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Sample records for multiplexed readout system

  1. Tuning of Kilopixel Transition Edge Sensor Bolometer Arrays with a Digital Frequency Multiplexed Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDermid, Kevin; Hyland, Peter; Aubin, Francois; Bissonnette, Eric; Dobbs, Matt; Hubmayr, Johannes; Smecher, Graeme; Wairrach, Shahjahen

    2009-12-01

    A digital frequency multiplexing (DfMUX) system has been developed and used to tune large arrays of transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers read out with SQUID arrays for mm-wavelength cosmology telescopes. The DfMUX system multiplexes the input bias voltages and output currents for several bolometers on a single set of cryogenic wires. Multiplexing reduces the heat load on the camera's sub-Kelvin cryogenic detector stage. In this paper we describe the algorithms and software used to set up and optimize the operation of the bolometric camera. The algorithms are implemented on soft processors embedded within FPGA devices operating on each backend readout board. The result is a fully parallelized implementation for which the setup time is independent of the array size.

  2. Enhancements to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) Multiplexer Readout and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, J.; Benford, D. J.; Buchanan, E. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Rebar, J.; Shafer, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Far-infrared detector arrays such as the 16x32 superconducting bolometer array for the SAFIRE instrument (flying on the SOFIA airborne observatory) require systems of readout and control electronics to provide translation between a user-driven, digital PC and the cold, analog world of the cryogenic detector. In 2001, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed their Mark III electronics for purposes of control and readout of their 1x32 SQUID Multiplexer chips. We at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center acquired a Mark 111 system and subsequently designed upgrades to suit our and our collaborators purposes. We developed an arbitrary, programmable multiplexing system that allows the user to cycle through rows in a SQUID array in an infinite number of combinations. We provided hooks in the Mark III system to allow readout of signals from outside the Mark 111 system, such as telescope status information. Finally, we augmented the heart of the system with a new feedback algorithm implementation, flexible diagnostic tools, and informative telemetry.

  3. Enhancements to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Benford, Dominic J.; Buchanan, Ernest D.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Rebar, Joyce; Shafer, Richard A.

    2004-10-01

    Far-infrared detector arrays such as the 16x32 superconducting bolometer array for the SAFIRE instrument (flying on the SOFIA airborne observatory) require systems of readout and control electronics to provide translation between a user-driven, digital PC and the cold, analog world of the cryogenic detector. In 2001, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed their Mark III electronics for purposes of control and readout of their 1x32 SQUID Multiplexer chips. We at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center acquired a Mark III system and subsequently designed upgrades to suit our and our collaborators' purposes. We developed an arbitrary, programmable multiplexing system that allows the user to cycle through rows in a SQUID array in an infinite number of combinations. We provided 'hooks' in the Mark III system to allow readout of signals from outside the Mark III system, such as telescope status information. Finally, we augmented the heart of the system with a new feedback algorithm implementation, flexible diagnostic tools, and informative telemetry.

  4. Development of Frequency-Division Multiplexing Readout System for Large-Format TES X-ray Microcalorimeter Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Takei, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Kohjiro, S.; Miyazaki, T.

    2016-07-01

    We are developing the frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) readout system aimed to realize the 400-pixel transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array for the DIOS mission as well as large-format arrays with more than a thousand of TES for future space missions such as the ATHENA mission. The developed system consists of the low-power superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), the digital FDM electronics, and the analog front-end to bridge the SQUID and the digital electronics. Using the developed readout system, we performed a TES readout experiment and succeeded to multiplex four TES signals with the single-staged cryogenic setup. We have experienced two issues during the experiment: an excess noise and crosstalk. The brief overview of the developed system and the details, results, and issues of the TES multiplexing readout experiment is discussed.

  5. Development of Frequency-Division Multiplexing Readout System for Large-Format TES X-ray Microcalorimeter Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Takei, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Hidaka, M.; Nagasawa, S.; Kohjiro, S.; Miyazaki, T.

    2016-03-01

    We are developing the frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) readout system aimed to realize the 400-pixel transition edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter array for the DIOS mission as well as large-format arrays with more than a thousand of TES for future space missions such as the ATHENA mission. The developed system consists of the low-power superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), the digital FDM electronics, and the analog front-end to bridge the SQUID and the digital electronics. Using the developed readout system, we performed a TES readout experiment and succeeded to multiplex four TES signals with the single-staged cryogenic setup. We have experienced two issues during the experiment: an excess noise and crosstalk. The brief overview of the developed system and the details, results, and issues of the TES multiplexing readout experiment is discussed.

  6. Planar Lithographed Superconducting LC Resonators for Frequency-Domain Multiplexed Readout Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotermund, K.; Barch, B.; Chapman, S.; Hattori, K.; Lee, A.; Palaio, N.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Tran, C.

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments are increasing the number of transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers to increase sensitivity. In order to maintain low thermal loading of the sub-Kelvin stage, the frequency-domain multiplexing (FDM) factor has to increase accordingly. FDM is achieved by placing TES bolometers in series with inductor-capacitor (LC) resonators, which select the readout frequency. The multiplexing factor can be raised with a large total readout bandwidth and small frequency spacing between channels. The inductance is kept constant to maintain a uniform readout bandwidth across detectors, while the maximum acceptable value is determined by bolometer stability. Current technology relies on commercially available ceramic chip capacitors. These have high scatter in their capacitance thereby requiring large frequency spacing. Furthermore, they have high equivalent series resistance (ESR) at higher frequencies and are time consuming and tedious to hand assemble via soldering. A solution lies in lithographed, planar spiral inductors (currently in use by some experiments) combined with interdigitated capacitors on a silicon (Si) substrate. To maintain reasonable device dimensions, we have reduced trace and gap widths of the LCs to 4 \\upmu m. We increased the inductance from 16 to 60 \\upmu H to achieve a higher packing density, a requirement for FDM systems with large multiplexing factors. Additionally, the Si substrate yields low ESR values across the entire frequency range and lithography makes mass production of LC pairs possible. We reduced mutual inductance between inductors by placing them in a checkerboard pattern with the capacitors, thereby increasing physical distances between adjacent inductors. We also reduce magnetic coupling of inductors with external sources by evaporating a superconducting ground plane onto the backside of the substrate. We report on the development of lithographed LCs in the 1-5 MHz range for use

  7. Planar Lithographed Superconducting LC Resonators for Frequency-Domain Multiplexed Readout Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotermund, K.; Barch, B.; Chapman, S.; Hattori, K.; Lee, A.; Palaio, N.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Tran, C.

    2016-03-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments are increasing the number of transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers to increase sensitivity. In order to maintain low thermal loading of the sub-Kelvin stage, the frequency-domain multiplexing (FDM) factor has to increase accordingly. FDM is achieved by placing TES bolometers in series with inductor-capacitor (LC) resonators, which select the readout frequency. The multiplexing factor can be raised with a large total readout bandwidth and small frequency spacing between channels. The inductance is kept constant to maintain a uniform readout bandwidth across detectors, while the maximum acceptable value is determined by bolometer stability. Current technology relies on commercially available ceramic chip capacitors. These have high scatter in their capacitance thereby requiring large frequency spacing. Furthermore, they have high equivalent series resistance (ESR) at higher frequencies and are time consuming and tedious to hand assemble via soldering. A solution lies in lithographed, planar spiral inductors (currently in use by some experiments) combined with interdigitated capacitors on a silicon (Si) substrate. To maintain reasonable device dimensions, we have reduced trace and gap widths of the LCs to 4 \\upmu m. We increased the inductance from 16 to 60 \\upmu H to achieve a higher packing density, a requirement for FDM systems with large multiplexing factors. Additionally, the Si substrate yields low ESR values across the entire frequency range and lithography makes mass production of LC pairs possible. We reduced mutual inductance between inductors by placing them in a checkerboard pattern with the capacitors, thereby increasing physical distances between adjacent inductors. We also reduce magnetic coupling of inductors with external sources by evaporating a superconducting ground plane onto the backside of the substrate. We report on the development of lithographed LCs in the 1-5 MHz range for use

  8. Planar Lithographed Superconducting LC Resonators for Frequency-Domain Multiplexed Readout Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotermund, K.; Barch, B.; Chapman, S.; Hattori, K.; Lee, A.; Palaio, N.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Tran, C.

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments are increasing the number of transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers to increase sensitivity. In order to maintain low thermal loading of the sub-Kelvin stage, the frequency-domain multiplexing (FDM) factor has to increase accordingly. FDM is achieved by placing TES bolometers in series with inductor-capacitor (LC) resonators, which select the readout frequency. The multiplexing factor can be raised with a large total readout bandwidth and small frequency spacing between channels. The inductance is kept constant to maintain a uniform readout bandwidth across detectors, while the maximum acceptable value is determined by bolometer stability. Current technology relies on commercially available ceramic chip capacitors. These have high scatter in their capacitance thereby requiring large frequency spacing. Furthermore, they have high equivalent series resistance (ESR) at higher frequencies and are time consuming and tedious to hand assemble via soldering. A solution lies in lithographed, planar spiral inductors (currently in use by some experiments) combined with interdigitated capacitors on a silicon (Si) substrate. To maintain reasonable device dimensions, we have reduced trace and gap widths of the LCs to 4 μm. We increased the inductance from 16 to 60 μH to achieve a higher packing density, a requirement for FDM systems with large multiplexing factors. Additionally, the Si substrate yields low ESR values across the entire frequency range and lithography makes mass production of LC pairs possible. We reduced mutual inductance between inductors by placing them in a checkerboard pattern with the capacitors, thereby increasing physical distances between adjacent inductors. We also reduce magnetic coupling of inductors with external sources by evaporating a superconducting ground plane onto the backside of the substrate. We report on the development of lithographed LCs in the 1-5 MHz range for use with FDM

  9. Microwave multiplex readout for superconducting sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferri, E.; Becker, D.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Fowler, J.; Gard, J.; Giachero, A.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Puiu, A.; Nucciotti, A.; Reintsema, C.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.

    2016-07-01

    The absolute neutrino mass scale is still an outstanding challenge in both particle physics and cosmology. The calorimetric measurement of the energy released in a nuclear beta decay is a powerful tool to determine the effective electron-neutrino mass. In the last years, the progress on low temperature detector technologies has allowed to design large scale experiments aiming at pushing down the sensitivity on the neutrino mass below 1 eV. Even with outstanding performances in both energy (~ eV on keV) and time resolution (~ 1 μs) on the single channel, a large number of detectors working in parallel is required to reach a sub-eV sensitivity. Microwave frequency domain readout is the best available technique to readout large array of low temperature detectors, such as Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) or Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). In this way a multiplex factor of the order of thousands can be reached, limited only by the bandwidth of the available commercial fast digitizers. This microwave multiplexing system will be used to readout the HOLMES detectors, an array of 1000 microcalorimeters based on TES sensors in which the 163Ho will be implanted. HOLMES is a new experiment for measuring the electron neutrino mass by means of the electron capture (EC) decay of 163Ho. We present here the microwave frequency multiplex which will be used in the HOLMES experiment and the microwave frequency multiplex used to readout the MKID detectors developed in Milan as well.

  10. Frequency division multiplexed readout of TES detectors with baseband feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, R.; Audley, M. D.; Beyer, J.; Bruijn, M. P.; de Korte, P.; Gottardi, L.; Hijmering, R.; Jackson, B.; Nieuwenhuizen, A.; van der Kuur, J.; van Leeuwen, B.-J.; Van Loon, D.

    2012-09-01

    SRON is developing an electronic system for the multiplexed read-out of an array of transition edge sensors (TES) by combining the techniques of frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) with base-band feedback (BBFB). The astronomical applications are the read-out of soft X-ray microcalorimeters and the far-infrared bolometers for the SAFARI instrument on the Japanese mission SPICA. In this paper we derive the requirements for the read-out system regarding noise and dynamic range in the context of the SAFARI instrument, and demonstrate that the current experimental prototype is capable of simultaneously locking 57 channels and complies with these requirements.

  11. Performance of Frequency Division Multiplexing Readout System for AC-Biased Transition-Edge Sensor X-ray Microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, R.; Sakai, K.; Takei, Y.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Mitsuda, K.

    2014-08-01

    Frequency division multiplexing (FDM) is a promising approach to read out a large format transition-edge sensor (TES) array for future astrophysical missions. We constructed a four channel FDM readout system using baseband feedback in the MHz band. We demonstrated the principle of our FDM method with an actual TES array, a multiplexing SQUID and LC band-pass filters under 100 mK. The resonant frequencies of LC filters were consistent with the design value with an accuracy of better than 3 %. We successfully obtained X-ray pulses from two TESs simultaneously but the energy resolution was degraded to about 100 eV at 5.9 keV and crosstalk effects were observed. The origin of the crosstalk effects is investigated by modified setups. Based on comparative experiments and numerical calculations, we conclude that the non-linearity of the SQUID is the cause of some of the crosstalk effects. Unlike the regular crosstalk effect from the adjoining channels, the crosstalk effect due to non-linearity observed in this paper occurs in all channels. Solving these problems will help us to obtain FDM readout with sufficient energy resolution.

  12. TES Detector Noise Limited Readout Using SQUID Multiplexers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Chervenak, J. A.; Khan, S. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES) with large numbers of individual detector pixels requires multiplexers for efficient readout. The use of multiplexers reduces the number of wires needed between the cryogenic electronics and the room temperature electronics and cuts the number of required cryogenic amplifiers. We are using an 8 channel SQUID multiplexer to read out one-dimensional TES arrays which are used for submillimeter astronomical observations. We present results from test measurements which show that the low noise level of the SQUID multiplexers allows accurate measurements of the TES Johnson noise, and that in operation, the readout noise is dominated by the detector noise. Multiplexers for large number of channels require a large bandwidth for the multiplexed readout signal. We discuss the resulting implications for the noise performance of these multiplexers which will be used for the readout of two dimensional TES arrays in next generation instruments.

  13. Frequency-domain readout multiplexing of transition-edge sensor arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanting, T. M.; Arnold, K.; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Clarke, John; Dobbs, Matt; Holzapfel, William; Lee, Adrian T.; Lueker, M.; Richards, P. L.; Smith, A. D.; Spieler, H. G.

    2006-04-01

    We have demonstrated frequency-domain readout multiplexing of eight channels for superconducting transition-edge sensor bolometer arrays. The multiplexed readout noise is 6.5 pA/√Hz, well below the bolometer dark noise of 15-20 pA/√Hz. We measure an upper limit on crosstalk of 0.004 between channels adjacent in frequency which meets our design requirement of 0.01. We have observed vibration insensitivity in our frequency-domain multiplexed transition-edge sensors, making this system very attractive for telescope and satellite observations. We also discuss extensions to our multiplexed readout. In particular, we are developing a SQUID flux-locked loop that is entirely cold and collaborating on digital multiplexer technology in order to scale up the number of multiplexed channels.

  14. Frequency multiplexed dispersive readout of transmon qubits with the UCSB paramp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sank, Daniel; Barends, R.; Bochmann, J.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Y.; Chiaro, B.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mariantoni, M.; Megrant, A.; Mutus, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P.; Ohya, S.; Roushan, P.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.

    2013-03-01

    Our new Xmon qubit shows good coherence, controllability and simplified coupling to other circuit elements, making it a good candidate for a large scale quantum computer. Like all qubits, it requires high fidelity readout. To this end we have developed a new parametric amplifier circuit. Simplified input coupling of the amplifier allows straightforward interfacing with our frequency multiplexed dispersive readout circuitry. The amplifier features five different modes of pump power delivery, some of which allow us to reduce the microwave component count in our readout chain. We characterize our readout system using each of these modes of operation, as well as multi qubit readout.

  15. Demonstration of Time Domain Multiplexed Readout for Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porst, J.-P.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M.; Bandler, S.; Beyer, J.; Busch, S. E.; Drung, D.; Seidel, G. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stevenson, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) have extremely high potential for x-ray applications due to the inherent high energy resolution capability and being non-dissipative. Although very high energy-resolution has been demonstrated, until now there has been no demonstration of multiplexed read-out. We report on the first realization of a time domain multiplexed (TDM) read-out. While this has many similarities with TDM of transition-edge-sensors (TES), for MGGs the energy resolution is limited by the SQUID read-out noise and requires the well established scheme to be altered in order to minimize degradation due to noise aliasing effects. In cur approach, each pixel is read out by a single first stage SQUID (SQ1) that is operated in open loop. The outputs of the SQ1 s are low-pass filtered with an array of low cross-talk inductors, then fed into a single-stage SQUID TD multiplexer. The multiplexer is addressed from room temperature and read out through a single amplifier channel. We present results achieved with a new detector platform. Noise performance is presented and compared to expectations. We have demonstrated multiplexed X-ray spectroscopy at 5.9keV with delta_FWHM=10eV. In an optimized setup, we show it is possible to multiplex 32 detectors without significantly degrading the Intrinsic detector resolution.

  16. Time-division SQUID multiplexer for the readout of X-ray microcalorimeter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doriese, W. B.; Beall, J. A.; Beyer, J.; Deiker, S.; Ferreira, L.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Martinis, J. M.; Nam, S. W.; Reintsema, C. D.; Ullom, J. N.; Vale, L. R.; Xu, Y.

    2004-03-01

    Large-format (>1000 pixel) arrays of transition-edge sensors are being developed for applications ranging from X-ray materials analysis to submillimeter (SCUBA-2, ACT, SAFIRE) and X-ray (Constellation-X) astronomy. Cryogenic multiplexing allows instrumentation of these large detector arrays with a manageable number of wires and readout channels. We describe a SQUID-based, time-division multiplexer for X-ray microcalorimeter arrays, including a three-stage SQUID amplifier chain and room-temperature digital-feedback electronics. The prototype system has passed two milestone tests. First, energy resolution of 6.6 eV obtained from measuring 5.2 keV joule-heat pulses was not degraded by multiplexing 2, 4, or 8 biased detectors. Second, 55Fe spectra obtained with four multiplexed detectors showed essentially the same resolution as those obtained from the same detectors while not multiplexed.

  17. Digital frequency domain multiplexing readout electronics for the next generation of millimeter telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Amy N.; Cliche, Jean-François; de Haan, Tijmen; Dobbs, Matt A.; Gilbert, Adam J.; Montgomery, Joshua; Rowlands, Neil; Smecher, Graeme M.; Smith, Ken; Wilson, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Frequency domain multiplexing (fMux) is an established technique for the readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers in millimeter-wavelength astrophysical instrumentation. In fMux, the signals from multiple detectors are read out on a single pair of wires reducing the total cryogenic thermal loading as well as the cold component complexity and cost of a system. The current digital fMux system, in use by POLARBEAR, EBEX, and the South Pole Telescope, is limited to a multiplexing factor of 16 by the dynamic range of the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device pre-amplifier and the total system bandwidth. Increased multiplexing is key for the next generation of large format TES cameras, such as SPT-3G and POLARBEAR2, which plan to have on the of order 15,000 detectors. Here, we present the next generation fMux readout, focusing on the warm electronics. In this system, the multiplexing factor increases to 64 channels per module (2 wires) while maintaining low noise levels and detector stability. This is achieved by increasing the system bandwidth, reducing the dynamic range requirements though active feedback, and digital synthesis of voltage biases with a novel polyphase filter algorithm. In addition, a version of the new fMux readout includes features such as low power consumption and radiation-hard components making it viable for future space-based millimeter telescopes such as the LiteBIRD satellite.

  18. Orthogonal sequencing multiplexer for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with RSFQ electronics readout circuit.

    PubMed

    Hofherr, Matthias; Wetzstein, Olaf; Engert, Sonja; Ortlepp, Thomas; Berg, Benjamin; Ilin, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Stolz, Ronny; Toepfer, Hannes; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Siegel, Michael

    2012-12-17

    We propose an efficient multiplexing technique for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on an orthogonal detector bias switching method enabling the extraction of the average count rate of a set of detectors by one readout line. We implemented a system prototype where the SNSPDs are connected to an integrated cryogenic readout and a pulse merger system based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) electronics. We discuss the general scalability of this concept, analyze the environmental requirements which define the resolvability and the accuracy and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with experimental results for a SNSPD array with four pixels. PMID:23263106

  19. Multiplexed Readout of Thermal Bolometers with Superconducting Transition Edge Thermometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Allen, Christine A.; Chervenak, James A.; Freund, Mino M.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Shafer, Richard A.; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Grossman, Erich N.; Hilton, Gene C.

    2001-01-01

    History shows that in astronomy, more is better. In the near future, direct detector arrays for the far-infrared and submillimeter will contain hundreds to thousands of elements. A multiplexed readout is necessary for practical implementation of such arrays, and has been developed using SQUIDs. The technology permits a 32 x 32 array of bolometers to be read out using approximately 100 wires rather than the >2000 needed with direct wiring. These bolometer arrays are made by micromachining techniques, using superconducting transition edge sensors as the thermistors. We describe the development of this multiplexed superconducting bolometer array architecture as a step toward bringing about the first astronomically useful arrays of this design. This technology will be used in the Submillimeter and Far Infrared Experiment (SAFIRE) instrument on Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), and is a candidate for a wide variety of other spectroscopic and photometric instruments.

  20. A multiplex readout method for position sensitive boron coated straw neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao; Gong, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Yongqiang; Wang, Xuewu; Li, Yuanjing; Kang, Kejun

    2015-10-01

    A 1 m×1 m boron coated straw neutron detector is expected to be used to build the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument of the Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) in Tsinghua University. A multiplex readout method based on summing circuits in columns and rows is studied for this large area position sensitive detector. In this method, the outputs of charge sensitive preamplifiers are combined by columns and rows at two ends of the detector, and then the shaped signals are sampled by flash ADCs. With the position reconstructed algorithm implemented in FPGA which analyzes the charge division and column and row number of signals, the 3-D position information of neutron events can be obtained. The position resolution and counting rate performance of this method are analyzed, and the comparison to the delay-line readout method is also given. With the multiplex readout method, the scale of readout electronics can be greatly reduced and a good position resolution can be reached. A readout electronics system for a detector module which consists 4 × 10 straw tubes is designed based on this method, and the test with neutron beam shows an average 3-D spatial resolution of 4 × 4 × 6.8mm3.

  1. FERA readout system for APEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazes, S. B.; Perera, P. A. A.; Wolfs, F. L. H.

    1993-12-01

    A data acquisition system is described for processing energy and timing signals from large arrays of solid-state detectors and photomultiplier tubes. Signals are digitized using Fast Encoding and Readout ADCs (FERAs), and then downloaded to Data Stacks for subsequent readout via CAMAC. The acquisition electronics uses additional ECL modules to make logical decisions about data compression and synchronization. Three modes of readout are available, providing varying degrees of event compression. The system is characterized by a very short readout period, as well as the ease with which readout mode can be reconfigured. This FERA readout system is currently being used in the ATLAS Positron EXperiment (APEX) at Argonne National Laboratory.

  2. Frequency multiplexed superconducting quantum interference device readout of large bolometer arrays for cosmic microwave background measurements.

    PubMed

    Dobbs, M A; Lueker, M; Aird, K A; Bender, A N; Benson, B A; Bleem, L E; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C L; Cho, H-M; Clarke, J; Crawford, T M; Crites, A T; Flanigan, D I; de Haan, T; George, E M; Halverson, N W; Holzapfel, W L; Hrubes, J D; Johnson, B R; Joseph, J; Keisler, R; Kennedy, J; Kermish, Z; Lanting, T M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Luong-Van, D; McMahon, J J; Mehl, J; Meyer, S S; Montroy, T E; Padin, S; Plagge, T; Pryke, C; Richards, P L; Ruhl, J E; Schaffer, K K; Schwan, D; Shirokoff, E; Spieler, H G; Staniszewski, Z; Stark, A A; Vanderlinde, K; Vieira, J D; Vu, C; Westbrook, B; Williamson, R

    2012-07-01

    A technological milestone for experiments employing transition edge sensor bolometers operating at sub-Kelvin temperature is the deployment of detector arrays with 100s-1000s of bolometers. One key technology for such arrays is readout multiplexing: the ability to read out many sensors simultaneously on the same set of wires. This paper describes a frequency-domain multiplexed readout system which has been developed for and deployed on the APEX-SZ and South Pole Telescope millimeter wavelength receivers. In this system, the detector array is divided into modules of seven detectors, and each bolometer within the module is biased with a unique ∼MHz sinusoidal carrier such that the individual bolometer signals are well separated in frequency space. The currents from all bolometers in a module are summed together and pre-amplified with superconducting quantum interference devices operating at 4 K. Room temperature electronics demodulate the carriers to recover the bolometer signals, which are digitized separately and stored to disk. This readout system contributes little noise relative to the detectors themselves, is remarkably insensitive to unwanted microphonic excitations, and provides a technology pathway to multiplexing larger numbers of sensors. PMID:22852677

  3. Low-Noise Readout of TES Detectors with Baseband Feedback Frequency Domain Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, R.; Audley, M. D.; Beyer, J.; Boersma, D.; Bruijn, M.; Gottardi, L.; Hoevers, H.; Hou, R.; Keizer, G.; Khosropanah, P.; Kiviranta, M.; de Korte, P.; van der Kuur, J.; van Leeuwen, B.-J.; Nieuwenhuizen, A. C. T.; van Winden, P.

    2012-06-01

    SRON is developing an electronic read-out system for an array of transition edge sensors (TES) based on the techniques of frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) and base-band feedback (BBFB). The astronomical applications of our system are the read-out of soft X-ray micro-calorimeters in a potential instrument on the European X-ray mission-under-study Athena and far-IR bolometers for the SAFARI instrument on the Japanese mission SPICA. In this paper we demonstrate the simultaneous locking of up to 51 BBFB loops. While locked, the in-band read-out noise of the loops is shown to reach the {10 pA/}sqrt{Hz} level required for these missions.

  4. Frequency-Domain Multiplexed Readout for Superconducting Gamma-Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, Jonathan G.; Arnold, Kam; Lanting, Trevor M.; Dobbs, Matt A.; Friedrich, Stephan; Lee, Adrian T.; Spieler, Helmuth G.

    2006-08-30

    We are developing a frequency-multiplexed readout for arrays of high-resolution Gamma detectors based on superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). Each sensor is part of an LCR resonant circuit and is biased at an identifying carrier frequency. Several carrier signals are added and amplified with a single SQUID preamplifier at 4 K. Gamma absorption modulates the amplitude of the carrier, and demodulation at room temperature retrieves the initial temperature evolution of the sensor. This multiplexing system has originally been developed to read out large arrays of bolometers for cosmic microwave background studies. To accommodate the faster Gamma-ray signals, its demodulator bandwidth is being extended to 20 kHz to allow reading out up to eight TESs with a detector bandwidth of 10 kHz. Here we characterize the system noise performance and show how this multiplexing scheme can be adapted to read out arrays of superconducting Gamma-ray detectors.

  5. A balanced, superconducting multiplier circuit for fast-switching and multiplexed qubit readout: Performance and demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, Brad A.; Chapman, Benjamin J.; Rosenthal, Eric I.; Kerckhoff, Joseph; Lehnert, K. W.

    A major challenge of scaling the promising transmon qubits into a quantum information processing machine is the classical hardware burden required to readout many qubits. Within the cavity QED architecture, qubit states are measured by detecting the transmission through microwave cavities. A multiplexing scheme could allow the classical hardware burden of generating and measuring a readout tone to be shared among several cavity-qubit systems. In this talk, we will present measurements of a recently designed superconducting multiplier circuit intended to accomplish time and code domain multiplexed readout. In particular, we characterize three modes of microwave operation: transmission, reflection and inversion. The device can be switched between these modes approximately 100 times faster than typical qubit coherence times. Exploiting this performance, we demonstrate a code domain multiplexing scheme with classical signals created to simulate typical qubit signals. The scheme operates with near unity fidelity at microwave powers comparable to typical qubit tones. This work is supported by the ARO under the Contract W911NF-14-1-0079.

  6. Novel Frequency-Domain Multiplexing MKID Readout for the LiteBIRD Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Ariyoshi, S.; Hazumi, M.; Ishino, H.; Kibayashi, A.; Mima, S.; Otani, C.; Satoh, N.; Tomaru, T.; Yoshida, M.; Watanabe, H.

    2012-06-01

    The satellite LiteBIRD (Light satellite for the studies of B-mode polarization and Inflation from cosmic background Radiation Detection) is being designed to detect the B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation. LiteBIRD will carry about 2,000 detectors for measurements in five bands (60, 80, 100, 150, and 220 GHz). Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) that can be multiplexed in a single readout line are suitable for the large focal plane detector array. We develop an MKID readout system for LiteBIRD to monitor the amplitude, phase, and resonant frequency of each MKID resonator simultaneously and follow movements of the resonant frequency caused by changes in the input radiation intensity. This mechanism enables us to have a larger dynamic range for the MKIDs, compared with a system that monitors the amplitude and phase on the resonant frequency. We also propose an MKID having a half-wavelength resonator. This MKID transmits the resonant microwave signal from one feedline to another. It can offer clear microwaves passing through the resonators, even if the coupling and internal quality factors are mismatched. With this MKID, our readout system can track resonance frequency changes much more easily. We present the status of the readout system development and demonstrate the performance with the half-wavelength MKID.

  7. A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, M. S. Verma, V. B.; Stevens, M.; Gerrits, T.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R.; Nam, S. W.; Marsili, F.; Beyer, A.; Shaw, M. D.; Kumor, D.

    2015-05-11

    We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array as well as characterization measurements are discussed.

  8. Medipix2 parallel readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanti, V.; Marzeddu, R.; Randaccio, P.

    2003-08-01

    A fast parallel readout system based on a PCI board has been developed in the framework of the Medipix collaboration. The readout electronics consists of two boards: the motherboard directly interfacing the Medipix2 chip, and the PCI board with digital I/O ports 32 bits wide. The device driver and readout software have been developed at low level in Assembler to allow fast data transfer and image reconstruction. The parallel readout permits a transfer rate up to 64 Mbytes/s. http://medipix.web.cern ch/MEDIPIX/

  9. Hodoscope readout system

    DOEpatents

    Lee, L.Y.

    1973-12-01

    A readout system has been provided for reading out a radiation multidetector device with a reduced number of signal sensors. A radiation hodoscope, such as an array of scintillation counters, multiwire proportional counter array, or a set of multidetectors which do not receive signals simultaneously, is divided into equal numbered groups. A first group of signal terminals is connected to the equal numbered groups of detectors so that a signal from any one of the detectors of a group will be fed to one of the first group of terminals. A second group of signal terminals is connected to the detector groups so that a signal from a particular numbered detector of each of the detector groups is connected to one of the second group of terminals. Both groups of signal terminals are, in turn, coupled to signal sensors so that when a signal is simultaneously observed in one of the first group of terminals and one of the second group of tenniinals the specific detector detecting a radiation event is determined. The sensors are arranged in such a manner that a binary code is developed from their outputs which can be stored in a digital storage means according to the location of the event in the multidetector device. (Official Gazette)

  10. A novel method of encoded multiplexing readout for micro-pattern gas detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin-Xiang, Qi; Shu-Bin, Liu; Heng, Ji; Zhong-Tao, Shen; Si-Yuan, Ma; Hong-Bang, Liu; Wen-Qian, Huang; Qi, An

    2016-05-01

    The requirement of a large number of electronic channels poses a big challenge to the further applications of Micro-pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs). By using the redundancy that at least two neighboring strips record the signal of a particle, a novel method of encoded multiplexing readout for MPGDs is presented in this paper. The method offers a feasible and easily-extensible way of encoding and decoding, and can significantly reduce the number of readout channels. A verification test was carried out on a 5 cm × 5 cm Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detector using a 8 keV Cu X-ray source with 100 μm slit, where 166 strips were read out by 21 encoded readout channels. The test results show good linearity in its position response, and the spatial resolution root-mean-square (RMS) of the test system is about 260 μm. This method has potential to build large area detectors and can be easily adapted to other detectors similar to MPGDs. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11222552, 11265003)

  11. A Three-Channel DC SQUID System Using Time-Domain Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, Matthias; Mueck, Michael; Mugford, Chas; Kycia, Jan

    2004-03-01

    Conventional multichannel SQUID systems require SQUID readout electronics for each channel, as well as many wires connecting the individual SQUIDs and feedback coils to the room temperature electronics. We have studied a time domain multiplexed readout scheme which requires only a single SQUID readout which is successively switched between all SQUIDs. By connecting all SQUIDs and all feedback coils in series, the system requires only a few wires between SQUIDs and room temperature readout.

  12. Performance of multiplexed SQUID readout for Cryogenic Sensor Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chervenak, J. A.; Grossman, E. N.; Irwin, K. D.; Martinis, John M.; Reintsema, C. D.; Allen, C. A.; Bergman, D. I.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R.

    2000-04-01

    We report on the implementation of a multiplexer that uses superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) to read out low-impedance cryogenic detectors. Using prototype chips, a circuit was built which interfaces eight input SQUID channels with a close-packed array of eight transition-edge sensor (TES) infrared bolometers. Circuit elements were measured and crosstalk specifications are reported. Digital feedback is employed to flux-lock a single element in the array of SQUIDs.

  13. Multiplexing Readout of TES Microcalorimeters Based on Analog Baseband Feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, Y.; Yamasaki, N.Y; Mitsuda, K.; Kimura, S.; Hirakoso, W.; Masui, K.; Korte, P. A. J. de; Kuur, J. van der; Gottardi, L.

    2009-12-16

    A TES microcalorimeter array is a promising spectrometer with excellent energy resolution and a moderate imaging capability. To realize a large format array in space, multiplexing the TES signals at the low tempersture stage is mandatory. We are developing frequency division multiplexing (FDM) based on baseband feedback technique. In FDM, each TES is AC-biased with a different carrier frequency. Signals from several pixels are summed and then read out by one SQUID. The maximum number of multiplexed pixels are limited by the frequency band in which the SQUID can be operated in a flux-locked loop, which is {approx}1 MHz with standard flux-locked loop circuit. In the baseband feedback, the signal ({approx}10 kHz band) from the TES is once demodulated. Then a reconstructed copy of the modulated signal with an appropriate phase is fed back to the SQUID input coil to maintain an approximately constant magnetic flux. This can be implemented even for large cable delays and automatically suppresses the carrier. We developed a prototype electronics for the baseband feedback based on an analog phase sensitive detector (PSD) and a multiplier. Combined with Seiko 80-SSA SQUID amp, open-loop gain of 8 has been obtained for 10 kHz baseband signal at 5 MHz carrier frequency, with a moderate noise contribution of 27pA/{radical}(Hz) at input.

  14. First implementation of TES bolometer arrays with SQUID-based multiplexed readout on a balloon-borne platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubin, François; Aboobaker, Asad M.; Ade, Peter; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Bao, Chaoyun; Borrill, Julian; Cantalupo, Christopher; Chapman, Daniel; Didier, Joy; Dobbs, Matt; Grainger, Will; Hanany, Shaul; Hubmayr, Johannes; Hyland, Peter; Hillbrand, Seth; Jaffe, Andrew; Johnson, Bradley; Jones, Terry; Kisner, Theodore; Klein, Jeff; Korotkov, Andrei; Leach, Sam; Lee, Adrian; Limon, Michele; MacDermid, Kevin; Matsumura, Tomotake; Meng, Xiaofan; Miller, Amber; Milligan, Michael; Polsgrove, Daniel; Ponthieu, Nicolas; Raach, Kate; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Britt; Sagiv, Ilan; Smecher, Graeme; Tran, Huan; Tucker, Gregory S.; Vinokurov, Yury; Yadav, Amit; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Zilic, Kyle

    2010-07-01

    EBEX (the E and B EXperiment) is a balloon-borne telescope designed to measure the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background radiation. During a two week long duration science flight over Antarctica, EBEX will operate 768, 384 and 280 spider-web transition edge sensor (TES) bolometers at 150, 250 and 410 GHz, respectively. The 10-hour EBEX engineering flight in June 2009 over New Mexico and Arizona provided the first usage of both a large array of TES bolometers and a Superconducting QUantum Interference Device (SQUID) based multiplexed readout in a space-like environment. This successful demonstration increases the technology readiness level of these bolometers and the associated readout system for future space missions. A total of 82, 49 and 82 TES detectors were operated during the engineering flight at 150, 250 and 410 GHz. The sensors were read out with a new SQUID-based digital frequency domain multiplexed readout system that was designed to meet the low power consumption and robust autonomous operation requirements presented by a balloon experiment. Here we describe the system and the remote, automated tuning of the bolometers and SQUIDs. We compare results from tuning at float to ground, and discuss bolometer performance during flight.

  15. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    This conference poster reviews the Indium hybridization of the large format TES bolometer arrays. We are developing a key technology to enable the next generation of detectors. That is the Hybridization of Large Format Arrays using Indium bonded detector arrays containing 32x40 elements which conforms to the NIST multiplexer readout architecture of 1135 micron pitch. We have fabricated and hybridized mechanical models with the detector chips bonded after being fully back-etched. The mechanical support consists of 30 micron walls between elements Demonstrated electrical continuity for each element. The goal is to hybridize fully functional array of TES detectors to NIST readout.

  16. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Li, Qingbo; Lu, Xiandan

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  17. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Huan-Tsang; Fung, Eliza N.; Li, Qingbo; Lu, Xiandan

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  18. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1998-04-21

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  19. Multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.; Li, Q.; Lu, X.

    1996-12-10

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  20. A low power front-end architecture for SiPM readout with integrated ADC and multiplexed readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacco, I.; Fischer, P.; Ritzert, M.; Peric, I.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon Photo-Multiplier (SiPM) detectors are becoming widely used for optical photon and, in conjunction with suited scintillators, for gamma detection in both medical imaging and particle physics experiments. The spatial resolution can be improved by using smaller SiPMs with a corresponding increase in front-end channels density. The timing resolution of the whole system is a function of the detector parameters and of the characteristics of the front-end electronics. We present a low power front-end readout architecture which allows reading out several SiPMs though a single line in order to maximize the number of SiPMs. The design offers good timing performance and includes a simple charge digitizer in every channel. Four different single-ended channel designs have been designed, submitted for fabrication and characterized electronically and with SiPMs. The timing performance is obtained by using a low input impedance, precise threshold setting of a leading edge discriminator and a programmable input dc potential to set the SiPM HV bias on a channel per channel basis. Programmable low- and high-pass filters should allow reducing baseline fluctuations and noise. A simple ADC is implemented by first integrating the signal current and then discharging it at a constant rate until the baseline is reached again. The current consumption of the single channel is typically less than 10 mA. The time and energy information are sent out on a single wire. In order to keep as low as possible the output cabling the signals from different channels can be multiplexed on the same cable. The processing of these signals (extraction of time, ADC amplitude determination and channel number decoding) is performed by an external FPGA. The overall architecture, the front-end designs, and measurements with SiPMs are presented.

  1. A simple three-channel dc SQUID system using time domain multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mück, M.; Korn, M.; Mugford, C. G. A.; Kycia, J. B.

    2004-08-01

    Conventional multichannel superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) systems require a SQUID read-out circuit for each channel, as well as many wires connecting each individual SQUID and feedback coil to the room temperature electronics. We present a simple time domain multiplexed read-out scheme which requires only a single SQUID read-out circuit that is successively switched between all the SQUIDs. By connecting all the SQUIDs and all the feedback coils in series, this time domain multiplexed system requires many fewer wires between the SQUIDs and the room temperature read-out circuit than other multichannel systems.

  2. Cryogenic SiGe ASICs for readout and multiplexing of superconducting detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, F.; Prêle, D.; Bréelle, E.; Piat, M.; Sou, G.; Klisnick, G.; Redon, M.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents an ultra low noise instrumentation based on cryogenic electronic integrated circuits (ASICs : Application Specific Integrated Circuits). We have designed successively two ASICs in standard BiCMOS SiGe 0.35 μm technology that have proved to be operating at cryogenic temperatures. The main functions of these circuits are the readout and the multiplexing of SQUID/TES arrays. We report the cryogenic operation of a first ASIC version dedicated to the readout of a 2×4 pixel demonstrator array. We particularly emphasize on the development and the test phases of an ultra low noise (0.2 nV/√Hz) cryogenic amplifier designed with two multiplexed inputs. The cryogenic SiGe amplifier coupled to a SQUID in a FLL operating at 4.2 K is also presented. We finally report on the development of a second version of this circuit to readout a 3×8 detectors array with improved noise performances and upgraded functionalities.

  3. Cryogenic SiGe ASICs for readout and multiplexing of superconducting detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sou, G.; Klisnick, G.; Redon, M.; Voisin, F.; Prêle, D.; Bréelle, E.; Piat, M.

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents an ultra low noise instrumentation based on cryogenic electronic integrated circuits (ASICs: Application Specific Integrated Circuits). We have designed successively two ASICs in standard BiCMOS SiGe 0.35 μm technology that have proved to be operating at cryogenic temperatures. The main functions of these circuits are the readout and the multiplexing of TES/SQUID arrays. We report the cryogenic operation of a first ASIC version dedicated to the readout of a 2 × 4 pixel demonstrator array. We particularly emphasize on the development and the test phases of an ultra low white noise (0.2 nV/sqrtHz) cryogenic amplifier designed with two multiplexed inputs. The cryogenic SiGe amplifier coupled to a SQUID in a FLL operating at 4.2 K is also presented. We finally report on the development of a second version of this circuit to readout a 3 × 8 detectors array with improved noise performances and upgraded functionalities.

  4. General purpose multiplexing device for cryogenic microwave systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Benjamin J.; Moores, Bradley A.; Rosenthal, Eric I.; Kerckhoff, Joseph; Lehnert, K. W.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce and experimentally characterize a general purpose device for signal processing in circuit quantum electrodynamics systems. The device is a broadband two-port microwave circuit element with three modes of operation: it can transmit, reflect, or invert incident signals between 4 and 8 GHz. This property makes it a versatile tool for lossless signal processing at cryogenic temperatures. In particular, rapid switching (≤ 15 ns ) between these operation modes enables several multiplexing readout protocols for superconducting qubits. We report the device's performance in a two-channel code domain multiplexing demonstration. The multiplexed data are recovered with fast readout times (up to 400 ns ) and infidelities ≤ 10-2 for probe powers ≥ 7 fW , in agreement with the expectation for binary signaling with Gaussian noise.

  5. Semiconductor arrays with multiplexer readout for gamma-ray imaging: results for a 48 × 48 Ge array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, H. B.; Augustine, F. L.; Barrett, H. H.; Dereniak, E. L.; Matherson, K. L.; Meyers, T. J.; Perry, D. L.; Venzon, J. E.; Woolfenden, J. M.; Young, E. T.

    1994-12-01

    We are developing a new kind of gamma-ray imaging device that has sub-millimeter spatial resolution and excellent energy resolution. The device is composed of a slab of semiconductor detector partitioned into an array of detector cells by photolithography and connected to a monolithic circuit chip called a multiplexer (MUX) for readout. Our application is for an ultra-high-resolution SPECT system for functional brain imaging using an injected radiotracer. We report here on results obtained with a Hughes 48 × 48 Ge PIN-photodiode array with MUX readout, originally developed as an infrared focal-plane-array imaging sensor. The device functions as an array of individual gamma-ray detectors with minimal interpixel crosstalk. Linearity of energy response is excellent up to at least 140 keV. The array exhibits excellent energy resolution, ˜ 2 keV at ≤ 140 keV or 1.5% FWHM at 140 keV. The energy resolution is dominated by MUX readout noise and so should improve with MUX optimization for gamma-ray detection. The spatial resolution of the 48 × 48 Ge array is essentially the same as the pixel spacing, 125 μm. The quantum efficiency is limited by the thin Ge detector (0.25 mm), but this approach is readily applicable to thicker Ge detectors and room-temperature semiconductor detectors such as CdTe, HgI 2 and CdZnTe.

