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Sample records for multiple sine wave

  1. Producing undistorted acoustic sine waves.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Henri; Smith, John; Wolfe, Joe

    2014-04-01

    A simple digital method is described that can produce an undistorted acoustic sine wave using an amplifier and loudspeaker having considerable intrinsic distortion, a common situation at low frequencies and high power. The method involves, first, using a pure sine wave as the input and measuring the distortion products. An iterative procedure then progressively adds harmonics with appropriate amplitude and phase to cancel any distortion products. The method is illustrated by producing a pure 52 Hz sine wave at 107 dB sound pressure level with harmonic distortion reduced over the audible range to >65 dB below the fundamental. PMID:25234964

  2. Linear sine wave profiling to machine instability targets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schmidt, Derek William; Martinez, John Israel

    2016-08-01

    Specialized machining processes and programming have been developed to deliver thin tin and copper Richtmyer-Meshkov instability targets that have different amplitude perturbations across the face of one 4-in.-diameter target. Typical targets have anywhere from two to five different regions of sine waves that have different amplitudes varying from 4 to 200 μm across the face of the target. The puck is composed of multiple rings that are zero press fit together and diamond turned to create a flat platform with a tolerance of 2 μm for the shock experiment. A custom software program was written in Labview to write themore » point-to-point program for the diamond-turning profiler through the X-Y-Z movements to cut the pure planar straight sine wave geometry. As a result, the software is optimized to push the profile of the whole part into the face while eliminating any unneeded passes that do not cut any material.« less

  3. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  4. Statistical properties of two sine waves in Gaussian noise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esposito, R.; Wilson, L. R.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed study is presented of some statistical properties of a stochastic process that consists of the sum of two sine waves of unknown relative phase and a normal process. Since none of the statistics investigated seem to yield a closed-form expression, all the derivations are cast in a form that is particularly suitable for machine computation. Specifically, results are presented for the probability density function (pdf) of the envelope and the instantaneous value, the moments of these distributions, and the relative cumulative density function (cdf).

  5. Recognition of sine wave modeled consonants by normal hearing and hearing-impaired individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachandran, Rupa

    Sine wave modeling is a parametric tool for representing the speech signal with a limited number of sine waves. It involves replacing the peaks of the speech spectrum with sine waves and discarding the rest of the lower amplitude components during synthesis. It has the potential to be used as a speech enhancement technique for hearing-impaired adults. The present study answers the following basic questions: (1) Are sine wave synthesized speech tokens more intelligible than natural speech tokens? (2) What is the effect of varying the number of sine waves on consonant recognition in quiet? (3) What is the effect of varying the number of sine waves on consonant recognition in noise? (4) How does sine wave modeling affect the transmission of speech feature in quiet and in noise? (5) Are there differences in recognition performance between normal hearing and hearing-impaired listeners? VCV syllables representing 20 consonants (/p/, /t/, /k/, /b/, /d/, /g/, /f/, /theta/, /s/, /∫/, /v/, /z/, /t∫/, /dy/, /j/, /w/, /r/, /l/, /m/, /n/) in three vowel contexts (/a/, /i/, /u/) were modeled with 4, 8, 12, and 16 sine waves. A consonant recognition task was performed in quiet, and in background noise (+10 dB and 0 dB SNR). Twenty hearing-impaired listeners and six normal hearing listeners were tested under headphones at their most comfortable listening level. The main findings were: (1) Recognition of unprocessed speech was better that of sine wave modeled speech. (2) Asymptotic performance was reached with 8 sine waves in quiet for both normal hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. (3) Consonant recognition performance in noise improved with increasing number of sine waves. (4) As the number of sine waves was decreased, place information was lost first, followed by manner, and finally voicing. (5) Hearing-impaired listeners made more errors then normal hearing listeners, but there were no differences in the error patterns made by both groups.

  6. AUDITORY-PHONETIC PROJECTION AND LEXICAL STRUCTURE IN THE RECOGNITION OF SINE-WAVE WORDS

    PubMed Central

    Remez, Robert E.; Dubowski, Kathryn R.; Broder, Robin S.; Davids, Morgana L.; Grossman, Yael S.; Moskalenko, Marina; Pardo, Jennifer S.; Hasbun, Sara Maria

    2010-01-01

    Speech remains intelligible despite the elimination of canonical acoustic correlates of phonemes from the spectrum. A portion of this perceptual flexibility can be attributed to modulation sensitivity in the auditory-to-phonetic projection, though signal-independent properties of lexical neighborhoods also affect intelligibility in utterances composed of words. Three tests were conducted to estimate the effects of exposure to natural and sine-wave samples of speech in this kind of perceptual versatility. First, sine-wave versions of the easy/hard word sets were created, modeled on the speech samples of a single talker. The performance difference in recognition of easy and hard words was used to index the perceptual reliance on signal-independent properties of lexical contrasts. Second, several kinds of exposure produced familiarity with an aspect of sine-wave speech: 1) sine-wave sentences modeled on the same talker; 2) sine-wave sentences modeled on a different talker, to create familiarity with a sine-wave carrier; and 3) natural sentences spoken by the same talker, to create familiarity with the idiolect expressed in the sine-wave words. Recognition performance with both easy and hard sine-wave words improved after exposure only to sine-wave sentences modeled on the same talker. Third, a control test showed that signal-independent uncertainty is a plausible cause of differences in recognition of easy and hard sine-wave words. The conditions of beneficial exposure reveal the specificity of attention underlying versatility in speech perception. PMID:20865138

  7. Brain-wave representation of words by superposition of a few sine waves

    PubMed Central

    Suppes, Patrick; Han, Bing

    2000-01-01

    Data from three previous experiments were analyzed to test the hypothesis that brain waves of spoken or written words can be represented by the superposition of a few sine waves. First, we averaged the data over trials and a set of subjects, and, in one case, over experimental conditions as well. Next we applied a Fourier transform to the averaged data and selected those frequencies with high energy, in no case more than nine in number. The superpositions of these selected sine waves were taken as prototypes. The averaged unfiltered data were the test samples. The prototypes were used to classify the test samples according to a least-squares criterion of fit. The results were seven of seven correct classifications for the first experiment using only three frequencies, six of eight for the second experiment using nine frequencies, and eight of eight for the third experiment using five frequencies. PMID:10890906

  8. Plane wave holonomies in quantum gravity. II. A sine wave solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neville, Donald E.

    2015-08-01

    This paper constructs an approximate sinusoidal wave packet solution to the equations of canonical gravity. The theory uses holonomy-flux variables with support on a lattice (LHF =lattice-holonomy flux ). There is an SU(2) holonomy on each edge of the LHF simplex, and the goal is to study the behavior of these holonomies under the influence of a passing gravitational wave. The equations are solved in a small sine approximation: holonomies are expanded in powers of sines and terms beyond sin2 are dropped; also, fields vary slowly from vertex to vertex. The wave is unidirectional and linearly polarized. The Hilbert space is spanned by a set of coherent states tailored to the symmetry of the plane wave case. Fixing the spatial diffeomorphisms is equivalent to fixing the spatial interval between vertices of the loop quantum gravity lattice. This spacing can be chosen such that the eigenvalues of the triad operators are large, as required in the small sine limit, even though the holonomies are not large. Appendices compute the energy of the wave, estimate the lifetime of the coherent state packet, discuss circular polarization and coarse-graining, and determine the behavior of the spinors used in the U(N) SHO realization of LQG.

  9. Sine-wave and noise-vocoded sine-wave speech in a tone language: Acoustic details matter.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Stuart; Hui, Sze Ngar Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Sine-wave speech (SWS) is a highly simplified version of speech consisting only of frequency- and amplitude-modulated sinusoids representing the formants. That listeners can successfully understand SWS has led to claims that speech perception must be based on abstract properties of the stimuli far removed from their specific acoustic form. Here it is shown, in bilingual Cantonese/English listeners, that performance with Cantonese SWS is improved by noise vocoding, with no effect on English SWS utterances. This manipulation preserves the abstract informational structure in the signals but changes its surface form. The differential effects of noise vocoding likely arise from the fact that Cantonese is a tonal language and hence more reliant on fundamental frequency (F0) contours for its intelligibility. SWS does not preserve tonal information from the original speech but does have false tonal information signalled by the lowest frequency sinusoid. Noise vocoding SWS appears to minimise the tonal percept, which thus interferes less in the perception of Cantonese. It has no effect in English, which is minimally reliant on F0 variations for intelligibility. Therefore it is not only the informational structure of a sound that is important but also how its acoustic detail interacts with the phonological structure of a given language. PMID:26723325

  10. Toddlers' comprehension of degraded signals: Noise-vocoded versus sine-wave analogs

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Rochelle S.; Chatterjee, Monita; Morini, Giovanna; Remez, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that development changes the ability to comprehend degraded speech. Preschool children showed greater difficulties perceiving noise-vocoded speech (a signal that integrates amplitude over broad frequency bands) than sine-wave speech (which maintains the spectral peaks without the spectrum envelope). In contrast, 27-month-old children in the present study could recognize speech with either type of degradation and performed slightly better with eight-channel vocoded speech than with sine-wave speech. This suggests that children's identification performance depends critically on the degree of degradation and that their success in recognizing unfamiliar speech encodings is encouraging overall. PMID:26428832

  11. Toddlers' comprehension of degraded signals: Noise-vocoded versus sine-wave analogs.

    PubMed

    Newman, Rochelle S; Chatterjee, Monita; Morini, Giovanna; Remez, Robert E

    2015-09-01

    Recent findings suggest that development changes the ability to comprehend degraded speech. Preschool children showed greater difficulties perceiving noise-vocoded speech (a signal that integrates amplitude over broad frequency bands) than sine-wave speech (which maintains the spectral peaks without the spectrum envelope). In contrast, 27-month-old children in the present study could recognize speech with either type of degradation and performed slightly better with eight-channel vocoded speech than with sine-wave speech. This suggests that children's identification performance depends critically on the degree of degradation and that their success in recognizing unfamiliar speech encodings is encouraging overall. PMID:26428832

  12. Advanced sine wave modulation of continuous wave laser system for atmospheric CO(2) differential absorption measurements.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Joel F; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R

    2014-02-10

    In this theoretical study, modulation techniques are developed to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission. A continuous wave (CW) lidar system using sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) pseudo-noise (PN) codes is described for making simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Amplitude and phase-shift keying (PSK) modulated intensity modulation (IM) carriers, in addition to a hybrid-pulse technique are investigated, which exhibit optimal autocorrelation properties. A method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions, which does not significantly degrade the resolution or introduce sidelobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth. PMID:24663259

  13. Acute effect of alcohol intake on sine-wave Cartesian and polar contrast sensitivity functions

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcanti-Galdino, M.K.; da Silva, J.A.; Mendes, L.C.; dos Santos, N.A.; Simas, M.L.B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess contrast sensitivity for angular frequency stimuli as well as for sine-wave gratings in adults under the effect of acute ingestion of alcohol. We measured the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) for gratings of 0.25, 1.25, 2.5, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) as well as for angular frequency stimuli of 1, 2, 4, 24, 48, and 96 cycles/360°. Twenty adults free of ocular diseases, with normal or corrected-to-normal visual acuity, and no history of alcoholism were enrolled in two experimental groups: 1) no alcohol intake (control group) and 2) alcohol ingestion (experimental group). The average concentration of alcohol in the experimental group was set to about 0.08%. We used a paradigm involving a forced-choice method. Maximum sensitivity to contrast for sine-wave gratings in the two groups occurred at 4 cpd sine-wave gratings and at 24 and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Significant changes in contrast sensitivity were observed after alcohol intake compared with the control condition at spatial frequency of 4 cpd and 1, 24, and 48 cycles/360° for angular frequency stimuli. Alcohol intake seems to affect the processing of sine-wave gratings at maximum sensitivity and at the low and high frequency ends for angular frequency stimuli, both under photopic luminance conditions. PMID:24676473

  14. A watt-class 1-THz backward-wave oscillator based on sine waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiong; Wei Yanyu; Shen Fei; Yin Hairong; Xu Jin; Gong Yubin; Wang Wenxiang

    2012-01-15

    A novel backward wave oscillator was proposed by utilizing a concise sine waveguide slow-wave structure combined with sheet electron beam to operate at terahertz frequency band. First, the design method was described, and the dispersion curve and interaction impedance of the sine waveguide were calculated, then the device oscillation frequency and operating voltage were determined. Next, the circuit transmission losses were learned over the tunable frequency range. Finally, the particle-in-cell simulation method was applied to predict its signal generation performance. The investigation results show that, the backward wave oscillator can produce over 1.9 -W peak power output at the central operating frequency of 1-THz under 27-kV operating voltage and 5-mA beam current. And the interaction efficiency at 1-THz is more than 1.4% with a circuit length of 7.2-mm. It, therefore, will be considered as a promising watt-class terahertz radiation source.

  15. Analysis and comparison of real-time sine-wave generation for PWM circuits. [Pulse Width Modulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mirkazemi-Moud, M.; Green, T.C.; Williams, B.W. . Dept. of Computing and Electrical Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    The paper presented four methods for hardware and software generation in real time of sine waves suitable for PWM circuits. The sine waves are derived from a truncated modified cosine Taylor series, wt([pi]-wt) function, a digitally filtered trapezoid, and a second-order differential equation. Triple injection is incorporated by the addition of a defined magnitude triangular waveform of three times the fundamental frequency. Each sine wave generating technique is implemented, as applicable, in a programmable logic cell array and/or in microprocessor-based software. In each case, the output spectra and total harmonic distortion are compared with computer-simulated results.

  16. Spectral averaging of small-amplitude sine-Gordon wave trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, J. W.; Tracy, E. R.

    1988-11-01

    It is well known that the nonlinear Schrödinger equation is the generic envelope description of nonlinear wave trains in the small-amplitude limit. V. E. Zakharov and E. A. Kuznetsov [Physica 18D, 455 (1986)] have shown that for many systems integrable via inverse-scattering techniques it is possible, through the use of multiscale techniques, to derive the nonlinear Schrödinger Lax pair from the Lax pair of the system that is being modulated. It will be shown that this technique of ``multiscale averaging'' can be applied to the sine-Gordon theory to obtain not only the nonlinear Schrödinger Lax pair from the sine-Gordon Lax pair, but also the nonlinear Schrödinger spectral data, conservation laws, Θ-function solutions, and reality constraint from their sine-Gordon counterparts. This allows a physical interpretation of the mathematical elements of the nonlinear Schrödinger envelope in terms of the physical characteristics of the sine-Gordon system that is being modulated.

  17. On the solution of the generalized wave and generalized sine-Gordon equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ablowitz, M. J.; Beals, R.; Tenenblat, K.

    1986-01-01

    The generalized wave equation and generalized sine-Gordon equations are known to be natural multidimensional differential geometric generalizations of the classical two-dimensional versions. In this paper, a system of linear differential equations is associated with these equations, and it is shown how the direct and inverse problems can be solved for appropriately decaying data on suitable lines. An initial-boundary value problem is solved for these equations.

  18. Phonetic matching of auditory and visual speech develops during childhood: Evidence from sine-wave speech

    PubMed Central

    Baart, Martijn; Bortfeld, Heather; Vroomen, Jean

    2014-01-01

    The correspondence between auditory speech and lip-read information can be detected based on a combination of temporal and phonetic cross-modal cues. Here, we determined the point in developmental time at which children start to effectively use phonetic information to match a speech sound with one of two articulating faces. We presented 4- to 11-year old children (N = 77) with three-syllabic sine-wave speech replicas of two pseudo-words that were perceived as non-speech and asked them to match the sounds with the corresponding lip-read video. At first, children had no phonetic knowledge about the sounds and matching was thus based on temporal cues that are fully retained in sine-wave speech. Next, we trained all children to perceive the phonetic identity of the sine-wave speech and repeated the audiovisual matching task. Only at around 6.5 years of age, the benefit of having phonetic knowledge about the stimuli became apparent, thus indicating that AV-matching based on phonetic cues presumably develops more slowly than AV matching based on temporal cues. PMID:25258018

  19. Scenario based approach for multiple source Tsunami Hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a scenario-based approach for tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines - Portugal, one of the test-sites of project ASTARTE. Sines holds one of the most important deep-water ports which contains oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid bulk, coal and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures are facing the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, we selected a total of six scenarios to assess the tsunami impact at the test site. The tsunami simulations are computed using NSWING a Non-linear Shallow Water Model With Nested Grids. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages MLLW (mean lower low water), MSL (mean sea level) and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, inundation is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawback, runup and inundation distance. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gauges at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results describe the impact at Sines test site considering the single scenarios at mean sea level, the aggregate scenario and the influence of the tide on the aggregate scenario. The results confirm the composite of Horseshoe and Marques Pombal fault as the worst case scenario. It governs the aggregate scenario with about 60 % and inundates an area of 3.5 km2.

  20. Deterministic approach for multiple-source tsunami hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal, one of the test sites of project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe). Sines has one of the most important deep-water ports, which has oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid-bulk, coal, and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures face the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, we selected a total of six scenarios to assess the tsunami impact at the test site. The tsunami simulations are computed using NSWING, a Non-linear Shallow Water model wIth Nested Grids. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages: MLLW (mean lower low water), MSL (mean sea level), and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, the tsunami hazard is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawback, maximum inundation area and run-up. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gauges at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results describe the impact at the Sines test site considering the single scenarios at mean sea level, the aggregate scenario, and the influence of the tide on the aggregate scenario. The results confirm the composite source of Horseshoe and Marques de Pombal faults as the worst-case scenario, with wave heights of over 10 m, which reach the coast approximately 22 min after the rupture. It dominates the aggregate scenario by about 60 % of the impact area at the test site, considering maximum wave height and maximum flow depth. The HSMPF scenario inundates a total area of 3.5 km2.

  1. Criteria for representing circular arc and sine wave spar webs by non-curved elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    The basic problem of how to simply represent a curved web of a spar in a finite element structural model was addressed. The ratio of flat web to curved web axial deformations and longitudinal rotations were calculated using NASTRAN models. Multiplying factors were developed from these calculations for various web thicknesses. These multiplying factors can be applied directly to the area and moment of inertia inputs of the finite element model. This allows the thermal stress relieving configurations of sine wave and circular arc webs to be simply accounted for in finite element structural models.

  2. Speech perception of sine-wave signals by children with cochlear implants

    PubMed Central

    Nittrouer, Susan; Kuess, Jamie; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Children need to discover linguistically meaningful structures in the acoustic speech signal. Being attentive to recurring, time-varying formant patterns helps in that process. However, that kind of acoustic structure may not be available to children with cochlear implants (CIs), thus hindering development. The major goal of this study was to examine whether children with CIs are as sensitive to time-varying formant structure as children with normal hearing (NH) by asking them to recognize sine-wave speech. The same materials were presented as speech in noise, as well, to evaluate whether any group differences might simply reflect general perceptual deficits on the part of children with CIs. Vocabulary knowledge, phonemic awareness, and “top-down” language effects were all also assessed. Finally, treatment factors were examined as possible predictors of outcomes. Results showed that children with CIs were as accurate as children with NH at recognizing sine-wave speech, but poorer at recognizing speech in noise. Phonemic awareness was related to that recognition. Top-down effects were similar across groups. Having had a period of bimodal stimulation near the time of receiving a first CI facilitated these effects. Results suggest that children with CIs have access to the important time-varying structure of vocal-tract formants. PMID:25994709

  3. Speech perception of sine-wave signals by children with cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Nittrouer, Susan; Kuess, Jamie; Lowenstein, Joanna H

    2015-05-01

    Children need to discover linguistically meaningful structures in the acoustic speech signal. Being attentive to recurring, time-varying formant patterns helps in that process. However, that kind of acoustic structure may not be available to children with cochlear implants (CIs), thus hindering development. The major goal of this study was to examine whether children with CIs are as sensitive to time-varying formant structure as children with normal hearing (NH) by asking them to recognize sine-wave speech. The same materials were presented as speech in noise, as well, to evaluate whether any group differences might simply reflect general perceptual deficits on the part of children with CIs. Vocabulary knowledge, phonemic awareness, and "top-down" language effects were all also assessed. Finally, treatment factors were examined as possible predictors of outcomes. Results showed that children with CIs were as accurate as children with NH at recognizing sine-wave speech, but poorer at recognizing speech in noise. Phonemic awareness was related to that recognition. Top-down effects were similar across groups. Having had a period of bimodal stimulation near the time of receiving a first CI facilitated these effects. Results suggest that children with CIs have access to the important time-varying structure of vocal-tract formants. PMID:25994709

  4. Nonlinear waves in networks: model reduction for the sine-Gordon equation.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Jean-Guy; Dutykh, Denys

    2014-08-01

    To study how nonlinear waves propagate across Y- and T-type junctions, we consider the two-dimensional (2D) sine-Gordon equation as a model and examine the crossing of kinks and breathers. Comparing energies for different geometries reveals that, for small widths, the angle of the fork plays no role. Motivated by this, we introduce a one-dimensional effective model whose solutions agree well with the 2D simulations for kink and breather solutions. These exhibit two different behaviors: a kink crosses if it has sufficient energy; conversely a breather crosses when v>1-ω, where v and ω are, respectively, its velocity and frequency. This methodology can be generalized to more complex nonlinear wave models. PMID:25215804

  5. Obtaining changes in calibration-coil to seismometer output constants using sine waves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ringler, Adam T.; Hutt, Charles R.; Gee, Lind S.; Sandoval, Leo D.; Wilson, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The midband sensitivity of a broadband seismometer is one of the most commonly used parameters from station metadata. Thus, it is critical for station operators to robustly estimate this quantity with a high degree of accuracy. We develop an in situ method for estimating changes in sensitivity using sine‐wave calibrations, assuming the calibration coil and its drive are stable over time and temperature. This approach has been used in the past for passive instruments (e.g., geophones) but has not been applied, to our knowledge, to derive sensitivities of modern force‐feedback broadband seismometers. We are able to detect changes in sensitivity to well within 1%, and our method is capable of detecting these sensitivity changes using any frequency of sine calibration within the passband of the instrument.

  6. Determination of the number of cells in a stepped sine wave inverter for equal charge transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Gabbay, D.

    1985-07-01

    The synthesis of an inverter sine wave output voltage by a staircase wave shape of low level voltage sources (cells) is accomplished by combining the cells in series at specific time intervals. Different cells of the inverter are then connected to the load for different time durations which results in unequal discharging of the cells. In order for the cells to transfer equal charge during the system operation, each voltage step should consist of a different number of cells in a parallel combination (module), the number of which depends on the time along the wave shape. The number of cells in each module is determined from the circuit current analysis and the appropriate switching time intervals, and is performed for a resistive and an inductive load. This number depends on the number of inverter voltage steps, the cell internal resistance, and the type of the load. The proper number of cells in the modules ensures identical state of charge of the cells, and equal cell recharging, and simplifies cell inspection, maintenance, and replacement.

  7. Scenario Based Approach for Multiple Source Tsunami Hazard Assessment for Sines, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wronna, Martin; Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present a scenario-based approach for tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal one the test-sites of project ASTARTE. Sines holds one of the most important deep-water ports which contains oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid bulk, coal and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures are facing the ocean to the southwest facing the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, a total of five scenarios were selected to assess tsunami impact at the test site. These scenarios correspond to the worst-case credible scenario approach based upon the largest events of the historical and paleo tsunami catalogues. The tsunami simulations from the source area towards the coast is carried out using NSWING a Non-linear Shallow Water Model With Nested Grids. The code solves the non-linear shallow water equations using the discretization and explicit leap-frog finite difference scheme, in a Cartesian or Spherical frame. The initial sea surface displacement is assumed to be equal to the sea bottom deformation that is computed by Okada equations. Both uniform and non-uniform slip conditions are used. The presented results correspond to the models using non-uniform slip conditions. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages MLLW (mean lower low water) MSL (mean sea level) and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, inundation is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawdown, run-up and inundation distance. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gages at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results consist of Aggregate Scenario Maps presented for the different inundation parameters. This work is funded by ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839

  8. Investigation of 0.38 THz backward-wave oscillator based on slotted sine waveguide and pencil electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Luqi; Wei, Yanyu; Wang, Bing; Shen, Wenan; Xu, Jin; Gong, Yubin; Park, Gun-Sik

    2016-03-01

    A novel backward wave oscillator (BWO) is presented by utilizing a slotted sine waveguide with a pencil electron beam to produce the high power terahertz wave. The high frequency characteristics including dispersion properties, interaction impedances, and transmission characteristics of the slotted sine waveguide are analyzed in detail. The high frequency system including the output coupler, slow wave structure (SWS), and reflector are designed properly. A 3-D particle-in-cell mode is applied to predict the device performance of the BWO based on the novel SWS. The investigation results demonstrate that this device can generate over 8.05 W output power in the frequency range of 363.4-383.8 GHz by using a 30 mA pencil electron beam and adjusting the beam voltage from 20 kV to 32 kV.

  9. Audio-visual integration of speech with time-varying sine wave speech replicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomainen, Jyrki; Andersen, Tobias; Tiippana, Kaisa; Sams, Mikko

    2002-11-01

    We tested whether listener's knowledge about the nature of the auditory stimuli had an effect on audio-visual (AV) integration of speech. First, subjects were taught to categorize two sine-wave (sw) replicas of the real speech tokens /omso/ and /onso/ into two arbitrary nonspeech categories without knowledge of the speech-like nature of the sounds. A test with congruent and incongruent AV-stimulus condition (together with auditory-only presentations of the sw stimuli) demonstrated no AV integration, but instead close to perfect categorization of stimuli in the two arbitrary categories according to the auditory presentation channel. Then, the same subjects (of which most were still under the impression that the sw-stimuli were nonspeech sounds) were taught to categorize the sw stimuli as /omso/ and /onso/, and again tested with the same AV stimuli as used in the nonspeech sw condition. This time, subjects showed highly reliable AV integration similar to integration obtained with real speech stimuli in a separate test. We suggest that AV integration only occurs when subject are in a so-called ''speech mode.''

  10. Light redirecting system using sine-wave based panels for dense urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Mohamed W. N.; Mashaly, Islam A.; Mohamed, Osama N.; El-Henawy, Sally I.; Galal, Ola; Taha, Iman; Nassar, Khaled; Safwat, Amr M. E.

    2014-09-01

    Cities and towns around the world are becoming more condensed due to the shrinking amount of buildable areas, which significantly reduces the amount of light that occupants have access to. This lack of natural lighting results in health, safety and quality of life degradation. This paper presents a new technique of transmitting sunlight downward into narrow alleys and streets, by using a daylighting guiding acrylic panel that is capable of changing the direction and distribution of the incident light. The core of the proposed daylight guidance system is made up of light transmission panels with high quality. The corrugations have sine wave shaped cross-section so that the panel functions as an optical diffuser perpendicular to the direction of sunlight propagation. The day lighting system consists of the corrugated panels and a lattice frame, which supports the panel. The proposed system is to be mounted on the building roof facing the sun so as to redirect the incident sunlight downward into the narrow alleys or streets. Since building sizes and orientations are different the frame is arranged such that substantially deep light penetration and high luminance level can be achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed panel improves the illuminance values by more than 200% and 400% in autumn and winter, respectively, provides fan-out angle that exceeds 80° for certain solar altitudes and the transmitted power percentage varies from 40% to 90% as the solar altitude varies from 10° to 80°. Experimental results are in a good agreement with the simulations.

  11. Verification of low frequency ac-dc transfer differences of thermal converters using sampling with sine-wave fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funck, Torsten; Spiegel, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Thermal converters show significant ac-dc transfer differences at low frequencies due to nonlinearities of the heat transport mechanism and of the thermal-to-electric conversion. It is assumed that the ac-dc transfer differences at low frequencies are proportional to the input power. We have proved this assumption by an independent method with sampling techniques. A novel approach based on sine-wave fitting is used to calculate the RMS value of the sampled signal from the samples. It makes use of the low noise in a metrological environment. Expanded uncertainties in the order of 1.2 μV/V have been achieved.

  12. Truncated Painleve expansion: Tanh-traveling wave solutions and reduction of sine-Poisson equation to a quadrature for stationary and nonstationary three-dimensional collisionless cold plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, R. S.; El-Kalaawy, O. H.

    2006-10-15

    The relativistic nonlinear self-consistent equations for a collisionless cold plasma with stationary ions [R. S. Ibrahim, IMA J. Appl. Math. 68, 523 (2003)] are extended to 3 and 3+1 dimensions. The resulting system of equations is reduced to the sine-Poisson equation. The truncated Painleve expansion and reduction of the partial differential equation to a quadrature problem (RQ method) are described and applied to obtain the traveling wave solutions of the sine-Poisson equation for stationary and nonstationary equations in 3 and 3+1 dimensions describing the charge-density equilibrium configuration model.

  13. Modulated Sine Waves for Differential Absorption Measurements Using a CW Laser System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor); Lin, Bing (Inventor); Nehrir, Amin R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A continuous wave Light Detection and Ranging (CW LiDAR) system utilizes two or more laser frequencies and time or range shifted pseudorandom noise (PN) codes to discriminate between the laser frequencies. The performance of these codes can be improved by subtracting out the bias before processing. The CW LiDAR system may be mounted to an artificial satellite orbiting the earth, and the relative strength of the return signal for each frequency can be utilized to determine the concentration of selected gases or other substances in the atmosphere.

  14. Recirculation in multiple wave conversions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N.; Tracy, E.R.

    2008-07-30

    A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.

  15. Statistical mechanics of nonlinear wave equations. 3. Metric transitivity for hyperbolic sine-gordon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKean, H. P.

    1995-05-01

    McKean and Vaninsky proved that the canonical measure e - H d ∞ Q d ∞ P based upon the HamiltonianH = int [tfrac{1}{2}P^2 + tfrac{1}{2}(Q')^2 + F(Q)]dx of the wave equation ∂2 Q/∂ t 2 - ∂2 Q/∂ x 2 + f( Q) = 0 with restoring force f(Q)=F'(Q) is preserved by the associated flow of Q and P = Q ṡ, and they conjectured that metric transitivity prevails, always on the whole line, and likewise on the circle unless f(Q)=Q or f(Q)=sh Q. Here, the metric transitivity is proved for the whole line in the second case. The proof employs the beautiful "d'Alembert formula" of Krichever.

  16. Sine-wave electrical stimulation initiates a voltage-gated potassium channel-dependent soft tissue response characterized by induction of hemocyte recruitment and collagen deposition.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Brandon M; Maroudas, Eleni; Osborn, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    Soft tissue repair is a complex process that requires specific communication between multiple cell types to orchestrate effective restoration of physiological functions. Macrophages play a critical role in this wound healing process beginning at the onset of tissue injury. Understanding the signaling mechanisms involved in macrophage recruitment to the wound site is an essential step for developing more effective clinical therapies. Macrophages are known to respond to electrical fields, but the underlying cellular mechanisms mediating this response is unknown. This study demonstrated that low-amplitude sine-wave electrical stimulation (ES) initiates a soft tissue response in the absence of injury in Procambarus clarkii This cellular response was characterized by recruitment of macrophage-like hemocytes to the stimulation site indicated by increased hemocyte density at the site. ES also increased tissue collagen deposition compared to sham treatment (P < 0.05). Voltage-gated potassium (KV) channel inhibition with either 4-aminopyridine or astemizole decreased both hemocyte recruitment and collagen deposition compared to saline infusion (P < 0.05), whereas inhibition of calcium-permeable channels with ruthenium red did not affect either response to ES Thus, macrophage-like hemocytes in P. clarkii elicit a wound-like response to exogenous ES and this is accompanied by collagen deposition. This response is mediated by KV channels but independent of Ca(2+) channels. We propose a significant role for KV channels that extends beyond facilitating Ca(2+) transport via regulation of cellular membrane potentials during ES of soft tissue. PMID:27335435

  17. Standardized F1: a consistent measure of strength of modulation of visual responses to sine-wave drifting gratings.

    PubMed

    Wypych, M; Wang, C; Nagy, A; Benedek, G; Dreher, B; Waleszczyk, W J

    2012-11-01

    The magnitude of spike-responses of neurons in the mammalian visual system to sine-wave luminance-contrast-modulated drifting gratings is modulated by the temporal frequency of the stimulation. However, there are serious problems with consistency and reliability of the traditionally used methods of assessment of strength of such modulation. Here we propose an intuitive and simple tool for assessment of the strength of modulations in the form of standardized F1 index, zF1. We define zF1 as the ratio of the difference between the F1 (component of amplitude spectrum of the spike-response at temporal frequency of stimulation) and the mean value of spectrum amplitudes to standard deviation along all frequencies in the spectrum. In order to assess the validity of this measure, we have: (1) examined behavior of zF1 using spike-responses to optimized drifting gratings of single neurons recorded from four 'visual' structures (area V1 of primary visual cortex, superior colliculus, suprageniculate nucleus and caudate nucleus) in the brain of commonly used visual mammal - domestic cat; (2) compared the behavior of zF1 with that of classical statistics commonly employed in the analysis of steady-state responses; (3) tested the zF1 index on simulated spike-trains generated with threshold-linear model. Our analyses indicate that zF1 is resistant to distortions due to the low spike count in responses and therefore can be particularly useful in the case of recordings from neurons with low firing rates and/or low net mean responses. While most V1 and a half of caudate neurons exhibit high zF1 indices, the majorities of collicular and suprageniculate neurons exhibit low zF1 indices. We conclude that despite the general shortcomings of measuring strength of modulation inherent in the linear system approach, zF1 can serve as a sensitive and easy to interpret tool for detection of modulation and assessment of its strength in responses of visual neurons. PMID:23000273

  18. Receiver Signal to Noise Ratios for IPDA Lidars Using Sine-wave and Pulsed Laser Modulation and Direct Detections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.

    2011-01-01

    seeder lasers, one on-line and one offline that are intensity modulated by two different frequency sine-waves signals before being amplified by a common laser amplifier. The receiver uses narrowband amplitude demodulation, or lock-in, Signal processing at the given laser modulation frequencies [3,4]. The laser transmitter operates in a quasi CW mode with the peak power equal to twice the average power. The on-line and off-line lasers can be transmitted at the same time without interference. Another direct detection technique uses a low duty cycle pulsed laser modulation [5,6] with the laser wavelengths alternating between on-line and off-line on successive pulses. The receiver uses time resolved detection and can also provide simultaneous target range measurement. With a lower laser duty cycle it requires a much higher peak laser power for the same average power.

  19. Studies of Kink-AntiKink Collisions in 1+1 D in φ^4 and Double Sine Gordon Nonlinear Wave Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasano, Christopher G.

    1996-11-01

    The manner in which kink and antikink solutions interact in nonlinear systems is strongly dependent upon the velocities in the collision. In certain velocity regions, the kink and antikink annihilate, while in other regions they bounce off of one another. We present studies of multiple bounce solutions for the collision of kinks and antikinks in a 1 + 1 dimensional φ^4 and Double Sine-Gordon systems. We confirm the existence of a repeated level structure for velocities at which 3, 4, 5, and 6 bounce solutions occur φ^4 as presented by previous authors ( Michael Peyrard and David K. Campbell, Physica 9D) (1983) 33, Peter Anninos, Samuel Oliveira, and Richard A. Matzner, Phys. Rev. D44 (1991) 1147 and we characterize the onset of each multiple bounce solution. The positions of these levels may be described by a simple extension of previous works, and imply that the system follows a specific ``route'' to ``chaotic'' annihilation. An analysis of kink-antinkink collisions in the Double-Sine Gordon equation will also be presented. This analysis reveals both interesting similarities and differences when compared to φ^4

  20. Sine-Gordon Equation in (1+2) and (1+3) dimensions: Existence and Classification of Traveling-Wave Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Zarmi, Yair

    2015-01-01

    The (1+1)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation passes integrability tests commonly applied to nonlinear evolution equations. Its kink solutions (one-dimensional fronts) are obtained by a Hirota algorithm. In higher space-dimensions, the equation does not pass these tests. Although it has been derived over the years for quite a few physical systems that have nothing to do with Special Relativity, the Sine-Gordon equation emerges as a non-linear relativistic wave equation. This opens the way for exploiting the tools of the Theory of Special Relativity. Using no more than the relativistic kinematics of tachyonic momentum vectors, from which the solutions are constructed through the Hirota algorithm, the existence and classification of N-moving-front solutions of the (1+2)- and (1+3)-dimensional equations for all N ≥ 1 are presented. In (1+2) dimensions, each multi-front solution propagates rigidly at one velocity. The solutions are divided into two subsets: Solutions whose velocities are lower than a limiting speed, c = 1, or are greater than or equal to c. To connect with concepts of the Theory of Special Relativity, c will be called “the speed of light.” In (1+3)-dimensions, multi-front solutions are characterized by spatial structure and by velocity composition. The spatial structure is either planar (rotated (1+2)-dimensional solutions), or genuinely three-dimensional – branes. Planar solutions, propagate rigidly at one velocity, which is lower than, equal to, or higher than c. Branes must contain clusters of fronts whose speed exceeds c = 1. Some branes are “hybrids”: different clusters of fronts propagate at different velocities. Some velocities may be lower than c but some must be equal to, or exceed, c. Finally, the speed of light cannot be approached from within the subset of slower-than-light solutions in both (1+2) and (1+3) dimensions. PMID:26020922

  1. Sine-Gordon Equation in (1+2) and (1+3) dimensions: Existence and Classification of Traveling-Wave Solutions.

    PubMed

    Zarmi, Yair

    2015-01-01

    The (1+1)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation passes integrability tests commonly applied to nonlinear evolution equations. Its kink solutions (one-dimensional fronts) are obtained by a Hirota algorithm. In higher space-dimensions, the equation does not pass these tests. Although it has been derived over the years for quite a few physical systems that have nothing to do with Special Relativity, the Sine-Gordon equation emerges as a non-linear relativistic wave equation. This opens the way for exploiting the tools of the Theory of Special Relativity. Using no more than the relativistic kinematics of tachyonic momentum vectors, from which the solutions are constructed through the Hirota algorithm, the existence and classification of N-moving-front solutions of the (1+2)- and (1+3)-dimensional equations for all N ≥ 1 are presented. In (1+2) dimensions, each multi-front solution propagates rigidly at one velocity. The solutions are divided into two subsets: Solutions whose velocities are lower than a limiting speed, c = 1, or are greater than or equal to c. To connect with concepts of the Theory of Special Relativity, c will be called "the speed of light." In (1+3)-dimensions, multi-front solutions are characterized by spatial structure and by velocity composition. The spatial structure is either planar (rotated (1+2)-dimensional solutions), or genuinely three-dimensional--branes. Planar solutions, propagate rigidly at one velocity, which is lower than, equal to, or higher than c. Branes must contain clusters of fronts whose speed exceeds c = 1. Some branes are "hybrids": different clusters of fronts propagate at different velocities. Some velocities may be lower than c but some must be equal to, or exceed, c. Finally, the speed of light cannot be approached from within the subset of slower-than-light solutions in both (1+2) and (1+3) dimensions. PMID:26020922

  2. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsolakis, A.; Stutzman, W. L.

    1982-01-01

    As the operating frequencies of communications systems move higher into the millimeter wave region, the effects of multiple scattering in precipitation media become more significant. In this paper, general formulations are presented for single, first-order multiple, and complete multiple scattering. Included specifically are distributions of particle size, shape, and orientation angle, as well as variation in the medium density along the direction of wave propagation. Calculations are performed for rain. It is shown that the effects of higher-order scattering are not noticeable in either attenuation or channel isolation on a dual-polarized system until frequencies of about 30 GHz are reached. The complete multiple-scattering formulation presented gives accurate results at high millimeter wave frequencies as well as including realistic medium parameter distributions. Furthermore, it is numerically efficient.

  3. Multiple-scattering theory for electromagnetic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X. ); Zhang, X. ); Yu, Q.; Harmon, B.N. )

    1993-02-15

    In this paper, a multiple-scattering formalism for electromagnetic waves is presented. Its application to the three-dimensional periodic dielectric structures is given in a form similar to the usual Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker form of scalar waves. Using this approach, the band-structure results of touching spheres of diamond structure in a dielectric medium with dielectric constant 12.96 are calculated. The application to disordered systems under the coherent-potential approximation is discussed.

  4. Shape and wobbling wave excitations in Josephson junctions: Exact solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional sine-Gordon model

    SciTech Connect

    Gulevich, D. R.; Savel'ev, Sergey; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Yampol'skii, V. A.; Nori, Franco

    2009-09-01

    We predict a class of excitations propagating along a Josephson vortex in two-dimensional Josephson junctions. These excitations are associated with the distortion of a Josephson vortex line of an arbitrary profile. We derive a universal analytical expression for the energy of arbitrary-shape excitations, investigate their influence on the dynamics of a vortex line, and discuss conditions where such excitations can be created. Finally, we show that such excitations play the role of a clock for a relativistically-moving Josephson vortex and suggest an experiment to measure a time-dilation effect analogous to that in special relativity. The position of the shape excitation on a Josephson vortex acts like a 'minute hand' showing the time in the rest frame associated with the vortex. Remarkably, at some conditions, the shape wave can carry negative energy: a vortex with the shape excitation can have less energy than the same vortex without it.

  5. Multiple M-Wave Interaction with Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Bandos, Igor A.

    2010-08-13

    We present the equations of motion for multiple M0-brane (multiple M-wave) systems in general 11 dimensional supergravity background. These are obtained in the frame of superembedding approach, but have a rigid structure: they can be restored from SO(1,1)xSO(9) symmetry characteristic for M0. BPS (Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield) conditions for the 1/2 supersymmetric solution of these equations have the fuzzy 2-sphere solution modeling M2-brane.

  6. Genetic code for sine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Alyasa Gan; Wah, Yap Bee

    2015-02-01

    The computation of the approximate values of the trigonometric sines was discovered by Bhaskara I (c. 600-c.680), a seventh century Indian mathematician and is known as the Bjaskara's I's sine approximation formula. The formula is given in his treatise titled Mahabhaskariya. In the 14th century, Madhava of Sangamagrama, a Kerala mathematician astronomer constructed the table of trigonometric sines of various angles. Madhava's table gives the measure of angles in arcminutes, arcseconds and sixtieths of an arcsecond. The search for more accurate formulas led to the discovery of the power series expansion by Madhava of Sangamagrama (c.1350-c. 1425), the founder of the Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics. In 1715, the Taylor series was introduced by Brook Taylor an English mathematician. If the Taylor series is centered at zero, it is called a Maclaurin series, named after the Scottish mathematician Colin Maclaurin. Some of the important Maclaurin series expansions include trigonometric functions. This paper introduces the genetic code of the sine of an angle without using power series expansion. The genetic code using square root approach reveals the pattern in the signs (plus, minus) and sequence of numbers in the sine of an angle. The square root approach complements the Pythagoras method, provides a better understanding of calculating an angle and will be useful for teaching the concepts of angles in trigonometry.

  7. Optical sine transformation.

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Zhang, J; Gong, J; Chen, J; Ho, Y

    1987-10-15

    The phase mask distribution of optical sine transformation (OST) has been calculated according to the optical general transformation theory. To avoid the diffraction loss of the phase mask, the optical waveguide method is used. Computation shows that the optical sine transformation is possible with only one phase mask, i.e., one-half of a cylindrical lens in the 1-D case and one-quarter of a spherical lens in the 2-D case. Experimental results agree with the theoretical prediction. Image compression by OST is also given. PMID:20523380

  8. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we describe 15 SINEs, among which 13 are novel, that have a similar 66-bp central region and therefore constitute a new SINE superfamily, MetaSINEs. MetaSINEs are distributed from fish to cnidarians, suggesting their common evolutionary origin at least 640 Ma. Because the 3′ tails of MetaSINEs are variable, these SINEs most likely survived by changing their partner long interspersed elements for retrotransposition during evolution. Furthermore, we examined the presence of members of other SINE superfamilies in bivalve genomes and characterized eight new SINEs belonging to the CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, and DeuSINEs, in addition to the MetaSINEs. The broad distribution of bivalve SINEs suggests that at least three SINEs originated in the common ancestor of Bivalvia. Our comparative analysis of the central domains of the SINEs revealed that, in each superfamily, only a restricted region is shared among all of its members. Because the functions of the central domains of the SINE superfamilies remain unknown, such structural information of SINE superfamilies will be useful for future experimental and comparative analyses to reveal why they have been retained in metazoan genomes during evolution. PMID:26872770

  9. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-03-01

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we describe 15 SINEs, among which 13 are novel, that have a similar 66-bp central region and therefore constitute a new SINE superfamily, MetaSINEs. MetaSINEs are distributed from fish to cnidarians, suggesting their common evolutionary origin at least 640 Ma. Because the 3' tails of MetaSINEs are variable, these SINEs most likely survived by changing their partner long interspersed elements for retrotransposition during evolution. Furthermore, we examined the presence of members of other SINE superfamilies in bivalve genomes and characterized eight new SINEs belonging to the CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, and DeuSINEs, in addition to the MetaSINEs. The broad distribution of bivalve SINEs suggests that at least three SINEs originated in the common ancestor of Bivalvia. Our comparative analysis of the central domains of the SINEs revealed that, in each superfamily, only a restricted region is shared among all of its members. Because the functions of the central domains of the SINE superfamilies remain unknown, such structural information of SINE superfamilies will be useful for future experimental and comparative analyses to reveal why they have been retained in metazoan genomes during evolution. PMID:26872770

  10. sine oculis in basal Metazoa.

    PubMed

    Bebenek, Ilona G; Gates, Ruth D; Morris, Joshua; Hartenstein, Volker; Jacobs, David K

    2004-07-01

    We report the recovery of homologs of Six1/2/sine oculis (so), a homeodomain-containing member of the Six-gene family, from a diverse set of basal Metazoa, including representatives of the poriferan classes Demospongia, Calcarea and Hexactinellida, the cnidarian classes Hydrozoa, Scyphozoa and Anthozoa, as well as a ctenophore. so sequences were also recovered from a platyhelminth, an echiurid and two bivalve molluscs, members of the super-phyletic group Lophotrochozoa. In the case of the platyhelminth, multiple distinct so sequences were recovered, as well as a member of the related group Six4/5/D-Six4. Extended sequences of the so gene were recovered from the demosponge, Haliclona sp., and the scyphozoan Aurelia aurita via PCR, and 3' RACE. The affinities of all recovered sequences were assessed using a parsimony analysis based on both nucleic and amino acid sequence and using successive character weighting. Our results indicate that so is highly conserved across the animal kingdom. Preliminary expression data for Aurelia reveal that transcripts of the so homolog are present in the manubrium as well as in the rhopalia, which contain the statocyst and eyes, in the free-swimming ephyra and juvenile stages of these jellyfish. PMID:15221378

  11. A secure double-image sharing scheme based on Shamir's three-pass protocol and 2D Sine Logistic modulation map in discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Liansheng; Duan, Kuaikuai; Liang, Junli

    2016-05-01

    A secure double-image sharing scheme is proposed by using the Shamir's three-pass protocol in the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform domain. First, an enlarged image is formed by assembling two plain images successively in the horizontal direction and scrambled in the chaotic permutation process, in which the sequences of chaotic pairs are generated by the two-dimensional Sine Logistic modulation map. Second, the scrambled image is divided into two components which are used to constitute a complex image. One component is normalized and regarded as the phase part of the complex image as well as other is considered as the amplitude part. Finally, the complex image is shared between the sender and the receiver by using the Shamir's three-pass protocol, in which the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform is used as the encryption function due to its commutative property. The proposed double-image sharing scheme has an obvious advantage that the key management is convenient without distributing the random phase mask keys in advance. Moreover, the security of the image sharing scheme is enhanced with the help of extra parameters of the discrete multiple-parameter fractional angular transform. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on integrating the Shamir's three-pass protocol with double-image sharing scheme in the information security field. Simulation results and security analysis verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  12. Control of antikinks of the Sine Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porubov, A. V.; Bondarenkov, R. S.; Fradkov, A. L.; Andrievsky, B. R.

    2016-06-01

    The control of the smoothness of an antikink profile of the Sine Gordon equation is considered. It is shown that variations in the initial conditions give rise to oscillations on the profile of the antikink. The control algorithm based on variation of one of the coefficient of the equation is developed to recover the smooth wave shape and the phase velocity of the antikink.

  13. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  14. Multiple scattering induced negative refraction of matter waves

    PubMed Central

    Pinsker, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Starting from fundamental multiple scattering theory it is shown that negative refraction indices are feasible for matter waves passing a well-defined ensemble of scatterers. A simple approach to this topic is presented and explicit examples for systems of scatterers in 1D and 3D are stated that imply negative refraction for a generic incoming quantum wave packet. Essential features of the effective scattering field, densities and frequency spectrum of scatterers are considered. Additionally it is shown that negative refraction indices allow perfect transmission of the wave passing the ensemble of scatterers. Finally the concept of the superlens is discussed, since it is based on negative refraction and can be extended to matter waves utilizing the observations presented in this paper which thus paves the way to ‘untouchable’ quantum systems in analogy to cloaking devices for electromagnetic waves. PMID:26857266

  15. Multiple scattering induced negative refraction of matter waves.

    PubMed

    Pinsker, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Starting from fundamental multiple scattering theory it is shown that negative refraction indices are feasible for matter waves passing a well-defined ensemble of scatterers. A simple approach to this topic is presented and explicit examples for systems of scatterers in 1D and 3D are stated that imply negative refraction for a generic incoming quantum wave packet. Essential features of the effective scattering field, densities and frequency spectrum of scatterers are considered. Additionally it is shown that negative refraction indices allow perfect transmission of the wave passing the ensemble of scatterers. Finally the concept of the superlens is discussed, since it is based on negative refraction and can be extended to matter waves utilizing the observations presented in this paper which thus paves the way to 'untouchable' quantum systems in analogy to cloaking devices for electromagnetic waves. PMID:26857266

  16. Digital techniques applied to sine test control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westoby, T. J.

    1981-09-01

    Digital techniques are applied to solve problems experienced in analogue circuitry, enabling the design of a highly reliable sine control system. A sine wave is generated whose frequency is proportional to a digital number, held in the counters of the sweep generator, using the frequency related pulse stream. This pulse stream is used to generate a ramp by applying it to a count. The rate of rise is varied by using a rate multiplier arranged to slow the pulse stream as the ramp proceeds. Variation of frequency depends only on the frequency of the pulse stream entering the circuit, and the oscillator runs quite acceptably at 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz. The total distortion at this stage is less than 2%. Since the control signal is quantized, only discrete changes in control are experienced, and the control lines are static most of the time; the digital system can reduce the effects of a noisy return signal by as much as 64 times. The greatest advantage of digital techniques is its use in integrator stabilization. A tracking capacitor ensures that conversion is done to an accuracy of 1%, and residual ripple on the output is removed by a low pass filter.

  17. Multiple attenuation to reflection seismic data using Radon filter and Wave Equation Multiple Rejection (WEMR) method

    SciTech Connect

    Erlangga, Mokhammad Puput

    2015-04-16

    Separation between signal and noise, incoherent or coherent, is important in seismic data processing. Although we have processed the seismic data, the coherent noise is still mixing with the primary signal. Multiple reflections are a kind of coherent noise. In this research, we processed seismic data to attenuate multiple reflections in the both synthetic and real seismic data of Mentawai. There are several methods to attenuate multiple reflection, one of them is Radon filter method that discriminates between primary reflection and multiple reflection in the τ-p domain based on move out difference between primary reflection and multiple reflection. However, in case where the move out difference is too small, the Radon filter method is not enough to attenuate the multiple reflections. The Radon filter also produces the artifacts on the gathers data. Except the Radon filter method, we also use the Wave Equation Multiple Elimination (WEMR) method to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. The WEMR method can attenuate the long period multiple reflection based on wave equation inversion. Refer to the inversion of wave equation and the magnitude of the seismic wave amplitude that observed on the free surface, we get the water bottom reflectivity which is used to eliminate the multiple reflections. The WEMR method does not depend on the move out difference to attenuate the long period multiple reflection. Therefore, the WEMR method can be applied to the seismic data which has small move out difference as the Mentawai seismic data. The small move out difference on the Mentawai seismic data is caused by the restrictiveness of far offset, which is only 705 meter. We compared the real free multiple stacking data after processing with Radon filter and WEMR process. The conclusion is the WEMR method can more attenuate the long period multiple reflection than the Radon filter method on the real (Mentawai) seismic data.

  18. Application of the sine-Poisson equation in solar magnetostatics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, G. M.; Zank, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    Solutions of the sine-Poisson equations are used to construct a class of isothermal magnetostatic atmospheres, with one ignorable coordinate corresponding to a uniform gravitational field in a plane geometry. The distributed current in the model (j) is directed along the x-axis, where x is the horizontal ignorable coordinate; (j) varies as the sine of the magnetostatic potential and falls off exponentially with distance vertical to the base with an e-folding distance equal to the gravitational scale height. Solutions for the magnetostatic potential A corresponding to the one-soliton, two-soliton, and breather solutions of the sine-Gordon equation are studied. Depending on the values of the free parameters in the soliton solutions, horizontally periodic magnetostatic structures are obtained possessing either a single X-type neutral point, multiple neural X-points, or solutions without X-points.

  19. Robust wave-front estimation from multiple directional derivatives.

    PubMed

    Legarda-Sáenz, R; Rivera, M; Rodríguez-Vera, R; Trujillo-Schiaffino, G

    2000-08-01

    A quadratic cost functional for computing an estimate of a wave front from multiple directional derivatives is presented. This functional is robust to noise and is specially suited for moiré deflectometry, Ronchi testing, and lateral shearing interferometry. PMID:18064280

  20. The Dynamical Sine-Gordon Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hairer, Martin; Shen, Hao

    2016-02-01

    We introduce the dynamical sine-Gordon equation in two space dimensions with parameter {β}, which is the natural dynamic associated to the usual quantum sine-Gordon model. It is shown that when {β2 in (0, 16π/3)} the Wick renormalised equation is well-posed. In the regime {β2 in (0, 4π)}, the Da Prato-Debussche method [J Funct Anal 196(1):180-210, 2002; Ann Probab 31(4):1900-1916, 2003] applies, while for {β2 in [4π, 16π/3)}, the solution theory is provided via the theory of regularity structures [Hairer, Invent Math 198(2):269-504, 2014]. We also show that this model arises naturally from a class of {2 + 1} -dimensional equilibrium interface fluctuation models with periodic nonlinearities. The main mathematical difficulty arises in the construction of the model for the associated regularity structure where the role of the noise is played by a non-Gaussian random distribution similar to the complex multiplicative Gaussian chaos recently analysed in Lacoin et al. [Commun Math Phys 337(2):569-632, 2015].

  1. Wave coupling in sheet- and multiple-beam traveling-wave tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Cooke, Simon J.; Levush, Baruch; Botton, Moti

    2009-06-15

    To increase the power level of the sources of coherent electromagnetic radiation at frequencies from 100 GHz up to the terahertz range it makes sense to develop devices with a spatially extended interaction space. Sheet-beam and multiple-beam devices belong to the category. In the present paper the small-signal theory of traveling-wave tubes with sheet-beam and multiple sheet-beam configurations is developed. It is shown that in such tubes the wave coupling on electron beams may occur even in small-signal regimes. The wave coupling and its role for amplification of forward and excitation of backward waves in such amplifiers is studied. Also the effect of transverse nonuniformity of the electromagnetic field on the device operation is analyzed and illustrated by several examples.

  2. Parameter estimation on gravitational waves from multiple coalescing binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel, Ilya

    2010-04-15

    Future ground-based and space-borne interferometric gravitational-wave detectors may capture between tens and thousands of binary coalescence events per year. There is a significant and growing body of work on the estimation of astrophysically relevant parameters, such as masses and spins, from the gravitational-wave signature of a single event. This paper introduces a robust Bayesian framework for combining the parameter estimates for multiple events into a parameter distribution of the underlying event population. The framework can be readily deployed as a rapid post-processing tool.

  3. Is there a pulse wave encephalopathy component to multiple sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Juurlink, Bernhard H J

    2015-01-01

    The dominant hypothesis in multiple sclerosis is that it is an autoimmune disease; however, there is considerable evidence that the immune attack on myelin may be secondary to a cytodegenerative event. Furthermore, the immune modulating therapies longest in clinical use, although modulating the frequency and severity of exacerbation, do not affect long-term progression towards disability. Clearly alternative perspectives on the etiology of multiple sclerosis are warranted. In this paper I outline the commonalities between idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus and multiple sclerosis. These include decreased intracranial compliance as evidenced by increased cerebrospinal fluid volume and velocity of cerebrospinal fluid flow through the cerebral aqueduct; increased ventricular volume; periventricular demyelination lesions; increase in size of Virchow-Robin spaces; presence of Hakim's triad comprised of locomotory disabilities, cognitive problems and bladder control problems. Furthermore, multiple sclerosis is associated with decreased arterial compliance. These are all suggestive that there is a pulse wave encephalopathy component to multiple sclerosis. There are enough resemblances between normal pressure hydrocephalus and multiple sclerosis to warrant further investigation. Whether decreases in intracranial compliance is a consequence of multiple sclerosis or is a causal factor is unknown. Effective therapies can only be developed when the etiology of the disease is understood. PMID:25760216

  4. Photonic millimeter-wave frequency multiplication based on cascaded four-wave mixing and polarization pulling.

    PubMed

    Vidal, B

    2012-12-15

    A technique for the frequency multiplication of microwave signals based on the combination of two optical nonlinear phenomena in a single nonlinear fiber is investigated. Multiple four-wave mixing is used to generate harmonics on an externally modulated optical carrier while polarization pulling through stimulated Brillouin scattering is used to filter the desired harmonics. Microwave signals in the 60 GHz region are generated showing harmonic frequency multiplication factors of up to 25 with a suppression of undesired harmonics better than 20 dB. PMID:23258003

  5. Multiple scattering of a spherical acoustic wave from fluid spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, J. H.; Liu, A. Q.; Chen, H. L.; Chen, T. N.

    2006-02-01

    The multiple scattering of a spherical acoustic wave from an arbitrary number of fluid spheres is investigated theoretically. The tool to attack the multiple scattering problem is a kind of addition formulas for the spherical wave functions, which are presented in the paper, based on the bicentric expansion form of Green function in the spherical coordinates. For an arbitrary configuration of N fluid spheres, the kind of addition formulas permits the field expansions (all referred to the center of each sphere). With these the sound fields scattered by each sphere can be described by a set of N equations. The interactions between any two fluid spheres are taken into account in these equations exactly and their coefficients are coupled through double sums in the spherical wave functions. By truncating the infinite series in the equations depending on certain calculation accuracy and solving the coefficients matrix by using the Gauss-Seidel iteration method, we can obtain the scattered sound field by the configuration of the fluid spheres. Finally, the scattering calculations by using the kind of addition formulas are carried out.

  6. Basis properties of the p, q-sine functions

    PubMed Central

    Boulton, Lyonell; Lord, Gabriel J.

    2015-01-01

    We improve the currently known thresholds for basisness of the family of periodically dilated p,q-sine functions. Our findings rely on a Beurling decomposition of the corresponding change of coordinates in terms of shift operators of infinite multiplicity. We also determine refined bounds on the Riesz constant associated with this family. These results seal mathematical gaps in the existing literature on the subject. PMID:25663809

  7. Generalized Sine-Gordon equation and dislocation dynamics of superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Muying; Chen, Guihua; Luo, Shiyu

    2013-07-01

    By introducing a damping term, the Seeger equation describing the dislocations motion is reduced to the generalized Sine-Gordon equation, which is further reduced to the pendulum equation for the traveling wave solutions. The characteristics of the phase plane of the unperturbated system is analyzed and the chaotic behavior of the system is discussed with Melnikov method. It is shown that the energy of dislocation wave can efficiently transfer and release to the superlattice for appropriately chosen parameters, such that the stability of the superlattice can be improved.

  8. EISCAT observations during MAC/SINE and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettger, J.; Hoppe, U.-P.; Hall, C.

    1989-01-01

    The EISCAT incoherent scatter radar facility in Tromsoe, Norway was operated during the MAC/SINE campaign for 78 hours in the period 10 June to 17 July 1987, and during the MAC/Epsilon campaign for 90 hours in the period 15 October to 5 November 1987. The VHF (224 MHz) radar operations during MAC/SINE yielded most interesting observations of strong coherent echoes from the mesopause region. Characteristic data of these polar mesospheric summer echoes are presented. The UHF (933 MHz) radar operations during MAC/Epsilon were done with 18 deg off zenith beam and allows the deduction of meridonal and horizontal wind components as well as radial velocity spectra in addition to the usual electron density profiles in the D and lower E regions. Some results from the VHF and UHF radars indicating the presence of gravity waves are examined.

