, and pyramidal motor symptoms. The pathologic hallmark is the glial cytoplasmic inclusion with alpha-synuclein aggregates. MSA is thus an alpha synucleinopathy. Recently, Sasaki et al. reported that heterozygosity for copy number loss of Src homology 2 domain containing-transforming protein 2 (SHC2) genes (heterozygous SHC2 gene deletions) occurred in DNAs from many Japanese individuals with MSA. Because background copy number variation (CNV) can be distinct in different human populations, we assessed SHC2 allele copy number in DNAs from a US cohort of individuals with MSA, to determine the contribution of SHC2 gene copy number variation in an American cohort followed at a US referral center for MSA. Our cohort included 105 carefully phenotyped individuals with MSA. Methods We studied 105 well characterized patients with MSA and 5 control subjects with reduced SHC2 gene copy number. We used two TaqMan Gene Copy Number Assays, to determine the copy number of two segments of the SHC2 gene that are separated by 27 Kb. Results Assay results of DNAs from all of our 105 subjects with MSA showed two copies of both segments of their SHC2 genes. Conclusion Our results indicate that SHC2 gene deletions underlie few, if any, cases of well characterized MSA in the US population. This is in contrast to the Japanese experience reported by Sasaki et al., likely reflecting heterogeneity of the disease in different genetic backgrounds. PMID:24170347

  19. Acoustic Characteristics of Stridor in Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jee Young; Joo, Eun Yeon; Nam, Hyunwoo

    2016-01-01

    Nocturnal stridor is a breathing disorder prevalent in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). An improved understanding of this breathing disorder is essential since nocturnal stridor carries a poor prognosis (an increased risk of sudden death). In this study, we aimed to classify types of stridor by sound analysis and to reveal their clinical significance. Patients who met the criteria for probable MSA and had undergone polysomnography (PSG) were recruited. Patients were then assessed clinically with sleep questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Nocturnal stridor and snoring were analyzed with the Multi-Dimensional Voice Program. Nocturnal stridor was recorded in 22 patients and snoring in 18 patients using the PSG. Waveforms of stridors were classified into rhythmic or semirhythmic after analysis of the oscillogram. Formants and harmonics were observed in both types of stridor, but not in snoring. Of the 22 patients diagnosed with stridor during the present study, fifteen have subsequently died, with the time to death after the PSG study being 1.9 ± 1.4 years (range 0.8 to 5.0 years). The rhythmic waveform group presented higher scores on the Hoehn and Yahr scale and the survival outcome of this group was lower compared to the semirhythmic waveform group (p = 0.030, p = 0.014). In the Kaplan Meier’s survival curve, the outcome of patients with rhythmic waveform was significantly less favorable than the outcome of patients with semirhythmic waveform (log-rank test, p < 0.001). Stridor in MSA can be classified into rhythmic and semirhythmic types and the rhythmic component signifies a poorer outcome. PMID:27093692

  20. Comparison of Different Symptom Assessment Scales for Multiple System Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Masaaki; Yabe, Ichiro; Oba, Koji; Sakushima, Ken; Mito, Yasunori; Takei, Asako; Houzen, Hideki; Tsuzaka, Kazufumi; Yoshida, Kazuto; Maruo, Yasunori; Sasaki, Hidenao

    2016-04-01

    To identify the most sensitive scale for use in clinical trials on multiple system atrophy (MSA), a short and sensitive scale is needed for MSA clinical trials. Potential candidates are the Unified MSA Rating Scale (UMSARS), Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), MSA Health-Related Quality of Life scale (MSA-QoL), and Scales for Outcomes in Parkinson's Disease-Autonomic questionnaire (SCOPA-AUT). We enrolled patients with MSA from eight hospitals in Hokkaido, Japan. Board-certified neurologists assessed each patient at 6-month intervals and scored them on the UMSARS, SARA, BBS, MSA-QoL, and SCOPA-AUT. Score changes were evaluated using the standardized response mean (SRM). The correlation between disease duration and each score was examined. The first evaluation was conducted on 85 patients (60 patients with MSA cerebellar ataxia dominant subtype [MSA-C] and 25 patients with MSA Parkinsonism-dominant subtype [MSA-P]). Sixty-nine patients were examined after 6 months and 63 patients after 12 months. The UMSARS Part 4 had the largest SRM after 6 months and the SARA after 12 months. SRMs for MSA-P, the shorter duration group, and the early-onset group were larger than were those for MSA-C, the longer duration group, and the late-onset group. SRMs for items regarding skilled hand activities, walking, and standing were relatively large. Our study indicates that the UMSARS (parts 2 and 4), SARA, and BBS are sensitive scales for evaluating MSA progression over 12 months. Items with large SRMs effectively evaluated short-term changes. PMID:26093615

  1. Multiple-input multiple-output synthetic aperture ladar system for wide-range swath with high azimuth resolution.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu; Qin, Bao; Yan, Yun; Xing, Mengdao

    2016-02-20

    For the trade-off between the high azimuth resolution and the wide-range swath in the single-input single-output synthetic aperture ladar (SAL) system, the range swath of the SAL system is restricted to a narrow range, this paper proposes a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) synthetic aperture ladar system. The MIMO system adopts a low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) to avoid a range ambiguity for the wide-range swath and in azimuth adopts the multi-channel method to achieve azimuth high resolution from the unambiguous azimuth wide-spectrum signal, processed through adaptive digital beam-forming technology. Simulations and analytical results are presented. PMID:26906593

  2. A microprocessor application in the MTV telemetry data processor. [Shuttle-launched Maneuverable TV free flyer for remote visual inspection of Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spahn, C. J.; Pena, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    An engineering model of the Telemetry Data Processor monitoring and display system used by the Maneuverable Television (MTV) employed in remote inspections of the Space Shuttle has been developed, incorporating the MC 6809 microprocessor. The system acquires analog and digital signals from the MTV flyer and converts them into engineering units, formatting them in several pages according to their function. Upon request, a data page can be superimposed on the video signal from the MTV camera. In addition, the system monitors key parameters for out-of-limit conditions and flashes caution and warning messages on the selected page.