  6. Integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, Edward S.; Tan, Hongdong

    2002-05-14

    The present invention provides an integrated multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system for the analysis of sample analytes. The system integrates and automates multiple components, such as chromatographic columns and separation capillaries, and further provides a detector for the detection of analytes eluting from the separation capillaries. The system employs multiplexed freeze/thaw valves to manage fluid flow and sample movement. The system is computer controlled and is capable of processing samples through reaction, purification, denaturation, pre-concentration, injection, separation and detection in parallel fashion. Methods employing the system of the invention are also provided.

  7. A balanced, superconducting multiplier circuit for fast-switching and multiplexed qubit readout: Design and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenthal, Eric I.; Chapman, Benjamin J.; Moores, Brad A.; Kerckhoff, Joseph; Lehnert, K. W.

    Superconducting qubits hold great promise for the development of new quantum-information technology. Coherence times of individual transmon qubits in microwave cavities are consistently improving. While qubits are becoming well developed tools, scaling qubit readout for many-qubit architectures remains prohibitively complex and expensive. Here, we present a concept for a multipurpose device that enables time or code domain multiplexing of qubit readout. It is a two-port, microwave device that can be switched rapidly between three modes of operation: transmission, reflection and inversion. The design is based on a Wheatstone bridge-like structure of tunable inductors, which we realize with arrays of SQUIDs. A single bias line modulates the flux through the SQUIDs, and hence the imbalance of the bridge, putting the device in one of its three modes of operation. This talk will discuss the theory, design and layout behind the device and its potential use for multiplexing of qubit networks. The device is designed to operate over a broad bandwidth (4-8 GHz), and to have low dissipation, appropriate for integration with superconducting qubit networks.

  8. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The advance of new detector technologies combined with enhanced fabrication methods has resulted in an increase in development of large format arrays. The next generation of scientific instruments will utilize detectors containing hundreds to thousands of elements providing a more efficient means to conduct large area sky surveys. Some notable detectors include a 32x32 x-ray microcalorimeter for Constellation-X, an infrared bolometer called SAFIRE to fly on the airborne observatory SOFIA, and the sub-millimeter bolometer SCUBA-2 to be deployed at the JCMT which will use more than 10,000 elements for two colors, each color using four 32x40 arrays. Of these detectors, SCUBA-2 is farthest along in development and uses indium hybridization to multiplexers for readout of the large number of elements, a technology that will be required to enable the next generation of large format arrays. Our current efforts in working toward large format arrays have produced GISMO, the Goddard IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter observer. GISMO is a far infrared instrument to be field tested later this year at the IRAM 30 meter telescope in Spain. GISMO utilizes transition edge sensor (TES) technology in an 8x16 filled array format that allows for typical fan-out wiring and wire-bonding to four 1x32 NIST multiplexers. GISMO'S electrical wiring is routed along the tops of 30 micron walls which also serve as the mechanical framework for the array. This architecture works well for the 128 element array, but is approaching the limit for routing the necessary wires along the surface while maintaining a high fill factor. Larger format arrays will benefit greatly from making electrical connections through the wafer to the backside, where they can be hybridized to a read-out substrate tailored to handling the wiring scheme. The next generation array we are developing is a 32x40 element array on a pitch of 1135 microns that conforms to the NIST multiplexer, already developed for the SCUBA-2

  9. Frequency-domain multiplexed readout of transition-edge sensor arrays with a superconducting quantum interference device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanting, T. M.; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Clarke, John; Holzapfel, W. L.; Lee, Adrian T.; Lueker, M.; Richards, P. L.; Dobbs, Matt A.; Spieler, Helmuth; Smith, A.

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate an eight-channel frequency-domain readout multiplexer for superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs). Each sensor is biased with a sinusoidal voltage at a unique frequency. The sensor currents are summed and measured with a single superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) array. The 100-element SQUID array is operated with shunt feedback electronics that have a slew rate of 1.2×107Φ0/s at 1MHz. The multiplexer readout noise is 6.5pA/√Hz , which is well below the expected sensor noise of 15pA /√Hz . We measure an upper limit on adjacent channel crosstalk of 0.004, which meets our design requirements. The demodulated noise spectra of multiplexed TESs are white at frequencies down to 200mHz.

  10. Linearized superconducting quantum interference device array for high bandwidth frequency-domain readout multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Lanting, T; Dobbs, M; Spieler, H; Lee, A T; Yamamoto, Y

    2009-09-01

    We have designed and demonstrated a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) array linearized with cryogenic feedback. To achieve the necessary loop gain, a 300-element series array SQUID is constructed from three monolithic 100-element series arrays. A feedback resistor completes the loop from the SQUID output to the input coil. The short feedback path of this linearized SQUID array (LISA) allows for a substantially larger flux-locked loop bandwidth as compared to a SQUID flux-locked loop that includes a room temperature amplifier. The bandwidth, linearity, noise performance, and 3 Phi(0) dynamic range of the LISA are sufficient for its use in our target application: the multiplexed readout of transition-edge sensor bolometers. PMID:19791952

  11. Measurement of MKID Performance with High-Speed and Wide-Band Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatsu, Kenichi; Naruse, M.; Nitta, T.; Sekine, M.; Sekiguchi, S.; Sekimoto, Y.; Noguchi, T.; Uzawa, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Kiuchi, H.

    2014-08-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are being developed at the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan to enable precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background. One of the features of MKIDs is scalability using a frequency-division multiplexing (FDMUX) readout scheme. A digital fast fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS) is a good way to read out a number of resonance frequencies simultaneously and fully utilize the advantage of FDMUX of MKIDs. We have developed FFTS readout electronics using an ADC/DAC with 1 Gsps (sample per second) sampling rate and 270 MHz bandwidth. We measured the noise characteristics of a single MKID in the frequency range of 60 Hz-30 kHz with this readout system, and found the noise was almost equivalent to the noise measured by ordinary analog IQ down-converter readout. This indicates our FFTS electronics do not add any additional noise to the MKID readout system over the frequency range.

  12. Architecture and settings optimization procedure of a TES frequency domain multiplexed readout firmware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clenet, A.; Ravera, L.; Bertrand, B.; den Hartog, R.; Jackson, B.; van Leeuwen, B.-J.; van Loon, D.; Parot, Y.; Pointecouteau, E.; Sournac, A.

    2014-11-01

    IRAP is developing the readout electronics of the SPICA-SAFARI's TES bolometer arrays. Based on the frequency domain multiplexing technique the readout electronics provides the AC-signals to voltage-bias the detectors; it demodulates the data; and it computes a feedback to linearize the detection chain. The feedback is computed with a specific technique, so called baseband feedback (BBFB) which ensures that the loop is stable even with long propagation and processing delays (i.e. several μ s) and with fast signals (i.e. frequency carriers of the order of 5 MHz). To optimize the power consumption we took advantage of the reduced science signal bandwidth to decouple the signal sampling frequency and the data processing rate. This technique allowed a reduction of the power consumption of the circuit by a factor of 10. Beyond the firmware architecture the optimization of the instrument concerns the characterization routines and the definition of the optimal parameters. Indeed, to operate an array TES one has to properly define about 21000 parameters. We defined a set of procedures to automatically characterize these parameters and find out the optimal settings.

  13. Formularization and simulation of Bragg selectivity of readout signals in angular-multiplexing holographic data storage.

    PubMed

    Ide, Tatsuro

    2016-04-01

    Bragg selectivity of readout signals in angular-multiplexing holographic data storage was investigated. The effects of degrading factors, namely, volume change, refractive-index change, and positional change (tilt and rotation) of a hologram, and the effects of compensating variables, namely, wavelength shift and reference-beam-angle shift, on Bragg selectivity were evaluated. Deviation of wave vectors of recovered pixels of a hologram from the Bragg condition under degrading factors and compensating variables, namely, Bragg mismatch, Δσ, was mathematically derived. Approximating Δσ by using the first-order Maclaurin series with respect to degrading factors and compensating variables revealed their effects on Bragg selectivity. The extent to which wavelength and angle of reference beam should be shifted to compensate for the degrading factors were determined. Then, readout images were simulated under multiple degrading factors and compensating variables. These simulated images were found to agree well with the experimentally obtained ones, which reveals the validity of the formalization of Bragg selectivity. PMID:27139671

  14. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2008-04-01

    In our effort to develop large format kilo-pixel arrays of transition edge sensors, we are working toward demonstrating electrical connectivity of a hybridized 32×40 element detector to a NIST multiplexer. The geometry of large-scale arrays that attempt to maintain a high filling factor does not allow for typical fan-out wiring, thus the detector array is hybridized directly to the readout multiplexer. The two parts are bonded together with 10 micron tall indium bumps, which complete the electrical path and also provide mechanical strength. The indium hybridization was developed and performed at the Goddard Space Flight Center and has been shown to withstand tensile loading up to 0.26 gram-force per indium bump. A cavity is deep etched behind each pixel prior to bonding, leaving only 30 micron support walls, which maintains a high filling fraction. Electrical continuity has been shown through the indium path in room temperature measurements. We report on the fabrication process used to hybridize the parts and the subsequent electrical performance.

  15. Gravity Probe B gyroscope readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhlfelder, B.; Lockhart, J.; Aljabreen, H.; Clarke, B.; Gutt, G.; Luo, M.

    2015-11-01

    We describe the Gravity Probe B London-moment readout system successfully used on-orbit to measure two gyroscope spin axis drift rates predicted by general relativity. The system couples the magnetic signal of a spinning niobium-coated rotor into a low noise superconducting quantum interference device. We describe the multi-layered magnetic shield needed to attenuate external fields that would otherwise degrade readout performance. We discuss the ∼35 nrad/yr drift rate sensitivity that was achieved on-orbit.

  16. Electronic readout systems for microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timothy, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    The modes of operation of position-sensitive electronic readout systems which use high-gain microchannel plate (MCP) electron multipliers are described, and their performance characteristics, along with those of the MCP, are compared. Among the structures presented are the wedge-and-strip, Codacon, and multilayer coincidence-anode MAMA (Multimode Microchannel Array) arrays. Spatial resolution of 25 x 25 sq microns (coincidence anode arrays) is achieved with an array format of 256 x 1024 pixels. On the basis of the performance data it is concluded that the readout systems using only conducting electrodes offer the best performance characteristics.

  17. Very Low Noise Multiplexing with SQUIDs and SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors for Readout of Large Superconducting Bolometer Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, F.; Bréelle, E.; Piat, M.; Prêle, D.; Klisnick, G.; Sou, G.; Redon, M.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents an ultra low noise instrumentation based on a standard BiCMOS SiGe 0.35 μm ASIC operating at cryogenic temperatures. The main functions of the electronic circuit are the readout and the multiplexing of SQUIDs/TES. We report the cryogenic operation of the ASIC dedicated to the readout of a 2×4 pixel demonstrator array. We particularly emphasize on the development and the test phases of an ultra low noise ( 0.2 nV/sqrt{Hz} ) cryogenic amplifier designed with two multiplexed inputs. The cryogenic SiGe amplifier coupled to a SQUID in a FLL operating at 4.2 K is also presented.

  18. Very-low-noise multiplexing with SQUIDs and SiGe HBTs for readout of large superconducting bolometer arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prêle, D.; Klisnick, G.; Sou, G.; Redon, M.; Bréelle, E.; Voisin, F.; Piat, M.

    2007-08-01

    We present an ultra-low-noise instrumentation based on a standard BiCMOS SiGe 0.35 μm ASIC operating at cryogenic temperatures. The main functions of the electronic circuit are the readout and the multiplexing of SQUIDs/TES arrays. We report the cryogenic operation of the ASIC dedicated to the readout of a 2×4 pixel demonstrator array. We particularly emphasise on the development, and the test phases of an ultra-low-noise (0.2 nV/√Hz) cryogenic amplifier designed with two multiplexed input. The cryogenic SiGe amplifier coupled to a SQUID in a FLL operating at 4.2 K is also presented.

  19. White noise of Nb-based microwave superconducting quantum interference device multiplexers with NbN coplanar resonators for readout of transition edge sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohjiro, Satoshi; Hirayama, Fuminori; Yamamori, Hirotake; Nagasawa, Shuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Hidaka, Mutsuo

    2014-06-01

    White noise of dissipationless microwave radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (RF-SQUID) multiplexers has been experimentally studied to evaluate their readout performance for transition edge sensor (TES) photon counters ranging from near infrared to gamma ray. The characterization has been carried out at 4 K, first to avoid the low-frequency fluctuations present at around 0.1 K, and second, for a feasibility study of readout operation at 4 K for extended applications. To increase the resonant Q at 4 K and maintain low noise SQUID operation, multiplexer chips consisting of niobium nitride (NbN)-based coplanar-waveguide resonators and niobium (Nb)-based RF-SQUIDs have been developed. This hybrid multiplexer exhibited 1 × 104 ≤ Q ≤ 2 × 104 and the square root of spectral density of current noise referred to the SQUID input √SI = 31 pA/√Hz. The former and the latter are factor-of-five and seven improvements from our previous results on Nb-based resonators, respectively. Two-directional readout on the complex plane of the transmission component of scattering matrix S21 enables us to distinguish the flux noise from noise originating from other sources, such as the cryogenic high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier. Systematic noise measurements with various microwave readout powers PMR make it possible to distinguish the contribution of noise sources within the system as follows: (1) The achieved √SI is dominated by the Nyquist noise from a resistor at 4 K in parallel to the SQUID input coil which is present to prevent microwave leakage to the TES. (2) The next dominant source is either the HEMT-amplifier noise (for small values of PMR) or the quantization noise due to the resolution of 300-K electronics (for large values of PMR). By a decrease of these noise levels to a degree that is achievable by current technology, we predict that the microwave RF-SQUID multiplexer can exhibit √SI ≤ 5 pA/√Hz, i.e., close to √SI of

  20. White noise of Nb-based microwave superconducting quantum interference device multiplexers with NbN coplanar resonators for readout of transition edge sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Kohjiro, Satoshi; Hirayama, Fuminori; Yamamori, Hirotake; Nagasawa, Shuichi; Fukuda, Daiji; Hidaka, Mutsuo

    2014-06-14

    White noise of dissipationless microwave radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (RF-SQUID) multiplexers has been experimentally studied to evaluate their readout performance for transition edge sensor (TES) photon counters ranging from near infrared to gamma ray. The characterization has been carried out at 4 K, first to avoid the low-frequency fluctuations present at around 0.1 K, and second, for a feasibility study of readout operation at 4 K for extended applications. To increase the resonant Q at 4 K and maintain low noise SQUID operation, multiplexer chips consisting of niobium nitride (NbN)-based coplanar-waveguide resonators and niobium (Nb)-based RF-SQUIDs have been developed. This hybrid multiplexer exhibited 1 × 10{sup 4} ≤ Q ≤ 2 × 10{sup 4} and the square root of spectral density of current noise referred to the SQUID input √S{sub I} = 31 pA/√Hz. The former and the latter are factor-of-five and seven improvements from our previous results on Nb-based resonators, respectively. Two-directional readout on the complex plane of the transmission component of scattering matrix S{sub 21} enables us to distinguish the flux noise from noise originating from other sources, such as the cryogenic high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier. Systematic noise measurements with various microwave readout powers P{sub MR} make it possible to distinguish the contribution of noise sources within the system as follows: (1) The achieved √S{sub I} is dominated by the Nyquist noise from a resistor at 4 K in parallel to the SQUID input coil which is present to prevent microwave leakage to the TES. (2) The next dominant source is either the HEMT-amplifier noise (for small values of P{sub MR}) or the quantization noise due to the resolution of 300-K electronics (for large values of P{sub MR}). By a decrease of these noise levels to a degree that is achievable by current technology, we predict that the

  1. Laser multiplexing system

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Steve A.; English, Jr., Ronald Edward; White, Ronald K.

    2001-01-01

    A plurality of copper lasers, as radiant power sources, emits a beam of power carrying radiation. A plurality of fiber injection assemblies receives power from the plurality of copper lasers and injects such power into a plurality of fibers for individually transmitting the received power to a plurality of power-receiving devices. The power-transmitting fibers of the system are so arranged that power is delivered therethrough to each of the power-receiving devices such that, even if a few of the radiant power sources and/or fibers fail, the power supply to any of the power receiving devices will not completely drop to zero but will drop by the same proportionate amount.

  2. A 48x48 CdZnTe array with multiplexer readout

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, D.G.; Barber, H.B.; Barrett, H.H.

    1996-06-01

    The authors report results of gamma-ray imaging and energy-resolution tests of a 48x48 CdZnTe array. The detectors have 125 {micro}m square pixel electrodes produced by photolithography and are indium-bump-bonded to a multiplexer readout circuit. Using a collimated beam of 140 keV gamma rays of 120 {micro}m diameter centered on one pixel, they found that the majority of events produced significant charge deposition in nearby pixels. Charge and energy are transported out of the pixel by charge diffusion, photoelectron range, Compton scattering, and escape of K x-rays. These effects also distort single-pixel spectra, although photopeaks are still discernible at 140 keV. When signals from neighboring pixels are summed together to correct for this charge spreading, an energy resolution of 10 keV is obtained at 140 keV. Corrections will be simpler and energy resolution should be better for the 380 {micro}m pixels of the 64x64 CdZnTe arrays the authors are constructing for an ultra-high-resolution brain imager.

  3. Embedded controller for GEM detector readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.; Byszuk, Adrian; Chernyshova, Maryna; Cieszewski, Radosław; Czarski, Tomasz; Dominik, Wojciech; Jakubowska, Katarzyna L.; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Poźniak, Krzysztof; Rzadkiewicz, Jacek; Scholz, Marek

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the embedded controller used for the multichannel readout system for the GEM detector. The controller is based on the embedded Mini ITX mainboard, running the GNU/Linux operating system. The controller offers two interfaces to communicate with the FPGA based readout system. FPGA configuration and diagnostics is controlled via low speed USB based interface, while high-speed setup of the readout parameters and reception of the measured data is handled by the PCI Express (PCIe) interface. Hardware access is synchronized by the dedicated server written in C. Multiple clients may connect to this server via TCP/IP network, and different priority is assigned to individual clients. Specialized protocols have been implemented both for low level access on register level and for high level access with transfer of structured data with "msgpack" protocol. High level functionalities have been split between multiple TCP/IP servers for parallel operation. Status of the system may be checked, and basic maintenance may be performed via web interface, while the expert access is possible via SSH server. System was designed with reliability and flexibility in mind.

  4. Study of spacecraft direct readout meteorological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R.; Elam, W.; Hoedemaker, R.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics are defined of the next generation direct readout meteorological satellite system with particular application to Tiros N. Both space and ground systems are included. The recommended space system is composed of four geosynchronous satellites and two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit. The goesynchronous satellites transmit to direct readout ground stations via a shared S-band link, relayed FOFAX satellite cloud cover pictures (visible and infrared) and weather charts (WEFAX). Basic sensor data is transmitted to regional Data Utilization Stations via the same S-band link. Basic sensor data consists of 0.5 n.m. sub-point resolution data in the 0.55 - 0.7 micron spectral region, and 4.0 n.m. resolution data in the 10.5 - 12.6 micron spectral region. The two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit provide data to direct readout ground stations via a 137 MHz link, a 400 Mhz link, and an S-band link.

  5. Architecture of a modular, multichannel readout system for dense electrochemical biosensor microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramfos, Ioannis; Blionas, Spyridon; Birbas, Alexios

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of a modular, multichannel readout system for dense electrochemical microarrays, targeting Lab-on-a-Chip applications, is presented. This approach promotes efficient component reusability through a hybrid multiplexing methodology, maintaining high levels of sampling performance and accuracy. Two readout modes are offered, which can be dynamically interchanged following signal profiling, to cater for both rapid signal transitions and weak current responses. Additionally, functional extensions to the described architecture are discussed, which provide the system with multi-biasing capabilities. A prototype integrated circuit of the proposed architecture’s analog core and a supporting board were implemented to verify the working principles. The system was evaluated using standard loads, as well as electrochemical sensor arrays. Through a range of operating conditions and loads, the prototype exhibited a highly linear response and accurately delivered the readout of input signals with fast transitions and wide dynamic ranges.

  6. Asynchronous data readout system for multichannel ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, P. Y.; Atkin, E. V.

    2016-02-01

    The data readout system of multichannel data-driven ASIC, requiring high-speed (320 Mb/s) output data serialization is described. Its structure, based on a limited number of FIFO blocks, provides a lossless data transfer. The solution has been realized as a separate test IP block in the prototyped 8 channel ASIC, intended for the muon chamber of CBM experiment at FAIR. The block was developed for the UMC 0.18 μm MMRF CMOS process and prototyped via Europractice. Main parameters of the chip are given.

  7. Integrated multi-crate FERA readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Kistryn, S.; Bee, C.P.; Eberhardt, P.

    1997-12-31

    We discuss a moderate-size readout system based entirely on FERA compatible units. The implementation of a specially developed FERA Extender module is presented, whose main feature is the ability to distribute the system over many CAMAC crates. This provides a convenient way of splitting the FERA bus into several virtually independent sub-systems driven by individual gate signals. Tagging of the event fragments from each sub-system with an event number incremented on the arrival of each master gate, provides a convenient means of reconstructing the full event at a later stage. An example of the external supplementary FERA control logic required for a complex multi-crate and multi-gate system controlled by a single FERA Manager, is also discussed together with some remarks on the system performance.

  8. Development of a new readout system for the near-infrared detector of HONIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ui, Takahiro; Sako, Shigeyuki; Yamashita, Takuya; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Moritani, Yuki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Urano, Takeshi; Ueno, Issei; Ohsugi, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Nakao, Hikaru; Hashiba, Yasuhito

    2014-08-01

    We developed a new readout system for the near-infrared detector VIRGO-2K (2kx2k HgCdTe array) installed in the optical-infrared simultaneous camera, HONIR, for the 1.5 m Kanata telescope at Higashi-Hiroshima observatory. The main goal of this development is to read out one frame within ~ 1 second through 16 output readout mode of the detector, in order to reduce the overhead time per exposure. The system is based on a CCD controller, Kiso Array Controller (KAC). We redesigned the analog part of KAC to fit VIRGO-2K. We employed a fully differential input circuit and a third order Bessel low-pass filter for noise reduction and a constant current system to improve the linearity of the detector. We set the cutoff frequency of the Bessel low-pass filter at the readout clock rate (120 kHz). We also set the constant current at 200 μA according to the data sheet of VIRGO-2K. We tested the new readout system at room temperature and confirmed that the low-pass filter works well as designed. The fluctuation of the current level of the constant current system is less than 2% for the typical output voltage range of VIRGO-2K (3.2-4.4 V). We measured the readout noise caused by the new readout system (connected to cooled multiplexer) and found that it is 30-40 μV rms, being comparable to or slightly higher than the typical readout noise of VIRGO-2K, ˜ 37 μV rms.

  9. A new interpolation arithmetic based readout signals process method for infrared imaging system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinyi; Yao, Suying; Zhao, Yiqiang

    2009-07-01

    A new readout signals process circuit for infrared focal plane array (IR FPA) applications is proposed. In the proposed structure the continuous-time current signals from the detector array are mirrored, amplified, integrated on the integration capacitors and changed to discrete analog voltage signals. Next, these voltage signals are amplified and modulated by a group of encoded signals from the column buses, then fed to a multiple-input analog adder to generate a single serial output data stream. The generated single serial data stream is transferred to the mitigate noise circuit and is converted to digital signals by the A/D converter. For very large format detector arrays applications the speed restriction of the time-multiplexing circuitry and the A/D converter will be released. Since no scan technique has been used, all the output signals from an entire row in the detector array have been readout simultaneously without loss of optical power, the scalability of the photon-signals, the readout efficiency and the accuracy of the imaging system will be improved. Theory analysis and experimental results show that the proposed idea is reasonable and efficient. The proposed readout method is a solid option for large format infrared detector arrays and highly integrated infrared imaging system applications. In addition, the proposed idea also can be used for other active and passive imaging readout integrated circuits.

  10. Miniaturized, multiplexed readout of droplet-based microfluidic assays using time-domain modulation†

    PubMed Central

    Muluneh, Melaku; Kim, Bawul; Buchsbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in microfluidics to generate and control picoliter emulsions of water in oil have enabled ultra-sensitive assays for small molecules, proteins, nucleic acids, and cells. Unfortunately, the conventional fluorescence detection used to measure the outcome of these droplet-based assays has not proven suited to match the time and space multiplexing capabilities of microfluidic systems. To address this challenge, we developed an in-flow fluorescence detection platform that enables multiple streams of droplets to be monitored using only a single photodetector and no lenses. The key innovation of our technology is the amplitude modulation of the signal from fluorescent droplets using distinct micro-patterned masks for each channel. By taking advantage of the high bandwidth of electronics, our technique enables the velocity-independent recovery of weak fluorescent signals (SNR ≪ 1) using only simple hardware, obviating the need for lasers, bulky detectors, and complex fluid control. We demonstrated a handheld-sized device that simultaneously monitors four independent channels with the capability to be scaled-up to more than sixteen, limited primarily by the droplet density. PMID:25311204

  11. Numerical data frame readout system used in testing telemetry systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cote, C. E.; Cressey, J. R.

    1967-01-01

    Digital telemetry systems are treated by a display system that offers direct readout as high data rates. The rates appear in numerical format and are adaptable to photographic recording techniques. The system can show bit dropouts at a memory output or locate a malfunction in a system.

  12. Optical encryption system using quadrature multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammed Nazrul; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2006-08-01

    Optical security systems have attracted much research interest recently for information security and fraud deterrent applications. A number of encryption techniques have been proposed in the literature, which includes double random-phase encryption, polarization encoding, encryption and verification using a multiplexed minimum average correlation energy phase-encrypted filter. Most of these reports employ a pseudo-random code for each information to be encrypted, where it requires individual storage capacity or transmission channel for further processing of each information. The objective of this paper is to develop an optical encryption system employing quadrature multiplexing to enhance the storage/transmission capacity of the system. Two information signals are encrypted using the same code but employing two orthogonal functions and then they are multiplexed together in the same domain. As the orthogonal functions have zero cross-correlation between them, so the encrypted information are expected to be unaffected by each other. Each encryption and multiplexing process can accommodate two information signals for a single code and a single storage cell or transmission channel. The same process can be performed in multiple steps to increase the multiplexing capability of the system. For decryption purpose, the composite encoded signal is correlated using the appropriate code and the appropriate function. The proposed technique has been found to work excellent in computer simulation with binary as well as gray level images. It has also been verified that the encrypted images remain secure, because no unwanted reproduction is possible without having the appropriate code and function.

  13. Self-triggering readout system for the neutron lifetime experiment PENeLOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisbauer, D.; Konorov, I.; Steffen, D.; Paul, S.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of PENeLOPE (Precision Experiment on Neutron Lifetime Operating with Proton Extraction) at the Forschungsreaktor München II is a high-precision measurement of the neutron lifetime and thereby an improvement of the parameter's precision by one order of magnitude. In order to achieve a higher accuracy, modern experiments naturally require state-of-the-art readout electronics, as well as high-performance data acquisition systems. This paper presents the self-triggering readout system designed for PENeLOPE which features a continuous pedestal tracking, configurable signal detection logic, floating ground up to 30 kV, cryogenic environment and the novel Switched Enabling Protocol (SEP). The SEP is a time-division multiplexing transport level protocol developed for a star network topology.

  14. Multiplexed Oversampling Digitizer in 65 nm CMOS for Column-Parallel CCD Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, Carl; Walder, Jean-Pierre; von der Lippe, Henrik

    2012-04-10

    A digitizer designed to read out column-parallel charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used for high-speed X-ray imaging is presented. The digitizer is included as part of the High-Speed Image Preprocessor with Oversampling (HIPPO) integrated circuit. The digitizer module comprises a multiplexed, oversampling, 12-bit, 80 MS/s pipelined Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) and a bank of four fast-settling sample-and-hold amplifiers to instrument four analog channels. The ADC multiplexes and oversamples to reduce its area to allow integration that is pitch-matched to the columns of the CCD. Novel design techniques are used to enable oversampling and multiplexing with a reduced power penalty. The ADC exhibits 188 ?V-rms noise which is less than 1 LSB at a 12-bit level. The prototype is implemented in a commercially available 65 nm CMOS process. The digitizer will lead to a proof-of-principle 2D 10 Gigapixel/s X-ray detector.

  15. FASTBUS readout system for the CDF DAQ upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Andresen, J.; Areti, H.; Black, D.

    1993-11-01

    The Data Acquisition System (DAQ) at the Collider Detector at Fermilab is currently being upgraded to handle a minimum of 100 events/sec for an aggregate bandwidth that is at least 25 Mbytes/sec. The DAQ System is based on a commercial switching network that has interfaces to VME bus. The modules that readout the front end crates (FASTBUS and RABBIT) have to deliver the data to the VME bus based host adapters of the switch. This paper describes a readout system that has the required bandwidth while keeping the experiment dead time due to the readout to a minimum.

  16. A CMOS readout system for very large detector capacitances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeneberg, U.; Hosticka, B. J.; Fent, J.; Oberlack, H.; Zimmer, G.

    1990-03-01

    In this contribution we present readout electronics for a liquid-argon calorimeter. It has been designed and optimized for operation at cryogenic temperatures and it is integrated in an n-well 2 μm CMOS technology. The chip contains 16 analog channels with switched-capacitor circuits for charge collection, storage, and amplification, and averaging and correlated double sampling circuits for noise reduction. Further components include a trigger generator, an analog multiplexer, digital control circuits for analog switching, and 50 ω cable drivers.

  17. High speed readout electronics development for frequency-multiplexed kinetic inductance detector design optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrion, O.; Vescovi, C.; Catalano, A.; Calvo, M.; D'Addabbo, A.; Goupy, J.; Boudou, N.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Monfardini, A.

    2013-12-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKID) are a promising solution for space-borne mm-wave astronomy. To optimize their design and make them insensitive to the ballistic phonons created by cosmic-ray interactions in the substrate, the phonon propagation in silicon must be studied. A dedicated fast readout electronics, using channelized Digital Down Conversion for monitoring up to 12 MKIDs over a 100 MHz bandwidth was developed. Thanks to the fast ADC sampling and steep digital filtering, In-phase and Quadrature samples, having a high dynamic range, are provided at ~ 2 Msps. This paper describes the technical solution chosen and the results obtained.

  18. Frequency-domain multiplex with eight-input SQUID and readout electronics over 1 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masui, K.; Takei, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Kimura, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.

    2006-04-01

    In a magnetic summation method, TES and SQUID driving circuits are isolated and thus small crosstalk and stray impedance are expected. Since a FLL circuit with a large bandwidth and a small noise level is required for a SQUID, we designed and produced an electronics to meet our design of multiplexing with an 8-input SQUID. The FLL circuit achieved an open loop-gain bandwidth product of 8 MHz with 1 m wire length, which is enough for a TES to be operated with a bias current of 70 μA, and a noise level of 30 pA/√{Hz}.

  19. A generic readout system for astrophysical detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doumayrou, E.; Lortholary, M.

    2012-09-01

    We have developed a generic digital platform to fulfill the needs for the development of new detectors in astrophysics, which is used in lab, for ground-based telescopes instruments and also in prototype versions for space instruments development. This system is based on hardware FPGA electronic board (called MISE) together with software on a PC computer (called BEAR). The MISE board generates the fast clocking which reads the detectors thanks to a programmable digital sequencer and performs data acquisition, buffering of digitalized pixels outputs and interfaces with others boards. The data are then sent to the PC via a SpaceWire or Usb link. The BEAR software sets the MISE board up, makes data acquisition and enables the visualization, processing and the storage of data in line. These software tools are made of C++ and Labview (NI) on a Linux OS. MISE and BEAR make a generic acquisition architecture, on which dedicated analog boards are plugged, so that to accommodate with detectors specificity: number of pixels, the readout channels and frequency, analog bias and clock interfaces. We have used this concept to build a camera for the P-ARTEMIS project including a 256 pixels sub-millimeter bolometer detector at 10Kpixel/s (SPIE 7741-12 (2010)). For the EUCLID project, a lab camera is now working for the test of CCDs 4Mpixels at 4*200Kpixel/s. Another is working for the testing of new near infrared detectors (NIR LFSA for the ESA TRP program) 110Kpixels at 2*100Kpixels/s. Other projects are in progress for the space missions PLATO and SPICA.

  20. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Taylor, John A.

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

  1. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, Edward S.; Taylor, John A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis.

  2. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1994-06-28

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figures.

  3. Multiplexed fluorescence detector system for capillary electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Taylor, J.A.

    1996-03-12

    A fluorescence detection system for capillary electrophoresis is provided wherein the detection system can simultaneously excite fluorescence and substantially simultaneously monitor separations in multiple capillaries. This multiplexing approach involves laser irradiation of a sample in a plurality of capillaries through optical fibers that are coupled individually with the capillaries. The array is imaged orthogonally through a microscope onto a charge-coupled device camera for signal analysis. 14 figs.

  4. A double photomultiplier Compton camera and its readout system for mice imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontana, Cristiano Lino; Atroshchenko, Kostiantyn; Baldazzi, Giuseppe; Bello, Michele; Uzunov, Nikolay; Di Domenico, Giovanni Di

    2013-04-01

    We have designed a Compton Camera (CC) to image the bio-distribution of gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in mice. A CC employs the "electronic collimation", i.e. a technique that traces the gamma-rays instead of selecting them with physical lead or tungsten collimators. To perform such a task, a CC measures the parameters of the Compton interaction that occurs in the device itself. At least two detectors are required: one (tracker), where the primary gamma undergoes a Compton interaction and a second one (calorimeter), in which the scattered gamma is completely absorbed. Eventually the polar angle and hence a "cone" of possible incident directions are obtained (event with "incomplete geometry"). Different solutions for the two detectors are proposed in the literature: our design foresees two similar Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PMT, Hamamatsu H8500). Each PMT has 64 output channels that are reduced to 4 using a charge multiplexed readout system, i.e. a Series Charge Multiplexing net of resistors. Triggering of the system is provided by the coincidence of fast signals extracted at the last dynode of the PMTs. Assets are the low cost and the simplicity of design and operation, having just one type of device; among drawbacks there is a lower resolution with respect to more sophisticated trackers and full 64 channels Readout. This paper does compare our design of our two-Hamamatsu CC to other solutions and shows how the spatial and energy accuracy is suitable for the inspection of radioactivity in mice.

  5. A double photomultiplier Compton camera and its readout system for mice imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, Cristiano Lino; Atroshchenko, Kostiantyn; Baldazzi, Giuseppe; Uzunov, Nikolay; Di Domenico, Giovanni

    2013-04-19

    We have designed a Compton Camera (CC) to image the bio-distribution of gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals in mice. A CC employs the 'electronic collimation', i.e. a technique that traces the gamma-rays instead of selecting them with physical lead or tungsten collimators. To perform such a task, a CC measures the parameters of the Compton interaction that occurs in the device itself. At least two detectors are required: one (tracker), where the primary gamma undergoes a Compton interaction and a second one (calorimeter), in which the scattered gamma is completely absorbed. Eventually the polar angle and hence a 'cone' of possible incident directions are obtained (event with 'incomplete geometry'). Different solutions for the two detectors are proposed in the literature: our design foresees two similar Position Sensitive Photomultipliers (PMT, Hamamatsu H8500). Each PMT has 64 output channels that are reduced to 4 using a charge multiplexed readout system, i.e. a Series Charge Multiplexing net of resistors. Triggering of the system is provided by the coincidence of fast signals extracted at the last dynode of the PMTs. Assets are the low cost and the simplicity of design and operation, having just one type of device; among drawbacks there is a lower resolution with respect to more sophisticated trackers and full 64 channels Readout. This paper does compare our design of our two-Hamamatsu CC to other solutions and shows how the spatial and energy accuracy is suitable for the inspection of radioactivity in mice.

  6. The cryogenic readout system with GaAs JFETs for multi-pixel cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibi, Y.; Matsuo, H.; Nagata, H.; Ikeda, H.; Fujiwara, M.

    2010-11-01

    Our purpose is to realize a multi-pixel sub-millimeter/terahertz camera with the superconductor - insulator - superconductor photon detectors. These detectors must be cooled below 1 K. Since these detectors have high impedance, signal amplifiers of each pixel must be setting aside of them for precise signal readout. Therefore, it is desirable that the readout system work well even in cryogenic temperature. We selected the n-type GaAs JFETs as cryogenic circuit elements. From our previous studies, the n-type GaAs JFETs have good cryogenic properties even when those power dissipations are low. We have designed several kinds of integration circuits (ICs) and demonstrated their performance at cryogenic temperature. Contents of ICs are following; AC coupled trans-impedance amplifiers, voltage distributors for suppressing input offset voltage of AC coupled CTIAs, multiplexers with sample-and holds, and shift-registers for controlling multiplex timing. The power dissipation of each circuit is 0.5 to 3 micro watts per channel. We also have designed and manufactured 32-channel multi-chip-modules with these ICs. These modules can make 32- channel input photo current signals into one or two serial output voltage signal(s). Size of these is 40mm x 30mm x 2mm and estimated total power dissipation is around 400 micro watts.

  7. A Digital Readout System For The CSO Microwave Kinetic Inductance Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max-Moerbeck, Walter; Mazin, B. A.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2007-12-01

    Submillimeter galaxies are important to the understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Determination of the spectral energy distribution in the millimeter and submillimeter regimes allows important and powerful diagnostics. Our group is developing a camera for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) using Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs). MKIDs are superconducting devices whose impedance changes with the absorption of photons. The camera will have 600 spatial pixels and 4 bands at 750 μm, 850 μm, 1.1 mm and 1.3 mm. For each spatial pixel of the camera the radiation is coupled to the MKIDs using phased-array antennas. This signal is split into 4 different bands using filters and detected using the superconductor as part of a MKID's resonant circuit. The detection process consists of measurement of the changes in the transmission through the resonator when it is illuminated. By designing resonant circuits to have different resonant frequencies and high transmission out resonance, MKIDs can be frequency-domain multiplexed. This allows the simultaneous readout of many detectors through a single coaxial cable. The readout system makes use of microwave IQ modulation and is based on commercial electronics components operating at room temperature. The basic readout has been demonstrated on the CSO. We are working on the implementation of an improved design to be tested on a prototype system with 6x6 pixels and 4 colors next April on the CSO.

  8. Spatial distribution read-out system for thermoluminescence sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, I.; Tomiyama, T.; Imaeda, K.; Ninagawa, K.; Wada, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    A spatial distribution read-out system of thermoluminescence (TL) sheets is developed. This system consists of high gain image intensifier, a CCD-TV camera, a video image processor and a host computer. This system has been applied to artificial TL sheets (BaSO4:Eu doped) for detecting high energy electromagnetic shower and heavy nuclei tracks.

  9. Time division multiplexed orbital angular momentum access system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jianyang; Fang, Yuan; Chi, Nan

    2016-03-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate time division multiplexed orbital angular momentum (OAM) access system to increase transmission capacity and spectral efficiency. In this system, data carried on different time tributaries share the same OAM mode. Multiple time division multiplexed OAM modes are multiplexed to realize two-dimensional (time dimension and OAM dimension) multiplexing. Therefore, the capacity and spectral efficiency of the access system will increase. The orthogonality between optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) and OAM techniques is also verified in our experiment. In a proof-of-concept experiment, 2×5-Gbps return-to-zero signal over OAM mode +4 is transmitted and investigated. The bit error ratio performance after transmission in this system can be smaller than 1×10-9. Results show that the proposed time division multiplexed OAM access system is suitable for future broadband access network.

  10. A compact light readout system for longitudinally segmented shashlik calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Brizzolari, C.; Cecchini, S.; Cindolo, F.; Jollet, C.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Meregaglia, A.; Paoloni, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Prest, M.; Sirri, G.; Terranova, F.; Vallazza, E.; Votano, L.

    2016-09-01

    The longitudinal segmentation of shashlik calorimeters is challenged by dead zones and non-uniformities introduced by the light collection and readout system. This limitation can be overcome by direct fiber-photosensor coupling, avoiding routing and bundling of the wavelength shifter fibers and embedding ultra-compact photosensors (SiPMs) in the bulk of the calorimeter. We present the first experimental test of this readout scheme performed at the CERN PS-T9 beamline in 2015 with negative particles in the 1-5 GeV energy range. In this paper, we demonstrate that the scheme does not compromise the energy resolution and linearity compared with standard light collection and readout systems. In addition, we study the performance of the calorimeter for partially contained charged hadrons to assess the e / π separation capability and the response of the photosensors to direct ionization.

  11. Upgrade of the D0 luminosity monitor readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, John; Bridges, Lloyd; Casey, Brendan; Enari, Yuji; Green, Johnny; Johnson, Marvin; Kwarciany, Rick; Miao, Chyi-Chiang; Partridge, Richard; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Wang, Jigang; /Brown U. /Fermilab

    2006-12-01

    We describe upgrades to the readout system for the D0 Luminosity Monitor. The D0 Luminosity Monitor consists of plastic scintillation detectors with fine-mesh photomultiplier readout that cover the pseudorapidity range 2.7 < |{eta}| < 4.4. The detector is designed to provide a precise measurement of the rate for non-diffractive inelastic collisions that is used to calculate the TeVatron luminosity at D0. The new readout system is based on custom VME electronics that make precise time-of-flight and charge measurements for each luminosity counter. These measurements are used to identify beam crossings with non-diffractive interactions by requiring in-time hits in both the forward and backward luminosity counters. We have also significantly increased signal/noise for the photomultiplier signals by developing a new front-end preamplifier and improving the grounding scheme.

  12. READOUT SYSTEM FOR ARRAYS OF FRISCH-RING CDZNTE DETECTORS.

    SciTech Connect

    CUI, Y.; BOLOTNIKOV, A.E.; CAMARDA, G.S.; DE GERONIMO, G.; O'CONNOR, P.; JAMES, R.B.; KARGAR, A.; HARRISON, M.J.; MCGREGOR, D.S.

    2006-10-29

    Frisch-ring CdZnTe detectors have demonstrated good energy resolution for identifying isotopes, <1% FWHM at 662 keV, and good efficiency for detecting gamma rays. We will fabricate and test at Brookhaven National Laboratory an integrated module of a 64-element array of 6 x 6 x 12 mm{sup 3} Frisch-ring detectors, coupled with a readout electronics system. It supports 64 readout channels, and includes front-end electronics, signal processing circuit, USB interface and high-voltage power supply. The data-acquisition software is used to process the data stream, which includes amplitude and timing information for each detected event. This paper describes the design and assembly of the detector modules, readout electronics, and a conceptual prototype system. Some test results are also reported.

  13. The NA62 liquid Krypton calorimeter's new readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Fantechi, R.; Farthouat, P.; Lamanna, G.; Rouet, J.; Ryjov, V.; Venditti, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the experiment photon-veto system; to cope with the new requirements, the back-end electronics of the LKr had to be completely renewed. Due to the huge number of the calorimeter readout channels ( ~ 14 K) and the maintenance requirement over 10 years of the experiment lifetime, the decision to sub-contract the development and production to industry was taken in 2011. This paper presents the primary test results of the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3] prototype delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013. All essential features, analog performance, data processing and readout, are covered.