  9. Spin-wave multiple excitations in nanoscale classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hou, Zhuofei; Landau, David P; Stocks, George Malcolm; Brown, G.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo and spin dynamics techniques have been used to perform large-scale simulations of the dynamic behavior of a nanoscale, classical, Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a simple-cubic latticewith linear sizesL 40 at a temperature below the N eel temperature. Nanoparticles are modeled with completely free boundary conditions, i.e., six free surfaces, and nanofilms are modeled with two free surfaces in the spatial z direction and periodic boundaries parallel to the surfaces in the xy direction, which are compared to the infinite system with periodic boundary conditions. The temporal evolutions of spin configurations were determined numerically from coupled equations of motion formore » individual spins using a fast spin dynamics algorithm with the fourth-order Suzuki-Trotter decomposition of exponential operators, with initial spin configurations generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The local dynamic structure factor S(q, ) was calculated from the local space- and time-displaced spin-spin correlation function. Multiple excitation peaks for wave vectors within the first Brillouin zone appear in the spin-wave spectra of the transverse component of dynamic structure factor ST (q, ) in the nanoscale classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet, which are lacking if periodic boundary conditions are used. With the assumption of q-space spin-wave reflections with broken momentum conservation due to free-surface confinements, we successfully explained those spectra quantitatively in the linear dispersion region. Meanwhile, we also observed two unexpected quantized spin-wave excitation modes in the spatial z direction in nanofilms for ST (q, ) not expected in bulk systems. The results of this study indicate the presence of unexpected forms of spin-wave excitation behavior that have yet to be observed experimentally but could be directly tested through neutron scattering experiments on nanoscale RbMnF3 particles or films.« less

  10. Spin-wave multiple excitations in nanoscale classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, Zhuofei; Landau, David P; Stocks, George Malcolm; Brown, G.

    2015-01-01

    Monte Carlo and spin dynamics techniques have been used to perform large-scale simulations of the dynamic behavior of a nanoscale, classical, Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a simple-cubic latticewith linear sizesL 40 at a temperature below the N eel temperature. Nanoparticles are modeled with completely free boundary conditions, i.e., six free surfaces, and nanofilms are modeled with two free surfaces in the spatial z direction and periodic boundaries parallel to the surfaces in the xy direction, which are compared to the infinite system with periodic boundary conditions. The temporal evolutions of spin configurations were determined numerically from coupled equations of motion for individual spins using a fast spin dynamics algorithm with the fourth-order Suzuki-Trotter decomposition of exponential operators, with initial spin configurations generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The local dynamic structure factor S(q, ) was calculated from the local space- and time-displaced spin-spin correlation function. Multiple excitation peaks for wave vectors within the first Brillouin zone appear in the spin-wave spectra of the transverse component of dynamic structure factor ST (q, ) in the nanoscale classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet, which are lacking if periodic boundary conditions are used. With the assumption of q-space spin-wave reflections with broken momentum conservation due to free-surface confinements, we successfully explained those spectra quantitatively in the linear dispersion region. Meanwhile, we also observed two unexpected quantized spin-wave excitation modes in the spatial z direction in nanofilms for ST (q, ) not expected in bulk systems. The results of this study indicate the presence of unexpected forms of spin-wave excitation behavior that have yet to be observed experimentally but could be directly tested through neutron scattering experiments on nanoscale RbMnF3 particles or films.

  11. Spin-wave multiple excitations in nanoscale classical Heisenberg antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhuofei; Landau, D. P.; Stocks, G. M.; Brown, G.

    2015-02-01

    Monte Carlo and spin dynamics techniques have been used to perform large-scale simulations of the dynamic behavior of a nanoscale, classical, Heisenberg antiferromagnet on a simple-cubic lattice with linear sizes L ⩽40 at a temperature below the Néel temperature. Nanoparticles are modeled with completely free boundary conditions, i.e., six free surfaces, and nanofilms are modeled with two free surfaces in the spatial z direction and periodic boundaries parallel to the surfaces in the x y direction, which are compared to the "infinite" system with periodic boundary conditions. The temporal evolutions of spin configurations were determined numerically from coupled equations of motion for individual spins using a fast spin dynamics algorithm with the fourth-order Suzuki-Trotter decomposition of exponential operators, with initial spin configurations generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The local dynamic structure factor S (q ,ω ) was calculated from the local space- and time-displaced spin-spin correlation function. Multiple excitation peaks for wave vectors within the first Brillouin zone appear in the spin-wave spectra of the transverse component of dynamic structure factor ST(q ,ω ) in the nanoscale classical Heisenberg antiferromagnet, which are lacking if periodic boundary conditions are used. With the assumption of q -space spin-wave reflections with broken momentum conservation due to free-surface confinements, we successfully explained those spectra quantitatively in the linear dispersion region. Meanwhile, we also observed two unexpected quantized spin-wave excitation modes in the spatial z direction in nanofilms for ST(q ,ω ) not expected in bulk systems. The results of this study indicate the presence of unexpected forms of spin-wave excitation behavior that have yet to be observed experimentally but could be directly tested through neutron scattering experiments on nanoscale RbMnF3 particles or films.

  12. Exploring multiple degrees of freedom in Rydberg wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Haidan

    2006-12-01

    selection rules and give an intuitive classical interpretation of angular momentum redistribution by an HCP. In short, new dynamics involving multiple degrees of freedom of an electron wave packet are discovered, observed and understood.

  13. Analysis of millimetre-wave polarization diverse multiple-input multiple-output capacity

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Nicholas P.; Ng, Brian W.-H.; Hansen, Hedley J.

    2015-01-01

    Millimetre-waves offer the possibility of wide bandwidth and consequently high data rate for wireless communications. For both uni- and dual-polarized systems, signals sent over a link may suffer severe degradation due to antenna misalignment. Orientation robustness may be enhanced by the use of mutual orthogonality in three dimensions. Multiple-input multiple-output polarization diversity offers a way of improving signal reception without the limitations associated with spatial diversity. Scattering effects often assist propagation through multipath. However, high path loss at millimetre-wave frequencies may limit any reception enhancement through scattering. We show that the inclusion of a third orthogonal dipole provides orientation robustness in this setting, as well as in a rich scattering environment, by means of a Rician fading channel model covering all orientations for a millimetre-wave, tri-orthogonal, half-wave dipole transmitter and receiver employing polarization diversity. Our simulation extends the analysis into three dimensions, fully exploiting individual sub-channel paths. In both the presence and absence of multipath effects, capacity is observed to be higher than that of a dual-polarized system over the majority of a field of view. PMID:27019723

  14. Analysis of millimetre-wave polarization diverse multiple-input multiple-output capacity.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Nicholas P; Ng, Brian W-H; Hansen, Hedley J; Abbott, Derek

    2015-12-01

    Millimetre-waves offer the possibility of wide bandwidth and consequently high data rate for wireless communications. For both uni- and dual-polarized systems, signals sent over a link may suffer severe degradation due to antenna misalignment. Orientation robustness may be enhanced by the use of mutual orthogonality in three dimensions. Multiple-input multiple-output polarization diversity offers a way of improving signal reception without the limitations associated with spatial diversity. Scattering effects often assist propagation through multipath. However, high path loss at millimetre-wave frequencies may limit any reception enhancement through scattering. We show that the inclusion of a third orthogonal dipole provides orientation robustness in this setting, as well as in a rich scattering environment, by means of a Rician fading channel model covering all orientations for a millimetre-wave, tri-orthogonal, half-wave dipole transmitter and receiver employing polarization diversity. Our simulation extends the analysis into three dimensions, fully exploiting individual sub-channel paths. In both the presence and absence of multipath effects, capacity is observed to be higher than that of a dual-polarized system over the majority of a field of view. PMID:27019723

  15. On the Generation of Multiple Atmospheric Pressure Waves Observed During Violent Volcanic Eruptions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medici, E. F.; Waite, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    One or more atmospheric pressure waves followed by a supersonic jet may be generated during the over pressurized vapor-solid-liquid mixture ejection of a violent volcanic eruption. The source of these multiple atmospheric pressure waves could have different origins. Among the physical mechanisms that could explain these behaviors are pulsating eruptions, the dynamics of shock waves, coupled pressure wave-supersonic jet interaction, or a combination of all these factors. In order to elucidate the causes of these complex fluid flow dynamics, a series of analog volcanic eruption experiments using an atmospheric shock tube were performed. During the testing, single and multiple pressure waves and the subsequent supersonic jet were generated. The controlled laboratory conditions enable studies of the most relevant variables potentially responsible for the formation of the multiple pressure waves. The tests were performed using dry, compressed nitrogen at standard room temperature that was free of particles. Yet, under this idealization of a real volcanic eruption, multiple pressure waves were observed on the high-speed video imaging and recorded on the pressure transducer. The amount of energy being released on each test was varied to achieve different discharge dynamics and the formation of single and multiple pressure waves. The preliminary experimental observations indicate a coupled pressure wave-jet interaction as source of multiple pressure waves.

  16. a Modified Sine-Condition for Single Reflector X-Ray Optics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keski-Kuha, Ritva Anna Marjatta

    1982-03-01

    Any reduction in the amount of coma in an optical system implies that Abbe's sine-condition is being satisfied to some extent. Abbe's sine-condition as stated and sometimes derived in standard optics textbooks refers to refraction optics. The usual admonition accompanying its statement is to keep the object and image size small. It is not clear with what the object and image sizes should be compared. The difficulty of interpreting and applying Abbe's sine-condition is further coufounded when x-ray reflection optical-systems are under consideration. What if any changes in its form or interpretation occur in the case of reflection optics and in particular grazing incidence optics at x-ray wavelengths? Previous applications of the usual form of Abbe's sine -condition would rule out the possibility of using a single x-ray reflector for good imaging, free of coma. However, the high quality of some experimental x-ray images using single reflecting surfaces raised some questions about the interpretation and limits of Abbe's sine-condition. These questions are more satisfactorily answered by the development herein of a new and highly quantitative sine-condition applicable to x-ray reflection from a single surface. Ray tracing results for a number of different surface shapes, such as circular, elliptical and cubic are compared as to attainable resolution and freedom from coma. One use of the new sine-condition is to generate a new reflecting surface and compare its performance with the more common surfaces. Another use is to specify the optical parameters such as magnification, focal length and field of view allowable for an image of specified quality in terms of wave-abberation theory.

  17. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  18. Benjamin Banneker and the Law of Sines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Benjamin Banneker, a self-taught mathematician, surveyor and astronomer published annual almanacs containing his astronomical observations and predictions. Banneker who also used logarithms to apply the Law of Sines believed that the method used to solve a mathematical problem depends on the tools available.

  19. Bounds on least-squares four-parameter sine-fit errors due to harmonic distortion and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Deyst, J.P.; Souders, T.M.; Solomon, O.M.

    1994-03-01

    Least-squares sine-fit algorithms are used extensively in signal processing applications. The parameter estimates produced by such algorithms are subject to both random and systematic errors when the record of input samples consists of a fundamental sine wave corrupted by harmonic distortion or noise. The errors occur because, in general, such sine-fits will incorporate a portion of the harmonic distortion or noise into their estimate of the fundamental. Bounds are developed for these errors for least-squares four-parameter (amplitude, frequency, phase, and offset) sine-fit algorithms. The errors are functions of the number of periods in the record, the number of samples in the record, the harmonic order, and fundamental and harmonic amplitudes and phases. The bounds do not apply to cases in which harmonic components become aliased.

  20. Sine-Fitting Software for IEEE Standard 1057

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, Jerome

    1999-05-01

    Software application that performs the calculations related to the sine-fit tests of IEEE Standard 1057/94. Example outputs and explainations of these outputs to determine the important characteristics of the device under test. This application performs the calculations related to sine-fit tests and uses 4-parameter sine fit from IEEE Standard 1057-1994.

  1. Ground vibration test results of a JetStar airplane using impulsive sine excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Michael W.; Voracek, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Structural excitation is important for both ground vibration and flight flutter testing. The structural responses caused by this excitation are analyzed to determine frequency, damping, and mode shape information. Many excitation waveforms have been used throughout the years. The use of impulsive sine (sin omega t)/omega t as an excitation waveform for ground vibration testing and the advantages of using this waveform for flight flutter testing are discussed. The ground vibration test results of a modified JetStar airplane using impulsive sine as an excitation waveform are compared with the test results of the same airplane using multiple-input random excitation. The results indicated that the structure was sufficiently excited using the impulsive sine waveform. Comparisons of input force spectrums, mode shape plots, and frequency and damping values for the two methods of excitation are presented.

  2. Optical sensing of analytes in aqueous solutions with a multiple surface-plasmon-polariton-wave platform

    PubMed Central

    Swiontek, Stephen E.; Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2013-01-01

    The commonly used optical sensor based on surface plasmon-polariton wave phenomenon can sense just one chemical, because only one SPP wave can be guided by the interface of a metal and a dielectric material contained in the sensor. Multiple analytes could be detected and/or the sensing reliability for a single analyte could be enhanced, if multiple SPP-wave modes could be excited on a single metal/dielectric interface. For that to happen, the partnering dielectric material must be periodically non-homogeneous. Using a chiral sculptured thin film (CSTF) as that material in a SPP-wave platform, we show that the angular locations of multiple SPP-wave modes shift when the void regions of the CSTF are infiltrated with a fluid. The sensitivities realized in the proof-of-concept experiments are comparable to state-of-research values. PMID:23474988

  3. PHYSICAL FOUNDATIONS OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS: Multiple reflection method for electromagnetic waves in layered dielectric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, G. V.; Maev, R. G.; Drake, G. W. F.

    2001-09-01

    Reflection and transmission of a plane electromagnetic wave propagating in a layered dielectric structure with an arbitrary number of layers of various thicknesses are investigated. For the general case of oblique incidence of the wave on this structure, the reflection and transmission coefficients are calculated for both TE and TM waves using a multiple reflection method. An algorithm to apply the obtained formulas for numerical and analytical calculations is suggested.

  4. Photonic generation of a millimeter-wave signal based on sextuple-frequency multiplication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Wang, Tianliang; Xie, Shizhong

    2007-05-01

    A millimeter-wave signal with sextuple-frequency multiplication of a microwave source is obtained with two cascaded optical modulators, which are driven by the same microwave source with phase deviation of pi/2 introduced by an electrical phase shifter. Without any optical filter, a wideband continuously tunable millimeter-wave signal is easily generated. PMID:17410221

  5. Photonic generation of a millimeter-wave signal based on sextuple-frequency multiplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hongwei; Chen, Minghua; Wang, Tianliang; Xie, Shizhong

    2007-05-01

    A millimeter-wave signal with sextuple-frequency multiplication of a microwave source is obtained with two cascaded optical modulators, which are driven by the same microwave source with phase deviation of π/2 introduced by an electrical phase shifter. Without any optical filter, a wideband continuously tunable millimeter-wave signal is easily generated.

  6. Linear stability of multiple internal solitary waves in fluids of great depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuno, Y.; Kaup, D. J.

    1997-02-01

    The linear stability of the multiple solitary wave solution of the Benjamin-Ono (BO) equation is studied analytically. By establishing the completeness relation for the eigenfunctions of the BO equation linearized about multisoliton solutions, we solve the initial value problem for this system. We find that the wave under consideration is stable against infinitesimal perturbations.

  7. Seismic Waves within Earth's Outer Core: Multiple Reflection.

    PubMed

    Engdahl, E R

    1968-07-19

    Seismic waves reflected as many as four times within Earth's outer core are routinely recorded from large earthquakes. Observations of these waves are confined to rays near grazing incidence on the core-mantle boundary, in agreement with theoretical expectation. Minor adjustments to outer-core velocities may be necessary to account for certain of these arrivals that are not predicted by present core models. A change of 10 kilometers or more in the currently accepted core radius, 3473 kilometers, is not corroborated by the new data. PMID:17821162

  8. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) of the Geomyoidea superfamily rodents.

    PubMed

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2006-05-24

    A new short interspersed element (SINE) was isolated from the genome of desert kangaroo rat (Dipodomys deserti) using single-primer PCR. This SINE consists of two monomers: the left monomer (IDL) resembles rodent ID element and other tRNAAla(CGC)-derived SINEs, whereas the right one (Geo) shows no similarity with known SINE sequences. PCR and hybridization analyses demonstrated that IDL-Geo SINE is restricted to the rodent superfamily Geomyoidea (families Geomyidea and Heteromyidea). Isolation and analysis of IDL-Geo from California pocket mouse (Chaetodipus californicus) and Botta's pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) revealed some species-specific features of this SINE family. The structure and evolution of known dimeric SINEs are discussed. PMID:16517098

  9. Visualization of shock-wave formation processes during shock reflection at obstacles with multiple steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Susumu; Adachi, Takashi

    According to standard textbooks on compressible fluid dynamics, a shock wave is formed by an accumulation of compression waves. However, the process by which an accumulated compression wave grows into a shock wave has never been visualized. In the present paper, the authors tried to visualize this process using a model wedge with multiple steps. This model is useful for generating a series of compression waves and can simulate a compression process that occurs in a shock tube. By estimating the triple-point trajectory angle, we demonstrated visually that an accumulated compression wave grows into a shock wave. Further reflection experiments over a rough-surface wedge confirmed the tendency for the triple point trajectory angle χ to reach the asymptotic value χs in the end.

  10. The noncommutative sine-Gordon breather

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Andre; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2009-09-15

    As shown by Lechtenfeld et al. [Nucl. Phys. B 705, 447 (2005)], there exists a noncommutative deformation of the sine-Gordon model which remains (classically) integrable but features a second scalar field. We employ the dressing method (adapted to the Moyal-deformed situation) for constructing the deformed kink-antikink and breather configurations. Explicit results and plots are presented for the leading noncommutativity correction to the breather. Its temporal periodicity is unchanged.

  11. Uniqueness and stability of traveling waves for cellular neural networks with multiple delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhi-Xian; Mei, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the properties of traveling waves to a class of lattice differential equations for cellular neural networks with multiple delays. Following the previous study [38] on the existence of the traveling waves, here we focus on the uniqueness and the stability of these traveling waves. First of all, by establishing the a priori asymptotic behavior of traveling waves and applying Ikehara's theorem, we prove the uniqueness (up to translation) of traveling waves ϕ (n - ct) with c ≤c* for the cellular neural networks with multiple delays, where c* < 0 is the critical wave speed. Then, by the weighted energy method together with the squeezing technique, we further show the global stability of all non-critical traveling waves for this model, that is, for all monotone waves with the speed c waves, when the initial perturbations around the monotone traveling waves decay exponentially at far fields, but can be arbitrarily large in other locations.

  12. Microwave-Photonic Frequency Multiplication Utilizing Optical Four-Wave Mixing and Fiber Bragg Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiberg, Andreas; Pérez-Millán, Pere; Andrés, Miguel V.; Hedekvist, Per Olof

    2006-01-01

    A novel technique for optical multiplication of a millimeter-wave carrier is presented. It utilizes optical four-wave mixing (FWM) in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) and the filtering properties of matched fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs). The technique includes a sixfold electrical frequency multiplication in the optical domain. In this experiment, the multiplicator is driven electronically at 6.67 GHz, and the created millimeter wave has a frequency of 40 GHz. The generated carrier has a linewidth lower than 3 Hz and a carrier to noise ratio exceeding 50 dB. Furthermore, successful data transmission over the optical fiber of 2.5 Gb/s on the generated millimeter-wave carrier was performed.

  13. Reconstructing surface wave profiles from reflected acoustic pulses using multiple receivers.

    PubMed

    Walstead, Sean P; Deane, Grant B

    2014-08-01

    Surface wave shapes are determined by analyzing underwater reflected acoustic signals collected at multiple receivers. The transmitted signals are of nominal frequency 300 kHz and are reflected off surface gravity waves that are paddle-generated in a wave tank. An inverse processing algorithm reconstructs 50 surface wave shapes over a length span of 2.10 m. The inverse scheme uses a broadband forward scattering model based on Kirchhoff's diffraction formula to determine wave shapes. The surface reconstruction algorithm is self-starting in that source and receiver geometry and initial estimates of wave shape are determined from the same acoustic signals used in the inverse processing. A high speed camera provides ground-truth measurements of the surface wave field for comparison with the acoustically derived surface waves. Within Fresnel zone regions the statistical confidence of the inversely optimized surface profile exceeds that of the camera profile. Reconstructed surfaces are accurate to a resolution of about a quarter-wavelength of the acoustic pulse only within Fresnel zones associated with each source and receiver pair. Multiple isolated Fresnel zones from multiple receivers extend the spatial extent of accurate surface reconstruction while overlapping Fresnel zones increase confidence in the optimized profiles there. PMID:25096095

  14. A Persistent Feature of Multiple Scattering of Waves in the Time-Domain: A Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, James A.; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    The equations for frequency-domain multiple scattering are derived for a scalar or electromagnetic plane wave incident on a collection of particles at known positions, and in the time-domain for a plane wave pulse incident on the same collection of particles. The calculation is carried out for five different combinations of wave types and particle types of increasing geometrical complexity. The results are used to illustrate and discuss a number of physical and mathematical characteristics of multiple scattering in the frequency- and time-domains. We argue that frequency-domain multiple scattering is a purely mathematical construct since there is no temporal sequencing information in the frequency-domain equations and since the multi-particle path information can be dispelled by writing the equations in another mathematical form. However, multiple scattering becomes a definite physical phenomenon in the time-domain when the collection of particles is illuminated by an appropriately short localized pulse.

  15. Bifurcations, crisis, unstable dimension variability and the spreading transition in the coupled sine circle map system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, A.; Jabeen, Z.; Gupte, N.

    2014-12-01

    The dynamical behavior of spatially extended dynamical systems can have interesting consequences for their statistics. We demonstrate this in a specific context, a system of coupled sine circle maps, and discuss the interconnection between the statistical and dynamical behaviors of the system. The system has an interesting phase diagram in parameter space wherein a spreading transition is seen across an infection line, with spatio-temporal and spatial intermittency of distinct universality classes (directed percolation and non-directed percolation) seen in the spreading/non-spreading regimes. The dynamical origins of the spreading transition, lie in a crisis arising from a tangent bifurcation in the system. In addition to changing the statistics, and therefore the universality class of the system, the crisis also has dynamical consequences. Unstable dimension variability is seen in the neighbourhood of this crisis, and multiple routes to crisis are seen due to the presence of multi-attractor solutions. We examine the system using a variety of characterizers such as finite time Lyapunov exponents and their distributions. We discuss the signatures of the phenomena seen in the quantifiers, and also whether similar techniques can be extended to other situations. Finally, we demonstrate the success of the quantifiers in another regime, spatio-temporal intermittency with travelling wave laminar solutions, and a solitonic regime.

  16. Multiple charge density wave transitions in Gd2Te5

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, K.Y.; Ru, N.; Condron, C.L.; Wu, Y.Q.; Kramer, M.J.; Toney, M.F.; Fisher, I.R.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2010-02-15

    Diffraction measurements performed via transmission electron microscopy and high resolution X-ray scattering reveal two distinct charge density wave transitions in Gd{sub 2}Te{sub 5} at T{sub c1} = 410(3) and T{sub c2} = 532(3) K, associated with the on-axis incommensurate lattice modulation and off-axis commensurate lattice modulation respectively. Analysis of the temperature dependence of the order parameters indicates a non-vanishing coupling between these two distinct CDW states.

  17. Spinal Arteriovenous Malformation Masquerating Zoster Sine Herpete

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Young; Ok, Se Jin; Oh, Chang Keun; Park, Sun Kyung; Kim, Do Wan

    2013-01-01

    Zoster sine herpete (ZSH) is difficult to diagnosis during an acute period due to the absence of the characteristic zosteriform dermatomal rash; therefore, progression to postherpetic neuralgia is more common than typical zoster. In addition, misdiagnosis of other neuropathic pain as ZSH is common in clinical situations. Here, we report a case of spinal arteriovenous malformation that mimics ZSH. This is a rare condition; therefore, high clinical suspicion for a correct diagnosis and proper examination are not easy. However, early diagnosis and definitive treatment are essential to prevent neurologic deficit and mortality. PMID:23342212

  18. Influence of multiple ion species on low-frequency electromagnetic wave instabilities. [in solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinca, Armando L.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of multiple (singly ionized) coexisting newborn ion species on the stability of low-frequency electromagnetic waves was investigated using a plasma model in which solar wind magnetoplasma is made up of isotropic Maxwellian electron and proton populations with a common number density of 4.95/cu cm and temperatures equal to 17.2 eV and 6.9 eV, respectively. It is shown that the effect of multiple ions on wave growth, for given background magnetoplasma conditions and relative densities, depends not only on their mass but also on the physical nature of the wave modes. If the ion masses are disparate, each one of the coexisting ion beams tends to stimulate instabilities without undue influence from the other species. If the masses of newborn ions are similar, they can strongly catalyze wave growth of fluidlike nonresonant modes, but bring about weak growth enhancements in cyclotron resonant instabilities.

  19. Numerical investigation on optimizing blast wave focusing effects for multiple munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Shi; Eliasson, Veronica

    2015-11-01

    The phenomenon of blast wave focusing onto a specified target has been studied. Simulations were performed in which multiple munitions were placed in a circular pattern around a target. The number of munitions was varied through multiple cases while the total energy distributed among all munitions was held constant. Previous research shows that there exits an optimal number of munitions to produce the most extreme conditions at the target while simultaneously reducing collateral damage. Two numerical approaches, inviscid Euler equations and geometrical shock dynamics were used to study the interaction between blast waves in order to further investigate the optimization problem. To generate initial conditions for geometrical shock dynamics simulations on interaction between blast waves, it was found that a transition point between regular reflection and irregular reflection needs to be determined in advance. Both experimental and theoretical investigation is included to study the transition condition. Optimization strategy for focusing blast waves is also discussed.

  20. Generalized F-statistic: Multiple detectors and multiple gravitational wave pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, Curt; Schutz, Bernard F.

    2005-09-15

    The F-statistic, derived by Jaranowski, Krolak and Schutz (1998), is the optimal (frequentist) statistic for the detection of nearly periodic gravitational waves from known neutron stars, in the presence of stationary, Gaussian detector noise. The F-statistic was originally derived for the case of a single detector, whose noise spectral density was assumed constant in time, and for a single known neutron star. Here we show how the F-statistic can be straightforwardly generalized to the cases of (1) a network of detectors with time-varying noise curves, and (2) a collection of known sources (e.g., all known millisecond pulsars within some fixed distance). Fortunately, all the important ingredients that go into our generalized F-statistics are already calculated in the single-source/single-detector searches that are currently implemented, e.g., in the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory software library, so implementation of optimal multidetector, multisource searches should require negligible additional cost in computational power or software development. This paper also includes an analysis of the likely efficacy of a collection-type search, and derives criteria for deciding which candidate sources should be included in a collection, if one is trying to maximize the detectability of the whole. In particular we show that for sources distributed uniformly in a thin disk, the strongest source in the collection should have signal-to-noise-squared {approx}5 times larger than weakest source, for an optimized collection. We show that gravitational waves from collection of the few brightest (in gravitational waves) neutron stars could perhaps be detected before the single brightest source, but that this is far from guaranteed. Once gravitational waves from the few brightest neutron stars have been discovered, grouping more distant (individually undetectable) pulsars into collections, and then searching for those collections, should be an effective way of

  1. Generalized F-statistic: Multiple detectors and multiple gravitational wave pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Curt; Schutz, Bernard F.

    2005-09-01

    The F-statistic, derived by Jaranowski, Krolak and Schutz (1998), is the optimal (frequentist) statistic for the detection of nearly periodic gravitational waves from known neutron stars, in the presence of stationary, Gaussian detector noise. The F-statistic was originally derived for the case of a single detector, whose noise spectral density was assumed constant in time, and for a single known neutron star. Here we show how the F-statistic can be straightforwardly generalized to the cases of (1) a network of detectors with time-varying noise curves, and (2) a collection of known sources (e.g., all known millisecond pulsars within some fixed distance). Fortunately, all the important ingredients that go into our generalized F-statistics are already calculated in the single-source/single-detector searches that are currently implemented, e.g., in the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory software library, so implementation of optimal multidetector, multisource searches should require negligible additional cost in computational power or software development. This paper also includes an analysis of the likely efficacy of a collection-type search, and derives criteria for deciding which candidate sources should be included in a collection, if one is trying to maximize the detectability of the whole. In particular we show that for sources distributed uniformly in a thin disk, the strongest source in the collection should have signal-to-noise-squared ˜5 times larger than weakest source, for an optimized collection. We show that gravitational waves from collection of the few brightest (in gravitational waves) neutron stars could perhaps be detected before the single brightest source, but that this is far from guaranteed. Once gravitational waves from the few brightest neutron stars have been discovered, grouping more distant (individually undetectable) pulsars into collections, and then searching for those collections, should be an effective way of

  2. [Research on the Method of Blood Pressure Monitoring Based on Multiple Parameters of Pulse Wave].

    PubMed

    Miao, Changyun; Mu, Dianwei; Zhang, Cheng; Miao, Chunjiao; Li, Hongqiang

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of blood pressure measurement in wearable devices, this paper presents a method for detecting blood pressure based on multiple parameters of pulse wave. Based on regression analysis between blood pressure and the characteristic parameters of pulse wave, such as the pulse wave transit time (PWTT), cardiac output, coefficient of pulse wave, the average slope of the ascending branch, heart rate, etc. we established a model to calculate blood pressure. For overcoming the application deficiencies caused by measuring ECG in wearable device, such as replacing electrodes and ECG lead sets which are not convenient, we calculated the PWTT with heart sound as reference (PWTT(PCG)). We experimentally verified the detection of blood pressure based on PWTT(PCG) and based on multiple parameters of pulse wave. The experiment results showed that it was feasible to calculate the PWTT from PWTT(PCG). The mean measurement error of the systolic and diastolic blood pressure calculated by the model based on multiple parameters of pulse wave is 1.62 mm Hg and 1.12 mm Hg, increased by 57% and 53% compared to those of the model based on simple parameter. This method has more measurement accuracy. PMID:26964321

  3. Basilar-membrane interference patterns from multiple internal reflection of cochlear traveling waves

    PubMed Central

    Shera, Christopher A.; Cooper, Nigel P.

    2013-01-01

    At low stimulus levels, basilar-membrane (BM) mechanical transfer functions in sensitive cochleae manifest a quasiperiodic rippling pattern in both amplitude and phase. Analysis of the responses of active cochlear models suggests that the rippling is a mechanical interference pattern created by multiple internal reflection within the cochlea. In models, the interference arises when reverse-traveling waves responsible for stimulus-frequency otoacoustic emissions (SFOAEs) reflect off the stapes on their way to the ear canal, launching a secondary forward-traveling wave that combines with the primary wave produced by the stimulus. Frequency-dependent phase differences between the two waves then create the rippling pattern measurable on the BM. Measurements of BM ripples and SFOAEs in individual chinchilla ears demonstrate that the ripples are strongly correlated with the acoustic interference pattern measured in ear-canal pressure, consistent with a common origin involving the generation of SFOAEs. In BM responses to clicks, the ripples appear as temporal fine structure in the response envelope (multiple lobes, waxing and waning). Analysis of the ripple spacing and response phase gradients provides a test for the role of fast- and slow-wave modes of reverse energy propagation within the cochlea. The data indicate that SFOAE delays are consistent with reverse slow-wave propagation but much too long to be explained by fast waves. PMID:23556591

  4. Multiple scattering of surface waves by cavities in a half-space

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, Haidang; Cho, Younho; Ju, Taeho; Achenbach, Jan D.

    2014-02-18

    Scattering of surface waves from multiple two-dimensional cavities at the surface of a homogenous, isotropic, linearly elastic half-space is analyzed in this work. For the case of multiple cavities, the scattered field is shown to be equivalent to the total radiation from the distributions of tractions, calculated from the incident wave, over the surfaces of the cavities. The multiple-scattering model is obtained from known single-scattering calculation for a cavity by the use of the self-consistent method. The second order approximation to the multiple-scattering problem by a random distribution of cavities is then considered and solved analytically. The vertical displacement at some distance from the cavities is calculated and verified by the solution of the same problem obtained by the boundary element method (BEM). The analytical and BEM results are graphically displayed and show good agreement when the depths of the cavities are small compared to the wavelength.

  5. Multiple Spherically Converging Shock Waves in Liquid Deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehly, T. R.; Goncharov, V. N.; Hu, S. X.; Collins, T. J. B.; Marozas, J. A.; Sangster, T. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Celliers, P. M.; Hicks, D. G.; Collins, G. W.

    2011-10-01

    High-performance ICF target designs use multiple shocks to condition the shell before it is imploded. Accurate timing of these shocks is critical to target performance. We report on experiments on the OMEGA Laser System using directly driven spherical targets filled with liquid deuterium where up to four spherically converging shocks were observed and timed. This technique is the basis for tuning campaigns performed at the National Ignition Facility. The measured shock-velocity profiles exhibit the effects of spherical convergence (pressure increase with decreasing radius) and very high shock velocities (135 km/s). Simulations of these experiments accurately model the shock velocities and timing when a nonlocal electron-transport model is used for heat conduction. The self-emission from these shocks provides the temperature of deuterium shocked to 1 to 5 Mbar. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Inertial Confinement Fusion under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC52-08NA28302.

  6. Rayleigh Wave and Shear Wave Tomography of Northeastern China: Results Coconstrained by Multiple Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, T.; Chen, J.; Han, J.; Tian, Y.; Wu, M.; Yang, Y.; Ning, J.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate crustal and upper mantle phase velocity structures beneath NorthEastern China (NEC, 40°-54°N, 112°-135°E), a tectonically active region with continental volcanicity divided by active faults. Rayleigh wave phase velocity is obtained respectively by Ambient Noise Method (ANM, Lin et al., GJI, 2009), Two Station Method (TSM, Meier et al., GJI, 2004) and Two Plane Wave Method (TPWM, Yang and Forsyth, JGR, 2005), assuring good frequency coverage. Two-year' events with magnitude Ms>5.5 and epicentral distance Δ>30°recorded by NECESSArray and some permanent stations of CEA are together used in TPWM and TSM, while 1 s continuous seismic observations in the same period are employed in ANM. The period of Rayleigh wave phase velocity spans from 6 s to 150 s, i.e., from 6 s to 30 s (ANM); 30 s to 100 s (TPWM) and 30 s to 150 s (TSM). Shear wave velocity structure of the research region is obtained by Weighted Least Squares Inversion, in which the weight is adopted as function of data quality. Our results not only display close relation with tectonics of this region, such as mountains, sedimentary basins, faults, but also reveal variation feature of crustal thickness. Moreover, our results clearly show that all volcanos in this region have their roots — low velocity zones, among them the roots of Changbai, Jingbohu, Wudalianchi are obviously connected, while the biggest one of Daxinganling is separated. This feature might be result of an early intense eruption in western NEC and a late weak one in eastern NEC.

  7. Multiple-coincidence of flood waves on the main river and its tributaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prohaska, S.; Ilic, A.; Majkic, B.

    2008-11-01

    This paper addresses the definition of multiple coincidences of flood waves on the main river and its tributaries. Contrary to previous studies of partial coincidences of various flood parameters (Prohaska 1999) for the main river and one of its tributaries, this procedure allows for the definition of complex (multiple) coincidences of a single parameter for the main river and several of its tributaries. In particular, coincidence is defined for the major parameter which characterizes a flood (i.e., the flood wave volume). The paper gives a practical example of the analysis of simultaneous flood waves on the Danube and its main tributaries in Serbia: the Tisa and the Sava rivers. The procedure for potential use of the established coincidence functions in applied water management and forecasting is also described in the paper.

  8. A Cryogenic Half-Wave Plate Module to Measure Polarization at Multiple FIR Passbands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rennick, Timothy S.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Hildebrand, Roger H.; Heimsath, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the key components in a far-infrared polarimeter that is being designed at the University of Chicago is a locally-powered half-wave plate module. This compact, lightweight, and reliable module will operate at cryogenic temperatures, rotating a half-wave plate about its axis within the optical path. By doing so, polarization measurements can be made. Further, by utilizing multiple half-wave plate modules within the polarimeter, multiple wavelengths or passbands can be studied. In this paper, we describe the design and performance of a relatively inexpensive prototype module that was assembled and tested successfully, outline the difficulties that had to be overcome, and recommend improvements to future modules. This effort now lays some of the groundwork for a next-generation polarimeter for far-infrared astronomy.

  9. High frame rate photoacoustic imaging using multiple wave-length LED array light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agano, Toshitaka; Sato, Naoto; Nakatsuka, Hitoshi; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Hanaoka, Takamitsu; Morisono, Koji; Shigeta, Yusuke; Tanaka, Chizuyo

    2016-03-01

    We have successfully imaged photoacoustic differences of light absorbance between two images acquired by different wave-length LED array light source. Compared to photoacoustic imaging system using conventional solid-state laser light source, LED light source can be driven at higher frequency pulses, so we were able to get the subtraction image at higher frame rate that calculated from two images which were captured at each wave-length LED light pulse timing. We developed LED array light source which is composed to have two different wave-length chips, so each wave-length light pulse can be controlled and emitted freely. Thus LED array light source can be composed as multiple selectable wavelength more than two, and a various combination of subtraction image may become available at high frame rate.

  10. Correlations among angular wave component amplitudes in elastic multiple-scattering random media.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Brian G; Deslauriers, Louis; Grannell, Shawn M; Ahmed, Rizwan E; Dilworth, David S; Athey, Brian D; Leith, Emmett N

    2002-02-01

    The propagation of scalar waves through random media that provide multiple elastic scattering is considered by derivation of an expression for the angular correlation of the scattered wave amplitudes. Coherent wave transmission is shown to occur through a mechanism similar to that responsible for coherent backscattering. While the properties of the scattered wave are generally consistent with radiative-transfer theory for sufficiently small incident and scattering angles, coherent transmission provides corrections to radiative-transfer results at larger angles. The theoretical angular correlation curves are fit, by specifying the probability densities of two random variables that correspond to material parameters, to measured data of laser light scattering from various polymer microsphere suspensions. PMID:11863685

  11. Damage Evaluation Based on a Wave Energy Flow Map Using Multiple PZT Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaolu; Hu, Ning; Xu, Hong; Yuan, Weifeng; Yan, Cheng; Li, Yuan; Goda, Riu; Alamusi; Qiu, Jinhao; Ning, Huiming; Wu, Liangke

    2014-01-01

    A new wave energy flow (WEF) map concept was proposed in this work. Based on it, an improved technique incorporating the laser scanning method and Betti's reciprocal theorem was developed to evaluate the shape and size of damage as well as to realize visualization of wave propagation. In this technique, a simple signal processing algorithm was proposed to construct the WEF map when waves propagate through an inspection region, and multiple lead zirconate titanate (PZT) sensors were employed to improve inspection reliability. Various damages in aluminum and carbon fiber reinforced plastic laminated plates were experimentally and numerically evaluated to validate this technique. The results show that it can effectively evaluate the shape and size of damage from wave field variations around the damage in the WEF map. PMID:24463430

  12. Shear wavelength estimation based on inverse filtering and multiple-point shear wave generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitazaki, Tomoaki; Kondo, Kengo; Yamakawa, Makoto; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2016-07-01

    Elastography provides important diagnostic information because tissue elasticity is related to pathological conditions. For example, in a mammary gland, higher grade malignancies yield harder tumors. Estimating shear wave speed enables the quantification of tissue elasticity imaging using time-of-flight. However, time-of-flight measurement is based on an assumption about the propagation direction of a shear wave which is highly affected by reflection and refraction, and thus might cause an artifact. An alternative elasticity estimation approach based on shear wavelength was proposed and applied to passive configurations. To determine the elasticity of tissue more quickly and more accurately, we proposed a new method for shear wave elasticity imaging that combines the shear wavelength approach and inverse filtering with multiple shear wave sources induced by acoustic radiation force (ARF). The feasibility of the proposed method was verified using an elasticity phantom with a hard inclusion.

  13. An experimental investigation of multiple shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions in a circular duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Om, D.; Childs, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed pitot, static and wall pressure measurements have been obtained for multiple shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions in a circular duct at a free-stream Mach number of 1.49 and at a unit Reynolds number of 4.90 x 10 to the 6th per meter. The details of the flow field show the formation of a series of normal shock waves with successively decreasing strength and with decreasing distance between the successive shock waves. The overall pressure recovery is much lower than the single normal shock pressure recovery at the same free-stream Mach number. A one-dimensional flow model based on the boundary layer displacement buildup is postulated to explain the formation of a series of normal shock waves.

  14. Multiple scattering of scalar waves by point scatterers in one dimension. I

    SciTech Connect

    Haacke, E.M.; Foldy, L.L.

    1981-04-01

    We discuss the problem of scalar wave multiple scattering in one dimension on a target of n identical fixed scatterers with delta-function potentials. We consider in detail a statistical ensemble of configurations of scatterers whose positions are uniformly distributed throughout the scattering region. We succeed in analytically performing a configurational average (over all scatterer positions) for the wave function for the problem of a transmitted wave with constant amplitude. We discuss the relationship between this problem and the standard problem of an incident wave with constant amplitude. From the simple closed form for the average of the wave function, the optical potential for the system is obtained. We then present the large and small incident particle wavelength limits (with respect to the length (L) of the scattering region) for both the average of the wave function and the optical potential. We also examine the question as to where the optical potential can be approximated by the form it takes in the limit of infinite n. (The question of where in parameter space this occurs and how well the transmitted and reflected waves can be predicted with this form is discussed in the following paper.) Furthermore, we consider the large incident particle wave number limit for the average wave function and the optical potential for a general distribution of the scatterer positions in the limit of both n and L approaching infinity but with n/L remaining fixed. Lastly, knowing the simple closed form for the average of the wave function, we prove that the effective field approximation becomes exact in the limit of infinite n with all other parameters held fixed.

  15. FIRST SDO AIA OBSERVATIONS OF A GLOBAL CORONAL EUV 'WAVE': MULTIPLE COMPONENTS AND 'RIPPLES'

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Title, Alan M.; Tarbell, Theodore D.

    2010-11-01

    We present the first Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) observations of a global coronal EUV disturbance (so-called 'EIT wave') revealed in unprecedented detail. The disturbance observed on 2010 April 8 exhibits two components: one diffuse pulse superimposed, on which are multiple sharp fronts that have slow and fast components. The disturbance originates in front of erupting coronal loops and some sharp fronts undergo accelerations, both effects implying that the disturbance is driven by a coronal mass ejection. The diffuse pulse, propagating at a uniform velocity of 204-238 km s{sup -1} with very little angular dependence within its extent in the south, maintains its coherence and stable profile for {approx}30 minutes. Its arrival at increasing distances coincides with the onsets of loop expansions and the slow sharp front. The fast sharp front overtakes the slow front, producing multiple 'ripples' and steepening the local pulse, and both fronts propagate independently afterward. This behavior resembles the nature of real waves. Unexpectedly, the amplitude and FWHM of the diffuse pulse decrease linearly with distance. A hybrid model, combining both wave and non-wave components, can explain many, but not all, of the observations. Discoveries of the two-component fronts and multiple ripples were made possible for the first time thanks to AIA's high cadences ({<=}20 s) and high signal-to-noise ratio.

  16. Bridging Three Orders of Magnitude: Multiple Scattered Waves Sense Fractal Microscopic Structures via Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Simon A.; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Nordsletten, David; Michler, Christian; Juge, Lauriane; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Bilston, Lynne; Guzina, Bojan; Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph

    2015-08-01

    Wave scattering provides profound insight into the structure of matter. Typically, the ability to sense microstructure is determined by the ratio of scatterer size to probing wavelength. Here, we address the question of whether macroscopic waves can report back the presence and distribution of microscopic scatterers despite several orders of magnitude difference in scale between wavelength and scatterer size. In our analysis, monosized hard scatterers 5 μ m in radius are immersed in lossless gelatin phantoms to investigate the effect of multiple reflections on the propagation of shear waves with millimeter wavelength. Steady-state monochromatic waves are imaged in situ via magnetic resonance imaging, enabling quantification of the phase velocity at a voxel size big enough to contain thousands of individual scatterers, but small enough to resolve the wavelength. We show in theory, experiments, and simulations that the resulting coherent superposition of multiple reflections gives rise to power-law dispersion at the macroscopic scale if the scatterer distribution exhibits apparent fractality over an effective length scale that is comparable to the probing wavelength. Since apparent fractality is naturally present in any random medium, microstructure can thereby leave its fingerprint on the macroscopically quantifiable power-law exponent. Our results are generic to wave phenomena and carry great potential for sensing microstructure that exhibits intrinsic fractality, such as, for instance, vasculature.

  17. Bridging Three Orders of Magnitude: Multiple Scattered Waves Sense Fractal Microscopic Structures via Dispersion.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Simon A; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Nordsletten, David; Michler, Christian; Juge, Lauriane; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Bilston, Lynne; Guzina, Bojan; Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph

    2015-08-28

    Wave scattering provides profound insight into the structure of matter. Typically, the ability to sense microstructure is determined by the ratio of scatterer size to probing wavelength. Here, we address the question of whether macroscopic waves can report back the presence and distribution of microscopic scatterers despite several orders of magnitude difference in scale between wavelength and scatterer size. In our analysis, monosized hard scatterers 5  μm in radius are immersed in lossless gelatin phantoms to investigate the effect of multiple reflections on the propagation of shear waves with millimeter wavelength. Steady-state monochromatic waves are imaged in situ via magnetic resonance imaging, enabling quantification of the phase velocity at a voxel size big enough to contain thousands of individual scatterers, but small enough to resolve the wavelength. We show in theory, experiments, and simulations that the resulting coherent superposition of multiple reflections gives rise to power-law dispersion at the macroscopic scale if the scatterer distribution exhibits apparent fractality over an effective length scale that is comparable to the probing wavelength. Since apparent fractality is naturally present in any random medium, microstructure can thereby leave its fingerprint on the macroscopically quantifiable power-law exponent. Our results are generic to wave phenomena and carry great potential for sensing microstructure that exhibits intrinsic fractality, such as, for instance, vasculature. PMID:26371655

  18. Van Allen Probes observations linking radiation belt electrons to chorus waves during 2014 multiple storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Si; Xiao, Fuliang; Yang, Chang; He, Yihua; Zhou, Qinghua; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Hospodarsky, G. B.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.; Baker, D. N.; Wygant, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    During 18 February to 2 March 2014, the Van Allen Probes encountered multiple geomagnetic storms and simultaneously observed intensified chorus and hiss waves. During this period, there were substantial enhancements in fluxes of energetic (53.8-108.3 keV) and relativistic (2-3.6 MeV) electrons. Chorus waves were excited at locations L = 4-6.2 after the fluxes of energetic were greatly enhanced, with a lower frequency band and wave amplitudes ˜20-100 pT. Strong hiss waves occurred primarily in the main phases or below the location L = 4 in the recovery phases. Relativistic electron fluxes decreased in the main phases due to the adiabatic (e.g., the magnetopause shadowing) or nonadiabatic (hiss-induced scattering) processes. In the recovery phases, relativistic electron fluxes either increased in the presence of enhanced chorus or remained unchanged in the absence of strong chorus or hiss. The observed relativistic electron phase space density peaked around L∗ = 4.5, characteristic of local acceleration. This multiple-storm period reveals a typical picture that chorus waves are excited by the energetic electrons at first and then produce efficient acceleration of relativistic electrons. This further demonstrates that the interplay between both competing mechanisms of chorus-driven acceleration and hiss-driven scattering often occurs in the outer radiation belts.

  19. Delayed Triggering of Early Aftershocks by Multiple Waves Circling the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, B.; Peng, Z.

    2011-12-01

    It is well known that direct surface waves of large earthquakes are capable of triggering shallow earthquakes and deep tremor at long-range distances. Recent studies have shown that multiple surface waves circling the earth could also remotely trigger microearthquakes [Peng et al., 2011]. However, it is still not clear whether multiple surface waves returning back to the mainshock epicenters could also trigger/modulate aftershock activities. Here we conduct a study to search for evidence of such triggering by systematically examining aftershock activities of 20 magnitude-8-or-higher earthquakes since 1990 that are capable of producing surface waves circling the globe repeatedly. We compute the magnitude of completeness for each sequence, and stack all the sequences together to compute the seismicity and moment rates by sliding data windows. The sequences are also shuffled randomly and these rates are compared to the actual data as well as synthetic aftershock sequences to estimate the statistical significance of the results. We also compare them with varying stacks of magnitude 7-8 earthquakes to better understand the possible biases that could be introduced by our rate calculation method. Our preliminary results suggest that there is some moderate increase of early aftershock activity after a few hours when the surface waves return to the epicentral region. However, we could not completely rule out the possibility that such an increase is purely due to random fluctuations of aftershocks or caused by missing aftershocks in the first few hours after the mainshock. We plan to examine continuous waveform data of selected sequences to obtain a better understanding of the multiple surface waves and aftershock activity.

  20. Experimental observation of multiple dispersive waves emitted by multiple mid-infrared solitons in a birefringence tellurite microstuctured optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tonglei; Tuan, Tong Hoang; Xue, Xiaojei; Liu, Lai; Deng, Dinghuan; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2015-08-10

    We experimentally demonstrate multiple dispersive waves (DWs) emitted by multiple mid-infrared solitons in a birefringence tellurite microstuctured optical fiber (BTMOF). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of multiple DWs in the non-silica fibers. By using a pulse of ~80 MHz and ~200 fs emitted from an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) as the pump source, DWs and solitons are investigated on the fast and slow axes of the BTMOF at the pump wavelength of ~1800 nm. With the average pump power increasing from ~200 to 450 mW, the center wavelength of the 1st DW decreases from ~956 to 890 nm, the 2nd DW from ~1039 to 997 nm, the 3rd DW from ~1101 to 1080 nm, and the 4th DW from ~1160 to 1150 nm. Meanwhile, obvious multiple soliton self-frequency shifts (SSFSs) are observed in the mid-infrared region. Furthermore, DWs and solitons at the pump wavelength of ~1400 and 2000 nm are investigated at the average pump power of ~350 mW. PMID:26367917

  1. Analysis of swept-sine runs during modal identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloth, G.; Sinapius, M.

    2004-11-01

    Experimental modal analysis of large aerospace structures in Europe combine nowadays the benefits of the very reliable but time-consuming phase resonance method and the application of phase separation techniques evaluating frequency response functions (FRF). FRFs of a test structure can be determined by a variety of means. Applied excitation signal waveforms include harmonic signals like stepped-sine excitation, periodic signals like multi-sine excitation, transient signals like impulse and swept-sine excitation, and stochastic signals like random. The current article focuses on slow swept-sine excitation which is a good trade-off between magnitude of excitation level needed for large aircraft and testing time. However, recent ground vibration tests (GVTs) brought up that reliable modal data from swept-sine test runs depend on a proper data processing. The article elucidates the strategy of modal analysis based on swept-sine excitation. The standards for the application of slowly swept sinusoids defined by the international organisation for standardisation in ISO 7626 part 2 are critically reviewed. The theoretical background of swept-sine testing is expounded with particular emphasis to the transition through structural resonances. The effect of different standard procedures of data processing like tracking filter, fast Fourier transform (FFT), and data reduction via averaging are investigated with respect to their influence on the FRFs and modal parameters. Particular emphasis is given to FRF distortions evoked by unsuitable data processing. All data processing methods are investigated on a numerical example. Their practical usefulness is demonstrated on test data taken from a recent GVT on a large aircraft. The revision of ISO 7626 part 2 is suggested regarding the application of slow swept-sine excitation. Recommendations about the proper FRF estimation from slow swept-sine excitation are given in order to enable the optimisation on these applications for

  2. Methods of mapping from phase to sine amplitude in direct digital synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vankka, J

    1997-01-01

    There are many methods for performing functional mapping from phase to sine amplitude (e.g., ROM look-up, coarse/fine segmentation into multiple ROM's, Taylor series, CORDIC algorithm). The spectral purity of the conventional direct digital synthesizer (DDS) is also determined by the resolution of the values stored in the sine table ROM. Therefore, it is desirable to increase the resolution of the ROM. Unfortunately, larger ROM storage means higher power consumption, lower reliability, lower speed, and greatly increased costs. Different memory compression and algorithmic techniques and their effect on distortion and trade-offs are investigated in detail. A computer program has been created to simulate the effects of the memory compression and algorithmic techniques on the output spectrum of the DDS. For each memory compression and algorithmic technique, the worst case spurious response is calculated using the computer program. PMID:18244150

  3. Spatially Extended Relativistic Particles Out of Traveling Front Solutions of Sine-Gordon Equation in (1+2) Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Zarmi, Yair

    2016-01-01

    Slower-than-light multi-front solutions of the Sine-Gordon in (1+2) dimensions, constructed through the Hirota algorithm, are mapped onto spatially localized structures, which emulate free, spatially extended, massive relativistic particles. A localized structure is an image of the junctions at which the fronts intersect. It propagates together with the multi-front solution at the velocity of the latter. The profile of the localized structure obeys the linear wave equation in (1+2) dimensions, to which a term that represents interaction with a slower-than-light, Sine-Gordon-multi-front solution has been added. This result can be also formulated in terms of a (1+2)-dimensional Lagrangian system, in which the Sine-Gordon and wave equations are coupled. Expanding the Euler-Lagrange equations in powers of the coupling constant, the zero-order part of the solution reproduces the (1+2)-dimensional Sine-Gordon fronts. The first-order part is the spatially localized structure. PACS: 02.30.Ik, 03.65.Pm, 05.45.Yv, 02.30.Ik. PMID:26930077

  4. Numerical simulation of seismic wave field in graded geological media containing multiple cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontara, Ioanna-Kleoniki; Dineva, Petia S.; Manolis, George D.; Wuttke, Frank

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we develop an efficient boundary integral equation method for estimation of seismic motion in a graded medium with multiple cavities under anti-plane strain conditions. This inhomogeneous and heterogeneous medium is subjected to either time-harmonic incident shear seismic waves or to body waves radiating from a point seismic source. Three different types of soil material gradient are considered: (a) density and shear modulus vary proportionally as quadratic functions of depth, but the wave velocity remains constant; (b) the soil material is viscoelastic, with a shear modulus and density that vary with respect to the spatial coordinates in an arbitrary fashion, so that the wave velocity is both frequency and position-dependent; and (c) the soil material has position-dependent shear modulus and constant density, yielding a linear profile for the wave velocity. Three different, frequency-dependent boundary integral equation schemes are respectively developed for the aforementioned three types of graded soil materials based on: (a) Green's function for the quadratically graded elastic half-plane; (b) a fundamental solution for the viscoelastic full-plane with position-dependent wave speed profiles; and (c) a fundamental solution for an elastic full-plane with a linearly varying wave speed profile. Next, a number of cases involving geological media with position-dependent material properties and any number of cavities of various shapes and geometry are solved in the frequency domain. The numerical results reveal the dependency of the wave fields and zones of stress concentration on the following key factors: (a) type and properties of the soil material gradient; (b) type and characteristics of the applied seismic load; (c) shape, position and number of cavities; (d) interaction phenomena between the cavities and the free surface.

  5. Numerical simulation of seismic wave field in graded geological media containing multiple cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontara, Ioanna-Kleoniki; Dineva, Petia S.; Manolis, George D.; Wuttke, Frank

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we develop an efficient boundary integral equation method for estimation of seismic motion in a graded medium with multiple cavities under antiplane strain conditions. This inhomogeneous and heterogeneous medium is subjected to either time-harmonic incident shear seismic waves or to body waves radiating from a point seismic source. Three different types of soil material gradient are considered: (i) density and shear modulus vary proportionally as quadratic functions of depth, but the wave velocity remains constant; (ii) the soil material is viscoelastic, with a shear modulus and density that vary with respect to the spatial coordinates in an arbitrary fashion, so that the wave velocity is both frequency and position-dependent and (iii) the soil material has position-dependent shear modulus and constant density, yielding a linear profile for the wave velocity. Three different, frequency-dependent boundary integral equation schemes are respectively developed for the aforementioned three types of graded soil materials based on: (i) Green's function for the quadratically graded elastic half-plane; (ii) a fundamental solution for the viscoelastic full-plane with position-dependent wave speed profiles and (iii) a fundamental solution for an elastic full-plane with a linearly varying wave speed profile. Next, a number of cases involving geological media with position-dependent material properties and any number of cavities of various shapes and geometry are solved in the frequency domain. The numerical results reveal the dependency of the wave fields and zones of stress concentration on the following key factors: (i) type and properties of the soil material gradient; (ii) type and characteristics of the applied seismic load; (iii) shape, position and number of cavities and (iv) interaction phenomena between the cavities and the free surface.

  6. A multiple scattering theory for EM wave propagation in a dense random medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karam, M. A.; Fung, A. K.; Wong, K. W.

    1985-01-01

    For a dense medium of randomly distributed scatterers an integral formulation for the total coherent field has been developed. This formulation accounts for the multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves including both the twoand three-particle terms. It is shown that under the Markovian assumption the total coherent field and the effective field have the same effective wave number. As an illustration of this theory, the effective wave number and the extinction coefficient are derived in terms of the polarizability tensor and the pair distribution function for randomly distributed small spherical scatterers. It is found that the contribution of the three-particle term increases with the particle size, the volume fraction, the frequency and the permittivity of the particle. This increase is more significant with frequency and particle size than with other parameters.

  7. Quantifying the transition from fluvial- to wave-dominance for river deltas with multiple active channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nienhuis, J.; Ashton, A. D.; Giosan, L.

    2012-12-01

    The plan-view morphologies of fluvial- and wave-dominated deltas are clearly distinctive, but transitional forms are numerous. A quantitative, process-based description of this transition remains unexplored, particularly for river deltas with multiple active channels. Previous studies focused on general attributes of the fluvial and marine environment, such as the balance between wave energy and river discharge. Here, we propose that the transition between fluvial and wave dominance is directly related to the magnitude of the fluvial bedload flux to the nearshore region versus the alongshore sediment transport capacity of waves removing sediment away from the mouth. In the case of a single-channel delta, this balance can be computed for a given distribution of waves approaching shore. Fluvial dominance occurs when fluvial sediment input exceeds the wave-sustained maximum alongshore sediment transport for all potential shoreline orientations both up- and downdrift of the river mouth. However, deltaic channels have the tendency to bifurcate with increasing fluvial strength. Initial bifurcation splits the fluvial sediment flux among individual channels, while the potential sediment transport by waves remains constant for both river mouths. At higher bifurcation orders, multiple channels interact with each other alongshore, a situation more complicated than the single channel case and one that cannot be simple addressed analytically. We apply a model of plan-view shoreline evolution to simulate the evolution of a deltaic environment with multiple active channels. A highly simplified fluvial domain is represented by deposition of sediment where channels meet the coast. We investigate two scenarios of fluvial delivery. The first scenario deposits fluvial sediment alongshore on a self-similar predefined network of channels. We analyze the effects of different network geometrical parameters, such as bifurcation length, bifurcation angle, and sediment partitioning. In the

  8. Wave multiple scattering by a finite number of unclosed circular cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veliyev, E. I.; Veremey, V. V.

    1984-01-01

    The boundary value problem of plane H-polarized electromagnetic wave multiple scattering by a finite number of unclosed circular cylinders is solved. The solution is obtained by two different methods: the method of successive scattering and the method of partial matrix inversion for simultaneous dual equations. The advantages of the successive scattering method are shown. Computer calculations of the suface currents and the total cross section are presented for the structure of two screens.

  9. Multiple-mode Lamb wave scattering simulations using 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique.

    PubMed

    Leckey, Cara A C; Rogge, Matthew D; Miller, Corey A; Hinders, Mark K

    2012-02-01

    We have implemented three-dimensional (3D) elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations to model Lamb wave scattering for two flaw-types in an aircraft-grade aluminum plate, a rounded rectangle flat-bottom hole and a disbond of the same shape. The plate thickness and flaws explored in this work include frequency-thickness regions where several Lamb wave modes exist and sometimes overlap in phase and/or group velocity. For the case of the flat-bottom hole the depth was incrementally increased to explore progressive changes in multiple-mode Lamb wave scattering due to the damage. The flat-bottom hole simulation results have been compared to experimental data and are shown to provide key insight for this well-defined experimental case by explaining unexpected results in experimental waveforms. For the rounded rectangle disbond flaw, which would be difficult to implement experimentally, we found that Lamb wave behavior differed significantly from the flat-bottom hole flaw. Most of the literature in this field is restricted to low frequency-thickness regions due to difficulties in interpreting data when multiple modes exist. We found that benchmarked 3D EFIT simulations can yield an understanding of scattering behavior for these higher frequency-thickness regions and in cases that would be difficult to set up experimentally. Additionally, our results show that 2D simulations would not have been sufficient for modeling the complicated scattering that occurred. PMID:21908011

  10. Virtual sine arm kinematic mount system

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.; Randall, K.J.

    1997-09-01

    A novel kinematic mount system for a vertical focusing mirror of the soft x-ray spectroscopy beamline at the Advanced Photon Source is described. The system contains three points in a horizontal plane. Each point consists of two horizontal linear precision stages, a spherical ball bearing, and a vertical precision stage. The horizontal linear stages are aligned orthogonally and are conjoined by a spherical ball bearing, supported by the vertical linear stage at each point. The position of each confined horizontal stage is controlled by a motorized micrometer head by spring-loading the flat tip of the micrometer head onto a tooling ball fixing on the carriage of the stage. A virtual sine arm is formed by tilting the upstream horizontal stage down and the two downstream horizontal stages up by a small angle. The fine pitch motion is achieved by adjusting the upstream stage. This supporting structure is extremely steady due to a relatively large span across the supporting points and yields extremely high resolution on the pitch motion. With a one degree tilt and a microstepping motor, the authors achieved a 0.4 nanoradian resolution on the mirror pitch motion.