  3. Exploring lipids with nonlinear optical microscopy in multiple biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso-Garcia, Alba

    Lipids are crucial biomolecules for the well being of humans. Altered lipid metabolism may give rise to a variety of diseases that affect organs from the cardiovascular to the central nervous system. A deeper understanding of lipid metabolic processes would spur medical research towards developing precise diagnostic tools, treatment methods, and preventive strategies for reducing the impact of lipid diseases. Lipid visualization remains a complex task because of the perturbative effect exerted by traditional biochemical assays and most fluorescence markers. Coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy enables interrogation of biological samples with minimum disturbance, and is particularly well suited for label-free visualization of lipids, providing chemical specificity without compromising on spatial resolution. Hyperspectral imaging yields large datasets that benefit from tailored multivariate analysis. In this thesis, CRS microscopy was combined with Raman spectroscopy and other label-free nonlinear optical techniques to analyze lipid metabolism in multiple biological systems. We used nonlinear Raman techniques to characterize Meibum secretions in the progression of dry eye disease, where the lipid and protein contributions change in ratio and phase segregation. We employed similar tools to examine lipid droplets in mice livers aboard a spaceflight mission, which lose their retinol content contributing to the onset of nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease. We also focused on atherosclerosis, a disease that revolves around lipid-rich plaques in arterial walls. We examined the lipid content of macrophages, whose variable phenotype gives rise to contrasting healing and inflammatory activities. We also proposed new label-free markers, based on lifetime imaging, for macrophage phenotype, and to detect products of lipid oxidation. Cholesterol was also detected in hepatitis C virus infected cells, and in specific strains of age-related macular degeneration diseased cells by

  4. Description of light charged particle multiplicities in the framework of dinuclear system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2012-12-01

    In the framework of dinuclear system (DNS) model we calculate the light charged particle (LCP) multiplicities produced in fusion and quasifission reactions and their kinetic energy spectra. Calculations indicate that with increasing bombarding energy the ratio of LCP multiplicity from fragments MFF to corresponding LCP multiplicity from compound nucleus (CN) MCN strongly increases.

  5. Microcprocessing Computer Technician, Digital and Microprocessor Technician Program. Post-Graduate 5th Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carangelo, Pasquale R.; Janeczek, Anthony J.

    Materials are provided for a two-semester digital and microprocessor technician postgraduate program. Prerequisites stated for the program include a background in DC and AC theory, solid state devices, basic circuit fundamentals, and basic math. A chronology of major topics and a listing of course objectives appear first. Theory outlines for each…

  6. Microcomputer Courseware/Microprocessor Games. EPIE Materials Report 98/99m.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPIE Report, 1981

    1981-01-01

    This document is a quarterly report of the Educational Products Information Exchange (EPIE) Institute, a not-for-profit, consumer-supported agency. This issue is divided into two major sections, Microcomputer Courseware and Microprocessor Games. The first major section is divided into two parts. Part 1, Defining Effective Microcomputer Courseware…

  7. 78 FR 12354 - Certain Microprocessors, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Termination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ..., Pennsylvania (``X2Y''). 76 FR 39,895 (July 7, 2011). The respondents are Intel Corporation and Intel America, Inc., both of Santa Clara, California; Componentes Intel de Costa Rica S.A. of Heredia, Costa Rica... microprocessors, Apple Inc. of Cupertino, California (``Apple''); and Hewlett-Packard Company of Palo...

  8. An Ill-Structured PBL-Based Microprocessor Course without Formal Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jungkuk

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a problem-based learning (PBL) microprocessor application course designed according to the following strategies: 1) hands-on training without having a formal laboratory, and 2) intense student-centered cooperative learning through an ill-structured problem. PBL was adopted as the core educational technique of the course to…

  9. A Multi-Media CAI Terminal Based upon a Microprocessor with Applications for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brebner, Ann; Hallworth, H. J.

    The design of the CAI interface described is based on the microprocessor in order to meet three basic requirements for providing appropriate instruction to the developmentally handicapped: (1) portability, so that CAI can be taken into the customary learning environment; (2) reliability; and (3) flexibility, to permit use of new input and output…

  10. A Low Noise, Microprocessor-Controlled, Internally Digitizing Rotating-Vane Electric Field Mill for Airborne Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Podgorny, s. J.; Christian, H. J.; Mach, D. M.; Bailey, J. C.; Daskar, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a new generation of aircraft-based rotating-vane style electric field mills designed and built at NASA's Marshall Spaceflight Center. The mills have individual microprocessors that digitize the electric field signal at the mill and respond to commands from the data system computer. The mills are very sensitive (1 V/m per bit), have a wide dynamic range (115 dB), and are very low noise (+/-1 LSB). Mounted on an aircraft, these mills can measure fields from +/-1 V/m to +/-500 kV/m. Once-per-second commanding from the data collection computer to each mill allows for precise timing and synchronization. The mills can also be commanded to execute a self-calibration in flight, which is done periodically to monitor the status and health of each mill.

  11. Technical basis for environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.; Hassan, M.; Tanaka, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document presents the results of studies sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide the technical basis for environmental qualification of computer-based safety equipment in nuclear power plants. The studies were conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The studies address the following: (1) adequacy of the present test methods for qualification of digital I and C systems; (2) preferred (i.e., Regulatory Guide-endorsed) standards; (3) recommended stressors to be included in the qualification process during type testing; (4) resolution of need for accelerated aging for equipment to be located in a benign environment; and (5) determination of an appropriate approach for addressing the impact of smoke in digital equipment qualification programs. Significant findings from the studies form the technical basis for a recommended approach to the environmental qualification of microprocessor-based safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants.