  14. Development of the rf-SQUID Based Multiplexing System for the HOLMES Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puiu, A.; Becker, D.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Ferri, E.; Fowler, J.; Gard, J.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G.; Giachero, A.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Nucciotti, A.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring the neutrino mass is one of the most compelling issues in particle physics. The European Research Council has funded HOLMES, a new experiment for a direct measurement of neutrino mass that started in 2014. HOLMES will perform a precise measurement of the end point of the Electron Capture decay spectrum of ^{163} Ho in order to extract information on neutrino mass with a sensitivity as low as 0.4 eV. HOLMES, in its final configuration, will deploy a 1000 pixel array of low-temperature microcalorimeters: each calorimeter consists of an absorber, where the Ho atoms will be implanted, coupled to a transition edge sensor thermometer. The read out for an array of 1000 cryogenic detectors is a crucial matter: for HOLMES, a special radio-frequency-based multiplexing system is being developed. In this contribution, we outline the performance and special features of the multiplexing system and readout methods chosen for HOLMES.

  15. Development of the rf-SQUID Based Multiplexing System for the HOLMES Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puiu, A.; Becker, D.; Bennett, D.; Faverzani, M.; Ferri, E.; Fowler, J.; Gard, J.; Hays-Wehle, J.; Hilton, G.; Giachero, A.; Maino, M.; Mates, J.; Nucciotti, A.; Schmidt, D.; Swetz, D.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.

    2016-07-01

    Measuring the neutrino mass is one of the most compelling issues in particle physics. The European Research Council has funded HOLMES, a new experiment for a direct measurement of neutrino mass that started in 2014. HOLMES will perform a precise measurement of the end point of the Electron Capture decay spectrum of ^{163}Ho in order to extract information on neutrino mass with a sensitivity as low as 0.4 eV. HOLMES, in its final configuration, will deploy a 1000 pixel array of low-temperature microcalorimeters: each calorimeter consists of an absorber, where the Ho atoms will be implanted, coupled to a transition edge sensor thermometer. The read out for an array of 1000 cryogenic detectors is a crucial matter: for HOLMES, a special radio-frequency-based multiplexing system is being developed. In this contribution, we outline the performance and special features of the multiplexing system and readout methods chosen for HOLMES.

  16. Development of Readout System for the CALET Scintillating Fiber Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, T.; Torii, S.; Yoshida, K.; Hibino, K.; Yamagami, T.; Murakami, H.; Kasahara, K.

    2001-08-01

    We have a plan to make observations of high energy electrons and gamma rays with the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) on the International Space Station (ISS). We are carrying out a R&D for the detector, CALET (CALorimetric Electron Telescope). It consists of an imaging calorimeter (IC) and a total absorption calorimeter (TASC). We will utilize a few hundred-thousands scintillating fibers (SCIFI) for the IC part to visualize cascade showers. We have two options for readout of such amount of SCIFI. First, we have developed a new image intensifier coupled to CCD camera (II-CCD), which is based on the technology utilized and established in the balloon observations with BETS (Balloonborne Electron Telescope with Scintillating fibers). Although the data acquisition rate will be limited to a few 10 Hz, a lot of SCIFI can be read relatively easily with the readout system of the II-CCD. Second, we are developing a readout system with multi-anode photo multipliers (MA-PMT) and front-end chips (VA32 hdr32; one of the Viking family). The readout system with the MA-PMT will enable us to make data acquisition at high frequency of over one thousand Hz.

  17. The SPICA-SAFARI TES Bolometer Readout: Developments Towards a Flight System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Kuur, J.; Beyer, J.; Bruijn, M.; Gao, J. R.; den Hartog, R.; Heijmering, R.; Hoevers, H.; Jackson, B.; van Leeuwen, B. J.; Lindeman, M.; Kiviranta, M.; de Korte, P.; Mauskopf, P.; de Korte, P.; van Weers, H.; Withington, S.

    2012-06-01

    SAFARI is an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer for 35-200 μm under development for flight on the Japanese IR-satellite SPICA (2018). The 3.25 m diameter actively cooled telescope (<6K) will provide a sky background limited signal, which implies that detectors will need to have an NEP of 3.5 \\cdot10^{-19} {W/}sqrt{Hz} in order not to be limiting the sensitivity. The instrument will utilize three TES-based detector arrays, covering the 2×2 arcmin field-of-view in three octaves of wave length. This contribution will present an overview of the detector sub-system, i.e.: the detector arrays and radiation coupling, the focal plane assembly, the amplification chain and the frequency-domain- multiplexed electronics. The focus will be on the implications on the system design of the readout under the stringent power dissipation, heat load, and weight limitations.

  18. Identification of Therapeutic Small-Molecule Leads in Cultured Cells Using Multiplexed Pathway Reporter Readouts

    PubMed Central

    Kulak, Ozlem; Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Lum, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The rapid expansion of molecular screening libraries in size and complexity in the last decade has outpaced the discovery rate of cost-effective strategies to single out reagents with sought-after cellular activities. In addition to representing high-priority therapeutic targets, intensely studied cell signaling systems encapsulate robust reference points for mapping novel chemical activities given our deep understanding of the molecular mechanisms that support their activity. In this chapter, we describe strategies for using transcriptional reporters of several well-interrogated signal transduction pathways coupled with high-throughput biochemical assays to fingerprint novel compounds for drug target identification agendas. PMID:25618332

  19. Optimized readout system for cooled optically stimulated luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. D.; Eschbach, P. A.

    1990-09-01

    Cooled Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) in CaF2:Mn is an ionizing radiation dosimetry method recently developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). In this method CaF2:Mn crystals irradiated by gamma radiation at room temperature are cooled to liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), stimulated by ultraviolet laser light at 326 nm, and allowed to warm to room temperature. Light emission proportional to the gamma exposure occurs as the TLD warms from liquid nitrogen temperature to room temperature. The new method is an example of a highly sensitive phototransfer technique which could form the basis for future radiation dosimetry applications. Measurements to date have shown high potential for measuring gamma exposures in the range of 10 microR. The high sensitivity of the COSL technique is due in part to the larger quantum efficiency of radiative recombination at low temperatures and to the complete absence of the incandescent background associated with conventional thermoluminescent readout methods. Along with the potential for a system which is more sensitive than thermoluminescent readers, multiple COSL readouts can be performed with minimal reduction in the COSL intensity. The multiple readout capability can serve as a possible permanent dosimetry record, thus allowing the reanalysis of a questionable reading. In an attempt to optimize the sensitivity of the COSL method, a new readout system is being developed.

  20. System for Multiplexing Acoustic Emission (AE) Instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Gorman, Michael R. (Inventor); Scales, Edgar F. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic monitoring device has at least two acoustic sensors with a triggering mechanism and a multiplexing circuit. After the occurrence of a triggering event at a sensor, the multiplexing circuit allows a recording component to record acoustic emissions at adjacent sensors. The acoustic monitoring device is attached to a solid medium to detect the occurrence of damage.

  1. Programmable System-on-Chip (PSoC) Embedded Readout Designs for Liquid Helium Level Sensors.

    PubMed

    Parasakthi, C; Gireesan, K; Usha Rani, R; Sheela, O K; Janawadkar, M P

    2014-01-24

    This article reports the development of programmable system-on-chip (PSoC)-based embedded readout designs for liquid helium level sensors using resistive liquid vapor discriminators. The system has been built for the measurement of liquid helium level in a concave-bottomed, helmet-shaped, fiber-reinforced plastic cryostat for magnetoencephalography. This design incorporates three carbon resistors as cost-effective sensors, which are mounted at desired heights inside the cryostat and were used to infer the liquid helium level by measuring their temperature-dependent resistance. Localized electrical heating of the carbon resistors was used to discriminate whether the resistor is immersed in liquid helium or its vapor by exploiting the difference in the heat transfer rates in the two environments. This report describes a single PSoC chip for the design and development of a constant current source to drive the three carbon resistors, a multiplexer to route the sensor outputs to the analog-to-digital converter (ADC), a buffer to avoid loading of the sensors, an ADC for digitizing the data, and a display using liquid crystal display cum light-emitting diode modules. The level sensor readout designed with a single PSoC chip enables cost-effective and reliable measurement system design. PMID:24464811

  2. Implementation of the Timepix ASIC in the Scalable Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupberger, M.; Desch, K.; Kaminski, J.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the development of electronics hardware, FPGA firmware and software to provide a flexible multi-chip readout of the Timepix ASIC within the framework of the Scalable Readout System (SRS). The system features FPGA-based zero-suppression and the possibility to read out up to 4×8 chips with a single Front End Concentrator (FEC). By operating several FECs in parallel, in principle an arbitrary number of chips can be read out, exploiting the scaling features of SRS. Specifically, we tested the system with a setup consisting of 160 Timepix ASICs, operated as GridPix devices in a large TPC field cage in a 1 T magnetic field at a DESY test beam facility providing an electron beam of up to 6 GeV. We discuss the design choices, the dedicated hardware components, the FPGA firmware as well as the performance of the system in the test beam.

  3. Upgrade of the MAGIC Telescope with a Multiplexed Fiber-Optic 2GSamples/s FADC Data Acquisition System system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, Florian; Bartko, Hendrik; Carmona, Emiliano; Galante, Nicola; Jogler, Tobias; Mirzoyan, Razmik; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Teshima, Masahiro

    In February 2007 the MAGIC Air Cherenkov Telescope for gamma ray astronomy was fully upgraded with a ultra fast 2GSamples/s digitization system. Since the gamma ray signals are very short, a fast readout can minimize the influence of the background from the light of the night sky. Fast flash analog to digital converters (FADCs) are commercially available, but they are prohibitively expensive and power consuming for the MAGIC camera which contains 576 pixels. The upgraded readout system uses a novel technique of fiber-optic multiplexing which uses 10 bit 2Gsamples/s FADCs to digitize 16 channels consecutively and optical fibers to delay the analog signals. A distributed data acquisition system using GBit Ethernet and FiberChannel allows to read out the 100 kB events with a continuous rate of up to 1 kHz.

  4. Fast Low-Cost Multiple Sensor Readout System

    DOEpatents

    Carter-Lewis, David; Krennich, Frank; Le Bohec, Stephane; Petry, Dirk; Sleege, Gary

    2004-04-06

    A low resolution data acquisition system is presented. The data acquisition system has a plurality of readout modules serially connected to a controller. Each readout module has a FPGA in communication with analog to digital (A/D) converters, which are connected to sensors. The A/D converter has eight bit or lower resolution. The FPGA detects when a command is addressed to it and commands the A/D converters to convert analog sensor data into digital data. The digital data is sent on a high speed serial communication bus to the controller. A graphical display is used in one embodiment to indicate if a sensor reading is outside of a predetermined range.

  5. Readout Circuits for Noise Compensation in ISFET Sensory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, M. P.; Bhuyan, M.; Talukdar, C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents two different noise reduction techniques for ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) readout configuration and their comparison. The proposed circuit configurations are immune to the noise generated from the ISFET sensory system and particularly to the low frequency pH dependent 1/ f electrochemical noise. The methods used under this study are compensation of noise by differential OPAMP based and Wheatstone bridge circuit, where two identical commercial ISFET sensors were used. The statistical and frequency analysis of the data generated by this two methods were compared for different pH value ranging from pH 2 to 10 at room temperature, and it is found that the readout circuits are able to compensate the noise to a great extent.

  6. Readout system of TPC/MPD NICA project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averyanov, A. V.; Bajajin, A. G.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cheremukhina, G. A.; Fateev, O. V.; Korotkova, A. M.; Levchanovskiy, F. V.; Lukstins, J.; Movchan, S. A.; Razin, S. V.; Rybakov, A. A.; Vereschagin, S. V.; Zanevsky, Yu. V.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zruyev, V. N.

    2015-12-01

    The time-projection chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector in the MPD/NICA. The information on charge-particle tracks in the TPC is registered by the MWPG with cathode pad readout. The frontend electronics (FEE) are developed with use of modern technologies such as application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), and data transfer to a concentrator via a fast optical interface. The main parameters of the FEE are as follows: total number of channels, ~95 000; data stream from the whole TPC, 5 GB/s; low power consumption, less than 100 mW/ch; signal to noise ratio (S/N), 30; equivalent noise charge (ENC), <1000e- ( C in = 10-20 pF); and zero suppression (pad signal rejection ~90%). The article presents the status of the readout chamber construction and the data acquisition system. The results of testing FEE prototypes are presented.

  7. Transmission of multiplexed video signals in multimode optical fiber systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Preston, III

    1988-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center has the need for economical transmission of two multiplexed video signals along multimode fiberoptic systems. These systems must span unusual distances and must meet RS-250B short-haul standards after reception. Bandwidth is a major problem and studies of the installed fibers, available LEDs and PINFETs led to the choice of 100 MHz as the upper limit for the system bandwidth. Optical multiplexing and digital transmission were deemed inappropriate. Three electrical multiplexing schemes were chosen for further study. Each of the multiplexing schemes included an FM stage to help meet the stringent S/N specification. Both FM and AM frequency division multiplexing methods were investigated theoretically and these results were validated with laboratory tests. The novel application of quadrature amplitude multiplexing was also considered. Frequency division multiplexing of two wideband FM video signal appears the most promising scheme although this application requires high power highly linear LED transmitters. Futher studies are necessary to determine if LEDs of appropriate quality exist and to better quantify performance of QAM in this application.

  8. VME-Macintosh data acquisition system with ECL readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzalone, A.; Manno, C. M. Iacono; Ferrera, F.; Barbagallo, G.; Cali, C.; Yingmei, Gu.; Giustolist, F.

    1994-02-01

    A new data acquisition system has been developed at LNS to match the experimental request of handling hundreds of parameters and spectra with a input event frequency of a few kHz. Both the traditional CAMAC and a few faster ECL readout dataways are supported. To enhance the system flexibility three different kinds of CAMAC ADCs can be used (GAN'ELEC QDC1612F, FERA 43008, SILENA ADC4418/V). Two HSM8170 interfaces are adopted between the EXB-8200 tape unit is connected to the system for off-line processing data storage.

  9. A VME-Macintosh data acquisition system with ECL readout

    SciTech Connect

    Anzalone, A.; Manno, C.M.I.; Ferrera, F.; Barbagallo, G.; Cali, C. . Lab. Nazionali del Sud); Yingmei, G. . Inst. of Nuclear Research); Giustolisi, F. . Dipt. di Fisica)

    1994-02-01

    A new Data Acquisition System has been developed at LNS to match the experimental request of handling hundreds of parameters and spectra with an input event frequency of a few kHz. Both the traditional CAMAC and a new faster ECL readout dataways are supported. To enhance the system flexibility three different kinds of CAMAC ADCs can be used (GAN'ELEC QDC1612F, FERA 4300B, SILENA ADC4418/V.) Two HSM8170 interfaces are adopted between the ECLbus and the VMEbus as ECL-VME buffers. An EXB-8200 tape unit is connected to the system for off-line processing data storage.

  10. The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor Readout System

    SciTech Connect

    Dusatko, John; Browne, M.; Fisher, A.S.; Kotturi, D.; Norum, S.; Olsen, J.; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    The LCLS Undulator Beam Loss Monitor System is required to detect any loss radiation seen by the FEL undulators. The undulator segments consist of permanent magnets which are very sensitive to radiation damage. The operational goal is to keep demagnetization below 0.01% over the life of the LCLS. The BLM system is designed to help achieve this goal by detecting any loss radiation and indicating a fault condition if the radiation level exceeds a certain threshold. Upon reception of this fault signal, the LCLS Machine Protection System takes appropriate action by either halting or rate limiting the beam. The BLM detector consists of a PMT coupled to a Cherenkov radiator located near the upstream end of each undulator segment. There are 33 BLMs in the system, one per segment. The detectors are read out by a dedicated system that is integrated directly into the LCLS MPS. The BLM readout system provides monitoring of radiation levels, computation of integrated doses, detection of radiation excursions beyond set thresholds, fault reporting and control of BLM system functions. This paper describes the design, construction and operational performance of the BLM readout system.

  11. Effects of symbol modulation coding on readout fidelity of shift-multiplexed holographic digital data page storage in a photopolymerizable nanoparticle-(thiol-ene)polymer composite film.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Shingo; Nagaya, Kohta; Momose, Keisuke; Tomita, Yasuo

    2014-04-01

    We report on shift-multiplexed holographic storage of 250 digital data pages in a photopolymerizable SiO₂ nanoparticle-polymer composite film being capable of step-growth thiol-ene polymerization in the green. Various two-dimensional symbol modulation codes for the digital data page format were employed to examine the dependence of the readout fidelity on modulation coding schemes. It is found that, as compared to 1:2 and 2:4 modulation codes, higher-order 5:9, 9:16, and 13:25 modulation codes possessing reduced white rates and higher coding efficiencies give lower symbol-error rates of ~1×10⁻³ and higher signal-to-noise ratios (>4). PMID:24787217

  12. Trigger and Readout System for the Ashra-1 Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Morimoto, Y.; Motz, H. M.; Sasaki, M.; Abiko, C.; Kanokohata, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Takada, T.; Kimura, T.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Kuze, S.; Binder, P. M.; Goldman, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    Highly sophisticated trigger and readout system has been developed for All-sky Survey High Resolution Air-shower (Ashra) detector. Ashra-1 detector has 42 degree diameter field of view. Detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light from large background in the large field of view requires finely segmented and high speed trigger and readout system. The system is composed of optical fiber image transmission system, 64 × 64 channel trigger sensor and FPGA based trigger logic processor. The system typically processes the image within 10 to 30 ns and opens the shutter on the fine CMOS sensor. 64 × 64 coarse split image is transferred via 64 × 64 precisely aligned optical fiber bundle to a photon sensor. Current signals from the photon sensor are discriminated by custom made trigger amplifiers. FPGA based processor processes 64 × 64 hit pattern and correspondent partial area of the fine image is acquired. Commissioning earth skimming tau neutrino observational search was carried out with this trigger system. In addition to the geometrical advantage of the Ashra observational site, the excellent tau shower axis measurement based on the fine imaging and the night sky background rejection based on the fine and fast imaging allow zero background tau shower search. Adoption of the optical fiber bundle and trigger LSI realized 4k channel trigger system cheaply. Detectability of tau shower is also confirmed by simultaneously observed Cherenkov air shower. Reduction of the trigger threshold appears to enhance the effective area especially in PeV tau neutrino energy region. New two dimensional trigger LSI was introduced and the trigger threshold was lowered. New calibration system of the trigger system was recently developed and introduced to the Ashra detector

  13. An OS9-UNIX data acquisition system with ECL readout

    SciTech Connect

    Ziem, P.; Beschorner, C.; Bohne, W.; Drescher, B.; Friese, T.; Kiehne, T.; Kluge, C.

    1996-02-01

    A new data acquisition system has been developed at the Hahn-Meitner-Institut to handle almost 550 parameters of nuclear physics experiments. The system combines a UNIX host running a portable data buffer router and a VME front-end based on the OS9 real time operating system. Different kinds of pulse analyzers are located in several CAMAC crates which are controlled by the VME system via a VICbus connection. Data readout is performed by means of an ECL daisy chain. Besides controlling CAMAC the main purpose of the VME front-end is event data formatting and histogramming. Using TCP/IP services, the UNIX host receives formatted data packages for data storage and display. During a beam time at the antiproton accelerator LEAR/CERN, the PS208 experiment has accumulated about 100 Gbyte of event data.

  14. Readout system of TPC/MPD NICA project

    SciTech Connect

    Averyanov, A. V.; Bajajin, A. G.; Chepurnov, V. F.; Cheremukhina, G. A.; Fateev, O. V.; Korotkova, A. M.; Levchanovskiy, F. V.; Lukstins, J.; Movchan, S. A.; Razin, S. V.; Rybakov, A. A.; Vereschagin, S. V. Zanevsky, Yu. V.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zruyev, V. N.

    2015-12-15

    The time-projection chamber (TPC) is the main tracking detector in the MPD/NICA. The information on charge-particle tracks in the TPC is registered by the MWPG with cathode pad readout. The frontend electronics (FEE) are developed with use of modern technologies such as application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA), and data transfer to a concentrator via a fast optical interface. The main parameters of the FEE are as follows: total number of channels, ∼95 000; data stream from the whole TPC, 5 GB/s; low power consumption, less than 100 mW/ch; signal to noise ratio (S/N), 30; equivalent noise charge (ENC), <1000e{sup –} (C{sub in} = 10–20 pF); and zero suppression (pad signal rejection ∼90%). The article presents the status of the readout chamber construction and the data acquisition system. The results of testing FEE prototypes are presented.

  15. Holographic data storage system combining shift-multiplexing with peristrophic-multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Kengo; Tsukamoto, Yu; Okubo, Kaito; Yamamoto, Manabu

    2014-02-01

    Holographic data storage (HDS) is a next-generation optical storage that uses the principles of holography. The multiplex holographic recording method is an important factor that affects the recording capacity of this storage. Various multiplex recording methods have been proposed so far. In this study, we focus on shift multiplexing with spherical waves and propose a method of shift multiplex recording that combines the peristrophic multiplexed recording. Simulation and experimental verification shows that the proposed method is effective in principle.

  16. Readout system of the ALICE Muon tracking detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Sylvain

    2010-11-01

    A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) will be aimed at studying heavy ion collisions at the extreme energy densities accessible at the CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC), where the formation of the Quark Gluon Plasma is expected. The ALICE muon forward spectrometer will identify muons with momentum above 4 GeV/c, allowing the study of quarkonia and heavy flavors in the pseudorapidity range -4.0< η<-2.5 with 2 π azimuthal coverage. The muon tracking system consists of 10 Cathode Pad Chambers (CPC) with 1.1 million of pads that represent the total number of acquisition channels to manage. In this article, we will give an overview of the ALICE Muon Spectrometer. Afterward, we will focus on tracking system Front end Electronics (FEE) and readout system. We will show that the Digital Signal Processor (DSP) architecture fulfills all the requirements, including radiation hardness against neutrons. Finally, real-time performances are discussed.

  17. Wavelength division multiplexing. [in fiber optics communication systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, H. D.

    1985-01-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) represents an approach for expanding the communication capacity and for implementing special data techniques in a fiber optics system. This technology is implemented by adding optical sources of different wavelengths at optical transmitting locations. The present paper is concerned with some of the current efforts in WDM. WDM applications are related to long haul communications, local area data networks, spacecraft and aircraft data systems, fault tolerant computer networks, special sensor devices, high speed data processors, closed circuit and cable television, and submarine cable systems. Attention is given to the current state of wavelength division multiplexing applications, the availability and status of WDM components semiconductor lasers/transmitters, availability and status of fiber optic detectors/receivers, optical fibers/cables/connectors/taps/star couplers, wavelength multiplexers/demultiplexers, and future WDM for local area networks.

  18. Electronics for a Next-Generation SQUID-Based Time-Domain Multiplexing System

    SciTech Connect

    Reintsema, C. D.; Doriese, W. R.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Krinsky, J. W.; Adams, J. S.; Baker, R.; Bandler, S. R.; Kelly, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Wikus, P.

    2009-12-16

    A decade has elapsed since the design, development and realization of a SQUID-based time-division multiplexer at NIST. During this time the system has been used extensively for low-temperature-detector-array measurements. Concurrently, there have been substantial advancements both in detector array and commercial electronic component technology. The relevance and applicability of the technology has blossomed as well, often accompanied by more demanding measurement requirements. These factors have motivated a complete redesign of the NIST room-temperature read-out electronics. The redesign has leveraged advancements in component technology to achieve new capabilities better suited to the SQUID multiplexers and detector arrays being realized today. As examples of specific performance enhancements, the overall system bandwidth has been increased by a factor of four (a row switching rate of 6.24 MHz), the compactness has been increased by over a factor of two (a higher number of detector columns and rows per circuit board), and there are two high speed outputs per column (allowing fast switching of SQUID offsets in addition to digital feedback). The system architecture, design implementations, and performance advantages of the new system will be discussed. As an application example, the science chain flight electronics for the Micro-X High Resolution Microcalorimeter X-ray Imaging Rocket will be described as both a motivation for, and a direct implementation of the new system.

  19. An open-source readout for MKIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Ran; McHugh, Sean; Serfass, Bruno; Mazin, Benjamin A.; Merrill, A.; Golwala, Sunil R.; Downes, Thomas P.; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Gao, Jiansong; Glenn, Jason; Hollister, Matthew I.; Leduc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sayers, Jack; Schlaerth, James A.; Siegel, Seth; Vaillancourt, John E.; Vayonakis, Anastasios; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2010-07-01

    This paper will present the design, implementation, performance analysis of an open source readout system for arrays of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID) for mm/submm astronomy. The readout system will perform frequency domain multiplexed real-time complex microwave transmission measurements in order to monitor the instantaneous resonance frequency and dissipation of superconducting microresonators. Each readout unit will be able to cover up to 550 MHz bandwidth and readout 256 complex frequency channels simultaneously. The digital electronics include the customized DAC, ADC, IF system and the FPGA based signal processing hardware developed by CASPER group.1-7 The entire system is open sourced, and can be customized to meet challenging requirement in many applications: e.g. MKID, MSQUID etc.

  20. Flexible readout and integration sensor (FRIS): a bio-inspired, system-on-chip, event-based readout architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Joseph H.; Pouliquen, Philippe O.; Andreou, Andreas G.; Goldberg, Arnold C.; Rizk, Charbel G.

    2012-06-01

    We present a bio-inspired system-on-chip focal plane readout architecture which at the system level, relies on an event based sampling scheme where only pixels within a programmable range of photon flux rates are output. At the pixel level, a one bit oversampled analog-to-digital converter together with a decimator allows for the quantization of signals up to 26 bits. Furthermore, digital non-uniformity correction of both gain and offset errors is applied at the pixel level prior to readout. We report test results for a prototype array fabricated in a standard 90nm CMOS process. Tests performed at room and cryogenic temperatures demonstrate the capability to operate at a temporal noise ratio as low as 1.5, an electron well capacity over 100Ge-, and an ADC LSB down to 1e-.

  1. Compact reflection holographic recording system with high angle multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayasu, Mayumi; Yamada, Takehumi; Takekawa, Shunsuke; Akieda, Kensuke; Goto, Akiyo; Yamamoto, Manabu

    2011-02-01

    Holographic memory systems have been widely researched since 1963. However, the size of the drives required and the deterioration of reconstructed data resulting from shrinkage of the medium have made practical use of a hologram memory difficult. In light of this, we propose a novel holographic recording/reconstructing system: a dual-reference beam reflection system that is smaller than conventional systems such as the off-axis or co-axis types, and which is expected to increase the number of multiplexing in angle multiplexed recording. In this multiplex recording system, two laser beams are used as reference beams, and the recorded data are reconstructed stably, even if there is shrinkage of the recording medium. In this paper, a reflection holographic memory system is explained in detail. In addition, the change in angle selectivity resulting from shrinkage of the medium is analyzed using the laminated film three-dimensional simulation method. As a result, we demonstrate that a dual-reference beam multiplex recording system is effective in reducing the influence of medium shrinkage.

  2. Merlin: a fast versatile readout system for Medipix3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plackett, R.; Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Marchal, J.; Omar, D.; Tartoni, N.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports on the development of a new high rate readout system for the Medipix3 hybrid pixel ASIC developed by the Detector Group at Diamond Light Source. It details the current functionality of the system and initial results from tests on Diamond's B16 beamline. The Merlin system is based on a National Instruments PXI/FlexRIO system running a Xilinx Virtex5 FPGA. It is capable of recording Medipix3 256 by 256 by 12 bit data frames at over 1 kHz in bursts of 1200 frames and running at over 100 Hz continuously to disk or over a TCP/IP link. It is compatible with the standard Medipix3 single chipboards developed at CERN and is capable of driving them over cable lengths of up to 10 m depending on the data rate required. In addition to a standalone graphical interface, a system of remote TCP/IP control and data transfer has been developed to allow easy integration with third party control systems and scripting languages. Two Merlin systems are being deployed on the B16 and I16 beamlines at Diamond and the system has been integrated with the EPICS/GDA control systems used. Results from trigger synchronisation, fast burst and high rate tests made on B16 in March are reported and demonstrate an encouraging reliability and timing accuracy. In addition to normal high resolution imaging applications of Medipix3, the results indicate the system could profitably be used in `pump and probe' style experiments, where a very accurate, high frame rate is especially beneficial. In addition to these two systems, Merlin is being used by the Detector Group to test the Excalibur 16 chip hybrid modules, and by the LHCb VELO Pixel Upgrade group in their forthcoming testbeams. Additionally the contribution looks forward to further developments and improvements in the system, including full rate quad chip readout capability, multi-FPGA support, long distance optical communication and further functionality enhancements built on the capabilities of the Medipix3 chips.

  3. Small-Scale Readout Systems Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Szelezniak, Michal A.; Besson, Auguste; Colledani, Claude; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Greiner, Leo C.; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Matis, Howard S.; Ritter, Hans Georg; Rose, Andrew; Shabetai, Alexandre; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, Jim H.; Valin, Isabelle; Vu, Chinh Q.; Wieman, Howard H.; Winter, Marc

    2008-10-01

    A prototype readout system for the STAR PIXEL detector in the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) vertex detector upgrade is presented. The PIXEL detector is a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) based silicon pixel vertex detector fabricated in a commercial CMOS process that integrates the detector and front-end electronics layers in one silicon die. Two generations ofMAPS prototypes designed specifically for the PIXEL are discussed. We have constructed a prototype telescope system consisting of three small MAPS sensors arranged in three parallel and coaxial planes with a readout system based on the readout architecture for PIXEL. This proposed readout architecture is simple and scales to the size required to readout the final detector. The real-time hit finding algorithm necessary for data rate reduction in the 400 million pixel detector is described, and aspects of the PIXEL system integration into the existing STAR framework are addressed. The complete system has been recently tested and shown to be fully functional.

  4. FLIM FRET Technology for Drug Discovery: Automated Multiwell-Plate High-Content Analysis, Multiplexed Readouts and Application in Situ**

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sunil; Alibhai, Dominic; Margineanu, Anca; Laine, Romain; Kennedy, Gordon; McGinty, James; Warren, Sean; Kelly, Douglas; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Munro, Ian; Talbot, Clifford; Stuckey, Daniel W; Kimberly, Christopher; Viellerobe, Bertrand; Lacombe, Francois; Lam, Eric W-F; Taylor, Harriet; Dallman, Margaret J; Stamp, Gordon; Murray, Edward J; Stuhmeier, Frank; Sardini, Alessandro; Katan, Matilda; Elson, Daniel S; Neil, Mark A A; Dunsby, Chris; French, Paul M W

    2011-01-01

    A fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) technology platform intended to read out changes in Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency is presented for the study of protein interactions across the drug-discovery pipeline. FLIM provides a robust, inherently ratiometric imaging modality for drug discovery that could allow the same sensor constructs to be translated from automated cell-based assays through small transparent organisms such as zebrafish to mammals. To this end, an automated FLIM multiwell-plate reader is described for high content analysis of fixed and live cells, tomographic FLIM in zebrafish and FLIM FRET of live cells via confocal endomicroscopy. For cell-based assays, an exemplar application reading out protein aggregation using FLIM FRET is presented, and the potential for multiple simultaneous FLIM (FRET) readouts in microscopy is illustrated. PMID:21337485

  5. Modified read-out system of the beam phase measurement system for CSNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jiao-Ni; Zeng, Lei; Wang, Biao; Li, Peng; Li, Fang; Xu, Tao-Guang; Li, Zi-Gao

    2013-10-01

    The customized beam phase measurement system can meet the requirement of beam loss control of the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ). However, its read-out part cannot satisfy the requirement of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS). CSNS uses the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) as its control system. So it is necessary to develop the EPICS read-out system consisting of EPICS IOC databases, driver support and OPIs. The new system has been successfully tested in the RFQ. In the future, it will be applied to the beam diagnostics of CSNS.

  6. A dual-readout chemiluminescent-gold lateral flow test for multiplex and ultrasensitive detection of disease biomarkers in real samples.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yiping; Sun, Jiashu; Xianyu, Yunlei; Yin, Binfeng; Niu, Yajing; Wang, Songbai; Cao, Fengjing; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Xingyu

    2016-08-18

    Even though the gold lateral flow test (GLFT) is low-cost and allows for point-of-care testing (POCT), its intrinsic limitations including low sensitivity and incapability of quantification significantly hinder the clinical application of GLFT for assaying disease biomarkers. To improve the performance of the GLFT without sacrificing its simplicity, we develop a chemiluminescent-gold lateral flow test (C-mode GLFT) for quantitative and multiplex detection of disease biomarkers with an ultrahigh sensitivity at a picomolar level. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and antibody (Ab) are simultaneously labeled onto the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to achieve a dual-readout (chemiluminescent and visual, C&V-mode GLFT). A red color appears at the test line caused by the accumulation of captured AuNPs in the presence of targets, while HRP on the surface of AuNPs catalyzes the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol to amplify the signal. C-mode GLFT is successfully used for detecting tumor biomarkers (alpha fetoprotein, AFP, and carcino embryonic antigen, CEA) and bacterial infection biomarkers (procalcitonin, PCT) in serum samples as well as whole blood. The excellent features of C-mode GLFT such as straightforward operation, ultrahigh sensitivity and quantitative detection, make it a promising platform for POCT of a variety of disease biomarkers in real samples. PMID:27375054

  7. The readout system for the ArTeMis camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doumayrou, E.; Lortholary, M.; Dumaye, L.; Hamon, G.

    2014-07-01

    During ArTeMiS observations at the APEX telescope (Chajnantor, Chile), 5760 bolometric pixels from 20 arrays at 300mK, corresponding to 3 submillimeter focal planes at 450μm, 350μm and 200μm, have to be read out simultaneously at 40Hz. The read out system, made of electronics and software, is the full chain from the cryostat to the telescope. The readout electronics consists of cryogenic buffers at 4K (NABU), based on CMOS technology, and of warm electronic acquisition systems called BOLERO. The bolometric signal given by each pixel has to be amplified, sampled, converted, time stamped and formatted in data packets by the BOLERO electronics. The time stamping is obtained by the decoding of an IRIG-B signal given by APEX and is key to ensure the synchronization of the data with the telescope. Specifically developed for ArTeMiS, BOLERO is an assembly of analogue and digital FPGA boards connected directly on the top of the cryostat. Two detectors arrays (18*16 pixels), one NABU and one BOLERO interconnected by ribbon cables constitute the unit of the electronic architecture of ArTeMiS. In total, the 20 detectors for the tree focal planes are read by 10 BOLEROs. The software is working on a Linux operating system, it runs on 2 back-end computers (called BEAR) which are small and robust PCs with solid state disks. They gather the 10 BOLEROs data fluxes, and reconstruct the focal planes images. When the telescope scans the sky, the acquisitions are triggered thanks to a specific network protocol. This interface with APEX enables to synchronize the acquisition with the observations on sky: the time stamped data packets are sent during the scans to the APEX software that builds the observation FITS files. A graphical user interface enables the setting of the camera and the real time display of the focal plane images, which is essential in laboratory and commissioning phases. The software is a set of C++, Labview and Python, the qualities of which are respectively used

  8. Remote (250 km) Fiber Bragg Grating Multiplexing System

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Vallejo, Montserrat; Rota-Rodrigo, Sergio; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate two ultra-long range fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation systems. In the first approach four FBGs are located 200 km from the monitoring station and a signal to noise ratio of 20 dB is obtained. The second improved version is able to detect the four multiplexed FBGs placed 250 km away, offering a signal to noise ratio of 6–8 dB. Consequently, this last system represents the longest range FBG sensor system reported so far that includes fiber sensor multiplexing capability. Both simple systems are based on a wavelength swept laser to scan the reflection spectra of the FBGs, and they are composed by two identical-lengths optical paths: the first one intended to launch the amplified laser signal by means of Raman amplification and the other one is employed to guide the reflection signal to the reception system. PMID:22164101

  9. Toward a Reduced-Wire Readout System for Ultrasound Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jaemyung; Arkan, Evren F.; Degertekin, F. Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2015-01-01

    We present a system-on-a-chip (SoC) for use in high-frequency capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) imaging systems. This SoC consists of trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA), delay locked loop (DLL) based clock multiplier, quadrature sampler, and pulse width modulator (PWM). The SoC down converts RF echo signal to baseband by quadrature sampling which facilitates modulation. To send data through a 1.6 m wire in the catheter which has limited bandwidth and is vulnerable to noise, the SoC creates a pseudo-digital PWM signal which can be used for back telemetry or wireless readout of the RF data. In this implementation, using a 0.35-μm std. CMOS process, the TIA and single-to-differential (STD) converter had 45 MHz bandwidth, the quadrature sampler had 10.1 dB conversion gain, and the PWM had 5-bit ENoB. Preliminary results verified front-end functionality, and the power consumption of a TIA, STD, quadrature sampler, PWM, and clock multiplier was 26 mW from a 3 V supply. PMID:25571135

  10. Toward a reduced-wire readout system for ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jaemyung; Arkan, Evren F; Degertekin, F Levent; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present a system-on-a-chip (SoC) for use in high-frequency capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) imaging systems. This SoC consists of trans-impedance amplifiers (TIA), delay locked loop (DLL) based clock multiplier, quadrature sampler, and pulse width modulator (PWM). The SoC down converts RF echo signal to baseband by quadrature sampling which facilitates modulation. To send data through a 1.6 m wire in the catheter which has limited bandwidth and is vulnerable to noise, the SoC creates a pseudo-digital PWM signal which can be used for back telemetry or wireless readout of the RF data. In this implementation, using a 0.35-μm std. CMOS process, the TIA and single-to-differential (STD) converter had 45 MHz bandwidth, the quadrature sampler had 10.1 dB conversion gain, and the PWM had 5-bit ENoB. Preliminary results verified front-end functionality, and the power consumption of a TIA, STD, quadrature sampler, PWM, and clock multiplier was 26 mW from a 3 V supply. PMID:25571135

  11. The GBT-based readout concept for the silicon tracking system of the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Jörg; Müller, Walter F. J.; Schmidt, Christian J.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents the readout concept for the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the CBM experiment at FAIR, which is designed to handle interaction rates up to 10 MHz with hundreds of tracks in fixed target heavy ion collisions of up to 35 AGeV. For data readout from the frontend electronics located close to the silicon strip sensors, the radiation tolerant Gigabit Transceiver ASICs (GBTx) and Versatile Link optical modules developed at CERN are used. The usage of these devices in the STS readout and the readout concept from the frontend electronics to the GBT based STS readout board (ROB) are detailed. Special emphasis is put on the implementation of the interface between the frontend boards (FEBs) and the ROB layer.

  12. X-ray and gamma ray detector readout system

    DOEpatents

    Tumer, Tumay O; Clajus, Martin; Visser, Gerard

    2010-10-19

    A readout electronics scheme is under development for high resolution, compact PET (positron emission tomography) imagers based on LSO (lutetium ortho-oxysilicate, Lu.sub.2SiO.sub.5) scintillator and avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. The key is to obtain sufficient timing and energy resolution at a low power level, less than about 30 mW per channel, including all required functions. To this end, a simple leading edge level crossing discriminator is used, in combination with a transimpedance preamplifier. The APD used has a gain of order 1,000, and an output noise current of several pA/ Hz, allowing bipolar technology to be used instead of CMOS, for increased speed and power efficiency. A prototype of the preamplifier and discriminator has been constructed, achieving timing resolution of 1.5 ns FWHM, 2.7 ns full width at one tenth maximum, relative to an LSO/PMT detector, and an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM at 511 keV, while operating at a power level of 22 mW per channel. Work is in progress towards integration of this preamplifier and discriminator with appropriate coincidence logic and amplitude measurement circuits in an ASIC suitable for a high resolution compact PET instrument. The detector system and/or ASIC can also be used for many other applications for medical to industrial imaging.

  13. Research on copying system of dynamic multiplex holographic stereograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Huaiping; Yang, Hong; Zheng, Tong

    2003-05-01

    The most important advantage of holographic stereograms over conventional hologram is that they can produce 3D images at any desired scale with movement, holographers in many countries involved in the studies towards it. We began our works in the early 80's and accomplished two research projects automatic system for making synthetic holograms and multiplex synthetic rainbow holograms, Based on these works, a large scale holographic stereogram of an animated goldfish was made by us for practical advertisement. In order to meet the needs of the market, a copying system for making multiplex holographic stereograms, and a special kind of silver halide holographic film developed by us recently. The characteristic of the copying system and the property of the special silver-halide emulsion are introduced in this paper.

  14. Multimegabit Operation Multiplexer System. [PCM telemetry unit for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giri, R. R.; Maxwell, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    The Multimegabit Operation Multiplexer System (MOMS) is a high-data-rate PCM telemetry unit capable of sampling and encoding 60 scanning radiometer and four vidicon channels at 250 kilosamples/second and 5 megasamples/second, respectively. This sampling capacity plus the seven-bit quantization requires a total throughput rate of 40 megasamples/second and 280 megabits/second. To produce these rates efficiently, the system was divided into a pair of identical 140-megabit blocks. A low-power 20-MHz analog multiplexer and analog-to-digital converter were developed together with a video sample-and-hold that features an aperture time error of less than 50 psec. Breadboard testing of these basic building blocks confirmed the design prediction that the total system would consume 27 watts of power. Two 140-megabit output parts are suitable for quadriphase modulation.

  15. A Triggerless readout system for the bar PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiemens, M.; PANDA Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    One of the physics goals of the future bar PANDA experiment at FAIR is to research newly discovered exotic states. Because the detector response created by these particles is very similar to the background channels, a new type of data readout had to be developed, called "triggerless" readout. In this concept, each detector subsystem preprocesses the signal, so that in a later stage, high-level phyiscs constraints can be applied to select events of interest. A dedicated clock source using a protocol called SODANET over optical fibers ensures proper synchronisation between the components. For this new type of readout, a new way of simulating the detector response also needed to be developed, taking into account the effects of pile-up caused by the 20 MHz interaction rate.

  16. The PCIe-based readout system for the LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachemiche, J. P.; Duval, P. Y.; Hachon, F.; Le Gac, R.; Réthoré, F.

    2016-02-01

    The LHCb experiment is designed to study differences between particles and anti-particles as well as very rare decays in the beauty and charm sector at the LHC. The detector will be upgraded in 2019 in order to significantly increase its efficiency, by removing the first-level hardware trigger. The upgrade experiment will implement a trigger-less readout system in which all the data from every LHC bunch-crossing are transported to the computing farm over 12000 optical links without hardware filtering. The event building and event selection are carried out entirely in the farm. Another original feature of the system is that data transmitted through these fibres arrive directly to computers through a specially designed PCIe card called PCIe40. The same board handles the data acquisition flow and the distribution of fast and slow controls to the detector front-end electronics. It embeds one of the most powerful FPGAs currently available on the market with 1.2 million logic cells. The board has a bandwidth of 480 Gbits/s in both input and output over optical links and 100 Gbits/s over the PCI Express bus to the CPU. We will present how data circulate through the board and in the PC server for achieving the event building. We will focus on specific issues regarding the design of such a board with a very large FPGA, in particular in terms of power supply dimensioning and thermal simulations. The features of the board will be detailed and we will finally present the first performance measurements.