  11. Observation of Multiple Mechanisms For Stimulating Ion Waves in Ignition Scale Plasmas*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkwood, Robert

    1996-11-01

    The scattering of intense laser beams by stimulated ion acoustic waves has long been recognized as an important loss mechanism for inertial confinement fusion experiments. The planned National Ignition Facility (NIF) will use multiple laser beams to illuminate targets containing large scale plasmas. These conditions have been simulated in a series of experiments on the Nova laser facility where it has been found that there are at least three important ways in which ion waves can be stimulated. First ion waves can be stimulated by a single laser beam by the process of Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) in which an ion acoustic and a scattered electromagnetic wave grow from noise. Second, in a plasma where more than one beam intersect, ion waves can be excited at the 'beat' frequency and wave number of the intersecting beams, causing the side scatter instability to be seeded, and substantial energy to be transfered between the beams. And third, ion waves may be stimulated by the electron plasma waves produced by Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS), and thereby inhibit the SRS process. Experiments have demonstrated each of these effects in a large, hot plasma that is comparable to plasmas expected in NIF. Results indicate that 1) the SBS reflectivity from low density plasmas is lower than predicted by homogeneous plasma theory, 2) the SBS gain measured in the two beam seeding experiments is also low, although the gain is unsaturated at high seed amplitude so that as much as 50% of the energy is transferred between the beams,(R.K. Kirkwood et. al., Phys, Rev. Lett. 76 2065 (1996)) and 3) the SRS reflectivity in high Z plasmas is proportional to the ion wave damping, and has a magnitude that is consistent with the electron wave amplitude necessary for the secondary decay instability.(R.K. Kirkwood et. al., Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett.) The first two results can be reconciled with models including large amplitude ion wave turbulence while the third indicates a possible

  12. A multiple-direction Trefftz method for solving the multi-dimensional wave equation in an arbitrary spatial domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chein-Shan; Kuo, Chung-Lun

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we first express the wave equation in terms of the Minkowskian polar coordinates and generate a set of complete hyperbolic type Trefftz bases: rk cosh ⁡ (kθ) and rk sinh ⁡ (kθ), which are further transformed to wave polynomials as the trial solution bases for the one-dimensional wave equation. In order to stably solve the wave propagation problems long-term we develop a multiple-scale Trefftz method (MSTM), of which the scales are determined a priori by the collocation points. Then we derive a very simple method of multi-dimensional wave polynomials, equipped with different spatial directions which being the normalized wavenumber vectors, as the polynomial Trefftz bases for solving the multi-dimensional wave equations, which is named a multiple-direction Trefftz method (MDTM). Several numerical examples of two- and three-dimensional wave equations demonstrate that the present method is efficient and stable.

  13. Charge-varying sine-Gordon deformed defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardini, A. E.; Chinaglia, M.; da Rocha, Roldão

    2015-05-01

    Sine-Gordon deformed defects that exhibit unusual phenomenological features on the topological charge are investigated. The possibility of a smooth and continuous transition between topological (non-null charge) and non-topological (null charge) scenarios of deformed defects supported by sine-Gordon structures is evinced by the analytical calculation of topological charges and localized energy distributions. By describing cyclic deformation chains, we show that a triggering sine-Gordon model simultaneously supports kink- and lump-like defects, whose topological mass values are closed by trigonometric or hyperbolic successive deformations. In spite of preserving analytical closure relations constraining the topological masses of 3- and 4-cyclically deformed defects, the deformation chains produce kinks and lumps which exhibit non-monotonic behavior and extra inflection points. The outcome of our analysis suggests that cyclic deformations create novel scenarios of physical and mathematical applicability of defect structures supported by the sine-Gordon theory.

  14. An Unlawful Use of the Law of Sines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Robert O.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a problem in which the incorrect application of the Law of Sines leads to an erroneous solution. Demonstrates that the commission of this error by an ophthalmologist using laser trabeculoplasty could lead to patient injury. (MDH)

  15. Optimized {gamma}-Multiplicity Based Spin Assignments of s-Wave Neutron Resonances

    SciTech Connect

    Becvar, F.; Koehler, Paul Edward; Krticka, Milan; Mitchell, G. E.; Ullmann, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    The multiplicity of -ray emission following neutron capture at isolated resonances carries valuable information on the resonance spin. Several methods utilizing this information have been developed. The latest method was recently introduced for analyzing the data from time-of-flight measurements with 4 -calorimetric detection systems. The present paper describes a generalization of this method. The goal is the separation of the -emission yields belonging to the two neutron capturing state spins of isolated (or even unresolved) s-wave neutron resonances on targets with non-zero spin. The formalism for performing this separation is described and then tested on artificially generated data. This new method was applied to the -multiplicity data obtained for the 147Sm(n, )148Sm reaction using the DANCE detector system at the LANSCE facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The analyzing power of the upgraded method is supported by combined dicebox and geant4 simulations of the fluctuation properties of the multiplicity distributions.

  16. Multiple scattering dynamics of fermions at an isolated p-wave resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R.; Roberts, K. O.; Tiesinga, E.; Wade, A. C. J.; Blakie, P. B.; Deb, A. B.; Kjærgaard, N.

    2016-07-01

    The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions, this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90° angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic 40K atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no 90° yield. Above this threshold, effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for 40K facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomenon, whereas the axially enhanced mode should occur in any colliding particle system with an elastic scattering resonance.

  17. Multiple scattering dynamics of fermions at an isolated p-wave resonance.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Roberts, K O; Tiesinga, E; Wade, A C J; Blakie, P B; Deb, A B; Kjærgaard, N

    2016-01-01

    The wavefunction for indistinguishable fermions is anti-symmetric under particle exchange, which directly leads to the Pauli exclusion principle, and hence underlies the structure of atoms and the properties of almost all materials. In the dynamics of collisions between two indistinguishable fermions, this requirement strictly prohibits scattering into 90° angles. Here we experimentally investigate the collisions of ultracold clouds fermionic (40)K atoms by directly measuring scattering distributions. With increasing collision energy we identify the Wigner threshold for p-wave scattering with its tell-tale dumb-bell shape and no 90° yield. Above this threshold, effects of multiple scattering become manifest as deviations from the underlying binary p-wave shape, adding particles either isotropically or axially. A shape resonance for (40)K facilitates the separate observation of these two processes. The isotropically enhanced multiple scattering mode is a generic p-wave threshold phenomenon, whereas the axially enhanced mode should occur in any colliding particle system with an elastic scattering resonance. PMID:27396294

  18. Statistical Analysis of EMIC Waves in Multiple Component Plasma Including Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Goto, Y.

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that Earth's radiation belts are located around geomagnetic equator, where wide ranges of energetic particles from several hundred keV to several tens MeV are contained. According to the recent study, it is suggested that ELF/VLF waves such as EMIC waves and chorus emissions deeply contribute to the generation and loss mechanism of relativistic electrons in the radiation belt. The ERG mission[1] is expected to provide important clues for solving plasma dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts by means of integrated observation of wide energy range of plasma particles and high resolution plasma waves. On the other hand, long-term observation data which covers over 2 cycles of solar activity obtained by the Akebono satellite is very valuable to work out the strategy of the ERG mission. The ELF receiver, which is a sub-system of the VLF instruments onboard Akebono, measures waveforms below 50 Hz for one component of electric field and three components of magnetic field, or waveforms below 100 Hz for one component of electric and magnetic field, respectively. It was reported that ion cyclotron waves were observed near magnetic equator by the receiver[2]. In our previous study[3], we introduced four events of characteristic EMIC waves observed by Akebono in April, 1989. These waves have sudden decrease of intensity just above half of proton cyclotron frequency changing along the trajectories of Akebono. Comparing the observed data with the dispersion relation in multiple species of ions under cold plasma approximation, we demonstrate that a few percent of 'M / Z = 2 ions (M = mass of ions, Z = charge of ions)' such as alpha particles (He++) or deuterons (D+) cause such characteristic attenuation of EMIC at lower hybrid frequency. In the present study, we performed polarization analysis and direction finding of the waves. It was found that these EMIC waves were left-handed polarized in the higher frequency part, while the polarization gradually changes to

  19. Characterization of multiple spiral wave dynamics as a stochastic predator-prey system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, Niels F.; Mo, Alisa; Mannava, Sandeep; Fenton, Flavio H.; Cherry, Elizabeth M.; Luther, Stefan; Gilmour, Robert F., Jr.

    2008-08-01

    A perspective on systems containing many action potential waves that, individually, are prone to spiral wave breakup is proposed. The perspective is based on two quantities, “predator” and “prey,” which we define as the fraction of the system in the excited state and in the excitable but unexcited state, respectively. These quantities exhibited a number of properties in both simulations and fibrillating canine cardiac tissue that were found to be consistent with a proposed theory that assumes the existence of regions we call “domains of influence,” each of which is associated with the activity of one action potential wave. The properties include (i) a propensity to rotate in phase space in the same sense as would be predicted by the standard Volterra-Lotka predator-prey equations, (ii) temporal behavior ranging from near periodic oscillation at a frequency close to the spiral wave rotation frequency (“type-1” behavior) to more complex oscillatory behavior whose power spectrum is composed of a range of frequencies both above and, especially, below the spiral wave rotation frequency (“type-2” behavior), and (iii) a strong positive correlation between the periods and amplitudes of the oscillations of these quantities. In particular, a rapid measure of the amplitude was found to scale consistently as the square root of the period in data taken from both simulations and optical mapping experiments. Global quantities such as predator and prey thus appear to be useful in the study of multiple spiral wave systems, facilitating the posing of new questions, which in turn may help to provide greater understanding of clinically important phenomena such as ventricular fibrillation.

  20. Characterization of multiple spiral wave dynamics as a stochastic predator-prey system.

    PubMed

    Otani, Niels F; Mo, Alisa; Mannava, Sandeep; Fenton, Flavio H; Cherry, Elizabeth M; Luther, Stefan; Gilmour, Robert F

    2008-08-01

    A perspective on systems containing many action potential waves that, individually, are prone to spiral wave breakup is proposed. The perspective is based on two quantities, "predator" and "prey," which we define as the fraction of the system in the excited state and in the excitable but unexcited state, respectively. These quantities exhibited a number of properties in both simulations and fibrillating canine cardiac tissue that were found to be consistent with a proposed theory that assumes the existence of regions we call "domains of influence," each of which is associated with the activity of one action potential wave. The properties include (i) a propensity to rotate in phase space in the same sense as would be predicted by the standard Volterra-Lotka predator-prey equations, (ii) temporal behavior ranging from near periodic oscillation at a frequency close to the spiral wave rotation frequency ("type-1" behavior) to more complex oscillatory behavior whose power spectrum is composed of a range of frequencies both above and, especially, below the spiral wave rotation frequency ("type-2" behavior), and (iii) a strong positive correlation between the periods and amplitudes of the oscillations of these quantities. In particular, a rapid measure of the amplitude was found to scale consistently as the square root of the period in data taken from both simulations and optical mapping experiments. Global quantities such as predator and prey thus appear to be useful in the study of multiple spiral wave systems, facilitating the posing of new questions, which in turn may help to provide greater understanding of clinically important phenomena such as ventricular fibrillation. PMID:18850871

  1. Numerical investigation of interactions of multiple spherical shock waves between themselves and with the underlying surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrushchenko, V. A.; Murashkin, I. V.; Shevelev, Yu. D.

    2016-06-01

    Within the investigation of various aspects of asteroid and comet danger and, in particular, the explosion of several fragments of meteoroids in the atmosphere above the Earth surface, the toy problem about four point explosions in the case of their special arrangement above the underlying surface is numerically solved. Complex interactions of primary and secondary shock waves between themselves, with the hard surface, and with tangential discontinuities are examined. The structure of flow inside gas regions disturbed by the explosions—the occurrence of eddy structures in them and the influence of reflected shocks waves on them—are investigated. The tendency of the external wave fronts of each explosion to form a unified front and the tendency of their internal hot domains to merge into a joined configuration (where the second process proceeds a little later than the first one) is revealed. This unified front and joined configuration are qualitatively identical to the external internal structure for the solitary explosion. The specially arranged explosions are chosen because the effects of multiple diffraction, interference, and, the main thing, cumulation of spherical waves are manifested more clearly in this caseTwo variants with different altitude of the explosions above the surface are calculated.

  2. Mechanical waves conceptual survey: Its modification and conversion to a standard multiple-choice test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2016-06-01

    In this article we present several modifications of the mechanical waves conceptual survey, the most important test to date that has been designed to evaluate university students' understanding of four main topics in mechanical waves: propagation, superposition, reflection, and standing waves. The most significant changes are (i) modification of several test questions that had some problems in their original design, (ii) standardization of the number of options for each question to five, (iii) conversion of the two-tier questions to multiple-choice questions, and (iv) modification of some questions to make them independent of others. To obtain a final version of the test, we administered both the original and modified versions several times to students at a large private university in Mexico. These students were completing a course that covers the topics tested by the survey. The final modified version of the test was administered to 234 students. In this study we present the modifications for each question, and discuss the reasons behind them. We also analyze the results obtained by the final modified version and offer a comparison between the original and modified versions. In the Supplemental Material we present the final modified version of the test. It can be used by teachers and researchers to assess students' understanding of, and learning about, mechanical waves.

  3. An ultra-broadband watt-level terahertz BWO based upon novel sine shape ridge waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luqi, Zhang; Yanyu, Wei; Guo, Guo; Jin, Xu; Wanghe, Wei; Yuanyuan, Wang; Chong, Ding; Xuebing, Jiang; Guoqing, Zhao; Yubin, Gong; Wenxiang, Wang; Gun-Sik, Park

    2016-06-01

    A novel sine-shape ridge waveguide (SSRWG) is put forward to develop the ultra-broadband high power terahertz (THz) backward-wave oscillator (BWO). It is found that this kind of slow-wave structure (SWS) possesses very wide ‘cold’ bandwidth and quite low transmission losses from the analyses of the electromagnetic characteristics. Moreover, the beam-wave interaction results indicate that the BWO based upon the SSRWG SWS can produce the output power exceeding 0.625 W in the frequency range from 0.617 THz to 0.99 THz. In particular, the output power at the typical operating frequency of 0.853 THz can reach 1.186 W by using the sheet electron beam of 16 kV and 8 mA. Therefore, this device has great potential to be an ultra-broadband watt-level THz radiation source.

  4. Interaction and coalescence of multiple simultaneous and non-simultaneous blast waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, S.; Eliasson, V.

    2016-05-01

    Interaction of multiple blast waves can be used to direct energy toward a target while simultaneously reducing collateral damage away from the target area. In this paper, simulations of multiple point source explosives were performed and the resulting shock interaction and coalescence behavior were explored. Three to ten munitions were placed concentrically around the target, and conditions at the target area were monitored and compared to those obtained using a single munition. For each simulation, the energy summed over all munitions was kept constant, while the radial distances between target and munitions and the munition initiation times were varied. Each munition was modeled as a point source explosion. The resulting blast wave propagation and shock front coalescence were solved using the inviscid Euler equations of gas dynamics on overlapping grids employing a finite difference scheme. Results show that multiple munitions can be beneficial for creating extreme conditions at the intended target area; over 20 times higher peak pressure is obtained for ten simultaneous munitions compared to a single munition. Moreover, peak pressure at a point away from the target area is reduced by more than a factor of three.

  5. New calibration technique for multiple-component stress wave force balances

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-jawad, Madhat M.; Mee, David J.; Morgan, Richard G.

    2007-06-15

    The measurement of forces in hypervelocity expansion tubes is not possible using conventional techniques. The stress wave force balance technique can be applied in expansion tubes to measure forces despite the short test times involved. This article presents a new calibration technique for multiple-component stress wave force balances where an impulse response created using a load distribution is required and no orthogonal surfaces on the model exist. This new technique relies on the tensorial superposition of single-component impulse responses analogous to the vectorial superposition of the calibration loads. The example presented here is that of a scale model of the Mars Pathfinder, but the technique is applicable to any geometry and may be useful for cases where orthogonal loads cannot be applied.

  6. Multiple Scattering of Seismic Waves from Ensembles of Upwardly Lossy Thin Flux Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Chris S.; Cally, Paul S.

    2015-07-01

    Our previous semi-analytic treatment of - and -mode multiple scattering from ensembles of thin flux tubes (Hanson and Cally, Astrophys. J. 781, 125, 2014a; 791, 129, 2014b) is extended by allowing both sausage and kink waves to freely escape at the top of the model using a radiative boundary condition there. As expected, this additional avenue of escape, supplementing downward loss into the deep solar interior, results in substantially greater absorption of incident - and -modes. However, less intuitively, it also yields mildly to substantially smaller phase shifts in waves emerging from the ensemble. This may have implications for the interpretation of seismic data for solar plage regions, and in particular their small measured phase shifts.

  7. New calibration technique for multiple-component stress wave force balances.

    PubMed

    Abdel-jawad, Madhat M; Mee, David J; Morgan, Richard G

    2007-06-01

    The measurement of forces in hypervelocity expansion tubes is not possible using conventional techniques. The stress wave force balance technique can be applied in expansion tubes to measure forces despite the short test times involved. This article presents a new calibration technique for multiple-component stress wave force balances where an impulse response created using a load distribution is required and no orthogonal surfaces on the model exist. This new technique relies on the tensorial superposition of single-component impulse responses analogous to the vectorial superposition of the calibration loads. The example presented here is that of a scale model of the Mars Pathfinder, but the technique is applicable to any geometry and may be useful for cases where orthogonal loads cannot be applied. PMID:17614632

  8. New calibration technique for multiple-component stress wave force balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-jawad, Madhat M.; Mee, David J.; Morgan, Richard G.

    2007-06-01

    The measurement of forces in hypervelocity expansion tubes is not possible using conventional techniques. The stress wave force balance technique can be applied in expansion tubes to measure forces despite the short test times involved. This article presents a new calibration technique for multiple-component stress wave force balances where an impulse response created using a load distribution is required and no orthogonal surfaces on the model exist. This new technique relies on the tensorial superposition of single-component impulse responses analogous to the vectorial superposition of the calibration loads. The example presented here is that of a scale model of the Mars Pathfinder, but the technique is applicable to any geometry and may be useful for cases where orthogonal loads cannot be applied.

  9. Multiple charge-density-wave transitions in single-crystalline Lu2Ir3Si5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, N. S.; Thamizhavel, A.; Tomy, C. V.; Basu, Saurabh; Awasthi, A. M.; Rajak, Piu; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Ramakrishnan, S.; Pal, D.

    2015-05-01

    The physical properties of the single-crystalline samples of Lu2Ir3Si5 have been investigated by magnetic susceptibility, resistivity, and heat capacity studies. We observed multiple charge-density-wave (CDW) transitions in all the measurements. A strong thermal hysteresis at these transitions suggests a possible first order CDW ordering. In addition, the first order nature is ascertained by a very narrow and a huge cusp (62 J/mol K) in the zero field specific heat data which also suggests strong electron-phonon interchain coupling.

  10. Optical wave-front transformer using the multiple-reflection interference effect inside a resonator.

    PubMed

    Dingel, B B; Izutsu, M; Murakawa, K

    1997-10-01

    We propose a new class of optical wave-front transformer based on a different mechanism that uses the multiple-reflection interference effect in a Gires-Tournois resonator (GTR) as the physical mechanism for phase modification. By coating the front surface of a GTR with a predefined graded reflectivity profile, one can synthesize various optical elements. We present the basic concept of our proposal by synthesizing a lenslike element as a proof-of-principle example. One unique feature of this element is that it can function as a reflecting mirror, a converging lens, or a diverging lens, depending on the resonator length. Other applications are briefly discussed. PMID:18188264

  11. Multiple harmonic ULF waves in the plasma sheet boundary layer: Instability analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, R. E.; Engebretson, M. J.; Keiling, A.; Walsh, A. P.; Gary, S. P.; DéCréAu, P. M. E.; Cattell, C. A.; RèMe, H.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple-harmonic electromagnetic waves in the ULF band have occasionally been observed in Earth's magnetosphere, both near the magnetic equator in the outer plasmasphere and in the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) in Earth's magnetotail. Observations by the Cluster spacecraft of multiple-harmonic electromagnetic waves with fundamental frequency near the local proton cyclotron frequency, Ωcp, were recently reported in the plasma sheet boundary layer by Broughton et al. (2008). A companion paper surveys the entire magnetotail passage of Cluster during 2003, and reports 35 such events, all in the PSBL, and all associated with elevated fluxes of counterstreaming ions and electrons. In this study we use observed pitch angle distributions of ions and electrons during a wave event observed by Cluster on 9 September 2003 to perform an instability analysis. We use a semiautomatic procedure for developing model distributions composed of bi-Maxwellian components that minimizes the difference between modeled and observed distribution functions. Analysis of wave instability using the WHAMP electromagnetic plasma wave dispersion code and these model distributions reveals an instability near Ωcp and its harmonics. The observed and model ion distributions exhibit both beam-like and ring-like features which might lead to instability. Further instability analysis with simple beam-like and ring-like model distribution functions indicates that the instability is due to the ring-like feature. Our analysis indicates that this instability persists over an enormous range in the effective ion beta (based on a best fit for the observed distribution function using a single Maxwellian distribution), β', but that the character of the instability changes with β'. For β' of order unity (for instance, the observed case with β' ˜ 0.4), the instability is predominantly electromagnetic; the fluctuating magnetic field has components in both the perpendicular and parallel directions, but the

  12. Proposal of Multiple Detection Method in Human Detection System using Terrestrial Digital TV Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishi, Masahiro; Shin, Koichi; Yoshida, Teruaki

    This paper newly proposes Multiple Detection (MD) method in the human detection system using terrestrial digital TV broadcasting waves. In the conventional human detection system using analog TV waves, human motion in a room can be detected by monitoring Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) of the TV waves. The human detection system using TV waves works in the environments where there are no disturbances such as moving car and passing human outside the room. However, the digitalization of the terrestrial TV system deteriorates the detection performance of this system even in such environments. The radio propagation properties of the digital TV system are different from those of the analog one since the digital system is operated in the Single Frequency Network (SFN). In the SFN environment, there are some rooms under the condition that the received TV waves come from several broadcasting stations with same frequency. In such case, our measurement results indicate that the RSSI hardly fluctuates even under condition of human presence and the detection method only using RSSI has a possibility of overlooking the human motion. In the proposed MD method, not only RSSI but also Carrier to Noise Ratio (CNR) and Bit Error Rate (BER) are utilized for human detection. Today most digital TV tuners are capable of monitoring the quality of received signal, such as CNR and BER in addition to RSSI. In this paper, based on the practical measurements by using the digital TV tuners, we evaluate the fluctuation performances of RSSI, CNR and BER affected by human motion in a wooden detached house, and clarify that the MD method can effectively detect human motion even in the SFN environment.

  13. Detecting broken-wire flaws at multiple locations in the same wire of prestressing strands using guided waves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang; Wu, Xinjun; Sun, Pengfei

    2013-01-01

    Broken wires often occur at multiple locations in the same wire of a strand due to the recovery length, which is defined as the length of the wire taking up its full share of the axial load from the break point. The detection of broken-wire flaws at multiple locations along the same wire is investigated using guided waves below 400kHz. Herein, a sample with three broken-wire flaws in the same wire is analyzed using magnetostrictive guided waves. Our data show that three flaws are found using the low-frequency guided waves (50kHz) but only one flaw is found using the high-frequency guided waves (320kHz). By analyzing the reflection and transmission coefficients at the three different flaws, we observe that the energy exchange decreases as the frequency increases along the same propagating distance. Hence, the recovery length for elastic waves, the length of the wire taking up its full share of elastic-wave energy from the break point, is observed. The recovery length for elastic waves in prestressing strands increases with the frequency. To detect prestressing strands using magnetostrictive guided waves, several one-broken-wire flaws at different locations can be distinguished from in different wires or the same wire by employing both low-frequency waves and high-frequency waves. Nevertheless, we cannot identify in which wire the flaws are located because the magnetostrictive sensor analyzes the whole strand. PMID:22658860

  14. Multiple scattering from finite inhomogeneous media. [internal reflection of electromagnetic waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, C. C. H.

    1974-01-01

    Utilizing the characteristic information concerning the apparent phase constant difference between the electric and magnetic fields propagating in an inhomogeneous medium, a theoretical analysis of the multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves in finite inhomogeneous media is presented. The solution is obtained by first approximating the coefficients of a pair of exact coupled first-order differential equations and then solving the equations by first-order iteration. The present first-order approximate solution with multiple scattering considerations is shown to be more accurate than the WKB solution. Methods to improve the accuracy of the first-order solution further are discussed. Application of the solution to slowly varying finite media with periodic properties demonstrates the validity of the solution. The same approach can be extended to frequencies in the optical region by retaining additional terms in the coefficients of the coupled differential equations.

  15. [Using inter-SINE-PCR to study mammalian phylogeny].

    PubMed

    Bannikova, A A; Matveev, V A; Kramerov, D A

    2002-06-01

    Results of the use of the fingerprinting method related to short interspersed elements (SINEs), inter-SINE-PCR, in the study of phylogenetic and taxonomic relationship in mammals from orders Chiroptera (family Vespertilionidae) and Lipotyphla (family Erinaceidae) are reported. The inter-SINE-PCR method is based on the amplification of fragments situated between copies of SINEs, which are short retroposons spaced 100 to 1000 bp apart. Specifically selected primers were used, which are complementary to consensus sequences of two short retroposons: the mammalian interspersed repeat (MIR), which is typical of all mammals and some other vertebrates, was used in the cases of bats and Erinaceidae, and the ERI-1 element recently isolated from the genome of the Daurian hedgehog was used in the case of Erinaceidae. The results support the current view on phylogenetic relationship between hedgehogs belonging to genera Erinaceus, Hemiechinus, and Paraechinus (but not the genus Atelerix). In bats, the phylogenetic reconstruction revealed a statistically valid topology only at lower taxonomic levels, whereas the topology for the genus and supragenus ranks was unresolved and fan-shaped. The benefits and limitations of the inter-SINE-PCR method are discussed. PMID:12138785

  16. Stochastic D-bifurcation for a damped sine-Gordon equation with noise

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qiongwei; Xue, Changfeng; Tang, Jiashi

    2015-04-15

    We investigate the stochastic bifurcation of a damped sine-Gordon equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions under the influence of multiplicative Gaussian white noise. Introducing a slow time scale, we derive the amplitude equations near the trivial solution by multiscale analysis. And the stationary probability density functions are formulated analytically using the stochastic averaging of energy envelope. The numerical calculations show that the system undergoes a stochastic D-bifurcation of energy envelope from a delta measure to new stationary measures when the control parameter crosses a critical point.

  17. Multiple phase screen calculation of two-way spherical wave propagation in the ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knepp, Dennis L.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a numerical solution to the parabolic wave equation for spherical wave propagation in a disturbed ionosphere. The solution uses the Fourier/split step approach where the propagation medium is modeled using multiple phase-changing screens separated by free space. The phase screens can consist of deterministic or random components describing spatial scales of any size. This solution consists of realizations of the signal (i.e., the ionospheric transfer function) after two-way propagation from a transmitter, through the medium to a target, and back. The transmitter and target can be comprised of multiple, independent point scatterers. The solution is applicable to many propagation problems including synthetic aperture radar and is not subject to the small-scene limitation, where all scatterers in the scene experience identical propagation conditions. Several examples are given illustrating some features of the solution including reciprocity, relationship between one- and two-way (monostatic and bistatic) scintillation index, and reflection from a large target.

  18. Stirring Coronal Spaghetti: Exploring Multiple Interactions Between MHD Waves and Density Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranmer, Steven R.

    2016-05-01

    The solar corona has been revealed in the past few decades to be a highly dynamic nonequilibrium plasma environment. Both the loop-filled coronal base and the extended acceleration region of the solar wind appear to be strongly turbulent, and models that invoke the dissipation of incompressible Alfvenic fluctuations have had some success in explaining the heating. However, many of these models neglect the mounting evidence that density and pressure variations may play an important role in the mass and energy balance of this system. In this presentation I will briefly review observations of both compressible and incompressible MHD fluctuations in the corona and solar wind, and discuss future prospects with DKIST. I will also attempt to outline the many ways that these different fluctuation modes have been proposed to interact with one another -- usually with an eye on finding ways to enhance their dissipation and heating. One under-appreciated type of interaction is the fact that Alfven waves will undergo multiple reflections and refractions in a "background plasma" filled with localized density fluctuations. It is becoming increasingly clear that models must not only include the effects of longitudinal variability (e.g., magnetoacoustic waves and pulse-like jets) but also transverse "striations" that appear naturally in a structured magnetic field with small-scale footpoint variability. Future off-limb observations, such as those with DKIST's Cryo-NIRSP instrument, will be crucial for providing us with a detailed census of MHD waves and their mutual interactions in the corona.

  19. Measurement of the viscosity-density product using multiple reflections of ultrasonic shear horizontal waves.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Margaret S; Adamson, Justus D; Bond, Leonard J

    2006-12-22

    We have developed an on-line computer-controlled sensor, based on ultrasound reflection measurements, to determine the product of the viscosity and density of a liquid or slurry for Newtonian fluids and the shear impedance of the liquid for non-Newtonian fluids. A 14 MHz shear wave transducer is bonded to one side of a 45-90 degrees fused silica wedge and the base is in contract with the liquid. Twenty-eight echoes were observed due to the multiple reflections of an ultrasonic shear horizontal (SH) wave within the wedge. The fast Fourier transform of each echo was obtained for a liquid and for water, which serves as the calibration fluid, and the reflection coefficient at the solid-liquid interface was obtained. Data were obtained for 11 sugar water solutions ranging in concentration from 10% to 66% by weight. The viscosity values are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained independently using a laboratory viscometer. The data acquisition time is 14s and this can be reduced by judicious selection of the echoes for determining the reflection coefficient. The measurement of the density results in a determination of the viscosity for Newtonian fluids or the shear wave velocity for non-Newtonian fluids. The sensor can be deployed for process control in a pipeline, with the base of the wedge as part of the pipeline wall, or immersed in a tank. PMID:16793108

  20. Broadband Lamb Wave Trapping in Cellular Metamaterial Plates with Multiple Local Resonances

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, De-Gang; Li, Yong; Zhu, Xue-Feng

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the Lamb wave propagation in cellular metamaterial plates constructed by bending-dominated and stretch-dominated unit-cells with the stiffness differed by orders of magnitude at an ultralow density. The simulation results show that ultralight metamaterial plates with textured stubs deposited on the surface can support strong local resonances for both symmetric and anti-symmetric modes at low frequencies, where Lamb waves at the resonance frequencies are highly localized in the vibrating stubs. The resonance frequency is very sensitive to the geometry of textured stubs. By reasonable design of the geometry of resonant elements, we establish a simple loaded-bar model with the array of oscillators having a gradient relative density (or weight) that can support multiple local resonances, which permits the feasibility of a broadband Lamb wave trapping. Our study could be potentially significant in designing ingenious weight-efficient acoustic devices for practical applications, such as shock absorption, cushioning, and vibrations traffic, etc. PMID:25790858

  1. Surface wave tomography with multiple data sets and its systematic application to USArray and CEArray (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, W.; Ritzwoller, M. H.; Xie, J.; Zheng, Y.; Zhou, L.; Xu, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Since 2005, EarthScope/USArray Transportable Array (TA) has deployed more than 1,500 stations in the continental US, which provides an unprecedented dense and high quality seismic dataset on a continental scale. Similarly, in China there are more than 800 permanent stations and 300 portable broadband seismic stations that have been deployed by various institutions/bureaus from China and the US. Together with seismic arrays off the mainland (e.g. Taiwan, Japan) these stations form comparable seismic observation infrastructure to USArray. I discuss the latest modeling efforts that use multiple seismic observables to constrain the crust and uppermost mantle structure beneath these two arrays. These efforts include: (1) With USArray, a new generation of isotropic Vs models is constructed using a combination of three types of seismic data: (a) Rayleigh wave phase/group velocity measurements from both ambient noise cross-correlations and teleseismic earthquakes, (b) azimuthally independent receiver functions, and (c) Rayleigh wave ellipticity (H/V ratio) measurements. These datasets are interpreted within a Bayesian Monte-Carlo inversion framework to infer both Vs and uncertainty. (2) For arrays in China, we construct Rayleigh wave phase velocity maps from ambient noise cross-correlations and common-Moho-convergence-point stacked receiver functions. We combine these two data sets to construct a 3-D isotropic Vs model for E. Tibet and S. China. We also present evidence for a mid-crust discontinuity within this region. These new isotropic Vs models form a basis for future azimuthal/radial anisotropy studies of the crust and uppermost mantle for the two continents and provide new information about diverse geological/tectonic features and processes (continent-continent collision; lithospheric rejuvenation/delamination; active/failed continent rifts) beneath the two arrays. Finally, they serve as a starting point for other seismic studies such as body wave tomography and full

  2. Energy in a String Wave

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Chiu-king

    2010-01-01

    When one end of a taut horizontal elastic string is shaken repeatedly up and down, a transverse wave (assume sine waveform) will be produced and travel along it. College students know this type of wave motion well. They know when the wave passes by, each element of the string will perform an oscillating up-down motion, which in mechanics is termed…

  3. Generalized universality in the massive sine-Gordon model

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, S.; Sailer, K.; Nandori, I.; Polonyi, J.

    2008-01-15

    A nontrivial interplay of the UV and IR scaling laws, a generalization of the universality is demonstrated in the framework of the massive sine-Gordon model, as a result of a detailed study of the global behavior of the renormalization group flow and the phase structure.

  4. The sine-Gordon model in the presence of defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avan, Jean; Doikou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    The sine-Gordon model in the presence of dynamical integrable defects is investigated. This is an application of the algebraic formulation introduced for integrable defects in earlier works. The quantities in involution as well as the associated Lax pairs are explicitly extracted. Integrability i also shown using certain sewing constraints, which emerge as suitable continuity conditions.

  5. Toroidal rotation of multiple species of ions in tokamak plasma driven by lower-hybrid-waves

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo Yang; Wang Shaojie; Pan Chengkang

    2012-10-15

    A numerical simulation is carried out to investigate the toroidal rotation of multiple species of ions and the radial electric field in a tokamak plasma driven by the lower-hybrid-wave (LHW). The theoretical model is based on the neoclassical transport theory associated with the anomalous transport model. Three species of ions (primary ion and two species of impurity ions) are taken into consideration. The predicted toroidal velocity of the trace impurities during the LHW injection agrees reasonably well with the experimental observation. It is shown that the toroidal rotation velocities of the trace impurity ions and the primary ions are close, therefore the trace impurity ions are representative of the primary ions in the toroidal rotation driven by the LHW.

  6. On the multiple scattering of VHF/UHF waves in the equatorial ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vats, H. O.

    1981-01-01

    Using amplitude data of radio beacons at 40, 140, and 360 MHz from ATS 6 (phase II), an attempt has been made to study scattering of these waves in the equatorial ionosphere. A comparison of observed scintillation index S sub 4 with the theoretical results of the multiple scattering approach and variation of autocorrelation time with frequency indicates that this theory explains the results to a large extent. A comparison of power spectra of amplitude records with the ionograms of a nearby equatorial station has led to the following conclusions: the change from a weak scattering regime to a strong scattering regime is gradual and occurs because of the gradual decrease in the scale size of the irregularities (i.e., broadening of the spectra) and the gradual increase in the thickness of the irregular region.

  7. High-power optical millimeter-wave signal generation with tunable frequency multiplication factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi-shi; Zheng, Zhenyu; Luo, Zhixiao; Min, Zhixuan; Xu, Ou; Liu, Jie

    2015-01-01

    This work demonstrates a simple and novel scheme for millimeter-wave (MMW) signal generation using optical multi-sidebands (OMSB) modulation. In the proposed methods, several pairs of optical sidebands can be generated by employing parallel phase modulators driven by a low frequency radio frequency (RF) signal. The optical sidebands will beat at a photodetector (PD) to generate high frequency MMW signal with tunable frequency multiplication factor, such as frequency octupling, 12-tupling, 16-tupling and 18-tupling. Since no optical filters or DC bias are used, the MMW signal has the evident character of high-power output. A generalized analytic expression and simulation verification for generating the frequency multi-tupling MMW signal are developed. The influences caused by non-ideal factors are discussed in detail, and undesired power ratios versus non-ideal factors are plotted and analyzed.

  8. Measurement of the Viscosity-Density Product Using Multiple Reflections of Ultrasonic Shear Horizontal Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Adamson, Justus D.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2006-12-22

    We have developed an on-line computer-controlled sensor, based on ultrasound reflection measurements, to determine the product of the viscosity and density of a liquid or slurry for Newtonian fluids and the shear impedance of the liquid for non-Newtonian fluids. A 14-MHz shear wave transducer is bonded to one side of a 45°-90° fused silica wedge and the base is in contract with the liquid. Twenty-eight echoes were observed due to the multiple reflections of an ultrasonic shear horizontal (SH) wave within the wedge. The fast Fourier transform of each echo is obtained for a liquid and for water, which serves as the calibration fluid. The reflection coefficient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by plotting the natural logarithm of the ratio (amplitude for liquid/amplitude for water) versus the echo number and determining the slope. Because the slope of this line is not affected by changes in the pulser voltage and/or system electronics, the sensor is self-calibrating and a very accurate measurement of the reflection coefficient results. Data were obtained for 11 sugar water solutions ranging in concentration from 10% to 66% by weight. Since these solutions are Newtonian fluids, the data obtained from reflection coefficient measurements yield a value of the viscosity-density product. In tests, the viscosity values are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained independently using a laboratory viscometer. The data acquisition time is 14 seconds and this can be reduced by judicious selection of the echoes for determining the reflection coefficient. The measurement of the density results in a determination of the viscosity for Newtonian fluids or the shear wave velocity for non-Newtonian fluids. The sensor can be deployed for process control in a pipeline, with the base of the wedge as part of the pipeline wall, or immersed in a tank.

  9. Quantum sine-Gordon dynamics on analogue curved spacetime in a weakly imperfect scalar Bose gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkoff, T. J.; Fischer, Uwe R.

    2016-07-01

    Using the coherent state functional integral expression of the partition function, we show that the sine-Gordon model on an analogue curved spacetime arises as the effective quantum field theory for phase fluctuations of a weakly imperfect Bose gas on an incompressible background superfluid flow when these fluctuations are restricted to a subspace of the single-particle Hilbert space. We consider bipartitions of the single-particle Hilbert space relevant to experiments on ultracold bosonic atomic or molecular gases, including, e.g., restriction to high- or low-energy sectors of the dynamics and spatial bipartition corresponding to tunnel-coupled planar Bose gases. By assuming full unitary quantum control in the low-energy subspace of a trapped gas, we show that (1) appropriately tuning the particle number statistics of the lowest-energy mode partially decouples the low- and high-energy sectors, allowing any low-energy single-particle wave function to define a background for sine-Gordon dynamics on curved spacetime and (2) macroscopic occupation of a quantum superposition of two states of the lowest two modes produces an analogue curved spacetime depending on two background flows, with respective weights continuously dependent on the corresponding weights of the superposed quantum states.

  10. Suppression of stimulated Brillouin instability of a beat-wave of two lasers in multiple-ion-species plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Pinki; Gupta, D. N.; Avinash, K.

    2016-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin instability of a beat-wave of two lasers in plasmas with multiple-ion-species (negative-ions) was studied. The inclusion of negative-ions affects the growth of ion-acoustic wave in Brillouin scattering. Thus, the growth rate of instability is suppressed significantly by the density of negative-ions. To obey the phase-matching condition, the growth rate of the instability attains a maxima for an appropriate scattering angle (angle between the pump and scattered sideband waves). This study would be technologically important to have diagnostics in low-temperature plasmas.

  11. Nonlinear mixing of ultrasonic coda waves with lower frequency-swept pump waves for a global detection of defects in multiple scattering media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Tournat, V.; Abraham, O.; Durand, O.; Letourneur, S.; Le Duff, A.; Lascoup, B.

    2013-02-01

    An ultrasonic method providing for an efficient global detection of defects in complex media (multiple scattering or reverberating media) is reported herein; this method is based on the nonlinear acoustic mixing of coda waves (stemming from multiple scattering) with lower frequency-swept pump waves. Such a nonlinear mixing step is made possible by the presence of nonlinear scatterers, such as cracks and delamination, yet remains absent when the waves are scattered only by linear scatterers, as is the case in a complex but defect-free medium. A global inspection is achieved thanks to the use of wide-band coda and pump signals, which ensure the excitation of many resonances along with a homogeneous acoustic energy distribution in the medium. We introduce the existing sensitivity tools developed for Coda Wave Interferometry in extracting the pump amplitude-dependent parameters of the coda waves associated with effective nonlinear parameters of the medium. By comparing results at two damage levels, these effective nonlinear parameters are shown to be correlated with crack presence in glass samples. The mechanisms potentially responsible for the observed amplitude dependence on the tested elastic parameters and waveform modification are discussed.

  12. The Chelyabinsk Meteorite as a multiple source of acoustic and seismic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitov, I. O.; Bobrov, D. I.; Ovchinnikov, V. M.; Rozhkov, M. V.

    2016-05-01

    Shock waves and impact of the Chelyabinsk Meteorite fragments on the ground initiated various waves in the atmosphere and the earth. Three different sources of seismic and infrasound waves were found by arrival time and azimuth of seismic and infrasound waves recorded by the International Monitoring System.

  13. Improving the uniqueness of shear wave velocity profiles derived from the inversion of multiple-mode surface wave dispersion data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supranata, Yosep Erwin

    One of the factors, which contributes to errors in shear wave velocity profile obtained from the inversion of surface wave dispersion data is non-uniqueness due to the limited number of field dispersion data. In this research, a new procedure is developed to improve the uniqueness of the shear wave velocity profile resulting from the inversion. A new forward modeling algorithm using the smallest absolute eigenvalue as the screening parameter to generate Rayleigh wave modes from a theoretical model is developed. The theoretical model adopted in this research is the Dynamic Stiffness Matrix. The results indicate that the new technique is more reliable than the traditional method using the determinant as the screening parameter. The performance of the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno and Levenberg-Marquardt methods are evaluated in this research to determine the most suitable gradient method for surface wave inversion. Comparison of the performance of the two methods shows that the Levenberg-Marquardt method produces more accurate results than the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno method. An updated inversion technique which divides the inversion process into a number of stages, with each successive stage utilizing the shear wave velocities obtained from the previous stage as its initial model, is introduced. The number of stages is the same as the highest Rayleigh wave mode number, and the kth stage of the inversion utilizes the dispersion data from the 1st through kth modes. Shear wave velocities obtained from the updated inversion technique are more accurate than those obtained from the inversion procedure using an initial model constructed from fundamental mode dispersion data.

  14. Predicting heat waves and cold snaps in the United States across multiple time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guirguis, K.; Gershunov, A.; Schwartz, R.

    2011-12-01

    Wintertime cold snaps and summertime heat waves increase energy demand and draw heavily on emergency resources of state and local governments. Adequate planning for these events requires improved predictions on timescales beyond the short range where numerical models perform well. Comprehensive probabilistic tools relating temperature extremes to weather/climate conditions on multiple time scales from the extended range to seasonal-scales and longer are needed. We have quantified heat waves and cold snaps for different regions of the U.S. over a 60-year period and used a probabilistic approach to relate these historic events to precursor weather patterns. Using principal components analysis applied to atmospheric data from NCEP Reanalysis, we identified circulation patterns (predictors) that precede extreme cold/heat events at various lead times in the range of 0-35 days. By studying the evolution of predictor patterns, we find subtle but important differences in the atmospheric states that lead to an extreme temperature event versus those that are not followed by such an event. In some cases, low-frequency climate forcing appears to modulate whether an extreme temperature event develops in the extended range, which may provide a link between seasonal and subseasonal scales. To address long-term planning, we apply the methodology to model simulations under different climate change scenarios to determine if the same relationships exist between predictor patterns and cold/heat events in the historical period and if/how we can expect these relationships to change in a future climate. These results have applications for operational forecasting of extreme temperatures, particular for energy load forecasting, as well as for short- and long-term emergency resource planning.

  15. A Journey Through the Mantle Transition Zone Under Western US From Single and Multiple Scattered Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauzin, B.; Trampert, J.; van der Hilst, R.; Wittlinger, G.; Vergne, J.

    2011-12-01

    Using data from the US Transportable Array, we combine observations of P-to-S single and multiple scattered waves to constrain the transition zone (TZ) structure beneath the Western US. From stacking the data by common conversion points along profiles, we produce depth images of seismic discontinuities. Systematic depth and amplitude measurements are performed for the '410', the '660', and some other minor seismic discontinuities identified as sharp reductions of wave velocities at ˜350 km depth (the '350') and ˜590 km depth (the '590'). The Gorda plate, subducted under Northern California, is traced back to the TZ where it seems to flatten and induces, due to cold temperatures or a high water content, a significant uplift of the '410' under Northern Nevada. The geographical maps of the '410'/'660' amplitude/topography reveal an anomalous TZ at the borders between Washington, Oregon and Idaho with: (i) a thickened TZ, (ii) a sharp jump in the topography of the '660' both in a South-North and West-East direction, and (iii) reduced '410' amplitudes at the North. Such anomalous structure might be inherited from the past history of plate subduction/accretion. A thinned TZ under the Yellowstone is likely the result of a deep hot thermal plume. Both the '350' and the '590' negative discontinuities extend over very large areas. They might be related either to an increased water content in the TZ and/or significant amount of oceanic material accumulated through the past 100 My. An estimation of the TZ water content is now possible based on observation of PPS reverberated phases on the '410' and '660' interfaces.

  16. Regulation of Drosophila Eye Development by the Transcription Factor Sine oculis

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Su-Jin; Wang, Feng; Wang, Hui; Chen, Rui; Mardon, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Homeodomain transcription factors of the Sine oculis (SIX) family direct multiple regulatory processes throughout the metazoans. Sine oculis (So) was first characterized in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where it is both necessary and sufficient for eye development, regulating cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Despite its key role in development, only a few direct targets of So have been described previously. In the current study, we aim to expand our knowledge of So-mediated transcriptional regulation in the developing Drosophila eye using ChIP-seq to map So binding regions throughout the genome. We find 7,566 So enriched regions (peaks), estimated to map to 5,952 genes. Using overlap between the So ChIP-seq peak set and genes that are differentially regulated in response to loss or gain of so, we identify putative direct targets of So. We find So binding enrichment in genes not previously known to be regulated by So, including genes that encode cell junction proteins and signaling pathway components. In addition, we analyze a subset of So-bound novel genes in the eye, and find eight genes that have previously uncharacterized eye phenotypes and may be novel direct targets of So. Our study presents a greatly expanded list of candidate So targets and serves as basis for future studies of So-mediated gene regulation in the eye. PMID:24586968

  17. Photonic analog-to-digital conversion using multiple comparators and Mach-Zehnder modulators with identical half-wave voltages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuna; Shi, Zhiguo; Chi, Hao; Zhang, Xianmin; Zheng, Shilie; Jin, Xiaofeng; Yao, Jianping

    2009-02-01

    A novel photonic analog-to-digital conversion scheme using Mach-Zehnder modulators (MZMs) with identical half-wave voltages and multiple comparators with improved bit resolution is proposed and demonstrated. Compared with the scheme using MZMs with geometrically scaled half-wave voltages, the proposed scheme has the advantage of using MZMs with identical half-wave voltages which simplify significantly the implementation. The bit resolution is improved based on the use of multiple comparators in each MZM channel, with the digital coding realized based on the symmetrical number system theory. A proof-of-concept experiment is implemented. An analog-to-digital converter with a 4-bit resolution using two MZMs and nine comparators is demonstrated.

  18. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J.; Cowling, Victoria H.; Cairns, Bradley R.; White, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. PMID:25798578

  19. A fully integrated CMOS inverse sine circuit for computational systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seon, Jong-Kug

    2010-08-01

    An inverse trigonometric function generator using CMOS technology is presented and implemented. The development and synthesis of inverse trigonometric functional circuits based on the simple approximation equations are also introduced. The proposed inverse sine function generator has the infinite input range and can be used in many measurement and instrumentation systems. The nonlinearity of less than 2.8% for the entire input range of 0.5 Vp-p with a small-signal bandwidth of 3.2 MHz is achieved. The chip implemented in 0.25 μm CMOS process operates from a single 1.8 V supply. The measured power consumption and the active chip area of the inverse sine function circuit are 350 μW and 0.15 mm2, respectively.

  20. Perspective on classical strings from complex sine-Gordon solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, Keisuke; Suzuki, Ryo

    2007-02-15

    We study a family of classical string solutions with large spins on R{sub t}xS{sup 3} subspace of AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5} background, which are related to Complex sine-Gordon solitons via Pohlmeyer's reduction. The equations of motion for the classical strings are cast into Lame equations and Complex sine-Gordon equations. We solve them under periodic boundary conditions, and obtain analytic profiles for the closed strings. They interpolate two kinds of known rigid configurations with two spins: on one hand, they reduce to folded or circular spinning/rotating strings in the limit where a soliton velocity goes to zero, while on the other hand, the dyonic giant magnons are reproduced in the limit where the period of a kink-array goes to infinity.

  1. An FPGA-based frequency response analyzer for multisine and stepped sine measurements on stationary and time-varying impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, B.; Fernandez, X.; Reig, S.; Bragos, R.

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based frequency response analyzer (FRA) for impedance frequency response function (FRF) measurements using periodic excitations, i.e. sine waves and multisines. The stepped sine measurement uses two dedicated hardware-built digital embedded multiplier blocks to extract the phase and quadrature components of the output signal. The multisine FRF measurements compute the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the input/output signals. In this paper, we describe its design, implementation and performance evaluation, performing electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements on phantoms. The stepped sine accuracy is 1.21% at 1 kΩ (1%), the precision is 35 mΩ and the total harmonic distortion plus noise (THD+N) is -120 dB. As for the multisine impedance FRF measurements, the magnitude and phase precision are, respectively, 0.23 Ω at 48.828 kHz and 0.021 deg at 8.087 MHz when measuring a resistor 505 Ω (1%). The magnitude accuracy is 0.55% at 8.087 MHz while the phase accuracy is 0.17 deg at 6.54 MHz. In all, the stepped sine signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is 84 dB and 65 dB at frequencies below and above 1 MHz respectively. The SNR for the multisine FRF measurements is above 65 dB (30 kHz-10 MHz). The FRA bandwidth is 610.4 mHz-12.5 MHz and the maximum FRF measurement rate exciting with multisines starting at 30 kHz is 200 spectra s-1. Based on its technical specifications and versatility, the FRA presented can be used in many applications, e.g. for getting insight quickly into the instantaneous impedance FRF of the time-varying impedance under test.

  2. Breather boundary form factors in sine-Gordon theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lencsés, M.; Takács, G.

    2011-11-01

    A previously conjectured set of exact form factors of boundary exponential operators in the sinh-Gordon model is tested against numerical results from boundary truncated conformal space approach in boundary sine-Gordon theory, related by analytic continuation to sinh-Gordon model. We find that the numerical data strongly support the validity of the form factors themselves; however, we also report a discrepancy in the case of diagonal matrix elements, which remains unresolved for the time being.

  3. Flux-flow mode in the sine-Gordon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Marek

    1998-07-01

    An inverse transformation of the theta function is derived, making it possible to investigate a multiperiodic solution of the sine-Gordon equation in the limit of a dense sequence of overlapping solitons. A special case of a unidirectional soliton train interacting with small-amplitude quasi-linear oscillations is discussed as a simple model of the flux-flow state in a long one-dimensional Josephson junction. Approximate analytical solutions for the dispersion parameters are compared with numerical results.

  4. A simulation study of multiple ion wave generation downstream of low Mach number quasiperpendicular shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motschmann, Uwe; Raeder, Joachim

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of minor ions just downstream of a low Mach number quasi-perpendicular shock is investigated both theoretically and by computer simulations. Because all ions see the same cross shock electric field their deceleration depends on their charge to mass ratio, yielding different downstream velocities. It is shown that these differences in velocity can lead to coherent wave structures in the downstream region of quasi-perpendicular shocks with a narrow transition layer. These waves are shown to be multi ion hybrid waves in contrast to mirror waves and ion cyclotron waves. Under favorable conditions these waves should be observable both at interplanetary shocks and at planetary bowshocks.

  5. Location of high-frequency P wave microseismic noise in the Pacific Ocean using multiple small aperture arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, Moira L.; Koper, Keith D.; Euler, Garrett G.; Burlacu, Relu

    2015-04-01

    We investigate source locations of P wave microseisms within a narrow frequency band (0.67-1.33 Hz) that is significantly higher than the classic microseism band (~0.05-0.3 Hz). Employing a backprojection method, we analyze data recorded during January 2010 from five International Monitoring System arrays that border the Pacific Ocean. We develop a ranking scheme that allows us to combine beam power from multiple arrays to obtain robust locations of the microseisms. Some individual arrays exhibit a strong regional component, but results from the combination of all arrays show high-frequency P wave energy emanating from the North Pacific basin, in general agreement with previous observations in the double-frequency (DF) microseism band (~0.1-0.3 Hz). This suggests that the North Pacific source of ambient P noise covers a broad range of frequencies and that the wave-wave interaction model is likely valid at shorter periods.

  6. Polypteridae (Actinopterygii: Cladistia) and DANA-SINEs insertions.

    PubMed

    Morescalchi, Maria Alessandra; Barucca, Marco; Stingo, Vincenzo; Capriglione, Teresa

    2010-06-01

    SINE sequences are interspersed throughout virtually all eukaryotic genomes and greatly outnumber the other repetitive elements. These sequences are of increasing interest for phylogenetic studies because of their diagnostic power for establishing common ancestry among taxa, once properly characterized. We identified and characterized a peculiar family of composite tRNA-derived short interspersed SINEs, DANA-SINEs, associated with mutational activities in Danio rerio, in a group of species belonging to one of the most basal bony fish families, the Polypteridae, in order to investigate their own inner specific phylogenetic relationships. DANA sequences were identified, sequenced and then localized, by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in six Polypteridae species (Polypterus delhezi, P. ornatipinnis, P. palmas, P. buettikoferi P. senegalus and Erpetoichthys calabaricus) After cloning, the sequences obtained were aligned for phylogenetic analysis, comparing them with three Dipnoan lungfish species (Protopterus annectens, P. aethiopicus, Lepidosiren paradoxa), and Lethenteron reissneri (Petromyzontidae)was used as outgroup. The obtained overlapping MP, ML and NJ tree clustered together the species belonging to the two taxonomically different Osteichthyans groups: the Polypteridae, by one side, and the Protopteridae by the other, with the monotypic genus Erpetoichthys more distantly related to the Polypterus genus comprising three distinct groups: P. palmas and P. buettikoferi, P. delhezi and P. ornatipinnis and P. senegalus. In situ hybridization with DANA probes marked along the whole chromosome arms in the metaphases of all the Polypteridae species examined. PMID:21798200

  7. The Construction of a 'Relativistic' Wave-Particle: The Soliton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenberg, Cyril

    1982-01-01

    Although most waves studied by students satisfy the linear equation, particle physicists have become interested in nonlinear waves--those not satisfying the superposition principle. A mechanical wave system, satisfying the sine-Gordon equation, can be constructed using a modified transverse wave system to demonstrate nonlinear wave-particle…

  8. Inference of Magnetic Field in the Coronal Streamer Invoking Kink Wave Motions generated by Multiple EUV Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Singh, Talwinder; Ofman, Leon; Dwivedi, Bhola N.

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the observations from Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) of an oscillating coronal streamer. STEREO-B Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging (EUVI) temporal data on 7 March 2012 shows an evolution of two consecutive EUV waves that interact with footpoint of a coronal streamer clearly evident in the co-spatial and co-temporal STEREO-B/COR-1 observations. The waves are observed in the STEREO-B/EUVI too, and its apparent energy exchange with coronal streamer generates kink oscillations. We apply the methodology of MHD seismology of the observed waves and determine the magnetic field profile of the coronal streamer. In particular, we estimate the phase velocities of the kink wave perturbations by tracking them at different heights. We also estimate electron densities inside and outside the streamer using spherically symmetric inversion of polarized brightness images in STEREO-B/COR-1. We detect two large scale kink wave oscillations that diagnose exponentially decaying radial profiles of magnetic field in streamer up to 3 solar radii. Within the limit of observational and systematic uncertainties, we find that magnetic field of streamer varies slowly at various heights, although its nature always remains exponentially decaying with height. It is seen that during evolution of second kink motion in streamer, it increases in brightness (thus mass density), and also in areal extent slightly, which may be associated with decreased photospheric magnetic flux at footpoint of streamer. As a result, magnetic field profile produced by second kink wave is reduced within streamer compared to the one diagnosed by the first one.

  9. Reconstruction of multiple gastric electrical wave fronts using potential-based inverse methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J. H. K.; Pullan, A. J.; Cheng, L. K.

    2012-08-01

    One approach for non-invasively characterizing gastric electrical activity, commonly used in the field of electrocardiography, involves solving an inverse problem whereby electrical potentials on the stomach surface are directly reconstructed from dense potential measurements on the skin surface. To investigate this problem, an anatomically realistic torso model and an electrical stomach model were used to simulate potentials on stomach and skin surfaces arising from normal gastric electrical activity. The effectiveness of the Greensite-Tikhonov or the Tikhonov inverse methods were compared under the presence of 10% Gaussian noise with either 84 or 204 body surface electrodes. The stability and accuracy of the Greensite-Tikhonov method were further investigated by introducing varying levels of Gaussian signal noise or by increasing or decreasing the size of the stomach by 10%. Results showed that the reconstructed solutions were able to represent the presence of propagating multiple wave fronts and the Greensite-Tikhonov method with 204 electrodes performed best (correlation coefficients of activation time: 90%; pacemaker localization error: 3 cm). The Greensite-Tikhonov method was stable with Gaussian noise levels up to 20% and 10% change in stomach size. The use of 204 rather than 84 body surface electrodes improved the performance; however, for all investigated cases, the Greensite-Tikhonov method outperformed the Tikhonov method.

  10. Spatial-temporal control of interferences of multiple tunneling photoelectron wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; Geng, Ji-Wei; Liu, Ming-Ming; Zheng, Xu; Peng, Liang-You; Gong, Qihuang; Liu, Yunquan

    2015-07-01

    We theoretically study the control of the interferences of multiple tunneling photoelectron wave packets in both temporal and spatial domains by an orthogonally polarized two-color laser pulse. Profound carpetlike and stripelike interference patterns can be turned on or off in the momentum spectra using a weak streaking field at half the frequency of a strong fundamental field. The modulations of the interference patterns with respect to the relative phase between the two frequency components are well recaptured by both a semiclassical interference model and an ab initio simulation with numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. We highlight the importance of the ionic Coulomb potential on the photoelectron angular distributions of atoms in the orthogonally polarized two-color pulses. It is shown that the interference induced by the forward rescattering trajectories is enhanced while the contribution of the direct trajectories is suppressed. This study offers alternative routes toward probing and controlling the ultrafast ionization dynamics of atoms and molecules.

  11. Micro-Doppler analysis of multiple frequency continuous wave radar signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Michael G.; Rogers, Robert L.

    2007-04-01

    Micro-Doppler refers to Doppler scattering returns produced by non rigid-body motion. Micro-Doppler gives rise to many detailed radar image features in addition to those associated with bulk target motion. Targets of different classes (for example, humans, animals, and vehicles) produce micro-Doppler images that are often distinguishable even by nonexpert observers. Micro-Doppler features have great potential for use in automatic target classification algorithms. Although the potential benefit of using micro-Doppler in classification algorithms is high, relatively little experimental (non-synthetic) micro-Doppler data exists. Much of the existing experimental data comes from highly cooperative targets (human or vehicle targets directly approaching the radar). This research involved field data collection and analysis of micro-Doppler radar signatures from non-cooperative targets. The data was collected using a low cost Xband multiple frequency continuous wave (MFCW) radar with three transmit frequencies. The collected MFCW radar signatures contain data from humans, vehicles, and animals. The presented data includes micro-Doppler signatures previously unavailable in the literature such as crawling humans and various animal species. The animal micro-Doppler signatures include deer, dog, and goat datasets. This research focuses on the analysis of micro-Doppler from noncooperative targets approaching the radar at various angles, maneuvers, and postures.