  12. Damage detection in nonlinear systems using multiple system augmentations and matrix updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Kiran; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2006-03-01

    Recently, a damage detection method for nonlinear systems using model updating has been developed by the authors. The method uses an augmented linear model of the system, which is determined from the functional form of the nonlinearities and a nonlinear discrete model of the system. The modal properties of the augmented system after the onset of damage are extracted from the system using a modal analysis technique that uses known but not prescribed forcing. Minimum Rank Perturbation Theory was generalized so that damage location and extent could be determined using the augmented modal properties. The method was demonstrated previously for cubic springs and Coulomb friction nonlinearities. In this work, the methodology is extended to handle large systems where only the first few of the augmented eigenvectors are known. The methodology capitalizes on the ability to create multiple augmentations for a single nonlinear system. Cubic spring nonlinearities are explored within a nonlinear 3-bay truss structure for various damage scenarios simulated numerically.

  13. State recovery and lockstep execution restart in a system with multiprocessor pairing

    SciTech Connect

    Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael K; Salapura, Valentina

    2014-01-21

    System, method and computer program product for a multiprocessing system to offer selective pairing of processor cores for increased processing reliability. A selective pairing facility is provided that selectively connects, i.e., pairs, multiple microprocessor or processor cores to provide one highly reliable thread (or thread group). Each paired microprocessor or processor cores that provide one highly reliable thread for high-reliability connect with a system components such as a memory "nest" (or memory hierarchy), an optional system controller, and optional interrupt controller, optional I/O or peripheral devices, etc. The memory nest is attached to a selective pairing facility via a switch or a bus. Each selectively paired processor core is includes a transactional execution facility, whereing the system is configured to enable processor rollback to a previous state and reinitialize lockstep execution in order to recover from an incorrect execution when an incorrect execution has been detected by the selective pairing facility.

  14. Optical Power Transfer System for Powering a Remote Mobility System for Multiple Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An optical power transfer system for powering a remote mobility system for multiple missions comprising a high power source and a chilling station connected to a laser source. The laser source transmits a high optical energy to a beam switch assembly via an optical fiber. The beam switch assembly is optically connected to actively cooled fiber spoolers. Docking stations are adapted for securing the fiber spoolers until alternatively ready for use by a remote mobility system. The remote mobility system is optically connected to the fiber spoolers and has a receiving port adapted for securing the fiber spoolers thereon. The fiber spooler transmits the optical energy to a power conversion system which converts the optical energy received to another usable form of energy. More than one power source may be used where the remote mobility system transfers from one source to another while maintaining an operational radius to each source.

  15. Theory and investigation of acoustic multiple-input multiple-output systems based on spherical arrays in a room.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Hai; Rafaely, Boaz; Zotter, Franz

    2015-11-01

    Spatial attributes of room acoustics have been widely studied using microphone and loudspeaker arrays. However, systems that combine both arrays, referred to as multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, have only been studied to a limited degree in this context. These systems can potentially provide a powerful tool for room acoustics analysis due to the ability to simultaneously control both arrays. This paper offers a theoretical framework for the spatial analysis of enclosed sound fields using a MIMO system comprising spherical loudspeaker and microphone arrays. A system transfer function is formulated in matrix form for free-field conditions, and its properties are studied using tools from linear algebra. The system is shown to have unit-rank, regardless of the array types, and its singular vectors are related to the directions of arrival and radiation at the microphone and loudspeaker arrays, respectively. The formulation is then generalized to apply to rooms, using an image source method. In this case, the rank of the system is related to the number of significant reflections. The paper ends with simulation studies, which support the developed theory, and with an extensive reflection analysis of a room impulse response, using the platform of a MIMO system. PMID:26627773

  16. Childhood Giftedness, Adolescent Agency: A Systemic Multiple-Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudrak, Jiri; Zabrodska, Katerina

    2015-01-01

    Although considerable research has addressed development from childhood giftedness to adult excellence, subjective perceptions of this development by gifted individuals themselves have remained largely unexplored. This multiple case study examined the ways in which young adults, who in the past had been identified as gifted, made sense of their…

  17. Steady-State Multiplicity Features of Chemically Reacting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luss, Dan

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes steady-state multiplicity in chemical reactors, focusing on the use of two mathematical tools, namely, the catastrophe theory and the singularity theory with a distinguished parameter. These tools can be used to determine the maximum number of possible solutions and the different types of bifurcation diagrams. (JN)

  18. Interface for a Multiple-User Computer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Headley, Paul A.

    1987-01-01

    Diverse hardware and software connected with minimal inconvenience to users. Central controller for large multiple-user computer network makes various computer services compatible regardless of diversity of hardware and software. Users readily gain access to host computer and other terminals and services. Need be familiar only with language and procedures of their own terminals, even when communicating with normally incompatible services or users.

  19. Assessing Multiple Stakeholders' Perceptions of an Effective Principal Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Henry; Bon, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Existing principal evaluation research has failed to include the perspectives of multiple stakeholders. The present research study used focus group interviews to gather data about designing a principal evaluation process that includes these perspectives. Focus groups were conducted with principals, parents, certificated staff, and classified…

  20. Médicarte software developed for the Quebec microprocessor health card project.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, G; Tremblay, L; Durant, P; Papillon, M J; Bérubé, J; Fortin, J P

    1995-01-01

    The Quebec Patient Smart Card Project is a Provincial Government initiative under the responsibility of the Rgie de l'assurance-maladie du Québec (Quebec Health Insurance Board). Development, implementation, and assessment duties were assigned to a team from Université Laval, which in turn joined a group from the Direction de la santé publique du Bas-St-Laurent in Rimouski, where the experiment is taking place. The pilot project seeks to evaluate the use and acceptance of a microprocessor card as a way to improve the exchange of clinical information between card users and various health professionals. The card can be best described as a résumé containing information pertinent to an individual's health history. It is not a complete medical file; rather, it is a summary to be used as a starting point for a discussion between health professionals and patients. The target population is composed of persons 60 years and over, pregnant women, infants under 18 months, and the residents of a small town located in the target area, St-Fabien, regardless of age. The health professionals involved are general practitioners, specialists, pharmacists, nurses, and ambulance personnel. Participation in the project is on a voluntary basis. Each health care provider participating in the project has a personal identification number (PIN) and must use both an access card and a user card to access information. This prevents unauthorized access to a patient's card and allows the staff to sign and date information entered onto the patient card. To test the microprocessor card, we developed software based on a problem-oriented approach integrating diagnosis, investigations, treatments, and referrals. This software is not an expert system that constrains the clinician to a particular decisional algorithm. Instead, the software supports the physician in decision making. The software was developed with a graphical interface (Windows 3.1) to maximize its user friendliness. A version of the