  17. Toward Paper-Based Sensors: Turning Electrical Signals into an Optical Readout System.

    PubMed

    Liana, Devi D; Raguse, Burkhard; Gooding, J Justin; Chow, Edith

    2015-09-01

    Paper-based sensors are gaining increasing attention for their potential applications in resource-limited settings and for point-of-care analysis. However, chemical analysis of paper-based electronic sensors is frequently interpreted using complex software and electronic displays which compromise the advantages of using paper. In this work, we present two semiquantitative paper-based readout systems that can visually measure a change in resistance of a resistive-based sensor. The readout systems use electrochromic Prussian blue/polyaniline as an electrochromic indicator on a resistive gold nanoparticle film that is fabricated on paper. When the readout system is integrated with a resistive sensor in an electrical circuit, and a voltage is applied, the voltage drop along the readout system varies depending on the sensor's resistance. Due to the voltage gradient formed along the gold nanoparticle film, the overlaying Prussian blue/polyaniline will change color at voltages greater than its reduction voltage (green/blue for oxidized state and transparent for reduced state). Thus, the changes in resistances of a sensor can be semiquantified through color visualization by either measuring the length of the transparent film (analog readout system) or by counting the number of transparent segments (digital readout system). The work presented herein can potentially serve as an alternative paper-based display system for resistive sensors in instances where cost and weight is a premium. PMID:26329490

  18. A simple SQUID system with one operational amplifier as readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Kai; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Yongliang; Zeng, Jia; Xu, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Yang; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Xie, Xiaoming; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    We describe a dc Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout electronics in Flux Locked Loop (FLL) mode without integrator and with only one operational amplifier, which is called Single Chip Readout Electronics (SCRE). A weakly damped niobium-SQUID magnetometer with a large flux-to-voltage transfer coefficient of about ∂V/∂Φ ≈ 380 μV/Φ0 and SCRE results in a very simple SQUID system. We characterize the system and demonstrate its applicability to Magnetocardiography (MCG) and measurements using the Transient ElectroMagnetic (TEM) method. SCRE not only simplifies the readout scheme, but also improves the system stability, the bandwidth and the slew rate. The difference between SCRE and a conventional readout scheme (preamplifier + amplifier + integrator) is also discussed.

  19. Implementation of reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Lei; Huang, Zhaoxiang; Zhang, Minglun; Huang, Yongqing; Li, Ling

    2005-11-01

    A detailed management system implementation process for a realized reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) is presented. The ROADM is capable of freely adding/dropping any of 40 wavelengths within C-band at ITU_T standard spacing according to the user's configuration demand from the management system. SNMP and Java language are used in the deployment of the management system. The management system framework and its implementation process are introduced in template-based form, so they are generic enough to be deployed in managing such reconfigurable elements in optical transport network, and be of value to others who are contemplating managing such kind of reconfigurable elements.

  20. Catch and Release: Integrated system for multiplexed detection of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Verbarg, Jasenka; Plath, William D.; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C.; Howell, Peter B.; Erickson, Jeffrey S.; Golden, Joel P.; Ligler, Frances S.

    2013-01-01

    An integrated system with automated immunomagnetic separation and processing of fluidic samples was demonstrated for multiplexed optical detection of bacterial targets. Mixtures of target-specific magnetic bead sets were processed in the NRL MagTrap with the aid of rotating magnet arrays that entrapped and moved the beads within the channel during reagent processing. Processing was performed in buffer and human serum matrices with 10-fold dilutions in the range of 102 – 106 cells/mL of target bacteria. Reversal of magnets’ rotation post processing released the beads back into the flow and moved them into the Microflow Cytometer for optical interrogation. Identification of the beads and the detection of PE fluorescence were performed simultaneously for multiplexed detection. Multiplexing was performed with specifically targeted bead sets to detect E. coli 0157.H7, Salmonella Common Structural Antigen, Listeria sp. and Shigella sp. Dose-response curves were obtained, and limits of detection were calculated for each target in the buffer and clinical matrix. Additional tests demonstrated the potential for using the MagTrap to concentrate target from larger volumes of sample prior to the addition of assay reagents. PMID:23631439

  1. Catch and release: integrated system for multiplexed detection of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Verbarg, Jasenka; Plath, William D; Shriver-Lake, Lisa C; Howell, Peter B; Erickson, Jeffrey S; Golden, Joel P; Ligler, Frances S

    2013-05-21

    An integrated system with automated immunomagnetic separation and processing of fluidic samples was demonstrated for multiplexed optical detection of bacterial targets. Mixtures of target-specific magnetic bead sets were processed in the NRL MagTrap with the aid of rotating magnet arrays that entrapped and moved the beads within the channel during reagent processing. Processing was performed in buffer and human serum matrixes with 10-fold dilutions in the range of 10(2)-10(6) cells/mL of target bacteria. Reversal of magnets' rotation post-processing released the beads back into the flow and moved them into the microflow cytometer for optical interrogation. Identification of the beads and the detection of PE fluorescence were performed simultaneously for multiplexed detection. Multiplexing was performed with specifically targeted bead sets to detect E. coli 0157.H7, Salmonella Common Structural Antigen, Listeria sp., and Shigella sp., dose-response curves were obtained, and limits of detection were calculated for each target in the buffer and clinical matrix. Additional tests demonstrated the potential for using the MagTrap to concentrate target from larger volumes of sample prior to the addition of assay reagents. PMID:23631439

  2. Synchronization of Randomly Multiplexed Chaotic Systems with Application to Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Shyam; Minai, Ali A.

    2000-12-01

    Synchronized chaotic systems have recently been applied to the area of secure communications in a variety of ways. At the same time, there have also been significant advances in deciphering messages masked by chaotic signals. It is important, therefore, to explore more secure approaches to using chaos in communication. We show that multiple chaotic systems can be synchronized through a scalar coupling which carries a stochastic signal generated by random multiplexing of the source systems. This approach, which is a variant of the active-passive decomposition method, promises enhanced security in chaos-based communication.

  3. A new readout control system for the LHCb upgrade at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Jacobsson, R.

    2012-11-01

    The LHCb experiment has proposed an upgrade towards a full 40 MHz readout system in order to run between five and ten times its initial design luminosity. The entire readout architecture will be upgraded in order to cope with higher sub-detector occupancies, higher rate and higher network load. In this paper, we describe the architecture, functionalities and a first hardware implementation of a new fast Readout Control system for the LHCb upgrade, which will be entirely based on FPGAs and bi-directional links. We also outline the real-time implementations of the new Readout Control system, together with solutions on how to handle the synchronous distribution of timing and synchronous information to the complex upgraded LHCb readout architecture. One section will also be dedicated to the control and usage of the newly developed CERN GBT chipset to transmit fast and slow control commands to the upgraded LHCb Front-End electronics. At the end, we outline the plans for the deployment of the system in the global LHCb upgrade readout architecture.

  4. Multiplexed logic controls solar-heating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Four inexpensive thermocouples monitor temperatures at key points. On command from logic circuitry, dampers open and close to direct airflow, and fan and auxiliary heater shut on or off. Controlling complex arranges heating system in any one of four operating configurations.

  5. Digital radiography using amorphous selenium: photoconductively activated switch (PAS) readout system.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Nikita; Komljenovic, Philip T; Germann, Stephen; Rowlands, John A

    2008-03-01

    A new amorphous selenium (a-Se) digital radiography detector is introduced. The proposed detector generates a charge image in the a-Se layer in a conventional manner, which is stored on electrode pixels at the surface of the a-Se layer. A novel method, called photoconductively activated switch (PAS), is used to read out the latent x-ray charge image. The PAS readout method uses lateral photoconduction at the a-Se surface which is a revolutionary modification of the bulk photoinduced discharge (PID) methods. The PAS method addresses and eliminates the fundamental weaknesses of the PID methods--long readout times and high readout noise--while maintaining the structural simplicity and high resolution for which PID optical readout systems are noted. The photoconduction properties of the a-Se surface were investigated and the geometrical design for the electrode pixels for a PAS radiography system was determined. This design was implemented in a single pixel PAS evaluation system. The results show that the PAS x-ray induced output charge signal was reproducible and depended linearly on the x-ray exposure in the diagnostic exposure range. Furthermore, the readout was reasonably rapid (10 ms for pixel discharge). The proposed detector allows readout of half a pixel row at a time (odd pixels followed by even pixels), thus permitting the readout of a complete image in 30 s for a 40 cm x 40 cm detector with the potential of reducing that time by using greater readout light intensity. This demonstrates that a-Se based x-ray detectors using photoconductively activated switches could form a basis for a practical integrated digital radiography system. PMID:18404939

  6. Digital radiography using amorphous selenium: Photoconductively activated switch (PAS) readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Reznik, Nikita; Komljenovic, Philip T.; Germann, Stephen; Rowlands, John A.

    2008-03-15

    A new amorphous selenium (a-Se) digital radiography detector is introduced. The proposed detector generates a charge image in the a-Se layer in a conventional manner, which is stored on electrode pixels at the surface of the a-Se layer. A novel method, called photoconductively activated switch (PAS), is used to read out the latent x-ray charge image. The PAS readout method uses lateral photoconduction at the a-Se surface which is a revolutionary modification of the bulk photoinduced discharge (PID) methods. The PAS method addresses and eliminates the fundamental weaknesses of the PID methods--long readout times and high readout noise--while maintaining the structural simplicity and high resolution for which PID optical readout systems are noted. The photoconduction properties of the a-Se surface were investigated and the geometrical design for the electrode pixels for a PAS radiography system was determined. This design was implemented in a single pixel PAS evaluation system. The results show that the PAS x-ray induced output charge signal was reproducible and depended linearly on the x-ray exposure in the diagnostic exposure range. Furthermore, the readout was reasonably rapid (10 ms for pixel discharge). The proposed detector allows readout of half a pixel row at a time (odd pixels followed by even pixels), thus permitting the readout of a complete image in 30 s for a 40 cmx40 cm detector with the potential of reducing that time by using greater readout light intensity. This demonstrates that a-Se based x-ray detectors using photoconductively activated switches could form a basis for a practical integrated digital radiography system.

  7. Multiplex electric discharge gas laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudenslager, James B. (Inventor); Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A multiple pulse electric discharge gas laser system is described in which a plurality of pulsed electric discharge gas lasers are supported in a common housing. Each laser is supplied with excitation pulses from a separate power supply. A controller, which may be a microprocessor, is connected to each power supply for controlling the application of excitation pulses to each laser so that the lasers can be fired simultaneously or in any desired sequence. The output light beams from the individual lasers may be combined or utilized independently, depending on the desired application. The individual lasers may include multiple pairs of discharge electrodes with a separate power supply connected across each electrode pair so that multiple light output beams can be generated from a single laser tube and combined or utilized separately.

  8. Digital and analog readout systems for fiber-optic strain sensors as applied to the monitoring of roller element bearing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juarez, Juan C.; Conkey, Andrew P.; Perez, Robert X.; Taylor, Henry F.

    2003-11-01

    A rotating machinery test rig was instrumented with fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer strain sensors for condition monitoring of rolling element bearings. Strain variations produced by ball passes were observed and analyzed in the time and frequency domain. Wavelength division multiplexing was utilized to simultaneously monitor the sensors with analog and digital readout systems-analog for high bandwidth and digital for high dynamic range and the monitoring of multiple sensors. The effects of imbalance on the shaft, changes in rotational speed, effects on the rotor system, and detection of bearing defects were investigated. Frequency peaks observed in the bearing sensor spectra closely matched predicted values. Imbalance and rotational speed tests showed good agreement with expected trends, and bearing defects were successfully detected.

  9. A 128 Multiplexing Factor Time-Domain SQUID Multiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Piat, M.; Decourcelle, T.; Perbost, C.; Chapron, C.; Rambaud, D.; Maestre, S.; Marty, W.; Montier, L.

    2016-01-01

    A cryogenic 128:1 Time-Domain Multiplexer (TDM) has been developed for the readout of kilo-pixel Transition Edge Sensor (TES) arrays dedicated to the Q&U Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology (QUBIC) instrument which aims to measure the B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are usually used to read out TESs. Moreover, SQUIDs are used to build TDM by biasing sequentially the SQUIDs connected together—one for each TES. In addition to this common technique which allows a typical 32 multiplexing factor, a cryogenic integrated circuit provides a 4:1 second multiplexing stage. This cryogenic integrated circuit is one of the original part of our TDM achieving an unprecedented 128 multiplexing factor. We present these two dimension TDM stages: topology of the SQUID multiplexer, operation of the cryogenic integrated circuit, and integration of the full system to read out a TES array dedicated to the QUBIC instrument. Flux-locked loop operation in multiplexed mode is also discussed.

  10. A 128 Multiplexing Factor Time-Domain SQUID Multiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Piat, M.; Decourcelle, T.; Perbost, C.; Chapron, C.; Rambaud, D.; Maestre, S.; Marty, W.; Montier, L.

    2016-07-01

    A cryogenic 128:1 Time-Domain Multiplexer (TDM) has been developed for the readout of kilo-pixel Transition Edge Sensor (TES) arrays dedicated to the Q&U Bolometric Interferometer for Cosmology (QUBIC) instrument which aims to measure the B-mode polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background. Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) are usually used to read out TESs. Moreover, SQUIDs are used to build TDM by biasing sequentially the SQUIDs connected together—one for each TES. In addition to this common technique which allows a typical 32 multiplexing factor, a cryogenic integrated circuit provides a 4:1 second multiplexing stage. This cryogenic integrated circuit is one of the original part of our TDM achieving an unprecedented 128 multiplexing factor. We present these two dimension TDM stages: topology of the SQUID multiplexer, operation of the cryogenic integrated circuit, and integration of the full system to read out a TES array dedicated to the QUBIC instrument. Flux-locked loop operation in multiplexed mode is also discussed.

  11. Functional Description of Read-out Electronics for Time-Domain Multiplexed Bolometers for Millimeter and Sub-millimeter Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistelli, E. S.; Amiri, M.; Burger, B.; Halpern, M.; Knotek, S.; Ellis, M.; Gao, X.; Kelly, D.; Macintosh, M.; Irwin, K.; Reintsema, C.

    2008-05-01

    We have developed multi-channel electronics (MCE) which work in concert with time-domain multiplexors developed at NIST, to control and read signals from large format bolometer arrays of superconducting transition edge sensors (TESs). These electronics were developed as part of the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array-2 (SCUBA2 ) camera, but are now used in several other instruments. The main advantages of these electronics compared to earlier versions is that they are multi-channel, fully programmable, suited for remote operations and provide a clean geometry, with no electrical cabling outside of the Faraday cage formed by the cryostat and the electronics chassis. The MCE is used to determine the optimal operating points for the TES and the superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifiers autonomously. During observation, the MCE execute a running PID-servo and apply to each first stage SQUID a feedback signal necessary to keep the system in a linear regime at optimal gain. The feedback and error signals from a ˜1000-pixel array can be written to hard drive at up to 2 kHz.

  12. Next generation microwave multiplexers for low-temperature detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Kent

    We propose to continue our successful program for the development of breakthrough readout technology for low-temperature detectors. The next generation of larger arrays requires multiplexed readout at microwave frequencies. Multiplexing at microwave frequencies with superconducting microwave resonators shows great promise for the instrumentation of very large arrays of transition-edge sensors (TES) and microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID). Applications include the detection of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), submillimeter and far-infrared astronomy, optical astronomy, and x-ray astronomy. These arrays will play a critical role in answering questions about the origins and evolution of galaxies, stars, and planetary systems, the physics of the cosmos, and the physics of the inflationary epoch in the early universe. We propose an integrated program to develop quantum-limited amplifiers to enable the readout of both large TES and MKID arrays. These amplifiers include microwave SQUIDs for TES readout and wideband parametric amplifiers for MKID arrays.

  13. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    DOEpatents

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  14. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, Edward S.; Chang, Huan-Tsang; Fung, Eliza N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification ("base calling") is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations.

  15. Development of a multiplexed bypass control system for aerospace batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    A breadboard bypass control system was developed to control a battery comprised of 26 JPL-developed negative limited Ni-Cd cells. The system was designed to automatically remove cells from the circuit when their voltages exceeded a fixed limit on charge and fell below a fixed limit on discharge. Major components of the system consisted of a cell voltage monitor, a multiplexing circuit, and individual electromechanical relays for each cell. The system was found to function well in controlling the battery during a simulated 10-month MM-71 mission and a 2-month simulated low earth orbit cycling mission. A flight version of the bypass system was estimated to have a total parts count of 150 and total weight of 1.63 kg. When fully developed, the system shows promise for improving life and reliability of spacecraft batteries.

  16. Mixed species radioiodine air sampling readout and dose assessment system

    DOEpatents

    Distenfeld, Carl H.; Klemish, Jr., Joseph R.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a simple, reliable, inexpensive and portable means and method for determining the thyroid dose rate of mixed airborne species of solid and gaseous radioiodine without requiring highly skilled personnel, such as health physicists or electronics technicians. To this end, this invention provides a means and method for sampling a gas from a source of a mixed species of solid and gaseous radioiodine for collection of the mixed species and readout and assessment of the emissions therefrom by cylindrically, concentrically and annularly molding the respective species around a cylindrical passage for receiving a conventional probe-type Geiger-Mueller radiation detector.

  17. Multiplex microfluidic system integrating sequential operations of microalgal lipid production.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Ho Seok; Kim, Jaoon Young Hwan; Na, Sang Cheol; Jeon, Noo Li; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-02-21

    The unit cost for the production of algal biofuel needs to be reduced in order to be a substitute for fossil fuel. To achieve this goal, the development of a novel system is needed for a rapid screening of numerous microalgal species to isolate superior strains with the highest lipid productivity. Here, we developed a PDMS-based multiplex microfluidic system with eight chambers and micropillar arrays to expedite multiple steps for lipid sample preparation from different microalgal strains. We could rapidly and efficiently perform sequential operations from cell culture to lipid extraction of eight different microalgal strains simultaneously on a single device without harvesting and purification steps, which are labor- and energy-intensive, by the simple injection of medium and solvent into the central inlet due to the integrated micropillar arrays connecting the chambers and central inlet. The lipid extraction efficiency using this system was comparable (94.5-102.6%) to the conventional Bligh-Dyer method. We investigated the cell growth and lipid productivity of different strains using the microfluidic device. We observed that each strain has a different lipid accumulation pattern according to stress conditions. These results demonstrate that our multiplex microfluidic approach can provide an efficient analytical tool for the rapid analysis of strain performances (e.g. cell growth and lipid productivities) and the determination of the optimal lipid induction condition for each strain. PMID:26783562

  18. A Protein Concentration Measurement System Using a Flexural Plate-Wave Frequency-Shift Readout Technique

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chua-Chin; Sung, Tzu-Chiao; Hsu, Chia-Hao; Tsai, Yue-Da; Chen, Yun-Chi; Lee, Ming-Chih; Huang, I-Yu

    2013-01-01

    A protein concentration measurement system with two-port flexural plate-wave (FPW) biosensors using a frequency-shift readout technique is presented in this paper. The proposed frequency-shift readout method employs a peak detecting scheme to measure the amount of resonant frequency shift. The proposed system is composed of a linear frequency generator, a pair of peak detectors, two registers, and a subtractor. The frequency sweep range of the linear frequency generator is limited to 2 MHz to 10 MHz according to the characteristics of the FPW biosensors. The proposed frequency-shift readout circuit is carried out on silicon using a standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The sensitivity of the peak detectors is measured to be 10 mV. The power consumption of the proposed protein concentration measurement system is 48 mW given a 0.1 MHz system clock. PMID:23344375

  19. A 40 GByte/s read-out system for GEM

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, M.; Carrel, J.; Dorenbosch, J.; Kapoor, V.

    1994-04-01

    The preliminary design of the read-out system for the GEM (Gammas, Electrons, Muons) detector at the Superconducting Super Collider is presented. The system reads all digitized data from the detector data sources at a Level 1 trigger rate of up to 100 kHz. A total read-out bandwidth of 40 GBytes/s is available. Data are stored in buffers that are accessible for further event filtering by an on-line, processor farm. Data are transported to the farm only as they are needed by the higher-level trigger algorithms, leading to a reduced bandwidth requirement in the Data Acquisition System.

  20. An application specific integrated circuit based multi-anode microchannel array readout system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeins, Larry G.; Stechman, John M.; Cole, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Size reduction of two new multi-anode microchannel array (MAMA) readout systems is described. The systems are based on two analog and one digital application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The new readout systems reduce volume over previous discrete designs by 80 percent while improving electrical performance on virtually every significant parameter. Emphasis is made on the packaging used to achieve the volume reduction. Surface mount technology (SMT) is combined with modular construction for the analog portion of the readout. SMT reliability concerns and the board area impact of MIL SPEC SMT components is addressed. Package selection for the analog ASIC is discussed. Future sytems will require even denser packaging and the volume reduction progression is shown.

  1. Side illuminated optical fiber as a multiplexing element for spectroscopic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Matta, Michael P.; Lavezzari, Delbert C.; Insley, Robert Y.; Jaring, Carolyn C.; Quiday, Marie F.

    2013-09-01

    A new type of colorimeter with multiple channels was demonstrated using a side illuminated optical fiber. When different spots of a properly modified fiber are side illuminated, multiple signals are generated and guided by the waveguide: the essence of multiplexing. This configuration is simple, low cost, does not require a sensitive coating and can analyze several samples along the fiber with a single detector: the most expensive component. Since regular colorimeters use one detector per sample, our new configuration considerably lowers the cost of analyzing multiple samples. This system consists of a fiber mounted over a support, three LEDs, an LED driver, a photo diode and a read-out: to increase the signal, the fiber was tapered. For calibration purposes, six solutions of different concentrations of food dye were prepared, placed inside cuvettes along the fiber length and illuminated by the LEDs. This light passes through the solution, strikes the fiber and is guided to the detector: the darker the solution the lower the signal intensity. Several calibration curves were obtained using different light intensities: it was found that the greater the intensity, the higher the colorimeter sensitivity. This simple capability can be used to easily control the device's sensitivity and its resolution. Although built for three samples only, this device can be modified to accommodate more. With cuvettes measuring 1 cm, it is possible to accommodate one sample per cm of fiber. Also, with minor modifications, this colorimeter can be used for fluorescence, scattering and index of refraction measurements.

  2. Giant magnetoresistive-based biosensing probe station system for multiplex protein assays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Yu, Lina; Tu, Liang; Feng, Yinglong; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2015-08-15

    In this study, a sensitive immune-biosensing system capable of multiplexed, real-time electrical readout was developed based on giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor array to detect a panel of protein biomarkers simultaneously. PAPP-A, PCSK9, and ST2 have been regarded as promising candidate biomarkers for cardiovascular diseases. Early detection of multiple biomarkers for a disease could enable accurate prediction of a disease risk. 64 nano-size GMR sensors were assembled onto one 16 mm × 16 mm chip with a reaction well, and they could work independently and be monitored simultaneously. A detect limit of 40 pg/mL for ST2 antigen had been achieved, and the dynamic ranges for the three proteins detection were up to four orders of magnitude. The GMR sensing platform was also selective enough to be directly used in serum samples. In addition, a lab-based probe station has been designed to implement quick lab-on-a-chip experiments instead of wire bonding. It has a potential application in clinical biomarkers identification and screening, and can be extended to fit other biosensing schemes. PMID:25794959

  3. Multiplexed labeling system for high-throughput cell sorting.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Song, In Hyun; Shin, Woo Jung; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Dong-Ik; Um, Soong Ho

    2016-09-01

    Flow cytometry and fluorescence activated cell sorting techniques were designed to realize configurable classification and separation of target cells. A number of cell phenotypes with different functionalities have recently been revealed. Before simultaneous selective capture of cells, it is desirable to label different samples with the corresponding dyes in a multiplexing manner to allow for a single analysis. However, few methods to obtain multiple fluorescent colors for various cell types have been developed. Even when restricted laser sources are employed, a small number of color codes can be expressed simultaneously. In this study, we demonstrate the ability to manifest DNA nanostructure-based multifluorescent colors formed by a complex of dyes. Highly precise self-assembly of fluorescent dye-conjugated oligonucleotides gives anisotropic DNA nanostructures, Y- and tree-shaped DNA (Y-DNA and T-DNA, respectively), which may be used as platforms for fluorescent codes. As a proof of concept, we have demonstrated seven different fluorescent codes with only two different fluorescent dyes using T-DNA. This method provides maximum efficiency for current flow cytometry. We are confident that this system will provide highly efficient multiplexed fluorescent detection for bioanalysis compared with one-to-one fluorescent correspondence for specific marker detection. PMID:27181032

  4. Detector apparatus having a hybrid pixel-waveform readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Ling-Jian

    2014-10-21

    A gamma ray detector apparatus comprises a solid state detector that includes a plurality of anode pixels and at least one cathode. The solid state detector is configured for receiving gamma rays during an interaction and inducing a signal in an anode pixel and in a cathode. An anode pixel readout circuit is coupled to the plurality of anode pixels and is configured to read out and process the induced signal in the anode pixel and provide triggering and addressing information. A waveform sampling circuit is coupled to the at least one cathode and configured to read out and process the induced signal in the cathode and determine energy of the interaction, timing of the interaction, and depth of interaction.

  5. A new TDR multiplexing system for reliable electrical conductivity and soil water content measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weihermueller, Lutz; Huisman, Sander; Hermes, Normen; Pickel, Stefanie; Vereecken, Harry

    2013-04-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a standard method to estimate soil water content and bulk soil electrical conductivity. In many applications, several TDR probes are installed in soil columns or field setups, and they are measured using a multiplexing system. It has been reported that commercially available multiplexers share a common ground, which might lead to inaccurate TDR measurements when probes are installed close together or at sites with high electromagnetic noise. Therefore, a new eight-channel differential multiplexer (50C81-SDM) was developed that allows communication with standard TDR equipment. The 50C81-SDM multiplexer was tested using measurement in electrolyte solutions and a sand tank. In contrast to multiplexers with a common ground, they showed no interference of closely spaced TDR probes. Measurements at a test site also showed the applicability of the 50C81-SDM multiplexer in an environment contaminated with high electromagnetic noise.

  6. Baseband feedback for SAFARI-SPICA using Frequency Domain Multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounab, A.; de Korte, P.; Cros, A.; van der Kuur, J.; van Leeuwen, B. J.; Monna, B.; Mossel, R.; Nieuwenhuizen, A.; Ravera, L.

    We report on the performance of the digital baseband feedback circuit developed to readout and process signals from arrays of transition edge sensors for SPICA-SAFARI in frequency domain multiplexing (FDM). The standard procedure to readout the SQUID current amplifiers is to use a feedback loop (flux-locked loop: FLL). However the achievable FFL bandwidth is limited by the cable transport delay t_d, which makes standard feedback inconvenient. A much better approach is to use baseband feedback. We have developed a model of the electronic readout chain for SPICA-SAFARI instrument by using an Anlog-digital co-simulation based on Simulink-System Generator environment.

  7. Characteristics of a large system of pad readout wire proportional chambers for the HPC calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Camporesi, T.; Cavallo, F.R.; Giordano, V.; Laurenti, G.; Molinari, G.; Navarria, F.L.; Privitera, P.; Rovelli, T.; Valenti, G.; Zucchini, A.

    1989-02-01

    A large system of wire proportional chambers is being constructed for the readout of the High-Density Projection Chamber (HPC) of the DELPHI experiment at the Large Electron-Positron storage ring. The system consists of 144 chambers, each 0.3 m/sup 2/ wide and read out via cathode pads, located at the end of the HPC drift volume.

  8. Infrared readout electronics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21, 22, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    The present volume on IR readout electronics discusses cryogenic readout using silicon devices, cryogenic readout using III-V and LTS devices, multiplexers for higher temperatures, and focal-plane signal processing electronics. Attention is given to the optimization of cryogenic CMOS processes for sub-10-K applications, cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs, inP-based heterostructure device technology for ultracold readout applications, and a three-terminal semiconductor-superconductor transimpedance amplifier. Topics addressed include unfulfilled needs in IR astronomy focal-plane readout electronics, IR readout integrated circuit technology for tactical missile systems, and radiation-hardened 10-bit A/D for FPA signal processing. Also discussed are the implementation of a noise reduction circuit for spaceflight IR spectrometers, a real-time processor for staring receivers, and a fiber-optic link design for INMOS transputers.

  9. Infrared readout electronics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21, 22, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on IR readout electronics discusses cryogenic readout using silicon devices, cryogenic readout using III-V and LTS devices, multiplexers for higher temperatures, and focal-plane signal processing electronics. Attention is given to the optimization of cryogenic CMOS processes for sub-10-K applications, cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs, inP-based heterostructure device technology for ultracold readout applications, and a three-terminal semiconductor-superconductor transimpedance amplifier. Topics addressed include unfulfilled needs in IR astronomy focal-plane readout electronics, IR readout integrated circuit technology for tactical missile systems, and radiation-hardened 10-bit A/D for FPA signal processing. Also discussed are the implementation of a noise reduction circuit for spaceflight IR spectrometers, a real-time processor for staring receivers, and a fiber-optic link design for INMOS transputers.

  10. Wide angle holographic display system with spatiotemporal multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Kozacki, Tomasz; Finke, Grzegorz; Garbat, Piotr; Zaperty, Weronika; Kujawińska, Małgorzata

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a wide angle holographic display system with extended viewing angle in both horizontal and vertical directions. The display is constructed from six spatial light modulators (SLM) arranged on a circle and an additional SLM used for spatiotemporal multiplexing and a viewing angle extension in two perpendicular directions. The additional SLM, that is synchronized with the SLMs on the circle is placed in the image space. This method increases effective space bandwidth product of display system data from 12.4 to 50 megapixels. The software solution based on three Nvidia graphic cards is developed and implemented in order to achieve fast and synchronized displaying. The experiments presented for both synthetic and real 3D data prove the possibility to view binocularly having good quality images reconstructed in full FoV of the display. PMID:23262697

  11. Multiplexing and networking through fiber optic links for SCADA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Damsker, D.

    1982-07-01

    The Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems of the future might consist of local computer networks tied together through long haul links, using a packet-switching technique. This paper assesses fiber optic link characteristics as potential components of SCADA systems. Essentially, a fiber optic link is constrained to a simplex communication from transmitter to receiver. Such a simplex link is analyzed for its capability to convey baseband signaling and time-, frequency-, and spectral-division multiplexing. The combination of a microcomputer and a simplex fiber optic link is a building block for several configurations of local computer networks. Such a building block is called the Universal Intelligent Optical Communication Link (UIOCL). The paper examines prospective optical networking techniques and evaluates several optical couplers for various network configurations as well as for full- and halfduplex communications. The feasibility of long haul fiber optic links and networks is considered further in the paper.

  12. Development of superconducting contacts for the CRESST II 66-channel superconducting quantum interference device readout system.

    PubMed

    Majorovits, B; Henry, S; Kraus, H

    2007-07-01

    The CRESST experiment is designed to search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter with cryogenic detectors. CRESST II will use up to 33 CaWO(4) crystals with a total mass of approximately 10 kg. These many detectors require a readout system based on 66-channel superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In this article we report on the development of a modular superconducting connector for the 66-channel SQUID readout circuit. We show that the technique developed reliably produces superconducting contacts. PMID:17672757

  13. Development of superconducting contacts for the CRESST II 66-channel superconducting quantum interference device readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Majorovits, B.; Henry, S.; Kraus, H.

    2007-07-15

    The CRESST experiment is designed to search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter with cryogenic detectors. CRESST II will use up to 33 CaWO{sub 4} crystals with a total mass of {approx}10 kg. These many detectors require a readout system based on 66-channel superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In this article we report on the development of a modular superconducting connector for the 66-channel SQUID readout circuit. We show that the technique developed reliably produces superconducting contacts.

  14. DBS -- An rlogin multiplexer and output logger for DA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.; Appleton, L.; Udumula, L.; Votava, M.

    1994-04-01

    DART Bootstrap Services (dbs) is the first component of run-control for the DART Data Acquisition system -- the DA for the 96` round of experiments at Fermilab -- though it has potential usefulness as a powerful tool in other distributed applications. dbs is an rlogin session multiplexer. It allows a user, running a single program, to start up any number of remote login sessions, feed shell commands to them, and collect their output into a single (or multiple) log files (a server keeps the sessions open and collects their output). From this program, any session can be attached to interactively so it appears just like an rlogin session -- dbs becomes transparent. When finished with this interactive mode, the user can escape back to dbs and attach to a different session if so desired. Among many other useful features, dbs supplies a mechanism for cleanup (deletion) of all processes created under a session, allowing a fresh start.

  15. Comparisons of the MINOS Near and Far Detector Readout Systems at a Test Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera, A.; Adamson, P.; Barker, M.; Belias, A.; Boyd, S.; Crone, G.; Drake, G.; Falk, E.; Harris, P.G.; Hartnell, J.; Jenner, L.; /University Coll. London /Texas U.

    2009-02-01

    MINOS is a long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment that uses two detectors separated by 734 km. The readout systems used for the two detectors are different and have to be independently calibrated. To verify and make a direct comparison of the calibrated response of the two readout systems, test beam data were acquired using a smaller calibration detector. This detector was simultaneously instrumented with both readout systems and exposed to the CERN PS T7 test beam. Differences in the calibrated response of the two systems are shown to arise from differences in response non-linearity, photomultiplier tube crosstalk, and threshold effects at the few percent level. These differences are reproduced by the Monte Carlo (MC) simulation to better than 1% and a scheme that corrects for these differences by calibrating the MC to match the data in each detector separately is presented. The overall difference in calorimetric response between the two readout systems is shown to be consistent with zero to a precision of 1.3% in data and 0.3% in MC with no significant energy dependence.

  16. Readout Circuit System for In2O3/RGO Nanocomposite Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Cheng-Yi

    A readout circuit system for In2O3/RGO nanocomposite gas sensors using open-source software has been developed for the first time. The readout system adopts a Raspberry Pi as an electronic control unit and incorporates different electronics components to realize the function of a source measure unit (SMU). During the operation, real-time results of measured gas concentrations can be accessed through the Internet and alarm functions are also included. All control programs were written in Python language. Using this readout system, current response of gas sensors toward oxygen concentrations (2,000---32,000 ppm) in argon environment at 140 °C are in a good agreement with the data measured by Agilent SMU (B2902A). Furthermore, temperature effects and transient response of the proposed system are investigated. The success of this readout system demonstrates the potential use of open-source hardware to construct scientific instruments with the advantages of miniaturization, low cost, flexible design, and Internet access.

  17. Nonlinear performance of multi-granularity orthogonal transmission systems with frequency division multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Yang, Chuanchuan; Fang, Xi; Zhang, Tingting; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2013-03-11

    Orthogonal transmission with frequency division multiplexing technique is investigated for next generation optical communication systems. Coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and single-carrier frequency division multiplexing (SCFDM) schemes are compared in combination with polarization-division multiplexing quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) or 16-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) formats. Multi-granularity transmission with flexible bandwidth can be realized through ultra-dense wavelength division multiplexing (UDWDM) based on the orthogonal technique. The system performance is numerically studied with special emphasis on transmission degradations due to fiber Kerr nonlinearity. The maximum reach and fiber capacity for different spectral efficiencies are investigated for systems with nonlinear propagation over uncompensated standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) links with lumped amplification. PMID:23482180

  18. Readout system of multi-level run-length-limited read-only disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hequn; Xu, Haizheng; Pan, Longfa; Yan, Mingming

    2008-12-01

    The Radio Frequency (RF) signal of the Multi-Level Run-Length-Limited (ML-RLL) read-only disc is different from that of DVD, so the readout system of the ML-RLL read-only disc is built specially. The readout system of the ML-RLL read-only disc can realize servo control, RF signal readout and so on. The readout system consists of Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) traverse, analog front-end and digital processing part. Analog front-end can realize front-end amplification of the output signal of the optical pick-up and power drive of mechanism. Digital processing part mainly consists of digital circuits, which functions are the servo controlling, demodulation and decoding of RF signal, general control and so on. The whole system is implemented on two Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips and the experimental results show a good performance. We tested the important signals, and experimental results are also given to verify the performance of this development platform, which meets the controlling and detecting requirements to multi-level read-only disc completely. The Bit Error Rate (SER) can achieve below 10-4.

  19. A compact ECL system for fast data readout and event building in a multidetector environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finocchiaro, Paolo; Calì, Claudio

    1992-11-01

    A totally hardware readout system is described. It was conceived in order to coordinate a number of parallel chains of FERA_bus converters, and to output the event data in a general formal suitable for being directly handled by data acquisition computers.

  20. A fast embedded readout system for large-area Medipix and Timepix systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogna, A. S.; Balzer, M.; Smale, S.; Hartmann, J.; Bormann, D.; Hamann, E.; Cecilia, A.; Zuber, M.; Koenig, T.; Zwerger, A.; Weber, M.; Fiederle, M.; Baumbach, T.

    2014-05-01

    In this work we present a novel readout electronics for an X-ray sensor based on a Si crystal bump-bonded to an array of 3 × 2 Medipix ASICs. The pixel size is 55 μm × 55 μm with a total number of ~ 400k pixels and a sensitive area of 42 mm × 28 mm. The readout electronics operate Medipix-2 MXR or Timepix ASICs with a clock speed of 125 MHz. The data acquisition system is centered around an FPGA and each of the six ASICs has a dedicated I/O port for simultaneous data acquisition. The settings of the auxiliary devices (ADCs and DACs) are also processed in the FPGA. Moreover, a high-resolution timer operates the electronic shutter to select the exposure time from 8 ns to several milliseconds. A sophisticated trigger is available in hardware and software to synchronize the acquisition with external electro-mechanical motors. The system includes a diagnostic subsystem to check the sensor temperature and to control the cooling Peltier cells and a programmable high-voltage generator to bias the crystal. A network cable transfers the data, encapsulated into the UDP protocol and streamed at 1 Gb/s. Therefore most notebooks or personal computers are able to process the data and to program the system without a dedicated interface. The data readout software is compatible with the well-known Pixelman 2.x running both on Windows and GNU/Linux. Furthermore the open architecture encourages users to write their own applications. With a low-level interface library which implements all the basic features, a MATLAB or Python script can be implemented for special manipulations of the raw data. In this paper we present selected images taken with a microfocus X-ray tube to demonstrate the capability to collect the data at rates up to 120 fps corresponding to 0.76 Gb/s.

  1. Development of readout system for FE-I4 pixel module using SiTCP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teoh, J. J.; Hanagaki, K.; Ikegami, Y.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Unno, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The ATLAS pixel detector will be replaced in the future High Luminosity-Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) upgrade to preserve or improve the detector performance at high luminosity environment. To meet the tight requirements of the upgrade, a new pixel Front-End (FE) Integrated Circuit (IC) called FE-I4 has been developed. We have then devised a readout system for the new FE IC. Our system incorporates Silicon Transmission Control Protocol (SiTCP) technology (Uchida, 2008 [1]) which utilizes the standard TCP/IP and UDP communication protocols. This technology allows direct data access and transfer between a readout hardware chain and PC via a high speed Ethernet. In addition, the communication protocols are small enough to be implemented in a single Field-Programable Gate Array (FPGA). Relying on this technology, we have been able to construct a very compact, versatile and fast readout system. We have developed a firmware and software together with the readout hardware chain. We also have established basic functionalities for reading out FE-I4.

  2. A New ATLAS Muon CSC Readout System with System on Chip Technology on ATCA Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, R.; /SLAC

    2015-10-27

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. The full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  3. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Claus, R.

    2015-10-23

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQmore » building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. Furthermore, the full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.« less

  4. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bartoldus, R.; Claus, R.; Garelli, N.; Herbst, R. T.; Huffer, M.; Iakovidis, G.; Iordanidou, K.; Kwan, K.; Kocian, M.; Lankford, A. J.; et al

    2016-01-25

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run-2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources. Together with auxiliary memories, all ofmore » these components form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for high speed input and output fiberoptic links and TTC allowed the full system of 320 input links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf. The full system was installed in September 2014. In conclusion, we will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning for LHC Run 2.« less

  5. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claus, R.

    2016-07-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. The full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  6. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    SciTech Connect

    Claus, R.

    2015-10-23

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) back-end readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run 2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfiguration Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the ATCA platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip Xilinx Zynq series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources together with auxiliary memories to form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the Zynq for G-link, S-link and TTC allowed the full system of 320 G-links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf through software waveform feature extraction to output 32 S-links. Furthermore, the full system was installed in Sept. 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning towards LHC Run 2.

  7. A new ATLAS muon CSC readout system with system on chip technology on ATCA platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoldus, R.; Claus, R.; Garelli, N.; Herbst, R. T.; Huffer, M.; Iakovidis, G.; Iordanidou, K.; Kwan, K.; Kocian, M.; Lankford, A. J.; Moschovakos, P.; Nelson, A.; Ntekas, K.; Ruckman, L.; Russell, J.; Schernau, M.; Schlenker, S.; Su, D.; Valderanis, C.; Wittgen, M.; Yildiz, S. C.

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS muon Cathode Strip Chamber (CSC) backend readout system has been upgraded during the LHC 2013-2015 shutdown to be able to handle the higher Level-1 trigger rate of 100 kHz and the higher occupancy at Run-2 luminosity. The readout design is based on the Reconfigurable Cluster Element (RCE) concept for high bandwidth generic DAQ implemented on the Advanced Telecommunication Computing Architecture (ATCA) platform. The RCE design is based on the new System on Chip XILINX ZYNQ series with a processor-centric architecture with ARM processor embedded in FPGA fabric and high speed I/O resources. Together with auxiliary memories, all these components form a versatile DAQ building block that can host applications tapping into both software and firmware resources. The Cluster on Board (COB) ATCA carrier hosts RCE mezzanines and an embedded Fulcrum network switch to form an online DAQ processing cluster. More compact firmware solutions on the ZYNQ for high speed input and output fiberoptic links and TTC allowed the full system of 320 input links from the 32 chambers to be processed by 6 COBs in one ATCA shelf. The full system was installed in September 2014. We will present the RCE/COB design concept, the firmware and software processing architecture, and the experience from the intense commissioning for LHC Run 2.

  8. Analysis of the eastern range multiplexed fiber optic IRIG B120 distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Michael J.; Martell, John S.; Wright, James L.

    1993-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the effects of transmitting a precision clock synchronization signal over a commercial multiplexed fiber optic communication system. This study is an evaluation of the distortion and jitter introduced into the signal by this type of transmission system. An analysis comparing signal quality at the multiplexing and demultiplexing ends of the fiber optic communication system shows that the amplitude and phase distortion added to the clock synchronization signal by the transmission system is minimal.

  9. Progress on Frequency-Domain Multiplexing Development for High Count rate X-ray Microcalorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Kuur, J. van der; Boersma, D.; Bruin, M.; Gottardi, L.; Hartog, R. den; Hoevers, H.; Hou, R.; Korte, P. J. de; Leeuwen, B.-J. van; Beyer, J.; Kiviranta, M.

    2009-12-16

    Frequency-domain multiplexing is one of the candidates for the readout of TES-based imaging microcalorimeter arrays for applications such as IXO. The readout system uses the TES as the modulating element, a bandpass LC filter to separate the signals in frequency space, and a customized SQUID with a low input inductance and high dynamic range as cryogenic amplifier. We will show the latest experimental progress on the development of this system. The paper concentrates on our first results on multiplexing 2-7 channels at bias frequencies below 5 MHz using discrete LC filters and baseband feedback electronics. In addition to that, the scalability of the system will be addressed.