  12. Mechanical Waves Conceptual Survey: Its Modification and Conversion to a Standard Multiple-Choice Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present several modifications of the mechanical waves conceptual survey, the most important test to date that has been designed to evaluate university students' understanding of four main topics in mechanical waves: propagation, superposition, reflection, and standing waves. The most significant changes are (i) modification of…

  13. Nonlinear Fourier analysis with cnoidal waves

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful tools to the ocean engineer. The approach allows one to analyze wave data and thereby to describe a dynamical motion in terms of a linear superposition of ordinary sine waves. Furthermore, the Fourier technique allows one to compute the response function of a fixed or floating structure: each sine wave in the wave or force spectrum yields a sine wave in the response spectrum. The counting of fatigue cycles is another area where the predictable oscillations of sine waves yield procedures for the estimation of the fatigue life of structures. The ocean environment, however, is a source of a number of nonlinear effects which must also be included in structure design. Nonlinearities in ocean waves deform the sinusoidal shapes into other kinds of waves such as the Stokes wave, cnoidal wave or solitary wave. A key question is: Does there exist a generalization of linear Fourier analysis which uses nonlinear basis functions rather than the familiar sine waves? Herein addresses the dynamics of nonlinear wave motion in shallow water where the basis functions are cnoidal waves and discuss nonlinear Fourier analysis in terms of a linear superposition of cnoidal waves plus their mutual nonlinear interactions. He gives a number of simple examples of nonlinear Fourier wave motion and then analyzes an actual surface-wave time series obtained on an offshore platform in the Adriatic Sea. Finally, he briefly discusses application of the cnoidal wave spectral approach to the computation of the frequency response function of a floating vessel. The results given herein will prove useful in future engineering studies for the design of fixed, floating and complaint offshore structures.

  14. A numerical scheme and some theoretical aspects for the cylindrically and spherically symmetric sine-Gordon equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lu Trong Khiem

    2016-07-01

    A finite difference formula based on the predictor-corrector technique is presented to integrate the cylindrically and spherically symmetric sine-Gordon equations numerically. Based on various numerical observations, one property of the waves of kink type is conjectured and used to explain their returning effect. Several numerical experiments are carried out and they are in excellent agreement with the existing results. In addition, the corresponding modulation solution for the two-dimensional ring-shaped kink is extended to that in three-dimension. Both numerical and theoretical aspects are utilized to verify the reliability of the proposed numerical scheme and thus the analytical modulation solutions.

  15. Generation of multiple stress waves in silica glass in high fluence femtosecond laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Haofeng; Wang Xiaolei; Zhai Hongchen; Zhang Nan; Wang Pan

    2010-08-09

    Shadowgraphs of dynamic processes outside and inside transparent target during the intense femtosecond laser ablation of silica glass are recorded. Two material ejections outside the target and two corresponding stress waves inside the target are observed at different energy fluences. In particular, a third stress wave can be observed at energy fluence as high as 40 J/cm{sup 2}. The first wave is a thermoelastic wave, while the second and the third may be generated subsequently by the mechanical expansions. In addition, the magnitudes of the three stress waves decrease sequentially based on our analysis.

  16. Nonlinear Dynamics of Layered Structures and the Generalized Sine-Lattice Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soboleva, Tatyana; Zeltser, Alexander; Kivshar, Yuri; Turitsyn, Sergei

    1995-07-01

    We analyze nonlinear waves in layered (anisotropic) structures with strong interlayer interaction. One of the important physical examples of nonlinear modes in such structures is the so-called supersolitons, localized excitations of the density of a vortex lattice propagating in a system of interacting (parallel) long Josephson junctions. We show that the dynamics of these structures may be described by the so-called sine-lattice (SL) equation first introduced by S. Takeno and S. Homma [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 55 (1986) 65] and its various generalizations, e.g. those which include a transverse degree of freedom or more general types of the interlayer (nonlinear) interactions described by periodic Jacobi elliptic functions. We analyze nonlinear localized waves in such generalized SL equations analytically and numerically, and show that, in general, density waves may be of three types, namely kinks, dynamical solitons, and envelope solitons. We investigate also the transverse stability of quasi-one-dimensional solitons in the framework of the effective modified Boussinesq equation valid for both small amplitudes and continuous approximation, as well as investigate numerically the effects of perturbations (dissipation or point-like impurities) on the dynamics of π -kinks.

  17. The dynamic proliferation of CanSINEs mirrors the complex evolution of Feliforms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive short interspersed elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons ubiquitous in mammalian genomes and are highly informative markers to identify species and phylogenetic associations. Of these, SINEs unique to the order Carnivora (CanSINEs) yield novel insights on genome evolution in domestic dogs and cats, but less is known about their role in related carnivores. In particular, genome-wide assessment of CanSINE evolution has yet to be completed across the Feliformia (cat-like) suborder of Carnivora. Within Feliformia, the cat family Felidae is composed of 37 species and numerous subspecies organized into eight monophyletic lineages that likely arose 10 million years ago. Using the Felidae family as a reference phylogeny, along with representative taxa from other families of Feliformia, the origin, proliferation and evolution of CanSINEs within the suborder were assessed. Results We identified 93 novel intergenic CanSINE loci in Feliformia. Sequence analyses separated Feliform CanSINEs into two subfamilies, each characterized by distinct RNA polymerase binding motifs and phylogenetic associations. Subfamily I CanSINEs arose early within Feliformia but are no longer under active proliferation. Subfamily II loci are more recent, exclusive to Felidae and show evidence for adaptation to extant RNA polymerase activity. Further, presence/absence distributions of CanSINE loci are largely congruent with taxonomic expectations within Feliformia and the less resolved nodes in the Felidae reference phylogeny present equally ambiguous CanSINE data. SINEs are thought to be nearly impervious to excision from the genome. However, we observed a nearly complete excision of a CanSINEs locus in puma (Puma concolor). In addition, we found that CanSINE proliferation in Felidae frequently targeted existing CanSINE loci for insertion sites, resulting in tandem arrays. Conclusions We demonstrate the existence of at least two SINE families within the Feliformia suborder, one

  18. Evaluation of quasi-square wave inverter as a power source for induction motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynes, B. V.; Haggard, R. L.; Lanier, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The relative merits of quasi-square wave inverter-motor technology versus a sine wave inverter-motor system were investigated. The empirical results of several tests on various sizes of wye-wound induction motors are presented with mathematical analysis to support the conclusions of the study. It was concluded that, within the limitations presented, the quasi-square wave inverter-motor system is superior to the more complex sine wave system for most induction motor applications in space.

  19. New waves at multiples of the plasma frequency upstream of the earth's bow shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cairns, I. H.

    1986-01-01

    The first observations of waves at harmonics higher than the second of the electron plasma frequency are reported. The observations were made by the ISEE 1 spacecraft upstream of the earth's bow shock. The waves are interpreted as electromagnetic radiation at the fundamental and up to the fifth harmonic of the plasma frequency, with effective temperatures decreasing from 5 x 10 to the 17th K to 10 billion K over this range. Two models are proposed for the emission of the waves.

  20. High-power free-electron maser with frequency multiplication operating in a shortwave part of the millimeter wave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurkin, I. V.; Kaminsky, A. K.; Perelstein, E. A.; Peskov, N. Yu.; Savilov, A. V.; Sedykh, S. N.

    2012-08-01

    The possibility of using frequency multiplication in order to obtain high-power short-wavelength radiation from a free-electron maser (FEM) with a Bragg resonator has been studied. Preliminary experiments with an LIU-3000 (JINR) linear induction accelerator demonstrate the operation of a frequency-multiplying FEM at megawatt power in the 6- and 4-mm wave bands on the second and third harmonic, respectively.

  1. Implications of Raman scattering and phase noise on multiple four-wave mixing processes in an optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Bhaskar Lachman

    2014-08-15

    Implications of spontaneous and stimulated Raman scattering (SSRS) and phase noise on the spatial evolution of multiple-order sidebands arising from four-wave mixing (FWM) along the length of an optical fiber are investigated. A modified split-step Fourier method is used to solve the governing coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The phase noise overcomes the depletive nature of SSRS and stabilizes the FWM sidebands, in good agreement with experimental results. PMID:25121893

  2. The Role of Pulse Shape in Motor Cortex Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Using Full-Sine Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Delvendahl, Igor; Gattinger, Norbert; Berger, Thomas; Gleich, Bernhard; Siebner, Hartwig R.; Mall, Volker

    2014-01-01

    A full-sine (biphasic) pulse waveform is most commonly used for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), but little is known about how variations in duration or amplitude of distinct pulse segments influence the effectiveness of a single TMS pulse to elicit a corticomotor response. Using a novel TMS device, we systematically varied the configuration of full-sine pulses to assess the impact of configuration changes on resting motor threshold (RMT) as measure of stimulation effectiveness with single-pulse TMS of the non-dominant motor hand area (M1). In young healthy volunteers, we (i) compared monophasic, half-sine, and full-sine pulses, (ii) applied two-segment pulses consisting of two identical half-sines, and (iii) manipulated amplitude, duration, and current direction of the first or second full-sine pulse half-segments. RMT was significantly higher using half-sine or monophasic pulses compared with full-sine. Pulses combining two half-sines of identical polarity and duration were also characterized by higher RMT than full-sine stimuli resulting. For full-sine stimuli, decreasing the amplitude of the half-segment inducing posterior-anterior oriented current in M1 resulted in considerably higher RMT, whereas varying the amplitude of the half-segment inducing anterior-posterior current had a smaller effect. These findings provide direct experimental evidence that the pulse segment inducing a posterior-anterior directed current in M1 contributes most to corticospinal pathway excitation. Preferential excitation of neuronal target cells in the posterior-anterior segment or targeting of different neuronal structures by the two half-segments can explain this result. Thus, our findings help understanding the mechanisms of neural stimulation by full-sine TMS. PMID:25514673

  3. Sine-square deformation and supersymmetric quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okunishi, Kouichi; Katsura, Hosho

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the sine-square deformation (SSD) of free fermions in one-dimensional continuous space. On the basis of supersymmetric quantum mechanics, we prove the correspondence between the many-body ground state of the system with SSD and that of the uniform system with periodic boundary conditions. We also discuss the connection between the SSD in the continuous space and its lattice version, where the geometric correction due to the real-space deformation plays an important role in relating the eigenstates of the lattice SSD with those of the continuous SSD.

  4. Experimental Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System for Harmonic, Random, and Sine on Random Vibration

    SciTech Connect

    Cryns, Jackson W.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Silvers, Kurt L.

    2013-07-01

    Formal journal article Experimental analysis of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system for harmonic, random, and sine on random vibration Abstract: Harvesting power with a piezoelectric vibration powered generator using a full-wave rectifier conditioning circuit is experimentally compared for varying sinusoidal, random and sine on random (SOR) input vibration scenarios. Additionally, the implications of source vibration characteristics on harvester design are discussed. Studies in vibration harvesting have yielded numerous alternatives for harvesting electrical energy from vibrations but piezoceramics arose as the most compact, energy dense means of energy transduction. The rise in popularity of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations has made piezoelectric generators commercially available. Much of the available literature focuses on maximizing harvested power through nonlinear processing circuits that require accurate knowledge of generator internal mechanical and electrical characteristics and idealization of the input vibration source, which cannot be assumed in general application. In this manuscript, variations in source vibration and load resistance are explored for a commercially available piezoelectric generator. We characterize the source vibration by its acceleration response for repeatability and transcription to general application. The results agree with numerical and theoretical predictions for in previous literature that load optimal resistance varies with transducer natural frequency and source type, and the findings demonstrate that significant gains are seen with lower tuned transducer natural frequencies for similar source amplitudes. Going beyond idealized steady state sinusoidal and simplified random vibration input, SOR testing allows for more accurate representation of real world ambient vibration. It is shown that characteristic interactions from more complex vibrational sources significantly alter power generation and power processing

  5. Multiple scattering of scalar waves by point scatterers in one dimension. II

    SciTech Connect

    Haacke, E.M.; Foldy, L.L.

    1981-04-01

    In the first paper of this series, we studied the problem of scattering in one dimension of a wave interacting with n randomly distributed pointlike scatterers by delta-function potentials. Averaging the wave function for a constant amplitude transmitted wave over an ensemble of configurations allowed us to obtain an analytic expression for the optical potential which, in certain limits, took the form of the scatterer density (rho) times the scattering strength (GAMMA). We examine the domain in parameter space where rhoGAMMA can be regarded as a good approximation to the optical potential for both this problem and the problem in which the amplitude of the incident wave is constant. The conditions on the parameters are found to be the same in both the preceding problems. We then supplement rhoGAMMA by an appropriate imaginary part. The wave function predicted from this effective potential approximation to the optical potential is in good agreement with that from the exact solution.

  6. A Non-Intrusive Pressure Sensor by Detecting Multiple Longitudinal Waves.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hongliang; Lin, Weibin; Ge, Xiaocheng; Zhou, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Pressure vessels are widely used in industrial fields, and some of them are safety-critical components in the system-for example, those which contain flammable or explosive material. Therefore, the pressure of these vessels becomes one of the critical measurements for operational management. In the paper, we introduce a new approach to the design of non-intrusive pressure sensors, based on ultrasonic waves. The model of this sensor is built based upon the travel-time change of the critically refracted longitudinal wave (LCR wave) and the reflected longitudinal waves with the pressure. To evaluate the model, experiments are carried out to compare the proposed model with other existing models. The results show that the proposed model can improve the accuracy compared to models based on a single wave. PMID:27527183

  7. Internal tide transformation across a continental slope off Cape Sines, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Small, Justin

    2002-04-01

    During the INTIFANTE 99 experiment in July 1999, observations were made of a prominent internal undular bore off Cape Sines, Portugal. The feature was always present and dominant in a collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the area covering the period before, during and after the trial. During the trial, rapid dissemination of SAR data to the survey ship enabled assessment of the progression of the feature, and the consequent planning of a survey of the bore coincident with a new SAR image. Large amplitude internal waves of 50 m amplitude in 250 m water depth, and 40 m in 100 m depth, were observed. The images show that the position of the feature is linked to the phase of the tide, suggesting an internal tide origin. The individual packets of internal waves contain up to seven waves with wavelengths in the range of 500-1500 m, and successive packets are separated by internal tide distances of typically 16-20 km, suggesting phase speeds of 0.35-0.45 m s -1. The internal waves were coherent over crest lengths of between 15 and 70 km, the longer wavefronts being due to the merging of packets. This paper uses the SAR data to detail the transformation of the wave packet as it passes across the continental slope and approaches the coast. The generation sites for the feature are discussed and reasons for its unusually large amplitude are hypothesised. It is concluded that generation at critical slopes of the bathymetry and non-linear interactions are the likely explanations for the large amplitudes.

  8. Energy propagation by transverse waves in multiple flux tube systems using filling factors

    SciTech Connect

    Van Doorsselaere, T.; Gijsen, S. E.; Andries, J.; Verth, G. E-mail: stief.gijsen@wis.kuleuven.be E-mail: g.verth@sheffield.ac.uk

    2014-11-01

    In the last few years, it has been found that transverse waves are present at all times in coronal loops or spicules. Their energy has been estimated with an expression derived for bulk Alfvén waves in homogeneous media, with correspondingly uniform wave energy density and flux. The kink mode, however, is localized in space with the energy density and flux dependent on the position in the cross-sectional plane. The more relevant quantities for the kink mode are the integrals of the energy density and flux over the cross-sectional plane. The present paper provides an approximation to the energy propagated by kink modes in an ensemble of flux tubes by means of combining the analysis of single flux tube kink oscillations with a filling factor for the tube cross-sectional area. This finally allows one to compare the expressions for energy flux of Alfvén waves with an ensemble of kink waves. We find that the correction factor for the energy in kink waves, compared to the bulk Alfvén waves, is between f and 2f, where f is the density filling factor of the ensemble of flux tubes.

  9. Multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by an aggregate of uniaxial anisotropic spheres.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Sen; Shi, Yan'e; Bai, Lu; Li, Hai-Ying

    2012-01-01

    An exact analytical solution is obtained for the scattering of electromagnetic waves from a plane wave with arbitrary directions of propagation and polarization by an aggregate of interacting homogeneous uniaxial anisotropic spheres with parallel primary optical axes. The expansion coefficients of a plane wave with arbitrary directions of propagation and polarization, for both TM and TE modes, are derived in terms of spherical vector wave functions. The effects of the incident angle α and the polarization angle β on the radar cross sections (RCSs) of several types of collective uniaxial anisotropic spheres are numerically analyzed in detail. The characteristics of the forward and backward RCSs in relation to the incident wavelength are also numerically studied. Selected results on the forward and backward RCSs of several types of square arrays of SiO₂ spheres illuminated by a plane wave with different incident angles are described. The accuracy of the expansion coefficients of the incident fields is verified by comparing them with the results obtained from references when the plane wave is degenerated to a z-propagating and x- or y-polarized plane wave. The validity of the theory is also confirmed by comparing the numerical results with those provided by a CST simulation. PMID:22218348

  10. Breather-like structures in modified sine-Gordon models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. A.; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2016-05-01

    We report analytical and numerical results on breather-like field configurations in a theory which is a deformation of the integrable sine-Gordon model in (1  +  1) dimensions. The main motivation of our study is to test the ideas behind the recently proposed concept of quasi-integrability, which emerged from the observation that some field theories possess an infinite number of quantities which are asymptotically conserved in the scattering of solitons, and periodic in time in the case of breather-like configurations. Even though the mechanism responsible for such phenomena is not well understood yet, it is clear that special properties of the solutions under a space-time parity transformation play a crucial role. The numerical results of the present paper give support for the ideas on quasi-integrability, as it is found that extremely long-lived breather configurations satisfy these parity properties. We also report on a mechanism, particular to the theory studied here, that favours the existence of long lived breathers even in cases of significant deformations of the sine-Gordon potential. We also find numerically that our breather-like configurations decay through the gradual increase of their frequency of oscillations.

  11. Experimental Evidence of the Collective Brillouin Scattering of Multiple Laser Beams Sharing Acoustic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuville, C.; Tassin, V.; Pesme, D.; Monteil, M.-C.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Baccou, C.; Fremerye, P.; Philippe, F.; Seytor, P.; Teychenné, D.; Seka, W.; Katz, J.; Bahr, R.; Depierreux, S.

    2016-06-01

    The indirect-drive scheme to inertial confinement fusion uses a large number of laser beams arranged in a symmetric angular distribution. Collective laser plasma instabilities can therefore develop that couple all the incident laser waves located in a cone to the daughter wave growing along the cone symmetry axis [D. F. DuBois et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 241 (1992)]. With complementary diagnostics of Thomson scattering and of the scattered light, we demonstrate the occurrence of collective stimulated Brillouin sidescattering driving collective acoustic waves in indirect-drive experiments.

  12. Experimental Evidence of the Collective Brillouin Scattering of Multiple Laser Beams Sharing Acoustic Waves.

    PubMed

    Neuville, C; Tassin, V; Pesme, D; Monteil, M-C; Masson-Laborde, P-E; Baccou, C; Fremerye, P; Philippe, F; Seytor, P; Teychenné, D; Seka, W; Katz, J; Bahr, R; Depierreux, S

    2016-06-10

    The indirect-drive scheme to inertial confinement fusion uses a large number of laser beams arranged in a symmetric angular distribution. Collective laser plasma instabilities can therefore develop that couple all the incident laser waves located in a cone to the daughter wave growing along the cone symmetry axis [D. F. DuBois et al., Phys. Fluids B 4, 241 (1992)]. With complementary diagnostics of Thomson scattering and of the scattered light, we demonstrate the occurrence of collective stimulated Brillouin sidescattering driving collective acoustic waves in indirect-drive experiments. PMID:27341238

  13. Influence of multiple sills upon internal wave generation and the implications for mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Jiuxing; Davies, Alan M.

    2009-07-01

    A cross sectional non-hydrostatic model of a fjord is used to examine to what extent the internal tide is modified by two closely spaced sills. The model is forced with an M2 barotropic tide and internal tides, unsteady lee waves and a jet are generated at the sills. In contrast to an isolated sill, calculations with two closely spaced sills show that the presence of the second sill leads to standing internal wave generation with associated changes in wave spectrum and Richardson number in the inter sill region. Associated with these there is a cascade of energy towards short waves leading to enhanced mixing between the sills. This increase in mixing is consistent with enhanced mixing between closely spaced sills found in observations. It is also relevant to enhanced oceanic mixing and suggest that future mixing measurements should focus on these regions.

  14. Ebola outbreak in West Africa: real-time estimation and multiple-wave prediction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-Sheng; Zhong, Luoyi

    2015-10-01

    Based on the reported data until 18 March 2015 and numerical fitting via a simple formula of cumulative case number, we provide real-time estimation on basic reproduction number, inflection point, peak time and final outbreak size of ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa. From our simulation, we conclude that the first wave has passed its inflection point and predict that a second epidemic wave may appear in the near future. PMID:26280179

  15. Direction dependent Love and Rayleigh wave noise characteristics using multiple arrays across Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juretzek, Carina; Perleth, Magdalena; Hadziioannou, Celine

    2016-04-01

    Seismic noise has become an important signal source for tomography and monitoring purposes. Better understanding of the noise field characteristics is crucial to further improve noise applications. Our knowledge about common and different origins of Love and Rayleigh waves in the microseism band is still limited. This applies in particular for constraints on source locations and source mechanisms of Love waves. Here, 3-component beamforming is used to distinguish between the different polarized wave types in the primary and secondary microseism noise field recorded at several arrays across Europe. We compare characteristics of Love and Rayleigh wave noise, such as source directions and frequency content. Further, Love to Rayleigh wave ratios are measured and a dependence on direction is found, especially in the primary microseism band. Estimates of the kinetic energy density ratios propose a dominance of coherent Love waves in the primary, but not in the secondary microseism band. The seasonality of the noise field characteristics is examined by using a full year of data in 2013 and is found to be stable.

  16. Location of high-frequency P wave microseismic noise in the Pacific Ocean using multiple small aperture arrays

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pyle, Moira L.; Koper, Keith D.; Euler, Garrett G.; Burlacu, Relu

    2015-04-20

    We investigate source locations of P-wave microseisms within a narrow frequency band (0.67–1.33 Hz) that is significantly higher than the classic microseism band (~0.05–0.3 Hz). Employing a backprojection method, we analyze data recorded during January 2010 from five International Monitoring System arrays that border the Pacific Ocean. We develop a ranking scheme that allows us to combine beam power from multiple arrays to obtain robust locations of the microseisms. Some individual arrays exhibit a strong regional component, but results from the combination of all arrays show high-frequency P wave energy emanating from the North Pacific basin, in general agreement withmore » previous observations in the double-frequency (DF) microseism band (~0.1–0.3 Hz). This suggests that the North Pacific source of ambient P noise covers a broad range of frequencies and that the wave-wave interaction model is likely valid at shorter periods.« less

  17. Conservation laws, Korteweg--de Vries and sine-Gordon systems, and the role of supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, B.; Lahiri, A.; Roy, P.K.

    1989-02-15

    It is shown that the eigenvalue problem of the L operator for the sine-Gordon equation can be put in a supersymmetric form. We comment on the connection between the conserved quantities of the Korteweg--de Vries and sine-Gordon systems.

  18. Frequency-controlable sine signal based on PWM and its implementation on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Lianzhen; Li, Jiangang; Zhang, Dongjun

    2012-09-01

    A sine generation method that the different frequent sine signals can be generated by the different Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) signals generated by Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) through low-pass filter of fixed parameters was proposed. The method just takes a few FPGA resources and was proved feasible by the theory. The experiment results and theory analysis tally.

  19. Conservation laws and Hamiltonian structures of the generalized sine-Gordon hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fang; Xue, Bo; Li, Yan

    2014-12-01

    By introducing a 2 × 2 matrix spectral problem, a new hierarchy of nonlinear evolution equations is proposed. A typical equation in this hierarchy is the generalization of sine-Gordon equation. With the aid of trace identity, the Hamiltonian structures of the hierarchy are constructed. In addition, the infinite sequence of conserved quantities of the generalized sine-Gordon equation are obtained.

  20. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw—SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks

    PubMed Central

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc—snail and SCoica—mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain—Snail—is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5′ end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves—extending the distribution range of this superfamily. PMID:26739168

  1. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw - SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks.

    PubMed

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc-snail and SCoica-mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain-Snail-is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5' end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves-extending the distribution range of this superfamily. PMID:26739168

  2. RUDI, a short interspersed element of the V-SINE superfamily widespread in molluscan genomes.

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea; Šatović, Eva; Mantovani, Barbara; Plohl, Miroslav

    2016-06-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in eukaryotic genomes. They exhibit a chimeric sequence structure consisting of a small RNA-related head, an anonymous body and an AT-rich tail. Although their turnover and de novo emergence is rapid, some SINE elements found in distantly related species retain similarity in certain core segments (or highly conserved domains, HCD). We have characterized a new SINE element named RUDI in the bivalve molluscs Ruditapes decussatus and R. philippinarum and found this element to be widely distributed in the genomes of a number of mollusc species. An unexpected structural feature of RUDI is the HCD domain type V, which was first found in non-amniote vertebrate SINEs and in the SINE from one cnidarian species. In addition to the V domain, the overall sequence conservation pattern of RUDI elements resembles that found in ancient AmnSINE (~310 Myr old) and Au SINE (~320 Myr old) families, suggesting that RUDI might be among the most ancient SINE families. Sequence conservation suggests a monophyletic origin of RUDI. Nucleotide variability and phylogenetic analyses suggest long-term vertical inheritance combined with at least one horizontal transfer event as the most parsimonious explanation for the observed taxonomic distribution. PMID:26987730

  3. Inverse PCR-based method for isolating novel SINEs from genome.

    PubMed

    Han, Yawei; Chen, Liping; Guan, Lihong; He, Shunping

    2014-04-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are moderately repetitive DNA sequences in eukaryotic genomes. Although eukaryotic genomes contain numerous SINEs copy, it is very difficult and laborious to isolate and identify them by the reported methods. In this study, the inverse PCR was successfully applied to isolate SINEs from Opsariichthys bidens genome in Eastern Asian Cyprinid. A group of SINEs derived from tRNA(Ala) molecular had been identified, which were named Opsar according to Opsariichthys. SINEs characteristics were exhibited in Opsar, which contained a tRNA(Ala)-derived region at the 5' end, a tRNA-unrelated region, and AT-rich region at the 3' end. The tRNA-derived region of Opsar shared 76 % sequence similarity with tRNA(Ala) gene. This result indicated that Opsar could derive from the inactive or pseudogene of tRNA(Ala). The reliability of method was tested by obtaining C-SINE, Ct-SINE, and M-SINEs from Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Megalobrama amblycephala, and Cyprinus carpio genomes. This method is simpler than the previously reported, which successfully omitted many steps, such as preparation of probes, construction of genomic libraries, and hybridization. PMID:24122282

  4. Determination of retardation parameters of multiple-order wave plate using a phase-sensitive heterodyne ellipsometer.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Cheng-Hung; Tsai, Chien-Chung; Wei, Hsiang-Chun; Yu, Li-Ping; Wu, Jheng-Syong; Chou, Chien

    2007-08-10

    To characterize the linear birefringence of a multiple-order wave plate (MWP), an oblique incidence is one of the methods available. Multiple reflections in the MWP are produced, and oscillations in the phase retardation measurement versus the oblique incident angle are then measured. Therefore, an antireflection coated MWP is required to avoid oscillation of the phase retardation measurement. In this study, we set up a phase-sensitive heterodyne ellipsometer to measure the phase retardations of an uncoated MWP versus the oblique incident angle, which was scanned in the x-z plane and y-z plane independently. Thus, the effect on multiple reflections by the MWP is reduced by means of subtracting the two measured phase retardations from each other. As a result, a highly sensitive and accurate measurement of retardation parameters (RPs), which includes the refractive indices of the extraordinary ray n(e) and ordinary ray n(o), is obtained by this method. On measurement, a sensitivity (n(e),n(o)) of 10(-6) was achieved by this experiment setup. At the same time, the spatial shifting of the P and S waves emerging from the MWP introduced a deviation between experimental results and the theoretical calculation. PMID:17694147

  5. Single- and Multiple- Track Location Shear Wave and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging: Matched Comparison of Contrast, CNR, and Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Hollender, Peter J.; Rosenzweig, Stephen J.; Nightingale, Kathryn R.; Trahey, Gregg E.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging and shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) use the dynamic response of tissue to impulsive mechanical stimulus to characterize local elasticity. A variant of conventional, multiple track location SWEI (MTL-SWEI), denoted single track location SWEI (STL-SWEI) offers the promise of creating speckle-free shear wave images. This work compares the three imaging modalities using a high push and track beam density combined acquisition sequence to image inclusions of different sizes and contrasts. STL-SWEI is shown to have significantly higher CNR than MTL-SWEI, allowing for operation at higher resolution. ARFI and STL-SWEI perform similarly in the larger inclusions, with STL-SWEI providing better visualization of small targets ≤2.5 mm in diameter. The processing of each modality introduces different trade-offs between smoothness and resolution of edges and structures; these are discussed in detail. PMID:25701531

  6. Multiple continuous-wave and pulsed modes of a figure-of-eight fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottiez, O.; Martinez-Rios, A.; Monzon-Hernandez, D.; Salceda-Delgado, G.; Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.

    2013-03-01

    We study experimentally a figure-of-eight fibre laser including a polarization-imbalanced nonlinear optical loop mirror and a Mach-Zehnder optical filter formed by two fibre tapers placed in series. Depending on the adjustments of two wave retarders included in the setup, different modes of operation of the laser are found. In continuous-wave mode, tunable single-wavelength operation as well as multiwavelength lasing are observed. For some adjustments, self-pulsing also takes place, although the pulses are very unstable. Finally, for some adjustments a mechanical stimulation (a kick) leads to the onset of passive mode locking. Measurements reveal that the mode-locked pulses actually are noise-like pulses. Both stable fundamental mode locking and second-harmonic mode locking with particular dynamics were obtained. In this work, we analyse how simple wave plate adjustments can lead to such a variety of operational modes of the fibre laser.

  7. Particle Acceleration by Multiple Shock Waves: A model for Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiadis, A.

    We study the acceleration, the transport and radiation of energetic particles (electrons and ions) inside an active region. The acceleration of particles is due to the presence of an ensemble of oblique shock waves inside an evolving active region and is based on the shock drift mechanism. The high-energy particles are transported inside a chaotic magnetic field and are subject to Coulomb collisions and radiation. We calculate the energy distribution of the particles, their acceleration time and their maximum energy as a function to the number of shock waves present. Preliminary results on the the duffusive nature of the process are presented. Finally we compare our results with the observations.

  8. Method of Multiple Scales and Travelling Wave Solutions for (2+1)-Dimensional KdV Type Nonlinear Evolution Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhan, Burcu; Özer, M. Naci; Bekir, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we applied the method of multiple scales for Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) type equations and we derived nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) type equations. So we get a relation between KdV type equations and NLS type equations. In addition, exact solutions were found for KdV type equations. The ( G'} over G )-expansion methods and the ( {G'} over G, {1 over G}} )-expansion methods were proposed to establish new exact solutions for KdV type differential equations. We obtained periodic and hyperbolic function solutions for these equations. These methods are very effective for getting travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations (NEEs).

  9. Evidence for a Peierls phase-transition in a three-dimensional multiple charge-density waves solid

    PubMed Central

    Mansart, Barbara; Cottet, Mathieu J. G.; Penfold, Thomas J.; Dugdale, Stephen B.; Tediosi, Riccardo; Chergui, Majed; Carbone, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    The effect of dimensionality on materials properties has become strikingly evident with the recent discovery of graphene. Charge ordering phenomena can be induced in one dimension by periodic distortions of a material’s crystal structure, termed Peierls ordering transition. Charge-density waves can also be induced in solids by strong coulomb repulsion between carriers, and at the extreme limit, Wigner predicted that crystallization itself can be induced in an electrons gas in free space close to the absolute zero of temperature. Similar phenomena are observed also in higher dimensions, but the microscopic description of the corresponding phase transition is often controversial, and remains an open field of research for fundamental physics. Here, we photoinduce the melting of the charge ordering in a complex three-dimensional solid and monitor the consequent charge redistribution by probing the optical response over a broad spectral range with ultrashort laser pulses. Although the photoinduced electronic temperature far exceeds the critical value, the charge-density wave is preserved until the lattice is sufficiently distorted to induce the phase transition. Combining this result with ab initio electronic structure calculations, we identified the Peierls origin of multiple charge-density waves in a three-dimensional system for the first time. PMID:22451898

  10. Can SINEs: a family of tRNA-derived retroposons specific to the superfamily Canoidea.

    PubMed Central

    Coltman, D W; Wright, J M

    1994-01-01

    A repetitive element of approximately 200 bp was cloned from harbour seal (Phoca vitulina concolour) genomic DNA. The sequence of the element revealed putative RNA polymerase III control boxes, a poly A tail and direct terminal repeats characteristic of SINEs. Sequence and secondary structural similarities suggest that the SINE is derived from a tRNA, possibly tRNA-alanine. Southern blot analysis indicated that the element is predominately dispersed in unique regions of the seal genome, but may also be present in other repetitive sequences, such as tandemly arrayed satellite DNA. Based on slot-blot hybridization analysis, we estimate that 1.3 x 10(6) copies of the SINE are present in the harbour seal genome; SINE copy number based on the number of clones isolated from a size-selected library, however, is an order of magnitude lower (1-3 x 10(5) copies), an estimate consistent with the abundance of SINEs in other mammalian genomes. Database searches found similar sequences have been isolated from dog (Canis familiaris) and mink (Mustela vison). These, and the seal SINE sequences are characterized by an internal CT dinucleotide microsatellite in the tRNA-unrelated region. Hybridization of genomic DNA from representative species of a wide range of mammalian orders to an oligonucleotide (30mer) probe complementary to a conserved region of the SINE confirmed that the element is unique to carnivores of the superfamily Canoidea. Images PMID:8052527

  11. Core-SINE blocks comprise a large fraction of monotreme genomes; implications for vertebrate chromosome evolution.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Patrick J; Greaves, Ian K; Koina, Edda; Waters, Paul D; Marshall Graves, Jennifer A

    2007-01-01

    The genomes of the egg-laying platypus and echidna are of particular interest because monotremes are the most basal mammal group. The chromosomal distribution of an ancient family of short interspersed repeats (SINEs), the core-SINEs, was investigated to better understand monotreme genome organization and evolution. Previous studies have identified the core-SINE as the predominant SINE in the platypus genome, and in this study we quantified, characterized and localized subfamilies. Dot blot analysis suggested that a very large fraction (32% of the platypus and 16% of the echidna genome) is composed of Mon core-SINEs. Core-SINE-specific primers were used to amplify PCR products from platypus and echidna genomic DNA. Sequence analysis suggests a common consensus sequence Mon 1-B, shared by platypus and echidna, as well as platypus-specific Mon 1-C and echidna specific Mon 1-D consensus sequences. FISH mapping of the Mon core-SINE products to platypus metaphase spreads demonstrates that the Mon-1C subfamily is responsible for the striking Mon core-SINE accumulation in the distal regions of the six large autosomal pairs and the largest X chromosome. This unusual distribution highlights the dichotomy between the seven large chromosome pairs and the 19 smaller pairs in the monotreme karyotype, which has some similarity to the macro- and micro-chromosomes of birds and reptiles, and suggests that accumulation of repetitive sequences may have enlarged small chromosomes in an ancestral vertebrate. In the forthcoming sequence of the platypus genome there are still large gaps, and the extensive Mon core-SINE accumulation on the distal regions of the six large autosomal pairs may provide one explanation for this missing sequence. PMID:18185983

  12. The Development of Love Wave-Based Humidity Sensors Incorporating Multiple Layers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Liu, Jiansheng; He, Shitang

    2015-01-01

    A Love wave humidity sensor is developed by using a multilayer structure consisting of PVA/SiO2 layers on an ST-90°X quartz substrate. The theoretical result shows that the sensor with such a two-layer structure can achieve a higher sensitivity and a smaller loss than the structures with a single polymer layer. Comparative experiments are performed for the sensor incorporating PVA/SiO2 layers and the sensor incorporating a PVA layer. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical predication. PMID:25875187

  13. Dissipative rogue wave generation in multiple-pulsing mode-locked fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecaplain, C.; Grelu, Ph; Soto-Crespo, J. M.; Akhmediev, N.

    2013-06-01

    Following the first experimental observation of a new mechanism leading to optical rogue wave (RW) formation briefly reported in Lecaplain et al (2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 233901), we provide an extensive study of the experimental conditions under which these RWs can be detected. RWs originate from the nonlinear interactions of bunched chaotic pulses that propagate in a fiber laser cavity, and manifest as rare events of high optical intensity. The crucial influence of the electrical detection bandwidth is illustrated. We also clarify the observation of RWs with respect to other pulsating regimes, such as Q-switching instability, that also lead to L-shaped probability distribution functions.

  14. Electromagnetic-wave scattering by a sphere with multiple spherical inclusions.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Melina P; Chrissoulidis, Dimitrios P

    2002-03-01

    An exact solution to the problem of electromagnetic-wave scattering from a sphere with an arbitrary number of nonoverlapping spherical inclusions is obtained by use of the indirect mode-matching technique. A set of linear equations for the wave amplitudes of the electric field intensity throughout the inhomogeneous sphere and in the surrounding empty space is determined. Numerical results are calculated by truncation and matrix inversion of that set of equations. Specific information about the truncation number pertaining to the multipole expansions of the electric field intensity is given. The theory and the accompanying computer code successfully reproduce the results of other pertinent papers. Some numerical results [Borghese et al., Appl. Opt. 33, 484 (1994)] were not reproduced well, and that discrepancy is discussed. Our numerical investigation is focused on an acrylic sphere with up to four spherical inclusions. This is the first time that numerical results are presented for a sphere with more than two spherical inclusions. Interesting remarks are made about the effect that the look direction and the structure of the inhomogeneity have on backscattering by the acrylic host sphere. PMID:11876314

  15. Occurrence of Can-SINEs and intron sequence evolution supports robust phylogeny of pinniped carnivores and their terrestrial relatives.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Christiane; Bleidorn, Christoph; Hartmann, Stefanie; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2009-12-15

    Investigating the dog genome we found 178965 introns with a moderate length of 200-1000 bp. A screening of these sequences against 23 different repeat libraries to find insertions of short interspersed elements (SINEs) detected 45276 SINEs. Virtually all of these SINEs (98%) belong to the tRNA-derived Can-SINE family. Can-SINEs arose about 55 million years ago before Carnivora split into two basal groups, the Caniformia (dog-like carnivores) and the Feliformia (cat-like carnivores). Genome comparisons of dog and cat recovered 506 putatively informative SINE loci for caniformian phylogeny. In this study we show how to use such genome information of model organisms to research the phylogeny of related non-model species of interest. Investigating a dataset including representatives of all major caniformian lineages, we analysed 24 randomly chosen loci for 22 taxa. All loci were amplifiable and revealed 17 parsimony-informative SINE insertions. The screening for informative SINE insertions yields a large amount of sequence information, in particular of introns, which contain reliable phylogenetic information as well. A phylogenetic analysis of intron- and SINE sequence data provided a statistically robust phylogeny which is congruent with the absence/presence pattern of our SINE markers. This phylogeny strongly supports a sistergroup relationship of Musteloidea and Pinnipedia. Within Pinnipedia, we see strong support from bootstrapping and the presence of a SINE insertion for a sistergroup relationship of the walrus with the Otariidae. PMID:19563867

  16. A theoretical justification of the sine with dwell manoeuvre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzelius, Fredrik

    2015-04-01

    The sine with dwell (SWD) manoeuvre has received much attention within the context of vehicle stability testing. This manoeuvre is used in a test developed by the NHTSA, designed to certificate electronic stability control systems in light vehicles. The test is used in legislations as well as in consumer tests all over the globe. The SWD manoeuvre was designed using test vehicles on a test track and experimentally validated. The paper at hand uses optimal control theory to theoretically justify the use of the SWD manoeuvre to produce a severe lateral motion and over-steering based on steering input. It is shown that a manoeuvre similar to the SWD manoeuvre can be obtained from an optimal control problem using simple vehicle dynamics models. The optimal control method is further used to analyse the manoeuvre's robustness with respect to vehicle dimensions and tyre properties. It is shown that the manoeuvre is robust in dimensions, which theoretically motivates its application for various sizes of vehicles.

  17. Enhancement of four-wave mixing via interference of multiple plasmonic conversion paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shailendra K.; Abak, M. Kurtulus; Tasgin, Mehmet Emre

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments demonstrate that plasmonic resonators can enhance the four-wave mixing (FWM) process by several orders of magnitude, due to the localization of the incident fields. We show that, when the plasmonic resonator is coupled to two quantum emitters, a three orders of magnitude enhancement can be obtained on top of the enhancement due to the localization. We explicitly demonstrate—on an expression for the steady-state FWM amplitude—how the presence of a Fano resonance leads to the cancellation of nonresonant terms in a FWM process. A cancellation in the denominator gives rise to an enhancement in the nonlinearity. The explicit demonstration we present here guides one to a method for achieving even larger enhancement factors by introducing additional coupling terms. The method is also applicable to Fano resonances induced by all-plasmonic couplings, which are easier to control in experiments.

  18. Fermi Surface Evolution Across Multiple Charge Density Wave Transitions in ErTe3

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.G.; Brouet, V.; He, R.; Lu, D.H.; Ru, N.; Chu, J.-H.; Fisher, I.R.; Shen, Z.-X.; /SLAC, SSRL /Stanford U., Geballe Lab.

    2010-02-15

    The Fermi surface (FS) of ErTe{sub 3} is investigated using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Low temperature measurements reveal two incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) gaps created by perpendicular FS nesting vectors. A large {Delta}{sub 1} = 175 meV gap arising from a CDW with c* - q{sub CDW1} {approx} 0.70(0)c* is in good agreement with the expected value. A second, smaller {Delta}{sub 2} = 50 meV gap is due to a second CDW with a* - q{sub CDW2} {approx} 0.68(5)a*. The temperature dependence of the FS, the two gaps and possible interaction between the CDWs are examined.

  19. Multiple octupole-type band structures in {sup 220}Th: Reflection-asymmetric tidal waves?

    SciTech Connect

    Reviol, W.; Chiara, C. J.; Montero, M.; Sarantites, D. G.; Pechenaya, O. L.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Seweryniak, D.; Zhu, S.; Frauendorf, S. G.

    2006-10-15

    The {sup 220}Th level scheme has been considerably extended from an experiment using the {sup 26}Mg+{sup 198}Pt reaction at 128 MeV. The evaporation residues from this very fissile system were selected with the HERCULES detector system and residue-gated {gamma} rays were measured with Gammasphere. The simplex feature (alternating-parity levels) persists up to the highest spins observed (23({Dirac_h}/2{pi})), but the nucleus exhibits a more vibrational-like behavior than the heavier Th isotopes. In addition, a doubling of the negative-parity, odd-spin states is seen as well as a staggering of the B(E1)/B(E2) ratios. A new interpretation based on a picture of tidal waves on a reflection-asymmetric nuclear surface is proposed.

  20. Measurement of apparent cell radii using a multiple wave vector diffusion experiment.

    PubMed

    Weber, T; Ziener, C H; Kampf, T; Herold, V; Bauer, W R; Jakob, P M

    2009-04-01

    It had been previously shown that an idealized version of the two-wave-vector extension of the NMR pulsed-field-gradient spin echo diffusion experiment can be used to determine the apparent radius of geometries with restricted diffusion. In the present work, the feasibility of the experiment was demonstrated in an NMR imaging experiment, in which the apparent radius of axons in white matter tissue was determined. Moreover, numerical simulations have been carried out to determine the reliability of the results. For small diffusion times, the radius is systematically underestimated. Larger gradient area, finite length gradient pulses, and a statistical distribution of radii within a voxel all have a minor influence on the estimated radius. PMID:19205023

  1. Surface-Wave Multiple-Event Relocation and Detection of Earthquakes along the Romanche Fracture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, M.; Ammon, C. J.; VanDeMark, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    The Romanche Transform system, located along the equatorial Mid-Atlantic Ridge, is approximately 900 km in length and separates plates moving with a relative plate speed of three cm/yr. We use cross-correlation of globally recorded Rayleigh waves to estimate precise relative epicentroids of moderate-size earthquakes along the Romanche Fracture Zone system. The Romanche transform has an even distribution of large events along its entire length that provide a good base of events with excellent signal-to-noise observations. Two distinct moderate-magnitude event clusters occur along the eastern half of the transform and the region between the clusters hosted a large event in the last decade. Based on initial results (Van DeMark, 2006), unlike those of shorter transform systems, the events along the Romanche do not follow narrow features, the event clusters seem to spread perpendicular as well as laterally to the transform trend. These patterns are consistent with parallel, en echelon and/or braided fault systems, which have been previously observed on the Romanche through the use of side scanning sonar (Parson and Searle, 1986). We also explore the character and potential of seismic body waves to extend the method to help improve relative event depth estimates. Relying on a good base of larger and moderate-magnitude seismicity, we attempt to extend the analysis by processing continuous data streams through processes measuring waveform similarity (e.g. cross-correlation) in an attempt to detect smaller events using a subset of nearest seismic stations.

  2. Seismic‐wave attenuation determined from tectonic tremor in multiple subduction zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yabe, Suguru; Baltay, Annemarie S.; Ide, Satoshi; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic tremor provides a new source of observations that can be used to constrain the seismic attenuation parameter for ground‐motion prediction and hazard mapping. Traditionally, recorded earthquakes of magnitude ∼3–8 are used to develop ground‐motion prediction equations; however, typical earthquake records may be sparse in areas of high hazard. In this study, we constrain the distance decay of seismic waves using measurements of the amplitude decay of tectonic tremor, which is plentiful in some regions. Tectonic tremor occurs in the frequency band of interest for ground‐motion prediction (i.e., ∼2–8  Hz) and is located on the subducting plate interface, at the lower boundary of where future large earthquakes are expected. We empirically fit the distance decay of peak ground velocity from tremor to determine the attenuation parameter in four subduction zones: Nankai, Japan; Cascadia, United States–Canada; Jalisco, Mexico; and southern Chile. With the large amount of data available from tremor, we show that in the upper plate, the lower crust is less attenuating than the upper crust. We apply the same analysis to intraslab events in Nankai and show the possibility that waves traveling from deeper intraslab events experience more attenuation than those from the shallower tremor due to ray paths that pass through the subducting and highly attenuating oceanic crust. This suggests that high pore‐fluid pressure is present in the tremor source region. These differences imply that the attenuation parameter determined from intraslab earthquakes may underestimate ground motion for future large earthquakes on the plate interface.

  3. Perish, then publish: Thomas Harriot and the sine law of refraction.

    PubMed

    Fishman, R S

    2000-03-01

    A talented young scientist, Thomas Harriot, wrote the first English account of the New World, "A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia," distinguished by its serious effort to describe and understand the American Indian. Harriot went on to make innovations in mathematics and was one of the first astronomers to use the telescope. His largely unappreciated contribution to the history of ophthalmology was the first formulation of the sine law of refraction of light, found in his unpublished papers long after his death in 1621. Willebrord Snell discovered the sine law in Holland in 1621 but also died without formally publishing it. Rene Descartes first published the sine law in 1637. The sine law of refraction became not only the prime law of all lens systems but ushered in a new world of physical laws. PMID:10721965

  4. Use of the Abbe sine condition to quantify alignment aberrations in optical imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burge, James H.; Zhao, Chunyu; Lu, Sheng Huei

    2010-08-01

    Violation of Abbe's sine condition is well-known to cause coma in axisymmetric imaging systems, and generally any offense against the sine condition (OSC) will cause aberrations that have linear dependence on the field angle. A well-corrected imaging system must obey the Abbe sine condition. A misaligned optical system can have particular forms of the OSC which are evaluated here. The lowest order non-trivial effects of misalignment have quadratic pupil dependence which causes a combination of astigmatism and focus that have linear field dependence. Higher order terms can arise from complex systems, but the effects of misalignment are nearly always dominated by the lowest order effects which can be fully characterized by measuring images on axis and the on-axis offense against the sine condition. By understanding the form of the on-axis images and the OSC, the state of alignment can be determined.

  5. Sine Rotation Vector Method for Attitude Estimation of an Underwater Robot.

    PubMed

    Ko, Nak Yong; Jeong, Seokki; Bae, Youngchul

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a method for estimating the attitude of an underwater robot. The method employs a new concept of sine rotation vector and uses both an attitude heading and reference system (AHRS) and a Doppler velocity log (DVL) for the purpose of measurement. First, the acceleration and magnetic-field measurements are transformed into sine rotation vectors and combined. The combined sine rotation vector is then transformed into the differences between the Euler angles of the measured attitude and the predicted attitude; the differences are used to correct the predicted attitude. The method was evaluated according to field-test data and simulation data and compared to existing methods that calculate angular differences directly without a preceding sine rotation vector transformation. The comparison verifies that the proposed method improves the attitude estimation performance. PMID:27490549

  6. Continuous-wave operation of ultraviolet InGaN/InAlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneissl, Michael; Treat, David W.; Teepe, Mark; Miyashita, Naoko; Johnson, Noble M.

    2003-04-01

    We demonstrate ultraviolet InGaN/InAlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diodes operating under continuous-wave (cw) conditions. The laser diodes were grown on sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Under pulsed bias conditions, we have achieved threshold current densities as low as 5 kA/cm2 for laser diodes with emission wavelengths between 368 nm and 378 nm and have demonstrated lasing at 363.2 nm at room temperature, the shortest wavelength yet reported for a semiconductor laser diode. The cw operation up to a heat sink temperature of 40 °C was demonstrated on a series of narrow ridge-waveguide devices processed with chemically assisted ion beam etched mirrors and high reflective coating on both facets. The shortest wavelength emission under cw operation conditions was 373.5 nm with output powers of more than 1 mW.

  7. Hybrid functional for correlated electrons in the projector augmented-wave formalism: Study of multiple minima for actinide oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jollet, F.; Jomard, G.; Amadon, B.; Crocombette, J. P.; Torumba, D.

    2009-12-01

    Exact (Hartree-Fock) exchange for correlated electrons is implemented to describe correlated orbitals in the projector augmented-waves (PAW) framework, as suggested recently in another context [P. Novák , Phys. Status Solidi B 243, 563 (2006)]. Hartree-Fock exchange energy is applied to strongly correlated electrons only inside the PAW atomic spheres. This allows the use of PBE0 hybrid exchange-correlation functional for correlated electrons. This method is tested on NiO and results agree well with already published results and generalized gradient approximation, GGA+U calculations. It is then applied to plutonium oxides and UO2 for which the results are comparable with the ones of GGA+U calculations but without adjustable parameter. As evidenced in the uranium oxide case, the occurrence of multiple energy minima may lead to very different results depending on the initial electronic configurations and on the symmetries taken into account in the calculation.

  8. Computer modeling of multiple-channel input signals and intermodulation losses caused by nonlinear traveling wave tube amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stankiewicz, N.

    1982-01-01

    The multiple channel input signal to a soft limiter amplifier as a traveling wave tube is represented as a finite, linear sum of Gaussian functions in the frequency domain. Linear regression is used to fit the channel shapes to a least squares residual error. Distortions in output signal, namely intermodulation products, are produced by the nonlinear gain characteristic of the amplifier and constitute the principal noise analyzed in this study. The signal to noise ratios are calculated for various input powers from saturation to 10 dB below saturation for two specific distributions of channels. A criterion for the truncation of the series expansion of the nonlinear transfer characteristic is given. It is found that he signal to noise ratios are very sensitive to the coefficients used in this expansion. Improper or incorrect truncation of the series leads to ambiguous results in the signal to noise ratios.

  9. Electron transport in graphene/graphene side-contact junction by plane-wave multiple-scattering method

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Xiang-Guo; Chu, Iek-Heng; Zhang, X. -G.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2015-05-28

    Electron transport in graphene is along the sheet but junction devices are often made by stacking different sheets together in a “side-contact” geometry which causes the current to flow perpendicular to the sheets within the device. Such geometry presents a challenge to first-principles transport methods. We solve this problem by implementing a plane-wave-based multiple-scattering theory for electron transport. In this study, this implementation improves the computational efficiency over the existing plane-wave transport code, scales better for parallelization over large number of nodes, and does not require the current direction to be along a lattice axis. As a first application, wemore » calculate the tunneling current through a side-contact graphene junction formed by two separate graphene sheets with the edges overlapping each other. We find that transport properties of this junction depend strongly on the AA or AB stacking within the overlapping region as well as the vacuum gap between two graphene sheets. Finally, such transport behaviors are explained in terms of carbon orbital orientation, hybridization, and delocalization as the geometry is varied.« less

  10. Electron transport in graphene/graphene side-contact junction by plane-wave multiple-scattering method

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiang-Guo; Chu, Iek-Heng; Zhang, X. -G.; Cheng, Hai-Ping

    2015-05-28

    Electron transport in graphene is along the sheet but junction devices are often made by stacking different sheets together in a “side-contact” geometry which causes the current to flow perpendicular to the sheets within the device. Such geometry presents a challenge to first-principles transport methods. We solve this problem by implementing a plane-wave-based multiple-scattering theory for electron transport. In this study, this implementation improves the computational efficiency over the existing plane-wave transport code, scales better for parallelization over large number of nodes, and does not require the current direction to be along a lattice axis. As a first application, we calculate the tunneling current through a side-contact graphene junction formed by two separate graphene sheets with the edges overlapping each other. We find that transport properties of this junction depend strongly on the AA or AB stacking within the overlapping region as well as the vacuum gap between two graphene sheets. Finally, such transport behaviors are explained in terms of carbon orbital orientation, hybridization, and delocalization as the geometry is varied.

  11. A New Class of SINEs with snRNA Gene-Derived Heads

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kenji K.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by various transposons including short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 5′ region (head) of the majority of SINEs is derived from one of the three types of RNA genes—7SL RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), or 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)—and the internal promoter inside the head promotes the transcription of the entire SINEs. Here I report a new group of SINEs whose heads originate from either the U1 or U2 small nuclear RNA gene. These SINEs, named SINEU, are distributed among crocodilians and classified into three families. The structures of the SINEU-1 subfamilies indicate the recurrent addition of a U1- or U2-derived sequence onto the 5′ end of SINEU-1 elements. SINEU-1 and SINEU-3 are ancient and shared among alligators, crocodiles, and gharials, while SINEU-2 is absent in the alligator genome. SINEU-2 is the only SINE family that was active after the split of crocodiles and gharials. All SINEU families, especially SINEU-3, are preferentially inserted into a family of Mariner DNA transposon, Mariner-N4_AMi. A group of Tx1 non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons designated Tx1-Mar also show target preference for Mariner-N4_AMi, indicating that SINEU was mobilized by Tx1-Mar. PMID:26019167

  12. Transposable B2 SINE elements can provide mobile RNA polymerase II promoters.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, O; Virolle, T; Djabari, Z; Ortonne, J P; White, R J; Aberdam, D

    2001-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are highly abundant components of mammalian genomes that are propagated by retrotransposition. SINEs are recognized as a causal agent of human disease and must also have had a profound influence in shaping eukaryotic genomes. The B2 SINE family constitutes approximately 0.7% of total mouse genomic DNA (ref. 2) and is also found at low abundance in humans. It resembles the Alu family in several respects, such as its mechanism of propagation. B2 SINEs are derived from tRNA and are transcribed by RNA polymerase (pol) III to generate short transcripts that are not translated. We find here, however, that one B2 SINE also carries an active pol II promoter located outside the tRNA region. Indeed, a B2 element is responsible for the production of a mouse Lama3 transcript. The B2 pol II promoters can be bound and stimulated by the transcription factor USF (for upstream stimulatory factor), as shown by transient transfection experiments. Moreover, this pol II activity does not preclude the pol III transcription necessary for retrotransposition. Dispersal of B2 SINEs by retrotransposition may therefore have provided numerous opportunities for creating regulated pol II transcription at novel genomic sites. This mechanism may have allowed the evolution of new transcription units and new genes. PMID:11326281

  13. A New Class of SINEs with snRNA Gene-Derived Heads.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kenji K

    2015-06-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by various transposons including short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 5' region (head) of the majority of SINEs is derived from one of the three types of RNA genes--7SL RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), or 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)--and the internal promoter inside the head promotes the transcription of the entire SINEs. Here I report a new group of SINEs whose heads originate from either the U1 or U2 small nuclear RNA gene. These SINEs, named SINEU, are distributed among crocodilians and classified into three families. The structures of the SINEU-1 subfamilies indicate the recurrent addition of a U1- or U2-derived sequence onto the 5' end of SINEU-1 elements. SINEU-1 and SINEU-3 are ancient and shared among alligators, crocodiles, and gharials, while SINEU-2 is absent in the alligator genome. SINEU-2 is the only SINE family that was active after the split of crocodiles and gharials. All SINEU families, especially SINEU-3, are preferentially inserted into a family of Mariner DNA transposon, Mariner-N4_AMi. A group of Tx1 non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons designated Tx1-Mar also show target preference for Mariner-N4_AMi, indicating that SINEU was mobilized by Tx1-Mar. PMID:26019167

  14. RNA-Mediated Gene Duplication and Retroposons: Retrogenes, LINEs, SINEs, and Sequence Specificity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A substantial number of “retrogenes” that are derived from the mRNA of various intron-containing genes have been reported. A class of mammalian retroposons, long interspersed element-1 (LINE1, L1), has been shown to be involved in the reverse transcription of retrogenes (or processed pseudogenes) and non-autonomous short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 3′-end sequences of various SINEs originated from a corresponding LINE. As the 3′-untranslated regions of several LINEs are essential for retroposition, these LINEs presumably require “stringent” recognition of the 3′-end sequence of the RNA template. However, the 3′-ends of mammalian L1s do not exhibit any similarity to SINEs, except for the presence of 3′-poly(A) repeats. Since the 3′-poly(A) repeats of L1 and Alu SINE are critical for their retroposition, L1 probably recognizes the poly(A) repeats, thereby mobilizing not only Alu SINE but also cytosolic mRNA. Many flowering plants only harbor L1-clade LINEs and a significant number of SINEs with poly(A) repeats, but no homology to the LINEs. Moreover, processed pseudogenes have also been found in flowering plants. I propose that the ancestral L1-clade LINE in the common ancestor of green plants may have recognized a specific RNA template, with stringent recognition then becoming relaxed during the course of plant evolution. PMID:23984183

  15. Identification of a Recently Active Mammalian SINE Derived from Ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Mark S.; Brown, Judy D.; Zhang, Chu; O’Neill, Michael J.; O’Neill, Rachel J.

    2015-01-01

    Complex eukaryotic genomes are riddled with repeated sequences whose derivation does not coincide with phylogenetic history and thus is often unknown. Among such sequences, the capacity for transcriptional activity coupled with the adaptive use of reverse transcription can lead to a diverse group of genomic elements across taxa, otherwise known as selfish elements or mobile elements. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous mobile elements found in eukaryotic genomes, typically derived from cellular RNAs such as tRNAs, 7SL or 5S rRNA. Here, we identify and characterize a previously unknown SINE derived from the 3′-end of the large ribosomal subunit (LSU or 28S rDNA) and transcribed via RNA polymerase III. This new element, SINE28, is represented in low-copy numbers in the human reference genome assembly, wherein we have identified 27 discrete loci. Phylogenetic analysis indicates these elements have been transpositionally active within primate lineages as recently as 6 MYA while modern humans still carry transcriptionally active copies. Moreover, we have identified SINE28s in all currently available assembled mammalian genome sequences. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that these elements are frequently rederived from the highly conserved LSU rRNA sequences in a lineage-specific manner. We propose that this element has not been previously recognized as a SINE given its high identity to the canonical LSU, and that SINE28 likely represents one of possibly many unidentified, active transposable elements within mammalian genomes. PMID:25637222

  16. Is There Evidence of Multiple Equilibria in Planetary Wave Amplitude Statistics?.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, Gregor; Wallace, John M.; Kooperberg, Charles

    1994-01-01

    Results obtained by Hansen and Sutera concerning the occurrence of bimodal probability density functions (PDFs) in a wave amplitude index (WAI) calculated from large-scale atmospheric flow data are re-examined. The PDFs are found to be highly sensitive to changes in the parameters used to calculate the WAI. The excessive sensitivity is suggestive of an insufficient number of degrees of freedom in the PDFs.The Monte Carlo test used by Hansen and Sutera to establish the statistical significance of their PDFs is reexamined, with emphasis on their attempt to compensate for the interdependence between neighboring data points in their time series of the WAI. Their random samples contained only one (independent) data point for each 4.5 data points in the WAI time series. It is shown that in order to generate PDFs with the same degree of smoothing as the WAI PDF, they should have simultaneously reduced the smoothing parameter in the maximum penalized likelihood (MPL) algorithm by the same factor. When this scaling factor is properly taken into account, more than half of the randomly generated samples exhibit multimodality: hence, the occurrence of bimodality in the PDFs calculated from the WAI data does not appear to be statistically significant. It is estimated that in order to distinguish between samples drawn from populations with a degree of bimodality comparable to that reported in the WAI data and samples drawn from a Gaussian population, a period of record of at least 150 years would be needed.