  1. Hybrid optically interconnected microprocessor: an InP I-MSM integrated onto a mixed-signal CMOS analog optical receiver with a digital CMOS microprocessor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jae J.; Jung, Sungyong; Vrazel, Michael; Jung, Keeshik; Lee, Myunghee; Brooke, Martin A.; Jokerst, Nan Marie; Wills, Scott

    2000-05-01

    This paper presents the results of simultaneously working fully-differential optoelectronic receiver fabricated in Si CMOS with digital SIMD microprocessor on the same die next to analog, optical interface circuitry, the receiver have been hybrid integrated with a thin film InP-based inverted (I)-MSM photodetector and optically tested using external light source modulated by digital input signal. The noise immunity to mixed-signal digital switching noise of the differential receiver has been shown to be good enough to generate 10-9 BER.

  2. Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy in a patient with multiple system atrophy and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Obiora, Onwuameze; McCormick, Laurie May; Karim, Yasser; Gonzales, Pedro; Beeghly, James

    2012-06-01

    Multiple system atrophy is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no known cure. It is a clinical diagnosis with no confirmation available other than brain biopsy after death. We report the successful treatment of multiple system atrophy co-occurring with bipolar disorder in a 62-year-old man using electroconvulsive therapy. PMID:22622294

  3. Inhibiting multiple mode vibration in controlled flexible systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James M.; Seering, Warren P.

    1991-01-01

    Prior research has led to the development of input command pre-shapers that can significantly reduce residual vibration. These shapers exhibit marked insensitivity to errors in natural frequency estimates and can be used to minimize vibration at more than one frequency. A method is outlined for the development of multiple mode input shapers. An examination is made of the results of shaper performance tests conducted on linear and non-linear computer models of MACE, an MIT/NASA experimental flexible structure.

  4. DISTURBANCE PATTERNS IN A SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL SYSTEM AT MULTIPLE SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecological systems with hierarchical organization and non-equilibrium dynamics require multiple-scale analyses to comprehend how a system is structured and to formulate hypotheses about regulatory mechanisms. Characteristic scales in real landscapes are determined by, or at least...

  5. Multiple access capacity trade-offs for a Ka-band personal access satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessouky, Khaled; Motamedi, Masoud

    1990-01-01

    System capability is critical to the economic viability of a personal satellite communication system. Ka band has significant potential to support a high capacity multiple access system because of the availability of bandwidth. System design tradeoffs are performed and multiple access schemes are compared with the design goal of achieving the highest capacity and efficiency. Conclusions regarding the efficiency of the different schemes and the achievable capacities are given.

  6. A FIRST COMPARISON OF KEPLER PLANET CANDIDATES IN SINGLE AND MULTIPLE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, David W.; Quinn, Samuel N.; Carter, Joshua A.; Holman, Matthew J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Howell, Steve B.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Brown, Timothy M.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Dunham, Edward W.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Ford, Eric B.; Gautier, Thomas N. III

    2011-05-10

    In this Letter, we present an overview of the rich population of systems with multiple candidate transiting planets found in the first four months of Kepler data. The census of multiples includes 115 targets that show two candidate planets, 45 with three, eight with four, and one each with five and six, for a total of 170 systems with 408 candidates. When compared to the 827 systems with only one candidate, the multiples account for 17% of the total number of systems, and one-third of all the planet candidates. We compare the characteristics of candidates found in multiples with those found in singles. False positives due to eclipsing binaries are much less common for the multiples, as expected. Singles and multiples are both dominated by planets smaller than Neptune; 69{sup +2}{sub -3}% for singles and 86{sup +2}{sub -5}% for multiples. This result, that systems with multiple transiting planets are less likely to include a transiting giant planet, suggests that close-in giant planets tend to disrupt the orbital inclinations of small planets in flat systems, or maybe even prevent the formation of such systems in the first place.

  7. Do siblings always form and evolve simultaneously? Testing the coevality of multiple protostellar systems through SEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo, N. M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Tobin, J. J.; Fedele, D.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Multiplicity is common in field stars and among protostellar systems. Models suggest two paths of formation: turbulent fragmentation and protostellar disk fragmentation. Aims: We attempt to find whether or not the coevality frequency of multiple protostellar systems can help to better understand their formation mechanism. The coevality frequency is determined by constraining the relative evolutionary stages of the components in a multiple system. Methods: Spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for known multiple protostars in Perseus were constructed from literature data. Herschel PACS photometric maps were used to sample the peak of the SED for systems with separations ≥7″, a crucial aspect in determining the evolutionary stage of a protostellar system. Inclination effects and the surrounding envelope and outflows were considered to decouple source geometry from evolution. This together with the shape and derived properties from the SED was used to determine each system's coevality as accurately as possible. SED models were used to examine the frequency of non-coevality that is due to geometry. Results: We find a non-coevality frequency of 33 ± 10% from the comparison of SED shapes of resolved multiple systems. Other source parameters suggest a somewhat lower frequency of non-coevality. The frequency of apparent non-coevality that is due to random inclination angle pairings of model SEDs is 17 ± 0.5%. Observations of the outflow of resolved multiple systems do not suggest significant misalignments within multiple systems. Effects of unresolved multiples on the SED shape are also investigated. Conclusions: We find that one-third of the multiple protostellar systems sampled here are non-coeval, which is more than expected from random geometric orientations. The other two-thirds are found to be coeval. Higher order multiples show a tendency to be non-coeval. The frequency of non-coevality found here is most likely due to formation and enhanced by