  10. Selection of chromosomal DNA libraries using a multiplex CRISPR system

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Owen W; Skerker, Jeffrey M; Maurer, Matthew J; Li, Xin; Tsai, Jordan C; Poddar, Snigdha; Lee, Michael E; DeLoache, Will; Dueber, John E; Arkin, Adam P; Cate, Jamie HD

    2014-01-01

    The directed evolution of biomolecules to improve or change their activity is central to many engineering and synthetic biology efforts. However, selecting improved variants from gene libraries in living cells requires plasmid expression systems that suffer from variable copy number effects, or the use of complex marker-dependent chromosomal integration strategies. We developed quantitative gene assembly and DNA library insertion into the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome by optimizing an efficient single-step and marker-free genome editing system using CRISPR-Cas9. With this Multiplex CRISPR (CRISPRm) system, we selected an improved cellobiose utilization pathway in diploid yeast in a single round of mutagenesis and selection, which increased cellobiose fermentation rates by over 10-fold. Mutations recovered in the best cellodextrin transporters reveal synergy between substrate binding and transporter dynamics, and demonstrate the power of CRISPRm to accelerate selection experiments and discoveries of the molecular determinants that enhance biomolecule function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03703.001 PMID:25139909

  11. A new readout system for bolometers with improved low frequency stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, S.; Benoit, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Giard, M.; Bret, J.-L.; Chabaud, J.-P.; Desert, F.-X.; Faure, J.-P.; Jegoudez, G.; Lande, J.; Leblanc, J.; Lepeltier, J.-P.; Narbonne, J.; Piat, M.; Pons, R.; Serra, G.; Simiand, G.

    1997-11-01

    A new readout electronic system for bolometers is presented in this paper. The bolometer resistance is measured in a bridge with a capacitive load, using a periodic square wave bias current. The bias voltages at both ends of the bridge are balanced in order to keep the middle point around zero. Only changes around this zero value are amplified and detected synchronously with the bias signal. These features shift the measurement frequency out of the electrical low frequency noises (JFETs), and reduces the dynamics required from the amplification chain. The bias voltages are fully controlled by computer, and the lock-in detection is digital. This readout electronic has many advantages over previous ones. In particular, it proved to be able to read the total power of the radiation reaching the bolometer, and to perform measurements down to low frequencies (<= 0.1 Hz) without significant additional noise. These features open new observation strategies such as full sky scanning to bolometer instruments on board future submillimetre space projects having high thermal background levels (warm telescope). The different steps of the development of this new readout electronics on the ground-based Diabolo experiment are described, the performances reached are discussed, and a version suitable for the readout of the arrays of bolometers on the COBRAS/SAMBA satellite mission is presented.

  12. Wave-front coded optical readout for the MEMS-based uncooled infrared imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tian; Zhao, Yuejin; Dong, Liquan; Liu, Xiaohua; Jia, Wei; Hui, Mei; Yu, Xiaomei; Gong, Cheng; Liu, Weiyu

    2012-11-01

    In the space limited infrared imaging system based MEMS, the adjustment of optical readout part is inconvenient. This paper proposed a method of wave-front coding to extend the depth of focus/field of the optical readout system, to solve the problem above, and to reduce the demanding for precision in processing and assemblage of the optical readout system itself as well. The wave-front coded imaging system consists of optical coding and digital decoding. By adding a CPM (Cubic Phase Mask) on the pupil plane, it becomes non-sensitive to defocussing within an extended range. The system has similar PSFs and almost equally blurred intermediate images can be obtained. Sharp images are supposed to be acquired based on image restoration algorithms, with the same PSF as a decoding core. We studied the conventional optical imaging system, which had the same optical performance with the wave-front coding one for comparing. Analogue imaging experiments were carried out. And one PSF was used as a simple direct inverse filter, for imaging restoration. Relatively sharp restored images were obtained. Comparatively, the analogue defocussing images of the conventional system were badly destroyed. Using the decrease of the MTF as a standard, we found the depth of focus/field of the wave-front coding system had been extended significantly.

  13. Coherent operation of detector systems and their readout electronics in a complex experiment control environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koestner, Stefan

    2009-09-01

    With the increasing size and degree of complexity of today's experiments in high energy physics the required amount of work and complexity to integrate a complete subdetector into an experiment control system is often underestimated. We report here on the layered software structure and protocols used by the LHCb experiment to control its detectors and readout boards. The experiment control system of LHCb is based on the commercial SCADA system PVSS II. Readout boards which are outside the radiation area are accessed via embedded credit card sized PCs which are connected to a large local area network. The SPECS protocol is used for control of the front end electronics. Finite state machines are introduced to facilitate the control of a large number of electronic devices and to model the whole experiment at the level of an expert system.

  14. Innovative RF Design Unites Benefits of Multiplexed and Multi-Channel System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavrič, Uroš

    2004-11-01

    The main advantages of the implemented innovative RF design are reproducibility, accuracy, low measurement uncertainty, and compact design. They were achieved by implementing the direct RF sampling and the completely new, patent pending technological approach of quasi-crossbar multiplexing and associated measurement method. The innovative quasi-crossbar switch matrix unites the benefits of both the multi-channel and the multiplexed system and at the same time compensates the disadvantages of the two. We achieve reproducibility and good "beam vs. current" dependence, which are multiplexed system characteristics and, using a multi-channel approach, we ensure a broader band of operation.

  15. Time-division SQUID multiplexers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, K. D.; Vale, L. R.; Bergren, N. E.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Nam, S. W.; Reintsema, C. D.; Rudman, D. A.; Huber, M. E.

    2002-02-01

    SQUID multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of low-temperature bolometers and microcalorimeters based on superconducting transition-edge sensors with a manageable number of readout channels. We discuss the technical tradeoffs between proposed time-division multiplexer and frequency-division multiplexer schemes and motivate our choice of time division. Our first-generation SQUID multiplexer is now in use in an astronomical instrument. We describe our second-generation SQUID multiplexer, which is based on a new architecture that significantly reduces the dissipation of power at the first stage, allowing thousands of SQUIDs to be operated at the base temperature of a cryostat. .

  16. A simple wavelength division multiplexing system for active learning teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zghal, Mourad; Ghalila, Hassen; Ben Lakhdar, Zohra

    2009-06-01

    The active learning project consists in a series of workshops for educators, researchers and students and promotes an innovative method of teaching physics using simple, inexpensive materials that can be fabricated locally. The objective of the project is to train trainers and inspire students to learn physics. The workshops are based on the use of laboratory work and hands-on activities in the classroom. The interpretation of these experiments is challenging for some students, and the experiments can lead to a significant amount of discussion. The workshops are organized within the framework of the project ``Active Learning in Optics and Photonics" (ALOP) mainly funded by UNESCO, with the support of ICTP (Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics) and SPIE. ALOP workshops offer high school, college or university physics teachers the opportunity to improve their conceptual understanding of optics. These workshops usually run for five days and cover several of the topics usually found in any introductory university physics program. Optics and photonics are used as subject matter because it is relevant as well as adaptable to research and educational conditions in many developing countries [1]. In this paper, we will mainly focus on a specific topic of the ALOP workshops, namely optical communications and Wavelength Division Multiplexing technology (WDM). This activity was originally developed by Mazzolini et al [2]. WDM is a technology used in fibre-optic communications for transmitting two or more separate signals over a single fibre optic cable by using a separate wavelength for each signal. Multiple signals are carried together as separate wavelengths of light in a multiplexed signal. Simple and inexpensive WDM system was implemented in our laboratory using light emitting diodes or diode lasers, plastic optical fibres, a set of optical filters and lenses, prism or grating, and photodiodes. Transmission of audio signals using home-made, simple

  17. 21 CFR 862.2570 - Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... be compatible with more than one specific assay. The device includes a signal reader unit, and may.... Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems is a device intended to measure and sort multiple...

  18. 21 CFR 862.2570 - Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... be compatible with more than one specific assay. The device includes a signal reader unit, and may.... Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems is a device intended to measure and sort multiple...

  19. 21 CFR 862.2570 - Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... be compatible with more than one specific assay. The device includes a signal reader unit, and may.... Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems is a device intended to measure and sort multiple...

  20. 21 CFR 862.2570 - Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... be compatible with more than one specific assay. The device includes a signal reader unit, and may.... Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems is a device intended to measure and sort multiple...

  1. 21 CFR 862.2570 - Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... be compatible with more than one specific assay. The device includes a signal reader unit, and may.... Instrumentation for clinical multiplex test systems is a device intended to measure and sort multiple...

  2. Optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; Strand, Oliver T.; Garrett, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    An optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems and construction methods are disclosed. The add/drop filter includes a first ferrule having a first pre-formed opening for receiving a first optical fiber; an interference filter oriented to pass a first set of wavelengths along the first optical fiber and reflect a second set of wavelengths; and, a second ferrule having a second pre-formed opening for receiving the second optical fiber, and the reflected second set of wavelengths. A method for constructing the optical add/drop filter consists of the steps of forming a first set of openings in a first ferrule; inserting a first set of optical fibers into the first set of openings; forming a first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule; dividing the first ferrule into a first ferrule portion and a second ferrule portion; forming an interference filter on the first ferrule portion; inserting guide pins through the first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule portion and second ferrule portion to passively align the first set of optical fibers; removing material such that light reflected from the interference filter from the first set of optical fibers is accessible; forming a second set of openings in a second ferrule; inserting a second set of optical fibers into the second set of openings; and positioning the second ferrule with respect to the first ferrule such that the second set of optical fibers receive the light reflected from the interference filter.

  3. A prototype scalable readout system for micro-pattern gas detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Qi-Bin; Liu, Shu-Bin; Tian, Jing; Li, Cheng; Feng, Chang-Qing; An, Qi

    2016-08-01

    A scalable readout system (SRS) is designed to provide a general solution for different micro-pattern gas detectors in various applications. The system mainly consists of three kinds of modules: the ASIC card, the adapter card and the front-end card (FEC). The ASIC cards, mounted with particular ASIC chips, are designed for receiving detector signals. The adapter card is in charge of digitizing the output signals from several ASIC cards. The FEC, edged-mounted with the adapter, has field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based reconfigurable logic and I/O interfaces, allowing users to choose different ASIC cards and adapters for different experiments, which expands the system to various applications. The FEC transfers data through Gigabit Ethernet protocol realized by a TCP processor (SiTCP) IP core in FPGA. By assembling a flexible number of FECs in parallel through Gigabit Ethernet, the readout system can be tailored to specific sizes to adapt to the experiment scales and readout requirements. In this paper, two kinds of multi-channel ASIC chip, VA140 and AGET, are applied to verify the scalability of this SRS architecture. Based on this VA140 or AGET SRS, one FEC covers 8 ASIC (VA140) cards handling 512 detector channels, or 4 ASIC (AGET) cards handling 256 detector channels, respectively. More FECs can be assembled in crates to handle thousands of detector channels. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11222552)

  4. Systematic Comparison of the MINOS Near and Far Detector Readout Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cabrera, Anatael

    2005-05-01

    The MINOS experiment is a neutrino oscillation baseline experiment intending to use high resolution L/E neutrinos to measure the atmospheric neutrino oscillations parameters to unprecedented precision. Two detectors have been built to realize the measurements, a Near detector, located about 1km downstream from the beam target at the Fermi Laboratory, and a Far detector, located at 736km, at the Soudan Laboratory. The technique relies on the Near detector to measure the un-oscillated neutrino spectrum, while the Far detector measures the neutrino spectrum once oscillated. The comparison between the two measurements is expected to allow MINOS to measure {Delta}m{sup 2} beyond 10% precision level. The Near and Far detectors have been built similarly to minimize possible systematic effects. Both detectors have been endowed with different readout systems, as the beam event rates are very different. The MINOS calibration detector (CalDet), installed at CERN, was instrumented with both readout systems such that they can simultaneously measure and characterize the energy deposition (response and event topology) of incident known particle from test-beams. This thesis presents the investigations to quantify the impact of the performance of both readout systems on the MINOS results using the measurements obtained with CalDet. The relative comparison of the responses of both readout systems have been measured to be consistent with being identical within a systematic uncertainty of 0.6%. The event topologies have been found to be negligibly affected. In addition, the performance of the detector simulations have been thoroughly investigated and validated to be in agreement with data within similar level of uncertainties.

  5. A portable readout system for silicon microstrip sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco-Hernández, Ricardo

    2010-11-01

    This system can measure the collected charge in one or two microstrip silicon sensors by reading out all the channels of the sensor(s), up to 256. The system is able to operate with different types (p- and n-type) and different sizes (up to 3 cm 2) of microstrip silicon sensors, both irradiated and non-irradiated. Heavily irradiated sensors will be used at the Super Large Hadron Collider, so this system can be used to research the performance of microstrip silicon sensors in conditions as similar as possible to the Super Large Hadron Collider operating conditions. The system has two main parts: a hardware part and a software part. The hardware part acquires the sensor signals either from external trigger inputs, in case of a radioactive source setup is used, or from a synchronised trigger output generated by the system, if a laser setup is used. The software controls the system and processes the data acquired from the sensors in order to store it in an adequate format. The main characteristics of the system are described. Results of measurements acquired with n- and p-type detectors using both the laser and the radioactive source setup are also presented and discussed.

  6. The Detector and Readout Systems of the Micro-X High Resolution Microcalorimeter X-Ray Imaging Rocket

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wikus, P.; Doriese, W. B.; Eckart, M. E.; Adams, J. S.; Bandler, S. R.; Brekosky, R. P.; Chervenak, J. A.; Ewin, A. J.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F. M.; Galeazzi, M.; Hilton, G.; Irwin, K. D.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leman, S. W.; McCammon, D.; Porter, F. S.; Reintsema, C. D.; Rutherford, J. M.; Trowbridge, S. N.

    2009-12-01

    The Micro-X sounding rocket experiment will deploy an imaging transition-edge-sensor (TES) microcalorimeter spectrometer to observe astrophysical sources in the 0.2-3.0 keV band. The instrument has been designed at a systems level, and the first items of flight hardware are presently being built. In the first flight, planned for January 2011, the spectrometer will observe a recently discovered Silicon knot in the Puppis-A supernova remnant. Here we describe the design of the Micro-X science instrument, focusing on the instrument's detector and detector assembly. The current design of the 2-dimensional spectrometer array contains 128 close-packed pixels with a pitch of 600 μm. The conically approximated Wolter-1 mirror will map each of these pixels to a 0.95 arcmin region on the sky; the field of view will be 11.4 arcmin. Targeted energy resolution of the TESs is about 2 eV over the full observing band. A SQUID time-division multiplexer (TDM) will read out the array. The detector time constants will be engineered to approximately 2 ms to match the TDM, which samples each pixel at 32.6 kHz, limited only by the telemetry system of the rocket. The detector array and two SQUID stages of the TDM readout system are accommodated in a lightweight Mg enclosure, which is mounted to the 50 mK stage of an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. A third SQUID amplification stage is located on the 1.6 K liquid He stage of the cryostat. An on-board 55-Fe source will fluoresce a Ca target, providing 3.69 and 4.01 keV calibration lines that will not interfere with the scientifically interesting energy band.

  7. The readout and control system of the Dark Energy Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honscheid, Klaus; Elliott, Ann; Annis, James; Bonati, Marco; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Castander, Francisco; daCosta, Luiz; Fausti, Angelo; Karliner, Inga; Kuhlmann, Steve; Neilsen, Eric; Patton, Kenneth; Reil, Kevin; Roodman, Aaron; Thaler, Jon; Serrano, Santiago; Soares Santos, Marcelle; Suchyta, Eric

    2012-09-01

    The Dark Energy Camera (DECam) is a new 520 Mega Pixel CCD camera with a 3 square degree field of view designed for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES is a high precision, multi-bandpass, photometric survey of 5000 square degrees of the southern sky. DECam is currently being installed at the prime focus of the Blanco 4-m telescope at the Cerro- Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). In this paper we describe SISPI, the data acquisition and control system of the Dark Energy Camera. SISPI is implemented as a distributed multi-processor system with a software architecture based on the Client-Server and Publish-Subscribe design patterns. The underlying message passing protocol is based on PYRO, a powerful distributed object technology system written entirely in Python. A distributed shared variable system was added to support exchange of telemetry data and other information between different components of the system. We discuss the SISPI infrastructure software, the image pipeline, the observer console and user interface architecture, image quality monitoring, the instrument control system, and the observation strategy tool.

  8. The Front-End Concentrator card for the RD51 Scalable Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, J.; Muller, H.; Esteve, R.; Monzó, J. M.; Tarazona, A.; Martoiu, S.

    2011-11-01

    Conventional readout systems exist in many variants since the usual approach is to build readout electronics for one given type of detector. The Scalable Readout System (SRS) developed within the RD51 collaboration relaxes this situation considerably by providing a choice of frontends which are connected over a customizable interface to a common SRS DAQ architecture. This allows sharing development and production costs among a large base of users as well as support from a wide base of developers. The Front-end Concentrator card (FEC), a RD51 common project between CERN and the NEXT Collaboration, is a reconfigurable interface between the SRS online system and a wide range of frontends. This is accomplished by using application-specific adapter cards between the FEC and the frontends. The ensemble (FEC and adapter card are edge mounted) forms a 6U × 220 mm Eurocard combo that fits on a 19'' subchassis. Adapter cards exist already for the first applications and more are in development.

  9. Front-end readout electronics considerations for Silicon Tracking System and Muon Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinski, K.; Kleczek, R.; Szczygiel, R.

    2016-02-01

    Silicon Tracking System (STS) and Muon Chamber (MUCH) are components of the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR, Germany. STS will be built from 8 detector stations located in the aperture of the magnet. Each station will be built from double-sided silicon strip detectors and connected via kapton microcables to the readout electronics at the perimeter of each station. The challenging physics program of the CBM experiment requires from the detector systems very high performance. Design of the readout ASIC requires finding an optimal solution for interaction time and input charge measurements in the presence of: tight area (channel pitch: 58 μ m), noise (< 1000 e- rms), power (< 10 mW/channel), radiation hardness and speed requirements (average hit rate: 250 khit/s/channel). This paper presents the front-end electronics' analysis towards prototype STS and MUCH readout ASIC implementation in the UMC 180 nm CMOS process and in-system performance with the emphasis on preferable detector and kapton microcable parameters and input amplifiers' architecture and design.

  10. Validation of a Short Tandem Repeat Multiplex Typing System for Genetic Individualization of Domestic Cat Samples

    PubMed Central

    Coomber, Nikia; David, Victor A.; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Menotti-Raymond, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    Aim To conduct developmental validation studies on a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based short tandem repeat (STR) multiplex typing system, developed for the purpose of genetic individualization and parentage testing in domestic cat samples. Methods To evaluate reproducibility of the typing system, the multiplex was amplified using DNA extracted from hair, blood, and buccal samples obtained from the same individual (n = 13). Additional studies were performed to evaluate the system’s species’ specificity, using 26 North American mammalian species and two prokaryotes Sacchromyces and Escherichia coli, sensitivity, and ability to identify DNA mixtures. Patterns of Mendelian inheritance and mutation rates for the 11 loci were directly examined in a large multi-generation domestic cat pedigree (n = 263). Results Our studies confirm that the multiplex system was species-specific for feline DNA and amplified robustly with as little as 125 picograms of genomic template DNA, demonstrating good product balance. The multiplex generated all components of a two DNA mixture when the minor component was one tenth of the major component at a threshold of 50 relative fluorescence units. The multiplex was reproducible in multiple tissue types of the same individual. Mutation rates for the 11 STR were within the range of sex averaged rates observed for Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) loci. Conclusion The cat STR multiplex typing system is a robust and reliable tool for the use of forensic DNA analysis of domestic cat samples. PMID:17696310

  11. Self-triggering readout system for the neutron lifetime experiment PENeLOPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaisbauer, D.; Bai, Y.; Konorov, I.; Paul, S.; Steffen, D.

    2016-02-01

    PENeLOPE is a neutron lifetime measurement developed at the Technische Universität München and located at the Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II) aiming to achieve a precision of 0.1 seconds. The detector for PENeLOPE consists of about 1250 Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) with a total active area of 1225 cm2. The decay proton detector and electronics will be operated at a high electrostatic potential of -30 kV and a magnetic field of 0.6 T. This includes shaper, preamplifier, ADC and FPGA cards. In addition, the APDs will be cooled to 77 K. The 1250 APDs are divided into 14 groups of 96 channels, including spares. A 12-bit ADC digitizes the detector signals with 1 MSps. A firmware was developed for the detector including a self-triggering readout with continuous pedestal calculation and configurable signal detection. The data transmission and configuration is done via the Switched Enabling Protocol (SEP). It is a time-division multiplexing low layer protocol which provides determined latency for time critical messages, IPBus, and JTAG interfaces. The network has a n:1 topology, reducing the number of optical links.

  12. Performance of Front-End Readout System for PHENIX RICH

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, K.; Hamagaki, H.; Nishimura, S.; Shigaki, K.; Hayano, R.S.; Hibino, M.; Kametani, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Matsumoto, T.; Sakaguchi, T.; Ebisu, K.; Hara, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Ushiroda, T.; Moscone, C.G.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1999-11-15

    A front-end electronics system has been developed for the Ring Imaging Cerenkov (RICH) detector of the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). A high speed custom back-plane with source synchronous bus architecture, a full custom analog ASIC, and board modules with FPGA's and CPLD's were developed for high performance real time data acquisition. The transfer rate of the back-lane has reached 640 MB/s with 128 bits data bus. Total transaction time is estimated to be less than 30 {micro}s per event. The design specifications and test results of the system are presented in this paper.

  13. Final Report Nucleic Acid System - Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay Project Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R P; Langlois, R G; Nasarabadi, S; Benett, W J; Colston, B W; Johnson, D C; Brown, S B; Stratton, P L; Milanovich, F P

    2002-04-17

    This report covers phase 2 (year 2) of the Nucleic Acid System--Hybrid PCR and Multiplex Assay project. The objective of the project is to reduce to practice the detection and identification of biological warfare pathogens by the nucleic acid recognition technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction) in a multiplex mode using flow cytometry. The Hybrid instrument consists of a flow-through PCR module capable of handling a multiplexed PCR assay, a hybridizing module capable of hybridizing multiplexed PCR amplicons and beads, and a flow cytometer module for bead-based identification, all controlled by a single computer. Multiplex immunoassay using bead-based Luminex flow cytometry is available, allowing rapid screening for many agents. PCR is highly specific and complements and verifies immunoassay. It can also be multiplexed and detection provided using the bead-based Luminex flow cytometer. This approach allows full access to the speed and 100-fold multiplex capability of flow cytometry for rapid screening as well as the accuracy and specificity of PCR. This project has two principal activities: (1) Design, build and test a prototype hybrid PCR/flow cytometer with the basic capabilities for rapid, broad spectrum detection and identification, and (2) Develop and evaluate multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products. This project requires not only building operationally functional instrumentation but also developing the chemical assays for detection of priority pathogens. This involves development and evaluation of multiplex flow analysis assay protocols and reagents for the simultaneous detection of PCR products.

  14. Small-Scale Readout System Prototype for the STAR PIXEL Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Szelezniak, Michal; Anderssen, Eric; Greiner, Leo; Matis, Howard; Ritter, Hans Georg; Stezelberger, Thorsten; Sun, Xiangming; Thomas, James; Vu, Chinh; Wieman, Howard

    2008-10-10

    Development and prototyping efforts directed towards construction of a new vertex detector for the STAR experiment at the RHIC accelerator at BNL are presented. This new detector will extend the physics range of STAR by allowing for precision measurements of yields and spectra of particles containing heavy quarks. The innermost central part of the new detector is a high resolution pixel-type detector (PIXEL). PIXEL requirements are discussed as well as a conceptual mechanical design, a sensor development path, and a detector readout architecture. Selected progress with sensor prototypes dedicated to the PIXEL detector is summarized and the approach chosen for the readout system architecture validated in tests of hardware prototypes is discussed.

  15. System Architecture of the Dark Energy Survey Camera Readout Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, Theresa; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Chappa, Steve; de Vicente, Juan; Holm, Scott; Huffman, Dave; Kozlovsky, Mark; Martinez, Gustavo; Moore, Todd; /Madrid, CIEMAT /Fermilab /Illinois U., Urbana /Fermilab

    2010-05-27

    The Dark Energy Survey makes use of a new camera, the Dark Energy Camera (DECam). DECam will be installed in the Blanco 4M telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). DECam is presently under construction and is expected to be ready for observations in the fall of 2011. The focal plane will make use of 62 2Kx4K and 12 2kx2k fully depleted Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) for guiding, alignment and focus. This paper will describe design considerations of the system; including, the entire signal path used to read out the CCDs, the development of a custom crate and backplane, the overall grounding scheme and early results of system tests.

  16. Daisy chain expandable readout system for infrared arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Takahiro; Haraguchi, Kentaro

    2008-07-01

    We have developed a control system for infrared array detectors with 16, 32 or more outputs. Our system consists of five boards (clock pattern generator, clock driver, A/D converter, parallel-in, and isolation), and is operated with a Linux (kernel 2.4 or 2.6) PC. It is capable of supplying 24 DC bias voltages and 16 clock voltages, adjustable between -7.5V and +7.5V and the shortest clock width of 156 ns. One A/D board converts 16 analog array outputs to digital data simultaneously using 16 A/D converters. The rms of A/D conversions for fixed voltages is 2-3 ADU (or 150-200 μV) at a sampling rate of 250 kSPS. The parallel-in board has 32 optically isolated input channels, and can receive data from 2 A/D boards simultaneously. The maximum data rate to main memory of PC is 40 MB/sec, corresponding to 20 frames/sec of a 1024×1024 array. Our system is now utilized for Aladdin 2 (InSb, 1024×1024, 32 outputs) of Wide Field Cryogenic Telescope 2 and SB-774 (Si:As, 320×240, 16 outputs) of 17μm Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The A/D boards have daisy-chain capability for next generation arrays with more than 32 outputs. In the daisy-chain mode, all A/D converters are triggered simultaneously, but the A/D boards make time-delayed data transfer. The parallel-in board receives data sequentially by every 32 A/D converters. When we apply our system for 2048×2048 detectors with 64 outputs, the frame rate will be 5 frames/sec.

  17. Communications with chaotic optoelectronic systems cryptography and multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontani, Damien

    With the rapid development of optical communications and the increasing amount of data exchanged, it has become utterly important to provide effective architectures to protect sensitive data. The use of chaotic optoelectronic devices has already demonstrated great potential in terms of additional computational security at the physical layer of the optical network. However, the determination of the security level and the lack of a multi-user framework are two hurdles which have prevented their deployment on a large scale. In this thesis, we propose to address these two issues. First, we investigate the security of a widely used chaotic generator, the external cavity semiconductor laser (ECSL). This is a time-delay system known for providing complex and high-dimensional chaos, but with a low level of security regarding the identification of its most critical parameter, the time delay. We perform a detailed analysis of the in uence of the ECSL parameters to devise how higher levels of security can be achieved and provide a physical interpretation of their origin. Second, we devise new architectures to multiplex optical chaotic signals and realize multi-user communications at high bit rates. We propose two different approaches exploiting known chaotic optoelectronic devices. The first one uses mutually coupled ECSL and extends typical chaos-based encryption strategies, such as chaos-shift keying (CSK) and chaos modulation (CMo). The second one uses an electro-optical oscillator (EOO) with multiple delayed feedback loops and aims first at transposing coded-division multiple access (CDMA) and then at developing novel strategies of encryption and decryption, when the time-delays of each feedback loop are time-dependent.

  18. Analog filtering methods improve leading edge timing performance of multiplexed SiPMs.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Cates, J W; Grant, A M; Levin, C S

    2016-08-21

    Multiplexing many SiPMs to a single readout channel is an attractive option to reduce the readout complexity of high performance time of flight (TOF) PET systems. However, the additional dark counts and shaping from each SiPM cause significant baseline fluctuations in the output waveform, degrading timing measurements using a leading edge threshold. This work proposes the use of a simple analog filtering network to reduce the baseline fluctuations in highly multiplexed SiPM readouts. With 16 SiPMs multiplexed, the FWHM coincident timing resolution for single [Formula: see text] mm LYSO crystals was improved from 401  ±  4 ps without filtering to 248  ±  5 ps with filtering. With 4 SiPMs multiplexed, using an array of [Formula: see text] mm LFS crystals the mean time resolution was improved from 436  ±  6 ps to 249  ±  2 ps. Position information was acquired with a novel binary positioning network. All experiments were performed at room temperature with no active temperature regulation. These results show a promising technique for the construction of high performance multiplexed TOF PET readout systems using analog leading edge timing pickoff. PMID:27484131

  19. Analog filtering methods improve leading edge timing performance of multiplexed SiPMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, M. F.; Cates, J. W.; Grant, A. M.; Levin, C. S.

    2016-08-01

    Multiplexing many SiPMs to a single readout channel is an attractive option to reduce the readout complexity of high performance time of flight (TOF) PET systems. However, the additional dark counts and shaping from each SiPM cause significant baseline fluctuations in the output waveform, degrading timing measurements using a leading edge threshold. This work proposes the use of a simple analog filtering network to reduce the baseline fluctuations in highly multiplexed SiPM readouts. With 16 SiPMs multiplexed, the FWHM coincident timing resolution for single 3~\\text{mm}× 3~\\text{mm}× 20 mm LYSO crystals was improved from 401  ±  4 ps without filtering to 248  ±  5 ps with filtering. With 4 SiPMs multiplexed, using an array of 3~\\text{mm}× 3~\\text{mm}× 20 mm LFS crystals the mean time resolution was improved from 436  ±  6 ps to 249  ±  2 ps. Position information was acquired with a novel binary positioning network. All experiments were performed at room temperature with no active temperature regulation. These results show a promising technique for the construction of high performance multiplexed TOF PET readout systems using analog leading edge timing pickoff.

  20. Wavelength division multiplexing for future Space Station data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, H. D.; Murray, N. D.

    1983-01-01

    A future Space Station will require information network architectures and technologies that are evolvable, adaptive, high performing, and self-correcting and repairing. One of the conceptual network configurations involves fiber optic data buses with Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). Discussion of this network concept, components being developed and results on a four-channel WDM star bus will be presented.

  1. Subcarrier multiplexing system with built-in dispersion reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Sargis, P.D.; Haigh, R.E.; McCammon, K.G.

    1995-09-08

    Dispersion is effectively reduced in a 1550-nm subcarrier-multiplexed fiber link by using optical pre-filtering at the receiver. Recent experimental results demonstrate transmission of two 2.5 Gbit/s data channels over 220 km of ordinary single-mode fiber.

  2. Performance of the prototype readout system for the CMS endcap hadron calorimeter upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastika, N. J.

    2016-03-01

    The CMS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will upgrade the photon detection and readout systems of its barrel and endcap hadron calorimeters (HCAL) through the second long shutdown of the LHC in 2018. The upgrade includes new silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), SiPM control electronics, signal digitization via the Fermilab QIE11 ASIC, data formatting and serialization via a Microsemi FPGA, and data transmission via CERN Versatile Link technology. The first prototype system for the endcap HCAL has been assembled and characterized on the bench and in a test beam. The design of this new system and prototype performance are described.

  3. Optimization of the microcable and detector parameters towards low noise in the STS readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinski, Krzysztof; Kleczek, Rafal; Schmidt, Christian J.

    2015-09-01

    Successful operation of the Silicon Tracking System requires charge measurement of each hit with equivalent noise charge lower than 1000 e- rms. Detector channels will not be identical, they will be constructed accordingly to the estimated occupancy, therefore for the readout electronics, detector system will exhibit various parameters. This paper presents the simulation-based study on the required microcable (trace width, dielectric material), detector (aluminum strip resistance) and external passives' (decoupling capacitors) parameters in the Silicon Tracking System. Studies will be performed using a front-end electronics (charge sensitive amplifier with shaper) designed for the power budget of 10 mA/channel.

  4. Design and performance of a modular low-radioactivity readout system for cryogenic detectors in the CDMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerib, D. S.; Barnes, P. D., Jr.; Brink, P. L.; Cabrera, B.; Clarke, R. M.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Golwala, S. R.; Huber, M. E.; Kurylowicz, M.; Mandic, V.; Martinis, J. M.; Meunier, P.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Nam, S. W.; Perillo-Isaac, M.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Schnee, R. W.; Seitz, D. N.; Shutt, T.; Smith, G. W.; Stockwell, W. K.; Sundqvist, K. M.; White, S.

    2008-07-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment employs ultra-cold solid-state detectors to search for rare events resulting from WIMP-nucleus scattering. An innovative detector packaging and readout system has been developed to meet the unusual combination of requirements for: low temperature, low radioactivity, low energy threshold, and large channel count. Features include use of materials with low radioactivity such as multi-layer KAPTON laminates for circuit boards; immunity to microphonic noise via a vacuum coaxial wiring design, manufacturability, and modularity. The detector readout design had to accommodate various electronic components which have to be operated in close proximity to the detector as well maintaining separate individual temperatures (ranging from 600 mK to 150 K) in order to achieve optimal noise performance. The paper will describe the general electrical, thermal, and mechanical designs of the CDMS readout system, as well as presenting the theoretical and measured performance of the detector readout channels.

  5. Upgrade of the TOTEM DAQ using the Scalable Readout System (SRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinto, M.; Cafagna, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Radicioni, E.

    2013-11-01

    The main goals of the TOTEM Experiment at the LHC are the measurements of the elastic and total p-p cross sections and the studies of the diffractive dissociation processes. At LHC, collisions are produced at a rate of 40 MHz, imposing strong requirements for the Data Acquisition Systems (DAQ) in terms of trigger rate and data throughput. The TOTEM DAQ adopts a modular approach that, in standalone mode, is based on VME bus system. The VME based Front End Driver (FED) modules, host mezzanines that receive data through optical fibres directly from the detectors. After data checks and formatting are applied in the mezzanine, data is retransmitted to the VME interface and to another mezzanine card plugged in the FED module. The VME bus maximum bandwidth limits the maximum first level trigger (L1A) to 1 kHz rate. In order to get rid of the VME bottleneck and improve scalability and the overall capabilities of the DAQ, a new system was designed and constructed based on the Scalable Readout System (SRS), developed in the framework of the RD51 Collaboration. The project aims to increase the efficiency of the actual readout system providing higher bandwidth, and increasing data filtering, implementing a second-level trigger event selection based on hardware pattern recognition algorithms. This goal is to be achieved preserving the maximum back compatibility with the LHC Timing, Trigger and Control (TTC) system as well as with the CMS DAQ. The obtained results and the perspectives of the project are reported. In particular, we describe the system architecture and the new Opto-FEC adapter card developed to connect the SRS with the FED mezzanine modules. A first test bench was built and validated during the last TOTEM data taking period (February 2013). Readout of a set of 3 TOTEM Roman Pot silicon detectors was carried out to verify performance in the real LHC environment. In addition, the test allowed a check of data consistency and quality.

  6. In vivo simultaneous multispectral fluorescence imaging with spectral multiplexed volume holographic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yanlu; Zhang, Jiulou; Zhang, Dong; Cai, Wenjuan; Chen, Nanguang; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-06-01

    A simultaneous multispectral fluorescence imaging system incorporating multiplexed volume holographic grating (VHG) is developed to acquire multispectral images of an object in one shot. With the multiplexed VHG, the imaging system can provide the distribution and spectral characteristics of multiple fluorophores in the scene. The implementation and performance of the simultaneous multispectral imaging system are presented. Further, the system's capability in simultaneously obtaining multispectral fluorescence measurements is demonstrated with in vivo experiments on a mouse. The demonstrated imaging system has the potential to obtain multispectral images fluorescence simultaneously.

  7. A readout system-on-chip for a cubic kilometer submarine neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Provost, H.; Moudden, Y.; Anvar, S.; Château, F.; Gautard, V.; Louis, F.; Ménager, K.; Vallage, B.; Zonca, E.

    2011-12-01

    This contribution reports on the read-out system of the future KM3NeT undersea network of several thousands of synchronized optical detecting nodes. Each node embeds a specifically designed fully integrated communicating system based on Xilinx FPGA SoC technology. It runs the VxWorks real-time OS and DAQ software designed within the Ice middleware framework resulting in a highly flexible, controllable and scalable distributed application. Clock distribution and delay calibration over customized fixed latency gigabit Ethernet links enable synchronous time stamping of events with nanosecond precision.

  8. Multiplexed optical operation of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) arrays for sensing and signal-processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampathkumar, Ashwin

    2014-06-01

    NEMS are rapidly being developed for a variety of sensing applications as well as for exploring interesting regimes in fundamental physics. In most of these endeavors, operation of a NEMS device involves actuating the device harmonically around its fundamental resonance and detecting subsequent motion while the device interacts with its environment. Even though a single NEMS resonator is exceptionally sensitive, a typical application, such as sensing or signal processing, requires the detection of signals from many resonators distributed over the surface of a chip. Therefore, one of the key technological challenges in the field of NEMS is development of multiplexed measurement techniques to detect the motion of a large number of NEMS resonators simultaneously. In this work, we address the important and difficult problem of interfacing with a large number of NEMS devices and facilitating the use of such arrays in, for example, sensing and signal processing applications. We report a versatile, all-optical technique to excite and read-out a distributed NEMS array. The NEMS array is driven by a distributed, intensity-modulated, optical pump through the photothermal effect. The ensuing vibrational response of the array is multiplexed onto a single, probe beam as a high-frequency phase modulation. The phase modulation is optically down converted to a low-frequency, intensity modulation using an adaptive full -field interferometer, and subsequently is detected using a charge-coupled device (CCD) array. Rapid and single-step mechanical characterization of approximately 60 nominally identical, high-frequency resonators is demonstrated. The technique may enable sensitivity improvements over single NEMS resonators by averaging signals coming from a multitude of devices in the array. In addition, the diffraction-limited spatial resolution may allow for position-dependent read-out of NEMS sensor chips for sensing multiple analytes or spatially inhomogeneous forces.

  9. Image processing system design for microcantilever-based optical readout infrared arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Qiang; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin; Gong, Cheng; Liu, Xiaohua; Yu, Xiaomei; Yang, Lei; Liu, Weiyu

    2012-12-01

    Compared with the traditional infrared imaging technology, the new type of optical-readout uncooled infrared imaging technology based on MEMS has many advantages, such as low cost, small size, producing simple. In addition, the theory proves that the technology's high thermal detection sensitivity. So it has a very broad application prospects in the field of high performance infrared detection. The paper mainly focuses on an image capturing and processing system in the new type of optical-readout uncooled infrared imaging technology based on MEMS. The image capturing and processing system consists of software and hardware. We build our image processing core hardware platform based on TI's high performance DSP chip which is the TMS320DM642, and then design our image capturing board based on the MT9P031. MT9P031 is Micron's company high frame rate, low power consumption CMOS chip. Last we use Intel's company network transceiver devices-LXT971A to design the network output board. The software system is built on the real-time operating system DSP/BIOS. We design our video capture driver program based on TI's class-mini driver and network output program based on the NDK kit for image capturing and processing and transmitting. The experiment shows that the system has the advantages of high capturing resolution and fast processing speed. The speed of the network transmission is up to 100Mbps.

  10. A signal processing system of fiber Bragg grating sensor based on code division multiplexing access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A lowcost Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) Sensing System based on code division multiplexing access (CDMA) technology is proposed. The system using semiconductor optical amplifier and a broadband source is experimented. Without a tunable laser source or electro-optic switch driven, the price of system is very low. CDMA is used to separate each reflected sensor. The experimental results show that theory is correct.

  11. Comparison between multiplex PCR and phenotypic systems for Candida spp. identification.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Giorgio; Gallé, Francesca; Lucariello, Angela; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Albano, Luciana; Mazzarella, Gennaro; D'Amora, Maurizio; Rossano, Fabio

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the performances of three phenotypic systems (RapID Yeast panel, Vitek2 YST card, and API 20 C AUX) and multiplex PCR for Candida spp. identification. Four-hundred and fifty clinical strains of Candida spp. were identified with the four systems and results of multiplex PCR were compared with those of phenotypic methods. The best correspondence was obtained between Multiplex PCR and API 20 C AUX (83.7%), but the other comparisons showed similar values (81.7% and 79.3% for Vitek2 and RapID Yeast panel respectively). The correspondence was lower for all the methods in identification of C. krusei; this may be of concern in addition to the azole resistance and the often endogenous origin of this yeast. In the comparison with the three phenotypic methods, multiplex PCR could be reliable and time-saving in the identification of Candida spp. for diagnostics purposes. Nowadays, a large variety of both traditional and molecular methods for Candida spp. identification are commercially available. Multiplex PCR applied in this study may be more rapid and sensitive than phenotypic systems, and less expensive than other molecular methods. PMID:20402415

  12. A microfluidic device for the automated electrical readout of low-density glass-slide microarrays.

    PubMed

    Díaz-González, María; Salvador, J Pablo; Bonilla, Diana; Marco, M Pilar; Fernández-Sánchez, César; Baldi, Antoni

    2015-12-15

    Microarrays are a powerful platform for rapid and multiplexed analysis in a wide range of research fields. Electrical readout systems have emerged as an alternative to conventional optical methods for microarray analysis thanks to its potential advantages like low-cost, low-power and easy miniaturization of the required instrumentation. In this work an automated electrical readout system for low-cost glass-slide microarrays is described. The system enables the simultaneous conductimetric detection of up to 36 biorecognition events by incorporating an array of interdigitated electrode transducers. A polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic structure has been designed that creates microwells over the transducers and incorporates the microfluidic channels required for filling and draining them with readout and cleaning solutions, thus making the readout process fully automated. Since the capture biomolecules are not immobilized on the transducer surface this readout system is reusable, in contrast to previously reported electrochemical microarrays. A low-density microarray based on a competitive enzymatic immunoassay for atrazine detection was used to test the performance of the readout system. The electrical assay shows a detection limit of 0.22±0.03 μg L(-1) similar to that obtained with fluorescent detection and allows the direct determination of the pesticide in polluted water samples. These results proved that an electrical readout system such as the one presented in this work is a reliable and cost-effective alternative to fluorescence scanners for the analysis of low-density microarrays. PMID:26210466

  13. Fiber optic multiplexed optical transmission systems for space vehicle launch facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, C. H.

    1975-01-01

    Low loss Fiber Optic Cable is being evaluated as a potential future replacement for Kennedy Space Center's 13,000 mile Wideband cable system. In order to make economical use of the wide bandwidth characteristic of glass fibers, a Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) scheme has been devised to stack many analog and digital data channels on a single fiber. The Multiplexed Optical Transmission System (MOTS) will offer a unique flexibility of plug-in modularity to meet changing data and bandwidth requirements in addition to the standard 'goodies' of immunity to lightning and other EMI, RFI type interferences, and of smaller size and lighter weight.

  14. Fluorescence-Raman Dual Modal Endoscopic System for Multiplexed Molecular Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sinyoung; Kim, Yong-Il; Kang, Homan; Kim, Gunsung; Cha, Myeong Geun; Chang, Hyejin; Jung, Kyung Oh; Kim, Young-Hwa; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Hwang, Do Won; Lee, Yun-Sang; Youn, Hyewon; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Dae Hong

    2015-03-01

    Optical endoscopic imaging, which was recently equipped with bioluminescence, fluorescence, and Raman scattering, allows minimally invasive real-time detection of pathologies on the surface of hollow organs. To characterize pathologic lesions in a multiplexed way, we developed a dual modal fluorescence-Raman endomicroscopic system (FRES), which used fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes (F-SERS dots). Real-time, in vivo, and multiple target detection of a specific cancer was successful, based on the fast imaging capability of fluorescence signals and the multiplex capability of simultaneously detected SERS signals using an optical fiber bundle for intraoperative endoscopic system. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the breast cancer xenografts in a mouse orthotopic model were successfully detected in a multiplexed way, illustrating the potential of FRES as a molecular diagnostic instrument that enables real-time tumor characterization of receptors during routine endoscopic procedures.