  17. Matrix formalism of electromagnetic wave propagation through multiple layers in the near-field region: application to the flat panel display.

    PubMed

    Lee, C Y; Lee, D E; Hong, Y K; Shim, J H; Jeong, C K; Joo, J; Zang, D S; Shim, M G; Lee, J J; Cha, J K; Yang, H G

    2003-04-01

    We have developed an electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation theory through a single layer and multiple layers in the near-field and far-field regions, and have constructed a matrix formalism in terms of the boundary conditions of the EM waves. From the shielding efficiency (SE) against EM radiation in the near-field region calculated by using the matrix formalism, we propose that the effect of multiple layers yields enhanced shielding capability compared to a single layer with the same total thickness in conducting layers as the multiple layers. We compare the intensities of an EM wave propagating through glass coated with conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) on one side and on both sides, applying it to the electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding filter in a flat panel display such as a plasma display panel (PDP). From the measured intensities of EMI noise generated by a PDP loaded with ITO coated glass samples, the two-side coated glass shows a lower intensity of EMI noise compared to the one-side coated glass. The result confirms the enhancement of the SE due to the effect of multiple layers, as expected in the matrix formalism of EM wave propagation in the near-field region. In the far-field region, the two-side coated glass with ITO in multiple layers has a higher SE than the one-side coated glass with ITO, when the total thickness of ITO in both cases is the same. PMID:12786507

  18. Accelerating the discontinuous Galerkin method for seismic wave propagation simulations using multiple GPUs with CUDA and MPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Dawei; Chen, Po; Wang, Liqiang

    2013-12-01

    We have successfully ported an arbitrary high-order discontinuous Galerkin method for solving the three-dimensional isotropic elastic wave equation on unstructured tetrahedral meshes to multiple Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) using the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) of NVIDIA and Message Passing Interface (MPI) and obtained a speedup factor of about 28.3 for the single-precision version of our codes and a speedup factor of about 14.9 for the double-precision version. The GPU used in the comparisons is NVIDIA Tesla C2070 Fermi, and the CPU used is Intel Xeon W5660. To effectively overlap inter-process communication with computation, we separate the elements on each subdomain into inner and outer elements and complete the computation on outer elements and fill the MPI buffer first. While the MPI messages travel across the network, the GPU performs computation on inner elements, and all other calculations that do not use information of outer elements from neighboring subdomains. A significant portion of the speedup also comes from a customized matrix-matrix multiplication kernel, which is used extensively throughout our program. Preliminary performance analysis on our parallel GPU codes shows favorable strong and weak scalabilities.

  19. Multiple charge density wave transitions in the antiferromagnets R NiC2 (R =Gd ,Tb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, S.; Hayashi, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Ohnuma, K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Nakao, H.; Mizumaki, M.; Onodera, H.

    2016-04-01

    X-ray scattering and electrical resistivity measurements were performed on GdNiC2 and TbNiC2. We found a set of satellite peaks characterized by q1=(0.5 ,η ,0 ) below T1, at which the resistivity shows a sharp inflection, suggesting the charge density wave (CDW) formation. The value of η decreases with decreasing temperature below T1, and then a transition to a commensurate phase with q1 C=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0 ) takes place. The diffuse scattering observed above T1 indicates the presence of soft phonon modes associated with CDW instabilities at q1 and q2=(0.5 ,0.5 ,0.5 ) . The long-range order given by q2 is developed in addition to that given by q1 C in TbNiC2, while the short-range correlation with q2 persists even at 6 K in GdNiC2. The amplitude of the q1 C lattice modulation is anomalously reduced below an antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN in GdNiC2. In contrast, the q2 order vanishes below TN in TbNiC2. We demonstrate that R NiC2 (R = rare earth) compounds exhibit similarities with respect to their CDW phenomena, and discuss the effects of magnetic transitions on CDWs. We offer a possible displacement pattern of the modulated structure characterized by q1 C and q2 in terms of frustration.

  20. The significance of the determination of lymphocytes with clinical manifestation of ophthalmic zoster sine herpete

    PubMed Central

    Marumoto, Tatsuya; Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Murakami, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the significance of VZV-IgG (IgG) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and the determination of peripheral blood lymphocyte counts in the diagnosis of ophthalmic zoster sine herpete (ophthalmic ZSH). Method: Clinical case-control study with a sample of 65 patients with ophthalmic ZSH (16 males and 49 females; mean age 56 ± 18 years) in whom pressure elicited pain in tender points of Valleix (tender points of sites at which the trigeminal nerve appears subcutaneously). A total of 41 healthy controls (17 males and 24 females, mean age 48 ± 21 years) were also recruited. In each group, IgG and lymphocyte count were determined upon receiving the consent of patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the factors associated with diagnosis of ophthalmic ZSH. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined for each variable. Results: Lymphocyte count in the patients with ophthalmic ZSH was significantly low, though there were no significant differences in age, gender, and IgG between the two groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that lymphocytes pose a significant prognostic factor, and in case of 1,800 lymphocytes/μl or more, the odds ratio to less than1,800 lymphocytes/μl was 0.29 (95% CI: 0.12–0.72). Conclusion: Patients with orbital pain should be suspected as having ophthalmic ZSH as this allows for the determination of lymphocyte counts after tender points were confirmed. The swift diagnosis of ophthalmic ZSH and the administration of antiviral drugs from an early stage improve the subjective symptoms of the patient and is regarded as necessary to reduce the risk of severe complications. PMID:20689799

  1. Seismic wave attenuation in Israel region estimated from the multiple lapse time window analysis and S-wave coda decay rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meirova, Tatiana; Pinsky, Vladimir

    2014-04-01

    For the first time, a regional seismic attenuation for the Israel region is quantitatively estimated as a combination of intrinsic and scattering attenuations. We use a multiple lapse time windows analysis (MLTWA) to determinate the relative contributions of intrinsic absorption and scattering processes to the total regional attenuation in the crust. A single isotropic scattering model assuming a uniform half-space lithosphere is used to fit MLTWA predicted and measured energies from the records of 232 regional earthquakes recorded at 17 short-period and 5 broad-band local seismic stations. Analysis is performed for a set of 10 frequencies between 0.5 and 10 Hz. The frequency-dependent quality factor Q obtained by MLTWA ranges between Q = 77f0.96 in the Northern Israel and Q = 132f0.96 in Southern Israel. Independent estimates of regional coda Q value based on S-wave coda decay rate obtained by averaging of five broad-band Israel Seismic Network stations are approximated by the relation Qc = 126f1.05. As a whole, our findings indicate that in the Israel region, intrinsic absorption prevails over scattering attenuation. Separate analysis for three tectonically different regions in Israel region-Galilee-Lebanon, Judea-Samaria and Eastern Sinai-shows a regional dependence of attenuation parameters. The variation of attenuation characteristics implies different physical mechanisms of seismic attenuation in the Israel region and is related to the differences of structure in the Earth's crust beneath Israel. Such variation in the attenuation patterns is in agreement with the assumption that Northern Israel is tectonically more active than Southern Israel and that in the northern and central parts of Israel the upper crust is more heterogeneous than in the southern part.

  2. Specific sine-Gordon soliton dynamics in the presence of external driving forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinisch, Gilbert; Fernandez, Jean Claude

    1981-07-01

    We consider the acceleration of a single sine-Gordon (SG) soliton kink wave by an external time-dependent force χ(t), first without any dissipation, and then in the presence of a weak damping effect. We use the method of Fogel, Trullinger, Bishop, and Krumhansl [FTBK,

    Phys. Rev. B 45, 1578 (1977)]
    which consists in perturbing the SG equation about its kink solution and solving the resulting linear inhomogeneous equation for the perturbation function by expanding it in the complete set of eigenfunctions of the Schrödinger operator with potential 1-2 2x. Our results concerning the accelerated soliton dynamics strongly disagree with the FTBK conclusion that the soliton should undergo an acceleration proportional to χ (this is the so-called Newtonian dynamical behavior of SG soliton, which is also predicted by all existing perturbation theories dealing with the perturbed SG equation). On the contrary, we find that this Newtonian acceleration is exactly balanced by a reaction effect of the continuous phonon spectrum excited by the external force χ, upon the moving kink, so that there is no soliton acceleration at all within the frame of this linear perturbation theory, i.e., for small time values. Actually, we show by the simple example of a static external force that the acceleration of an initially static kink is a higher-order effect (proportional to χt2, where t is the time, instead of being constant and proportional to χ). We emphasize that this last result has already been checked by numerical experiments and show, both by theory and by numerical simulations, that it does not qualitatively change when a small damping effect is taken into account.

  3. Simultaneous observation of VHF radio wave transmission anomaly propagated beyond line of site prior to earthquakes in multiple sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, H.; Mogi, T.; Moriya, T.; Takada, M.; Morisada, M.

    2010-12-01

    The VHF radio wave transmission anomalies propagated beyond line of site prior to earthquakes (M>4), (hereafter termed EQ-echo) have been observed more than 20 times from 2004 at the Erimo observatory (ERM) in Hokkaido, Northern Japan. A statistical relationship between magnitude of preceding earthquake and total duration time of the EQ-echo has been proposed (Moriya et al.2009). To confirm a region where the EQ-echo simultaneously observed for each earthquake, we installed another 3 observatory with approximately 5 km spacing in the surroundings of ERM. The EQ-echoes have been observed simultaneously at two observatories prior to four earthquakes since 2008. The initial time and duration of each EQ echo were same time in several cases but different at some minutes each other in other cases. The wave forms of the EQ-echoes were similar in both records. In the Fuyushima observatory (FYS, 10km away from ERM) , three-way antennas were installed at every 120 degree to detect an arrival direction of EQ-echoes. Simultaneous observations of EQ-echoes at ERM and FYS for the preceding EQ (M=4.7) that occurred in the Hidaka mountains revealed that this EQ-echo came from direction of the epicenter based on the FYS observation and this direction was consistent with that of EQ-echo observed simultaneously in ERM. Although some of simultaneous observed EQ-echoes were observed in same time completely at both observatories, but some of them were with time rag of duration of each EQ-echo between multiple observed sites. We discussed what these time rags mean by considering possibilities of moving of scattering objects, generation of a radio duct, and so on, as in response to this fact.

  4. Wide spectral range multiple orders and half-wave achromatic phase retarders fabricated from two lithium tantalite single crystal plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emam-Ismail, M.

    2015-11-01

    In a broad spectral range (300-2500 nm), we report the use of channeled spectra formed from the interference of polarized white light to extract the dispersion of the phase birefringence Δnp(λ) of the x- and y-cuts of lithium tantalite (LiTaO3:LT) plates. A new method named as wavenumber difference method is used to extract the spectral behavior of the phase birefringence of the x- and y- cuts of LT plates. The correctness of the obtained birefringence data is confirmed by using Jones vector method through recalculating the plates thicknesses. The spectral variation of the phase birefringence Δnp(λ) of the x- and y-cuts of LT plates is fitted to Cauchy dispersion function with relative error for both x- and y-cuts of order 2.4×10-4. The group birefringence dispersion Δng (λ) of the x- and y-cuts of LT plates is also calculated and fitted to Ghosh dispersion function with relative error for both x- and y-cuts of order 2.83×10-4. Furthermore, the phase retardation introduced by the x- and y-cuts of LT plates is also calculated. It is found that the amount of phase retardation confirms that the x- and y-cuts of LT plates can act as a multiple order half- and quarter-wave plates working at many different wavelengths through the spectral range 300-2500 nm. For the x- and y-cuts of LT plates, a large difference between group and phase birefringence is observed at a short wavelength (λ=300 nm); while such difference progressively diminished at longer wavelength (λ=2000 nm). In the near infrared region (NIR) region (700-2500 nm), a broad spectral full width at half maximum (FWHM) is observed for either x- or y-cut of LT plate which can act as if it is working as a zero order wave plate. Finally, an achromatic half-wave plate working at 598 nm and covering a wide spectral range (300-900 nm) is demonstrated experimentally by combining both x- and y-cuts of LT plates.

  5. What happens to linear properties as we move from the Klein-Gordon equation to the sine-Gordon equation

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalyov, Mikhail

    2010-06-15

    In this article the sets of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation and its linearization the Klein-Gordon equation are discussed and compared. It is shown that the set of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation possesses a richer structure which partly disappears during linearization. Just like the solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation satisfy the linear superposition principle, the solutions of the sine-Gordon equation satisfy a nonlinear superposition principle.

  6. Development and application of SINE multilocus and quantitative genetic markers to study oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops.

    PubMed

    Allnutt, T R; Roper, K; Henry, C

    2008-01-23

    A genetic marker system based on the S1 Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) in the important commercial crop, oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) has been developed. SINEs provided a successful multilocus, dominant marker system that was capable of clearly delineating winter- and spring-type crop varieties. Sixteen of 20 varieties tested showed unique profiles from the 17 polymorphic SINE markers generated. The 3' or 5' flank region of nine SINE markers were cloned, and DNA was sequenced. In addition, one putative pre-transposition SINE allele was cloned and sequenced. Two SINE flanking sequences were used to design real-time PCR assays. These quantitative SINE assays were applied to study the genetic structure of eight fields of oilseed rape crops. Studied fields were more genetically diverse than expected for the chosen loci (mean H T = 0.23). The spatial distribution of SINE marker frequencies was highly structured in some fields, suggesting locations of volunteer impurities within the crop. In one case, the assay identified a mislabeling of the crop variety. SINE markers were a useful tool for crop genetics, phylogenetics, variety identification, and purity analysis. The use and further application of quantitative, real-time PCR markers are discussed. PMID:18092752

  7. A generalized sine condition and performance comparison of Wolter type II and Wolter-Schwarzschild extreme ultraviolet telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the Gaussian focal plane and at best focus.

  8. Dynamics of wave-induced currents over an alongshore non-uniform multiple-barred sandy beach on the Aquitanian Coast, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelle, Bruno; Bonneton, Philippe; Sénéchal, Nadia; Dupuis, Hélène; Butel, Rémi; Michel, Denis

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents field investigation and numerical modelling of waves and wave-induced currents on a wave-dominated and non-alongshore uniform multiple barred beach. This study aims at establishing the first analysis of the dynamics of horizontal flows on the French Aquitanian coast. The spectral wave program SWAN is coupled with the time- and depth-averaged (2DH) coastal area model MORPHODYN. This coupled-model is applied to Truc Vert Beach, and results are compared with field data. From the 14th to the 19th of October 2001, a field experiment was carried out in order to characterize hydrodynamics and sediment transport over a complex bathymetry in the presence of oceanic wave conditions. From this data we calibrated three parameters: the bottom friction for wave propagation from the Aquitanian continental shelf to the nearshore zone, the spatially constant bottom friction coefficient due to waves and currents, and lateral mixing. Despite model approximations and the fact that the offshore wave boundary condition was located 15 km off the coast, the model is in good agreement with measurements. During weak wind conditions, computed waves and longshore currents fit well with field data on the ridge and runnel system. The strong tidal modulation of surf zone processes over this system is revealed. Hydrodynamics are strongly controlled by the beach morphology. For near-normally incident swells, the ridge and runnel system is responsible for a strong rip current located at the runnel outlet, associated with a circulation cell. Prediction of the tidal modulation and the sensitivity of the rip current to offshore wave conditions are in agreement with observations. Maximum rip current flow velocities occur approximately at mid-tide, which differs from what most researchers have found in other environments.

  9. Sorting photon wave packets using temporal-mode interferometry based on multiple-stage quantum frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, D. V.; Raymer, M. G.; McKinstrie, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    All classical and quantum technologies that encode in and retrieve information from optical fields rely on the ability to selectively manipulate orthogonal field modes of light. Such manipulation can be achieved with high selectivity for polarization modes and transverse-spatial modes. For the time-frequency degree of freedom, this could efficiently be achieved for a limited choice of approximately orthogonal modes, i.e., nonoverlapping bins in time or frequency. We recently proposed a method that surmounts the selectivity barrier for sorting arbitrary orthogonal temporal modes [Opt. Lett. 39, 2924 (2014)., 10.1364/OL.39.002924] using cascaded interferometric quantum frequency conversion in nonlinear optical media. We call this method temporal-mode interferometry, as it has a close resemblance to the well-known separated-fields atomic interferometry method introduced by Ramsey. The method has important implications for quantum memories, quantum dense coding, quantum teleportation, and quantum key distribution. Here we explore the inner workings of the method in detail, and extend it to multiple stages with a concurrent asymptotic convergence of temporal-mode selectivity to unity. We also complete our analysis of pump-chirp compensation to counter pump-induced nonlinear phase modulation in four-wave mixing implementations.

  10. Comb generation using multiple compression points of Peregrine rogue waves in periodically modulated nonlinear Schrödinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiofack, C. G. L.; Coulibaly, S.; Taki, M.; De Bièvre, S.; Dujardin, G.

    2015-10-01

    It is shown that sufficiently large periodic modulations in the coefficients of a nonlinear Schrödinger equation can drastically impact the spatial shape of the Peregrine soliton solutions: they can develop multiple compression points of the same amplitude, rather than only a single one, as in the spatially homogeneous focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The additional compression points are generated in pairs forming a comblike structure. The number of additional pairs depends on the amplitude of the modulation but not on its wavelength, which controls their separation distance. The dynamics and characteristics of these generalized Peregrine solitons are analytically described in the case of a completely integrable modulation. A numerical investigation shows that their main properties persist in nonintegrable situations, where no exact analytical expression of the generalized Peregrine soliton is available. Our predictions are in good agreement with numerical findings for an interesting specific case of an experimentally realizable periodically dispersion modulated photonic crystal fiber. Our results therefore pave the way for the experimental control and manipulation of the formation of generalized Peregrine rogue waves in the wide class of physical systems modeled by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  11. Amplification of light in a plasma by stimulated ion acoustic waves driven by multiple crossing pump beams.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, R K; Michel, P; London, R A; Callahan, D; Meezan, N; Williams, E; Seka, W; Suter, L; Haynam, C; Landen, O

    2011-08-01

    Experiments demonstrate the amplification of 351 nm laser light in a hot dense plasma similar to those in inertial confinement fusion ignition experiments. A seed beam interacts with one or two counter-propagating pump beams, each with an intensity of 1.2×10(15) W/cm2 at 351 nm, crossing the seed at 24.8° at the position where the flow is Mach 1, allowing resonant stimulation of ion acoustic waves. Results show that the energy and power transferred to the seed are increased with two pumps beyond the level that occurs with a single pump, demonstrating that, under conditions similar to ignition experiments where each beam has a low gain exponent, the total scatter produced by the multiple beams can be significantly larger than that of the individual beams. It is further demonstrated that the amplification is greatly reduced when the pump polarization is orthogonal to the seed, as expected from models of stimulated scatter. PMID:21929115

  12. Development of a multi-frequency diffuse photon density wave device for the characterization of tissue damage at multiple depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, David; Weingarten, Michael S.; Neidrauer, Michael T.; Samuels, Joshua A.; Huneke, Richard B.; Kuzmin, Vladimir L.; Lewin, Peter A.; Zubkov, Leonid A.

    2014-02-01

    The ability to determine the depth and degree of cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue damage is critical for medical applications such as burns and pressure ulcers. The Diffuse Photon Density Wave (DPDW) methodology at near infrared wavelengths can be used to non-invasively measure the optical absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of tissue at depths of several millimeters. A multi-frequency DPDW system with one light source and one detector was constructed so that light is focused onto the tissue surface using an optical fiber and lens mounted to a digitally-controlled actuator which changes the distance between light source and detector. A variable RF generator enables the modulation frequency to be selected between 50 to 400MHz. The ability to digitally control both source-detector separation distance and modulation frequency allows for virtually unlimited number of data points, enabling precise selection of the volume and depth of tissue that will be characterized. Suspensions of Intralipid and india ink with known absorption and reduced scattering coefficients were used as optical phantoms to assess device accuracy. Solid silicon phantoms were formulated for stability testing. Standard deviations for amplitude and phase shift readings were found to be 0.9% and 0.2 degrees respectively, over a one hour period. The ability of the system to quantify tissue damage in vivo at multiple depths was tested in a porcine burn model.

  13. Tropisms of Avena coleoptiles: sine law for gravitropism, exponential law for photogravitropic equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Galland, Paul

    2002-09-01

    The quantitative relation between gravitropism and phototropism was analyzed for light-grown coleoptiles of Avena sativa (L.). With respect to gravitropism the coleoptiles obeyed the sine law. To study the interaction between light and gravity, coleoptiles were inclined at variable angles and irradiated for 7 h with unilateral blue light (466 nm) impinging at right angles relative to the axis of the coleoptile. The phototropic stimulus was applied from the side opposite to the direction of gravitropic bending. The fluence rate that was required to counteract the negative gravitropism increased exponentially with the sine of the inclination angle. To achieve balance, a linear increase in the gravitropic stimulus required compensation by an exponential increase in the counteracting phototropic stimulus. The establishment of photogravitropic equilibrium during continuous unilateral irradiation is thus determined by two different laws: the well-known sine law for gravitropism and a novel exponential law for phototropism described in this work. PMID:12244443

  14. Tropisms in Phycomyces: sine law for gravitropism, exponential law for photogravitropic equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Galland, P; Wallacher, Y; Finger, H; Hannappel, M; Tröster, S; Bold, E; Grolig, F

    2002-04-01

    Sporangiophores of Phycomyces blakesleeanus that are gravitropically stimulated by inclining them relative to the earth's gravitational vector obey the sine law for inclination angles between 0 degrees and 150 degrees. The quantitative relation between gravitropism and phototropism was analyzed for sporangiophores that were kept in balance between opposing gravitational and phototropic stimuli. The gravitropism of inclined sporangiophores was compensated with unilateral light impinging at right angles relative to the axis of the sporangiophore. The fluence rate of unilateral blue light (466 nm) that was required to counteract the negative gravitropism increased exponentially with the sine of the inclination angle of the sporangiophore. The establishment of photogravitropic equilibrium during continuous unilateral irradiation is thus determined by two different laws: the well-known sine law for gravitropism and a novel exponential law of phototropism described in this work. Furthermore, the specific form of the exponential relationship depends on the presence of statoliths (vacuolar protein crystals) and on wavelength. PMID:11941470

  15. Engineering chiral density waves and topological band structures by multiple-Q superpositions of collinear up-up-down-down orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayami, Satoru; Ozawa, Ryo; Motome, Yukitoshi

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic orders characterized by multiple ordering vectors harbor noncollinear and noncoplanar spin textures and can be a source of unusual electronic properties through the spin Berry phase mechanism. We theoretically show that such multiple-Q states are stabilized in itinerant magnets in the form of superpositions of collinear up-up-down-down (UUDD) spin states, which accompany the density waves of vector and scalar chirality. The result is drawn by examining the ground state of the Kondo lattice model with classical localized moments, especially when the Fermi surface is tuned to be partially nested by the symmetry-related commensurate vectors. We unveil the instability toward a double-Q UUDD state with vector chirality density waves on the square lattice and a triple-Q UUDD state with scalar chirality density waves on the triangular lattice, using the perturbative theory and variational calculations. The former double-Q state is also confirmed by large-scale Langevin dynamics simulations. We also show that, for a sufficiently large exchange coupling, the chirality density waves can induce rich nontrivial topology of electronic structures, such as the massless Dirac semimetal, Chern insulator with quantized topological Hall response, and peculiar edge states which depend on the phase of chirality density waves at the edges.

  16. Multiple resonant scattering of water waves by a two-dimensional array of vertical cylinders: linear aspects.

    PubMed

    Li, Yile; Mei, Chiang C

    2007-07-01

    We study the Bragg resonance of surface water waves by a two-dimensional array of vertical cylinders covering a large area of the sea. Starting from the resonance criterion known in the physics of solid state and crystallography, we employ asymptotic techniques to derive two-dimensional coupled-mode equations for the envelopes of scattered waves resonated by a plane incident wave. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained for a long strip of cylinder array which may be used for supporting a future offshore airport. Examples of both two-wave and three-wave resonances are discussed in detail. Roles of the band gaps are examined. PMID:17677558

  17. Sand ripples under water with complex wave motion.

    PubMed

    Scheibye-Knudsen, K; Ellegaard, C; Bundgaard, F; Sams, Thomas

    2005-07-01

    Experiments studying ripple formation under water have usually used sinusoidal driving force. Here an experiment is presented where the driving force can be an arbitrary wave form, thus trying to mimic the realistic wave motion in shallow water coastal zones. We study a simple modulated sine wave and more complicated wave forms with several superposed harmonics. In particular we demonstrate how a small higher order harmonic can have a dramatic effect on the wavelength of the ripple pattern. PMID:16090068

  18. Mapping the sources of the seismic wave field at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, using data recorded on multiple seismic Antennas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Almendros, J.; Chouet, B.; Dawson, P.; Huber, Caleb G.

    2002-01-01

    Seismic antennas constitute a powerful tool for the analysis of complex wave fields. Well-designed antennas can identify and separate components of a complex wave field based on their distinct propagation properties. The combination of several antennas provides the basis for a more complete understanding of volcanic wave fields, including an estimate of the location of each individual wave-field component identified simultaneously by at least two antennas. We used frequency-slowness analyses of data from three antennas to identify and locate the different components contributing to the wave fields recorded at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii, in February 1997. The wave-field components identified are (1) a sustained background volcanic tremor in the form of body waves generated in a shallow hydrothermal system located below the northeastern edge of the Halemaumau pit crater; (2) surface waves generated along the path between this hydrothermal source and the antennas; (3) back-scattered surface wave energy from a shallow reflector located near the southeastern rim of Kilauea caldera; (4) evidence for diffracted wave components originating at the southeastern edge of Halemaumau; and (5) body waves reflecting the activation of a deeper tremor source between 02 hr 00 min and 16 hr 00 min Hawaii Standard Time on 11 February.

  19. Integrals of motion of the classical lattice sine-Gordon system

    SciTech Connect

    Enriquez, B.; Feigin, B.L. |

    1995-12-01

    We compute the local integrals of motions of the classical limit of the lattice sine-Gordon system, using a geometrical interpretation of the local sine-Gordon variables. Using an analogous description of the screened local variables, we show that these integrals are in involution. We present some remarks on relations with the situation at the roots of 1 and results on another latticization (linked to the principal subalgebra of s{ell}{sub 2} rather than the homogeneous one). Finally, we analyze a module of {open_quotes}screened semilocal variables, {close_quotes} on which the whole s{ell}{sub 2} acts.

  20. Symmetries and soliton solutions of the Galilean complex Sine-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Melo, G. R.; de Montigny, M.; Pinfold, J.; Tuszynski, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    We discuss a new equation, the Galilean version of the complex Sine-Gordon equation in 1 + 1 dimensions, Ψxx (1 -Ψ* Ψ) + 2 imΨt +Ψ* Ψx2- Ψ(1 -Ψ* Ψ) 2 = 0, derived from its relativistic counterpart via Galilean covariance. We determine its Lie point symmetries, discuss some group-invariant solutions, and examine some soliton solutions. The reduction under Galilean symmetry leads to an equation similar to the stationary Gross-Pitaevskii equation. This work is motivated in part by recent applications of the relativistic complex Sine-Gordon equation to the dynamics of Q-balls.

  1. {pi} kinks in the parametrically driven sine-Gordon equation and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zharnitsky, V.; Mitkov, I.

    1997-07-08

    Parametrically driven sine-Gordon equation with a mean-zero forcing is considered. It is shown that the system is well approximated by the double sine-Gordon equation using the normal form technique. The reduced equation possesses {pi}-kink solutions, which are also observed numerically in the original system. This result is applied to domain walls dynamics in one-dimensional easy-plane ferromagnets. For such system the existence of {pi}-kinks implies the true domain structure in the presence of high-frequency magnetic field.

  2. Theoretical Analysis of Interferometer Wave Front Tilt and Fringe Radiant Flux on a Rectangular Photodetector

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Robert; Fuss, Franz Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a theoretical analysis of mirror tilt in a Michelson interferometer and its effect on the radiant flux over the active area of a rectangular photodetector or image sensor pixel. It is relevant to sensor applications using homodyne interferometry where these opto-electronic devices are employed for partial fringe counting. Formulas are derived for radiant flux across the detector for variable location within the fringe pattern and with varying wave front angle. The results indicate that the flux is a damped sine function of the wave front angle, with a decay constant of the ratio of wavelength to detector width. The modulation amplitude of the dynamic fringe pattern reduces to zero at wave front angles that are an integer multiple of this ratio and the results show that the polarity of the radiant flux changes exclusively at these multiples. Varying tilt angle causes radiant flux oscillations under an envelope curve, the frequency of which is dependent on the location of the detector with the fringe pattern. It is also shown that a fringe count of zero can be obtained for specific photodetector locations and wave front angles where the combined effect of fringe contraction and fringe tilt can have equal and opposite effects. Fringe tilt as a result of a wave front angle of 0.05° can introduce a phase measurement difference of 16° between a photodetector/pixel located 20 mm and one located 100 mm from the optical origin. PMID:24018954

  3. Multiple mantle upwellings beneath the Northern East-African Rift System from relative P- and S-wave traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James; Goes, Saskia; Fishwick, Stewart; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, Mike; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rumpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham

    2015-04-01

    Mantle plumes have been invoked as the likely cause of East African Rift volcanism and extension. However, the nature of mantle upwelling is debated, with proposed configurations ranging from a single broad plume, the African Superplume, connected to the LLSVP beneath Southern Africa, to one or more distinct lower-mantle sources along the rift. We present a new relative travel-time tomography model that images detailed P- and S- wave velocities from P,S and SKS phases below the northern East-African, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden rift. Data comes from stations that cover the area from Tanzania to Saudi Arabia. The aperture of the integrated dataset allows us to image for the first time structures of ~100 km length scale down to depths of 900 km beneath this region. Our images provide evidence of at least two low-velocity structures with a diameter of ~200 km that continue through the transition zone and into the lower mantle: the first extends to at least 900 km beneath Afar, and a second reaching at least 750 km depth just west of the Main Ethiopian Rift, a region with off-rift volcanism. Taking into account seismic sensitivity to temperature and thermally controlled phase boundary topography, we interpret these features as multiple focused upwellings from below the transition zone with excess temperatures of 100±50 K. The scale of the upwellings is smaller than any of the previously proposed lower mantle plume sources. This suggests the ponding or flow of deep-plume material below the transition zone may be spawning smaller upper-mantle upwellings.

  4. Multiple-Station Observation of Frequency Dependence and Polarization Characteristics of ELF/VLF waves generated via Ionospheric Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxworth, A. S.; Golkowski, M.; Cohen, M.; Moore, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Generation of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) signals through ionospheric modification has been practiced for many years. Heating the lower ionosphere with high power HF waves allows for modulation of natural current systems. Our experiments were carried out at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska, USA. In this experiment, the ionosphere was heated with a vertical amplitude modulating signal and the modulation frequency was changed sequentially within an array of 40 frequencies followed by a frequency ramp. The observed magnetic field amplitude and polarization of the generated ELF/VLF signals were analyzed for multiple sites and as a function of modulation frequency. Our three observation sites: Chistochina, Paxson and Paradise are located within 36km (azimuth 47.7°), 50.2km (azimuth -20°) and 99km (azimuth 80.3°) respectively. We show that the peak amplitudes observed as a function of frequency result from vertical resonance in the Earth-ionosphere waveguide and can be used to diagnose the D-region profile. Polarization analysis showed that out of the three sites Paxson shows the highest circularity in the magnetic field polarization, compared to Chistochina and Paradise which show highly linear polarizations. The experimental results were compared with a theoretical simulation model results and it was clear that in both cases, the modulated Hall current dominates the observed signals at Chistochina and Paradise sites and at Paxson there is an equal contribution from Hall and Pedersen currents. The Chistochina site shows the highest magnetic field amplitudes in both experimental and simulation environments. Depending upon the experimental and simulation observations at the three sites, a radiation pattern for the HAARP ionospheric heater can be mapped

  5. Auditory-Phonetic Projection and Lexical Structure in the Recognition of Sine-Wave Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remez, Robert E.; Dubowski, Kathryn R.; Broder, Robin S.; Davids, Morgana L.; Grossman, Yael S.; Moskalenko, Marina; Pardo, Jennifer S.; Hasbun, Sara Maria

    2011-01-01

    Speech remains intelligible despite the elimination of canonical acoustic correlates of phonemes from the spectrum. A portion of this perceptual flexibility can be attributed to modulation sensitivity in the auditory-to-phonetic projection, although signal-independent properties of lexical neighborhoods also affect intelligibility in utterances…

  6. SunSine300 AC module. Annual report, July 25, 1995--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.C.; Handleman, C.K.P.

    1997-08-01

    Under Photovoltaic Manufacturing Technology (PVMaT) 4A1, Ascension Technology (AT) is developing the SunSine300 AC PV module. AT`s goals in this project are to meet Underwriters Laboratory (UL) 1741 requirements, obtain Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Class B verification, complete the AC module system design and development, advance the inverter design, design for manufacture, design for reliability, design for serviceability, and demonstrate commercialization through production and sale of about 100 units. To meet these goals, AT corrected a number of deficiencies identified by UL`s preliminary investigation before proceeding to the full UL investigation; a SunSine300 prototype was tested and found to comply with FCC Class B requirements; AT designed a complete line of balance-of-systems hardware for the SunSine 300; AT`s design and performance advancements include accomplishing a total harmonic distortion drop from 5% to 2%, devising a method to eliminate false detection of zero crossings that could damage the inverter, improving the anti-islanding with the addition of AT`s proprietary ZEBRA technique, and redesigning the enclosure for thermal performance, manufacturability, and UL and FCC approval; performing extensive testing in Phase 2 to discover failure modes and susceptibility to aging; and designing the SunSine300 to be easily and safely serviced. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Simulating Winter Wheat Development Response to Temperature: Modifying Molo's Exponential Sine Equation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicting crop developmental events is fundamental to simulation models and crop management decisions. Many approaches to predict developmental events have been developed, however, most only simulate the mean time for reaching a developmental event. An exponential sine equation developed by Malo (2...

  8. [Ten years of therapy resistant intercostal neuralgia-suspected postherpetic neuralgia following herpes zoster sine herpete.].

    PubMed

    Zwölfer, W; Hartmann, T; Spacek, A; Grubhofer, G; Porges, P

    1993-09-01

    We report the case of a 65 year old man who has been suffering from segmental back pain for 10 years. The diagnosis postherpetic neuralgia following herpes zoster sine herpete was fixed 9 years after the beginning of pain. All treatments prior to ours were ineffective. Acupuncture and the use of homeopathic drugs led to success at last. PMID:18415405

  9. Emotional Intelligence: The Sine Qua Non for a Clinical Leadership Toolbox

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that although IQ and technical skills are important, emotional intelligence is the Sine Qua Non of leadership. According to Goleman [Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader? "Harvard Business Review," 93-102] "effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of…

  10. A Classroom Note on Generating Examples for the Laws of Sines and Cosines from Pythagorean Triangles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sher, Lawrence; Sher, David

    2007-01-01

    By selecting certain special triangles, students can learn about the laws of sines and cosines without wrestling with long decimal representations or irrational numbers. Since the law of cosines requires only one of the three angles of a triangle, there are many examples of triangles with integral sides and a cosine that can be represented exactly…

  11. Discovering Trigonometric Relationships Implied by the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skurnick, Ronald; Javadi, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    The Law of Sines and The Law of Cosines are of paramount importance in the field of trigonometry because these two theorems establish relationships satisfied by the three sides and the three angles of any triangle. In this article, the authors use these two laws to discover a host of other trigonometric relationships that exist within any…

  12. A new explicit solution to the lattice sine-Gordon equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoxue; Cao, Cewen

    2016-03-01

    Based on a new discrete Lax pair, an elementary explicit solution is found for the lattice sine-Gordon equation through Riemann surface method. It contains only exponential functions, quite different from the usual higher genus solutions, expressed with complicated theta functions. The solutions to the associated models, the lattice potential MKdV equation and a special H3 equation are also discussed.

  13. Two-loop beta-functions of the sine-Gordon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balog, János; Hegedus, Árpád

    2000-09-01

    We recalculate the two-loop beta-functions in the two-dimensional sine-Gordon model in a two-parameter expansion around the asymptotically free point. Our results agree with those of Amit et al (Amit D J, Goldschmidt Y Y and Grinstein G 1980 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 13 585).

  14. Finite-amplitude behavior of a single baroclinic wave with multiple vertical modes - Effects of thermal damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    A quasi-geostrophic, beta-plane model possessing high vertical resolution is used to investigate the effects of thermal damping on the finite amplitude behavior of a baroclinic wave; both the wave field and zonal-mean flow of the model are, however, truncated to a single horizontal mode, so that the wave-mean flow interaction is purely baroclinic. For sufficiently strong thermal damping steady wave flows are obtained, while for weaker damping, nonsteady vacillating behavior is found. In the steady wave flows, the mean flow is linearly neutral. An especially interesting vacillation, characterized by two widely separated time scales, occurs in the model nonsteady regime and appears to be similar in some respects to behavior found in the two-layer model with only lower layer dissipation.

  15. Multiple-frequency acoustic wave devices for chemical sensing and materials characterization in both gas and liquid phase

    DOEpatents

    Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1993-08-10

    A chemical or intrinsic physical property sensor is described comprising: (a) a substrate; (b) an interaction region of said substrate where the presence of a chemical or physical stimulus causes a detectable change in the velocity and/or an attenuation of an acoustic wave traversing said region; and (c) a plurality of paired input and output interdigitated electrodes patterned on the surface of said substrate where each of said paired electrodes has a distinct periodicity, where each of said paired electrodes is comprised of an input and an output electrode; (d) an input signal generation means for transmitting an input signal having a distinct frequency to a specified input interdigitated electrode of said plurality so that each input electrode receives a unique input signal, whereby said electrode responds to said input signal by generating an acoustic wave of a specified frequency, thus, said plurality responds by generating a plurality of acoustic waves of different frequencies; (e) an output signal receiving means for determining an acoustic wave velocity and an amplitude of said acoustic waves at several frequencies after said waves transverses said interaction region and comparing these values to an input acoustic wave velocity and an input acoustic wave amplitude to produce values for perturbations in acoustic wave velocities and for acoustic wave attenuation as a function of frequency, where said output receiving means is individually coupled to each of said output interdigitated electrode; (f) a computer means for analyzing a data stream comprising information from said output receiving means and from said input signal generation means to differentiate a specified response due to a perturbation from a subsequent specified response due to a subsequent perturbation to determine the chemical or intrinsic physical properties desired.

  16. Expansion of CORE-SINEs in the genome of the Tasmanian devil

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genome of the carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii, Order: Dasyuromorphia), was sequenced in the hopes of finding a cure for or gaining a better understanding of the contagious devil facial tumor disease that is threatening the species’ survival. To better understand the Tasmanian devil genome, we screened it for transposable elements and investigated the dynamics of short interspersed element (SINE) retroposons. Results The temporal history of Tasmanian devil SINEs, elucidated using a transposition in transposition analysis, indicates that WSINE1, a CORE-SINE present in around 200,000 copies, is the most recently active element. Moreover, we discovered a new subtype of WSINE1 (WSINE1b) that comprises at least 90% of all Tasmanian devil WSINE1s. The frequencies of WSINE1 subtypes differ in the genomes of two of the other Australian marsupial orders. A co-segregation analysis indicated that at least 66 subfamilies of WSINE1 evolved during the evolution of Dasyuromorphia. Using a substitution rate derived from WSINE1 insertions, the ages of the subfamilies were estimated and correlated with a newly established phylogeny of Dasyuromorphia. Phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimates of mitochondrial genome data indicate a rapid radiation of the Tasmanian devil and the closest relative the quolls (Dasyurus) around 14 million years ago. Conclusions The radiation and abundance of CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes indicates that they may be a major player in the evolution of marsupials. It is evident that the early phases of evolution of the carnivorous marsupial order Dasyuromorphia was characterized by a burst of SINE activity. A correlation between a speciation event and a major burst of retroposon activity is for the first time shown in a marsupial genome. PMID:22559330

  17. Sine-Gordon modulation solutions: application to macroscopic friction, regular and slow earthquakes and fault dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenzon, Naum; Bambakidis, Gust

    2014-05-01

    The Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model and its continuum approximation, the sine-Gordon (SG) equation, are widely used for modeling various phenomena. In many practical applications the wave-train solution, which includes many solitons, is required. In such cases the system of Whitham's modulation equations, superimposed on the SG equation, provides such a solution. Here we consider several applications which use the SG modulation solutions [1-3]. Fault dynamics in the earth's crust, i.e. the nucleation and development of regular and slow earthquakes, is a complicated multidisciplinary problem which has been investigated using diverse approaches. Our approach, inspired by dislocation dynamics in crystals, is based on the FK model introduced to describe plasticity. In the model we propose, sliding occurs due to the movement of defects of a certain type (i.e. areas on the frictional surface with locally stressed material, known as a macroscopic dislocation or slip pulse) nucleated by shear stress in the presence of asperities. The spatial translation of a dislocation requires only a small fraction of the stress necessary for the uniform relative displacement of frictional surfaces. This is a fundamental distinction between our approach to macroscopic dry friction and those of others such as the Burridge-Knopoff and rate-and-state types of models. We show how this model can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative description of fault dynamics in general, and slow and regular earthquakes in particular. The three fundamental speeds of plate movement, earthquake migration, and seismic waves are shown to be connected in the FK model. The velocity of nonelastic stress propagation along faults is a function of accumulated stress. It changes from a few km/s during earthquakes to a few dozen km per day, month, or year during afterslip and inter-earthquake periods. The distribution of aftershocks in this model is consistent with both the Omori law for temporal distribution

  18. "Wave" signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device for laser ablation quadrupole and multiple collector ICPMS analysis: application to lead isotope analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yongsheng; Gao, Shan; Li, Ming; Zong, Keqing; Chen, Haihong; Hu, Shenghong

    2015-01-20

    A novel "wave" signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device has been developed for laser ablation quadrupole and multiple collector ICPMS analysis. With the wave stabilizer that has been developed, the signal stability was improved by a factor of 6.6-10 and no oscillation of the signal intensity was observed at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. Another advantage of the wave stabilizer is that the signal decay time is similar to that without the signal-smoothing device (increased by only 1-2 s for a signal decay of approximately 4 orders of magnitude). Most of the normalized elemental signals (relative to those without the stabilizer) lie within the range of 0.95-1.0 with the wave stabilizer. Thus, the wave stabilizer device does not significantly affect the aerosol transport efficiency. These findings indicate that this device is well-suited for routine optimization of ICPMS, as well as low repetition rate laser ablation analysis, which provides smaller elemental fractionation and better spatial resolution. With the wave signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device, the mercury gas background is reduced by 1 order of magnitude. More importantly, the (202)Hg signal intensity produced in the sulfide standard MASS-1 by laser ablation is reduced from 256 to 0.7 mV by the use of the wave signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device. This result suggests that the mercury is almost completely removed from the sample aerosol particles produced by laser ablation with the operation of the wave mercury-removing device. The wave mercury-removing device that we have designed is very important for Pb isotope ratio and accessory mineral U-Pb dating analysis, where removal of the mercury from the background gas and sample aerosol particles is highly desired. The wave signal-smoothing and mercury-removing device was applied successfully to the determination of the (206)Pb/(204)Pb isotope ratio in samples with low Pb content and/or high Hg content. PMID:25511501

  19. Optical model and optimal output coupler for a continuous wave Yb:YAG thin-disk laser with multiple-disk configuration.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guangzhi; Zhu, Xiao; Zhu, Changhong; Shang, Jianli

    2012-09-10

    This article presents the fundamental principles of operational performance of a continuous wave (cw) thin-disk laser with multiple disks in one resonator. Based on the model of an end-pumped Yb:YAG thin-disk laser with nonuniform temperature distribution, the effect of the multiple disks in one resonator is considered. The analytic expressions are derived to analyze the laser output intensity, laser intensity in the resonator, threshold intensity, and the optical efficiency of a thin-disk laser with multiple disks arranged in series. The dependence of output coupler reflectivity and the number of thin disks on various parameters are investigated, which are useful to determine the optimal output coupler reflectivity of the thin-disk lasers and control the laser intensity in the resonator. PMID:22968282

  20. An absorptive single-pole four-throw switch using multiple-contact MEMS switches and its application to a monolithic millimeter-wave beam-forming network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sanghyo; Kim, Jong-Man; Kim, Yong-Kweon; Kwon, Youngwoo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a new absorptive single-pole four-throw (SP4T) switch based on multiple-contact switching is proposed and integrated with a Butler matrix to demonstrate a monolithic beam-forming network at millimeter waves (mm waves). In order to simplify the switching driving circuit and reduce the number of unit switches in an absorptive SP4T switch, the individual switches were replaced with long-span multiple-contact switches using stress-free single-crystalline-silicon MEMS technology. This approach improves the mechanical stability as well as the manufacturing yield, thereby allowing successful integration into a monolithic beam former. The fabricated absorptive SP4T MEMS switch shows insertion loss less than 1.3 dB, return losses better than 11 dB at 30 GHz and wideband isolation performance higher than 39 dB from 20 to 40 GHz. The absorptive SP4T MEMS switch is integrated with a 4 × 4 Butler matrix on a single chip to implement a monolithic beam-forming network, directing beam into four distinct angles. Array factors from the measured data show that the proposed absorptive SPnT MEMS switch can be effectively used for high-performance mm-wave beam-switching systems. This work corresponds to the first demonstration of a monolithic beam-forming network using switched beams.

  1. A Comparative Study on Nd:YAG Laser Cutting of Steel and Stainless Steel Using Continuous, Square, and Sine Waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, K. H.

    2012-06-01

    Laser cutting with the sine waveform is seldom reported. This article is a comparative study on Nd:YAG laser cutting using the continuous (CW), square, and sine waveforms. The materials used in this study were steel and stainless steel. It has been found that the cutting capability, in descending order, is: CW > sine > square. The cutting of steel (C ~0.3 wt.%) and AISI304 austenitic stainless steel may be satisfactorily described by the Steen model, irrespective of waveform. Steel is slightly easier to cut than stainless steel. Limitations of the present study are discussed and suggestions for future work are made.

  2. A semi-analytical method for near-trapped mode and fictitious frequencies of multiple scattering by an array of elliptical cylinders in water waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jeng-Tzong; Lee, Jia-Wei

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we focus on the water wave scattering by an array of four elliptical cylinders. The null-field boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is used in conjunction with degenerate kernels and eigenfunctions expansion. The closed-form fundamental solution is expressed in terms of the degenerate kernel containing the Mathieu and the modified Mathieu functions in the elliptical coordinates. Boundary densities are represented by using the eigenfunction expansion. To avoid using the addition theorem to translate the Mathieu functions, the present approach can solve the water wave problem containing multiple elliptical cylinders in a semi-analytical manner by introducing the adaptive observer system. Regarding water wave problems, the phenomena of numerical instability of fictitious frequencies may appear when the BIEM/boundary element method (BEM) is used. Besides, the near-trapped mode for an array of four identical elliptical cylinders is observed in a special layout. Both physical (near-trapped mode) and mathematical (fictitious frequency) resonances simultaneously appear in the present paper for a water wave problem by an array of four identical elliptical cylinders. Two regularization techniques, the combined Helmholtz interior integral equation formulation (CHIEF) method and the Burton and Miller approach, are adopted to alleviate the numerical resonance due to fictitious frequency.

  3. Location of high-frequency P wave microseismic noise in the Pacific Ocean using multiple small aperture arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Pyle, Moira L.; Koper, Keith D.; Euler, Garrett G.; Burlacu, Relu

    2015-04-20

    We investigate source locations of P-wave microseisms within a narrow frequency band (0.67–1.33 Hz) that is significantly higher than the classic microseism band (~0.05–0.3 Hz). Employing a backprojection method, we analyze data recorded during January 2010 from five International Monitoring System arrays that border the Pacific Ocean. We develop a ranking scheme that allows us to combine beam power from multiple arrays to obtain robust locations of the microseisms. Some individual arrays exhibit a strong regional component, but results from the combination of all arrays show high-frequency P wave energy emanating from the North Pacific basin, in general agreement with previous observations in the double-frequency (DF) microseism band (~0.1–0.3 Hz). This suggests that the North Pacific source of ambient P noise covers a broad range of frequencies and that the wave-wave interaction model is likely valid at shorter periods.

  4. Multiple scattering of radio frequency waves by blobs: homogenization of a mixture of blobs and the Waterman-Truell approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hizanidis, K.; Bairaktaris, F.; Valvis, S. I.; Ram, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    Radio frequency waves are of particular importance for heating and current drive in magnetized fusion plasmas. The scattering of these waves by a multitude of density fluctuations, such as blobs in the edge region, is studied by homogenizing the edge region populated by an ensemble of ellipsoidal plasma blobs immersed in an ambient background plasma. The effective permittivity tensor is formulated on the basis of a depolarization dyadic. In general, the interface between the homogenized slab and the ambient plasma is not necessarily aligned with the magnetic field line. The misalignment leads to changes in the propagation characteristics of the RF waves. The scattering of an incident wave is treated by considering the reflection and transmission through a composite plasma slab. This study is a generalization of; it applies to RF waves in plasmas interacting with ellipsoidal blobs of arbitrary shapes and sizes. Supported in part by the Hellenic National Programme on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion associated with the EUROfusion Consortium, and by DoE.

  5. Effect of the ultrasonic frequency on the multiple X-ray scattering from a LiNbO{sub 3} crystal modulated by a surface acoustic wave

    SciTech Connect

    Punegov, V. I.; Roshchupkin, D. V.

    2012-01-15

    The effect of multiple scattering on the formation of the {theta}-2{theta} scan curves for a crystal modulated by a surface acoustic wave (SAW), depending on the ultrasonic frequency, has been investigated in the frame-work of the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction. A model of a Rayleigh surface wave has been analyzed as applied to X-ray diffraction with allowance for the transverse and longitudinal elastic lattice strains. Using the example of the 127 Degree-Sign Y Prime cut of the LiNbO{sub 3} crystal, it is established that the effects of multiple scattering can be neglected for ultrasonic frequencies above 650 MHz; this finding significantly simplifies the numerical calculations of X-ray diffraction from a crystal modulated by a short-wavelength SAW. A comparative quantitative analysis of the experimental data on synchrotron scattering from the 127 Degree-Sign Y Prime cut of a LiNbO{sub 3} crystal modulated by a 952-MHz SAW have been performed, both taking into account and neglecting the effects of multiple scattering. It is shown that the computation time can be reduced by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude.

  6. Generation and propagation of a sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian beam

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Guanming; Zhang, Zhaohui; Luo, Meilan; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a method for modulating the Gaussian beam by means of sine-azimuthal wavefront and carry out the experimental generation. The analytical propagation formula of such a beam passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived, by which the intensity properties of the sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian (SWMG) beam are examined both theoretically and experimentally. Both of the experimental and theoretical results show that the SWMG beam goes through the process from beam splitting to a Gaussian-like profile, which is closely determined by the phase factor and the propagation distance. Appropriate phase factor and short distance are helpful for the splitting of beam. However, in the cases of large phase factor and focal plane, the intensity distributions tend to take a Gaussian form. Such unique features may be of importance in particle trapping and medical applications. PMID:27443798

  7. A Unique Presentation of Anti-RNA Polymerase III Positive Systemic Sclerosis Sine Scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare autoimmune disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and a multitude of autoantibodies that are associated with it. In the past several years, advances in serologic testing have led to research indicating important prognostic and phenotypic associations with certain subsets of autoantibodies. In particular, anti-RNA polymerase III (anti-RNAP III) has been associated with diffuse cutaneous disease, scleroderma renal crisis, a temporal relationship with malignancy, myositis, synovitis, joint contractures, and gastric antral vascular ectasia. However, anti-RNAP III has not been associated with systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma. We describe a patient with an atypical presentation of anti-RNAP III positive systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma who presented without the typical features of anti-RNAP III disease. Instead, she presented with critical digital ischemia, pulmonary arterial hypertension, gastroesophageal reflux disease, interstitial lung disease, and no clinically detectable sclerodactyly. PMID:27559487

  8. A Unique Presentation of Anti-RNA Polymerase III Positive Systemic Sclerosis Sine Scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cody M; Girnita, Diana; Sharma, Arundhati; Khanna, Surabhi; Elwing, Jean M

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare autoimmune disorder with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations and a multitude of autoantibodies that are associated with it. In the past several years, advances in serologic testing have led to research indicating important prognostic and phenotypic associations with certain subsets of autoantibodies. In particular, anti-RNA polymerase III (anti-RNAP III) has been associated with diffuse cutaneous disease, scleroderma renal crisis, a temporal relationship with malignancy, myositis, synovitis, joint contractures, and gastric antral vascular ectasia. However, anti-RNAP III has not been associated with systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma. We describe a patient with an atypical presentation of anti-RNAP III positive systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma who presented without the typical features of anti-RNAP III disease. Instead, she presented with critical digital ischemia, pulmonary arterial hypertension, gastroesophageal reflux disease, interstitial lung disease, and no clinically detectable sclerodactyly. PMID:27559487

  9. Generation and propagation of a sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, Guanming; Zhang, Zhaohui; Luo, Meilan; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-07-01

    We introduce a method for modulating the Gaussian beam by means of sine-azimuthal wavefront and carry out the experimental generation. The analytical propagation formula of such a beam passing through a paraxial ABCD optical system is derived, by which the intensity properties of the sine-azimuthal wavefront modulated Gaussian (SWMG) beam are examined both theoretically and experimentally. Both of the experimental and theoretical results show that the SWMG beam goes through the process from beam splitting to a Gaussian-like profile, which is closely determined by the phase factor and the propagation distance. Appropriate phase factor and short distance are helpful for the splitting of beam. However, in the cases of large phase factor and focal plane, the intensity distributions tend to take a Gaussian form. Such unique features may be of importance in particle trapping and medical applications.

  10. Analysis, Synthesis, and Classification of Nonlinear Systems Using Synchronized Swept-Sine Method for Audio Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Antonin; Simon, Laurent; Lotton, Pierrick

    2010-12-01

    A new method of identification, based on an input synchronized exponential swept-sine signal, is used to analyze and synthesize nonlinear audio systems like overdrive pedals for guitar. Two different pedals are studied; the first one exhibiting a strong influence of the input signal level on its input/output law and the second one exhibiting a weak influence of this input signal level. The Synchronized Swept Sine method leads to a Generalized Polynomial Hammerstein model equivalent to the pedals under test. The behaviors of both pedals are illustrated through model-based resynthesized signals. Moreover, it is also shown that this method leads to a criterion allowing the classification of the nonlinear systems under test, according to the influence of the input signal levels on their input/output law.

  11. Darboux Transformation for the Vector Sine-Gordon Equation and Integrable Equations on a Sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Alexander V.; Papamikos, Georgios; Wang, Jing Ping

    2016-07-01

    We propose a method for construction of Darboux transformations, which is a new development of the dressing method for Lax operators invariant under a reduction group. We apply the method to the vector sine-Gordon equation and derive its Bäcklund transformations. We show that there is a new Lax operator canonically associated with our Darboux transformation resulting an evolutionary differential-difference system on a sphere. The latter is a generalised symmetry for the chain of Bäcklund transformations. Using the re-factorisation approach and the Bianchi permutability of the Darboux transformations, we derive new vector Yang-Baxter map and integrable discrete vector sine-Gordon equation on a sphere.

  12. Critical dynamics of the sine-Gordon model in d=2-ɛ dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neudecker, Bernhard

    1983-06-01

    The renormalization scheme of Amit, Goldschmidt and Grinstein is extended to d=2-ɛ dimensions. The exponent ν of the correlation length v -1=2ɛ+ O(ɛ2) is in agreement with the result of Kosterlitz for the Coulomb gas. The exponent η of the correlation function of the sine-Gordon field is η=ɛ+ O(ɛ2). The scaling form of the dynamical structure factor S(q,ω) of the dynamic sine-Gordon Model A is studied in d=2-ɛ dimensions. The dynamic exponent z is found to be z=2+( b-1)ɛ+ O(ɛ2) for ɛ≧0. The constant b is given by the integral b = intlimits_0^infty {dss^{ - 2} exp } left( { - 2intlimits_s^infty {dxx^{ - 1} e^{ - x} } } right) = 2,371544...

  13. Design and optimization of the sine condition test for measuring misaligned optical systems.

    PubMed

    Lampen, Sara; Dubin, Matthew; Burge, James H

    2013-10-10

    By taking a new look at an old concept, we have shown in our previous work how the Abbe sine condition can be used to measure linearly field-dependent aberrations in order to verify the alignment of optical systems. In this paper, we expand on this method and discuss the design choices involved in implementing the sine condition test (SCTest). Specifically, we discuss the two illumination options for the test: point source with a grating or flat-panel display, and we discuss the tradeoffs of the two approaches. Additionally, experimental results are shown using a flat-panel display to measure linearly field-dependent aberrations. Last, we elaborate on how to implement the SCTest on more complex optical systems, such as a three-mirror anastigmat and a double Gauss imaging lens system. PMID:24217726

  14. Design and fabrication of sine-top broadband gold-coated gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhutijiang, Bilali; Qiu, Keqiang; Jiang, Xiaolong; Fu, Shaojun

    2015-10-01

    Fabrication and testing results of sine-top, high-efficiency, broadband gold-coated gratings (BGCG) for high-power laser pulse compression applications are reported. These gratings differ from conventional metal-on-photoresist pulse compression gratings in that the gratings patterns are generated by directly etching the quartz substrate. The groove depth and duty cycle of the photoresist mask was controlled by changing photoresist thickness and adjusting exposure and development times, respectively. The duty cycle of the photoresist mask was further corrected by oxygen plasma etching. Using this method, high efficiency, sine-top, BGCG with line densities of 1740 lines/mm was achieved. The average diffraction efficiency at the-1st order was 89.2% and the peak value was 90% for TM polarized light as the wavelength increases from 750 to 850 nm.

  15. Ray tracing of multiple transmitted/reflected/converted waves in 2-D/3-D layered anisotropic TTI media and application to crosswell traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Chao-Ying; Huang, Guo-Jiao; Li, Xiao-Ling; Zhou, Bing; Greenhalgh, Stewart

    2013-11-01

    To overcome the deficiency of some current grid-/cell-based ray tracing algorithms, which are only able to handle first arrivals or primary reflections (or conversions) in anisotropic media, we have extended the functionality of the multistage irregular shortest-path method to 2-D/3-D tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. The new approach is able to track multiple transmitted/reflected/converted arrivals composed of any kind of combinations of transmissions, reflections and mode conversions. The basic principle is that the seven parameters (five elastic parameters plus two polar angles defining the tilt of the symmetry axis) of the TTI media are sampled at primary nodes, and the group velocity values at secondary nodes are obtained by tri-linear interpolation of the primary nodes across each cell, from which the group velocities of the three wave modes (qP, qSV and qSH) are calculated. Finally, we conduct grid-/cell-based wave front expansion to trace multiple transmitted/reflected/converted arrivals from one region to the next. The results of calculations in uniform anisotropic media indicate that the numerical results agree with the analytical solutions except in directions of SV-wave triplications, at which only the lowest velocity value is selected at the singularity points by the multistage irregular shortest-path anisotropic ray tracing method. This verifies the accuracy of the methodology. Several simulation results show that the new method is able to efficiently and accurately approximate situations involving continuous velocity variations and undulating discontinuities, and that it is suitable for any combination of multiple transmitted/reflected/converted arrival tracking in TTI media of arbitrary strength and tilt. Crosshole synthetic traveltime tomographic tests have been performed, which highlight the importance of using such code when the medium is distinctly anisotropic.

  16. Collective coordinate approximation to the scattering of solitons in modified NLS and sine-Gordon models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, H. E.; Zakrzewski, W. J.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the validity of collective coordinate approximations to the scattering of two solitons in several classes of (1+1) dimensional field theory models. We consider models which are deformations of the sine-Gordon (SG) or the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model which posses soliton solutions (which are topological (SG) or non-topological (NLS)). Our deformations preserve their topology (SG), but change their integrability properties, either completely or partially (models become `quasi-integrable').

  17. Dressing method for the vector sine-Gordon equation and its soliton interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, Alexander V.; Papamikos, Georgios; Wang, Jing Ping

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we develop the dressing method to study the exact solutions for the vector sine-Gordon equation. The explicit formulas for one kink and one breather are derived. The method can be used to construct multi-soliton solutions. Two soliton interactions are also studied. The formulas for position shift of the kink and position and phase shifts of the breather are given. These quantities only depend on the pole positions of the dressing matrices.