  8. Youngest Brown Dwarf Yet in a Multiple Stellar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-07-01

    ... and the Sharpest Optical Image (0.18 arcsec) from the VLT so far...! Astronomers are eager to better understand the formation of stars and planets - with an eye on the complex processes that lead to the emergence of our own solar system some 4600 million years ago. Brown Dwarfs (BDs) play a special role in this context. Within the cosmic zoo, they represent a class of "intermediate" objects. While they are smaller than normal stars, they shine by their own energy for a limited time, in contrast to planets. Recent observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) of a "young" Brown Dwarf in a multiple stellar system are taking on a particular importance in this connection. An evaluation of the new data by an international team of astronomers [1] shows that it is by far the youngest of only four such objects found in a stellar system so far. The results are now providing new insights into the stellar formation process. This small object is known as TWA-5 B and with a mass of only 15 - 40 times that of Jupiter, it is near the borderline between planets and Brown Dwarfs, cf. the explanatory Appendix to this Press Release. However, visible and infrared VLT spectra unambiguously classify it in the latter category. Accurate positional measurements with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the VLT hint that it is orbiting the central, much heavier and brighter star in this system, TWA-5 A (itself a close double star of which each component presumably has a mass of 0.75 solar masses), with a period that may be as long as 900 years. And, by the way, an (I-band) image of the TWA-5 system is the sharpest delivered by the VLT so far, with an image size of only 0.18 arcsec [2]! Brown Dwarfs: a cool subject In current astronomical terminology, Brown Dwarfs (BDs) are objects whose masses are below those of normal stars - the borderline is believed to be about 8% of the mass of our Sun - but larger than those of planets, cf. [3]. Unlike normal stars, Brown Dwarfs are unable

  9. Scheduler for multiprocessor system switch with selective pairing

    DOEpatents

    Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael Karl; Salapura, Valentina

    2015-01-06

    System, method and computer program product for scheduling threads in a multiprocessing system with selective pairing of processor cores for increased processing reliability. A selective pairing facility is provided that selectively connects, i.e., pairs, multiple microprocessor or processor cores to provide one highly reliable thread (or thread group). The method configures the selective pairing facility to use checking provide one highly reliable thread for high-reliability and allocate threads to corresponding processor cores indicating need for hardware checking. The method configures the selective pairing facility to provide multiple independent cores and allocate threads to corresponding processor cores indicating inherent resilience.

  10. Seismic isolation systems designed with distinct multiple frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Two systems for seismic base isolation are presented. The main feature of these system is that, instead of only one isolation frequency as in conventional isolation systems, they are designed to have two distinct isolation frequencies. When the responses during an earthquake exceed the design value(s), the system will automatically and passively shift to the secondly isolation frequency. Responses of these two systems to different ground motions including a harmonic motion with frequency same as the primary isolation frequency, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of these new systems certainly will greatly enhance the safety and reliability of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs.

  11. Seismic isolation systems designed with distinct multiple frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-12-31

    Two systems for seismic base isolation are presented. The main feature of these system is that, instead of only one isolation frequency as in conventional isolation systems, they are designed to have two distinct isolation frequencies. When the responses during an earthquake exceed the design value(s), the system will automatically and passively shift to the secondly isolation frequency. Responses of these two systems to different ground motions including a harmonic motion with frequency same as the primary isolation frequency, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of these new systems certainly will greatly enhance the safety and reliability of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs.

  12. Real-time optical multiple object recognition and tracking system and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Liu, Hua Kuang (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The invention relates to an apparatus and associated methods for the optical recognition and tracking of multiple objects in real time. Multiple point spatial filters are employed that pre-define the objects to be recognized at run-time. The system takes the basic technology of a Vander Lugt filter and adds a hololens. The technique replaces time, space and cost-intensive digital techniques. In place of multiple objects, the system can also recognize multiple orientations of a single object. This later capability has potential for space applications where space and weight are at a premium.

  13. Shannon information capacity of time reversal wideband multiple-input multiple-output system based on correlated statistical channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Bing-Zhong, Wang; Shuai, Ding

    2016-05-01

    Utilizing channel reciprocity, time reversal (TR) technique increases the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver with very low transmitter complexity in complex multipath environment. Present research works about TR multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communication all focus on the system implementation and network building. The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of antenna coupling on the capacity of wideband TR MIMO system, which is a realistic question in designing a practical communication system. It turns out that antenna coupling stabilizes the capacity in a small variation range with statistical wideband channel response. Meanwhile, antenna coupling only causes a slight detriment to the channel capacity in a wideband TR MIMO system. Comparatively, uncorrelated stochastic channels without coupling exhibit a wider range of random capacity distribution which greatly depends on the statistical channel. The conclusions drawn from information difference entropy theory provide a guideline for designing better high-performance wideband TR MIMO communication systems. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61331007, 61361166008, and 61401065) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120185130001).

  14. PC-based Multiple Information System Interface (PC/MISI) detailed design and implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominick, Wayne D. (Editor); Hall, Philip P.

    1985-01-01

    The design plan for the personal computer multiple information system interface (PC/MISI) project is discussed. The document is intended to be used as a blueprint for the implementation of the system. Each component is described in the detail necessary to allow programmers to implement the system. A description of the system data flow and system file structures is given.

  15. Multiple IMU system hardware interface design, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landey, M.; Brown, D.

    1975-01-01

    The design of each system component is described. Emphasis is placed on functional requirements unique in this system, including data bus communication, data bus transmitters and receivers, and ternary-to-binary torquing decision logic. Mechanization drawings are presented.