  15. Fluorescence-Raman Dual Modal Endoscopic System for Multiplexed Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sinyoung; Kim, Yong-il; Kang, Homan; Kim, Gunsung; Cha, Myeong Geun; Chang, Hyejin; Jung, Kyung Oh; Kim, Young-Hwa; Jun, Bong-Hyun; Hwang, Do Won; Lee, Yun-Sang; Youn, Hyewon; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Dae Hong

    2015-01-01

    Optical endoscopic imaging, which was recently equipped with bioluminescence, fluorescence, and Raman scattering, allows minimally invasive real-time detection of pathologies on the surface of hollow organs. To characterize pathologic lesions in a multiplexed way, we developed a dual modal fluorescence-Raman endomicroscopic system (FRES), which used fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes (F-SERS dots). Real-time, in vivo, and multiple target detection of a specific cancer was successful, based on the fast imaging capability of fluorescence signals and the multiplex capability of simultaneously detected SERS signals using an optical fiber bundle for intraoperative endoscopic system. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on the breast cancer xenografts in a mouse orthotopic model were successfully detected in a multiplexed way, illustrating the potential of FRES as a molecular diagnostic instrument that enables real-time tumor characterization of receptors during routine endoscopic procedures. PMID:25820115

  16. Results from a prototype MAPS sensor telescope and readout system with zero suppression for the heavy flavor tracker at STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, L.; Matis, H. S.; Ritter, H. G.; Rose, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Sun, X.; Szelezniak, M.; Thomas, J.; Vu, C.; Wieman, H.

    2008-05-01

    We describe a three Mimostar-2 Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) sensor telescope prototype with an accompanying readout system incorporating on-the-fly data sparsification. The system has been characterized and we report on the measured performance of the sensor telescope and readout system in beam tests conducted both at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and in the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). This effort is part of the development and prototyping work that will lead to a vertex detector for the STAR experiment.

  17. A silicon photonic wavelength division multiplex system for high-speed data transmission in detector instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skwierawski, P.; Schneider, M.; Karnick, D.; Eisenblätter, L.; Weber, M.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new silicon photonics-based optical transmission system utilizing wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) . This technology has the possibility of reading out all raw data from a detector even without massive local data reduction. The transmitter in the detector volume consists of multiple integrated Mach-Zehnder modulators monolithically integrated with wavelength (de-)multiplexers. The first demonstrator currently under development aims for a data rate of 160 Gbit/s per fiber, scalable to 5 Tbit/s and beyond. We report on our recently developed Echelle grating WDM multiplexers with up to 45 channels on an area of 0.5 mm2 and electro-optic modulators providing a bandwidth of 18 GHz.

  18. Multicanonical Determination of the Symbol Error Ratio of WDM Polarization Multiplexed QPSK Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliman, George; Yevick, David

    2014-12-01

    The multicanonical method is applied to the calculation of the symbol error ratio (SER) as a function of the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) at the receiver for a polarization multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (PM-QPSK) wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) system. We improve upon previous calculations by including polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and subsequently verifying the numerical accuracy of our calculations. Our numerical studies demonstrate that acceptable accuracy can be achieved even when advancing the polarization through the fiber with relatively large propagation step lengths.

  19. The prototype readout electronics system for the External Target Experiment in CSR of HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; Kang, L.; Li, M.; Liu, S.; Zhou, J.; An, Q.

    2014-07-01

    A prototype readout electronics system was designed for the External Target Experiment in the Cooling Storage Ring (CSR) of the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The kernel parts include the 128-channel 100 ps high-resolution time digitization module, the 16-channel 25 ps high-resolution time and charge measurement module, and the trigger electronics, as well as the clock generation circuits, which are all integrated within the PXI-6U crate. The laboratory test results indicate that a good resolution is achieved, better than the requirement. We also have conducted initial commissioning tests with the detectors to confirm the functions of the system. Through the research of this prototype electronics, preparation for the future extended system is made.

  20. On the Integration of a Readout System Dedicated for Neutron Discrimination in Harsh Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Krit, S.; Rahajandraibe, W.; Coulié-Castellani, K.; Micolau, G.; Lyoussi, A.

    2016-02-01

    New insights related to the integration of a readout system dedicated for the detection and discrimination of neutrons are presented here. This study takes place in the framework of the I_SMART European project. This system will have to work later in a harsh environment in terms of temperature and radiations, what makes not only the development of specifications for operation and reliability of the components necessary but also the investigation of margins for the interplay of the system. Implementation of the analog conditioning chain at transistor level (AMS (Analog/Mixed Signal) 0.35μm CMOS technology) is investigated here where electrical performances have been validated at SPICE-level simulations using "Spectre" simulator (SPICE-based) under Cadence DFII.

  1. A Multiplexed System for Quantitative Comparisons of Chromatin Landscapes.

    PubMed

    van Galen, Peter; Viny, Aaron D; Ram, Oren; Ryan, Russell J H; Cotton, Matthew J; Donohue, Laura; Sievers, Cem; Drier, Yotam; Liau, Brian B; Gillespie, Shawn M; Carroll, Kaitlin M; Cross, Michael B; Levine, Ross L; Bernstein, Bradley E

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide profiling of histone modifications can provide systematic insight into the regulatory elements and programs engaged in a given cell type. However, conventional chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) does not capture quantitative information on histone modification levels, requires large amounts of starting material, and involves tedious processing of each individual sample. Here, we address these limitations with a technology that leverages DNA barcoding to profile chromatin quantitatively and in multiplexed format. We concurrently map relative levels of multiple histone modifications across multiple samples, each comprising as few as a thousand cells. We demonstrate the technology by monitoring dynamic changes following inhibition of p300, EZH2, or KDM5, by linking altered epigenetic landscapes to chromatin regulator mutations, and by mapping active and repressive marks in purified human hematopoietic stem cells. Hence, this technology enables quantitative studies of chromatin state dynamics across rare cell types, genotypes, environmental conditions, and drug treatments. PMID:26687680

  2. Performance analysis of spatial multiplexing MIMO system with time reversal technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Sanjeeb; Dou, Zheng; Khan, Zayed

    2013-03-01

    This paper deals with the performance analysis of Spatial Multiplexing(SM) multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system with time reversal (TR) technology. Focus is given on the spatial multiplexing gain of MIMO than the diversity gain aspect with the notion that the idea of diversity is inseparably associated with the uncertainty of the channel. If transmitter knows Channel State Information (CSI) before transmission, potential benefits can be harvested. TR is used here, to provide Channel State Information (CSI) at the transmitter before transmission. With the features of temporal and spatial focusing, TR not only can provide immunity against fading for spatially multiplexed data stream but also help boost its Multi Stream Interference (MSI) limited performance by mitigating it. The performance analysis of SM-MIMOTR is carried out with the aim of average minimum error probability for quantity of interest data rate. The interest date rate is 19.07 Mbps, where as the average minimum error probably is set to be that of Single Input Multi Output (SIMO) maximum ratio combining system (MRC). BER of Single Input Single Output (SISO) system is also simulated for making comparison tangible. Simulation study shows that Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of the system with the data rate of interest nearly coincides with that of SIMO system at the range of 10-15db and is better than SISO in all simulated Eb/No points. Additionally, from the standpoint of tread off curve, between diversity gain and spatial multiplexing gain, the non linearity nature still holds.

  3. Multiplex genotyping system for efficient inference of matrilineal genetic ancestry with continental resolution

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, phylogeographic studies have produced detailed knowledge on the worldwide distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants, linking specific clades of the mtDNA phylogeny with certain geographic areas. However, a multiplex genotyping system for the detection of the mtDNA haplogroups of major continental distribution that would be desirable for efficient DNA-based bio-geographic ancestry testing in various applications is still missing. Results Three multiplex genotyping assays, based on single-base primer extension technology, were developed targeting a total of 36 coding-region mtDNA variants that together differentiate 43 matrilineal haplo-/paragroups. These include the major diagnostic haplogroups for Africa, Western Eurasia, Eastern Eurasia and Native America. The assays show high sensitivity with respect to the amount of template DNA: successful amplification could still be obtained when using as little as 4 pg of genomic DNA and the technology is suitable for medium-throughput analyses. Conclusions We introduce an efficient and sensitive multiplex genotyping system for bio-geographic ancestry inference from mtDNA that provides resolution on the continental level. The method can be applied in forensics, to aid tracing unknown suspects, as well as in population studies, genealogy and personal ancestry testing. For more complete inferences of overall bio-geographic ancestry from DNA, the mtDNA system provided here can be combined with multiplex systems for suitable autosomal and, in the case of males, Y-chromosomal ancestry-sensitive DNA markers. PMID:21429198

  4. Four-wave mixing in wavelength-division-multiplexed soliton systems: damping and amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ablowitz, M. J.; Biondini, G.; Chakravarty, S.; Jenkins, R. B.; Sauer, J. R.

    1996-10-01

    Four-wave mixing in wavelength-division-multiplexed soliton systems with damping and amplification is studied. An analytical model is introduced that explains the dramatic growth of the four-wave terms. The model yields a resonance condition relating the soliton frequency and the amplifier distance. It correctly predicts all essential features regarding the resonant growth of the four-wave contributions.

  5. Performance of the Prototype Readout System for the CMS Endcap Hadron Calorimeter Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaverin, Nate; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Pastika, Nathaniel; CMS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will upgrade the photodetectors and readout systems of the endcap hadron calorimeter during the technical stop scheduled for late 2016 and early 2017. A major milestone for this project was a highly successful testbeam run at CERN in August 2015. The testbeam run served as a full integration test of the electronics, allowing a study of the response of the preproduction electronics to the true detector light profile, as well as a test of the light yield of various new plastic scintillator materials. We present implications for the performance of the hadron calorimeter front-end electronics based on testbeam data, and we report on the production status of various components of the system in preparation for the upgrade.

  6. New conversion factors between human and automatic readouts of the CDMAM phantom for CR systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Johann; Homolka, Peter; Osanna-Elliot, Angelika; Kaar, Marcus; Semtrus, Friedrich; Figl, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Mammography screenings demand for profound image quality (IQ) assessment to guarantee their screening success. The European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening (EPQCM) suggests a contrast detail phantom such as the CDMAM phantom to evaluate IQ. For automatic evaluation a software is provided by the EUREF. As human and automatic readouts differ systematically conversion factors were published by the official reference organisation (EUREF). As we experienced a significant difference for these factors for Computed Radiography (CR) systems we developed an objectifying analysis software which presents the cells including the gold disks randomly in thickness and rotation. This allows to overcome the problem of an inevitable learning effect where observers know the position of the disks in advance. Applying this software, 45 computed radiography (CR) systems were evaluated and the conversion factors between human and automatic readout determined. The resulting conversion factors were compared with the ones resulting from the two methods published by EUREF. We found our conversion factors to be substantially lower than those suggested by EUREF, in particular 1.21 compared to 1.42 (EUREF EU method) and 1.62 (EUREF UK method) for 0.1 mm, and 1.40 compared to 1.73 (EUREF EU) and 1.83 (EUREF UK) for 0.25 mm disc diameter, respectively. This can result in a dose increase of up to 90% using either of these factors to adjust patient dose in order to fulfill image quality requirements. This suggests the need of an agreement on their proper application and limits the validity of the assessment methods. Therefore, we want to stress the need for clear criteria for CR systems based on appropriate studies.

  7. Development of a PMT Readout System with Viking Chips for the SciFi Detector of CALET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, T.; Torii, S.; Hibino, K.; Yoshida, K.; Okuno, S.; Anraku, K.; Yamashita, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Katayose, Y.; Inoue, T.; Kasahara, K.; Hubo, S.; Battiston, R.; Menichelli, M.

    2003-07-01

    The CALET (CALorimetric Electron telescope) experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) is designed to observe cosmic-ray electrons, γ -rays, and heavy nuclei. The CALET detector will comprise an imaging calorimeter (IMC) and a total absorption calorimeter (TASC). The IMC part will be assembled with several ten thousand scintillating fibers (SciFi). In order to read the SciFi's, we have been developing a readout system for multi-ano de PMT (MAPMT). We assembled a test detector using 512 SciFi's and a MA-PMT readout unit composed of "Viking" chips (VA32HDR2). We report the performance of the readout unit as proved by beam tests.

  8. Finite element simulations of low-mass readout cables for the CBM Silicon Tracking System using RAPHAEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, M.; Chatterji, S.; Müller, W. F. J.; Kleipa, V.; Heuser, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The first three-dimensional simulation study of thin multi-line readout cables using finite element simulation tool RAPHAEL is being reported. The application is the Silicon Tracking System (STS) of the fixed-target heavy-ion experiment Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM), under design at the forthcoming accelerator center FAIR in Germany. RAPHAEL has been used to design low-mass analog readout cables with minimum possible Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC). Various trace geometries and trace materials have been explored in detail for this optimization study. These cables will bridge the distance between the microstrip detectors and the signal processing electronics placed at the periphery of the silicon tracking stations. SPICE modeling has been implemented in Sentaurus Device to study the transmission loss (dB loss) in cables and simulation has been validated with measurements. An optimized design having minimum possible ENC, material budget and transmission loss for the readout cables has been proposed.

  9. The development of a reliable multi-camera multiplexed CCTV system for safeguards surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, R.S.; Chiang, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    The background, requirements and system details for a simple reliable Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) system are described. The design of the system presented allows up to 8 CCTV cameras of different makes to be multiplexed and their out-put recorded by three Time Lapse Recorders (TLRs) operating in parallel. This multiplex or MUX-CCTV system is intended to be used by the IAEA for surveillance at several nuclear facilities. The system is unique in that it allows all of the cameras to be operated asynchronously and it provides high quality video during replay. It also incorporates video event counting logic which enables IAEA inspectors to take a very quick inventory of the events which are recorded during unattended operation. This paper discusses other phases of the development for the system and it presents some speculation about future changes which may enhance performance.

  10. A novel spatial-frequency-multiplexed fiber-optic Fizeau strain sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yun-Jiang; Jiang, Jian; Zhou, Chang X.

    2005-02-01

    A novel method for multiplexing fiber-optic Fizeau strain sensors with optical amplification is proposed and demonstrated. This method overcomes the two intrinsic disadvantages of fiber-optic Fabry-Perot (F-P) strain sensors, i.e. weak signal and difficult multiplexing. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and optical amplification of an Erbium-doped fiber (EDF) pumped by a 980nm laser diode are used simultaneously to enhance the interferometric signal considerably. A Fizeau interferometer formed by two fiber ends with a quite different reflectivity is used to replace the F-P cavity in sensor head design. Such a Fizeau cavity can enlarge the cavity length by at least an order of magnitude and allows more than ten sensors to be multiplexed simultaneously by using spatial-frequency multiplexing. The operating principle of the sensor system is discussed and an experiment is carried out to verify the concept of the method proposed. It is anticipated that such a sensor system could find important applications for health monitoring of large structures.

  11. A multi-channel readout electronics system for GEM and MICROMEGAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Z.; Li, Y. L.; Gong, G. H.; Gong, H.; Luo, J.; Liu, Y. N.

    2009-11-01

    A multi-channel readout electronics system for GEM and MICROMEGAS has been developed. It consists of a front-end ASIC, a multi-channel ADC and a FPGA to sample the signal waveforms in real time. The gain of the front-end ASIC can be programmable from 1 mV/fC to 19 mV/fC and the output pulse width can be adjusted from 200 ns to 800 ns. The ENC is measured to be below 2000 e for Cin < 20 pF and below 5000 e for Cin < 60 pF. Detailed circuit performance and test results with detectors will be described in this paper.

  12. The front-end readout and DAQ system of LASGA in China space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jian hua; Gan, Weiqun; Hu, Yiming; Chang, Jin; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-07-01

    LASGA (Large Area Solar GAmma-ray spectrometer) , which will be installed in China space station, will cover the energy of X/Gamma ray between 10KeV to 2.5GeV. The energy resolution of LASGA is better than 2.8%@662kev and the spatial resolution is about 1.5 degree @1GeV. LASGA consists of anti-coincidence plastic scintillation detector, X-ray detector, silicon strip tracker and Gamma ray detector. The effective area of the detector is about 400mm*400mm. LASGA has two different observed target: solar X/Gamma ray and Gamma ray from galactic center, which depends on whether the space station is in the shadow area or not. In this paper, we will introduce the front-end readout and data acquisition system of LASGA.

  13. Optical delay encoding for fast timing and detector signal multiplexing in PET

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Alexander M.; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The large number of detector channels in modern positron emission tomography (PET) scanners poses a challenge in terms of readout electronics complexity. Multiplexing schemes are typically implemented to reduce the number of physical readout channels, but often result in performance degradation. Novel methods of multiplexing in PET must be developed to avoid this data degradation. The preservation of fast timing information is especially important for time-of-flight PET. Methods: A new multiplexing scheme based on encoding detector interaction events with a series of extremely fast overlapping optical pulses with precise delays is demonstrated in this work. Encoding events in this way potentially allows many detector channels to be simultaneously encoded onto a single optical fiber that is then read out by a single digitizer. A two channel silicon photomultiplier-based prototype utilizing this optical delay encoding technique along with dual threshold time-over-threshold is demonstrated. Results: The optical encoding and multiplexing prototype achieves a coincidence time resolution of 160 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) and an energy resolution of 13.1% FWHM at 511 keV with 3 × 3 × 5 mm3 LYSO crystals. All interaction information for both detectors, including timing, energy, and channel identification, is encoded onto a single optical fiber with little degradation. Conclusions: Optical delay encoding and multiplexing technology could lead to time-of-flight PET scanners with fewer readout channels and simplified data acquisition systems. PMID:26233181

  14. Data multiplex system for the dispensing station at the Tritium Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Strout, R.E.

    1980-03-01

    Throughout the Tritium Research Laboratory's dispensing station, pressure and temperature are monitored continuously. A multiplex system brings the data from the monitoring points to a central location for use in a programmable calculator. The system consists of a programmable calculator, a multiprogrammer, four address units, digital panel meters, and buffer units interfacing the meters with the rest of the components. This report describes how each component fits into the system to make it work.

  15. Development of low mass optical readout for high data bandwidth systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.; DeLurgio, P.; Drake, G.; Fernando, W.; Lopez, D.; Salvachua-Ferrando, B.; Stanek, R.

    2010-10-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory the High Energy Physics and Center for Nanoscale Materials Divisions are working on a project to develop a new generation of detector readout using high speed data transfer optical devices that can be implemented in particle physics or for long distances. Free-space communications devices offer the potential for reductions in mass, power, and cost of data paths for on-board trigger and readout of tracking detectors. The project involves three areas of study: light modulation, the design and construction of MEMS optical devices, and the control systems for maintaining precise laser light positioning. We demonstrate an optical link in air over one meter and with low error rate at 1 Gb/s. We demonstrate steering of an optical beam over a meter with a precision of 5 micrometers utilizing a MEMS mirror and reflected light in the feedback loop. For early testing, light modulation tests with a fiber link using Li-Niobate modulators and a data generation and error checking chip are done at 1 Gb/s. Many companies and universities are developing modulators which will be incorporated into CMOS chips. We are doing radiation hardness studies for one of the materials involved. Laser light will need to be steered on to and kept centered on the detector in the presence of thermal or mechanical motion, etc. This steering will be controlled by MEMS mirrors. Polycrystalline and crystalline silicon based mirror designs are being studied. We review the current status of the project and outline plans for the future development of the system.

  16. Multiplexed Volume Bragg Gratings in Narrowand Broad-band Spectral Systems: Analysis and Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingersoll, Gregory B.

    Volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) are important holographic optical elements in many spectral systems. Using multiple volume gratings, whether multiplexed or arranged sequentially, provides advantages to many types of systems in overall efficiency, dispersion performance, flexibility of design, etc. However, the use of multiple gratings---particularly when the gratings are multiplexed in a single holographic optical element (HOE)---is subject to inter-grating coupling effects that ultimately limit system performance. Analyzing these coupling effects requires a more complex mathematical model than the straightforward analysis of a single volume grating. We present a matrix-based algorithm for determining diffraction efficiencies of significant coupled waves in these multiplexed grating holographic optical elements (HOEs). Several carefully constructed experiments with spectrally multiplexed gratings in dichromated gelatin verify our conclusions. Applications of this theory to broad- and narrow-band systems are explored in detailed simulations. Broadband systems include spectrum splitters for diverse-bandgap photovoltaic (PV) cells. Volume Bragg gratings can serve as effective spectrum splitters, but the inherent dispersion of a VBG can be detrimental given a broad-spectrum input. The performance of a holographic spectrum splitter element can be improved by utilizing multiple volume gratings, each operating in a slightly different spectral band. However, care must be taken to avoid inter-grating coupling effects that limit ultimate performance. We explore broadband multi-grating holographic optical elements (HOEs) in sandwiched arrangements where individual single-grating HOEs are placed in series, and in multiplexed arrangements where multiple gratings are recorded in a single HOE. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to tailor these systems to the solar spectrum taking into account both efficiency and dispersion. Both multiplexed and sandwiched two-grating systems

  17. Validation and implementation of the PowerPlex 16 BIO System STR multiplex for forensic casework.

    PubMed

    Greenspoon, Susan A; Ban, Jeffrey D; Pablo, Lourdes; Crouse, Cecelia A; Kist, Frank G; Tomsey, Chris S; Glessner, Alex L; Mihalacki, Lisa R; Long, Teresa M; Heidebrecht, Bruce J; Braunstein, Cathryn A; Freeman, David A; Soberalski, Carl; Nathan, Bruesehoff; Amin, Ashima S; Douglas, Elizabeth K; Schumm, James W

    2004-01-01

    The PowerPlex 16 BIO multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) system contains the 13 CODIS loci (FGA, TPOX, D8S1179, vWA, D18S51, D21S11, TH01, D3S1358, CSF1PO, D16S539, D7S820, D13S317, and DS5S818), plus two pentanucleotide repeat loci (Penta D and Penta E) and the sex-identifying locus. Amelogenin. The PowerPlex 16 BIO System is optimized for use with the Hitachi FMBIO gel imaging systems. A consortium of seven independent laboratories collaborated to perform the studies defined by the FBI standards for performing a developmental validation, including the evaluation of sample concordance, percent stutter determination, nonprobative casework, precision, sensitivity, mixture determination, effect of substrates, the impact of environmental insults, and species specificity. All samples tested for concordance were consistent except for one sample from the Virginia Division of Forensic Science database that displayed discordance at D13S317, a locus whose primer sequence was altered. Stutter values were comparable to those of other STR multiplex systems, the precision was comparable to other multiplexes analyzed by gel electrophoresis, the DNA profiles were unchanged by the substrate upon which the blood samples were placed, and the nonprobative casework samples re-typed for the PowerPlex 16 BIO System were consistent with previous typing results. When greater than 0.125 ng of DNA was placed into the PowerPlex 16 BIO System amplification reaction, a full profile was generated by all laboratories. The mixture study results were comparable to those reported for other multiplex systems, the environmental study demonstrated a loss of larger molecular weight loci when samples were incubated at elevated temperatures for a prolonged period of time, and the only notable cross species hybridization was observed with primate DNA samples. This extensive validation work performed demonstrates that the PowerPlex 16 BIO System provides STR data of a quality comparable with other Power

  18. Issues and directions in IR detector readout electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1990-01-01

    An introduction to the major issues encountered in the readout of imaging detector arrays in the infrared are presented. These include circuit issues such as multiplexing, buffering, and noise, as well as materials issues. Future directions in infrared readout electronics will also be discussed. These include on-chip signal processing and advanced hybridization schemes. Finally, recent work at Columbia on 2DEG-charge coupled devices for IR detector multiplexing are described.

  19. Focal plane infrared readout circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An infrared imager, such as a spectrometer, includes multiple infrared photodetectors and readout circuits for reading out signals from the photodetectors. Each readout circuit includes a buffered direct injection input circuit including a differential amplifier with active feedback provided through an injection transistor. The differential amplifier includes a pair of input transistors, a pair of cascode transistors and a current mirror load. Photocurrent from a photodetector can be injected onto an integration capacitor in the readout circuit with high injection efficiency at high speed. A high speed, low noise, wide dynamic range linear infrared multiplexer array for reading out infrared detectors with large capacitances can be achieved even when short exposure times are used. The effect of image lag can be reduced.

  20. Development of a multiplexed microbioreactor system for high-throughput bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Szita, Nicolas; Boccazzi, Paolo; Zhang, Zhiyu; Boyle, Patrick; Sinskey, Anthony J; Jensen, Klavs F

    2005-08-01

    A multiplexed microbioreactor system for parallel operation of multiple microbial fermentation is described. The system includes miniature motors for magnetic stirring of the microbioreactors and optics to monitor the fermentation parameters optical density (OD), dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH, in-situ and in real time. The microbioreactors are fabricated out of poly(methylmethacrylate)(PMMA) and poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS), and have a working volume of 150 microl. Oxygenation of the cells occurs through a thin PDMS membrane at the top of the reactor chamber. Stirring is achieved with a magnetic spin bar in the reactor chamber. Parallel microbial fermentations with Escherichia coli are carried out in four stirred microbioreactors and demonstrate the reproducible performance of the multiplexed system. The profiles for OD, DO, and pH compare favourably to fermentations performed in bioreactor systems with multiple bench-scale reactors. Finally, the multiplexed system is used to compare two different reactor designs, demonstrating that the reproducibility of the system permits the quantification of microbioreactor performance. PMID:16027932

  1. Development of a fast read-out system of a single photon counting detector for mammography with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, F. C.; Rigon, L.; Longo, R.; Arfelli, F.; Bergamaschi, A.; Chen, R. C.; Dreossi, D.; Schmitt, B.; Vallazza, E.; Castelli, E.

    2011-12-01

    A single-photon counting detector read-out system for mammography with synchrotron radiation has been developed with the aim to meet the needs of the mammographic imaging station of the SYRMEP beamline at ELETTRA. The system called PICASSO (Phase Imaging for Clinical Application with Silicon detector and Synchrotron radiatiOn) is a modular detector that implements a read-out system with MYTHEN II ASICs, an embedded Linux-based controller board and a Scientific Linux acquisition workstation. The system architecture and characteristics are herein presented. The system was tested at the SYRMEP beamline and achieved a frame rate of 33 Hz for 8448 channels at 24-bit dynamic range, and it is capable of continuously acquiring up to 2000 frames. Standard mammographic phantoms were imaged and good quality images were obtained at doses comparable with what is delivered in conventional full field mammographic systems.

  2. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Choong, W. -S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Wu, J. -Y.

    2015-08-12

    Here, we present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, whichmore » allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is "time stamped" by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. In conclusion, this digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.« less

  3. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    PubMed Central

    Choong, W.-S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W.W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C.Q.; Wu, J.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    We present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is “time stamped” by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. This digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc. PMID:27134641

  4. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choong, W.-S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Wu, J.-Y.

    2015-08-01

    We present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is ``time stamped'' by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA . This digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.

  5. A front-end readout Detector Board for the OpenPET electronics system

    SciTech Connect

    Choong, W. -S.; Abu-Nimeh, F.; Moses, W. W.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Wu, J. -Y.

    2015-08-12

    Here, we present a 16-channel front-end readout board for the OpenPET electronics system. A major task in developing a nuclear medical imaging system, such as a positron emission computed tomograph (PET) or a single-photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT), is the electronics system. While there are a wide variety of detector and camera design concepts, the relatively simple nature of the acquired data allows for a common set of electronics requirements that can be met by a flexible, scalable, and high-performance OpenPET electronics system. The analog signals from the different types of detectors used in medical imaging share similar characteristics, which allows for a common analog signal processing. The OpenPET electronics processes the analog signals with Detector Boards. Here we report on the development of a 16-channel Detector Board. Each signal is digitized by a continuously sampled analog-to-digital converter (ADC), which is processed by a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to extract pulse height information. A leading edge discriminator creates a timing edge that is "time stamped" by a time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented inside the FPGA. In conclusion, this digital information from each channel is sent to an FPGA that services 16 analog channels, and then information from multiple channels is processed by this FPGA to perform logic for crystal lookup, DOI calculation, calibration, etc.

  6. Wavelength-division multiplexing of nano-optomechanical doubly clamped beam systems.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Vincent T K; Diao, Zhu; Freeman, Mark R; Hiebert, Wayne K

    2015-05-01

    Wavelength-division multiplexing is demonstrated for a set of two doubly clamped beams. Using a single input/output waveguide in a nanophotonic detection system, the two mechanical beams are independently addressable using different wavelength channels as determined by their respective racetrack resonator detection cavities. The two cavities slightly overlap, which also enables the mechanical frequency of both beams to be detected simultaneously with a single wavelength. Finally, to physically map which wavelength channel corresponds to which specific device, a heating laser is targeted individually on each beam to create a reversible mechanical frequency shift. This multiplexing method would allow for the simpler detection of large arrays of nanomechanical devices in a sensor system. PMID:25927755

  7. Spectrally efficient polarization multiplexed direct-detection OFDM system without frequency gap.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chia-Chien; Zeng, Wei-Siang; Lin, Chun-Ting

    2016-01-25

    We experimentally demonstrate a spectrally efficient direct-detection orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (DD-OFDM) system. In addition to polarization-division multiplexing, removing the frequency gap further improves the spectral efficiency of the OFDM system. The frequency gap between a reference carrier and OFDM subcarriers avoids subcarrier-to-subcarrier beating interference (SSBI) in traditional DD-OFDM systems. Without dynamic polarization control, the resulting interference after square-law direct detection in the proposed gap-less system is polarization-dependent and composed of linear inter-carrier interference (ICI) and nonlinear SSBI. Thus, this work proposes an iterative multiple-input multiple-output detection scheme to remove the mixed polarization-dependent interference. Compared to the previous scheme, which only removes ICI, the proposed scheme can further eliminate SSBI to achieve the improvement of ∼ 7 dB in signal-to-noise ratio. Without the need for polarization control, we successfully utilize 7-GHz bandwidth to transmit a 39.5-Gbps polarization multiplexed OFDM signal over 100 km. PMID:26832560

  8. Towards a molecular QCA wire: simulation of write-in and read-out systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulimeno, A.; Graziano, M.; Demarchi, D.; Piccinini, G.

    2012-11-01

    Among emerging beyond CMOS technologies Molecular Quantum Dot Cellular Automata (MQCA) are estimated as extremely promising for computational purposes. The elementary nanoelectronic devices are molecular systems in which the binary encoding is provided by the charge localization within a molecule. As a consequence, there is no current flowing among the cells and power dissipation is dramatically reduced. We study a new real molecule that was synthesized ad hoc for this technology. Differently with respect to previous contributions, this study has the aim of assessing the realistic properties of this molecule in a perspective experimental system based on a molecular wire principle. We use a combination of ab initio calculations and molecular dynamics simulations and analyze the molecule behavior when specific electric fields are applied to move the electrons inside the molecule in order to force a logic state. Our results allowed us (i) to asses the molecule behavior and to explore the working points of our experimental system for the write-in, (ii) to introduce in this scenario new metrics for studying and using these new devices from an electronic point of view, (iii) to give a perspective and to define design constraints for possible experimental solutions eligible for issue of molecule state read-out.

  9. ASIC Readout System for use with a Silicon Detector Array (SAND)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Ian; Lesher, Shelly; Tan, Wanpeng; Smith, Mallory; Robbe, Mike; Aprahamian, Ani

    2012-10-01

    Silicon (Si) detectors are widely used throughout the scientific community, particularly in nuclear physics. Modern versions of Si detectors are getting larger and increasingly segmented, requiring many electronic channels to process the signals. NIM and VME modules have traditionally been used to process signals from various types of detectors. Applying this traditional method to a large array of Si-detectors, segmented or otherwise, would be very expensive and in most cases highly impractical. To handle this high density of signals from state-of-the-art Si detector arrays we have explored an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) approach in collaboration with University of Washington in St. Louis. This involves ASIC chips developed for simultaneous signal processing with charge sensitive preamplifiers, shaping amplifiers, and constant fraction discriminators built in for 16 channels. One ASIC box is capable of housing 32 of these chips and thus processing signals directly from detectors through a total of 512 channels. Analog energy and timing signals are digitized through a pipeline ADC for the NSCL DAQ software to readout. I was a part of the ND effort to implement such an ASIC system. I conducted energy and timing calibrations as well as linearity, threshold, and resolution tests on the system. In collaboration with Indiana University at Bloomington the ASIC system will be applied to a silicon detector array (SAND) at ND for the study of nuclear astrophysics.

  10. Semiconductor laser with a birefringent external cavity for information systems with wavelength division multiplexing

    SciTech Connect

    Paranin, V D; Matyunin, S A; Tukmakov, K N

    2013-10-31

    The spectrum of a semiconductor laser with a birefringent external Gires – Tournois cavity is studied. The generation of two main laser modes corresponding to the ordinary and extraordinary wave resonances is found. It is shown that the radiation spectrum is controlled with a high energy efficiency without losses for spectral filtration. The possibility of using two-mode lasing in optical communication systems with wavelength division multiplexing is shown. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  11. Optimization of a multiplex CRISPR/Cas system for use as an antiviral therapeutic.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Edward M; Kornepati, Anand V R; Mefferd, Adam L; Marshall, Joy B; Tsai, Kevin; Bogerd, Hal P; Cullen, Bryan R

    2015-12-01

    RNA-guided endonucleases or CRISPR/Cas systems have been widely employed for gene engineering/DNA editing applications, and have recently been used against a variety of dsDNA viruses as a potential therapeutic. However, in vivo delivery to specific tissue reservoirs using adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors is problematic due to the large coding requirement for the principal effector commonly used in these applications, Streptococcus pyogenes (Spy) Cas9. Here we describe design of a minimal CRISPR/Cas system that is capable of multiplexing and can be packaged into a single AAV vector. This system consists of the small Type II Cas9 protein from Staphylococcus aureus (Sau) driven by a truncated CMV promoter/enhancer, and flanked 3' by a poly(A) addition signal, as well as two sgRNA expression cassettes driven by either U6 or ∼70-bp tRNA-derived Pol III promoters. Specific protocols for construction of these AAV vector scaffolds, shuttle cloning of their contents into AAV and lentiviral backbones, and a quantitative luciferase assay capable of screening for optimal sgRNAs, are detailed. These protocols can facilitate construction of AAV vectors that have optimal multiplexed sgRNA expression and function. These will have potential utility in multiplex applications, including in antiviral therapy in tissues chronically infected with a pathogenic DNA virus. PMID:26291065

  12. 1 ns time to digital converters for the KM3NeT data readout system

    SciTech Connect

    Calvo, David [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC- Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT collaboration aims at the construction of a multi-km3 high-energy neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea consisting of thousands of glass spheres (nodes), each of them containing 31 photomultiplier (PMT) of small photocathode area. The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT has to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers. For this purpose, 31 high-resolution time-interval measuring channels are implemented on the Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) based on Time to Digital Converter (TDC). TDC are very common devices in particles physics experiments. Architectures with low resources occupancy are desirable allowing the implementation of other instrumentation, communication and synchronization systems on the same device. The required resolution to measure both, time of flight and timestamp must be 1 ns. A 4-Oversampling technique with two high frequency clocks is used to achieve this resolution. The proposed TDC firmware is developed using very few resources in Xilinx Kintex-7.

  13. A novel MUX/DEMUX based on few-mode FBG for mode division multiplexing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yueyu; Hu, Guijun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a novel mode multiplexer/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX) based on few-mode fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) has been proposed. The principle of the MUX/DEMUX based on few-mode FBG has been described in detail, and crosstalk of better than -20 dB is obtained experimentally. Then a 2×2 division multiplexing (MDM) system has been established with the MUX/DEMUX we proposed. The transmission experiment of 2×10 Gbps PRBS has been achieved successfully, which are carried by LP01 mode and LP11 mode, respectively. When the receiver sensitivity is greater than -14 dB m and -10 dB m, the BER can both reach 10-3 for B2B and 10 km transmission, respectively.

  14. A 16-Channel Distributed-Feedback Laser Array with a Monolithic Integrated Arrayed Waveguide Grating Multiplexer for a Wavelength Division Multiplex-Passive Optical Network System Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Yi; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Ning; Huang, Xiao-Dong; Cao, Ming-De; Liu, Wen

    2014-07-01

    A 16-channel distributed-feedback (DFB) laser array with a monolithic integrated arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer for a wavelength division multiplex-passive optical network system is fabricated by using the butt-joint metal organic chemical vapor deposition technology and nanoimpirnt technology. The results show that the threshold current is about 20-30 mA at 25°C. The DFB laser side output power is about 16 mW with a 150 mA injection current. The lasing wavelength is from 1550 nm to 1575 nm covering a more than 25 nm range with 200 GHz channel space. A more than 55 dB sidemode suppression ratio is obtained.

  15. Achieving fast timing performance with multiplexed SiPMs.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Cates, J W; Levin, C S

    2016-04-01

    Using time of flight (ToF) measurements for positron emission tomography (PET) is an attractive avenue for increasing the signal to noise (SNR) ratio of PET images. However, achieving excellent time resolution required for high SNR gain using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) requires many resource heavy high bandwidth readout channels. A method of multiplexing many SiPM signals into a single electronic channel would greatly simplify ToF PET systems. However, multiplexing SiPMs degrades time resolution because of added dark counts and signal shaping. In this work the relative contribution of dark counts and signal shaping to timing degradation is simulated and a baseline correction technique to mitigate the effect of multiplexing on the time resolution of analog SiPMs is simulated and experimentally verified. A charge sharing network for multiplexing is proposed and tested. Results show a full width at half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of [Formula: see text] ps for a single 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LYSO scintillation crystals coupled to an array of sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs that are multiplexed to a single timing channel (in addition to 4 position channels). A [Formula: see text] array of 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LFS crystals showed an average FWHM coincidence time resolution of [Formula: see text] ps using the same timing scheme. All experiments were performed at room temperature with no thermal regulation. These results show that excellent time resolution for ToF can be achieved with a highly multiplexed analog SiPM readout. PMID:26987898

  16. Achieving fast timing performance with multiplexed SiPMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, M. F.; Cates, J. W.; Levin, C. S.

    2016-04-01

    Using time of flight (ToF) measurements for positron emission tomography (PET) is an attractive avenue for increasing the signal to noise (SNR) ratio of PET images. However, achieving excellent time resolution required for high SNR gain using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) requires many resource heavy high bandwidth readout channels. A method of multiplexing many SiPM signals into a single electronic channel would greatly simplify ToF PET systems. However, multiplexing SiPMs degrades time resolution because of added dark counts and signal shaping. In this work the relative contribution of dark counts and signal shaping to timing degradation is simulated and a baseline correction technique to mitigate the effect of multiplexing on the time resolution of analog SiPMs is simulated and experimentally verified. A charge sharing network for multiplexing is proposed and tested. Results show a full width at half maximum (FWHM) coincidence time resolution of 232+/- 2 ps for a single 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LYSO scintillation crystals coupled to an array of sixteen 3 mm  ×  3 mm SiPMs that are multiplexed to a single timing channel (in addition to 4 position channels). A 4× 4 array of 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  20 mm LFS crystals showed an average FWHM coincidence time resolution of 278+/- 7 ps using the same timing scheme. All experiments were performed at room temperature with no thermal regulation. These results show that excellent time resolution for ToF can be achieved with a highly multiplexed analog SiPM readout.

  17. Unyvero i60 implant and tissue infection (ITI) multiplex PCR system in diagnosing periprosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Hischebeth, Gunnar T R; Randau, Thomas M; Buhr, Johanna K; Wimmer, Matthias D; Hoerauf, Achim; Molitor, Ernst; Bekeredjian-Ding, Isabelle; Gravius, Sascha

    2016-02-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is one of the most challenging complications in orthopedic surgery. In cases of suspected periprosthetic joint infection several diagnostic methods are available. In this study we investigated the performance of the newly available Unyvero i60 implant and tissue infection (ITI) multiplex PCR System. 62 specimens from 31 patients with suspected PJI or aseptic loosening of a painful joint arthoplasty were included in this study. Besides the established diagnostic procedures we included a commercial multiplex PCR detection system for diagnosis of PJI. The PCR results obtained from analysis of sonication and synovial fluids (62 specimens) showed a sensitivity of 66.7%, a specificity of 100%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 100% and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 68.4% when compared to cultural methods. Notably, cultures from sonication fluid displayed a sensitivity of 88.9%, a specificity of 61.5%, a PPV of 76.2% and a NPV of 80.0% when compared to tissue cultures. In conclusion, multiplex PCR is an additional - rapid - method for diagnosing PJI. Positive results with the PCR assay used in this study were always confirmed by subsequent matching culture positivity. However, apart from the time saved the nucleic acid amplification technique did not yield additional information than that obtained from microbiological cultures. PMID:26689142

  18. The performance of a high speed pipelined photomultiplier readout system in the Fermilab KTeV experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Whitmore, J.

    1997-08-01

    The KTeV fixed target experiment at Fermilab is using an innovative scheme for reading out its 3100 channel CsI electromagnetic calorimeter. This pipelined readout system digitizes photomultiplier tube (PMT) signals over a 16-bit dynamic range with 8-bits of resolution at 53 MHz. The crucial element of the system is a custom Bi-CMOS integrated circuit which, in conjunction with an 8-bit Flash ADC, integrates and digitizes the PMT signal charge over each 18.9 nsec clock cycle (53 MHz) in a deadtimeless fashion.The digitizer circuit is local to the PMT base, and has an in-situ charge integration noise figure of 3 fC/sample. In this article, the readout system will be described and its performance including noise, cross-talk, linearity, stability, and reliability will be discussed.

  19. Compensated digital readout family

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, David E.; Skow, Michael

    1991-01-01

    ISC has completed test on an IC which has 32 channels of amplifiers, low pass anti-aliasing filters, 13-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters with non-uniformity correction per channel and a digital multiplexer. The single slope class of A/D conversion is described, as are the unique variations required for incorporation of this technique for use with on-focal plane detector readout electronics. This paper describes the architecture used to implement the digital on-focal plane signal processing functions. Results from measured data on a test IC are presented for a circuit containing these functions operating at a sensor frame rate of 1000 hertz.

  20. Performance Analysis of Optical Code Division Multiplex System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Bhatia, Kamaljit Singh

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the Pseudo-Orthogonal Code generator for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system which helps to reduce the need of bandwidth expansion and improve spectral efficiency. In this paper we investigate the performance of multi-user OCDMA system to achieve data rate more than 1 Tbit/s.