  18. Hilbertian sine as an absolute measure of Bayesian inference in ISR, homeland security, medicine, and defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannson, Tomasz; Wang, Wenjian; Hodelin, Juan; Forrester, Thomas; Romanov, Volodymyr; Kostrzewski, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, Bayesian Binary Sensing (BBS) is discussed as an effective tool for Bayesian Inference (BI) evaluation in interdisciplinary areas such as ISR (and, C3I), Homeland Security, QC, medicine, defense, and many others. In particular, Hilbertian Sine (HS) as an absolute measure of BI, is introduced, while avoiding relativity of decision threshold identification, as in the case of traditional measures of BI, related to false positives and false negatives.

  19. Discrete translational invariance and mass-renormalization in the two-dimensional sine-Gordon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neudecker, Bernhard

    1982-06-01

    We consider the sine-Gordon model as a field-theory in which the interaction has a discrete translational invariance. It is shown that apart from a Gaussian contribution the Helmholtz free-energy exhibits this symmetry as well. Thus in an originally massless theory, the insertion of a mass term can be considered as a rather “weak” symmetry-breaking. Within the Amit-Goldschmidt-Grinstein renormalization-scheme we show that mass-renormalization is trivial.

  20. Gene conversion as a secondary mechanism of short interspersed element (SINE) evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Kass, D.H.; Batzer, M.A.; Deininger, P.L. |

    1995-01-01

    The Alu repetitive family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in primates can be subdivided into distinct subfamilies by specific diagnostic nucleotide changes. The older subfamilies are generally very abundant, while the younger subfamilies have fewer copies. Some of the youngest Alu elements are absent in the orthologous loci of nonhuman primates, indicative of recent retroposition events, the primary mode of SINE evolutions. PCR analysis of one young Alu subfamily (Sb2) member found in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene apparently revealed the presence of this element in the green monkey, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee genomes, as well as the human genome. However, sequence analysis of these genomes revealed a highly mutated, older, primate-specific Alu element was present at this position in the nonhuman primates. Comparison of the flanking DNA sequences upstream of this Alu insertion corresponded to evolution expected for standard primate phylogeny, but comparison of the Alu repeat sequences revealed that the human element departed from this phylogeny. The change in the human sequence apparently occurred by a gene conversion event only within the Alu element itself, converting it from one of the oldest to one of the youngest Alu subfamilies. Although gene conversions of Alu elements are clearly very rare, this finding shows that such events can occur and contribute to specific cases of SINE subfamily evolution.

  1. Polyphyletic origin of cultivated rice: based on the interspersion pattern of SINEs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chaoyang; Motohashi, Reiko; Tsuchimoto, Suguru; Fukuta, Yoshimichi; Ohtsubo, Hisako; Ohtsubo, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    The wild rice species Oryza rufipogon with wide intraspecific variation is thought to be the progenitor of the cultivated rice species Oryza sativa with two ecotypes, japonica and indica. To determine the origin of cultivated rice, subfamily members of the rice retroposon p-SINE1, which show insertion polymorphism in the O. sativa -O. rufipogon population, were identified and used to "bar code" each of 101 cultivated and wild rice strains based on the presence or absence of the p-SINE1 members at the respective loci. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on the bar codes given to the rice strains showed that O. sativa strains were classified into two groups corresponding to japonica and indica, whereas O. rufipogon strains were in four groups, in which annual O. rufipogon strains formed a single group, differing from the perennial O. rufipogon strains of the other three groups. Japonica strains were closely related to the O. rufipogon perennial strains of one group, and the indica strains were closely related to the O. rufipogon annual strains, indicating that O. sativa has been derived polyphyletically from O. rufipogon. The subfamily members of p-SINE1 constitute a powerful tool for studying the classification and relationship of rice strains, even when one has limited knowledge of morphology, taxonomy, physiology, and biochemistry of rice strains. PMID:12519908

  2. Quasi-static calibration of piezoelectric sensor using half-sine pressure pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qicheng; Shang, Fei; Kong, Deren

    2010-08-01

    The quasi-static method with application of half-sine pressure pulse is presented to calibrate the piezoelectric sensor, which is used for the dynamic pressure measurement of weapons. A pressure generator based on the drop hammer hydraulic system is manufactured to get the half-sine pressure pulse. The oil cylinder of the generator is reconstructed to install four standard pressure sensors and two calibrated sensors simultaneously. With pressure taken from four standard sensors as calibrating excitation, and response data obtained from calibrated sensors, the working sensitivities of sensors are worked out through regression analysis. The experimental results obtained with sensor 6215 at the national shooting range shows that it is effective to calibrate piezoelectric sensors using half-sine pressure pulse. The residual standard deviation of the equation fitting is less than 0.7%; the linearity is less than 0.21%; and the relative uncertainty of the four standard sensors is less than 0.7%, under the precision target of the calibration system acceptance.

  3. Nemo phosphorylates Eyes absent and enhances output from the Eya-Sine oculis transcriptional complex during Drosophila retinal determination

    PubMed Central

    Morillo, Santiago A.; Braid, Lorena R.; Verheyen, Esther M.; Rebay, Ilaria

    2013-01-01

    The retinal determination gene network comprises a collection of transcription factors that respond to multiple signaling inputs to direct Drosophila eye development. Previous genetic studies have shown that nemo (nmo), a gene encoding a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase, can promote retinal specification through interactions with the retinal determination gene network, although the molecular point of cross-talk was not defined. Here, we report that the Nemo kinase positively and directly regulates Eyes absent (Eya). Genetic assays show that Nmo catalytic activity enhances Eya-mediated ectopic eye formation and potentiates induction of the Eya-Sine oculis (So) transcriptional targets dachshund and lozenge. Biochemical analyses demonstrate that Nmo forms a complex with and phosphorylates Eya at two consensus mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation sites. These same sites appear crucial for Nmo-mediated activation of Eya function in vivo. Thus, we propose that Nmo phosphorylation of Eya potentiates its transactivation function to enhance transcription of Eya-So target genes during eye specification and development. PMID:22394486

  4. A new solution expressed in terms of UTD coefficients for the multiple diffraction of spherical waves by a series of buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RodríGuez, José-VíCtor; Molina-GarcíA-Pardo, José-MaríA.; Juan-LláCer, Leandro

    2007-08-01

    A new formulation expressed in terms of Uniform Theory of Diffraction (UTD) coefficients for the prediction of the multiple diffraction caused by a series of buildings modeled as wedges, considering spherical-wave incidence, is presented. The solution, which has a certain heuristic nature, is validated with numerical results from technical literature and the particular cases of diffraction by buildings modeled as absorbing knife edges, as well as the one in which the mentioned buildings are replaced by flat-roofed parallel rows of blocks (building rows in cross sections considered to be rectangular in shape) are also analyzed. The computing time is reduced over existing formulations, especially when the number of buildings is large, and the results can be applied in the development of theoretical models, in order to predict a more realistic path loss in urban environments when multiple-building diffraction has to be considered.

  5. Research of the Additional Losses Occurring in Optical Fiber at its Multiple Bends in the Range Waves 1310nm, 1550nm and 1625nm Long

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, A. V.; Gorlov, N. I.; Alkina, A. D.; Mekhtiev, A. D.; Kovtun, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Article is devoted to research of the additional losses occurring in the optical fiber at its multiple bends in the range waves of 1310 nanometers, 1550 nanometers and 1625 nanometers long. Article is directed on creation of the external factors methods which allow to estimate and eliminate negative influence. The automated way of calculation of losses at a bend is developed. Results of scientific researches are used by engineers of “Kazaktelekom” AS for practical definition of losses service conditions. For modeling the Wolfram|Alpha environment — the knowledge base and a set of computing algorithms was chosen. The greatest losses are noted on wavelength 1310nm and 1625nm. All dependences are nonlinear. Losses with each following excess are multiplicative.

  6. Multiple-frequency acoustic wave devices for chemical sensing and materials characterization in both gas and liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, S.J.; Ricco, A.J.

    1991-12-31

    This invention consists of a chemical sensor that includes two or more pairs of interdigital electrodes having different periodicities. Each pair is comprised of a first electrode and a second electrode. The electrodes are patterned on a surface of a piezoelectric substrate. Each pair of electrodes may launch and receive various acoustic waves (AW), including a surface acoustic wave (SAW), and may also launch and receive several acoustic plate modes (APMs). The frequencies associated with each are functions of the transducer periodicity as well as the velocity of the particular AW in the chosen substrate material. An AW interaction region exists between each pair of electrodes. Circuitry is used to launch, receive, and monitor the propagation characteristics of the AWs and may be configured in an intermittent measurement fashion or in a continuous measurement fashion. Perturbations to the AW velocity and attenuation are recorded at several frequencies and provide the sensor response.

  7. Multiple-frequency acoustic wave devices for chemical sensing and materials characterization in both gas and liquid phase

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Stephen J.; Ricco, Antonio J.

    1993-01-01

    A chemical sensor (1) includes two or more pairs of interdigital electrodes (10) having different periodicities. Each pair is comprised of a first electrode (10a) and a second electrode (10b). The electrodes are patterned on a surface of a piezoelectric substrate (12). Each pair of electrodes may launch and receive various acoustic waves (AW), including a surface acoustic wave (SAW), and may also launch and receive several acoustic plate modes (APMs). The frequencies associated with each are functions of the transducer periodicity as well as the velocity of the particular AW in the chosen substrate material. An AW interaction region (13) exists between each pair of electrodes. Circuitry (20, 40) is used to launch, receive, and monitor the propagation characteristics of the AWs and may be configured in an intermittent measurement fashion or in a continuous measurement fashion. Perturbations to the AW velocity and attenuation are recorded at several frequencies and provide the sensor response.

  8. Wireless and simultaneous detections of multiple bio-molecules in a single sensor using Love wave biosensor.

    PubMed

    Oh, Haekwan; Fu, Chen; Kim, Kunnyun; Lee, Keekeun

    2014-01-01

    A Love wave-based biosensor with a 440 MHz center frequency was developed for the simultaneous detection of two different analytes of Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein (COMP) and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG) in a single sensor. The developed biosensor consists of one-port surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay lines on a 41° YX LiNbO3 piezoelectric substrate, a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) waveguide layer, and two different sensitive films. The Love wave biosensor was wirelessly characterized using two antennas and a network analyzer. The binding of the analytes to the sensitive layers induced a large change in the time positions of the original reflection peaks mainly due to the mass loading effect. The assessed time shifts in the reflection peaks were matched well with the predicted values from coupling of mode (COM) modeling. The sensitivities evaluated from the sensitive films were ~15 deg/µg/mL for the rabbit IgG and ~1.8 deg/ng/mL for COMP. PMID:25407905

  9. Detection and quantification of multiple molecular species in mainstream cigarette smoke by continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigourd, Damien; Cuisset, Arnaud; Hindle, Francis; Matton, Sophie; Fertein, Eric; Bocquet, Robin; Mouret, Gaël

    2006-08-01

    Continuous-wave terahertz spectroscopy by photomixing is applied to the analysis of mainstream cigarette smoke. Using the wide tunability of the source, spectral signatures of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde (H2CO), and water (H2O) have been observed from 500 to 2400GHz. The fine spectral purity allows direct concentration measurement from the pure rotational transitions of HCN and CO. The quantification of the measurement was validated by the means of a calibration gas containing CO. The potential of this technique for trace gas detection is demonstrated with an estimated detection limit of HCN equal to 9 parts in 106.

  10. Single actuator wave-like robot (SAW): design, modeling, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, David; Mann, Moshe; Degani, Nir; Yehuda, Tal; Jarbi, Nissan; Hess, Amotz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a single actuator wave-like robot, a novel bioinspired robot which can move forward or backward by producing a continuously advancing wave. The robot has a unique minimalistic mechanical design and produces an advancing sine wave, with a large amplitude, using only a single motor but with no internal straight spine. Over horizontal surfaces, the robot does not slide relative to the surface and its direction of locomotion is determined by the direction of rotation of the motor. We developed a kinematic model of the robot that accounts for the two-dimensional mechanics of motion and yields the speed of the links relative to the motor. Based on the optimization of the kinematic model, and accounting for the mechanical constraints, we have designed and built multiple versions of the robot with different sizes and experimentally tested them (see movie). The experimental results were within a few percentages of the expectations. The larger version attained a top speed of 57 cm s(-1) over a horizontal surface and is capable of climbing vertically when placed between two walls. By optimizing the parameters, we succeeded in making the robot travel by 13% faster than its own wave speed. PMID:27367548

  11. Gravitational waves and red shifts - A space experiment for testing relativistic gravity using multiple time-correlated radio signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smarr, L. L.; Vessot, R. F. C.; Lundquist, C. A.; Decher, R.; Piran, T.

    1983-01-01

    A two-step satellite mission for improving the accuracy of gravitational wave detection and for observing actual gravity waveforms is proposed. The spacecraft would carry both a highly stable hydrogen maser, which would control a transmitter sending signals to earth, and a Doppler transponder operating in the two-way mode. The use of simultaneous one- and two-way Doppler transmissions offers four time records of frequency pulsations, which can reveal gravitational radiation at 1-10 MHz with an amplitude accuracy of a factor of six. The first mission phase would consist of a Shuttle launch into a highly eccentric orbit to obtain measurements of the gravitational redshift using gravitational potentials of different earth regions to establish that gravity is describable by a metric theory. Then, after a boost into a heliocentric orbit at 6 AU, the earth-satellite system could detect gravitational waves in the solar system, as well as bursts emitted by the collisions of supermassive black holes.

  12. Regularization of multi-soliton form factors in sine-Gordon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálmai, T.

    2012-08-01

    A general and systematic regularization is developed for the exact solitonic form factors of exponential operators in the (1+1)-dimensional sine-Gordon model by analytical continuation of their integral representations. The procedure is implemented in Mathematica. Test results are shown for four- and six-soliton form factors. Catalogue identifier: AEMG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1462 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 15 488 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica [1] Computer: PC Operating system: Cross-platform Classification: 7.7, 11.1, 23 Nature of problem: The multi-soliton form factors of the sine-Gordon model (relevant in two-dimensional physics) were given only by highly non-trivial integral representation with a limited domain of convergence. Practical applications of the form factors, e.g. calculation of correlation functions in two-dimensional condensed matter systems, were not possible in general. Solution method: Using analytic continuation techniques an efficient algorithm is found and implemented in Mathematica, which provides a general and systematic way to calculate multi-soliton form factors in the sine-Gordon model. The package contains routines to compute the two-, four- and six-soliton form factors. Running time: Strongly dependent on the desired accuracy and the number of solitons. For physical rapidities after an initialization of about 30 s, the calculation of the two-, four- and six-soliton form factors at a single point takes approximately 0.5 s, 2.5 s and 8 s, respectively. Wolfram Research, Inc., Mathematica Edition: Version 7.0, Wolfram Research, Inc., Champaign, Illinois, 2008.

  13. Amplitude estimation of a sine function based on confidence intervals and Bayes' theorem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eversmann, D.; Pretz, J.; Rosenthal, M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper discusses the amplitude estimation using data originating from a sine-like function as probability density function. If a simple least squares fit is used, a significant bias is observed if the amplitude is small compared to its error. It is shown that a proper treatment using the Feldman-Cousins algorithm of likelihood ratios allows one to construct improved confidence intervals. Using Bayes' theorem a probability density function is derived for the amplitude. It is used in an application to show that it leads to better estimates compared to a simple least squares fit.

  14. Quantum Creep and Quantum-Creep Transitions in 1D Sine-Gordon Chains.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Florian R; Müser, Martin H

    2004-01-23

    Discrete sine-Gordon (SG) chains are studied with path-integral molecular dynamics. Chains commensurate with the substrate show the transition from pinning to quantum creep at bead masses slightly larger than in the continuous SG model. Within the creep regime, a field-driven transition from creep to complete depinning is identified. The effects of disorder on the chain's dynamics depend on the potential's roughness exponent H. For example, quantum fluctuations are generally too small to depin the chain if H=1/2, while an H=0 chain can be pinned or unpinned depending on the bead masses. Thermal fluctuations always depin the chain. PMID:14753858

  15. Selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE)--a novel class of anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Kaushal; Cang, Shundong; Sekhri, Arunabh; Liu, Delong

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulation of the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of proteins plays an important role in carcinogenesis. The nuclear export of proteins depends on the activity of transport proteins, exportins. Exportins belong to the karyopherin β superfamily. Exportin-1 (XPO1), also known as chromosomal region maintenance 1 (CRM1), mediates transport of around 220 proteins. In this review, we summarized the development of a new class of antitumor drugs, collectively known as selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE). KPT-330 (selinexor) as an oral agent is showing activities in early clinical trials in both solid tumors and hematological malignancies. PMID:25316614

  16. Zoster ... "a lmost" ... sine herpete: diagnostic utility of real time-polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Vena, Gino A; Apruzzi, Doriana; Vestita, Michelangelo; Calvario, Agata; Foti, Caterina; Cassano, Nicoletta

    2010-10-01

    Zoster sine herpete is a particular form of varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection characterized by segmental pain and dysesthesia, without any cutaneous lesions ever becoming perceptible. This report describes the case of a female patient, presenting with intercostal pain associated with a single papulo-vesicular lesion localized within the same area. Thanks to such a lesion, real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis on vesicle fluid swab was possible, thus revealing a significant number of VZV genome copies. This innovative tool has proven essential to diagnose this abortive form of herpes zoster, which would otherwise have remained unidentified. PMID:21213602

  17. Numerical and analytical tests of quasi-integrability in modified sine-Gordon models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, L. A.; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2014-01-01

    Following our attempts to define quasi-integrability in which we related this concept to a particular symmetry of the two-soliton function we check this condition in three classes of modified sine-Gordon models in (1 + 1) dimensions. We find that the numerical results seen in various scatterings of two solitons and in the time evolution of breather-like structures support our ideas about the symmetry of the field configurations and its effects on the anomalies of the conservation laws of the charges.

  18. Exact Mass-Coupling Relation for the Homogeneous Sine-Gordon Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt

    2016-05-01

    We derive the exact mass-coupling relation of the simplest multiscale quantum integrable model, i.e., the homogeneous sine-Gordon model with two mass scales. The relation is obtained by comparing the perturbed conformal field theory description of the model valid at short distances to the large distance bootstrap description based on the model's integrability. In particular, we find a differential equation for the relation by constructing conserved tensor currents, which satisfy a generalization of the Θ sum rule Ward identity. The mass-coupling relation is written in terms of hypergeometric functions.

  19. Breaking integrability at the boundary: the sine-Gordon model with Robin boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Robert; Dorey, Patrick; Parini, Robert

    2016-04-01

    We explore boundary scattering in the sine-Gordon model with a non-integrable family of Robin boundary conditions. The soliton content of the field after collision is analysed using a numerical implementation of the direct scattering problem associated with the inverse scattering method. We find that an antikink may be reflected into various combinations of an antikink, a kink, and one or more breathers, depending on the values of the initial antikink velocity and a parameter associated with the boundary condition. In addition we observe regions with an intricate resonance structure arising from the creation of an intermediate breather whose recollision with the boundary is highly dependent on the breather phase.

  20. Exact Mass-Coupling Relation for the Homogeneous Sine-Gordon Model.

    PubMed

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt

    2016-05-01

    We derive the exact mass-coupling relation of the simplest multiscale quantum integrable model, i.e., the homogeneous sine-Gordon model with two mass scales. The relation is obtained by comparing the perturbed conformal field theory description of the model valid at short distances to the large distance bootstrap description based on the model's integrability. In particular, we find a differential equation for the relation by constructing conserved tensor currents, which satisfy a generalization of the Θ sum rule Ward identity. The mass-coupling relation is written in terms of hypergeometric functions. PMID:27203313

  1. Coherent light scattering of heterogeneous randomly rough films and effective medium in the theory of electromagnetic wave multiple scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Berginc, G

    2013-11-30

    We have developed a general formalism based on Green's functions to calculate the coherent electromagnetic field scattered by a random medium with rough boundaries. The approximate expression derived makes it possible to determine the effective permittivity, which is generalised for a layer of an inhomogeneous random medium with different types of particles and bounded with randomly rough interfaces. This effective permittivity describes the coherent propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a random medium with randomly rough boundaries. We have obtained an expression, which contains the Maxwell – Garnett formula at the low-frequency limit, and the Keller formula; the latter has been proved to be in good agreement with experiments for particles whose dimensions are larger than a wavelength. (coherent light scattering)

  2. Global detection and localization of seismic sources by using beamforming of multiple body wave phases with USArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retailleau, L.; Shapiro, N.; Guilbert, J.; Campillo, M.; Roux, P.

    2015-12-01

    Detection methods are usually developed to observe earthquakes, and are not relevant to observe long event with emergent signals (e. g. event with long source duration). We present a new method to detect and localize seismic events without prior information about their source. This method explores the consistency and characteristic behavior of teleseismic body waves recorded by a large-scale seismic network. We show that the use of a seismic network as an antenna is a powerful tool to analyze sources without the need to pick phases arrivals. This allows the characterization of low amplitude events that compose the noise.The procedure consists of three steps. First, for every tested source location we perform a time-slowness analysis and compute the Tau-p transform from the dataset. For waves emitted by teleseismic sources, the amplitude of this transform has a very characteristic behavior with maxima corresponding to different seismic phases arrivals. Relative location of these maxima on the time-slowness plane strongly depends on the distance to the earthquake. In a second step, we convolve the Tau-P amplitude with a time-slowness filter whose maxima are computed based on prediction of global travel-time calculator (Buland and Chapman, 1983) in order to explore this dependence. As a third step we gather the results obtained with different sources to get a space/time likelihood function for the occurrence of a seismic event. This process is performed at different frequency bands to observe possible variations in time.We apply this method to continuous vertical-component seismograms of USArray. We highlight non earthquake events that occurred during 2010. We then compare our results with datasets of stations closer to the events and a numerical model for ocean low frequency noise. We identify several low frequency microseisms occurring all along the year.

  3. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are abundant in Solanaceae and have a family-specific impact on gene structure and genome organization.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Kathrin M; Wenke, Torsten; Muders, Katja; Truberg, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are highly abundant non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in plants. They are short in size, non-coding, show high sequence diversity, and are therefore mostly not or not correctly annotated in plant genome sequences. Hence, comparative studies on genomic SINE populations are rare. To explore the structural organization and impact of SINEs, we comparatively investigated the genome sequences of the Solanaceae species potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), wild tomato (Solanum pennellii), and two pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum). Based on 8.5 Gbp sequence data, we annotated 82 983 SINE copies belonging to 10 families and subfamilies on a base pair level. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed over all chromosomes with enrichments in distal regions. Depending on the genome assemblies and gene predictions, 30% of all SINE copies are associated with genes, particularly frequent in introns and untranslated regions (UTRs). The close association with genes is family specific. More than 10% of all genes annotated in the Solanaceae species investigated contain at least one SINE insertion, and we found genes harbouring up to 16 SINE copies. We demonstrate the involvement of SINEs in gene and genome evolution including the donation of splice sites, start and stop codons and exons to genes, enlargement of introns and UTRs, generation of tandem-like duplications and transduction of adjacent sequence regions. PMID:26996788

  4. The LLNL-G3D global P-wave velocity model and the significance of the BayesLoc multiple-event location procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, N. A.; Myers, S. C.; Johannesson, G.; Matzel, E.

    2011-12-01

    LLNL-G3D is a global-scale model of P-wave velocity designed to accurately predict seismic travel times at regional and teleseismic distances simultaneously. The underlying goal of the model is to provide enhanced seismic event location capabilities. Previous versions of LLNL-G3D (versions 1 and 2) provide substantial improvements in event location accuracy via 3-D ray tracing. The latest models are based on ~2.7 million P and Pn arrivals that are re-processed using our global multi-event locator known as BayesLoc. Bayesloc is a formulation of the joint probability distribution across multiple-event location parameters, including hypocenters, travel time corrections, pick precision, and phase labels. Modeling the whole multiple-event system results in accurate locations and an internally consistent data set that is ideal for tomography. Our recently developed inversion approach (called Progressive Multi-level Tessellation Inversion or PMTI) captures regional trends and fine details where data warrant. Using PMTI, we model multiple heterogeneity scale lengths without defining parameter grids with variable densities based on some ad hoc criteria. LLNL-G3Dv3 (version 3) is produced with data generated with the BayesLoc procedure, recently modified to account for localized travel time trends via a multiple event clustering technique. We demonstrate the significance of BayesLoc processing, the impact on the resulting tomographic images, and the application of LLNL-G3D to seismic event location. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-491805.

  5. Improved multiple-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser assisted by four-wave mixing with a micro-air cavity.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuejiao; Ren, Liyong; Lin, Xiao; Ju, Haijuan; Chen, Nana; Liang, Jian; Ren, Kaili; Xu, Yiping

    2015-11-20

    In this paper, a multiple-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser (MBRFL) with enhanced performance is presented. This is attributed to the improved Fresnel reflection, thus strengthening four-wave mixing in the fiber laser cavity due to the insertion of a micro-air cavity. As a result, compared with the conventional MBRFL without a micro-air cavity, the thresholds of Brillouin Stokes (BS) lines are observed to be reduced, and more BS lines can be generated. In the experiment, a MBRFL having 40 BS lines is achieved with good stability on laser wavelengths and output power. In view of the fact that more BS lines can be established with a simple scheme and low pump power, our MBRFL promises to be employed as a multiwavelength source for optical communication. PMID:26836558

  6. Generation of multiple laser lines by sum-frequency mixing of continuous-wave Raman emissions from a dispersion-compensated optical cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niigaki, Ryu; Kida, Yuichiro; Imasaka, Totaro

    2016-02-01

    Three color continuous-wave (CW) laser emissions with constant frequency separation are generated in the near-infrared (NIR) region using a dispersion-compensated optical cavity filled with hydrogen gas. By focusing these laser emissions into second-harmonic generation (SHG) crystals, multiple second harmonic signals and sum-frequency signals are generated in the near-ultraviolet (NUV) with a constant frequency spacing. Up to five colors of these NUV CW laser emissions can be generated simultaneously by using SHG crystals with different orientations. The interference between the second-harmonic signal of one NIR laser emission and the sum-frequency signal of the other two NIR emissions was observed experimentally, indicating mutual phase coherence among the NIR laser emissions. The phase coherence allows the synthesis of a train of ultrashort pulses with a THz repetition rate in both the NUV and the NIR by using the CW emission lines.

  7. Estimates of velocity structure and source depth using multiple P waves from aftershocks of the 1987 Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills, California, earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mori, J.

    1991-01-01

    Event record sections, which are constructed by plotting seismograms from many closely spaced earthquakes recorded on a few stations, show multiple free-surface reflections (PP, PPP, PPPP) of the P wave in the Imperial Valley. The relative timing of these arrivals is used to estimate the strength of the P-wave velocity gradient within the upper 5 km of the sediment layer. Consistent with previous studies, a velocity model with a value of 1.8 km/sec at the surface increasing linearly to 5.8 km/sec at a depth of 5.5 km fits the data well. The relative amplitudes of the P and PP arrivals are used to estimate the source depth for the aftershock distributions of the Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills main shocks. Although the depth determination has large uncertainties, both the Elmore Ranch and Superstition Hills aftershock sequencs appear to have similar depth distribution in the range of 4 to 10 km. -Author

  8. Reverberation time measurement using integrated impulse response and sweep sine excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabuco, Marco; Brando, Paulo

    2002-11-01

    As the capacity and speed of digital processing systems becomes much higher, the integrated impulsive response for reverberation time measurements by the indirect method also becomes more feasible and faster. The MLS technique to obtain the impulse response for LTI has been developed during the last several years and it is very well reported by the bibliography. Some frequency analyzers available in the market are capable to generate and process MLS to get the impulse responses very easily. Sometimes, when the room to be tested is very reverberant, sequences of higher order and a certain number of average are necessary to assure acceptable signal-to-noise ratio. The sweep sine technique or the deconvolution method to obtain impulsive responses presents many new advantages, most of them still reported in various technical documents. This paper presents the results of application of this technique to measure the reverberation time in two different reverberation rooms. Comparisons with MLS, ensemble, and reverberation time averages are presented. The sweep sine technique repeatability was verified in a reverberation chamber for a polyurethane foam sample and showed smaller standard deviations when compared with other techniques. (To be presented in Portuguese.)

  9. Quench dynamics near a quantum critical point: Application to the sine-Gordon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grandi, C.; Gritsev, V.; Polkovnikov, A.

    2010-06-01

    We discuss the quench dynamics near a quantum critical point focusing on the sine-Gordon model as a primary example. We suggest a unified approach to sudden and slow quenches, where the tuning parameter λ(t) changes in time as λ(t)˜υtr , based on the adiabatic expansion of the excitation probability in powers of υ . We show that the universal scaling of the excitation probability can be understood through the singularity of the generalized adiabatic susceptibility χ2r+2(λ) , which for sudden quenches (r=0) reduces to the fidelity susceptibility. In turn this class of susceptibilities is expressed through the moments of the connected correlation function of the quench operator. We analyze the excitations created after a sudden quench of the cosine potential using a combined approach of form-factors expansion and conformal perturbation theory for the low-energy and high-energy sector, respectively. We find the general scaling laws for the probability of exciting the system, the density of excited quasiparticles, the entropy and the heat generated after the quench. In the two limits where the sine-Gordon model maps to hard-core bosons and free massive fermions we provide the exact solutions for the quench dynamics and discuss the finite temperature generalizations.

  10. Nonlinear quantum-mechanical system associated with Sine-Gordon equation in (1 + 2) dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Zarmi, Yair

    2014-10-15

    Despite the fact that it is not integrable, the (1 + 2)-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation has N-soliton solutions, whose velocities are lower than the speed of light (c = 1), for all N ≥ 1. Based on these solutions, a quantum-mechanical system is constructed over a Fock space of particles. The coordinate of each particle is an angle around the unit circle. U, a nonlinear functional of the particle number-operators, which obeys the Sine-Gordon equation in (1 + 2) dimensions, is constructed. Its eigenvalues on N-particle states in the Fock space are the slower-than-light, N-soliton solutions of the equation. A projection operator (a nonlinear functional of U), which vanishes on the single-particle subspace, is a mass-density generator. Its eigenvalues on multi-particle states play the role of the mass density of structures that emulate free, spatially extended, relativistic particles. The simplicity of the quantum-mechanical system allows for the incorporation of perturbations with particle interactions, which have the capacity to “annihilate” and “create” solitons – an effect that does not have an analog in perturbed classical nonlinear evolution equations.

  11. A SINE insertion causes the black-and-tan and saddle tan phenotypes in domestic dogs.

    PubMed

    Dreger, Dayna L; Schmutz, Sheila M

    2011-01-01

    Agouti Signaling Protein (ASIP) controls the localized expression of red and black pigment in the domestic dog through interaction with other genes, such as Melanocortin 1 Receptor and Beta-Defensin 103. Specific ASIP alleles are necessary for many of the coat color patterns, such as black-and-tan and saddle tan. Mutations in 2 ASIP alleles, a(y) and a, have previously been identified. Here, we characterize a mutation consisting of a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion in intron 1 of ASIP that allows for the differentiation of the a(w) wolf sable and a(t) black-and-tan alleles. The SINE insertion is present in dogs with the a(t) and a alleles but absent from dogs with the a(w) and a(y) alleles. Dogs with the saddle tan phenotype were all a(t)/a(t). Schnauzers were all a(w)/a(w). Genotypes of 201 dogs of 35 breeds suggest that there are only 4 ASIP alleles, as opposed to the 5 or 6 predicted in previous literature. These data demonstrate that the dominance hierarchy of ASIP is a(y) > a(w) > a(t) > a. PMID:21846741

  12. Wave overwash impact on small islands: Generalised observations of freshwater lens response and recovery for multiple hydrogeological settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holding, Shannon; Allen, Diana M.

    2015-10-01

    Wave overwash events have the potential to result in severe consequences to the freshwater resources of small islands as a result of salt contamination of the aquifer. Due to the significant impact of overwash, it is important to characterise the susceptibility of small islands to these events. This study uses numerical modelling to evaluate the freshwater lens response and recovery to overwash events for various island hydrogeological settings (island types) observed worldwide. Models were developed for an example of each island type using a fully coupled surface-subsurface, density-dependent flow and solute transport modelling code. A theoretical overwash event was simulated, and the response and recovery of the freshwater lens were observed for 20 years. The freshwater lens response (degree of aquifer contamination) was largely determined by the vadose zone thickness. Lens recovery ranged from 1 to 19 years for the different island types, and was strongly affected by recharge rate. However, the recovery of potable water in the lens (and restoration of a water supply) was dominantly influenced by geological heterogeneities. The model results demonstrate the cumulative impact of the different factors affecting the freshwater lens response and recovery to the overwash event for each island type, and provide a generalised assessment of island susceptibility to overwash on a global scale, despite limited data availability for many small islands.

  13. Modeling and analysis of multiple scattering of acoustic waves in complex media: application to the trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, J; Litniewski, J; Nowicki, A

    2011-10-01

    The integral equations that describe scattering in the media with step-rise changing parameters have been numerically solved for the trabecular bone model. The model consists of several hundred discrete randomly distributed elements. The spectral distribution of scattering coefficients in subsequent orders of scattering has been presented. Calculations were carried on for the ultrasonic frequency ranging from 0.5 to 3 MHz. Evaluation of the contribution of the first, second, and higher scattering orders to total scattering of the ultrasounds in trabecular bone was done. Contrary to the approaches that use the μCT images of trabecular structure to modeling of the ultrasonic wave propagation condition, the 3D numerical model consisting of cylindrical elements mimicking the spatial matrix of trabeculae, was applied. The scattering, due to interconnections between thick trabeculae, usually neglected in trabecular bone models, has been included in calculations when the structure backscatter was evaluated. Influence of the absorption in subsequent orders of scattering is also addressed. Results show that up to 1.5 MHz, the influence of higher scattering orders on the total scattered field characteristic can be neglected while for the higher frequencies, the relatively high amplitude interference peaks in higher scattering orders clearly occur. PMID:21973345

  14. Evolution operators in conformal field theories and conformal mappings: Entanglement Hamiltonian, the sine-square deformation, and others

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xueda; Ryu, Shinsei; Ludwig, Andreas W. W.

    2016-06-01

    By making use of conformal mapping, we construct various time-evolution operators in (1+1)-dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs), which take the form ∫d x f (x )H (x ) , where H (x ) is the Hamiltonian density of the CFT and f (x ) is an envelope function. Examples of such deformed evolution operators include the entanglement Hamiltonian and the so-called sine-square deformation of the CFT. Within our construction, the spectrum and the (finite-size) scaling of the level spacing of the deformed evolution operator are known exactly. Based on our construction, we also propose a regularized version of the sine-square deformation, which, in contrast to the original sine-square deformation, has the spectrum of the CFT defined on a spatial circle of finite circumference L , and for which the level spacing scales as 1 /L2 , once the circumference of the circle and the regularization parameter are suitably adjusted.

  15. Development of crop-specific transposable element (SINE) markers for studying gene flow from oilseed rape to wild radish.

    PubMed

    Prieto, J L; Pouilly, N; Jenczewski, E; Deragon, J M; Chèvre, A M

    2005-08-01

    The screening of wild populations for evidence of gene flow from a crop to a wild related species requires the unambiguous detection of crop genes within the genome of the wild species, taking into account the intraspecific variability of each species. If the crop and wild relatives share a common ancestor, as is the case for the Brassica crops and their wild relatives (subtribe Brassiceae), the species-specific markers needed to make this unambiguous detection are difficult to identify. In the model oilseed rape (Brassica napus, AACC, 2n = 38)-wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum, RrRr, 2n = 18) system, we utilized the presence or absence of a short-interspersed element (SINE) at a given locus to develop oilseed rape-specific markers, as SINE insertions are irreversible. By means of sequence-specific amplified polymorphism (SINE-SSAP) reactions, we identified and cloned 67 bands specific to the oilseed rape genome and absent from that of wild radish. Forty-seven PCR-specific markers were developed from three combinations of primers anchored either in (1) the 5'- and 3'-genomic sequences flanking the SINE, (2) the 5'-flanking and SINE internal sequences or (3) the SINE internal and flanking 3'-sequences. Seventeen markers were monomorphic whatever the oilseed rape varieties tested, whereas 30 revealed polymorphism and behaved either as dominant (17) or co-dominant (13) markers. Polymorphic markers were mapped on 19 genomic regions assigned to ten linkage groups. The markers developed will be efficient tools to trace the occurrence and frequency of introgressions of oilseed rape genomic region within wild radish populations. PMID:15942756

  16. Complex anisotropy beneath the Peruvian flat-slab from frequency-dependent, multiple-phase shear wave splitting analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, C. M.; Long, M. D.

    2013-05-01

    Flat or shallow subduction is a relatively widespread global occurrence but the dynamics remain poorly understood. In particular, the interaction between flat-slabs and the surrounding mantle flow has yet to be studied in detail. In this study measurements of seismic anisotropy are utilized to investigate mantle flow beneath the Peruvian flat-slab segment, the largest present-day region of flat-subduction. A detailed shear wave splitting analysis is conducted at a long-running seismic station (NNA) located near Lima, Peru. Measurements of apparent splitting parameters (fast direction φ and delay time δt) for SKS, ScS and local S phases from 86 events were obtained. Well defined frequency dependence and back-azimuthal variability is observed, indicating the likely presence of complex anisotropy. Forward modeling the observations with two or three layers of anisotropy reveals a likely layer with a trench-parallel fast axis overlying a layer(s) with a more trench-normal fast geometry. In order to further constrain the anisotropic geometry, source-side splitting from events originating within the slab measured at distant stations have been analyzed. Beneath the flat-slab segment, trench-normal fast splitting directions in the sub-slab mantle were found and likely trench-parallel anisotropy within the slab itself. This sub-slab pattern contradicts observations from elsewhere in South America for 'normal' (i.e. more steeply dipping) slab conditions. It is similar, however, to inferences from other shallowly dipping subduction zones around the world. While there is an apparent link between slab dip and the surrounding mantle flow, at least beneath Peru, the precise nature of the relationship requires further investigation.

  17. Complex anisotropy beneath the Peruvian flat slab from frequency-dependent, multiple-phase shear wave splitting analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eakin, Caroline M.; Long, Maureen D.

    2013-09-01

    Flat or shallow subduction is a relatively widespread global occurrence, but the dynamics remain poorly understood. In particular, the interaction between flat slabs and the surrounding mantle flow has yet to be studied in detail. Here we present measurements of seismic anisotropy to investigate mantle flow beneath the Peruvian flat-slab segment, the largest present-day region of flat subduction. We conduct a detailed shear wave splitting analysis at a long-running seismic station (NNA) located near Lima, Peru. We present measurements of apparent splitting parameters (fast direction φ and delay time δt) for SKS, ScS, and local S phases from 80 events. We observe well-defined frequency dependence and backazimuthal variability, indicating the likely presence of complex anisotropy. Forward modeling the observations with two or three layers of anisotropy reveals a likely layer with a trench-normal fast direction underlying a layer with a more trench-oblique (to trench-subparallel) fast direction. In order to further constrain the anisotropic geometry, we analyzed the source-side splitting from events originating within the slab measured at distant stations. Beneath the flat-slab segment, we found trench-normal fast splitting directions in the subslab mantle, while within the dipping portion of the slab further to the east, likely trench-subparallel anisotropy within the slab itself. This subslab pattern contradicts observations from elsewhere in South America for "normal" (i.e., more steeply dipping) slab conditions. It is similar, however, to inferences from other shallowly dipping subduction zones around the world. While there is an apparent link between slab dip and the surrounding mantle flow, at least beneath Peru, the precise nature of the relationship remains to be clarified.

  18. Dynamics of multiple flux tubes in sawtoothing KSTAR plasmas heated by electron cyclotron waves: II. Theoretical and numerical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bierwage, Andreas; Yun, Gunsu S.; Hyuen Choe, Gyueng; Nam, Yoonbum; Lee, Woochang; Park, Hyeon K.; Bae, Youngsoon

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of multiple closed flux tubes in the core of a sawtoothing tokamak plasma are studied using nonlinear simulations. This is motivated by recent observations of long-lived hot spots in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) images of KSTAR plasmas with electron cyclotron heating (ECH) (Yun et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 145003). Using an empirical source term in a reduced set of MHD equations, it is shown that flux tubes with helicity h = 1 are easily produced and survive for the observed time intervals only if the safety factor is close to unity (|q - 1| ≪ 0.5%) and the magnetic shear is small (|s| ≪ 1). This suggests that sawteeth in KSTAR leave behind wide regions where q ≈ 1. On the basis of the relevant time scales, we discuss how this magnetic geometry and the spatial localization of the EC resonance may allow ECH to actively induce the formation of flux tubes. Using simulations with q profiles that possess a wide q = 1 region inside the sawtooth inversion radius, we examine how the flux tubes merge and annihilate, and how their dynamics depend on the strength of the drive. The phenomena seen in the simulations and experiments lead us to conclude that, during the sawtooth ramp phase, there is a dynamic competition between sources and sinks of thermal and magnetic energy, where the flux tubes may play an important role; both as carriers of and channels for energy. The development of self-consistent simulation models is motivated and directions for future experiments are given.

  19. Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port, Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Daniel; Baptista, Maria Ana; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2015-04-01

    Global energy production is still significantly dependant on the coal supply chain, justifying huge investments on building infrastructures, capable of stocking very large quantities of this natural resource. Most of these infrastructures are located at deep-sea ports and are therefore exposed to extreme coastal hazards, such as tsunami impacts. The 2011 Tohoku tsunami is reported to have inflicted severe damage to Japan's coal-fired power stations and related infrastructure. Sines, located in the Portuguese coast, hosts a major commercial port featuring an exposed coal stockpile area extending over more than 24 ha and a container terminal currently under expansion up to 100ha. It is protected against storm surges but tsunamis have not been considered in the design criteria. The dominant wind-generated wave direction is N to NW, while the main tsunamigenic faults are located S to SW of the port. This configuration potentially exposes sensitive facilities, such as the new terminal container and the coal stockpile area. According to a recent revision of the national tsunami catalogue (Baptista, 2009), Portugal has been affected by numerous major tsunamis over the last two millennia, with the most notorious event being the Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami occurred on the 1st November 1755. The aim of this work is to simulate the open ocean propagation and overland impact of a tsunami on the Sines port, similar to the historical event of 1755, based on the different tsunamigenic faults and magnitudes proposed in the current literature. Open ocean propagation was modelled with standard simulation tools like TUNAMI and GeoClaw. Near-shore and overland propagation was carried out using a recent 2DH mathematical model for solid-fluid flows, STAV-2D from CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Canelas, 2013). STAV-2D is particularly suited for tsunami propagation over complex and morphodynamic geometries, featuring a discretization scheme based on a finite-volume method using

  20. CRM1 inhibition induces tumor cell cytotoxicity and impairs osteoclastogenesis in multiple myeloma: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Y-T; Landesman, Y; Acharya, C; Calle, Y; Zhong, MY; Cea, M; Tannenbaum, D; Cagnetta, A; Reagan, M; Munshi, AA; Senapedis, W; Saint-Martin, J-R; Kashyap, T; Shacham, S; Kauffman, M; Gu, Y; Wu, L; Ghobrial, I; Zhan, F; Kung, AL; Schey, SA; Richardson, P; Munshi, NC; Anderson, KC

    2013-01-01

    The key nuclear export protein CRM1/XPO1 may represent a promising novel therapeutic target in human multiple myeloma (MM). Here we showed that chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) is highly expressed in patients with MM, plasma cell leukemia cells and increased in patient cells resistant to bortezomib treatment. CRM1 expression also correlates with increased lytic bone and shorter survival. Importantly, CRM1 knockdown inhibits MM cell viability. Novel, oral, irreversible selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINEs) targeting CRM1 (KPT-185, KPT-330) induce cytotoxicity against MM cells (ED50<200 nM), alone and cocultured with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) or osteoclasts (OC). SINEs trigger nuclear accumulation of multiple CRM1 cargo tumor suppressor proteins followed by growth arrest and apoptosis in MM cells. They further block c-myc, Mcl-1, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity. SINEs induce proteasome-dependent CRM1 protein degradation; concurrently, they upregulate CRM1, p53-targeted, apoptosis-related, anti-inflammatory and stress-related gene transcripts in MM cells. In SCID mice with diffuse human MM bone lesions, SINEs show strong anti-MM activity, inhibit MM-induced bone lysis and prolong survival. Moreover, SINEs directly impair osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via blockade of RANKL-induced NF-κB and NFATc1, with minimal impact on osteoblasts and BMSCs. These results support clinical development of SINE CRM1 antagonists to improve patient outcome in MM. PMID:23588715

  1. CRM1 inhibition induces tumor cell cytotoxicity and impairs osteoclastogenesis in multiple myeloma: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications.

    PubMed

    Tai, Y-T; Landesman, Y; Acharya, C; Calle, Y; Zhong, M Y; Cea, M; Tannenbaum, D; Cagnetta, A; Reagan, M; Munshi, A A; Senapedis, W; Saint-Martin, J R; Kashyap, T; Shacham, S; Kauffman, M; Gu, Y; Wu, L; Ghobrial, I; Zhan, F; Kung, A L; Schey, S A; Richardson, P; Munshi, N C; Anderson, K C

    2014-01-01

    The key nuclear export protein CRM1/XPO1 may represent a promising novel therapeutic target in human multiple myeloma (MM). Here we showed that chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) is highly expressed in patients with MM, plasma cell leukemia cells and increased in patient cells resistant to bortezomib treatment. CRM1 expression also correlates with increased lytic bone and shorter survival. Importantly, CRM1 knockdown inhibits MM cell viability. Novel, oral, irreversible selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINEs) targeting CRM1 (KPT-185, KPT-330) induce cytotoxicity against MM cells (ED50<200 nM), alone and cocultured with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) or osteoclasts (OC). SINEs trigger nuclear accumulation of multiple CRM1 cargo tumor suppressor proteins followed by growth arrest and apoptosis in MM cells. They further block c-myc, Mcl-1, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity. SINEs induce proteasome-dependent CRM1 protein degradation; concurrently, they upregulate CRM1, p53-targeted, apoptosis-related, anti-inflammatory and stress-related gene transcripts in MM cells. In SCID mice with diffuse human MM bone lesions, SINEs show strong anti-MM activity, inhibit MM-induced bone lysis and prolong survival. Moreover, SINEs directly impair osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via blockade of RANKL-induced NF-κB and NFATc1, with minimal impact on osteoblasts and BMSCs. These results support clinical development of SINE CRM1 antagonists to improve patient outcome in MM. PMID:23588715

  2. A parameter estimation algorithm for spatial sine testing - Theory and evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rost, R. W.; Deblauwe, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the theory and an evaluation of a spatial sine testing parameter estimation algorithm that uses directly the measured forced mode of vibration and the measured force vector. The parameter estimation algorithm uses an ARMA model and a recursive QR algorithm is applied for data reduction. In this first evaluation, the algorithm has been applied to a frequency response matrix (which is a particular set of forced mode of vibration) using a sliding frequency window. The objective of the sliding frequency window is to execute the analysis simultaneously with the data acquisition. Since the pole values and the modal density are obtained from this analysis during the acquisition, the analysis information can be used to help determine the forcing vectors during the experimental data acquisition.

  3. Numerical Illustration of pi-Kinks as Fundamental Nonlinear Modes in Sine-Lattice Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homma, S.

    1987-05-01

    We study the dynamics of the sine-lattice equation by ddot{u}_{n}-sin (u_{n+1}-u_{n})+sin (u_{n}-u_{n-1})=0, in which there exist pi-kinks as well as 2pi-kinks. Numerical simulations show that a static 2pi-kink (antikink), initially put on a system, splits into two pi-kinks (antikinks), moving opposite directions with each other. It is also observed that with an appropriate initial impulse a pair of pi-kink and anti pi-kink is created from the ground state. These facts suggest that pi-kink [pi-K] and anti pi-kink [pi-bar{K}] are fundamental nonlinear modes in the system described by the equation given above.

  4. Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe (MAC/SINE) and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrane, E. V.

    1989-01-01

    Two major international campaigns dedicated to the study of middle atmosphere dynamics in high latitudes were successfully completed in 1987. MAC/SINE (Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe) was carried out during the period 7 June to 19 July, whereas MAC/Epsilon took place in the period 12 October to 15 November. In both campaigns a large number of ground based and rocket techniques were used in a concerted effort to map the dynamical structure of the middle atmosphere over Northern Europe. Although the analysis of the observations has only just started, it is clear that a large and unique data set was obtained, which is believed will provide new insight into the dynamical processes in this interesting region of the atmosphere. A brief overview of the campaigns, their scientific aims, organization and structure is presented.

  5. Systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    PubMed

    Park, Y-W; Woo, H; Yoon, H-J; Park, H-W; Cho, J-G; Shin, S-S; Lee, S-S

    2007-01-01

    The term "systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma" (ssSSc) has been used to designate a rare progressive systemic sclerosis of visceral organs without skin manifestations. A variety of visceral organs, including the gastrointestinal tract, lung, heart, and kidney, can be involved. We describe a case of 59-year-old female patient with both Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome and ssSSc. She was diagnosed as having ssSSc with Raynaud's phenomenon, anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-topoisomerase antibody positivity, interstitial pulmonary infiltrates, suspected pulmonary hypertension, subclinical oesophageal dysmotility but no skin thickening. She had a history of paroxysmal tachycardia together with Raynaud's phenomenon and exercise-induced dyspnoea. Electrophysiological study confirmed WPW syndrome with left posterior bypass tract. This case highlights cardiac arrhythmia caused by WPW syndrome as a clinical manifestation of the heart in ssSSc. PMID:17454939

  6. An enhanced sine dwell method as applied to the Galileo core structure modal survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kenneth S.; Trubert, Marc

    1990-01-01

    An incremental modal survey performed in 1988 on the core structure of the Galileo spacecraft with its adapters with the purpose of assessing the dynamics of the new portions of the structure is considered. Emphasis is placed on the enhancements of the sine dwell method employed in the test. For each mode, response data is acquired at 32 frequencies in a narrow band enclosing the resonance, utilizing the SWIFT technique. It is pointed out that due to the simplicity of the data processing involved, the diagnostic and modal-parameter data is available within several minutes after data acquisition; however, compared with straight curve-fitting approaches, the method requires more time for data acquisition.

  7. Quantum quenches in the sine-Gordon model: A semiclassical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormos, M.; Zaránd, G.

    2016-06-01

    We compute the time evolution of correlation functions after quantum quenches in the sine-Gordon model within the semiclassical approximation, which is expected to yield accurate results for small and slow quenches producing slow quasiparticles with low density. We demonstrate this by reproducing results of a recent form-factor calculation of the relaxation of expectation values [B. Bertini, D. Schuricht, and F. H. L. Essler, J. Stat. Mech. (2014) P10035, 10.1088/1742-5468/2014/10/P10035]. Extending these results, we find that—in the universal limit of vanishingly small quasiparticle velocities—the expectation values of most vertex operators do not decay to zero. We give analytic expressions for the relaxation of dynamic correlation functions and show that they have diffusive behavior for large timelike separation.

  8. Chicken sine oculis binding protein homolog (sobp), a novel gene that may regulate feather development.

    PubMed

    Liu, W; Li, N

    2012-08-01

    Feathers are appendages of skin in avians and provide a model for analyzing skin appendage morphogenesis. The feathers of Chinese Silky (CS) and White Leghorn (WL) chickens have distinct phenotypes. Based on preliminary genetic results, we cloned the chicken gene sobp (encoding sine oculis binding protein homolog, which is expressed at a higher level in the dorsal skin and in the feather follicle in the WL compared with the CS. The reverse-transcription PCR and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that sobp was expressed in many tissues and was continuously expressed during embryonic development in both strains. Northern and Western blotting indicated that the mRNA of sobp was approximately 5 kb and the SOBP protein was approximately 96 kDa. The expressions of signaling molecules that affect feather development were similar. This study is the first report of sobp expression in chickens. Our results suggest that sobp might regulate distinct feather type. PMID:22802190

  9. Quantum quenches in the sine-Gordon model: A semiclassical approach.

    PubMed

    Kormos, M; Zaránd, G

    2016-06-01

    We compute the time evolution of correlation functions after quantum quenches in the sine-Gordon model within the semiclassical approximation, which is expected to yield accurate results for small and slow quenches producing slow quasiparticles with low density. We demonstrate this by reproducing results of a recent form-factor calculation of the relaxation of expectation values [B. Bertini, D. Schuricht, and F. H. L. Essler, J. Stat. Mech. (2014) P100351742-546810.1088/1742-5468/2014/10/P10035]. Extending these results, we find that-in the universal limit of vanishingly small quasiparticle velocities-the expectation values of most vertex operators do not decay to zero. We give analytic expressions for the relaxation of dynamic correlation functions and show that they have diffusive behavior for large timelike separation. PMID:27415202

  10. Gravitropism in Arabidopsis thaliana: violation of the sine- and resultant-law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galland, Paul

    We investigated the gravitropic bending of hypocotyls and roots of seedlings of Arabidopsis tha-liana in response to long-term centrifugal accelerations in a range of 5 x 10-3 to 4 x g. The so-cal-led resultant law of gravitropism, a corollary of the so called sine law, claims that during centri-fugation a gravitropic organ aligns itself parallel to the resultant stimulus vector. We show here that neither of the two empirical “laws” is apt to describe the complex gravitropic behaviour of seedlings of Arabidopsis. Hypocotyls obey reasonably well the resultant law while roots display a complex behaviour that is clearly at variance with it. Horizontally centrifuged seedlings sense minute accelerations acting parallel to the longitudinal axis. If the centrifugal vector points to-ward the cotyledons, then the bending of hypocotyls and roots is greatly enhanced. If the centri-fugal vector points, however, toward the root tip, then only the bending of roots is enhanced by accelerations as low as 5 x 10-3 x g (positive tonic effect). The absolute gravitropic thresholds were determined for hypocotyls and roots in a clinostat-centrifuge and found to be near 1.5 x 10-2 x g. A behavioural mutant, ehb1-2 (Knauer et al. 2011), displays a lower gravitropic threshold for roots, not however, for hypocotyls. The complex gravitropic behaviour of seedlings of Arabi-dopsis is at odds with the classical sine- as well as the resultant law and can indicates the eminent role that is played by the acceleration vector operating longitudinally to the seedling axis.

  11. Resurgence in sine-Gordon quantum mechanics: exact agreement between multi-instantons and uniform WKB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misumi, Tatsuhiro; Nitta, Muneto; Sakai, Norisuke

    2015-09-01

    We compute multi-instanton amplitudes in the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics (periodic cosine potential) by integrating out quasi-moduli parameters corresponding to separations of instantons and anti-instantons. We propose an extension of Bogomolnyi-Zinn-Justin prescription for multi-instanton configurations and an appropriate subtraction scheme. We obtain the multi-instanton contributions to the energy eigenvalue of the lowest band at the zeroth order of the coupling constant. For the configurations with only instantons (anti-instantons), we obtain unambiguous results. For those with both instantons and anti-instantons, we obtain results with imaginary parts, which depend on the path of analytic continuation. We show that the imaginary parts of the multi-instanton amplitudes precisely cancel the imaginary parts of the Borel resummation of the perturbation series, and verify that our results completely agree with those based on the uniform-WKB calculations, thus confirming the resurgence structure: divergent perturbation series combined with the nonperturbative multi-instanton contributions conspire to give unambiguous results. We also study the neutral bion contributions in the {C}{P}^{N-1} model on {{R}}^1× {S}^1 with a small circumference, taking account of the relative phase moduli between the fractional instanton and anti-instanton. We find that the sign of the interaction potential depends on the relative phase moduli, and that both the real and imaginary parts resulting from quasi-moduli integral of the neutral bion get quantitative corrections compared to the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics.

  12. A method for quantification of exportin-1 (XPO1) occupancy by Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds

    PubMed Central

    Crochiere, Marsha L.; Baloglu, Erkan; Klebanov, Boris; Donovan, Scott; del Alamo, Diego; Lee, Margaret; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Landesman, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds are a family of small-molecules that inhibit nuclear export through covalent binding to cysteine 528 (Cys528) in the cargo-binding pocket of Exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1) and promote cancer cell death. Selinexor is the lead SINE compound currently in phase I and II clinical trials for advanced solid and hematological malignancies. In an effort to understand selinexor-XPO1 interaction and to establish whether cancer cell response is a function of drug-target engagement, we developed a quantitative XPO1 occupancy assay. Biotinylated leptomycin B (b-LMB) was utilized as a tool compound to measure SINE-free XPO1. Binding to XPO1 was quantitated from SINE compound treated adherent and suspension cells in vitro, dosed ex vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and PBMCs from mice dosed orally with drug in vivo. Evaluation of a panel of selinexor sensitive and resistant cell lines revealed that resistance was not attributed to XPO1 occupancy by selinexor. Administration of a single dose of selinexor bound XPO1 for minimally 72 hours both in vitro and in vivo. While XPO1 inhibition directly correlates with selinexor pharmacokinetics, the biological outcome of this inhibition depends on modulation of pathways downstream of XPO1, which ultimately determines cancer cell responsiveness. PMID:26654943

  13. A method for quantification of exportin-1 (XPO1) occupancy by Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds.

    PubMed

    Crochiere, Marsha L; Baloglu, Erkan; Klebanov, Boris; Donovan, Scott; Del Alamo, Diego; Lee, Margaret; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Landesman, Yosef

    2016-01-12

    Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds are a family of small-molecules that inhibit nuclear export through covalent binding to cysteine 528 (Cys528) in the cargo-binding pocket of Exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1) and promote cancer cell death. Selinexor is the lead SINE compound currently in phase I and II clinical trials for advanced solid and hematological malignancies. In an effort to understand selinexor-XPO1 interaction and to establish whether cancer cell response is a function of drug-target engagement, we developed a quantitative XPO1 occupancy assay. Biotinylated leptomycin B (b-LMB) was utilized as a tool compound to measure SINE-free XPO1. Binding to XPO1 was quantitated from SINE compound treated adherent and suspension cells in vitro, dosed ex vivo human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and PBMCs from mice dosed orally with drug in vivo. Evaluation of a panel of selinexor sensitive and resistant cell lines revealed that resistance was not attributed to XPO1 occupancy by selinexor. Administration of a single dose of selinexor bound XPO1 for minimally 72 hours both in vitro and in vivo. While XPO1 inhibition directly correlates with selinexor pharmacokinetics, the biological outcome of this inhibition depends on modulation of pathways downstream of XPO1, which ultimately determines cancer cell responsiveness. PMID:26654943

  14. New exact solutions for fractional Sine-Gordon equation by using the new version of generalized F-expansion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandir, Yusuf; Duzgun, Hasan Huseyin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigate some new analytical solutions to the fractional Sine-Gordon equation by using the new version of generalized F-expansion method. The fractional derivatives are defined in the modified Riemann-Liouville context. As a result, new analytical solutions were obtained in terms Jacobi elliptic functions.

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of Oryza rufipogon strains and their relations to Oryza sativa strains by insertion polymorphism of rice SINEs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian-Hong; Cheng, Chaoyang; Tsuchimoto, Suguru; Ohtsubo, Hisako; Ohtsubo, Eiichi

    2007-06-01

    Oryza rufipogon, the progenitor of the cultivated rice species Oryza sativa, is known by its wide intraspecific variation. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analyses of O. rufipogon strains and their relationships to O. sativa strains by using 26 newly identified p-SINE1 members from O. rufipogon strains, in addition to 23 members previously identified from O. sativa strains. A total of 103 strains of O. rufipogon and O. sativa were examined for the presence and absence of each of the p-SINE1 members at respective loci by PCR with a pair of primers that hybridize to the regions flanking each p-SINE1 member. A phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of the insertion polymorphism of p-SINE1 members showed that O. rufipogon and O. sativa strains are classified into three groups. The first group consisted of O. rufipogon perennial strains mostly from China and O. sativa ssp. japonica strains, which included javanica strains forming a distinct subgroup. The second group consisted of almost all the O. rufipogon annual strains, a few O. rufipogon perennial strains and O. sativa ssp. indica strains. These groupings, in addition to other results, support the previous notion that annual O. rufipogon originated in the O. rufipogon perennial population, and that O. sativa originated polyphyletically in the O. rufipogon populations. The third group consisted of the other perennial strains and intermediate-type strains of O. rufipogon, in which the intermediate-type strains are most closely related to a hypothetical ancestor with no p-SINE1 members at the respective loci and to those belonging to the other rice species with the AA genome. This suggests that O. rufipogon perennial strains are likely to have originated from the O. rufipogon intermediate-ecotype population. PMID:17660692

  16. Asymptotic behavior of dispersive waves in a spiral structure at large times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiselev, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the sine-Gordon integrable model for spiral magnetic structures, we investigate the behavior at large times of a weakly nonlinear dispersive wave field generated by a spatially local initial excitation of the structure. The method used is based on a direct asymptotic analysis of the corresponding matrix of the Riemann problem on the torus.