  16. Simultaneous Excitation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    2007-01-01

    A significant improvement to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) is presented. This improvement involves the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system that enables the computation of the unsteady aerodynamic state-space model using a single CFD execution, independent of the number of structural modes. Four different types of inputs are presented that can be used for the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes. Results are presented for a flexible, supersonic semi-span configuration using the CFL3Dv6.4 code.

  17. Simultaneous Excitation of Multiple-Input Multiple-Output CFD-Based Unsteady Aerodynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.

    2008-01-01

    A significant improvement to the development of CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic reduced-order models (ROMs) is presented. This improvement involves the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes of the CFD-based unsteady aerodynamic system that enables the computation of the unsteady aerodynamic state-space model using a single CFD execution, independent of the number of structural modes. Four different types of inputs are presented that can be used for the simultaneous excitation of the structural modes. Results are presented for a flexible, supersonic semi-span configuration using the CFL3Dv6.4 code.

  18. Heat Dissipation for Microprocessor Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Based Liquid

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Pham Van; Chuc, Nguyen Van; Khoi, Phan Hong; Minh, Phan Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the most valuable materials with high thermal conductivity (2000 W/m · K compared with thermal conductivity of Ag 419 W/m · K). This suggested an approach in applying the CNTs in thermal dissipation system for high power electronic devices, such as computer processor and high brightness light emitting diode (HB-LED). In this work, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based liquid was made by COOH functionalized MWCNTs dispersed in distilled water with concentration in the range between 0.2 and 1.2 gram/liter. MWCNT based liquid was used in liquid cooling system to enhance thermal dissipation for computer processor. By using distilled water in liquid cooling system, CPU's temperature decreases by about 10°C compared with using fan cooling system. By using MWCNT liquid with concentration of 1 gram/liter MWCNTs, the CPU's temperature decreases by 7°C compared with using distilled water in cooling system. Theoretically, we also showed that the presence of MWCNTs reduced thermal resistance and increased the thermal conductivity of liquid cooling system. The results have confirmed the advantages of the MWCNTs for thermal dissipation systems for the μ-processor and other high power electronic devices. PMID:24453829

  19. Responses of an isolation system with distinct multiple frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ting-shu; Seidensticker, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Base isolation systems are generally designed with a single natural frequency. A major concern for these isolation systems is that, if the dominant frequency of a future earthquake is equal or close to the system's natural frequency, the ground motion will be greatly amplified because of resonance,and the superstructure would suffer severe damages. This paper present an isolation system designed with two distinct frequencies. Its responses to different ground motions, including a harmonic motion, show that no excessive amplification will occur. Adoption of this isolation system would greatly enhance the safety of an isolated superstructure against future strong earthquakes. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Multiple input/output random vibration control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.

    1988-01-01

    A multi-input/output random vibration control algorithm was developed based on system identification concepts derived from random vibration spectral analysis theory. The unique features of the algorithm are: (1) the number of input excitors and the number of output control responses need not be identical; (2) the system inverse response matrix is obtained directly from the input/output spectral matrix; and (3) the system inverse response matrix is updated every control loop cycle to accommodate system amplitude nonlinearities. A laboratory demonstration case of two imputs with three outputs is presented to demonstrate the system capabilities.

  1. Development of AR Surgical Navigation Systems for Multiple Surgical Regions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Naoki; Hattori, Asaki; Iimura, Jiro; Otori, Nobuyoshi; Onda, Shinji; Okamoto, Tomoyoshi; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of our research is to develop surgical navigation systems to enhance surgical safety. Our systems make use of augmented reality technology to superimpose, on the surgery screen on a real time basis, patients' organ models reconstructed in 3D from their X-ray CT data taken before surgery. By doing so, the systems display anatomical risk materials, tumors and blood vessels which surgeons cannot see with their naked eyes. This will in turn lead to surgeons intuitively grasping the inner structures of the operational fields. We so far have been developing navigation systems that can conduct surgeries in various fields. The basic structure of the navigation systems are the same. The navigation systems uses different peripheral equipment and different methods to display navigation images which best meet the demands of each type of surgery. In this thesis, we report on our navigation systems for 2 types of surgery - endoscopic sinus surgery and hepatobilialy-pancreatic surgery. PMID:24732545

  2. Flight-determined stability analysis of multiple-input-multiple-output control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.

    1992-01-01

    Singular value analysis can give conservative stability margin results. Applying structure to the uncertainty can reduce this conservatism. This paper presents flight-determined stability margins for the X-29A lateral-directional, multiloop control system. These margins are compared with the predicted unscaled singular values and scaled structured singular values. The algorithm was further evaluated with flight data by changing the roll-rate-to-aileron command-feedback gain by +/- 20 percent. Minimum eigenvalues of the return difference matrix which bound the singular values are also presented. Extracting multiloop singular values from flight data and analyzing the feedback gain variations validates this technique as a measure of robustness. This analysis can be used for near-real-time flight monitoring and safety testing.

  3. Everywhere divergent Fourier series with respect to the Walsh system and with respect to multiplicative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, S. V.

    2004-02-01

    In this paper a new construction of everywhere divergent Fourier-Walsh series is presented. This construction enables one to halve the gap in the Lebesgue-Orlicz classes between the Schipp-Moon lower bound established by using Kolmogorov's construction and the Sjölin upper bound obtained by using Carleson's method. Fourier series which are everywhere divergent after a rearrangement are constructed with respect to the Walsh system (and to more general systems of characters) with the best lower bound for the Weyl factor. Some results related to an upper bound of the majorant for partial sums of series with respect to rearranged multiplicative systems are established. The results thus obtained show certain merits of harmonic analysis on the dyadic group in clarifying and overcoming fundamental difficulties in the solution of the main problems of Fourier analysis.