  1. Compact pulse width modulation circuitry for silicon photomultiplier readout.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Olcott, P D; Levin, C S

    2013-08-01

    The adoption of solid-state photodetectors for positron emission tomography (PET) system design and the interest in 3D interaction information from PET detectors has lead to an increasing number of readout channels in PET systems. To handle these additional readout channels, PET readout electronics should be simplified to reduce the power consumption, cost, and size of the electronics for a single channel. Pulse-width modulation (PWM), where detector pulses are converted to digital pulses with width proportional to the detected photon energy, promises to simplify PET readout by converting the signals to digital form at the beginning of the processing chain, and allowing a single time-to-digital converter to perform the data acquisition for many channels rather than routing many analogue channels and digitizing in the back end. Integrator based PWM systems, also known as charge-to-time converters (QTCs), are especially compact, reducing the front-end electronics to an op-amp integrator with a resistor discharge, and a comparator. QTCs, however, have a long dead-time during which dark count noise is integrated, reducing the output signal-to-noise ratio. This work presents a QTC based PWM circuit with a gated integrator that shows performance improvements over existing QTC based PWM. By opening and closing an analogue switch on the input of the integrator, the circuit can be controlled to integrate only the portions of the signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio. It also allows for multiplexing different detectors into the same PWM circuit while avoiding uncorrelated noise propagation between photodetector channels. Four gated integrator PWM circuits were built to readout the spatial channels of two position sensitive solid-state photomultiplier (PS-SSPM). Results show a 4 × 4 array 0.9 mm × 0.9 mm × 15 mm of LYSO crystals being identified on the 5 mm × 5 mm PS-SSPM at room temperature with no degradation for twofold multiplexing. In principle, much larger

  2. Compact Pulse Width Modulation Circuitry for Silicon Photomultiplier Readout

    PubMed Central

    Bieniosek, M F; Olcott, P D; Levin, C S

    2013-01-01

    The adoption of solid state photo-detectors for positron emission tomography (PET) system design and the interest in 3D interaction information from PET detectors has lead to an increasing number of readout channels in PET systems. To handle these additional readout channels, PET readout electronics should be simplified to reduce the power consumption, cost, and size of the electronics for a single channel. Pulse width modulation (PWM), where detector pulses are converted to digital pulses with width proportional to the detected photon energy, promises to simplify PET readout by converting the signals to digital form at the beginning of the processing chain, and allowing a single time-to-digital converter to perform the data acquisition for many channels rather than routing many analog channels and digitizing in the back end. Integrator based PWM systems, also known as charge-to-time converters (QTC), are especially compact, reducing the front-end electronics to an op-amp integrator with a resistor discharge, and a comparator. QTCs, however, have a long dead-time during which dark count noise is integrated, reducing the output signal to noise ratio. This work presents a QTC based PWM circuit with a gated integrator that shows performance improvements over existing QTC based PWM. By opening and closing an analog switch on the input of the integrator, the circuit can be controlled to integrate only the portions of the signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio. It also allows for multiplexing different detectors into the same PWM circuit while avoiding uncorrelated noise propagation between photodetector channels. Four gated integrator PWM circuits were built to readout the spatial channels of two position sensitive solid state photomultiplier (PS-SSPM). Results show a 4×4 array 0.9mm×0.9mm×15mm of LYSO crystals being identified on the 5mm×5mm PS-SSPM at room temperature with no degradation for 2-fold multiplexing. In principle, much larger multiplexing ratios are

  3. Compact pulse width modulation circuitry for silicon photomultiplier readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, M. F.; Olcott, P. D.; Levin, C. S.

    2013-08-01

    The adoption of solid-state photodetectors for positron emission tomography (PET) system design and the interest in 3D interaction information from PET detectors has lead to an increasing number of readout channels in PET systems. To handle these additional readout channels, PET readout electronics should be simplified to reduce the power consumption, cost, and size of the electronics for a single channel. Pulse-width modulation (PWM), where detector pulses are converted to digital pulses with width proportional to the detected photon energy, promises to simplify PET readout by converting the signals to digital form at the beginning of the processing chain, and allowing a single time-to-digital converter to perform the data acquisition for many channels rather than routing many analogue channels and digitizing in the back end. Integrator based PWM systems, also known as charge-to-time converters (QTCs), are especially compact, reducing the front-end electronics to an op-amp integrator with a resistor discharge, and a comparator. QTCs, however, have a long dead-time during which dark count noise is integrated, reducing the output signal-to-noise ratio. This work presents a QTC based PWM circuit with a gated integrator that shows performance improvements over existing QTC based PWM. By opening and closing an analogue switch on the input of the integrator, the circuit can be controlled to integrate only the portions of the signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio. It also allows for multiplexing different detectors into the same PWM circuit while avoiding uncorrelated noise propagation between photodetector channels. Four gated integrator PWM circuits were built to readout the spatial channels of two position sensitive solid-state photomultiplier (PS-SSPM). Results show a 4 × 4 array 0.9 mm × 0.9 mm × 15 mm of LYSO crystals being identified on the 5 mm × 5 mm PS-SSPM at room temperature with no degradation for twofold multiplexing. In principle, much larger

  4. Development of a Microwave SQUID-Multiplexed TES Array for MUSTANG-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanchfield, S. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, J.; Brevik, J. A.; Cho, H. M.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Dober, B.; Egan, D.; Ford, P.; Hilton, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Marganian, P.; Mason, B. S.; Mates, J. A. B.; McMahon, J.; Mello, M.; Mroczkowski, T.; Romero, C.; Tucker, C.; Vale, L.; White, S.; Whitehead, M.; Young, A. H.

    2016-07-01

    MUSTANG-2 is a 90 GHz feedhorn-coupled, microwave SQUID-multiplexed TES bolometer array in the final stages of development for operation on the 100-m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. We present the camera design and report the performance during the first season of observation, in which 64 of the available 215 pixels in the focal plane were populated. We highlight the microwave multiplexing readout technology, which is envisioned as a path to read out the next generation of large pixel-count cryogenic focal planes. In this regard, MUSTANG2 is a pathfinder for this multiplexing technology. We present noise spectra which show no detector noise degradation when read out with microwave SQUID multiplexing, and we present first light images of Jupiter and M87, which demonstrate the end-to-end system performance.

  5. Development of a Microwave SQUID-Multiplexed TES Array for MUSTANG-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanchfield, S. M.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aguirre, J.; Brevik, J. A.; Cho, H. M.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Dicker, S. R.; Dober, B.; Egan, D.; Ford, P.; Hilton, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Marganian, P.; Mason, B. S.; Mates, J. A. B.; McMahon, J.; Mello, M.; Mroczkowski, T.; Romero, C.; Tucker, C.; Vale, L.; White, S.; Whitehead, M.; Young, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    MUSTANG-2 is a 90 GHz feedhorn-coupled, microwave SQUID-multiplexed TES bolometer array in the final stages of development for operation on the 100-m Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope. We present the camera design and report the performance during the first season of observation, in which 64 of the available 215 pixels in the focal plane were populated. We highlight the microwave multiplexing readout technology, which is envisioned as a path to read out the next generation of large pixel-count cryogenic focal planes. In this regard, MUSTANG2 is a pathfinder for this multiplexing technology. We present noise spectra which show no detector noise degradation when read out with microwave SQUID multiplexing, and we present first light images of Jupiter and M87, which demonstrate the end-to-end system performance.

  6. A multichannel compact readout system for single photon detection: Design and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argentieri, A. G.; Cisbani, E.; Colilli, S.; Cusanno, F.; De Leo, R.; Fratoni, R.; Garibaldi, F.; Giuliani, F.; Gricia, M.; Lucentini, M.; Marra, M.; Musico, Paolo; Santavenere, F.; Torrioli, S.

    2010-05-01

    Optimal exploitation of Multi Anode PhotoMultiplier Tubes (MAPMT) as imaging devices requires the acquisition of a large number of independent channels; despite the rather wide demand, on-the-shelf electronics for this purpose does not exist. A compact independent channel readout system for an array of MAPMTs has been developed and tested [1,2]. The system can handle up to 4096 independent channels, covering an area of about 20×20 cm2 with pixel size of 3×3 mm2, using Hamamatsu H-9500 devices. The front-end is based on a 64 channels VLSI custom chip called MAROC, developed by IN2P3 Orsay (France) group, controlled by means of a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) which implements configuration, triggering and data conversion controls. Up to 64 front-end cards can be housed in four backplanes and a central unit collects data from all of them, communicating with a control Personal Computer (PC) using an high speed USB 2.0 connection. A complete system has been built and tested. Eight Flat MAPMTs (256 anodes Hamamatsu H-9500) have been arranged on a boundary of a 3×3 matrix for a grand total of 2048 channels. This detector has been used to verify the performances of a focusing aerogel RICH prototype using an electron beam at the Frascati (Rome) INFN National Laboratory Beam Test Facility (BTF) during the last week of January 2009. Data analysis is ongoing: the first results are encouraging, showing that the Cherenkov rings are well identified by this system.

  7. Cryogenic readout electronics for astronomical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierickx, B.; Vermeiren, J.; Cos, S.; Faymonville, R.; Lemke, D.

    1992-12-01

    The development of the cold readout electronics for the ISOPHOT focal plane experiment on the ISO (Infrared Space Observatory) is reported. For this low background application, custom designed highly sensitive integrating charge amplifiers are used for the readout of the extrinsic IR detectors. The use of CMOS circuits allows the multiplexing and readout of a large number of detectors at the detector temperature, with a very low power dissipation. The CMOS readout amplifier/multiplexer for deep cryogenic operation is discussed. The device is able to interface directly with extrinsic photoconductive detectors cooled down to the 1.8 to 10K range. In order to observe faint objects under low light level conditions the integration capacitor is 80 fF, featuring a saturation at 1 million charge carriers for an output voltage swing of 2 V and a noise level of 0.5 mV root mean square in nondestructive readout mode. With this circuit coupled to detectors with a responsivity of around 5 to 10 A/W, it is possible to reach noise equivalent power values of 10 to the minus 17th power W/square root of Hz. The multiplexer can be operated with only 10 wires for the supplies, and the clocking of the circuits.

  8. Developments in Time-Division Multiplexing of X-ray Transition-Edge Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doriese, W. B.; Morgan, K. M.; Bennett, D. A.; Denison, E. V.; Fitzgerald, C. P.; Fowler, J. W.; Gard, J. D.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Joe, Y. I.; Mates, J. A. B.; O'Neil, G. C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Robbins, N. O.; Schmidt, D. R.; Swetz, D. S.; Tatsuno, H.; Vale, L. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2016-07-01

    Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a mature scheme for the readout of arrays of transition-edge sensors (TESs). TDM is based on superconducting-quantum-interference-device (SQUID) current amplifiers. Multiple spectrometers based on gamma-ray and X-ray microcalorimeters have been operated with TDM readout, each at the scale of 200 sensors per spectrometer, as have several astronomical cameras with thousands of sub-mm or microwave bolometers. Here we present the details of two different versions of our TDM system designed to read out X-ray TESs. The first has been field-deployed in two 160-sensor (8 columns × 20 rows) spectrometers and four 240-sensor (8 columns × 30 rows) spectrometers. It has a three-SQUID-stage architecture, switches rows every 320 ns, and has total readout noise of 0.41 μ Φ 0 / surd Hz. The second, which is presently under development, has a two-SQUID-stage architecture, switches rows every 160 ns, and has total readout noise of 0.19 μ Φ 0 / surd Hz. Both quoted noise values are non-multiplexed and referred to the first-stage SQUID. In a demonstration of this new architecture, a multiplexed 1-column × 32-row array of NIST TESs achieved average energy resolution of 2.55± 0.01 eV at 6 keV.

  9. Developments in Time-Division Multiplexing of X-ray Transition-Edge Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doriese, W. B.; Morgan, K. M.; Bennett, D. A.; Denison, E. V.; Fitzgerald, C. P.; Fowler, J. W.; Gard, J. D.; Hays-Wehle, J. P.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Joe, Y. I.; Mates, J. A. B.; O'Neil, G. C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Robbins, N. O.; Schmidt, D. R.; Swetz, D. S.; Tatsuno, H.; Vale, L. R.; Ullom, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a mature scheme for the readout of arrays of transition-edge sensors (TESs). TDM is based on superconducting-quantum-interference-device (SQUID) current amplifiers. Multiple spectrometers based on gamma-ray and X-ray microcalorimeters have been operated with TDM readout, each at the scale of 200 sensors per spectrometer, as have several astronomical cameras with thousands of sub-mm or microwave bolometers. Here we present the details of two different versions of our TDM system designed to read out X-ray TESs. The first has been field-deployed in two 160-sensor (8 columns × 20 rows) spectrometers and four 240-sensor (8 columns × 30 rows) spectrometers. It has a three-SQUID-stage architecture, switches rows every 320 ns, and has total readout noise of 0.41 μ Φ 0 / surd Hz. The second, which is presently under development, has a two-SQUID-stage architecture, switches rows every 160 ns, and has total readout noise of 0.19 μ Φ 0 / surd Hz. Both quoted noise values are non-multiplexed and referred to the first-stage SQUID. In a demonstration of this new architecture, a multiplexed 1-column × 32-row array of NIST TESs achieved average energy resolution of 2.55± 0.01 eV at 6 keV.

  10. 360-degree dense multiview image acquisition system using time multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yendo, Tomohiro; Fujii, Toshiaki; Panahpour Tehrani, Mehrdad; Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2010-02-01

    A novel 360-degree 3D image acquisition system that captures multi-view images with narrow view interval is proposed. The system consists of a scanning optics system and a high-speed camera. The scanning optics system is composed of a double-parabolic mirror shell and a rotating flat mirror tilted at 45 degrees to the horizontal plane. The mirror shell produces a real image of an object that is placed at the bottom of the shell. The mirror shell is modified from usual system which is used as 3D illusion toy so that the real image can be captured from right horizontal viewing direction. The rotating mirror in the real image reflects the image to the camera-axis direction. The reflected image observed from the camera varies according to the angle of the rotating mirror. This means that the camera can capture the object from various viewing directions that are determined by the angle of the rotating mirror. To acquire the time-varying reflected images, we use a high-speed camera that is synchronized with the angle of the rotating mirror. We have used a high-speed camera which resolution is 256×256 and the maximum frame rate is 10000fps at the resolution. Rotating speed of the tilted flat mirror is about 27 rev./sec. The number of views is 360. The focus length of parabolic mirrors is 73mm and diameter is 360mm. Objects which length is less than about 30mm can be acquired. Captured images are compensated rotation and distortion caused by double-parabolic mirror system, and reproduced as 3D moving images by Seelinder display.

  11. MIMO capacities and outage probabilities in spatially multiplexed optical transport systems.

    PubMed

    Winzer, Peter J; Foschini, Gerard J

    2011-08-15

    With wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) rapidly nearing its scalability limits, space-division multiplexing (SDM) seems the only option to further scale the capacity of optical transport networks. In order for SDM systems to continue the WDM trend of reducing energy and cost per bit with system capacity, integration will be key to SDM. Since integration is likely to introduce non-negligible crosstalk between multiple parallel transmission paths, multiple-input multiple output (MIMO) signal processing techniques will have to be used. In this paper, we discuss MIMO capacities in optical SDM systems, including related outage considerations which are an important part in the design of such systems. In order to achieve the low-outage standards required for optical transport networks, SDM transponders should be capable of individually addressing, and preferably MIMO processing all modes supported by the optical SDM waveguide. We then discuss the effect of distributed optical noise in MIMO SDM systems and focus on the impact of mode-dependent loss (MDL) on system capacity and system outage. Through extensive numerical simulations, we extract scaling rules for mode-average and mode-dependent loss and show that MIMO SDM systems composed of up to 128 segments and supporting up to 128 modes can tolerate up to 1 dB of per-segment MDL at 90% of the system's full capacity at an outage probability of 10(-4). PMID:21935030

  12. Microstrip electrode readout noise for load-dominated long shaping-time systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Kelsey; Cunnington, Taylor; Crosby, Sean; Fadeyev, Vitaliy; Martinez-McKinney, Forest; Mistry, Khilesh; Schumm, Bruce A.; Spencer, Edwin; Taylor, Aaron; Wilder, Max

    2013-11-01

    In cases such as that of the proposed International Linear Collider (ILC), for which the beam-delivery and detector-occupancy characteristics permit a long shaping-time readout of the microstrip sensors, it is possible to envision long (∼1 meter) daisy-chained ‘ladders’ of fine-pitch sensors read out by a single front-end amplifier. In this study, a long shaping-time (∼2 μsec) front-end amplifier has been used to measure readout noise as a function of detector load. Comparing measured noise to that expected from lumped and distributed models of the load network, it is seen that network effects significantly mitigate the amount of readout noise contributed by the detector load. Further reduction in noise is demonstrated for the case that the sensor load is read out from its center rather than its end.

  13. A multiplexed immunoassay system based upon reciprocating centrifugal microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Noroozi, Zahra; Kido, Horacio; Peytavi, Régis; Nakajima-Sasaki, Rie; Jasinskas, Algimantas; Micic, Miodrag; Felgner, Philip L.; Madou, Marc J.

    2011-01-01

    A novel, centrifugal disk-based micro-total analysis system (μTAS) for low cost and high throughput semi-automated immunoassay processing was developed. A key innovation in the disposable immunoassay disk design is in a fluidic structure that enables very efficient micro-mixing based on a reciprocating mechanism in which centrifugal acceleration acting upon a liquid element first generates and stores pneumatic energy that is then released by a reduction of the centrifugal acceleration, resulting in a reversal of direction of flow of the liquid. Through an alternating sequence of high and low centrifugal acceleration, the system reciprocates the flow of liquid within the disk to maximize incubation/hybridization efficiency between antibodies and antigen macromolecules during the incubation/hybridization stage of the assay. The described reciprocating mechanism results in a reduction in processing time and reagent consumption by one order of magnitude. PMID:21721711

  14. Integrated real-time monitoring system for strain/temperature distribution based on simultaneous wavelength and time division multiplexing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yongbo; Li, Peng; Liu, Yanju; Asundi, Anand; Leng, Jinsong

    2014-08-01

    Based on the combination of wavelength- and time-division multiplexing technique, a novel fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor multiplexing system is proposed, which can be used for monitoring the two-dimensional strain and temperature field distribution in large structures. The FBG sensing unit is encoded simultaneously in both wavelength and time domains. Using the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) resonant cavity technology, a large capacity multiplexing technology with mixed time-division and wave-division multiplexing (TDM+WDM) is presented. The sensor array contains many groups with each group composed of many sensors. The group is addressed by TDM mode and each sensor of the groups is accessed by WDM mode. Therefore, the total multiplexing capacity is multiplication of TDM and WDM. In theory, more than 1000 sensors can be multiplexed on one single fiber. The feasibility of the scheme was experimentally demonstrated through a sensor system with a two dimensional FBG sensing network with 5×5 sensors arrays. In addition, the strain/temperature distribution in an aluminum plate was measured at real time under different loading/heating by using above FBG sensing network.

  15. The Design and Realization of Linear Calibration System of a Large Dynamic Range Readout Unit for a BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ming-Gang; Guo, Jian-Hua; Wu, Jian; Chang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is proposed by the Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This project expects to find the evidence of the existence of dark matter particles in the universe via the detection of the high-energy electrons and gamma-ray particles produced possibly by the annihilation of dark matter particles. The major component of the satellite payload is a BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) calorimeter, which is used to detect the particles in the energy range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. According to a physical simulation, the dynamic range of each BGO detection unit is about 1.5×105. In order to test the readout linearity of the BGO detection unit, we have implemented a simple linear calibration system covering such a large dynamic range. The experimental result shows that the readout nonlinearity of the BGO detection unit in the entire dynamic range is less than 2.7%.

  16. The electronics readout and data acquisition system of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope node

    SciTech Connect

    Real, Diego [IFIC, Instituto de Física Corpuscular, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, C Collaboration: KM3NeT Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The KM3NeT neutrino telescope will be composed by tens of thousands of glass spheres, called Digital Optical Module (DOM), each of them containing 31 PMTs of small photocathode area (3'). The readout and data acquisition system of KM3NeT have to collect, treat and send to shore, in an economic way, the enormous amount of data produced by the photomultipliers and at the same time to provide time synchronization between each DOM at the level of 1 ns. It is described in the present article the Central Logic Board, that integrates the Time to Digital Converters and the White Rabbit protocol used for the DOM synchronization in a transparent way, the Power Board used in the DOM, the PMT base to readout the photomultipliers and the respective collecting boards, the so called Octopus Board.

  17. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs.

    PubMed

    Kakuda, Tsuneo; Shojo, Hideki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Adachi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs), which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP) method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10-13 g (100 fg) of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp), this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. PMID:27355212

  18. Multiplex APLP System for High-Resolution Haplogrouping of Extremely Degraded East-Asian Mitochondrial DNAs

    PubMed Central

    Kakuda, Tsuneo; Shojo, Hideki; Tanaka, Mayumi; Nambiar, Phrabhakaran; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Umetsu, Kazuo; Adachi, Noboru

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) serves as a powerful tool for exploring matrilineal phylogeographic ancestry, as well as for analyzing highly degraded samples, because of its polymorphic nature and high copy numbers per cell. The recent advent of complete mitochondrial genome sequencing has led to improved techniques for phylogenetic analyses based on mtDNA, and many multiplex genotyping methods have been developed for the hierarchical analysis of phylogenetically important mutations. However, few high-resolution multiplex genotyping systems for analyzing East-Asian mtDNA can be applied to extremely degraded samples. Here, we present a multiplex system for analyzing mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs), which relies on a novel amplified product-length polymorphisms (APLP) method that uses inosine-flapped primers and is specifically designed for the detailed haplogrouping of extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. We used fourteen 6-plex polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) and subsequent electrophoresis to examine 81 haplogroup-defining SNPs and 3 insertion/deletion sites, and we were able to securely assign the studied mtDNAs to relevant haplogroups. Our system requires only 1×10−13 g (100 fg) of crude DNA to obtain a full profile. Owing to its small amplicon size (<110 bp), this new APLP system was successfully applied to extremely degraded samples for which direct sequencing of hypervariable segments using mini-primer sets was unsuccessful, and proved to be more robust than conventional APLP analysis. Thus, our new APLP system is effective for retrieving reliable data from extremely degraded East-Asian mtDNAs. PMID:27355212

  19. A handheld flow genetic analysis system (FGAS): towards rapid, sensitive, quantitative and multiplex molecular diagnosis at the point-of-care level.

    PubMed

    Shu, Bowen; Zhang, Chunsun; Xing, Da

    2015-06-21

    A handheld flow genetic analysis system (FGAS) is proposed for rapid, sensitive, multiplex and real-time quantification of nucleic acids at the point-of-care (POC) level. The FGAS includes a helical thermal-gradient microreactor and a microflow actuator, as well as control circuitry for temperature, fluid and power management, and smartphone fluorescence imaging. All of these features are integrated into a field-portable and easy-to-use molecular diagnostic platform powered by lithium batteries. Due to the unique design of the microreactor, not only steady temperatures for denaturation and annealing/extension but also a linear thermal gradient for spatial high-resolution melting can be achieved through simply maintaining a single heater at constant temperature. The smartphone fluorescence imaging system has a wide field of view that captures all PCR channels of the microreactor in a single snapshot without the need for any mechanical scanning. By these designs, the FGAS enables real-time monitoring of the temporal and spatial fluorescence signatures of amplicons during continuous-flow amplification. On the current FGAS, visual detection of as little as 10 copies per μL of genomic DNA of Salmonella enterica was achieved in 15 min, with real-time quantitative detection of the DNA over 6 orders of magnitude concentration from 10(6) to 10(1) copies per μL also completed in 7.5-15 min. In addition, multiple pathogenic DNA targets could be simultaneously discriminated with direct bar-chart readout or multiplex spatial melting in serial flow. We anticipate that the FGAS has great potential to become a next-generation gene analyzer for POC molecular diagnostics. PMID:25953325

  20. Mononeuritis multiplex

    MedlinePlus

    Mononeuropathy multiplex; Multifocal neuropathy; Peripheral neuropathy - mononeuritis multiplex ... Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2007:chap 446.

  1. Advanced Spatial-Division Multiplexed Measurement Systems Propositions-From Telecommunication to Sensing Applications: A Review.

    PubMed

    Weng, Yi; Ip, Ezra; Pan, Zhongqi; Wang, Ting

    2016-01-01

    The concepts of spatial-division multiplexing (SDM) technology were first proposed in the telecommunications industry as an indispensable solution to reduce the cost-per-bit of optical fiber transmission. Recently, such spatial channels and modes have been applied in optical sensing applications where the returned echo is analyzed for the collection of essential environmental information. The key advantages of implementing SDM techniques in optical measurement systems include the multi-parameter discriminative capability and accuracy improvement. In this paper, to help readers without a telecommunication background better understand how the SDM-based sensing systems can be incorporated, the crucial components of SDM techniques, such as laser beam shaping, mode generation and conversion, multimode or multicore elements using special fibers and multiplexers are introduced, along with the recent developments in SDM amplifiers, opto-electronic sources and detection units of sensing systems. The examples of SDM-based sensing systems not only include Brillouin optical time-domain reflectometry or Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDR/BOTDA) using few-mode fibers (FMF) and the multicore fiber (MCF) based integrated fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, but also involve the widely used components with their whole information used in the full multimode constructions, such as the whispering gallery modes for fiber profiling and chemical species measurements, the screw/twisted modes for examining water quality, as well as the optical beam shaping to improve cantilever deflection measurements. Besides, the various applications of SDM sensors, the cost efficiency issue, as well as how these complex mode multiplexing techniques might improve the standard fiber-optic sensor approaches using single-mode fibers (SMF) and photonic crystal fibers (PCF) have also been summarized. Finally, we conclude with a prospective outlook for the opportunities and challenges of SDM

  2. Reduction of initial collision effects by adiabatic expansion in soliton wavelength-division multiplexed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Shiva; Hasegawa, Akira

    1996-12-01

    Properly designed adiabatic expansion of soliton reduces permanent frequency shifts of wavelength-division multiplexed solitons caused by initial overlap. The scheme combined with a dispersion-managed transmission line provides solutions to soliton wavelength-division multiplexing problems.

  3. A Low-PAPR Multiplexed MC-CDMA System with Enhanced Data Rate and Link Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Juinn-Horng; Hwang, Jeng-Kuang

    Recently, a new multi-carrier CDMA (MC-CDMA) system with cyclic-shift orthogonal keying (CSOK) has been proposed and shown to be more spectral and power efficient than conventional MC-CDMA systems. In this paper, a novel extension called the multiplexed CSOK (MCSOK) MC-CDMA system is proposed to further increase the data rate while maintaining a low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). First, the data stream is divided into multiple parallel substreams that are mapped into QPSK-CSOK symbols in terms of cyclic shifted Chu sequences. Second, these sequences are repeated, modulated, summed, and placed on IFFT subcarriers, resulting in a constant-modulus multiplexed signal that preserves the desired orthogonality among substreams. The receiver performs frequency-domain equalization and uses efficient demultiplexing, despreading, and demapping schemes to detect the modulation symbols. Furthermore, an alternate MCSOK system configuration with high link quality is also presented. Simulations show that the proposed MCSOK system attains lower PAPR and BER, as compared to conventional MC-CDMA system using Walsh codes. Under a rich multipath environment, the high link quality configuration exhibits excellent performance with both diversity gain and MCSOK modulation gain.

  4. Development of Readout Electronics for POLARBEAR-2 Cosmic Microwave Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Barron, D.; Bender, A. N.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Keating, B.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Montgomery, J.; Rotermund, K.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Whitehorn, N.

    2016-07-01

    The readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers with a large multiplexing factor is key for the next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment, Polarbear-2 (Suzuki in J Low Temp Phys 176:719, 2014), having 7588 TES bolometers. To enable the large arrays, we have been developing a readout system with a multiplexing factor of 40 in the frequency domain. Extending that architecture to 40 bolometers requires an increase in the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics, above 4 MHz. This paper focuses on cryogenic readout and shows how it affects cross talk and the responsivity of the TES bolometers. A series resistance, such as equivalent series resistance of capacitors for LC filters, leads to non-linear response of the bolometers. A wiring inductance modulates a voltage across the bolometers and causes cross talk. They should be controlled well to reduce systematic errors in CMB observations. We have been developing a cryogenic readout with a low series impedance and have tuned bolometers in the middle of their transition at a high frequency (>3 MHz).

  5. Development of Readout Electronics for uc(POLARBEAR-2) Cosmic Microwave Background Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Barron, D.; Bender, A. N.; Cukierman, A.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M.; Elleflot, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Hazumi, M.; Holzapfel, W.; Hori, Y.; Keating, B.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Montgomery, J.; Rotermund, K.; Shirley, I.; Suzuki, A.; Whitehorn, N.

    2016-01-01

    The readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers with a large multiplexing factor is key for the next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment, uc(Polarbear)-2 (Suzuki in J Low Temp Phys 176:719, 2014), having 7588 TES bolometers. To enable the large arrays, we have been developing a readout system with a multiplexing factor of 40 in the frequency domain. Extending that architecture to 40 bolometers requires an increase in the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics, above 4 MHz. This paper focuses on cryogenic readout and shows how it affects cross talk and the responsivity of the TES bolometers. A series resistance, such as equivalent series resistance of capacitors for LC filters, leads to non-linear response of the bolometers. A wiring inductance modulates a voltage across the bolometers and causes cross talk. They should be controlled well to reduce systematic errors in CMB observations. We have been developing a cryogenic readout with a low series impedance and have tuned bolometers in the middle of their transition at a high frequency (> 3 MHz).

  6. Quantification of MDL-induced signal degradation in MIMO-OFDM mode-division multiplexing systems.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yu; Li, Juhao; Zhu, Paikun; Wu, Zhongying; Chen, Yuanxiang; He, Yongqi; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2016-08-22

    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission over few-mode optical fiber has emerged as a promising technology to enhance transmission capacity, in which multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP) after coherent detection is used to demultiplex the signals. Compared with conventional single-mode systems, MIMO-MDM systems suffer non-recoverable signal degradation induced by mode-dependent loss (MDL). In this paper, the MDL-induced signal degradation in orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) MDM systems is theoretically quantified in terms of mode-average error vector magnitude (EVM) through frequency domain norm analysis. A novel scalar MDL metric is proposed considering the probability distribution of the practical MDM input signals, and a closed-form expression for EVM measured after zero-force (ZF) MIMO equalization is derived. Simulation results show that the EVM estimations utilizing the novel MDL metric remain unbiased for unrepeated links. For a 6 × 100 km 20-mode MDM transmission system, the estimation accuracy is improved by more than 90% compared with that utilizing traditional condition number (CN) based MDL metric. The proposed MDL metric can be used to predict the MDL-induced SNR penalty in a theoretical manner, which will be beneficial for the design of practical MIMO-MDM systems. PMID:27557176

  7. Boosting CRISPR/Cas9 multiplex editing capability with the endogenous tRNA-processing system.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kabin; Minkenberg, Bastian; Yang, Yinong

    2015-03-17

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system is being harnessed as a powerful tool for genome engineering in basic research, molecular therapy, and crop improvement. This system uses a small guide RNA (gRNA) to direct Cas9 endonuclease to a specific DNA site; thus, its targeting capability is largely constrained by the gRNA-expressing device. In this study, we developed a general strategy to produce numerous gRNAs from a single polycistronic gene. The endogenous tRNA-processing system, which precisely cleaves both ends of the tRNA precursor, was engineered as a simple and robust platform to boost the targeting and multiplex editing capability of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We demonstrated that synthetic genes with tandemly arrayed tRNA-gRNA architecture were efficiently and precisely processed into gRNAs with desired 5' targeting sequences in vivo, which directed Cas9 to edit multiple chromosomal targets. Using this strategy, multiplex genome editing and chromosomal-fragment deletion were readily achieved in stable transgenic rice plants with a high efficiency (up to 100%). Because tRNA and its processing system are virtually conserved in all living organisms, this method could be broadly used to boost the targeting capability and editing efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 toolkits. PMID:25733849

  8. Boosting CRISPR/Cas9 multiplex editing capability with the endogenous tRNA-processing system

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Kabin; Minkenberg, Bastian

    2015-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 nuclease (Cas9) system is being harnessed as a powerful tool for genome engineering in basic research, molecular therapy, and crop improvement. This system uses a small guide RNA (gRNA) to direct Cas9 endonuclease to a specific DNA site; thus, its targeting capability is largely constrained by the gRNA-expressing device. In this study, we developed a general strategy to produce numerous gRNAs from a single polycistronic gene. The endogenous tRNA-processing system, which precisely cleaves both ends of the tRNA precursor, was engineered as a simple and robust platform to boost the targeting and multiplex editing capability of the CRISPR/Cas9 system. We demonstrated that synthetic genes with tandemly arrayed tRNA–gRNA architecture were efficiently and precisely processed into gRNAs with desired 5′ targeting sequences in vivo, which directed Cas9 to edit multiple chromosomal targets. Using this strategy, multiplex genome editing and chromosomal-fragment deletion were readily achieved in stable transgenic rice plants with a high efficiency (up to 100%). Because tRNA and its processing system are virtually conserved in all living organisms, this method could be broadly used to boost the targeting capability and editing efficiency of CRISPR/Cas9 toolkits. PMID:25733849

  9. The Microwave SQUID Multiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mates, John Arthur Benson

    2011-12-01

    This thesis describes a multiplexer of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) with low-noise, ultra-low power dissipation, and great scalability. The multiplexer circuit measures the magnetic flux in a large number of unshunted rf SQUIDs by coupling each SQUID to a superconducting microwave resonator tuned to a unique resonance frequency and driving the resonators from a common feedline. A superposition of microwave tones measures each SQUID simultaneously using only two coaxial cables between the cryogenic device and room temperature. This multiplexer will enable the instrumentation of arrays with hundreds of thousands of low-temperature detectors for new applications in cosmology, materials analysis, and nuclear non-proliferation. The driving application of the Microwave SQUID Multiplexer is the readout of large arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors, by some figures of merit the most sensitive detectors of electromagnetic signals over a span of more than nine orders of magnitude in energy, from 40 GHz microwaves to 200 keV gamma rays. Modern transition-edge sensors have noise-equivalent power as low as 10-20 W / Hz1/2 and energy resolution as good as 2 eV at 6 keV. These per-pixel sensitivities approach theoretical limits set by the underlying signals, motivating a rapid increase in pixel count to access new science. Compelling applications, like the non-destructive assay of nuclear material for treaty verification or the search for primordial gravity waves from inflation use arrays of these detectors to increase collection area or tile a focal plane. We developed three generations of SQUID multiplexers, optimizing the first for flux noise 0.17 muPhi0 / Hz1/2, the second for input current noise 19 pA / Hz1/2, and the last for practical multiplexing of large arrays of cosmic microwave background polarimeters based on transition-edge sensors. Using the last design we demonstrated multiplexed readout of prototype polarimeters with the

  10. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; Crowley, K. T.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Duff, S. M.; Dunkley, J.; Dünner, R.; van Engelen, A.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Hills, F.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hloẑek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Huffenberger, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K. D.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A. B.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sherwin, B. D.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Thornton, R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-03-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies—imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution—will enable precision cosmological constraints and also a wide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the Advanced ACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the Advanced ACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  11. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S. W.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Battaglia, N.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.; Calabrese, E.; Choi, S. K.; Coughlin, K. P.; Crowley, K. T.; Datta, R.; Devlin, M. J.; Duff, S. M.; Dunkley, J.; Dünner, R.; van Engelen, A.; Gallardo, P. A.; Grace, E.; Hasselfield, M.; Hills, F.; Hilton, G. C.; Hincks, A. D.; Hloẑek, R.; Ho, S. P.; Hubmayr, J.; Huffenberger, K.; Hughes, J. P.; Irwin, K. D.; Koopman, B. J.; Kosowsky, A. B.; Li, D.; McMahon, J.; Munson, C.; Nati, F.; Newburgh, L.; Niemack, M. D.; Niraula, P.; Page, L. A.; Pappas, C. G.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Schmitt, B. L.; Sehgal, N.; Sherwin, B. D.; Sievers, J. L.; Simon, S. M.; Spergel, D. N.; Staggs, S. T.; Stevens, J. R.; Thornton, R.; Van Lanen, J.; Vavagiakis, E. M.; Ward, J. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies—imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution—will enable precision cosmological constraints and also a wide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the Advanced ACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the Advanced ACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  12. Advanced ACTPol Cryogenic Detector Arrays and Readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, S.W.; Battaglia, N.; Wollack, E. J.; Allison, R.; Austermann, J.; Baildon, T.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; De Bernardis, F.; Bond, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced ACTPol is a polarization-sensitive upgrade for the 6 m aperture Atacama Cosmology Telescope, adding new frequencies and increasing sensitivity over the previous ACTPol receiver. In 2016, Advanced ACTPol will begin to map approximately half the sky in five frequency bands (28-230 GHz). Its maps of primary and secondary cosmic microwave background anisotropies-imaged in intensity and polarization at few arcminute-scale resolution-will enable precision cosmological constraints and also awide array of cross-correlation science that probes the expansion history of the universe and the growth of structure via gravitational collapse. To accomplish these scientific goals, the AdvancedACTPol receiver will be a significant upgrade to the ACTPol receiver, including four new multichroic arrays of cryogenic, feedhorn-coupled AlMn transition edge sensor polarimeters (fabricated on 150 mm diameter wafers); a system of continuously rotating meta-material silicon half-wave plates; and a new multiplexing readout architecture which uses superconducting quantum interference devices and time division to achieve a 64-row multiplexing factor. Here we present the status and scientific goals of the Advanced ACTPol instrument, emphasizing the design and implementation of the AdvancedACTPol cryogenic detector arrays.

  13. Performance Evaluation of Transmission Technique Utilizing Linear Combination Diversity in MIMO Spatial Multiplexing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Yutaka; Matsuoka, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazuaki; Orihashi, Masayuki

    In this paper, we evaluate BER (bit error rate) performance and diversity gain when employing a transmission technique utilizing LC (Linear Combination) diversity using 2 time slots with QPSK channels in 2×2 MIMO (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) spatial multiplexing systems by comparing it with the upper and lower bound on BER. This evaluation shows that this transmission technique realizes high diversity gain and high transmission rate in LOS (line-of-sight) and NLOS (non line-of-sight) environments.

  14. The cryogenic multiplexer and shift register for submillimeter-wave digital camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibi, Yasunori; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Arai, Hideaki; Nagata, Hirohisa; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Fujiwara, Mikio

    2009-11-01

    We have been developing cryogenic readout integrate circuits using SONY GaAs JFETs for large format arrays of high impedance type detectors especially for submillimeter/terahertz astronomy. The GaAs JFETs manufactured by SONY CO. Ltd have excellent static properties at less than 1 K. Besides, these JFETs have good performance for electrical switches; they have very low gate capacitance (<50 fF), low on resistance (˜10 kΩ), and high off resistance (>100 TΩ). To realize a cryogenic readout system for submillimeter-wave/terahertz camera, we designed multiplexers with sample-and-holds and shift registers. We report the first test results of each circuit and show prospect of a cryogenic multiplex system for a submillimeter-wave/terahertz digital camera.

  15. Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing access (OFDMA) based wireless visible light communication (VLC) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Jiun-Yu; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Lin, Wan-Feng; Liu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    An orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing access (OFDMA) based visible light communication (VLC) system is proposed in this paper. The architecture of the proposed system is divided into several VLC cells, which is defined in this paper. The deployment and upgrade of the system involve only simple combination of the VLC cells. Hence it is economically advantageous. To guarantee smooth communication, nearly equal data rate is provided at every location within the system with no concern on the system scale. The user location monitor strategy is also discussed to solve the region division issues. The characteristics of the proposed system are analyzed in detail in this paper. A one-dimensional experiment was demonstrated with 13.6 Mb/s data rate.

  16. Development of the 19 X-STR loci multiplex system and genetic analysis of a Zhejiang Han population in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, XingYi; Wu, WeiWei; Chen, LinLi; Liu, ChangHui; Zhang, XiaoFang; Chen, Ling; Feng, XingLin; Wang, HuiJun; Liu, Chao

    2016-08-01

    The 19 X-STRs multiplex system is a PCR-based amplification kit that facilitates simultaneous amplification of 19 X-chromosomal STR loci (i.e. DXS7423, DXS10148, DXS10159, DXS6809, DXS7424, DXS8378, DXS10164, DXS10162, DXS7132, DXS10079, DXS6789, DXS101, DXS10103,DXS10101, HPTRB, DXS10075, DXS10074, DXS10135, and DXS10134). Eleven loci were extensively used in an Investigator Qiagen Argus X-12 (DXS7423, DXS10148, DXS8378, DXS10162, DXS7132, DXS10079, DXS10103, DXS10101, HPTRB, DXS10074, and DXS10135). In this research, the multiplex system was tested for detection sensitivity, DNA mixtures, inhibitor tolerance and species specificity; SWGDAM Validation Guidelines - Approved December 2012 were followed for the human fluorescent STR multiplex PCR reagent. Samples from 181 unrelated Zhejiang Han individuals (121 males and 60 females) were typed using this multiplex system. The results show that this 19X-STRs multiplex system is a robust and reliable amplification means to facilitate forensic and human identification testing. PMID:27184937

  17. Evaluation of a 13-loci STR multiplex system for Cannabis sativa genetic identification.

    PubMed

    Houston, Rachel; Birck, Matthew; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; Gangitano, David

    2016-05-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit substance in the USA. The development of a validated method using Cannabis short tandem repeats (STRs) could aid in the individualization of samples as well as serve as an intelligence tool to link multiple cases. For this purpose, a modified 13-loci STR multiplex method was optimized and evaluated according to ISFG and SWGDAM guidelines. A real-time PCR quantification method for C. sativa was developed and validated, and a sequenced allelic ladder was also designed to accurately genotype 199 C. sativa samples from 11 U.S. Customs and Border Protection seizures. Distinguishable DNA profiles were generated from 127 samples that yielded full STR profiles. Four duplicate genotypes within seizures were found. The combined power of discrimination of this multilocus system is 1 in 70 million. The sensitivity of the multiplex STR system is 0.25 ng of template DNA. None of the 13 STR markers cross-reacted with any of the studied species, except for Humulus lupulus (hops) which generated unspecific peaks. Phylogenetic analysis and case-to-case pairwise comparison of 11 cases using F st as genetic distance revealed the genetic association of four groups of cases. Moreover, due to their genetic similarity, a subset of samples (N = 97) was found to form a homogeneous population in Hardy-Weinberg and linkage equilibrium. The results of this research demonstrate the applicability of this 13-loci STR system in associating Cannabis cases for intelligence purposes. PMID:26661945

  18. A robust and scalable neuromorphic communication system by combining synaptic time multiplexing and MIMO-OFDM.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa, Narayan; Zhang, Deying; Grigorian, Beayna

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes a novel architecture for enabling robust and efficient neuromorphic communication. The architecture combines two concepts: 1) synaptic time multiplexing (STM) that trades space for speed of processing to create an intragroup communication approach that is firing rate independent and offers more flexibility in connectivity than cross-bar architectures and 2) a wired multiple input multiple output (MIMO) communication with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) techniques to enable a robust and efficient intergroup communication for neuromorphic systems. The MIMO-OFDM concept for the proposed architecture was analyzed by simulating large-scale spiking neural network architecture. Analysis shows that the neuromorphic system with MIMO-OFDM exhibits robust and efficient communication while operating in real time with a high bit rate. Through combining STM with MIMO-OFDM techniques, the resulting system offers a flexible and scalable connectivity as well as a power and area efficient solution for the implementation of very large-scale spiking neural architectures in hardware. PMID:24807453

  19. Multiplexed Holographic Data Storage in Bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrl, David J.; Krile, Thomas F.

    1997-01-01

    High density optical data storage, driven by the information revolution, remains at the forefront of current research areas. Much of the current research has focused on photorefractive materials (SBN and LiNbO3) and polymers, despite various problems with expense, durability, response time and retention periods. Photon echo techniques, though promising, are questionable due to the need for cryogenic conditions. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR) films are an attractive alternative recording medium. Great strides have been made in refining BR, and materials with storage lifetimes as long as 100 days have recently become available. The ability to deposit this robust polycrystalline material as high quality optical films suggests the use of BR as a recording medium for commercial optical disks. Our own recent research has demonstrated the suitability of BR films for real time spatial filtering and holography. We propose to fully investigate the feasibility of performing holographic mass data storage in BR. Important aspects of the problem to be investigated include various data multiplexing techniques (e.g. angle- amplitude- and phase-encoded multiplexing, and in particular shift-multiplexing), multilayer recording techniques, SLM selection and data readout using crossed polarizers for noise rejection. Systems evaluations of storage parameters, including access times, memory refresh constraints, erasure, signal-to-noise ratios and bit error rates, will be included in our investigations.