  17. Three-dimensional sound signals and their relevance to wave energy quantities and sound interference products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassilakis, Pantelis

    2003-10-01

    Signals are graphic representations of vibrations/waves and, like every representation, capture only selected attributes of the phenomenon they are meant to represent. The often assumed equivalence between signals and sound waves obscures the fact that two-dimensional signals are not fit to (a) represent wave-energy quantities consistently across frequencies, (b) account for the alternating positive/negative amplitude values of modulated waves with AM-depth>100%, and (c) represent the energy content of interference. An alternative sound-signal representation is proposed, based on the complex equation of motion describing a wave. It results in spiral sine signals and twisted-spiral complex signals, similar to complex analytic signals. Spiral sine signals offer a consistent measure of sine-wave energy across frequencies, while twisted spiral complex signals account for the negative amplitudes observed in modulated signals and map the modulation parameters onto the twisting parameters. In terms of interference, 3-D signals illustrate that amplitude fluctuations and the signal envelopes that describe them are not just boundary curves but waves that trace changes in the total instantaneous energy of a signal over time, representing the oscillation between potential and kinetic energies within a wave. Examples of 3-D animations illustrating the proposed signals are presented. a)Work completed while at the Department of Ethnomusicology, University of California, Los Angeles.

  18. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (<4%), consistent with previous studies, and at high contrasts (≥34%), which has not been previously reported. However, control experiments showed no binocular advantage at high contrasts in the presence of a fixation point or for observers without accommodation. We evaluated two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms. PMID:26982370

  19. Binocular contrast discrimination needs monocular multiplicative noise.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jian; Levi, Dennis M

    2016-01-01

    The effects of signal and noise on contrast discrimination are difficult to separate because of a singularity in the signal-detection-theory model of two-alternative forced-choice contrast discrimination (Katkov, Tsodyks, & Sagi, 2006). In this article, we show that it is possible to eliminate the singularity by combining that model with a binocular combination model to fit monocular, dichoptic, and binocular contrast discrimination. We performed three experiments using identical stimuli to measure the perceived phase, perceived contrast, and contrast discrimination of a cyclopean sine wave. In the absence of a fixation point, we found a binocular advantage in contrast discrimination both at low contrasts (<4%), consistent with previous studies, and at high contrasts (≥34%), which has not been previously reported. However, control experiments showed no binocular advantage at high contrasts in the presence of a fixation point or for observers without accommodation. We evaluated two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms: a nonlinear contrast transducer and multiplicative noise (MN). A binocular combination model (the DSKL model; Ding, Klein, & Levi, 2013b) was first fitted to both the perceived-phase and the perceived-contrast data sets, then combined with either the nonlinear contrast transducer or the MN mechanism to fit the contrast-discrimination data. We found that the best model combined the DSKL model with early MN. Model simulations showed that, after going through interocular suppression, the uncorrelated noise in the two eyes became anticorrelated, resulting in less binocular noise and therefore a binocular advantage in the discrimination task. Combining a nonlinear contrast transducer or MN with a binocular combination model (DSKL) provides a powerful method for evaluating the two putative contrast-discrimination mechanisms. PMID:26982370

  20. Drag reduction characteristics of small amplitude rigid surface waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cary, A. M., Jr.; Weinstein, L. M.; Bushnell, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    The possibility of reducing drag by using rigid, wavy surfaces is investigated both analytically and experimentally. Although pressure drag for rigid sine-wave surfaces can be predicted empirically, viscous drag for even shallow waves was poorly predicted by state-of-the-art turbulent boundary layer calculation procedures. Calculations for the effects of geometric and fluid variables on total wave drag are presented under the philosophy that trends will be nearly correct even though levels are probably incorrect. Experiments by the present authors indicate that a total drag reduction with wavy walls is possible.

  1. Solitons and nonlinear wave equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd, Roger K.; Eilbeck, J. Chris; Gibbon, John D.; Morris, Hedley C.

    1982-01-01

    A discussion of the theory and applications of classical solitons is presented with a brief treatment of quantum mechanical effects which occur in particle physics and quantum field theory. The subjects addressed include: solitary waves and solitons, scattering transforms, the Schroedinger equation and the Korteweg-de Vries equation, and the inverse method for the isospectral Schroedinger equation and the general solution of the solvable nonlinear equations. Also considered are: isolation of the Korteweg-de Vries equation in some physical examples, the Zakharov-Shabat/AKNS inverse method, kinks and the sine-Gordon equation, the nonlinear Schroedinger equation and wave resonance interactions, amplitude equations in unstable systems, and numerical studies of solitons. 45 references.

  2. Simultaneous photoacoustic detection of multiple compounds based on orthogonal functions stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starecki, T.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a concept of photoacoustic measurements based on use of two different light wavelengths which intensities are modulated with sine waves of the same frequency but with phase difference of 90 degrees. Resultant photoacoustic signal is of the same frequency, but its amplitude and phase depends on the absorption at both wavelengths. Taking into consideration that sine and cosine are orthogonal functions, and having measured amplitude of the photoacoustic signal and its phase referred to the phase of the stimulating light modulation, it is possible to retrieve both components corresponding to sine and cosine modulation. As a result, the method can be applied to simultaneous detection of two compounds. An important advantage of the method is that it can be comfortably used with high Q-factor cells.

  3. Multiple mantle upwellings in the transition zone beneath the northern East-African Rift system from relative P-wave travel-time tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civiero, Chiara; Hammond, James O. S.; Goes, Saskia; Fishwick, Stewart; Ahmed, Abdulhakim; Ayele, Atalay; Doubre, Cecile; Goitom, Berhe; Keir, Derek; Kendall, J.-Michael; Leroy, Sylvie; Ogubazghi, Ghebrebrhan; Rümpker, Georg; Stuart, Graham W.

    2015-09-01

    Mantle plumes and consequent plate extension have been invoked as the likely cause of East African Rift volcanism. However, the nature of mantle upwelling is debated, with proposed configurations ranging from a single broad plume connected to the large low-shear-velocity province beneath Southern Africa, the so-called African Superplume, to multiple lower-mantle sources along the rift. We present a new P-wave travel-time tomography model below the northern East-African, Red Sea, and Gulf of Aden rifts and surrounding areas. Data are from stations that span an area from Madagascar to Saudi Arabia. The aperture of the integrated data set allows us to image structures of ˜100 km length-scale down to depths of 700-800 km beneath the study region. Our images provide evidence of two clusters of low-velocity structures consisting of features with diameter of 100-200 km that extend through the transition zone, the first beneath Afar and a second just west of the Main Ethiopian Rift, a region with off-rift volcanism. Considering seismic sensitivity to temperature, we interpret these features as upwellings with excess temperatures of 100 ± 50 K. The scale of the upwellings is smaller than expected for lower mantle plume sources. This, together with the change in pattern of the low-velocity anomalies across the base of the transition zone, suggests that ponding or flow of deep-plume material below the transition zone may be spawning these upper mantle upwellings. This article was corrected on 28 SEP 2015. See the end of the full text for details.

  4. Fully integrated InGaAs/InP single-photon detector module with gigahertz sine wave gating

    SciTech Connect

    Liang Xiaolei; Ma Jian; Jin Ge; Chen Zengbing; Zhang Jun; Pan Jianwei; Liu Jianhong; Wang Quan; Du Debing

    2012-08-15

    InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) working in the regime of GHz clock rates are crucial components for the high-speed quantum key distribution (QKD). We have developed for the first time a compact, stable, and user-friendly tabletop InGaAs/InP single-photon detector system operating at a 1.25 GHz gate rate that fully integrates functions for controlling and optimizing SPAD performance. We characterize the key parameters of the detector system and test the long-term stability of the system for continuous operation of 75 h. The detector system can substantially enhance QKD performance and our present work paves the way for practical high-speed QKD applications.

  5. SINE (selective inhibitor of nuclear export)--translational science in a new class of anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Gerecitano, John

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of protein trafficking between the nucleus and cytoplasm represents a novel control point for antineoplastic intervention. Several proteins involved with cellular growth and survival depend on precise and timely positioning within the cell to fulfill their functions, and the nuclear membrane defines one of the most important compartmental barriers. Chromosome Region Maintenance 1, or exportin-1 (CRM1/XPO1), is involved with the export of more than 200 nuclear proteins, and has intriguingly been shown to have an increased expression in several tumor cell types. Selinexor (KPT-330) is a first-in-class selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) to be developed for clinical use. Preclinical data has demonstrated antineoplastic activity of SINE compounds in many human solid and hematologic malignancies. The clinical development of Selinexor provides an excellent model for translational research. PMID:25281264

  6. Development of a novel sort of exponent-sine-shaped flexure hinges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongqi; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhu, Zhiwei

    2013-09-01

    Various types of flexure hinges have been developed to construct flexural mechanisms, however, all these hinges may have limited moving accuracies, blocking performance improvements of the flexural mechanisms. In this paper, a novel sort of exponent-sine-shaped flexure hinges (ESSFHs) with asymmetric structures is proposed to achieve much higher motion accuracy. To characterize elastic deformation behavior of the ESSFHs, a novel finite beam based matrix modeling (FBMM) method is employed to calculate the compliance matrix and the defined non-dimensional precision factors without executing laborious integration operations. Furthermore, finite element analysis is conducted and compared with the FBMM method, the maximum deviation of the obtained compliances and the precision factors by the two methods is less than 8%, well demonstrating the efficiency of the analytical method. Comparisons of the accuracies of the ESSFHs and certain state-of-the-art flexure hinges verify that the proposed ESSFHs can not only significantly improve the motion accuracy but also decrease the inherent parasitic motions of conventional flexure hinges. Based on the established analytical models, influences of the dimensional parameters on the compliances and the motion accuracy of the ESSFHs are well revealed. Finally, performances of the ESSFH and the efficiency of the analytical model are well investigated by means of experimental tests.

  7. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics and solitons of the sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schroedinger equations

    SciTech Connect

    Koller, Andrew; Olshanii, Maxim

    2011-12-15

    We present a case demonstrating the connection between supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM), reflectionless scattering, and soliton solutions of integrable partial differential equations. We show that the members of a class of reflectionless Hamiltonians, namely, Akulin's Hamiltonians, are connected via supersymmetric chains to a potential-free Hamiltonian, explaining their reflectionless nature. While the reflectionless property in question has been mentioned in the literature for over two decades, the enabling algebraic mechanism was previously unknown. Our results indicate that the multisoliton solutions of the sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schroedinger equations can be systematically generated via the supersymmetric chains connecting Akulin's Hamiltonians. Our findings also explain a well-known but little-understood effect in laser physics: when a two-level atom, initially in the ground state, is subjected to a laser pulse of the form V(t)=(n({h_bar}/2{pi})/{tau})/cosh(t/{tau}), with n being an integer and {tau} being the pulse duration, it remains in the ground state after the pulse has been applied, for any choice of the laser detuning.

  8. What the [bleep]? Enhanced absolute pitch memory for a 1000Hz sine tone.

    PubMed

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2016-09-01

    Many individuals are able to perceive when the tuning of familiar stimuli, such as popular music recordings, has been altered. This suggests a kind of ubiquitous pitch memory, though it is unclear how this ability differs across individuals with and without absolute pitch (AP) and whether it plays any role in AP. In the present study, we take advantage of a salient single frequency - the 1000Hz sine tone used to censor taboo words in broadcast media - to assess the nature of this kind of pitch memory across individuals with and without AP. We show that non-AP participants are accurate at selecting the correct version of the censor tone among incorrect versions shifted by either one or two semitones, though their accuracy was still below that of an AP population (Experiment 1). This suggests a benefit for AP listeners that could be due to the use of explicit note categories or greater amounts of musical training. However, AP possessors still outperformed all non-AP participants when incorrect versions of the censor tone were shifted within a note category, even when controlling for musical experience (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 demonstrated that AP listeners did not appear to possess a category label for the censor tone that could have helped them differentiate the censor tones used in Experiment 2. Overall, these results suggest that AP possessors may have better pitch memory, even when divorced from pitch labeling (note categories). As such, these results have implications for how AP may develop and be maintained. PMID:27289485

  9. Strong and uniform mean stability of cosine and sine operator functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ryotaro; Shaw, Sen-Yen

    2007-06-01

    It is first observed that a uniformly bounded cosine operator function C([dot operator]) and the associated sine function S([dot operator]) are totally non-stable. Then, using a zero-one law for the Abel limit of a closed linear operator, we prove some results concerning strong mean stability and uniform mean stability of C([dot operator]). Among them are: (1) C([dot operator]) is strongly (C,1)-mean stable (or (C,2)-mean stable, or Abel-mean stable) if and only if 0[set membership, variant][rho](A)[union or logical sum][sigma]c(A); (2) C([dot operator]) is uniformly (C,2)-mean stable if and only if S([dot operator]) is uniformly (C,1)-mean stable, if and only if , if and only if , if and only if C([dot operator]) is uniformly Abel-mean stable, if and only if S([dot operator]) is uniformly Abel-mean stable, if and only if 0[set membership, variant][rho](A).

  10. Swept sine testing of rotor-bearing system for damping estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, N. Harish; Sekhar, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Many types of rotating components commonly operate above the first or second critical speed and they are subjected to run-ups and shutdowns frequently. The present study focuses on developing FRF of rotor bearing systems for damping estimation from swept-sine excitation. The principle of active vibration control states that with increase in angular acceleration, the amplitude of vibration due to unbalance will reduce and the FRF envelope will shift towards the right (or higher frequency). The frequency response function (FRF) estimated by tracking filters or Co-Quad analyzers was proved to induce an error into the FRF estimate. Using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm and stationary wavelet transform (SWT) decomposition FRF distortion can be reduced. To obtain a theoretical clarity, the shifting of FRF envelope phenomenon is incorporated into conventional FRF expressions and validation is performed with the FRF estimated using the Fourier Transform approach. The half-power bandwidth method is employed to extract damping ratios from the FRF estimates. While deriving half-power points for both types of responses (acceleration and displacement), damping ratio (ζ) is estimated with different approximations like classical definition (neglecting damping ratio of order higher than 2), third order (neglecting damping ratios with order higher than 4) and exact (no assumptions on damping ratio). The use of stationary wavelet transform to denoise the noise corrupted FRF data is explained. Finally, experiments are performed on a test rotor excited with different sweep rates to estimate the damping ratio.

  11. Human interaural time difference thresholds for sine tones: The high-frequency limit

    PubMed Central

    Brughera, Andrew; Dunai, Larisa; Hartmann, William M.

    2013-01-01

    The smallest detectable interaural time difference (ITD) for sine tones was measured for four human listeners to determine the dependence on tone frequency. At low frequencies, 250–700 Hz, threshold ITDs were approximately inversely proportional to tone frequency. At mid-frequencies, 700–1000 Hz, threshold ITDs were smallest. At high frequencies, above 1000 Hz, thresholds increased faster than exponentially with increasing frequency becoming unmeasurably high just above 1400 Hz. A model for ITD detection began with a biophysically based computational model for a medial superior olive (MSO) neuron that produced robust ITD responses up to 1000 Hz, and demonstrated a dramatic reduction in ITD-dependence from 1000 to 1500 Hz. Rate-ITD functions from the MSO model became inputs to binaural display models—both place based and rate-difference based. A place-based, centroid model with a rigid internal threshold reproduced almost all features of the human data. A signal-detection version of this model reproduced the high-frequency divergence but badly underestimated low-frequency thresholds. A rate-difference model incorporating fast contralateral inhibition reproduced the major features of the human threshold data except for the divergence. A combined, hybrid model could reproduce all the threshold data. PMID:23654390

  12. Edge binding of sine-Gordon solitons in spin-orbit-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Mireles, Francisco; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2015-02-01

    In recent experiments with ultracold gases a Raman coupling scheme is used to produce both spin-orbit (SO) and Zeeman-type couplings [Y.-J. Lin et al., Nature (London) 471, 83 (2011), 10.1038/nature09887]. Their competition drives a phase transition to a magnetized state with broken Z2 symmetry. Using a hydrodynamic approach we study a confined binary condensate subject to both SO and Zeeman-type couplings. We find that in the limit of small healing length and in the phase with unbroken symmetry, the boundary magnetization profile has an analytical solution in the form of a sine-Gordon soliton. The soliton is bound to the edge of the system by the nontrivial boundary condition resulting from the combined effect of the SO coupling and the drop in the particle density. The same boundary condition is important in the magnetized phase as well, where we characterize numerically the boundary spin structure. We further discuss how the nontrivial magnetization structure affects the density profile near the boundary, yet another prediction that can be tested in current experiments of spin-orbit-coupled condensates.

  13. A Novel Protein Isoform of the Multicopy Human NAIP Gene Derives from Intragenic Alu SINE Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Romanish, Mark T.; Nakamura, Hisae; Lai, C. Benjamin; Wang, Yuzhuo; Mager, Dixie L.

    2009-01-01

    The human neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene is no longer principally considered a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family, as its domain structure and functions in innate immunity also warrant inclusion in the Nod-Like Receptor (NLR) superfamily. NAIP is located in a region of copy number variation, with one full length and four partly deleted copies in the reference human genome. We demonstrate that several of the NAIP paralogues are expressed, and that novel transcripts arise from both internal and upstream transcription start sites. Remarkably, two internal start sites initiate within Alu short interspersed element (SINE) retrotransposons, and a third novel transcription start site exists within the final intron of the GUSBP1 gene, upstream of only two NAIP copies. One Alu functions alone as a promoter in transient assays, while the other likely combines with upstream L1 sequences to form a composite promoter. The novel transcripts encode shortened open reading frames and we show that corresponding proteins are translated in a number of cell lines and primary tissues, in some cases above the level of full length NAIP. Interestingly, some NAIP isoforms lack their caspase-sequestering motifs, suggesting that they have novel functions. Moreover, given that human and mouse NAIP have previously been shown to employ endogenous retroviral long terminal repeats as promoters, exaptation of Alu repeats as additional promoters provides a fascinating illustration of regulatory innovations adopted by a single gene. PMID:19488400

  14. Long-range interactions and wave patterns in a DNA model.

    PubMed

    Tabi, C B; Mohamadou, A; Kofané, T C

    2010-07-01

    We propose a spin-like model of DNA nonlinear dynamics with long-range interactions between adjacent base pairs. We show that the model equation is a modified sine-Gordon equation. We perform the linear stability analysis of a plane wave, which predicts high-amplitude and extended oscillating waves for high values of the long-range parameter. This is confirmed numerically and biological implications of the obtained patterns are suggested. PMID:20676723

  15. Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port, Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Daniel; Baptista, Maria Ana; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2015-04-01

    Global energy production is still significantly dependant on the coal supply chain, justifying huge investments on building infrastructures, capable of stocking very large quantities of this natural resource. Most of these infrastructures are located at deep-sea ports and are therefore exposed to extreme coastal hazards, such as tsunami impacts. The 2011 Tohoku tsunami is reported to have inflicted severe damage to Japan's coal-fired power stations and related infrastructure. Sines, located in the Portuguese coast, hosts a major commercial port featuring an exposed coal stockpile area extending over more than 24 ha and a container terminal currently under expansion up to 100ha. It is protected against storm surges but tsunamis have not been considered in the design criteria. The dominant wind-generated wave direction is N to NW, while the main tsunamigenic faults are located S to SW of the port. This configuration potentially exposes sensitive facilities, such as the new terminal container and the coal stockpile area. According to a recent revision of the national tsunami catalogue (Baptista, 2009), Portugal has been affected by numerous major tsunamis over the last two millennia, with the most notorious event being the Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami occurred on the 1st November 1755. The aim of this work is to simulate the open ocean propagation and overland impact of a tsunami on the Sines port, similar to the historical event of 1755, based on the different tsunamigenic faults and magnitudes proposed in the current literature. Open ocean propagation was modelled with standard simulation tools like TUNAMI and GeoClaw. Near-shore and overland propagation was carried out using a recent 2DH mathematical model for solid-fluid flows, STAV-2D from CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Canelas, 2013). STAV-2D is particularly suited for tsunami propagation over complex and morphodynamic geometries, featuring a discretization scheme based on a finite-volume method using

  16. Infant and early childhood mortality in the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, H I; M'Bodji, F G

    1988-10-01

    Infant and early childhood mortality in Senegal's Sine-Saloum region was investigated through use o f data from a 1982-83 family health survey. The survey involved interviews with 1894 married women 15-44 years of age living in extended family residential units in rural areas. Given evidence of substantial underreporting of early deaths, at least among children born before 1980, an adjustment factor was applied to the survey data. Infant mortality was estimated to be about 113/1000 live births and mortality before age 5 years was 263/1000. Strong mortality differentials, particularly after infancy, were noted according to the 2 socioeconomic variables included in the analysis: type of house and father's occupation. The probability of dying at ages 1-4 years was 50% higher among children living in traditional homes than among those in modern homes as well as among children whose fathers' were engaged in primary sector occupations (farming, livestock, fishing). Infant mortality showed no sex differential, while mortality at ages 1-4 years was 18% higher among females. Diarrheal and respiratory diseases were the 2 leading causes of death, killing at least 15% of all children by 5 years of age. Tetanus was an important cause of death during infancy, while measles and malaria were significant causes only after the 1st birthday. For all causes of death, the effect of socioeconomic status is higher in early childhood than in infancy, presumably because of the protective effect of breastfeeding. 82% of children who died had fever during their terminal illness, 51% had diarrhea, 39% had a cough, and 14% a rash. At least some mortality in this area might be prevented through treatment of these symptoms. However, calculating the degree to which particular interventions such as oral rehydration for diarrhea would reduce mortality is a complex task, requiring knowledge of replacement mortality, effectiveness of interventions, and the numbers of mothers who would utilize them

  17. Energy in a String Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Chiu-king

    2010-01-01

    When one end of a taut horizontal elastic string is shaken repeatedly up and down, a transverse wave (assume sine waveform) will be produced and travel along it. College students know this type of wave motion well. They know when the wave passes by, each element of the string will perform an oscillating up-down motion, which in mechanics is termed simple harmonic2. They also know elements of the string at the highest and the lowest positions—the crests and the troughs—are momentarily at rest, while those at the centerline (zero displacement) have the greatest speed, as shown in Fig. 1. Irrespective of this, they are less familiar with the energy associated with the wave. They may fail to answer a question such as, "In a traveling string wave, which elements have respectively the greatest kinetic energy (KE) and the greatest potential energy (PE)?" The answer to the former is not difficult; elements at zero position have the fastest speed and hence their KE, being proportional to the square of speed, is the greatest. To the PE, what immediately comes to their mind may be the simple harmonic motion (SHM), in which the PE is the greatest and the KE is zero at the two turning points. It may thus lead them to think elements at crests or troughs have the greatest PE. Unfortunately, this association is wrong. Thinking that the crests or troughs have the greatest PE is a misconception.3

  18. Rotational waves in geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerus, Artyom; Vikulin, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The rotation model of a geoblock with intrinsic momentum was constructed by A.V. Vikulin and A.G. Ivanchin [9, 10] to describe seismicity within the Pacific Ocean margin. It is based on the idea of a rotational motion of geoblocks as the parts of the rotating body of the Earth that generates rotary deformation waves. The law of the block motion was derived in the form of the sine-Gordon equation (SG) [5, 9]; the dimensionless form of the equation is: δ2θ δ2θ δξ2 - δη2 = sinθ, (1) where θ = β/2, ξ = k0z and η = v0k0t are dimensionless coordinates, z - length of the chain of masses (blocks), t - time, β - turn angle, ν0 - representative velocity of the process, k0 - wave number. Another case analyzed was a chain of nonuniformly rotating blocks, with deviation of force moments from equilibrium positions μ, considering friction forces α along boundaries, which better matched a real-life seismic process. As a result, the authors obtained the law of motion for a block in a chain in the form of the modified SG equation [8]: δ2θ δ2θ δθ- δξ2 - δ η2 = sin θ+ α δη + μδ(ξ)sin θ (2)

  19. Integrability: mathematical methods for studying solitary waves theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2014-03-01

    real features in a variety of vital areas in science, technology and engineering. In recognition of the importance of solitary waves theory and the underlying concept of integrable equations, a variety of powerful methods have been developed to carry out the required analysis. Examples of such methods which have been advanced are the inverse scattering method, the Hirota bilinear method, the simplified Hirota method, the Bäcklund transformation method, the Darboux transformation, the Pfaffian technique, the Painlevé analysis, the generalized symmetry method, the subsidiary ordinary differential equation method, the coupled amplitude-phase formulation, the sine-cosine method, the sech-tanh method, the mapping and deformation approach and many new other methods. The inverse scattering method, viewed as a nonlinear analogue of the Fourier transform method, is a powerful approach that demonstrates the existence of soliton solutions through intensive computations. At the center of the theory of integrable equations lies the bilinear forms and Hirota's direct method, which can be used to obtain soliton solutions by using exponentials. The Bäcklund transformation method is a useful invariant transformation that transforms one solution into another of a differential equation. The Darboux transformation method is a well known tool in the theory of integrable systems. It is believed that there is a connection between the Bäcklund transformation and the Darboux transformation, but it is as yet not known. Archetypes of integrable equations are the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, the modified KdV equation, the sine-Gordon equation, the Schrödinger equation, the Vakhnenko equation, the KdV6 equation, the Burgers equation, the fifth-order Lax equation and many others. These equations yield soliton solutions, multiple soliton solutions, breather solutions, quasi-periodic solutions, kink solutions, homo-clinic solutions and other solutions as well. The couplings of linear and

  20. MLP based models to predict PM10, O3 concentrations, in Sines industrial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durao, R.; Pereira, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Sines is an important Portuguese industrial area located southwest cost of Portugal with important nearby protected natural areas. The main economical activities are related with this industrial area, the deep-water port, petrochemical and thermo-electric industry. Nevertheless, tourism is also an important economic activity especially in summer time with potential to grow. The aim of this study is to develop prediction models of pollutant concentration categories (e.g. low concentration and high concentration) in order to provide early warnings to the competent authorities who are responsible for the air quality management. The knowledge in advanced of pollutant high concentrations occurrence will allow the implementation of mitigation actions and the release of precautionary alerts to population. The regional air quality monitoring network consists in three monitoring stations where a set of pollutants' concentrations are registered on a continuous basis. From this set stands out the tropospheric ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) due to the high concentrations occurring in the region and their adverse effects on human health. Moreover, the major industrial plants of the region monitor SO2, NO2 and particles emitted flows at the principal chimneys (point sources), also on a continuous basis,. Therefore Artificial neuronal networks (ANN) were the applied methodology to predict next day pollutant concentrations; due to the ANNs structure they have the ability to capture the non-linear relationships between predictor variables. Hence the first step of this study was to apply multivariate exploratory techniques to select the best predictor variables. The classification trees methodology (CART) was revealed to be the most appropriate in this case.. Results shown that pollutants atmospheric concentrations are mainly dependent on industrial emissions and a complex combination of meteorological factors and the time of the year. In the second step, the Multi

  1. Neural field theory of nonlinear wave-wave and wave-neuron processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Roy, N.

    2015-06-01

    Systematic expansion of neural field theory equations in terms of nonlinear response functions is carried out to enable a wide variety of nonlinear wave-wave and wave-neuron processes to be treated systematically in systems involving multiple neural populations. The results are illustrated by analyzing second-harmonic generation, and they can also be applied to wave-wave coalescence, multiharmonic generation, facilitation, depression, refractoriness, and other nonlinear processes.

  2. Sinusoidal Wave Estimation Using Photogrammetry and Short Video Sequences.

    PubMed

    Rupnik, Ewelina; Jansa, Josef; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work is to model the shape of the sinusoidal shape of regular water waves generated in a laboratory flume. The waves are traveling in time and render a smooth surface, with no white caps or foam. Two methods are proposed, treating the water as a diffuse and specular surface, respectively. In either case, the water is presumed to take the shape of a traveling sine wave, reducing the task of the 3D reconstruction to resolve the wave parameters. The first conceived method performs the modeling part purely in 3D space. Having triangulated the points in a separate phase via bundle adjustment, a sine wave is fitted into the data in a least squares manner. The second method presents a more complete approach for the entire calculation workflow beginning in the image space. The water is perceived as a specular surface, and the traveling specularities are the only observations visible to the  cameras, observations that are notably single image. The depth ambiguity is removed given additional constraints encoded within the law of reflection and the modeled parametric surface. The observation and constraint equations compose a single system of equations that is solved with the method of least squares adjustment. The devised approaches are validated against the data coming from a capacitive level sensor and on physical targets floating on the surface. The outcomes agree to a high degree. PMID:26690171

  3. Sinusoidal Wave Estimation Using Photogrammetry and Short Video Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Rupnik, Ewelina; Jansa, Josef; Pfeifer, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work is to model the shape of the sinusoidal shape of regular water waves generated in a laboratory flume. The waves are traveling in time and render a smooth surface, with no white caps or foam. Two methods are proposed, treating the water as a diffuse and specular surface, respectively. In either case, the water is presumed to take the shape of a traveling sine wave, reducing the task of the 3D reconstruction to resolve the wave parameters. The first conceived method performs the modeling part purely in 3D space. Having triangulated the points in a separate phase via bundle adjustment, a sine wave is fitted into the data in a least squares manner. The second method presents a more complete approach for the entire calculation workflow beginning in the image space. The water is perceived as a specular surface, and the traveling specularities are the only observations visible to the cameras, observations that are notably single image. The depth ambiguity is removed given additional constraints encoded within the law of reflection and the modeled parametric surface. The observation and constraint equations compose a single system of equations that is solved with the method of least squares adjustment. The devised approaches are validated against the data coming from a capacitive level sensor and on physical targets floating on the surface. The outcomes agree to a high degree. PMID:26690171

  4. Dynamical properties of the sine-Gordon quantum spin magnet Cu-PM at zero and finite temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiegel, Alexander C.; Honecker, Andreas; Pruschke, Thomas; Ponomaryov, Alexey; Zvyagin, Sergei A.; Feyerherm, Ralf; Manmana, Salvatore R.

    2016-03-01

    The material copper pyrimidine dinitrate (Cu-PM) is a quasi-one-dimensional spin system described by the spin-1/2 X X Z Heisenberg antiferromagnet with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. Based on numerical results obtained by the density-matrix renormalization group, exact diagonalization, and accompanying electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments we revisit the spin dynamics of this compound in an applied magnetic field. Our calculations for momentum and frequency-resolved dynamical quantities give direct access to the intensity of the elementary excitations at both zero and finite temperature. This allows us to study the system beyond the low-energy description by the quantum sine-Gordon model. We find a deviation from the Lorentz invariant dispersion for the single-soliton resonance. Furthermore, our calculations only confirm the presence of the strongest boundary bound state previously derived from a boundary sine-Gordon field theory, while composite boundary-bulk excitations have too low intensities to be observable. Upon increasing the temperature, we find a temperature-induced crossover of the soliton and the emergence of new features, such as interbreather transitions. The latter observation is confirmed by our ESR experiments on Cu-PM over a wide range of the applied field.

  5. Binding of TFIIIC to SINE Elements Controls the Relocation of Activity-Dependent Neuronal Genes to Transcription Factories

    PubMed Central

    Crepaldi, Luca; Policarpi, Cristina; Coatti, Alessandro; Sherlock, William T.; Jongbloets, Bart C.; Down, Thomas A.; Riccio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, the timely and accurate expression of genes in response to synaptic activity relies on the interplay between epigenetic modifications of histones, recruitment of regulatory proteins to chromatin and changes to nuclear structure. To identify genes and regulatory elements responsive to synaptic activation in vivo, we performed a genome-wide ChIPseq analysis of acetylated histone H3 using somatosensory cortex of mice exposed to novel enriched environmental (NEE) conditions. We discovered that Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) located distal to promoters of activity-dependent genes became acetylated following exposure to NEE and were bound by the general transcription factor TFIIIC. Importantly, under depolarizing conditions, inducible genes relocated to transcription factories (TFs), and this event was controlled by TFIIIC. Silencing of the TFIIIC subunit Gtf3c5 in non-stimulated neurons induced uncontrolled relocation to TFs and transcription of activity-dependent genes. Remarkably, in cortical neurons, silencing of Gtf3c5 mimicked the effects of chronic depolarization, inducing a dramatic increase of both dendritic length and branching. These findings reveal a novel and essential regulatory function of both SINEs and TFIIIC in mediating gene relocation and transcription. They also suggest that TFIIIC may regulate the rearrangement of nuclear architecture, allowing the coordinated expression of activity-dependent neuronal genes. PMID:23966877

  6. Estimation of channel mismatches in time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters based on fractional delay and sine curve fitting.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lianping; Tian, Shulin; Jiang, Jun

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm to estimate the channel mismatches in time-interleaved analog-to-digital converter (TIADC) based on fractional delay (FD) and sine curve fitting. Choose one channel as the reference channel and apply FD to the output samples of reference channel to obtain the ideal samples of non-reference channels with no mismatches. Based on least square method, the sine curves are adopted to fit the ideal and the actual samples of non-reference channels, and then the mismatch parameters can be estimated by comparing the ideal sine curves and the actual ones. The principle of this algorithm is simple and easily understood. Moreover, its implementation needs no extra circuits, lowering the hardware cost. Simulation results show that the estimation accuracy of this algorithm can be controlled within 2%. Finally, the practicability of this algorithm is verified by the measurement results of channel mismatch errors of a two-channel TIADC prototype. PMID:25832264

  7. New concept for a toxicity assay based on multiple indexes from the wave shape of damped metabolic oscillation induced in living yeast cells (part II): application to analytical toxicology.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Suzuki, M

    2007-10-01

    An ideal toxicity assay should utilize multiple indexes obtained from transient changes of metabolic activities. Here, we demonstrate the possibility for a novel toxicity bioassay using the damped glycolytic oscillation phenomenon occurring in starved yeast cells. In a previous study, the phenomenon was characterized in detail. Under optimum conditions to induce the phenomenon, the wave shapes of the damped glycolytic oscillations were changed by the instantaneous addition of both glucose and chemicals and by changing the chemical concentration. We estimated the changes in the oscillation wave shapes as six indexes, i.e., the number of wave cycles, maximum amplitude, oscillation frequency, attenuation coefficient, initial peak height, and non-steady-state time. These index changes were obtained from several kinds of chemicals. The chemicals, especially those for acids (0.01-100 mM HCl and 0.01-50 mM citric acid), bases (0.001-50 mM KOH), heavy metal ions (1-1,000 mg L(-1); Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+)), respiratory inhibitors (3-500 mg L(-1) NaN(3)), dissolved oxygen removers (10-300 mg L(-1) NaSO(3)), surfactants (10-200 mg L(-1) benzalkonium chloride), and aldehyde (10-1,000 mg L(-1) acetaldehyde), showed characteristic patterns depending on each chemical and its concentration. These significant results demonstrate the possibilities of new methods for both toxicity qualification and quantification. PMID:17717646

  8. Detection of the multiple spallation parameters and the internal structure of a particle cloud during shock-wave loading of a metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A. V.; Mikhailov, A. L.; Finyushin, S. A.; Kalashnikov, D. A.; Chudakov, E. A.; Butusov, E. I.; Gnutov, I. S.

    2016-04-01

    The results of experiments on studying spallation and the ejection of particles from the surfaces of copper and lead samples are presented. A laser interferometry method is used to detect the particle cloud velocity and the multiple spallation parameters. Angular detectors are used to detect the depth profile of the particle cloud velocity dispersion and the structure of metal spallation.

  9. Analytic approach to the wave packet formalism in oscillation phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardini, A.E.; Leo, S. de

    2004-09-01

    We introduce an approximation scheme to perform an analytic study of the oscillation phenomena in a pedagogical and comprehensive way. By using Gaussian wave packets, we show that the oscillation is bounded by a time-dependent vanishing function which characterizes the slippage between the mass-eigenstate wave packets. We also demonstrate that the wave packet spreading represents a secondary effect which plays a significant role only in the nonrelativistic limit. In our analysis, we note the presence of a new time-dependent phase and calculate how this additional term modifies the oscillating character of the flavor conversion formula. Finally, by considering box and sine wave packets we study how the choice of different functions to describe the particle localization changes the oscillation probability.

  10. Coexistence of multiple charge-density waves and superconductivity in SrPt2As2 revealed by 75As-NMR /NQR and 195Pt-NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawasaki, Shinji; Tani, Yoshihiko; Mabuchi, Tomosuke; Kudo, Kazutaka; Nishikubo, Yoshihiro; Mitsuoka, Daisuke; Nohara, Minoru; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2015-02-01

    The relationship between charge-density wave (CDW) orders and superconductivity in arsenide superconductor SrPt2As2 with Tc=5.2 K which crystallizes in the CaBe2Ge2 -type structure was studied by 75As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements up to 520 K, and 75As nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) and 195Pt-NMR measurements down to 1.5 K. At high temperature, 75As-NMR spectrum and nuclear-spin-relaxation rate (1 /T1) have revealed two distinct CDW orders, one realized in the As-Pt-As layer below TCDWAs (1 )=410 K and the other in the Pt-As-Pt layer below TCDWAs (2 )=255 K . The 1 /T1 measured by 75As-NQR shows a clear Hebel-Slichter peak just below Tc and decreases exponentially well below Tc. Concomitantly, 195Pt Knight shift decreases below Tc. Our results indicate that superconductivity in SrPt2As2 is in the spin-singlet state with an s -wave gap and is robust under the two distinct CDW orders in different layers.

  11. Multifrequency and edge breathers in the discrete sine-Gordon system via subharmonic driving: Theory, computation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmero, F.; Han, J.; English, L. Q.; Alexander, T. J.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2016-01-01

    We consider a chain of torsionally-coupled, planar pendula shaken horizontally by an external sinusoidal driver. It has been known that in such a system, theoretically modeled by the discrete sine-Gordon equation, intrinsic localized modes, also known as discrete breathers, can exist. Recently, the existence of multifrequency breathers via subharmonic driving has been theoretically proposed and numerically illustrated by Xu et al. (2014) [21]. In this paper, we verify this prediction experimentally. Comparison of the experimental results to numerical simulations with realistic system parameters (including a Floquet stability analysis), and wherever possible to analytical results (e.g. for the subharmonic response of the single driven-damped pendulum), yields good agreement. Finally, we report the period-1 and multifrequency edge breathers which are localized at the open boundaries of the chain, for which we have again found good agreement between experiments and numerical computations.

  12. Aerodynamic study of a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height for Darrieus wind turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crunteanu, D. E.; Constantinescu, S. G.; Niculescu, M. L.

    2013-10-01

    The wind energy is deemed as one of the most durable energetic variants of the future because the wind resources are immense. Furthermore, one predicts that the small wind turbines will play a vital role in the urban environment. Unfortunately, the complexity and the price of pitch regulated small horizontal-axis wind turbines represent ones of the main obstacles to widespread the use in populated zones. In contrast to these wind turbines, the Darrieus wind turbines are simpler and their price is lower. Unfortunately, their blades run at high variations of angles of attack, in stall and post-stall regimes, which can induce significant vibrations, fatigue and even the wind turbine failure. For this reason, the present paper deals with a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height because it has better behavior in stall and post-stall regimes than the classic blade with constant chord length.

  13. Estrogen-dependent expression of sine oculis homeobox 1 in the mouse uterus during the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sijeong; Kwon, Hwang; Yoon, Hyemin; Park, Miseon; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Song, Haengseok; Hong, Kwonho; Choi, Youngsok

    2016-04-01

    The sine oculis homeobox 1 (SIX1) is a member of the Six gene family. SIX1 is involved in tissue development by regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. However, function of SIX1 in the uterus remains unknown. Here, we found that Six1 expression is regulated along the estrous cycle in mouse uterus. Six1 expression was significantly increased at estrus stage and decreased at the rest of stages. SIX1 is detected in the luminal and glandular epithelium of uterine endometrium at the estrus stage. Estrogen injection increased Six1 expression in the ovariectomized mouse uterus, whereas progesterone had no effect on its expression. Estrogen receptor antagonist inhibited estrogen-induced Six1 expression. Our findings imply that SIX1 may play a role as an important regulator to orchestrate the dynamic of uterine endometrium in response to estrogen level during the estrous cycle. These results will give us a better understanding of uterine biology. PMID:26940739

  14. Propagation properties of partially coherent electromagnetic hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian vortex beams through non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yongping; Wang, Fanhou; Gao, Zenghui; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-26

    Propagation properties of partially coherent electromagnetic hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian (PCESHG) vortex beams through non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence, including the spectral degree of polarization and evolution behavior of coherent vortices and average intensity are investigated in detail by using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the spatial power spectrum of the refractive index of non-Kolmogorov turbulence. It is shown that the motion, creation and annihilation of the coherent vortices of PCESHG vortex beams in non-Kolmogorov turbulence may appear with the increasing propagation distance, and the distance for the conservation of the topological charge depends on the turbulence parameters and beam parameters. In additions, the evolution behavior of coherent vortices, average intensity and spectral degree of polarization vary significantly for different values of the generalized exponent parameter and the generalized refractive-index structure parameter of non-Kolmogorov turbulence, and the beam parameters as well as the propagation distance. PMID:25835869

  15. Comparison of modal test results - Multipoint sine versus single-point random. [for Mariner Jupiter/Saturn spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leppert, E. L.; Lee, S. H.; Day, F. D.; Chapman, P. C.; Wada, B. K.

    1976-01-01

    The Mariner Jupiter/Saturn (MJS) spacecraft was subjected to the traditional multipoint sine dwell (MPSD) modal test using 111 accelerometer channels, and also to single-point random (SPR) testing using 26 accelerometer channels, and the two methods are compared according to cost, schedule, and technical criteria. A measure of comparison between the systems was devised in terms of the cumulative difference in the kinetic energy distribution of the common accelerometers. The SPR and MPSD method show acceptable agreement with respect to frequencies and mode damping. The merit of the SPR method is that the excitation points are minimized and the test article can be committed to other uses while data analysis is performed. The MPSD approach allows validity of the data to be determined as the test progresses. Costs are about the same for the two methods.

  16. Dynamics of multiple flux tubes in sawtoothing KSTAR plasmas heated by electron cyclotron waves: I. Experimental analysis of the tube structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, G. H.; Yun, G. S.; Nam, Y.; Lee, W.; Park, H. K.; Bierwage, A.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Jeong, J. H.; Bae, Y. S.; the KSTAR Team

    2015-01-01

    Multiple (two or more) flux tubes are commonly observed inside and/or near the q = 1 flux surface in KSTAR tokamak plasmas with localized electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive (ECH/CD). Detailed 2D and quasi-3D images of the flux tubes obtained by an advanced imaging diagnostic system showed that the flux tubes are m/n = 1/1 field-aligned structures co-rotating around the magnetic axis. The flux tubes typically merge together and become like the internal kink mode of the usual sawtooth, which then collapses like a usual sawtooth crash. A systematic scan of ECH/CD beam position showed a strong correlation with the number of flux tubes. In the presence of multiple flux tubes close to the q = 1 surface, the radially outward heat transport was enhanced, which explains naturally temporal changes of electron temperature. We emphasize that the multiple flux tubes are a universal feature distinct from the internal kink instability and play a critical role in the control of sawteeth using ECH/CD.

  17. Needle-array to Plate DBD Plasma Using Sine AC and Nanosecond Pulse Excitations for Purpose of Improving Indoor Air Quality

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Sen; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Zilu; Sang, Chaofeng; Jia, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, needle-array to plate electrode configuration was employed to generate an atmospheric air diffuse discharge using both nanosecond pulse and sine AC voltage as excitation voltage for the purpose of improving indoor air quality. Different types of voltage sources and electrode configurations are employed to optimize electrical field distribution and improve discharge stability. Discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma gas temperatures in both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were compared and the discharge stability during long operating time were discussed. Compared with the discharge excited by sine AC voltage, the nanosecond pulsed discharge is more homogenous and stable, besides, the plasma gas temperature of nanosecond pulse discharge is much lower. Using packed-bed structure, where γ- Al2O3 pellets are filled in the electrode gap, has obvious efficacy in the production of homogenous discharge. Furthermore, both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were used for removing formaldehyde from flowing air. It shows that nanosecond pulse discharge has a significant advantage in energy cost. And the main physiochemical processes for the generation of active species and the degradation of formaldehyde were discussed. PMID:27125663

  18. Needle-array to Plate DBD Plasma Using Sine AC and Nanosecond Pulse Excitations for Purpose of Improving Indoor Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Sen; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Zilu; Sang, Chaofeng; Jia, Li

    2016-04-01

    In this study, needle-array to plate electrode configuration was employed to generate an atmospheric air diffuse discharge using both nanosecond pulse and sine AC voltage as excitation voltage for the purpose of improving indoor air quality. Different types of voltage sources and electrode configurations are employed to optimize electrical field distribution and improve discharge stability. Discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma gas temperatures in both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were compared and the discharge stability during long operating time were discussed. Compared with the discharge excited by sine AC voltage, the nanosecond pulsed discharge is more homogenous and stable, besides, the plasma gas temperature of nanosecond pulse discharge is much lower. Using packed-bed structure, where γ- Al2O3 pellets are filled in the electrode gap, has obvious efficacy in the production of homogenous discharge. Furthermore, both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were used for removing formaldehyde from flowing air. It shows that nanosecond pulse discharge has a significant advantage in energy cost. And the main physiochemical processes for the generation of active species and the degradation of formaldehyde were discussed.

  19. Needle-array to Plate DBD Plasma Using Sine AC and Nanosecond Pulse Excitations for Purpose of Improving Indoor Air Quality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Wenchun; Wang, Sen; Yuan, Hao; Zhao, Zilu; Sang, Chaofeng; Jia, Li

    2016-01-01

    In this study, needle-array to plate electrode configuration was employed to generate an atmospheric air diffuse discharge using both nanosecond pulse and sine AC voltage as excitation voltage for the purpose of improving indoor air quality. Different types of voltage sources and electrode configurations are employed to optimize electrical field distribution and improve discharge stability. Discharge images, electrical characteristics, optical emission spectra, and plasma gas temperatures in both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were compared and the discharge stability during long operating time were discussed. Compared with the discharge excited by sine AC voltage, the nanosecond pulsed discharge is more homogenous and stable, besides, the plasma gas temperature of nanosecond pulse discharge is much lower. Using packed-bed structure, where γ- Al2O3 pellets are filled in the electrode gap, has obvious efficacy in the production of homogenous discharge. Furthermore, both sine AC discharge and nanosecond pulse discharge were used for removing formaldehyde from flowing air. It shows that nanosecond pulse discharge has a significant advantage in energy cost. And the main physiochemical processes for the generation of active species and the degradation of formaldehyde were discussed. PMID:27125663

  20. A Mammalian Conserved Element Derived from SINE Displays Enhancer Properties Recapitulating Satb2 Expression in Early-Born Callosal Projection Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Akiko; Sasaki, Takeshi; Yan, Kuo; Tarabykin, Victor; Vigier, Lisa; Sumiyama, Kenta; Hirakawa, Mika; Nishihara, Hidenori; Pierani, Alessandra; Okada, Norihiro

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) are highly repeated sequences that account for a significant proportion of many eukaryotic genomes and are usually considered “junk DNA”. However, we previously discovered that many AmnSINE1 loci are evolutionarily conserved across mammalian genomes, suggesting that they may have acquired significant functions involved in controlling mammalian-specific traits. Notably, we identified the AS021 SINE locus, located 390 kbp upstream of Satb2. Using transgenic mice, we showed that this SINE displays specific enhancer activity in the developing cerebral cortex. The transcription factor Satb2 is expressed by cortical neurons extending axons through the corpus callosum and is a determinant of callosal versus subcortical projection. Mouse mutants reveal a crucial function for Sabt2 in corpus callosum formation. In this study, we compared the enhancer activity of the AS021 locus with Satb2 expression during telencephalic development in the mouse. First, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is specifically activated in early-born Satb2+ neurons. Second, we demonstrated that the activity of the AS021 enhancer recapitulates the expression of Satb2 at later embryonic and postnatal stages in deep-layer but not superficial-layer neurons, suggesting the possibility that the expression of Satb2 in these two subpopulations of cortical neurons is under genetically distinct transcriptional control. Third, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is activated in neurons projecting through the corpus callosum, as described for Satb2+ neurons. Notably, AS021 drives specific expression in axons crossing through the ventral (TAG1−/NPY+) portion of the corpus callosum, confirming that it is active in a subpopulation of callosal neurons. These data suggest that exaptation of the AS021 SINE locus might be involved in enhancement of Satb2 expression, leading to the establishment of interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum, a eutherian

  1. Flexural Torsional Guided Wave Pipe Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z.; Zhang, L.; Rose, J. L.

    2006-03-01

    Based on the flexural torsional guided wave theory and its focusing technique, this paper demonstrates the defect detection capability of flexural torsional guided waves on multiple defects with different shapes and axial, circumferential locations in pipe.

  2. Spike morphology in blast-wave-driven instability experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Fryxell, B.; Budde, A.; Hansen, J. F.; Miles, A. R.; Plewa, T.; Hearn, N.; Knauer, J.

    2010-05-15

    The laboratory experiments described in the present paper observe the blast-wave-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability with three-dimensional (3D) initial conditions. About 5 kJ of energy from the Omega laser creates conditions similar to those of the He-H interface during the explosion phase of a supernova. The experimental target is a 150 {mu}m thick plastic disk followed by a low-density foam. The plastic piece has an embedded, 3D perturbation. The basic structure of the pattern is two orthogonal sine waves where each sine wave has an amplitude of 2.5 {mu}m and a wavelength of 71 {mu}m. In some experiments, an additional wavelength is added to explore the interaction of modes. In experiments with 3D initial conditions the spike morphology differs from what has been observed in other Rayleigh-Taylor experiments and simulations. Under certain conditions, experimental radiographs show some mass extending from the interface to the shock front. Current simulations show neither the spike morphology nor the spike penetration observed in the experiments. The amount of mass reaching the shock front is analyzed and potential causes for the spike morphology and the spikes reaching the shock are discussed. One such hypothesis is that these phenomena may be caused by magnetic pressure, generated by an azimuthal magnetic field produced by the plasma dynamics.

  3. Feasibility of optical coherence elastography measurements of shear wave propagation in homogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Razani, Marjan; Mariampillai, Adrian; Sun, Cuiru; Luk, Timothy W. H.; Yang, Victor X. D.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a 20 MHz piezoelectric transducer (circular element 8.5 mm diameter) transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs, synchronized with the OCT swept source wavelength sweep. The acoustic radiation force (ARF) was applied to two gelatin phantoms (differing in gelatin concentration by weight, 8% vs. 14%). Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, demonstrate microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms of different stiffness. We present preliminary results of OCT derived shear wave propagation velocity and modulus, and compare these results to rheometer measurements. The results demonstrate the feasibility of shear wave OCE (SW-OCE) for high-resolution microscopic homogeneous tissue mechanical property characterization. PMID:22567590

  4. Feasibility of optical coherence elastography measurements of shear wave propagation in homogeneous tissue equivalent phantoms.

    PubMed

    Razani, Marjan; Mariampillai, Adrian; Sun, Cuiru; Luk, Timothy W H; Yang, Victor X D; Kolios, Michael C

    2012-05-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using optical coherence elastography (OCE) based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a 20 MHz piezoelectric transducer (circular element 8.5 mm diameter) transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs, synchronized with the OCT swept source wavelength sweep. The acoustic radiation force (ARF) was applied to two gelatin phantoms (differing in gelatin concentration by weight, 8% vs. 14%). Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the ARF, demonstrate microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these phantoms of different stiffness. We present preliminary results of OCT derived shear wave propagation velocity and modulus, and compare these results to rheometer measurements. The results demonstrate the feasibility of shear wave OCE (SW-OCE) for high-resolution microscopic homogeneous tissue mechanical property characterization. PMID:22567590

  5. Surface wave dispersion from small vertical scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Wijk, K.; Levshin, A. L.

    2004-10-01

    Heterogeneity in the subsurface creates conflicting types of dispersion of seismic waves. A laboratory and numerical experiment show that multiple scattering of elastic waves from isolated heterogeneities near the surface not only attenuates, but also delays coherent events. Because scattering off these impedance contrasts is frequency dependent, multiple scattering is a source of dispersion. If ignored, multiple scattering dispersion could be erroneously attributed to a model with horizontal homogeneous layers of different wave speeds.

  6. First upper limits from LIGO on gravitational wave bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ageev, A.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Ballmer, S.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barker-Patton, C.; Barnes, M.; Barr, B.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Beausoleil, R.; Belczynski, K.; Bennett, R.; Berukoff, S. J.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bland-Weaver, B.; Bochner, B.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brown, D. A.; Brozek, S.; Bullington, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burgess, R.; Busby, D.; Butler, W. E.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cantley, C. A.; Cardenas, L.; Carter, K.; Casey, M. M.; Castiglione, J.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chen, Y.; Chickarmane, V.; Chin, D.; Christensen, N.; Churches, D.; Colacino, C.; Coldwell, R.; Coles, M.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D.; Creighton, T. D.; Crooks, D. R.; Csatorday, P.; Cusack, B. J.; Cutler, C.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, R.; Daw, E.; Debra, D.; Delker, T.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Ding, H.; Drever, R. W.; Dupuis, R. J.; Ebeling, C.; Edlund, J.; Ehrens, P.; Elliffe, E. J.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fallnich, C.; Farnham, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Fine, M.; Finn, L. S.; Flanagan, E.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V.; Fyffe, M.; Ganezer, K. S.; Giaime, J. A.; Gillespie, A.; Goda, K.; González, G.; Goßler, S.; Grandclément, P.; Grant, A.; Gray, C.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grimmett, D.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, E.; Gustafson, R.; Hamilton, W. O.; Hammond, M.; Hanson, J.; Hardham, C.; Harry, G.; Hartunian, A.; Heefner, J.; Hefetz, Y.; Heinzel, G.; Heng, I. S.; Hennessy, M.; Hepler, N.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hindman, N.; Hoang, P.; Hough, J.; Hrynevych, M.; Hua, W.; Ingley, R.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Jennrich, O.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnston, W.; Jones, L.; Jungwirth, D.; Kalogera, V.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kells, W.; Kern, J.; Khan, A.; Killbourn, S.; Killow, C. J.; Kim, C.; King, C.; King, P.; Klimenko, S.; Kloevekorn, P.; Koranda, S.; Kötter, K.; Kovalik, J.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Landry, M.; Langdale, J.; Lantz, B.; Lawrence, R.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, M.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Liu, S.; Logan, J.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Lyons, T. T.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majid, W.; Malec, M.; Mann, F.; Marin, A.; Márka, S.; Maros, E.; Mason, J.; Mason, K.; Matherny, O.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McHugh, M.; McNamara, P.; Mendell, G.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Miyoki, S.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Myers, J.; Nagano, S.; Nash, T.; Naundorf, H.; Nayak, R.; Newton, G.; Nocera, F.; Nutzman, P.; Olson, T.; O'Reilly, B.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottewill, A.; Ouimette, D.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Papa, M. A.; Parameswariah, C.; Parameswariah, V.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pitkin, M.; Plissi, M.; Pratt, M.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rao, S. R.; Redding, D.; Regehr, M. W.; Regimbau, T.; Reilly, K. T.; Reithmaier, K.; Reitze, D. H.; Richman, S.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rizzi, A.; Robertson, D. I.; Robertson, N. A.; Robison, L.; Roddy, S.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Rong, H.; Rose, D.; Rotthoff, E.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Salzman, I.; Sanders, G. H.; Sannibale, V.; Sathyaprakash, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Sazonov, A.; Schilling, R.; Schlaufman, K.; Schmidt, V.; Schofield, R.; Schrempel, M.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seel, S.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shapiro, C. A.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shu, Q. Z.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sievers, L.; Sigg, D.; Sintes, A. M.; Skeldon, K.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M.; Smith, M. R.; Sneddon, P.; Spero, R.; Stapfer, G.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T.; Sumner, M. C.; Sutton, P. J.; Sylvestre, J.; Takamori, A.; Tanner, D. B.; Tariq, H.; Taylor, I.; Taylor, R.; Thorne, K. S.; Tibbits, M.; Tilav, S.; Tinto, M.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traeger, S.; Traylor, G.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Vallisneri, M.; van Putten, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Wallace, L.; Walther, H.; Ward, H.; Ware, B.; Watts, K.; Webber, D.; Weidner, A.; Weiland, U.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Welling, H.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, P. R.; Williams, R.; Willke, B.; Wilson, A.; Winjum, B. J.; Winkler, W.

    2004-05-01

    We report on a search for gravitational wave bursts using data from the first science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors. Our search focuses on bursts with durations ranging from 4 to 100 ms, and with significant power in the LIGO sensitivity band of 150 to 3000 Hz. We bound the rate for such detected bursts at less than 1.6 events per day at a 90% confidence level. This result is interpreted in terms of the detection efficiency for ad hoc waveforms (Gaussians and sine Gaussians) as a function of their root-sum-square strain hrss; typical sensitivities lie in the range hrss˜10-19 10-17 strain/√(Hz), depending on the waveform. We discuss improvements in the search method that will be applied to future science data from LIGO and other gravitational wave detectors.

  7. Probability densities for the sums of iterates of the sine-circle map in the vicinity of the quasiperiodic edge of chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsar, Ozgur; Tirnakli, Ugur

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the probability density of rescaled sum of iterates of sine-circle map within quasiperiodic route to chaos. When the dynamical system is strongly mixing (i.e., ergodic), standard central limit theorem (CLT) is expected to be valid, but at the edge of chaos where iterates have strong correlations, the standard CLT is not necessarily valid anymore. We discuss here the main characteristics of the probability densities for the sums of iterates of deterministic dynamical systems which exhibit quasiperiodic route to chaos. At the golden-mean onset of chaos for the sine-circle map, we numerically verify that the probability density appears to converge to a q -Gaussian with q<1 as the golden mean value is approached.

  8. Novel Dominant-Negative Mutation Within the Six Domain of the Conserved Eye Specification Gene sine oculis Inhibits Eye Development in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Roederer, Kristin; Cozy, Loralyn; Anderson, Jason; Kumar, Justin P.

    2009-01-01

    The development of the compound eye of Drosophila is controlled, in part, by the concerted actions of several nuclear proteins that form an intricate regulatory system. One member of this network is sine oculis (so), the founding member of the Six gene family. Mutations within so affect the entire visual system, including the compound eye. The vertebrate homologs Six3 and Six6 also appear to play crucial roles in retinal formation. Mutations in Six3 inhibit retinal formation in chickens and fish, whereas those in Six6 are the underlying cause of bilateral anophthalmia in humans. Together, these phenotypes suggest a conserved role for the Six genes in eye development. In this report, we describe the effects of a dominant-negative mutation of sine oculis on the development of the compound eye of Drosophila. The mutation resides within the Six domain and may have implications for eye development and disease. PMID:15704100

  9. Supersymmetric quantum mechanics and solitons of the sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schrödinger equations.

    PubMed

    Koller, Andrew; Olshanii, Maxim

    2011-12-01

    We present a case demonstrating the connection between supersymmetric quantum mechanics (SUSYQM), reflectionless scattering, and soliton solutions of integrable partial differential equations. We show that the members of a class of reflectionless Hamiltonians, namely, Akulin's Hamiltonians, are connected via supersymmetric chains to a potential-free Hamiltonian, explaining their reflectionless nature. While the reflectionless property in question has been mentioned in the literature for over two decades, the enabling algebraic mechanism was previously unknown. Our results indicate that the multisoliton solutions of the sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schrödinger equations can be systematically generated via the supersymmetric chains connecting Akulin's Hamiltonians. Our findings also explain a well-known but little-understood effect in laser physics: when a two-level atom, initially in the ground state, is subjected to a laser pulse of the form V(t) = (nh/τ)/cosh(t/τ), with n being an integer and τ being the pulse duration, it remains in the ground state after the pulse has been applied, for any choice of the laser detuning. PMID:22304205

  10. Fully scalable ROM-less architecture for precomputing the polarity of microrotations in CORDIC-based sine/cosine generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisuthan, Bimal; Srikanthan, Thambipillai

    2000-10-01

    The significant advances in VLSI technology provided the impetus for porting algorithms into architectures. The CORDIC algorithm reigned supreme in this regard due to its canny ability to decimate trigonometric and hyperbolic functions with simple shift and ad operations. Despite further refinements of the algorithm with the introduction of redundant arithmetic and higher radix CORDIC techniques, in terms of circuit latency and performance, the iterative nature remains to be the major bottleneck for further optimization. In this paper, it has been shown that, for Sine/Cosine computations, the iterative process can be avoided during the determination of the polarity of micro- rotations. An efficient pre-computation method for the determination of the pre-computation of the polarity of micro-rotations has been realized by incorporating the Split Decomposition Algorithm. A ROM-less architecture for the pre-computation of the polarity of micro-rotations has been devised after developing a new algorithm that exploits certain properties of the signed digits. The architecture was implemented using VHDL and the functionality simulated netlist has been synthesized with 0.35 (mu) technology library. Finally, a detailed comparison has been made with the help of area-time measures to demonstrate the advantages of precomputing the polarity of micro-rotations.