  4. Topology preservation and cooperative learning in identification of multiple model systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianbo; Djurdjanovic, Dragan

    2008-12-01

    The self-organizing network (SON)-based multiple model system is a recently proposed method for identifying the dynamics of a general nonlinear system. It has been observed by researchers that cooperative learning among neighboring regions is sometimes important for the success of identification of a nonlinear system under the multiple model system framework. In this paper, we intend to formally evaluate the effects of cooperative learning and topology preservation in identification of multiple model system based on SON. The results of the mathematical analysis supports the heuristic that a good learning strategy for identifying the local model parameters of a SON-based multiple model system is to choose a neighborhood function whose effective region is initially wider and is reduced gradually during learning. An example of nonlinear function approximation is also provided at the end of this paper to demonstrate the results of the mathematical analysis. PMID:19054731

  5. Frequency Dependence of Single-Event Upset in Highly Advanced PowerPC Microprocessors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irom, Farokh; Farmanesh, Farhad; White, Mark; Kouba, Coy K.

    2006-01-01

    Single-event upset effects from heavy ions were measured for Motorola silicon-on-insulator (SOI) microprocessor with 90 nm feature sizes at three frequencies of 500, 1066 and 1600 MHz. Frequency dependence of single-event upsets is discussed. The results of our studies suggest the single-event upset in registers and D-Cache tend to increase with frequency. This might have important implications for the overall single-event upset trend as technology moves toward higher frequencies.

  6. A 70-MHz 32-b microprocessor with 1. 0-. mu. m BiCMOS macrocell library

    SciTech Connect

    Hotta, T.; Bandoh, T. . Hitachi Research Lab.); Hotta, A.; Nakano, T. ); Iwamoto, S.; Adachi, S. )

    1990-06-01

    A custom 529K-transistor microprocessor with a five-stage pipeline has been implemented on a 12.98-mm{sup 2} die. Employing BiCMOS macrocells, a 32-b execution unit, extendible ROM, RAM a PLL clock generator with bipolar drivers, and sense circuits, a peak performance of 70 MIPS is achieved. Power consumption is 2.1 W at 40 MHz.

  7. Report on phase 1 of the Microprocessor Seminar. [and associated large scale integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Proceedings of a seminar on microprocessors and associated large scale integrated (LSI) circuits are presented. The potential for commonality of device requirements, candidate processes and mechanisms for qualifying candidate LSI technologies for high reliability applications, and specifications for testing and testability were among the topics discussed. Various programs and tentative plans of the participating organizations in the development of high reliability LSI circuits are given.

  8. A microprocessor-based table lookup approach for magnetic bearing linearization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, N. J.; Miller, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    An approach for producing a linear transfer characteristic between force command and force output of a magnetic bearing actuator without flux biasing is presented. The approach is microprocessor based and uses a table lookup to generate drive signals for the magnetic bearing power driver. An experimental test setup used to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach is described, and test results are presented. The test setup contains bearing elements similar to those used in a laboratory model annular momentum control device.

  9. Microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions; algorithms for digital processing of the measurement signal and an estimate of the errors

    SciTech Connect

    Mints, M.Ya.; Chinkov, V.N.

    1995-09-01

    Rational algorithms for measuring the harmonic coefficient in microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions based on digital processing of the codes of the instantaneous values of the signal being investigated are described and the errors of such instruments are obtained.

  10. Multiple cell radiation detector system, and method, and submersible sonde

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Larry O.; McIsaac, Charles V.; Lawrence, Robert S.; Grafwallner, Ervin G.

    2002-01-01

    A multiple cell radiation detector includes a central cell having a first cylindrical wall providing a stopping power less than an upper threshold; an anode wire suspended along a cylindrical axis of the central cell; a second cell having a second cylindrical wall providing a stopping power greater than a lower threshold, the second cylindrical wall being mounted coaxially outside of the first cylindrical wall; a first end cap forming a gas-tight seal at first ends of the first and second cylindrical walls; a second end cap forming a gas-tight seal at second ends of the first and second cylindrical walls; and a first group of anode wires suspended between the first and second cylindrical walls.

  11. Gait Asymmetry of Transfemoral Amputees Using Mechanical and Microprocessor-Controlled Prosthetic Knees

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Kenton R.; Frittoli, Serena; Frigo, Carlo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Amputees walk with an asymmetrical gait, which may lead to future musculoskeletal degenerative changes. The purpose of this study was to compare the gait asymmetry of active transfemoral amputees while using a passive mechanical knee joint or a microprocessor-controlled knee joint. Methods Objective 3D gait measurements were obtained in 15 subjects (12 men and 3 women; age 42, range 26–57). Research participants were longtime users of a mechanical prosthesis (mean 20 years, range 3–36 years). Joint symmetry was calculated using a novel method that includes the entire waveform throughout the gait cycle. Findings There was no significant difference in hip, knee and ankle kinematics symmetry when using the different knee prostheses. In contrast, the results demonstrated a significant improvement in lower extremity joint kinetics symmetry when using the microprocessor-controlled knee. Interpretation Use of the microprocessor-controlled knee joint resulted in improved gait symmetry. These improvements may lead to a reduction in the degenerative musculoskeletal changes often experienced by amputees. PMID:22221344

  12. Microprocessor controlled movement of liquid gastric content using sequential neural electrical stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Mintchev, M; Sanmiguel, C; Otto, S; Bowes, K

    1998-01-01

    Background—Gastric electrical stimulation has been attempted for several years with little success. 
Aims—To determine whether movement of liquid gastric content could be achieved using microprocessor controlled sequential electrical stimulation. 
Methods—Eight anaesthetised dogs underwent laparotomy and implantation of four sets of bipolar stainless steel wire electrodes. Each set consisted of two to six electrodes (10×0.25 mm, 3 cm apart) implanted circumferentially. The stomach was filled with water and the process of gastric emptying was monitored. Artificial contractions were produced using microprocessor controlled phase locked bipolar four second trains of 50 Hz, 14 V (peak to peak) rectangular voltage. In four of the dogs four force transducers were implanted close to each circumferential electrode set. In one gastroparetic patient the effect of direct electrical stimulation was determined at laparotomy. 
Results—Using the above stimulating parameters circumferential gastric contractions were produced which were artificially propagated distally by phase locking the stimulating voltage. Averaged stimulated gastric emptying times were significantly shorter than spontaneus emptying times (t1/2 6.7 (3.0) versus 25.3 (12.9) minutes, p<0.01). Gastric electrical stimulation of the gastroparetic patient at operation produced circumferential contractions. 
Conclusions—Microprocessor controlled electrical stimulation produced artificial peristalsis and notably accelerated the movement of liquid gastric content. 