  11. Effects of Lévy noise on the dynamics of sine-Gordon solitons in long Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarcello, Claudio; Valenti, Davide; Carollo, Angelo; Spagnolo, Bernardo

    2016-05-01

    We numerically investigate the generation of solitons in current-biased long Josephson junctions in relation to the superconducting lifetime and the voltage drop across the device. The dynamics of the junction is modelled with a sine-Gordon equation driven by an oscillating field and subject to an external non-Gaussian noise. A wide range of $\\alpha$-stable L\\'evy distributions is considered as noise source, with varying stability index $\\alpha$ and asymmetry parameter $\\beta$. In junctions longer than a critical length, the mean switching time (MST) from superconductive to the resistive state assumes a values independent of the device length. Here, we demonstrate that such a value is directly related to the mean density of solitons which move into or from the washboard potential minimum corresponding to the initial superconductive state. Moreover, we observe: (i) a connection between the total mean soliton density and the mean potential difference across the junction; (ii) an inverse behavior of the mean voltage in comparison with the MST, with varying the junction length; (iii) evidences of non-monotonic behaviors, such as stochastic resonant activation and noise enhanced stability, of MST versus the driving frequency and noise intensity for different values of $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$; (iv) finally, these non-monotonic behaviors are found to be related to the mean density of solitons formed along the junction.

  12. Linear stability of spherically symmetric and wormhole solutions supported by the sine-Gordon ghost scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Folomeev, Vladimir; Singleton, Douglas; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2010-08-15

    In this paper we investigate wormhole and spherically symmetric solutions in four-dimensional gravity plus a matter source consisting of a ghost scalar field with a sine-Gordon potential. For the wormhole solutions we also include the possibility of electric and/or magnetic charges. For both types of solutions we perform a linear stability analysis and show that the wormhole solutions are stable and that when one turns on the electric and/or magnetic field the solution remains stable. The linear stability analysis of the spherically symmetric solutions indicates that they can be stable or unstable depending on one of the parameters of the system. This result for the spherically symmetric solution is nontrivial since a previous investigation of four-dimensional gravity plus a ghost scalar field with a {lambda}{phi}{sup 4} interaction found only unstable spherically symmetric solutions. Both the wormhole and spherically symmetric solutions presented here asymptotically go to anti-de Sitter space-time.

  13. Quantitation of Varicella-Zoster Virus DNA in Patients with Ramsay Hunt Syndrome and Zoster Sine Herpete

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, Yasushi; Ohtani, Fumio; Sawa, Hirofumi; Fukuda, Satoshi; Inuyama, Yukio

    2001-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) reactivation causes facial nerve palsy in Ramsay Hunt syndrome (RHS) and zoster sine herpete (ZSH) with and without zoster rash, respectively. In the present study, we analyzed the VZV DNA copy number in saliva samples from 25 patients with RHS and 31 patients with ZSH using a TaqMan PCR assay to determine differences in the viral load between the two diseases. VZV copy number in saliva peaked near the day of the appearance of zoster in patients with RHS. Consequently, VZV DNA was less frequently detected in patients with RHS who exhibited facial palsy several days after the appearance of zoster. These findings suggest that the VZV load in saliva samples reflects the kinetics of viral reactivation in patients with RHS. In addition, VZV DNA was equally detected in saliva from patients with RHS and ZSH, and there was no significant difference in the highest viral copy number between patients with RHS and those with ZSH. The VZV load does not appear to reflect a major difference between RHS and ZSH. PMID:11474003

  14. A swine SINE (PRE-1 sequence) distribution in swine-related animal species and its phylogenetic analysis in swine genome.

    PubMed

    Yasue, H; Wada, Y

    1996-04-01

    The distribution of PRE-1 sequence (a swine SINE) among the animal species related to Sus scrofa, i.e. Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Tayassu tajacu, was examined by dot-blot analysis using PRE-1 sequences as a probe. This revealed that Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Tayassu tajacu contained PRE-1 sequences, amounts of which in their genomes are almost the same as that in the swine genome, indicating that these species separated after PRE-1 sequences proliferated to diversify in the genome. In order to estimate the time when the PRE-1 started to diversify in the swine genome, PRE-1 sequences were extracted from GenBank DNA database by homology analysis using the PRE-1 consensus sequence as a probe. The 22 PRE-1 sequences obtained were aligned and their phylogenetic relation was calculated by the neighbour-joining method. The result of the calculation combined with the mutation rate of the pseudogenes (r = 4.6 x 10(-9)) indicated that the PRE-1 sequence diversified at least 43.2 million years ago. Taken together, the period of time since the separation of the three species, Sus scrofa, Phacochoerus aethiopicus and Tayassu tajacu, is currently estimated to be less than 43.2 million years. PMID:8856898

  15. The Interaction among Microbiota, Immunity, and Genetic and Dietary Factors Is the Condicio Sine Qua Non Celiac Disease Can Develop

    PubMed Central

    Pagliari, D.; Urgesi, R.; Frosali, S.; Riccioni, M. E.; Newton, E. E.; Landolfi, R.; Pandolfi, F.; Cianci, R.

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated enteropathy, triggered by dietary wheat gluten and similar proteins of barley and rye in genetically susceptible individuals. This is a complex disorder involving both environmental and immune-genetic factors. The major genetic risk factor for CD is determined by HLA-DQ genes. Dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immune systems can conceivably cause impairment of mucosal barrier function and development of localized or systemic inflammatory and autoimmune processes. Exposure to gluten is the main environmental trigger responsible for the signs and symptoms of the disease, but exposure to gluten does not fully explain the manifestation of CD. Thus, both genetic determination and environmental exposure to gluten are necessary for the full manifestation of CD; neither of them is sufficient alone. Epidemiological and clinical data suggest that other environmental factors, including infections, alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition, and early feeding practices, might also play a role in disease development. Thus, this interaction is the condicio sine qua non celiac disease can develop. The breakdown of the interaction among microbiota, innate immunity, and genetic and dietary factors leads to disruption of homeostasis and inflammation; and tissue damage occurs. Focusing attention on this interaction and its breakdown may allow a better understanding of the CD pathogenesis and lead to novel translational avenues for preventing and treating this widespread disease. PMID:26090475

  16. Time-frequency characterization of lamb waves for material evaluation and damage inspection of plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank Pai, P.; Deng, Haoguang; Sundaresan, Mannur J.

    2015-10-01

    Guided wave-based technique is one major approach for damage inspection of structures. To detect a small damage, an elastic wave's wavelength needs to be in the order of the damage size and hence the frequency needs to be high. Unfortunately, high-frequency wave dynamics always involves complicated wave reflection, refraction and diffraction, and it is difficult to separate them in order to perform detailed examination and system identification. This paper investigates dynamic characteristics of Lamb waves in plates in order to be used for material evaluation and damage inspection of thin-walled structures. A one-dimensional finite-element modeling and analysis technique is developed for computing dispersion curves and all symmetric and antisymmetric modes of Lamb waves in isotropic and multi-layer plates. Moreover, the conjugate-pair decomposition (CPD) method is introduced for time-frequency analysis of propagating Lamb waves. Results show that, under a k-cycle sine-burst excitation at a plate's edge, the time-varying frequency of a surface point's response can reveal the Lamb wave propagating inside the plate being a symmetric or an antisymmetric mode. The frequency of the measured wave packet increases from the wave front to the trailing edge if it is a symmetric mode, and the frequency decreases from the wave front to the trailing edge if it is an antisymmetric mode. Moreover, interaction of two different wave packets results in a peak in the time-frequency curve. These characteristics can be used for accurate separation of wave packets and identification of different wave speeds to enable fast and accurate material evaluation and damage inspection. Transient finite-element analysis of Lamb waves in finite plates with crack/delamination show that k-cycle sine-burst probing waves are good agents for guided wave-based damage inspection of structures. Although crack and delamination introduce different waves into and complicate the probing wave packet, time

  17. A RAB3GAP1 SINE Insertion in Alaskan Huskies with Polyneuropathy, Ocular Abnormalities, and Neuronal Vacuolation (POANV) Resembling Human Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1)

    PubMed Central

    Wiedmer, Michaela; Oevermann, Anna; Borer-Germann, Stephanie E.; Gorgas, Daniela; Shelton, G. Diane; Drögemüller, Michaela; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Henke, Diana; Leeb, Tosso

    2015-01-01

    We observed a hereditary phenotype in Alaskan Huskies that was characterized by polyneuropathy with ocular abnormalities and neuronal vacuolation (POANV). The affected dogs developed a progressive severe ataxia, which led to euthanasia between 8 and 16 months of age. The pedigrees were consistent with a monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance. We localized the causative genetic defect to a 4 Mb interval on chromosome 19 by a combined linkage and homozygosity mapping approach. Whole genome sequencing of one affected dog, an obligate carrier, and an unrelated control revealed a 218-bp SINE insertion into exon 7 of the RAB3GAP1 gene. The SINE insertion was perfectly associated with the disease phenotype in a cohort of 43 Alaskan Huskies, and it was absent from 541 control dogs of diverse other breeds. The SINE insertion induced aberrant splicing and led to a transcript with a greatly altered exon 7. RAB3GAP1 loss-of-function variants in humans cause Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1), which is characterized by additional developmental defects compared to canine POANV, whereas Rab3gap1-deficient mice have a much milder phenotype than either humans or dogs. Thus, the RAB3GAP1 mutant Alaskan Huskies provide an interesting intermediate phenotype that may help to better understand the function of RAB3GAP1 in development. Furthermore, the identification of the presumed causative genetic variant will enable genetic testing to avoid the nonintentional breeding of affected dogs. PMID:26596647

  18. Strength Analysis of Sandwitch Panels with CFRP Quasi Isotropic Layup or Isotropic Material Facesheets in Dynamic Environment Using MSC Nastran and SineMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, A.; Carbonell Garcia, A.

    2012-07-01

    The frequency response solution (SOL 111) of MSC Nastran versions prior to 2012 only allows the output of element stress components and element forces and does not allow the calculation of composite failure indices or Von-Mises stress for metallic parts. The analysis of a sandwich panel comprises several strength verifications, such as the check of facesheet and core failure as well as the check of facesheet and core local stability (shear crimping, wrinkling). In static analysis (SOL 101), MSC Nastran provides failure index output which can be used to generate fringe plots of Margins of Safety (MoS) in any post- processing tool. The other verifications (core strength and local stability) must be performed using different tools. For the dynamic analysis of sandwich panels, an analysis technique based on element forces and on failure envelope at laminate level has been developed and implemented in a Fortran program (SineMOS) which allows evaluating facesheet and core failure as well as local stability, taking into account modulus and phase information of the element forces. SineMOS is able to produce files containing information used to generate plots of minimum Margin of Safety in Patran for each failure mode. This paper shows the various steps of the analysis process, starting from the building of the failure envelope for the CFRP facesheet laminate. Finally some validation example is shown, comparing SineMOS results with results based on the application of static displacements to the nodes of the model.

  19. SINE RNA Induces Severe Developmental Defects in Arabidopsis thaliana and Interacts with HYL1 (DRB1), a Key Member of the DCL1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Elmayan, Taline; Vaucheret, Hervé; Boko, Drasko; Jantsch, Michael F.; Deragon, Jean-Marc

    2008-01-01

    The proper temporal and spatial expression of genes during plant development is governed, in part, by the regulatory activities of various types of small RNAs produced by the different RNAi pathways. Here we report that transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively expressing the rapeseed SB1 SINE retroposon exhibit developmental defects resembling those observed in some RNAi mutants. We show that SB1 RNA interacts with HYL1 (DRB1), a double-stranded RNA-binding protein (dsRBP) that associates with the Dicer homologue DCL1 to produce microRNAs. RNase V1 protection assays mapped the binding site of HYL1 to a SB1 region that mimics the hairpin structure of microRNA precursors. We also show that HYL1, upon binding to RNA substrates, induces conformational changes that force single-stranded RNA regions to adopt a structured helix-like conformation. Xenopus laevis ADAR1, but not Arabidopsis DRB4, binds SB1 RNA in the same region as HYL1, suggesting that SINE RNAs bind only a subset of dsRBPs. Consistently, DCL4-DRB4-dependent miRNA accumulation was unchanged in SB1 transgenic Arabidopsis, whereas DCL1-HYL1-dependent miRNA and DCL1-HYL1-DCL4-DRB4-dependent tasiRNA accumulation was decreased. We propose that SINE RNA can modulate the activity of the RNAi pathways in plants and possibly in other eukaryotes. PMID:18551175

  20. Investigation into untripped rollover of light vehicles in the modified fishhook and the sine manoeuvres, part II: effects of vehicle inertia property, suspension and tyre characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Nong; Du, Hai-Ping

    2011-06-01

    In this paper, as a continuation of part I of [N. Zhang, G.M. Dong, and H.P. Du, Investigation into untripped rollover of light vehicles in the modified fishhook and the sine manoeuvres, part I: vehicle modelling, roll and yaw instability, Veh. Syst. Dyn. 46 (2008), pp. 271-293], detailed parametric studies are conducted and compared between the fishhook and sine manoeuvres using the presented nine-degree-of-freedom vehicle model, in order to understand the rollover resistance capability of a light passenger vehicle with various parameters. First, effects of driving conditions are studied in the two manoeuvres. Secondly, effects of suspension characteristics are studied, in which the influence of suspension spring stiffness and shock absorber damping, anti-roll bar is discussed. Thirdly, effects of vehicle inertia properties, such as moment of inertia of vehicle sprung mass, sprung mass weight and location of centre of gravity, are investigated. Finally, effects of tyre characteristics are also investigated by altering the scaling factor λ Fz0. An in-depth understanding has been gained on the significant effects of key system parameters on the kinetic performance of vehicles under the fishhook and the sine manoeuvres. Parametric studies show that the combination of step input (fishhook) and frequency input gives a clear indication of the vehicle dynamic stability during cornering.

  1. Wave turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarenko, Sergey

    2015-07-01

    Wave turbulence is the statistical mechanics of random waves with a broadband spectrum interacting via non-linearity. To understand its difference from non-random well-tuned coherent waves, one could compare the sound of thunder to a piece of classical music. Wave turbulence is surprisingly common and important in a great variety of physical settings, starting with the most familiar ocean waves to waves at quantum scales or to much longer waves in astrophysics. We will provide a basic overview of the wave turbulence ideas, approaches and main results emphasising the physics of the phenomena and using qualitative descriptions avoiding, whenever possible, involved mathematical derivations. In particular, dimensional analysis will be used for obtaining the key scaling solutions in wave turbulence - Kolmogorov-Zakharov (KZ) spectra.

  2. Estuarine resources use by juvenile Flagfin mojarra ( Eucinostomus melanopterus) in an inverse tropical estuary (Sine Saloum, Senegal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gning, Ndombour; Le Loc'h, François; Thiaw, Omar T.; Aliaume, Catherine; Vidy, Guy

    2010-03-01

    The Flagfin mojarra, Eucinostomus melanopterus, is a marine spawner whose young individuals are common in the Sine Saloum inverse estuary (Senegal). The species offers the opportunity to study both the use of the estuarine nursery resources and the impact of the particular environment of the inverse estuary on these resources. This will lead to a better understanding of the functioning of the nursery. We investigated the resources used by juvenile Flagfin mojarra by coupling stomach contents and stable isotopes methods. Young Flagfin mojarra feed on a wide range of invertebrates. Diet changed from copepods in the smallest size class (10-40 mm), to a range of invertebrates including amphipods, insect larvae, polychaetes and mollusc in the medium size class (up to 60 mm) and mainly polychaetes for individuals >60 mm in size. In mangrove habitats with moderate salinity, the diet was dominated by polychaetes and decapod larvae (crabs) whereas in habitats with higher salinity, diet was dominated by amphipods. In very hypersaline areas with scarce mangroves, diet comprised benthic copepods, chironomid larvae and ostracods. This agreed with a clear change in δ13C measured in fish sampled at downstream or upstream sites. Comparison with signatures of primary producers suggested that the local food web exploited by young Flagfin mojarra is mainly based on phytoplankton in the downstream mangrove area, and mainly on benthic microalgae in the upstream hypersaline area. As in many studies considering the food webs in mangrove, mangrove was not identified as a major contributor to the food web exploited by E. melanopterus. This needs further investigation particularly because the exportation of estuarine materials to the sea is limited in an inverse estuary.

  3. Identification of novel direct targets of Drosophila Sine oculis and Eyes absent by integration of genome-wide data sets.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meng; Aibar, Sara; Ge, Zhongqi; Chen, Rui; Aerts, Stein; Mardon, Graeme

    2016-07-01

    Drosophila eye development is a complex process that involves many transcription factors (TFs) and interactions with their cofactors and targets. The TF Sine oculis (So) and its cofactor Eyes absent (Eya) are highly conserved and are both necessary and sufficient for eye development. Despite their many important roles during development, the direct targets of So are still largely unknown. Therefore the So-dependent regulatory network governing eye determination and differentiation is poorly understood. In this study, we intersected gene expression profiles of so or eya mutant eye tissue prepared from three different developmental stages and identified 1731 differentially expressed genes across the Drosophila genome. A combination of co-expression analyses and motif discovery identified a set of twelve putative direct So targets, including three known and nine novel targets. We also used our previous So ChIP-seq data to assess motif predictions for So and identified a canonical So binding motif. Finally, we performed in vivo enhancer reporter assays to test predicted enhancers from six candidate target genes and find that at least one enhancer from each gene is expressed in the developing eye disc and that their expression patterns overlap with that of So. We furthermore confirmed that the expression level of predicted direct So targets, for which antibodies are available, are reduced in so or eya post-mitotic knockout eye discs. In summary, we expand the set of putative So targets and show for the first time that the combined use of expression profiling of so with its cofactor eya is an effective method to identify novel So targets. Moreover, since So is highly conserved throughout the metazoa, our results provide the basis for future functional studies in a wide variety of organisms. PMID:27178668

  4. Combination of ac electroosmosis and dielectrophoresis for particle manipulation on electrically-induced microscale wave structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Cheng-Che; Glawdel, Tomasz; Ren, Carolyn L.; Chang, Hsien-Chang

    2015-03-01

    This work presents a simple method to fabricate controllable microscale wave structures on the top of regular interdigitated electrode (IDE) arrays using electrically-assisted lithography techniques. Smooth wave structures are extremely difficult, if not impossible, to fabricate using traditional multilayer photolithography technology. The fabricated wave structures were carefully measured using an optical profiler and the measured wave profiles were used in the numerical simulation of electrical field and for evaluating the parameters influencing the fabricated wave structure. It is demonstrated that the combined smooth wave structure and IDE array offer unique capability for particle manipulation including particle concentration, aggregation and separation. Particle motion manipulated via the combined wave structure and IDE array is governed by ac electroosmosis (ACEO), dielectrophoresis (DEP) or a combination of both depending on the applied frequency. At lower frequencies (~30 kHz), ACEO dominates and particles are driven to move along the valleys of the wave structures; while at higher frequencies (~200 kHz), DEP force dominates which concentrates particles at the peaks of the wave structures. In addition, varying the ac waveform from sine-wave to square-wave allows for dynamic control of particle motion. Size-dependent particle separation over the wave structure is also demonstrated for a mixture of 0.5 µm and 2 µm particles that are separated into two populations by the joint effects of drag and DEP forces when being pumped to flow via ACEO.

  5. Heat Waves

    MedlinePlus

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  6. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOEpatents

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  7. Gravity Waves

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  Gravity Waves Ripple over Marine Stratocumulus Clouds ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), a fingerprint-like gravity wave feature occurs over a deck of marine stratocumulus clouds. Similar ... that occur when a pebble is thrown into a still pond, such "gravity waves" sometimes appear when the relatively stable and stratified air ...

  8. Surface Acoustic Wave Vibration Sensors for Measuring Aircraft Flutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Moore, Jason P.; Juarez, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Under NASA's Advanced Air Vehicles Program the Advanced Air Transport Technology (AATT) Project is investigating flutter effects on aeroelastic wings. To support that work a new method for measuring vibrations due to flutter has been developed. The method employs low power Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors. To demonstrate the ability of the SAW sensor to detect flutter vibrations the sensors were attached to a Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite panel which was vibrated at six frequencies from 1Hz to 50Hz. The SAW data was compared to accelerometer data and was found to resemble sine waves and match each other closely. The SAW module design and results from the tests are presented here.

  9. First upper limits from LIGO on gravitational wave bursts

    SciTech Connect

    B. Abbott et al.

    2004-03-09

    We report on a search for gravitational wave bursts using data from the first science run of the LIGO detectors. Our search focuses on bursts with durations ranging from 4 ms to 100 ms, and with significant power in the LIGO sensitivity band of 150 to 3000 Hz. We bound the rate for such detected bursts at less than 1.6 events per day at 90% confidence level. This result is interpreted in terms of the detection efficiency for ad hoc waveforms (Gaussians and sine-Gaussians) as a function of their root-sum-square strain h{sub rss}; typical sensitivities lie in the range h{sub rss} {approx} 10{sup -19} - 10{sup -17} strain/{radical}Hz, depending on waveform. We discuss improvements in the search method that will be applied to future science data from LIGO and other gravitational wave detectors.

  10. Integrability: mathematical methods for studying solitary waves theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid

    2014-03-01

    real features in a variety of vital areas in science, technology and engineering. In recognition of the importance of solitary waves theory and the underlying concept of integrable equations, a variety of powerful methods have been developed to carry out the required analysis. Examples of such methods which have been advanced are the inverse scattering method, the Hirota bilinear method, the simplified Hirota method, the Bäcklund transformation method, the Darboux transformation, the Pfaffian technique, the Painlevé analysis, the generalized symmetry method, the subsidiary ordinary differential equation method, the coupled amplitude-phase formulation, the sine-cosine method, the sech-tanh method, the mapping and deformation approach and many new other methods. The inverse scattering method, viewed as a nonlinear analogue of the Fourier transform method, is a powerful approach that demonstrates the existence of soliton solutions through intensive computations. At the center of the theory of integrable equations lies the bilinear forms and Hirota's direct method, which can be used to obtain soliton solutions by using exponentials. The Bäcklund transformation method is a useful invariant transformation that transforms one solution into another of a differential equation. The Darboux transformation method is a well known tool in the theory of integrable systems. It is believed that there is a connection between the Bäcklund transformation and the Darboux transformation, but it is as yet not known. Archetypes of integrable equations are the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, the modified KdV equation, the sine-Gordon equation, the Schrödinger equation, the Vakhnenko equation, the KdV6 equation, the Burgers equation, the fifth-order Lax equation and many others. These equations yield soliton solutions, multiple soliton solutions, breather solutions, quasi-periodic solutions, kink solutions, homo-clinic solutions and other solutions as well. The couplings of linear and

  11. Application of multiple input random and polyreference analysis techniques to the Galileo spacecraft modal test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.; Hunt, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental modal analysis of the Galileo spacecraft was required to verify a finite element model used in loads analysis. Multiple input random and polyreference analysis techniques were applied in this program to demonstrate their effectiveness in determining the modal characteristics of a complex space structure. The methods were successful in determining an accurate set of modal data from two days of data acquisition. A complete set of results was available within 24 hours of test completion. Final analysis shows the modes from the multiple input random tests to be more complete and orthogonal than those obtained from classical sine dwell methods.

  12. Spike-like solitary waves in incompressible boundary layers driven by a travelling wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Peihua; Zhang, Jiazhong; Wang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear waves produced in an incompressible boundary layer driven by a travelling wave are investigated, with damping considered as well. As one of the typical nonlinear waves, the spike-like wave is governed by the driven-damped Benjamin-Ono equation. The wave field enters a completely irregular state beyond a critical time, increasing the amplitude of the driving wave continuously. On the other hand, the number of spikes of solitary waves increases through multiplication of the wave pattern. The wave energy grows in a sequence of sharp steps, and hysteresis loops are found in the system. The wave energy jumps to different levels with multiplication of the wave, which is described by winding number bifurcation of phase trajectories. Also, the phenomenon of multiplication and hysteresis steps is found when varying the speed of driving wave as well. Moreover, the nature of the change of wave pattern and its energy is the stability loss of the wave caused by saddle-node bifurcation.

  13. Wave phenomena in sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner-Böttcher, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Context: The dynamic atmosphere of the Sun exhibits a wealth of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, most spectacular and powerful waves evolve in the sunspot atmosphere. Allover the sunspot area, continuously propagating waves generate strong oscillations in spectral intensity and velocity. The most prominent and fascinating phenomena are the 'umbral flashes' and 'running penumbral waves' as seen in the sunspot chromosphere. Their nature and relation have been under intense discussion in the last decades. Aims: Waves are suggested to propagate upward along the magnetic field lines of sunspots. An observational study is performed to prove or disprove the field-guided nature and coupling of the prevalent umbral and penumbral waves. Comprehensive spectroscopic observations at high resolution shall provide new insights into the wave characteristics and distribution across the sunspot atmosphere. Methods: Two prime sunspot observations were carried out with the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory in New Mexico and with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Teide Observatory on Tenerife. The two-dimensional spectroscopic observations were performed with the interferometric spectrometers IBIS and TESOS. Multiple spectral lines are scanned co-temporally to sample the dynamics at the photospheric and chromospheric layers. The time series (1 – 2.5 h) taken at high spatial and temporal resolution are analyzed according to their evolution in spectral intensities and Doppler velocities. A wavelet analysis was used to obtain the wave power and dominating wave periods. A reconstruction of the magnetic field inclination based on sunspot oscillations was developed. Results and conclusions: Sunspot oscillations occur continuously in spectral intensity and velocity. The obtained wave characteristics of umbral flashes and running penumbral waves strongly support the scenario of slow-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagation along

  14. Collective behavior of stabilized reaction-diffusion waves.

    PubMed

    Steele, Aaron J; Tinsley, Mark; Showalter, Kenneth

    2008-06-01

    Stabilized wave segments in the photosensitive Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction are directionally controlled with intensity gradients in the applied illumination. The constant-velocity waves behave like self-propelled particles, and multiple waves interact via an applied interaction potential. Alignment arises from the intrinsic properties of the interacting waves, leading to processional and rotational behavior. PMID:18601510

  15. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the ... attacks healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  16. Multiple Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... is called multiple pregnancy . If more than one egg is released during the menstrual cycle and each ... fraternal twins (or more). When a single fertilized egg splits, it results in multiple identical embryos. This ...

  17. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... Multiple myeloma most commonly causes: Low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  18. Estimation of wave vector characteristics. [from planetary magnetospheric plasma wave instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawhan, S. D.

    1982-01-01

    A brief summary is presented of the techniques used to receive, transmit, and display frequency-time information. The mathematical basis for extracting wave vector information from the three electric and three magnetic wave fields is stated for the simple plane wave, single-source case. For the more realistic multiple-wave, multiple source case, basic correlation schemes and model-fitting techniques are described. Examples of results are given from various satellites for which two or more wave components could be treated. Finally, expectations for the upcoming OPEN mission are presented.

  19. Coherent Waves in Seismic Researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanov, A.; Seleznev, V. S.

    2013-05-01

    Development of digital processing algorithms of seismic wave fields for the purpose of useful event picking to study environment and other objects is the basis for the establishment of new seismic techniques. In the submitted paper a fundamental property of seismic wave field coherence is used. The authors extended conception of coherence types of observed wave fields and devised a technique of coherent component selection from observed wave field. Time coherence and space coherence are widely known. In this paper conception "parameter coherence" has been added. The parameter by which wave field is coherent can be the most manifold. The reason is that the wave field is a multivariate process described by a set of parameters. Coherence in the first place means independence of linear connection in wave field of parameter. In seismic wave fields, recorded in confined space, in building-blocks and stratified mediums time coherent standing waves are formed. In prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping head waves are coherent by parallel correlation course or, in other words, by one measurement on generalized plane of observation system. For detail prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping on basis of coherence property by one measurement of area algorithms have been developed, permitting seismic records to be converted to head wave time sections which have neither reflected nor other types of waves. Conversion in time section is executed on any specified observation base. Energy storage of head waves relative to noise on basis of multiplicity of observation system is realized within area of head wave recording. Conversion on base below the area of wave tracking is performed with lack of signal/noise ratio relative to maximum of this ratio, fit to observation system. Construction of head wave time section and dynamic plots a basis of automatic processing have been developed, similar to CDP procedure in method of

  20. Finger Multiplication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  1. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Multiple Sclerosis Information Page Condensed from Multiple Sclerosis: Hope Through ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Multiple Sclerosis? An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, ...

  2. Design and Operation of 6-bit, 0.25-mVpp Quasi-sine Voltage Waveform Generator based on SFQ Pulse-frequency Modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Shimada, Hiroshi; Maezawa, Masaaki; Mizugaki, Yoshinao

    A digital-to-analogue converter (DAC) consisting of single-flux-quantum (SFQ) circuitry is known to generate accurate analogue voltages defined by the Josephson relationship. We have been developing SFQ-DACs of the pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) type. Toward voltage standard applications of SFQ-DACs, we have set the target values for the voltage amplitude and resolution at 20 mVpp and 10 bits, respectively. So far, we have reported a 5-bit, 10-μVpp quasi-sine voltage waveform generator comprising a PFM-type SFQ-DAC integrated with an on-chip digital code generator. Its small peak-to-peak voltage amplitude was due to the lack of an on-chip voltage multiplier (VM). In this paper, we present a 6-bit, 0.25-mVpp quasi-sine voltage waveform generator integrated with a 10-fold VM. The resolution is improved by introducing efficient logic sequences into the SFQ-DAC.

  3. Third Wave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Chris

    2000-01-01

    Third Wave is a Christian charity based in Derby (England) that offers training in vocational skills, preindustrial crafts, horticultural and agricultural skills, environmental education, and woodland survival skills to disadvantaged people at city and farm locations. Third Wave employs a holistic approach to personal development in a community…

  4. Microfluidic waves.

    PubMed

    Utz, Marcel; Begley, Matthew R; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

    2011-11-21

    The propagation of pressure waves in fluidic channels with elastic covers is discussed in view of applications to flow control in microfluidic devices. A theory is presented which describes pressure waves in the fluid that are coupled to bending waves in the elastic cover. At low frequencies, the lateral bending of the cover dominates over longitudinal bending, leading to propagating, non-dispersive longitudinal pressure waves in the channel. The theory addresses effects due to both the finite viscosity and compressibility of the fluid. The coupled waves propagate without dispersion, as long as the wave length is larger than the channel width. It is shown that in channels of typical microfluidic dimensions, wave velocities in the range of a few 10 m s(-1) result if the channels are covered by films of a compliant material such as PDMS. The application of this principle to design microfluidic band pass filters based on standing waves is discussed. Characteristic frequencies in the range of a few kHz are readily achieved with quality factors above 30. PMID:21966667

  5. Multiplicity Counting

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William H.

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  6. Conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to channel waves in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for the mode conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to stratigraphically guided channel waves was discovered in data from a crosswell acoustic experiment conducted between wells penetrating thin coal strata located near Rifle, Colorado. Traveltime moveout observations show that borehole Stoneley waves, excited by a transmitter positioned at substantial distances in one well above and below a coal stratum at 2025 m depth, underwent partial conversion to a channel wave propagating away from the well through the coal. In an adjacent well the channel wave was detected at receiver locations within the coal, and borehole Stoneley waves, arising from a second partial conversion of channel waves, were detected at locations above and below the coal. The observed channel wave is inferred to be the third-higher Rayleigh mode based on comparison of the measured group velocity with theoretically derived dispersion curves. The identification of the mode conversion between borehole and stratigraphically guided waves is significant because coal penetrated by multiple wells may be detected without placing an acoustic transmitter or receiver within the waveguide. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Standing spin waves and solitons in a quasi-one-dimensional spiral structure

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, V. V. Raskovalov, A. A.

    2013-02-15

    On the basis of the sine-Gordon model, we calculated the absorption spectrum for the external pump power in a quasi-one-dimensional spiral structure of easy-plane magnets without the inversion center in the presence of a static magnetic field perpendicular to the magnetic spiral axis. It is shown that these data can be used for determining the material constants of the magnet and diagnostics of spin waves and solitons in its spiral structure. The possibility of using magnetooptical methods to observe local translations of the spiral structure during formation and motion of solitons in it is discussed.

  8. Time Periodic Solutions to the One-Dimensional Nonlinear Wave Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shuguan; Li, Yong

    2011-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the time periodic solutions to the one-dimensional nonlinear wave equation with either variable or constant coefficients. By adjusting the basis of L 2 function space, we can circumvent the difficulties caused by η u = 0 and obtain the existence of a weak periodic solution, which was posed as an open problem by Baubu and Pavel in (Trans Am Math Soc 349:2035-2048, 1997). Finally, an application to the forced Sine-Gordon equation is presented to illustrate the utility of this technique.

  9. AnisWave 2D

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-08-01

    AnisWave2D is a 2D finite-difference code for a simulating seismic wave propagation in fully anisotropic materials. The code is implemented to run in parallel over multiple processors and is fully portable. A mesh refinement algorithm has been utilized to allow the grid-spacing to be tailored to the velocity model, avoiding the over-sampling of high-velocity materials that usually occurs in fixed-grid schemes.

  10. Atmospheric Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    With its Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), half of the Ralph instrument, New Horizons captured several pictures of mesoscale gravity waves in Jupiter's equatorial atmosphere. Buoyancy waves of this type are seen frequently on Earth - for example, they can be caused when air flows over a mountain and a regular cloud pattern forms downstream. In Jupiter's case there are no mountains, but if conditions in the atmosphere are just right, it is possible to form long trains of these small waves. The source of the wave excitation seems to lie deep in Jupiter's atmosphere, below the visible cloud layers at depths corresponding to pressures 10 times that at Earth's surface. The New Horizons measurements showed that the waves move about 100 meters per second faster than surrounding clouds; this is about 25% of the speed of sound on Earth and is much greater than current models of these waves predict. Scientists can 'read' the speed and patterns these waves to learn more about activity and stability in the atmospheric layers below.

  11. Quasitravelling waves

    SciTech Connect

    Beklaryan, Leva A

    2011-02-11

    A finite difference analogue of the wave equation with potential perturbation is investigated, which simulates the behaviour of an infinite rod under the action of an external longitudinal force field. For a homogeneous rod, describing solutions of travelling wave type is equivalent to describing the full space of classical solutions to an induced one-parameter family of functional differential equations of point type, with the characteristic of the travelling wave as parameter. For an inhomogeneous rod, the space of solutions of travelling wave type is trivial, and their 'proper' extension is defined as solutions of 'quasitravelling' wave type. By contrast to the case of a homogeneous rod, describing the solutions of quasitravelling wave type is equivalent to describing the quotient of the full space of impulsive solutions to an induced one-parameter family of point-type functional differential equations by an equivalence relation connected with the definition of solutions of quasitravelling wave type. Stability of stationary solutions is analyzed. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  12. Moreton Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. J.

    1999-01-01

    "Moreton waves," named for the observer who popularized them, are a solar phenomenon also known in scientific literature as "Moreton-Ramsey wave," "flare waves," "flare-associated waves," "MHD blast waves," "chromospheric shock fronts" and various other combinations of terms which connote violently propagating impulsive disturbances. It is unclear whether all of the observations to which these terms have been applied pertain to a single physical phenomenon: there has perhaps been some overlap between the observations and the assumed physical properties of the observed occurrence. Moreton waves are ideally observed in the wings of H alpha, and appear as semi-circular fronts propagating at speeds ranging from several hundred to over a thousand km/sec. They form an arc, or "brow shape" which can span up to 180 degrees. Extrapolating the speed and locations of the arc indicates that the phenomenon's origin intersects well with the impulsive phase of the associated H alpha flare (if the flare exhibits an impulsive phase). However, the arc may not form or may not be observable until it is tens of megameters from the flaring region, and subsequently can propagate to distances exceeding 100 megameters. The high speeds and distances of propagation, plus the associated radio and energetic particle observations, provided strong evidence of a coronal, rather than a chromospheric origin. The H alpha manifestation of the wave is assumed to be the "ground track" or "skirt" of a three-dimensional disturbance.

  13. Ship waves and lee waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharman, R. D.; Wurtele, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Dynamics analogous to those of surface ship waves on water of finite depth are noted for the three-dimensional trapped lee wave modes produced by an isolated obstacle in a stratified fluid. This vertical trapping of wave energy is modeled by uniform upstream flow and stratification, bounded above by a rigid lid, and by a semiinfinite fluid of uniform stability whose wind velocity increases exponentially with height, representing the atmosphere. While formal asymptotic solutions are produced, limited quantitative usefulness is obtained through them because of the limitations of the approximations and the infinity of modes in the solution. Time-dependent numerical models are accordingly developed for both surface ship waves and internal and atmospheric ship waves, yielding a variety of results.

  14. Analytic wave model of Stark deceleration dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbels, Koos; Meijer, Gerard; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2006-06-15

    Stark deceleration relies on time-dependent inhomogeneous electric fields which repetitively exert a decelerating force on polar molecules. Fourier analysis reveals that such fields, generated by an array of field stages, consist of a superposition of partial waves with well-defined phase velocities. Molecules whose velocities come close to the phase velocity of a given wave get a ride from that wave. For a square-wave temporal dependence of the Stark field, the phase velocities of the waves are found to be odd-fraction multiples of a fundamental phase velocity {lambda}/{tau}, with {lambda} and {tau} the spatial and temporal periods of the field. Here we study explicitly the dynamics due to any of the waves as well as due to their mutual perturbations. We first solve the equations of motion for the case of single-wave interactions and exploit their isomorphism with those for the biased pendulum. Next we analyze the perturbations of the single-wave dynamics by other waves and find that these have no net effect on the phase stability of the acceleration or deceleration process. Finally, we find that a packet of molecules can also ride a wave which results from an interference of adjacent waves. In this case, small phase stability areas form around phase velocities that are even-fraction multiples of the fundamental velocity. A detailed comparison with classical trajectory simulations and with experiment demonstrates that the analytic 'wave model' encompasses all the longitudinal physics encountered in a Stark decelerator.

  15. Resonant generation of internal waves on the soft sea bed by a surface water wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Feng

    1995-08-01

    The nonlinear response of an initially flat sea bed to a monochromatic surface progressive wave was studied using the multiple scale perturbation method. Two opposite-traveling subliminal internal ``mud'' waves are selectively excited and form a resonant triad with the surface wave. The amplitudes of the internal waves grow on a time scale much longer than the period of the surface wave. It was found that the sea bed response is critically dependent on the density ratio of water and soil, depth of water, and depth and viscosity of the saturated soil. The result of instability analysis is in qualitative agreement with the result of a wave flume experiment.

  16. Multiple aperture imager component development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, David E.; Henshaw, Philip D.

    1991-03-01

    This final report presents results of an experimental and analytical effort to develop multiple aperture imagers built from unphased, direct-detection subapertures. An object was imaged using wave length shift instead of object motion to create multiple speckle pattern realizations. An analysis of subaperture geometry effects of autocorrelation estimate was performed. Experimental measurements of detector modulator transfer function were made. Finally, a new algorithm to reconstruct imagery with improved signal-to-noise ratio was developed.

  17. Plane wave facing technique for ultrasonic elastography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Mingu; Shim, Hwan; Cheon, Byeong Geun; Jung, Yunsub

    2014-03-01

    A shear wave generation technique which exploits multiple plane waves facing with each other toward their center line is introduced. On this line, ultrasonic waves interfere constructively resulting two planar shear waves that propagate to the opposite directions parallel to the transducer instead of oblique wave from multiple point focused pushes due to the temporal inconsistency of the pushes. One advantage of the plane wave facing technique over an unfocused push beam is that it generates much larger shear waves because it actively takes advantage of constructive interference between waves and, moreover, a larger number of elements can be used without diffusing the beam pattern. Field II simulated intensity maps of the push beams using the proposed method are presented with those of multiple point focusing and unfocusing techniques for comparison. In the simulation, two plane waves are considered for the simplicity, and the number of elements, apodization, and steering angles for facing are varied as parameters. Also, elasticity images of CIRS 049A phantom are presented using the proposed technique with comb-shaped push beams, i.e. multiple push beams are used simultaneously at different locations. L7-4 transducer is used for the simulation and elasticity imaging.

  18. Recent Advancements in the Development of an Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave Lidar System for the ASCENDS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, S.; Lin, B.; Nehrir, A. R.; Browell, E. V.; Harrison, F. W.; Dobler, J. T.; Kooi, S. A.; Obland, M. D.; Meadows, B. L.; Campbell, J. F.; CHEN, S.; Collins, J. E.; Refaat, T.; Yang, M. M.; Choi, Y.; Dijoseph, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    precision of CO2 column measurements. Modeling the measurement performance of LAS systems is being conducted at NASA Langley to project the performance of the airborne LAS system to the future ASCENDS system. The performance model has been validated using MFLL measurements during ground tests and aircraft flights. Laboratory experiments have been conducted to evaluate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) associated with digital lock-in detection in IM-CW LAS systems. These measurements and analyses are applicable to multiple simultaneous IM-CW signals with different swept frequencies and for evaluating advanced techniques for SNR improvement in future space-based CO2 LAS systems. Advanced modulation techniques are also being investigated for space applications, which include orthogonal linear and non-linear swept frequencies, time-shifted pseudo noise (PN) codes, sine wave modulated PN, and sine wave pulsed PN, to improve the accuracy of CO2 column retrievals. This presentation will give a comprehensive discussion of these recent developments and their association with the ASCENDS mission.

  19. Wave Propagation in the Vicinities of Rock Fractures Under Obliquely Incident Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yang; Li, Jianchun; He, Lei; laloui, Lyesse; Zhao, Jian

    2016-05-01

    Though obliquely incident plane wave across rock fractures has been extensively investigated by theoretical analysis, the quantitative identification of each wave emerged from fractures has not been achieved either in numerical simulation or laboratory experiment. On the other hand, there are no theoretical results describing the stress/velocity state of the rocks beside a fracture. The superposition of the multiple waves propagating in the media results in the variation of the stress/velocity state. To understand the superposition of the wave components in the adjacent rocks of a facture, based on the geometrical analysis of the wave paths, the lag times among passing waves at an arbitrary point are determined. The normalised critical distances from the fracture to the measuring locations where the corresponding harmonic waves depart from other waves for a certain duration are then derived. Discussion on the correction for an arbitrary incident wave is then carried out considering the changes of the duration of the reflected and transmitted waves. Under the guidance of the analysis, wave superposition is performed for theoretical results and separated waves are obtained from numerical model. They are demonstrated to be consistent with each other. The measurement and the data processing provide an approach for wave separation in a relatively unbounded media. In addition, based on the mechanical analysis on the wave front, an indirect wave separation method is proposed which provides a possibility for laboratory experiments of wave propagation with an arbitrary incident angle.

  20. High-speed transcendental elementary-function architecture in support of the Vector Wave Equation (VWE). Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, M.J.

    1987-12-01

    In support of a Very High Speed Integrated Circuit (VHSIC) class processor for computation of a set of equations known as the Vector Wave Equations (VWE), certain elementary functions including sine, cosine, and division are required. These elementary functions are the bottlenecks in the VWE processor. Floating-point multipliers and adders comprise the remainder of the pipeline stages in the VWE processor. To speed up the computation of the elementary functions, pipelining within the functions is considered. To compute sine, cosine, and division, the CORDIC algorithm is presented. Another method for computation of sine and cosine is the expansion of the Chebyshev polynomials. The equations for the CORDIC processor are recursive and the resulting hardware is very simple, consisting of three adders, three shifters, and lookup table for some of the coefficients. The shifters replace the multiplies, because in binary, i right shifts is the same as multiplying by 2 to the 8th power. The expansion of the Chebyshev polynomials can be used to compute other trigonometric functions as well as the exponential and logarithmic functions. The expansion of the Chebyshev polynomials can be used as a mathematic coprocessor. From these equations, a pipelined architecture can be realized that results in very fast computation times. The transformation of these equations as a function of x instead of the Chebyshev polynomials produces an architecture that requires less hardware, resulting in even faster computation times.

  1. Lattice Boltzmann model for generalized nonlinear wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Huilin; Ma, Changfeng

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a lattice Boltzmann model is developed to solve a class of the nonlinear wave equations. Through selecting equilibrium distribution function and an amending function properly, the governing evolution equation can be recovered correctly according to our proposed scheme, in which the Chapman-Enskog expansion is employed. We validate the algorithm on some problems where analytic solutions are available, including the second-order telegraph equation, the nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation, and the damped, driven sine-Gordon equation. It is found that the numerical results agree well with the analytic solutions, which indicates that the present algorithm is very effective and can be used to solve more general nonlinear problems.

  2. Two-wave model of the muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Molski, Marcin

    2009-05-01

    The Matsuno model of the muscle contraction is considered in the framework of the two-wave Corben's theory of composite objects built up of both time- and space-like components. It has been proved that during muscle contraction the locally coherent aggregates distributed along the actin filament interact by means of space-like fields, which are solutions of the relativistic Feinberg equation. The existence of such interactions and lack of decoherence are conditions sine qua non for appearance of the quantum entanglement between actin monomers in an ATP-activated filament. A possible role of a quantum potential in the muscle contraction is discussed and the mass of the carrier of space-like interactions is estimated m0' = 7.3 x 10(-32) g (46 eV). PMID:19428979

  3. Femtosecond laser excitation of multiple spin waves and composition dependence of Gilbert damping in full-Heusler Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Al films

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chuyuan; Li, Shufa; Lai, Tianshu E-mail: jhzhao@red.semi.ac.cn; Meng, Kangkang; Zhao, Jianhua E-mail: jhzhao@red.semi.ac.cn

    2013-12-02

    Spin-wave dynamics in 30 nm thick Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Al full-Heusler films is investigated using time-resolved magneto-optical polar Kerr spectroscopy under an external field perpendicular to films. Damon-Eshbach (DE) and the first-order perpendicular standing spin-wave (PSSW) modes are observed simultaneously in four samples with x = 0, 0.3, 0.7, and 1. The frequency of DE and PSSW modes does not apparently depend on composition x, but damping of DE mode significantly on x and reaches the minimum as x = 0.7. The efficient coherent excitation of DE spin wave exhibits the promising application of Co{sub 2}Fe{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 0.7}Al films in magnonic devices.

  4. Observation of Wave Packet Distortion during a Negative-Group-Velocity Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Dexin; Salamin, Yannick; Huangfu, Jiangtao; Qiao, Shan; Zheng, Guoan; Ran, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    In Physics, causality is a fundamental postulation arising from the second law of thermodynamics. It states that, the cause of an event precedes its effect. In the context of Electromagnetics, the relativistic causality limits the upper bound of the velocity of information, which is carried by electromagnetic wave packets, to the speed of light in free space (c). In anomalously dispersive media (ADM), it has been shown that, wave packets appear to propagate with a superluminal or even negative group velocity. However, Sommerfeld and Brillouin pointed out that the “front” of such wave packets, known as the initial point of the Sommerfeld precursor, always travels at c. In this work, we investigate the negative-group-velocity transmission of half-sine wave packets. We experimentally observe the wave front and the distortion of modulated wave packets propagating with a negative group velocity in a passive artificial ADM in microwave regime. Different from previous literature on the propagation of superluminal Gaussian packets, strongly distorted sinusoidal packets with non-superluminal wave fronts were observed. This result agrees with Brillouin's assertion, i.e., the severe distortion of seemingly superluminal wave packets makes the definition of group velocity physically meaningless in the anomalously dispersive region. PMID:25631746

  5. Observation of wave packet distortion during a negative-group-velocity transmission.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dexin; Salamin, Yannick; Huangfu, Jiangtao; Qiao, Shan; Zheng, Guoan; Ran, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    In Physics, causality is a fundamental postulation arising from the second law of thermodynamics. It states that, the cause of an event precedes its effect. In the context of Electromagnetics, the relativistic causality limits the upper bound of the velocity of information, which is carried by electromagnetic wave packets, to the speed of light in free space (c). In anomalously dispersive media (ADM), it has been shown that, wave packets appear to propagate with a superluminal or even negative group velocity. However, Sommerfeld and Brillouin pointed out that the "front" of such wave packets, known as the initial point of the Sommerfeld precursor, always travels at c. In this work, we investigate the negative-group-velocity transmission of half-sine wave packets. We experimentally observe the wave front and the distortion of modulated wave packets propagating with a negative group velocity in a passive artificial ADM in microwave regime. Different from previous literature on the propagation of superluminal Gaussian packets, strongly distorted sinusoidal packets with non-superluminal wave fronts were observed. This result agrees with Brillouin's assertion, i.e., the severe distortion of seemingly superluminal wave packets makes the definition of group velocity physically meaningless in the anomalously dispersive region. PMID:25631746

  6. Observation of equipartition of seismic waves.

    PubMed

    Hennino, R; Trégourès, N; Shapiro, N M; Margerin, L; Campillo, M; van Tiggelen, B A; Weaver, R L

    2001-04-01

    Equipartition is a first principle in wave transport, based on the tendency of multiple scattering to homogenize phase space. We report observations of this principle for seismic waves created by earthquakes in Mexico. We find qualitative agreement with an equipartition model that accounts for mode conversions at the Earth's surface. PMID:11327992

  7. Gravitational wave astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, L. S.

    Astronomers rely on a multiplicity of observational perspectives in order to infer the nature of the Universe. Progress in astronomy has historically been associated with new or improved observational perspectives. Gravitational wave detectors now under construction will provide us with a perspective on the Universe fundamentally different from any we have come to know. With this new perspective comes the hope of new insights and understanding, not just of exotic astrophysical processes, but of "bread-and-butter" astrophysics: e.g., stars and stellar evolution, galaxy formation and evolution, neutron star structure, and cosmology. In this report the author discusses briefly a small subset of the areas of conventional, "bread-and-butter" astrophysics where we can reasonably hope that gravitational wave observations will provide us with valuable new insights and understandings.

  8. Multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management. PMID:20159661

  9. Multiple Sclerosis

    MedlinePlus

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin sheath, the ... and your body, leading to the symptoms of MS. They can include Visual disturbances Muscle weakness Trouble ...

  10. Multiple myeloma

    MedlinePlus

    Plasma cell dyscrasia; Plasma cell myeloma; Malignant plasmacytoma; Plasmacytoma of bone; Myeloma - multiple ... myeloma most commonly causes a low red blood cell count ( anemia ), which can lead to fatigue and ...

  11. Multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Raab, Marc S; Podar, Klaus; Breitkreutz, Iris; Richardson, Paul G; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2009-07-25

    Multiple myeloma is characterised by clonal proliferation of malignant plasma cells, and mounting evidence indicates that the bone marrow microenvironment of tumour cells has a pivotal role in myeloma pathogenesis. This knowledge has already expanded treatment options for patients with multiple myeloma. Prototypic drugs thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide have each been approved for the treatment of this disease by targeting both multiple myeloma cells and the bone marrow microenvironment. Although benefit was first shown in relapsed and refractory disease, improved overall response, duration of response, and progression-free and overall survival can be achieved when these drugs are part of first-line regimens. This treatment framework promises to improve outcome not only for patients with multiple myeloma, but also with other haematological malignancies and solid tumours. PMID:19541364

  12. Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, S.A.; Jiwa, Theresa I.

    1991-01-01

    Successful management of patients with multiple sclerosis depends upon the involvement of the family physician. All contacts with either a multiple sclerosis clinic or a neurologist should be made at the instigation of the family practitioner. Constant contact with the family physician ensures that the individual receives proper care. While specialty care is needed for many of the symptoms, psychosocial problems are dealt with best by the individual's own family physician. PMID:21229090

  13. Dynamics of Rocky Mountain Lee Waves Observed During Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean-Day, J.; Chan, K. R.; Bowen, S. W.; Bui, T. P.; Gary, B. L.; Chan, K. Roland (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    On two days during SUCCESS, the DC-8 sampled wave clouds which formed downstream of the ridges east of the Rocky Mountains. Wave morphology for both flights is deduced from temperature and 3-dimensional wind measurements from the MMS, isentrope profiles from the MTP, and linear perturbation theory. The waves observed on 960430 are smaller and found to be decaying with altitude, while the waves sampled on 960502 are vertically propagating and consist of larger, multiple wave scales. Wave orientations are consistent with the underlying topography and regions of high ice crystal concentration. Updraft velocities were estimated from the derived wave properties and are consistent with MMS vertical winds.

  14. Mode-Division-Multiplexing of Multiple Bessel-Gaussian Beams Carrying Orbital-Angular-Momentum for Obstruction-Tolerant Free-Space Optical and Millimetre-Wave Communication Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Li, Long; Huang, Hao; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Liao, Peicheng; Yan, Yan; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Almaiman, Ahmed; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Molisch, Andreas F.; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-03-01

    We experimentally investigate the potential of using ‘self-healing’ Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum to overcome limitations in obstructed free-space optical and 28-GHz millimetre-wave communication links. We multiplex and transmit two beams (l = +1 and +3) over 1.4 metres in both the optical and millimetre-wave domains. Each optical beam carried 50-Gbaud quadrature-phase-shift-keyed data, and each millimetre-wave beam carried 1-Gbaud 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulated data. In both types of links, opaque disks of different sizes are used to obstruct the beams at different transverse positions. We observe self-healing after the obstructions, and assess crosstalk and power penalty when data is transmitted. Moreover, we show that Bessel-Gaussian orbital-angular-momentum beams are more tolerant to obstructions than non-Bessel orbital-angular-momentum beams. For example, when obstructions that are 1 and 0.44 the size of the l = +1 beam, are placed at beam centre, optical and millimetre-wave Bessel-Gaussian beams show ~6 dB and ~8 dB reduction in crosstalk, respectively.

  15. Mode-Division-Multiplexing of Multiple Bessel-Gaussian Beams Carrying Orbital-Angular-Momentum for Obstruction-Tolerant Free-Space Optical and Millimetre-Wave Communication Links

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Li, Long; Huang, Hao; Lavery, Martin P. J.; Liao, Peicheng; Yan, Yan; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Almaiman, Ahmed; Willner, Asher J.; Ashrafi, Solyman; Molisch, Andreas F.; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the potential of using ‘self-healing’ Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum to overcome limitations in obstructed free-space optical and 28-GHz millimetre-wave communication links. We multiplex and transmit two beams (l = +1 and +3) over 1.4 metres in both the optical and millimetre-wave domains. Each optical beam carried 50-Gbaud quadrature-phase-shift-keyed data, and each millimetre-wave beam carried 1-Gbaud 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulated data. In both types of links, opaque disks of different sizes are used to obstruct the beams at different transverse positions. We observe self-healing after the obstructions, and assess crosstalk and power penalty when data is transmitted. Moreover, we show that Bessel-Gaussian orbital-angular-momentum beams are more tolerant to obstructions than non-Bessel orbital-angular-momentum beams. For example, when obstructions that are 1 and 0.44 the size of the l = +1 beam, are placed at beam centre, optical and millimetre-wave Bessel-Gaussian beams show ~6 dB and ~8 dB reduction in crosstalk, respectively. PMID:26926068

  16. Mode-Division-Multiplexing of Multiple Bessel-Gaussian Beams Carrying Orbital-Angular-Momentum for Obstruction-Tolerant Free-Space Optical and Millimetre-Wave Communication Links.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Nisar; Zhao, Zhe; Li, Long; Huang, Hao; Lavery, Martin P J; Liao, Peicheng; Yan, Yan; Wang, Zhe; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Almaiman, Ahmed; Willner, Asher J; Ashrafi, Solyman; Molisch, Andreas F; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the potential of using 'self-healing' Bessel-Gaussian beams carrying orbital-angular-momentum to overcome limitations in obstructed free-space optical and 28-GHz millimetre-wave communication links. We multiplex and transmit two beams (l = +1 and +3) over 1.4 metres in both the optical and millimetre-wave domains. Each optical beam carried 50-Gbaud quadrature-phase-shift-keyed data, and each millimetre-wave beam carried 1-Gbaud 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulated data. In both types of links, opaque disks of different sizes are used to obstruct the beams at different transverse positions. We observe self-healing after the obstructions, and assess crosstalk and power penalty when data is transmitted. Moreover, we show that Bessel-Gaussian orbital-angular-momentum beams are more tolerant to obstructions than non-Bessel orbital-angular-momentum beams. For example, when obstructions that are 1 and 0.44 the size of the l = +1 beam, are placed at beam centre, optical and millimetre-wave Bessel-Gaussian beams show ~6 dB and ~8 dB reduction in crosstalk, respectively. PMID:26926068

  17. Plane waves as tractor beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgács, Péter; Lukács, Árpád; Romańczukiewicz, Tomasz

    2013-12-01

    It is shown that in a large class of systems, plane waves act as tractor beams: i.e., an incident plane wave can exert a pulling force on the scatterer. The underlying physical mechanism for the pulling force is due to the sufficiently strong scattering of the incoming wave into another mode carrying more momentum, in which case excess momentum is created behind the scatterer. This tractor beam or negative radiation pressure (NRP) effect, is found to be generic in systems with multiple scattering channels. In a birefringent medium, electromagnetic plane waves incident on a thin plate exert NRP of the same order of magnitude as optical radiation pressure, while in artificial dielectrics (metamaterials), the magnitude of NRP can even be macroscopic. In two dimensions, we study various scattering situations on vortices, and NRP is shown to occur by the scattering of heavy baryons into light leptons off cosmic strings, and by neutron scattering off vortices in the XY model.

  18. New Hybridized Surface Wave Approach for Geotechnical Modeling of Shear Wave Velocity at Strong Motion Recording Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayen, R.; Carkin, B.; Minasian, D.

    2006-12-01

    Strong motion recording (SMR) networks often have little or no shear wave velocity measurements at stations where characterization of site amplification and site period effects is needed. Using the active Spectral Analysis of Surface Waves (SASW) method, and passive H/V microtremor method we have investigated nearly two hundred SMR sites in California, Alaska, Japan, Australia, China and Taiwan. We are conducting these studies, in part, to develop a new hybridized method of site characterization that utilizes a parallel array of harmonic-wave sources for active-source SASW, and a single long period seismometer for passive-source microtremor measurement. Surface wave methods excel in their ability to non-invasively and rapidly characterize the variation of ground stiffness properties with depth below the surface. These methods are lightweight, inexpensive to deploy, and time-efficient. They have been shown to produce accurate and deep soil stiffness profiles. By placing and wiring shakers in a large parallel circuit, either side-by-side on the ground or in a trailer-mounted array, a strong in-phase harmonic wave can be produced. The effect of arraying many sources in parallel is to increase the amplitude of waves received at far-away spaced seismometers at low frequencies so as to extend the longest wavelengths of the captured dispersion curve. The USGS system for profiling uses this concept by arraying between two and eight electro-mechanical harmonic-wave shakers. With large parallel arrays of vibrators, a dynamic force in excess of 1000 lb can be produced to vibrate the ground and produce surface waves. We adjust the harmonic wave through a swept-sine procedure to profile surface wave dispersion down to a frequency of 1 Hz and out to surface wave-wavelengths of 200-1000 meters, depending on the site stiffness. The parallel-array SASW procedure is augmented using H/V microtremor data collected with the active source turned off. Passive array microtremor data

  19. [Multiple meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Terrier, L-M; François, P

    2016-06-01

    Multiple meningiomas (MMs) or meningiomatosis are defined by the presence of at least 2 lesions that appear simultaneously or not, at different intracranial locations, without the association of neurofibromatosis. They present 1-9 % of meningiomas with a female predominance. The occurrence of multiple meningiomas is not clear. There are 2 main hypotheses for their development, one that supports the independent evolution of these tumors and the other, completely opposite, that suggests the propagation of tumor cells of a unique clone transformation, through cerebrospinal fluid. NF2 gene mutation is an important intrinsic risk factor in the etiology of multiple meningiomas and some exogenous risk factors have been suspected but only ionizing radiation exposure has been proven. These tumors can grow anywhere in the skull but they are more frequently observed in supratentorial locations. Their histologic types are similar to unique meningiomas of psammomatous, fibroblastic, meningothelial or transitional type and in most cases are benign tumors. The prognosis of these tumors is eventually good and does not differ from the unique tumors except for the cases of radiation-induced multiple meningiomas, in the context of NF2 or when diagnosed in children where the outcome is less favorable. Each meningioma lesion should be dealt with individually and their multiple character should not justify their resection at all costs. PMID:27234913

  20. Reflection of electromagnetic waves from mixtures of plane gravitational and scalar waves

    SciTech Connect

    Gurtug, O.; Halilsoy, M.; Unver, O.

    2006-08-15

    We consider colliding wave packets consisting of hybrid mixtures of electromagnetic, gravitational, and scalar waves. Irrespective of the scalar field, the electromagnetic wave still reflects from the gravitational wave. Some reflection processes are given for different choice of packets in which the Coulomb-like component {psi}{sub 2} vanishes. Exact solution for multiple reflection of an electromagnetic wave from successive impulsive gravitational waves is obtained in a closed form. It is shown that a successive sign flip in the Maxwell spinor arises as a result of encountering with an impulsive train (i.e. the Dirac's comb curvature) of gravitational waves. Such an observable effect may be helpful in the detection of gravitational wave bursts.