 Keywords: gastric electrical stimulation; gastric motility PMID:9824339

  13. Microprocessor mediates transcriptional termination in long noncoding microRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Dhir, Ashish; Dhir, Somdutta; Proudfoot, Nick J.; Jopling, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) play a major role in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Mammalian miRNA biogenesis begins with co-transcriptional cleavage of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcripts by the Microprocessor complex. While most miRNA are located within introns of protein coding genes, a substantial minority of miRNA originate from long non coding (lnc) RNA where transcript processing is largely uncharacterized. We show, by detailed characterization of liver-specific lnc-pri-miR-122 and genome-wide analysis in human cell lines, that most lnc-pri-miRNA do not use the canonical cleavage and polyadenylation (CPA) pathway, but instead use Microprocessor cleavage to terminate transcription. This Microprocessor inactivation leads to extensive transcriptional readthrough of lnc-pri-miRNA and transcriptional interference with downstream genes. Consequently we define a novel RNase III-mediated, polyadenylation-independent mechanism of Pol II transcription termination in mammalian cells. PMID:25730776

  14. An Inexpensive Recirculating Aquaculture System with Multiple Use Capabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scurlock, Gerald Don, Jr.; Cook, S. Bradford; Scurlock, Carrie Ann

    1999-01-01

    Describes the construction of an inexpensive recirculating aquaculture system that can hold up to 46 pounds of fish, invertebrates, and mussels for classroom use. The system is versatile, requires little maintenance, and can be used for both teaching and research purposes. (WRM)

  15. Ask Systems: Interrogative Access to Multiple Ways of Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonassen, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to familiarize instructional designers and researchers with a useful design and research paradigm known as "Ask Systems." Ask Systems are interrogative interfaces to information and learning environments that model conversations with a skilled, reflective practitioner (Schon, The reflective practitioner, "1983") or…

  16. The Dynamical Evolution of the Multiple Stellar System α Gem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, M.; Docobo, J. A.

    2015-07-01

    The sextuple system Castor (α Gem) comprises of a visual binary (Castor A and B) with an orbital period of approximately 460 years. Each of these components is a single-lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of only a few days. In addition, a distant double-lined spectroscopic eclipsing binary (Castor C, or YY Gem), with an orbital period of less than 1 day, is considered to be in orbit around them with a period of roughly 14 000 years or more. In this contribution, we study the long-term dynamics of this hierarchical system. Many orbital elements still remain unknown, mainly those regarding the AB-C system. Apart from the direct integration of the equations of motion for the quadruple (Aa,Ab)-(Ba,Bb) system, we also perform a qualitative analysis of the global system by means of numerical techniques in order to find the most distinctive features of its dynamics.

  17. Proceedings of the Mobile Satellite System Architectures and Multiple Access Techniques Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessouky, Khaled

    1989-01-01

    The Mobile Satellite System Architectures and Multiple Access Techniques Workshop served as a forum for the debate of system and network architecture issues. Particular emphasis was on those issues relating to the choice of multiple access technique(s) for the Mobile Satellite Service (MSS). These proceedings contain articles that expand upon the 12 presentations given in the workshop. Contrasting views on Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA), Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA), and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)-based architectures are presented, and system issues relating to signaling, spacecraft design, and network management constraints are addressed. An overview article that summarizes the issues raised in the numerous discussion periods of the workshop is also included.

  18. Embedded C Programming: A Practical Course Introducing Programmable Microprocessors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laverty, David M.; Milliken, Jonny; Milford, Matthew; Cregan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new laboratory-based module for embedded systems teaching, which addresses the current lack of consideration for the link between hardware development, software implementation, course content and student evaluation in a laboratory environment. The course introduces second year undergraduate students to the interface between…

  19. Microprocessor Based Temperature Control of Liquid Delivery with Flow Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Azmi

    1982-01-01

    Discusses analytical design and experimental verification of a PID control value for a temperature controlled liquid delivery system, demonstrating that the analytical design techniques can be experimentally verified by using digital controls as a tool. Digital control instrumentation and implementation are also demonstrated and documented for…

  20. Multiple conducting systems in the cubomedusa Carybdea marsupialis.

    PubMed

    Satterlie, Richard A

    2014-12-01

    Acute responses to mechanical, electrical, and photic stimuli were used to describe neural conducting systems in the cubomedusan jellyfish Carybdea marsupialis underlying three behaviors: contractile responses of single tentacles, protective crumple responses, and alterations of swimming activity by the visual system. Responses of single tentacles consisted of tentacular shortening and inward pedalial bending, and were accompanied by bursts of extracellularly recorded spike activity that were restricted to the stimulated tentacle. With nociceptive stimuli delivered to the subumbrella or margin, all four tentacles produced similar responses in a crumple response. The spike bursts in all four tentacles showed coordinated firing as long as the nerve ring was intact. Crumples were still produced following cuts through the nerve ring, but the activity in individual tentacles was no longer coordinated. Responses to light-on stimulation of a rhopalium, as recorded from the pacemaker region, were weak and inconsistent, but when present, resulted in a stimulation of swimming activity. In comparison, light-off responses were robust and resulted in temporary inhibition of swimming activity. Light-off responses were conducted in the nerve ring to unstimulated rhopalia. In conclusion, three conducting systems have been described as components of the rhopalia-nerve ring centralized system in Carybdea: the swim motor system, the crumple coordination system, and the light-off response system. PMID:25572215