  20. A DSP-based readout and online processing system for a new focal-plane polarimeter at AGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagemann, M.; Bassini, R.; van den Berg, A. M.; Ellinghaus, F.; Frekers, D.; Hannen, V. M.; Häupke, T.; Heyse, J.; Jacobs, E.; Kirsch, M.; Krüsemann, B.; Rakers, S.; Sohlbach, H.; Wörtche, H. J.

    1999-11-01

    A Focal-Plane Polarimeter (FPP) for the large acceptance Big-Bite Spectrometer (BBS) at AGOR using a novel readout architecture has been commissioned at the KVI Groningen. The instrument is optimized for medium-energy polarized proton scattering near or at 0°. For the handling of the high counting rates at extreme forward angles and for the suppression of small-angle scattering in the graphite analyzer, a high-performance data processing DSP system connecting to the LeCroy FERA and PCOS ECL bus architecture has been made operational and tested successfully. Details of the system and the functions of the various electronic components are described.

  1. Recent Results of a New Microwave SQUID Multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Inseob; Limketkai, B.; Bumble, B.; LeDuc, H. G.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a proof-of-concept microwave SQUID multiplexer containing four SQUIDs coupled to GHz frequency resonant circuits and fed with a single microwave readout line. The resonators are half-wave coplanar waveguide sections and are similar to the structures used for the microwave kinetic inductance detectors developed in our group. Optimal values for the interdigital gap capacitors were determined to maximize the sensitivity of the transmitted and reflected microwave signal with respect to changes in the dynamic resistance of the SQUID. The dc current-bias line for the SQUID has an in-line inductive high frequency filter to minimize coupling between the bias line and resonator. A high frequency modulation scheme is proposed to eliminate the need for individual flux biasing of the SQUIDs, which extends the dynamic range of the readout. In this scheme a common modulation signal is imposed on each SQUID and the received signal is demodulated at one and two times the modulation frequency to maintain sensitivity at any flux state. We present the recent results of the microwave SQUID multiplexer system operating at a readout frequency range of 10 - 11GHz.

  2. Common Readout Unit (CRU) - A new readout architecture for the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, J.; Khan, S. A.; Mukherjee, S.; Paul, R.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is presently going for a major upgrade in order to fully exploit the scientific potential of the upcoming high luminosity run, scheduled to start in the year 2021. The high interaction rate and the large event size will result in an experimental data flow of about 1 TB/s from the detectors, which need to be processed before sending to the online computing system and data storage. This processing is done in a dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU), proposed for data aggregation, trigger and timing distribution and control moderation. It act as common interface between sub-detector electronic systems, computing system and trigger processors. The interface links include GBT, TTC-PON and PCIe. GBT (Gigabit transceiver) is used for detector data payload transmission and fixed latency path for trigger distribution between CRU and detector readout electronics. TTC-PON (Timing, Trigger and Control via Passive Optical Network) is employed for time multiplex trigger distribution between CRU and Central Trigger Processor (CTP). PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) is the high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard for bulk data transport between CRU boards and processors. In this article, we give an overview of CRU architecture in ALICE, discuss the different interfaces, along with the firmware design and implementation of CRU on the LHCb PCIe40 board.

  3. Red light holographic recording and readout on an azobenzene-LC polymer hybrid composite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Weidong; Sun, Qunhui; Baig, Sarfaraz; Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R.

    2015-11-01

    We present for the first time stable red light two-dimensional image holographic recording in azobenzene-containing polymer-liquid crystal material following a pre-illumination process. The red light hologram recording is based on cis-to-trans transition of the azobenzene and surrounding LC reorientation. The diffraction efficiency of about 2% has been achieved and clear holograms of a commercial 2D USAF resolution target have been recorded. Using the same readout wavelength as the recording wavelength, color distortion that exists in most hologram researches with azo-containing materials is naturally eliminated. Long-time stabilities such as one-day continuous non-destructive readout and up to 10 weeks hologram storage have been demonstrated. The holographic recording material remains erasable and rewritable.

  4. Low complexity digital backpropagation for high baud subcarrier-multiplexing systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fangyuan; Zhuge, Qunbi; Qiu, Meng; Plant, David V

    2016-07-25

    In this paper, we propose two modifications to reduce the complexity of the subcarrier-multiplexing (SCM) based digital backpropagation (DBP) for high symbol rate SCM systems. The first one is to reduce the number of interfering subcarriers (RS-SCM-DBP) when evaluating the cross-subcarrier nonlinearity (CSN). The second one is to replace the original frequency domain CSN filters with the infinite impulse response (IIR) filters (IIR-RS-SCM-DBP) in the CSN compensation. The performance of the proposed schemes are numerically evaluated in three-channel dual-polarization (DP) 16QAM wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmissions. The aggregate symbol rate for each channel is 120 GBaud and the transmission distance is 1600 km. For the SCM system with 16 subcarriers, the IIR-RS-SCM-DBP with only 4 interfering subcarriers and 2 steps can achieve a 0.3 dB Q-factor improvement in the WDM transmission. Compared to the original SCM-DBP, the proposed IIR-RS-SCM-DBP reduces the complexity by 48% at a performance loss of only 0.07 dB. PMID:27464154

  5. A compact time-resolved system for near infrared spectroscopy based on wavelength space multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Re, Rebecca; Contini, Davide; Caffini, Matteo; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2010-11-01

    We designed and developed a compact dual-wavelength and dual-channel time-resolved system for near-infrared spectroscopy studies of muscle and brain. The system employs pulsed diode lasers as sources, compact photomultipliers, and time-correlated single photon counting boards for detection. To exploit the full temporal and dynamic range of the acquisition technique, we implemented an approach based on wavelength space multiplexing: laser pulses at the two wavelengths are alternatively injected into the two channels by means of an optical 2×2 switch. In each detection line (i.e., in each temporal window), the distribution of photon time-of-flights at one wavelength is acquired. The proposed approach increases the signal-to-noise ratio and avoids wavelength cross-talk with respect to the typical approach based on time multiplexing. The instrument was characterized on tissue phantoms to assess its properties in terms of linearity, stability, noise, and reproducibility. Finally, it was successfully tested in preliminary in vivo measurements on muscle during standard cuff occlusion and on the brain during a motor cortex response due to hand movements.

  6. Electra: Repetitively Pulsed Angularly Multiplexed KrF Laser System Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolford, Matthew; Myers, Matthew; Giuliani, John; Sethian, John; Burns, Patrick; Hegeler, Frank; Jaynes, Reginald

    2008-11-01

    As in a full size fusion power plant beam line, Electra is a multistage laser amplifier system. The multistage amplifier system consists of a commercial discharge laser and two doubled sided electron beam pumped amplifiers. Angular multiplexing is used in the optical layout to provide pulse length control and to maximize laser extraction from the amplifiers. Two angularly multiplexed beams have extracted 30 J of KrF laser light with an aperture 8 x 10 cm^2, which is sufficient to extract over 500 J from the main amplifier and models agree. The main amplifier of Electra in oscillator mode has demonstrated single shot and rep-rate laser energies exceeding 700 J with 100 ns pulsewidth at 248 nm with an aperture 29 x 29 cm^2. Continuous operation of the KrF electron beam pumped oscillator has lasted for more than 2.5 hours without failure at 1 Hz and 2.5 Hz. The measured intensity and pulse energy for durations greater than thousand shots are consistent at measurable rep-rates of 1 Hz, 2.5 Hz and 5 Hz.

  7. Compressed sensing theory-based channel estimation for optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui; Li, Minghui; Wang, Ruyan; Liu, Yuanni; Song, Daiping

    2014-09-01

    Due to the spare multipath property of the channel, a channel estimation method, which is based on partial superimposed training sequence and compressed sensing theory, is proposed for line of sight optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing communication systems. First, a continuous training sequence is added at variable power ratio to the cyclic prefix of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing symbols at the transmitter prior to transmission. Then the observation matrix of compressed sensing theory is structured by the use of the training symbols at receiver. Finally, channel state information is estimated using sparse signal reconstruction algorithm. Compared to traditional training sequences, the proposed partial superimposed training sequence not only improves the spectral efficiency, but also reduces the influence to information symbols. In addition, compared with classical least squares and linear minimum mean square error methods, the proposed compressed sensing theory based channel estimation method can improve both the estimation accuracy and the system performance. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  8. Optical alignment of pixelated 4f optical system using multiplexed filter.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, N; Neil, M A A; Balachandran, W

    2013-11-10

    Novel optical alignment techniques to perform precise alignment of a typical pixelated 4f optical system are presented in this paper. These techniques use optical multiplexed matched filters, which were designed using a simple, efficient iterative optimization algorithm, known as direct binary search. Three alignment challenges are identified: positioning, focusing, and magnification. The first two alignments were performed using the optical multiplexed matched filtering technique, and the last one was performed using a new optical arrangement. Experimental results of the new alignment techniques and a simple optical pattern recognition problem to demonstrate the benefits of the new alignment techniques are also presented. Two pixelated, electrically addressed spatial light modulators (128 × 128 pixels and one pixel width is 80 μm) were used to represent the input and filter planes. The results clearly show that the new alignment techniques allow the 4f system to be aligned to a precision of 80 μm in the x-y direction and 0.716 mm in the z direction. PMID:24216742

  9. A fast and versatile quantum key distribution system with hardware key distillation and wavelength multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walenta, N.; Burg, A.; Caselunghe, D.; Constantin, J.; Gisin, N.; Guinnard, O.; Houlmann, R.; Junod, P.; Korzh, B.; Kulesza, N.; Legré, M.; Lim, C. W.; Lunghi, T.; Monat, L.; Portmann, C.; Soucarros, M.; Thew, R. T.; Trinkler, P.; Trolliet, G.; Vannel, F.; Zbinden, H.

    2014-01-01

    We present a compactly integrated, 625 MHz clocked coherent one-way quantum key distribution system which continuously distributes secret keys over an optical fibre link. To support high secret key rates, we implemented a fast hardware key distillation engine which allows for key distillation rates up to 4 Mbps in real time. The system employs wavelength multiplexing in order to run over only a single optical fibre. Using fast gated InGaAs single photon detectors, we reliably distribute secret keys with a rate above 21 kbps over 25 km of optical fibre. We optimized the system considering a security analysis that respects finite-key-size effects, authentication costs and system errors for a security parameter of ɛQKD = 4 × 10-9.

  10. A multiplexing fiber optic microsensor system for monitoring oxygen concentration in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, P.; Hauser, B. A.; Allen, L. H.; Boote, K. J.; Karplus, E.; McLamore, E. S.

    2013-05-01

    The accurate and rapid measurement of physiological O2 transport is vital for understanding spatially and temporally dynamic metabolism and stress signalling in plant cells and tissues. Single channel luminescent O2- quenched optrodes have been available for use in laboratory and field experiments since the early 2000's. However, to collect the large datasets needed to understand O2 transport in complex systems, many experiments require a multiple channel O2 sensor system. This research reports the development of a multiplexing fiber optic O2 microsensor system designed to conduct high temporal resolution experiments for field studies of plant physiology. The 10 channel system was demonstrated for measuring O2 concentration in developing soybean seeds (Glycine max L. Merr.) within a climate controlled greenhouse.

  11. Multiplex transmission system for gate drive signals of inverter circuit using surface acoustic wave filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Akifumi; Ueda, Kensuke; Goka, Shigeyoshi; Wada, Keiji; Kakio, Shoji

    2016-07-01

    We propose and fabricate a multiplexed transmission system based on frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) with surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters. SAW filters are suitable for use in wide-gap switching devices and multilevel inverters because of their capability to operate at high temperatures, good electrical isolation, low cost, and high reliability. Our proposed system reduces the number of electrical signal wires needed to control each switching device and eliminates the need for isolation circuits, simplifying the transmission system and gate drive circuits. We successfully controlled two switching devices with a single coaxial line and confirmed the operation of a single-phase half-bridge inverter at a supply voltage of 100 V, and the total delay time to control the switching devices was less than 2.5 µs. Our experimental results validated our proposed system.

  12. Development of a beam test telescope based on the Alibava readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco-Hernández, R.

    2011-01-01

    A telescope for a beam test have been developed as a result of a collaboration among the University of Liverpool, Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (CNM) of Barcelona and Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC) of Valencia. This system is intended to carry out both analogue charge collection and spatial resolution measurements with different types of microstrip or pixel silicon detectors in a beam test environment. The telescope has four XY measurement as well as trigger planes (XYT board) and it can accommodate up to twelve devices under test (DUT board). The DUT board uses two Beetle ASICs for the readout of chilled silicon detectors. The board could operate in a self-triggering mode. The board features a temperature sensor and it can be mounted on a rotary stage. A peltier element is used for cooling the DUT. Each XYT board measures the track space points using two silicon strip detectors connected to two Beetle ASICs. It can also trigger on the particle tracks in the beam test. The board includes a CPLD which allows for the synchronization of the trigger signal to a common clock frequency, delaying and implementing coincidence with other XYT boards. An Alibava mother board is used to read out and to control each XYT/DUT board from a common trigger signal and a common clock signal. The Alibava board has a TDC on board to have a time stamp of each trigger. The data collected by each Alibava board is sent to a master card by means of a local data/address bus following a custom digital protocol. The master board distributes the trigger, clock and reset signals. It also merges the data streams from up to sixteen Alibava boards. The board has also a test channel for testing in a standard mode a XYT or DUT board. This board is implemented with a Xilinx development board and a custom patch board. The master board is connected with the DAQ software via 100M Ethernet. Track based alignment software has also been developed for the data obtained with the DAQ software.

  13. The impact of multiplexing on the dynamic requirements of analog-to-digital converters

    SciTech Connect

    Sobering, T.J.; Kay, R.R.

    1994-12-31

    In data acquisition applications where the signals being digitized are produced in a time-division multiplexed system, the required dynamic performance of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is no longer bound by the conditions set forth in the Sampling Theorem. This results from the introduction of very high frequency information by the multiplexing process which, while not necessarily containing information of interest, must be processed by the input circuitry of the ADC. In this situation, signal bandwidths and slew rates can greatly exceed those produced in a Nyquist limited system and can surpass the capability of the ADC, thus degrading overall system performance. This paper will examine two common multiplexing schemes and their impact on ADC dynamic requirements. First, we will examine a simple voltage multiplexing scheme typically found in state-ofhealth or data-logging applications and develop the necessary equations to show how the ADC dynamic requirements are affected. Then, the analysis will then be extended to a multiplexed photodiode array readout to see how this application further challenges the dynamic performance of the ADC. Finally, the issues associated with developing dynamic test methodologies for assessing ADC performance in multiplexed systems will be discussed.

  14. A programmable energy efficient readout chip for a multiparameter highly integrated implantable biosensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawito, M.; Richter, H.; Stett, A.; Burghartz, J. N.

    2015-11-01

    In this work an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for an implantable electrochemical biosensor system (SMART implant, Stett et al., 2014) is presented. The ASIC drives the measurement electrodes and performs amperometric measurements for determining the oxygen concentration, potentiometric measurements for evaluating the pH-level as well as temperature measurements. A 10-bit pipeline analog to digital (ADC) is used to digitize the acquired analog samples and is implemented as a single stage to reduce power consumption and chip area. For pH measurements, an offset subtraction technique is employed to raise the resolution to 12-bits. Charge integration is utilized for oxygen and temperature measurements with the capability to cover current ranges between 30 nA and 1 μA. In order to achieve good performance over a wide range of supply and process variations, internal reference voltages are generated from a programmable band-gap regulated circuit and biasing currents are supplied from a wide-range bootstrap current reference. To accommodate the limited available electrical power, all components are designed for low power operation. Also a sequential operation approach is applied, in which essential circuit building blocks are time multiplexed between different measurement types. All measurement sequences and parameters are programmable and can be adjusted for different tissues and media. The chip communicates with external unites through a full duplex two-wire Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI), which receives operational instructions and at the same time outputs the internally stored measurement data. The circuit has been fabricated in a standard 0.5-μm CMOS process and operates on a supply as low as 2.7 V. Measurement results show good performance and agree with circuit simulation. It consumes a maximum of 500 μA DC current and is clocked between 500 kHz and 4 MHz according to the measurement parameters. Measurement results of the on-chip ADC show a

  15. Establishing a DNA identification system for pigs (Sus scrofa) using a multiplex STR amplification.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Hsieh, Hsing-Mei; Lee, James Chun-I; Hsiao, Chung-Ting; Lin, Der-Yuh; Linacre, Adrian; Tsai, Li-Chin

    2014-03-01

    In this study we establish a novel STR multiplex using 13 tetra-nucleotide STRs and the amelogenin marker for the forensic identification of pigs. The genotypes and allele frequency were generated based on 341 samples from 11 pig breeds in Taiwan. Genetic variation was tested including Na, Ne, Ho, He, F-statistics, PIC, Pm and PE for each STR locus and for each breed. Based upon the 341 samples in this study, the CPm and CPEtrio of the 13 STR loci were 1.31 E-11 and 0.9996 respectively. The CPItrio based on ten family sets ranged from 4.012 E+4 to 4.332 E+6 for paternity test. Validation of the multiplex included: determining the sensitivity of the test, where reproducible full DNA profiles were obtained using an initial template of between 0.25 and 1 ng; a comprehensive range of tissue types generated the same genotype; and the specificity was confirmed as no DNA full profile was generated for any species other than Sus scrofa. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the European domestic breeds clustered separately from the Asian breeds, as expected, and their hybrids formed unique clades respectively between the clades of Asian and European breeds. Eleven test samples, acting as unknown samples, matched all expected breeds. We demonstrate that this novel 14-plex PCR system is valuable in pig individualization, parentage testing, breed assessment, phylogenetic study and forensic applications. PMID:24528574

  16. Charge Identification of Highly Ionizing Particles in Desensitized Nuclear Emulsion Using High Speed Read-Out System

    SciTech Connect

    Toshito, T.; Kodama, K.; Yusa, K.; Ozaki, M.; Amako, K.; Kameoka, S.; Murakami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Aoki, S.; Ban, T.; Fukuda, T.; Naganawa, N.; Nakamura, T.; Natsume, M.; Niwa, K.; Takahashi, S.; Kanazawa, M.; Kanematsu, N.; Komori, M.; Sato, S.; Asai, M.; /Nagoya U. /Aichi U. of Education /Gunma U., Maebashi /JAXA, Sagamihara /KEK, Tsukuba /Kobe U. /Chiba, Natl. Inst. Rad. Sci. /SLAC /Toho U.

    2006-05-10

    We performed an experimental study of charge identification of heavy ions from helium to carbon having energy of about 290 MeV/u using an emulsion chamber. Emulsion was desensitized by means of forced fading (refreshing) to expand a dynamic range of response to highly charged particles. For the track reconstruction and charge identification, the fully automated high speed emulsion read-out system, which was originally developed for identifying minimum ionizing particles, was used without any modification. Clear track by track charge identification up to Z=6 was demonstrated. The refreshing technique has proved to be a powerful technique to expand response of emulsion film to highly ionizing particles.

  17. Multiplexed infrared photodetection using resonant radio-frequency circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R.; Lu, R.; Roberts, C.; Gong, S.; Allen, J. W.; Allen, M. S.; Wenner, B. R.; Wasserman, D.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a room-temperature semiconductor-based photodetector where readout is achieved using a resonant radio-frequency (RF) circuit consisting of a microstrip split-ring resonator coupled to a microstrip busline, fabricated on a semiconductor substrate. The RF resonant circuits are characterized at RF frequencies as function of resonator geometry, as well as for their response to incident IR radiation. The detectors are modeled analytically and using commercial simulation software, with good agreement to our experimental results. Though the detector sensitivity is weak, the detector architecture offers the potential for multiplexing arrays of detectors on a single read-out line, in addition to high speed response for either direct coupling of optical signals to RF circuitry, or alternatively, carrier dynamics characterization of semiconductor, or other, material systems.

  18. High-Efficiency Multiplex Genome Editing of Streptomyces Species Using an Engineered CRISPR/Cas System

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Actinobacteria, particularly those of genus Streptomyces, remain invaluable hosts for the discovery and engineering of natural products and their cognate biosynthetic pathways. However, genetic manipulation of these bacteria is often labor and time intensive. Here, we present an engineered CRISPR/Cas system for rapid multiplex genome editing of Streptomyces strains, demonstrating targeted chromosomal deletions in three different Streptomyces species and of various sizes (ranging from 20 bp to 30 kb) with efficiency ranging from 70 to 100%. The designed pCRISPomyces plasmids are amenable to assembly of spacers and editing templates via Golden Gate assembly and isothermal assembly (or traditional digestion/ligation), respectively, allowing rapid plasmid construction to target any genomic locus of interest. As such, the pCRISPomyces system represents a powerful new tool for genome editing in Streptomyces. PMID:25458909

  19. Multiplexed Optical Transmission System For Automobiles Using Polymer Fiber With High Heat Resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasayama, Takao; Asano, Hideki; Taketani, Noriaki

    1989-02-01

    A multiplexed optical transmission system for automobiles utilizing newly developed polymer fiber has been proposed. The system is composed with a star-shaped optical network, in which the ootical signals can be transmitted bi-directionally through polymer optical fiber and optical branches with the central and local controllers. The polymer fiber has been developed for this purpose in order to overcome the conventional problems which prevented its wide use for a long time. The new polymer fiber is fabricated with a thereto-setting resin for core which is pushed out from heating furnace after the process of polymerization. The fiber shows the desirable characteristics for this application, that is, the heat resistance is as high as 200°C, and the transmission loss is as low as 0.5003/m at 660 nm wavelength.

  20. Digital subcarrier multiplexing for fiber nonlinearity mitigation in coherent optical communication systems.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Meng; Zhuge, Qunbi; Chagnon, Mathieu; Gao, Yuliang; Xu, Xian; Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Plant, David V

    2014-07-28

    In this work we experimentally investigate the improved intra-channel fiber nonlinearity tolerance of digital subcarrier multiplexed (SCM) signals in a single-channel coherent optical transmission system. The digital signal processing (DSP) for the generation and reception of the SCM signals is described. We show experimentally that the SCM signal with a nearly-optimum number of subcarriers can extend the maximum reach by 23% in a 24 GBaud DP-QPSK transmission with a BER threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3) and by 8% in a 24 GBaud DP-16-QAM transmission with a BER threshold of 2 × 10(-2). Moreover, we show by simulations that the improved performance of SCM signals is observed over a wide range of baud rates, further indicating the merits of SCM signals in baud-rate flexible agile transmissions and future high-speed optical transport systems. PMID:25089494

  1. An IIR adaptive electronic equalizer for polarization multiplexed fiber optic communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiang-Ye; Liu, Jian-Fei; Zhao, Qi-Da

    2011-09-01

    An electronic digital equalizer for polarization multiplex coherent fiber optic communication systems is designed to compensate polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and residual chromatic dispersion (CD) of transmission channel. The proposed equalizer is realized with fraction spaced infinite impulse response (IIR) butterfly structure with 21 feedforward taps and 2 feedback taps. Compared with finite impulse response (FIR) structure, this structure can reduce implementation complexity of hardware under the same condition. To keep track of the random variation of channel characteristics, the filter weights are updated by least mean square (LMS) algorithm. The simulation results show that the proposed equalizer can compensate residual chromatic dispersion (CD) of 1600 ps/nm and differential group delay (DGD) of 90 ps simultaneously, and also can increase the PMD and residual CD tolerance of the whole communication system.

  2. Performance Analysis of Wavelength Multiplexed Sac Ocdma Codes in Beat Noise Mitigation in Sac Ocdma Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhassan, A. M.; Badruddin, N.; Saad, N. M.; Aljunid, S. A.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of wavelength multiplexed spectral amplitude coding (WM SAC) codes in beat noise mitigation in coherent source SAC OCDMA systems. A WM SAC code is a low weight SAC code, where the whole code structure is repeated diagonally (once or more) in the wavelength domain to achieve the same cardinality as a higher weight SAC code. Results show that for highly populated networks, the WM SAC codes provide better performance than SAC codes. However, for small number of active users the situation is reversed. Apart from their promising improvement in performance, these codes are more flexible and impose less complexity on the system design than their SAC counterparts.

  3. Development of an Optical Read-Out System for the LISA/NGO Gravitational Reference Sensor: A Status Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Fiore, L.; De Rosa, R.; Garufi, F.; Grado, A.; Milano, L.; Spagnuolo, V.; Russano, G.

    2013-01-01

    The LISA group in Napoli is working on the development of an Optical Read-Out (ORO) system, based on optical levers and position sensitive detectors, for the LISA gravitational reference sensor. ORO is not meant as an alternative, but as an addition, to capacitive readout, that is the reference solution for LISA/NGO and will be tested on flight by LISA-Pathfinder. The main goal is the introduction of some redundancy with consequent mission risk mitigation. Furthermore, the ORO system is more sensitive than the capacitive one and its usage would allow a significant relaxation of the specifications on cross-couplings in the drag free control loops. The reliability of the proposed ORO device and the fulfilment of the sensitivity requirements have been already demonstrated in bench-top measurements and tests with the four mass torsion pendulum developed in Trento as a ground testing facility for LISA-Pathfinder and LISA hardware. In this paper we report on the present status of this activity presenting the last results and perspectives on some relevant aspects. 1) System design, measured sensitivity and noise characterization. 2) Possible layouts for integration in LISA/NGO and bench-top tests on real scale prototypes. 3) Search for space compatible components and preliminary tests. We will also discuss next steps in view of a possible application in LISA/NGO.

  4. Evaluation of some wide dynamic range readout systems for photoelectric integrating spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, M. L.; Gordon, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Five types of electronic circuits commonly used for readout of currents from photomultiplier tubes were evaluated. This evaluation was conducted to define the experimental limits of achieving the widest possible dynamic range of light detection and concentration measurements in spectrochemical analysis. The circuits evaluated included the photon-counting technique and four dc circuits. These circuits displayed a dynamic range from 3 to about 4.5 decades within a repeatability criterion of 1 percent, or better. The maximum dynamic range allowed by the photomultiplier tube in this application was estimated to be about 6 decades.

  5. Robustness analysis of an intensity modulated fiber-optic position sensor with an image sensor readout system.

    PubMed

    Jason, Johan; Nilsson, Hans-Erik; Arvidsson, Bertil; Larsson, Anders

    2013-06-01

    An intensity modulated fiber-optic position sensor, based on a fiber-to-bundle coupling and a readout system using a CMOS image camera together with fast routines for position extraction and calibration, is presented and analyzed. The proposed system eliminates alignment issues otherwise associated with coupling-based fiber-optic sensors, still keeping the sensing point free from detector electronics. In this study the robustness of the system is characterized through simulations of the system performance, and the outcome is compared with experimental results. It is shown that knowledge of the shape of the coupled power distribution is the single most important factor for high performance of the system. Further it is experimentally shown that the position extraction error can be improved down to the theoretical limit by employing a modulation function model well fitted to the real coupled power distribution. PMID:23736347

  6. Novel Multiplexer to Enable Multiple-Module Imaging with Adjustable High Spatial Resolution and Predetermined Display Bandwidth for Array Medical Imaging Systems.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P; Titus, A H; Qu, B; Huang, Y; Wang, W; Kuhls-Gilcrist, A; Cartwright, A N; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2010-01-01

    We describe a custom multiple-module multiplexer integrated circuit (MMMIC) that enables the combination of discrete Electron multiplying charge coupled devices (EMCCD) based imaging modules to improve medical imaging systems. It is highly desirable to have flexible imaging systems that provide high spatial resolution over a specific region of interest (ROI) and a field of view (FOV) large enough to encompass areas of clinical interest. Also, such systems should be dynamic, i.e. should be able to maintain a specified acquisition bandwidth irrespective of the size of the imaged FOV. The MMMIC achieves these goals by 1) multiplexing the outputs of an array of imaging modules to enable a larger FOV, 2) enabling a number of binning modes for adjustable high spatial resolution, and 3) enabling selection of a subset of modules in the array to achieve ROI imaging at a predetermined display bandwidth. The MMMIC design also allows multiple MMMICs to be connected to control larger arrays. The prototype MMMIC was designed and fabricated in the ON-SEMI 0.5μm CMOS process through MOSIS (www.mosis.org). It has three 12-bit inputs, a single 12-bit output, three input enable bits, and one output enable, so that one MMMIC can control the output from three discrete imager arrays. The modular design of the MMMIC enables four identical chips, connected in a two-stage sequential arrangement, to readout a 3×3 collection of individual imaging modules. The first stage comprises three MMMICs (each connected to three of the individual imaging module), and the second stage is a single MMMIC whose 12-bit output is then sent via a CameraLink interface to the system computer. The prototype MMMIC was successfully tested using digital outputs from two EMCCD-based detectors to be used in an x-ray imaging array detector system.Finally, we show how the MMMIC can be used to extend an imaging system to include any arbitrary (M×N) array of imaging modules enabling a large FOV along with ROI imaging

  7. Multiplex PageRank.

    PubMed

    Halu, Arda; Mondragón, Raúl J; Panzarasa, Pietro; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2013-01-01

    Many complex systems can be described as multiplex networks in which the same nodes can interact with one another in different layers, thus forming a set of interacting and co-evolving networks. Examples of such multiplex systems are social networks where people are involved in different types of relationships and interact through various forms of communication media. The ranking of nodes in multiplex networks is one of the most pressing and challenging tasks that research on complex networks is currently facing. When pairs of nodes can be connected through multiple links and in multiple layers, the ranking of nodes should necessarily reflect the importance of nodes in one layer as well as their importance in other interdependent layers. In this paper, we draw on the idea of biased random walks to define the Multiplex PageRank centrality measure in which the effects of the interplay between networks on the centrality of nodes are directly taken into account. In particular, depending on the intensity of the interaction between layers, we define the Additive, Multiplicative, Combined, and Neutral versions of Multiplex PageRank, and show how each version reflects the extent to which the importance of a node in one layer affects the importance the node can gain in another layer. We discuss these measures and apply them to an online multiplex social network. Findings indicate that taking the multiplex nature of the network into account helps uncover the emergence of rankings of nodes that differ from the rankings obtained from one single layer. Results provide support in favor of the salience of multiplex centrality measures, like Multiplex PageRank, for assessing the prominence of nodes embedded in multiple interacting networks, and for shedding a new light on structural properties that would otherwise remain undetected if each of the interacting networks were analyzed in isolation. PMID:24205186

  8. Development of two-dimensional multiwire-type neutron detector system with individual line readout and optical signal transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toh, K.; Nakamura, T.; Sakasai, K.; Soyama, K.; Hino, M.; Kitaguchi, M.; Yamagishi, H.

    2013-10-01

    A multiwire-type two-dimensional neutron detector system with a sensitive area of 128×128 mm2 is developed for use in the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. The system can achieve a short response time and high spatial resolution using the individual line readout method. Optical devices have been incorporated in the system for long-distance signal transmission and insulation between a detector head in the neutron shielding and signal processing circuits in the data acquisition room. The detector system exhibits a pulse-pair resolution of 1 μs, an average spatial resolution of less than 2 mm full width at half-maximum in the sensitive region, and a two-dimensional homogeneity of 8.3% in all pixels.

  9. Multiplexed image storage by electromagnetically induced transparency in a solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, G.; Rentzsch, N.; Halfmann, T.

    2012-11-01

    We report on frequency- and angle-multiplexed image storage by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. Frequency multiplexing by EIT relies on simultaneous storage of light pulses in atomic coherences, driven in different frequency ensembles of the inhomogeneously broadened solid medium. Angular multiplexing by EIT relies on phase matching of the driving laser beams, which permits simultaneous storage of light pulses propagating under different angles into the crystal. We apply the multiplexing techniques to increase the storage capacity of the EIT-driven optical memory, in particular to implement multiplexed storage of larger two-dimensional amounts of data (images). We demonstrate selective storage and readout of images by frequency-multiplexed EIT and angular-multiplexed EIT, as well as the potential to combine both multiplexing approaches towards further enhanced storage capacities.

  10. Performance of the Demonstrator System for the Phase-I Upgrade of the Trigger Readout Electronics of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont Dayot, N.

    2016-01-01

    For the Phase-I luminosity upgrade of the LHC a higher granularity trigger readout of the ATLAS LAr Calorimeters is foreseen to enhance the trigger feature extraction and background rejection. The new readout system digitizes the detector signals, which are grouped into 34000 so-called Super Cells, with 12 bit precision at 40 MHz and transfers the data on optical links to the digital processing system, which extracts the Super Cell energies. A demonstrator version of the complete system has now been installed and operated on the ATLAS detector. Results from the commissioning and performance measurements are reported.

  11. Characterization of direct readout Si:Sb and Si:Ga infrared detector arrays for space-based astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckelvey, Mark E.; Mccreight, Craig R.; Goebel, John H.; Moss, Nicolas N.; Savage, Maureen L.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary test results from the evaluation of Si:Sb and Si:Ga 58 x 62-element infrared detector arrays are presented. These devices are being characterized under background conditions and readout rates representative of operation in orbiting, crogenically-cooled infrared observatories. The arrays are hybridized to silicon direct-readout multiplexers which allow random-access and nondestructive readout. Array performance optimization is being conducted with a flexible microcomputer-based drive and readoaut electronics system. Preliminary Si:Sb measurements indicate a sense node capacitance of 0.06 pF, peak (28-micron) responsivity above 3 A/W at 2V bias, read noise of 130 rms e(-), dark current approximately 10 e(-)/s, and a well capacity greater than 10 to the 5th e(-). The limited test data available on the performance of the Si:Ga array are also discussed.

  12. SQUID Multiplexers for Cryogenic Detector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, Kent; Beall, James; Deiker, Steve; Doriese, Randy; Duncan, William; Hilton, Gene; Moseley, S. Harvey; Reintsema, Carl; Stahle, Caroline; Ullom, Joel; Vale, Leila

    2004-01-01

    SQUID multiplexers make it possible to build arrays of thousands of cryogenic detectors with a manageable number of readout channels. We are developing time-division SQUID multiplexers based on Nb trilayer SQUIDs to read arrays of superconducting transition-edge sensors. Our first-generation, 8-channel SQUID multiplexer was used in FIBRE, a one-dimensional TES array for submillimeter astronomy. Our second-generation 32-pixel multiplexer, based on an improved architecture, has been developed for instruments including Constellation-X, SCUBA-2, and solar x-ray astronomy missions. SCUBA-2, which is being developed for the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, will have more than 10,000 pixels. We are now developing a third-generation architecture based on superconducting hot-electron switches. The use of SQUID multiplexers in instruments operating at above 2 K will also be discussed.

  13. Group-Specific Multiplex PCR Detection Systems for the Identification of Flying Insect Prey

    PubMed Central

    Sint, Daniela; Niederklapfer, Bettina; Kaufmann, Ruediger; Traugott, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of species-specific primers to study feeding interactions is restricted to those ecosystems where the targeted prey species occur. Therefore, group-specific primer pairs, targeting higher taxonomic levels, are often desired to investigate interactions in a range of habitats that do not share the same species but the same groups of prey. Such primers are also valuable to study the diet of generalist predators when next generation sequencing approaches cannot be applied beneficially. Moreover, due to the large range of prey consumed by generalists, it is impossible to investigate the breadth of their diet with species-specific primers, even if multiplexing them. However, only few group-specific primers are available to date and important groups of prey such as flying insects have rarely been targeted. Our aim was to fill this gap and develop group-specific primers suitable to detect and identify the DNA of common taxa of flying insects. The primers were combined in two multiplex PCR systems, which allow a time- and cost-effective screening of samples for DNA of the dipteran subsection Calyptratae (including Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Muscidae), other common dipteran families (Phoridae, Syrphidae, Bibionidae, Chironomidae, Sciaridae, Tipulidae), three orders of flying insects (Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Plecoptera) and coniferous aphids within the genus Cinara. The two PCR assays were highly specific and sensitive and their suitability to detect prey was confirmed by testing field-collected dietary samples from arthropods and vertebrates. The PCR assays presented here allow targeting prey at higher taxonomic levels such as family or order and therefore improve our ability to assess (trophic) interactions with flying insects in terrestrial and aquatic habitats. PMID:25525799

  14. Reusable conductimetric array of interdigitated microelectrodes for the readout of low-density microarrays.

    PubMed

    Mallén, Maria; Díaz-González, María; Bonilla, Diana; Salvador, Juan P; Marco, María P; Baldi, Antoni; Fernández-Sánchez, César

    2014-06-17

    Low-density protein microarrays are emerging tools in diagnostics whose deployment could be primarily limited by the cost of fluorescence detection schemes. This paper describes an electrical readout system of microarrays comprising an array of gold interdigitated microelectrodes and an array of polydimethylsiloxane microwells, which enabled multiplexed detection of up to thirty six biological events on the same substrate. Similarly to fluorescent readout counterparts, the microarray can be developed on disposable glass slide substrates. However, unlike them, the presented approach is compact and requires a simple and inexpensive instrumentation. The system makes use of urease labeled affinity reagents for developing the microarrays and is based on detection of conductivity changes taking place when ionic species are generated in solution due to the catalytic hydrolysis of urea. The use of a polydimethylsiloxane microwell array facilitates the positioning of the measurement solution on every spot of the microarray. Also, it ensures the liquid tightness and isolation from the surrounding ones during the microarray readout process, thereby avoiding evaporation and chemical cross-talk effects that were shown to affect the sensitivity and reliability of the system. The performance of the system is demonstrated by carrying out the readout of a microarray for boldenone anabolic androgenic steroid hormone. Analytical results are comparable to those obtained by fluorescent scanner detection approaches. The estimated detection limit is 4.0 ng mL(-1), this being below the threshold value set by the World Anti-Doping Agency and the European Community. PMID:24890693

  15. An Integrated Front-End Readout And Feature Extraction System for the BaBar Drift Chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jinlong; /Colorado U.

    2006-08-10

    The BABAR experiment has been operating at SLAC's PEP-II asymmetric B-Factory since 1999. The accelerator has achieved more than three times its original design luminosity of 3 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, with plans for an additional factor of three in the next two years. To meet the experiment's performance requirements in the face of significantly higher trigger and background rates, the drift chamber's front-end readout system has been redesigned around the Xilinx Spartan 3 FPGA. The new system implements analysis and feature-extraction of digitized waveforms in the front-end, reducing the data bandwidth required by a factor of four.

  16. Adaptation of frequency-domain readout for Transition Edge Sensor bolometers for the POLARBEAR-2 Cosmic Microwave Background experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Kaori; Arnold, Kam; Barron, Darcy; Dobbs, Matt; de Haan, Tijmen; Harrington, Nicholas; Hasegawa, Masaya; Hazumi, Masashi; Holzapfel, William L.; Keating, Brian; Lee, Adrian T.; Morii, Hideki; Myers, Michael J.; Smecher, Graeme; Suzuki, Aritoki; Tomaru, Takayuki

    2013-12-01

    The POLARBEAR-2 Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiment aims to observe B-mode polarization with high sensitivity to explore gravitational lensing of CMB and inflationary gravitational waves. POLARBEAR-2 is an upgraded experiment based on POLARBEAR-1, which had first light in January 2012. For POLARBEAR-2, we will build a receiver that has 7588 Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometers coupled to two-band (95 and 150 GHz) polarization-sensitive antennas. For the large array's readout, we employ digital frequency-domain multiplexing and multiplex 32 bolometers through a single superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). An 8-bolometer frequency-domain multiplexing readout has been deployed with the POLARBEAR-1 experiment. Extending that architecture to 32 bolometers requires an increase in the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics to 3 MHz. To achieve this increase in bandwidth, we use Digital Active Nulling (DAN) on the digital frequency multiplexing platform. In this paper, we present requirements and improvements on parasitic inductance and resistance of cryogenic wiring and capacitors used for modulating bolometers. These components are problematic above 1 MHz. We also show that our system is able to bias a bolometer in its superconducting transition at 3 MHz.

  17. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  18. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Dahlon D.; Thelen, Jr., Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

  19. A low-noise 64-channel front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors aimed to hard X-ray imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, B.; Wei, T.; Gao, W.; Liu, H.; Hu, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we report on the recent development of a 64-channel low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors aimed to hard X-ray imaging systems. The readout channel is comprised of a charge sensitive amplifier, a leakage current compensation circuit, a CR-RC shaper, two S-K filters, an inverse proportional amplifier, a peak-detect-and-hold circuit, a discriminator and trigger logic, a time sequence control circuit and a driving buffer. The readout ASIC is implemented in TSMC 0.35 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology, the die size of the prototype chip is 2.7 mm×8.0 mm. The overall gain of the readout channel is 200 mV/fC, the power consumption is less than 8 mW/channel, the linearity error is less than 1%, the inconsistency among the channels is less than 2.86%, and the equivalent noise charge of a typical channel is 66 e- at zero farad plus 14 e- per picofarad. By connecting this readout ASIC to an 8×8 pixel CdZnTe detector, we obtained an energy spectrum, the energy resolution of which is 4.5% at the 59.5 keV line of 241Am source.

  20. Steatocystoma multiplex.

    PubMed

    Chu, David H

    2003-10-01

    A 25-year-old man with a 20-year history of asymptomatic nodules on his arms and trunk, which histopathological analysis showed to be consistent with steatocystoma multiplex, is presented. Steatocystoma multiplex is a disorder characterized by multiple, asymptomatic, dermal cysts that usually occur on the trunk and proximal aspects of the extremities. Steatocystoma multiplex with acral predominance has only recently been described. Development of steatocystomas has been hypothesized to be due to alterations in the structure of keratin 17. Treatment for lesions has included surgical excision or drainage, oral retinoids, and liquid nitrogen cryotherapy. PMID:14594591

  1. Spatial-phase code-division multiple-access system with multiplexed Fourier holography switching for reconfigurable optical interconnection.

    PubMed

    Takasago, K; Takekawa, M; Shirakawa, A; Kannari, F

    2000-05-10

    A new, to our knowledge, space-variant optical interconnection system based on a spatial-phase code-division multiple-access technique with multiplexed Fourier holography is described. In this technique a signal beam is spread over wide spatial frequencies by an M-sequence pseudorandom phase code. At a receiver side a selected signal beam is properly decoded, and at the same time its spatial pattern is shaped with a Fourier hologram, which is recorded by light that is encoded with the same M-sequence phase mask as the desired signal beam and by light whose spatial beam pattern is shaped to a signal routing pattern. Using the multiplexed holography, we can simultaneously route multisignal flows into individually specified receiver elements. The routing pattern can also be varied by means of switching the encoding phase code or replacing the hologram. We demonstrated a proof-of-principle experiment with a doubly multiplexed hologram that enables simultaneous routing of two signal beams. Using a numerical model, we showed that the proposed scheme can manage more than 250 routing patterns for one signal flow with one multiplexed hologram at a signal-to-noise ratio of ~5. PMID:18345134

  2. An X-band SQUID Multiplexer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, I.; Bumble, B.; LeDuc, H. G.; Weilert, M.; Day, P.

    2006-09-01

    We are developing a microwave readout multiplexer for arrays of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). A series of microwave resonators with frequencies ˜10 GHz are each loaded by a dc SQUID to a degree that depends on the flux state of the SQUID. By using resonators with high quality factors and slightly different resonance frequencies, many of these resonator-coupled SQUIDs may be read out with a single excitation line and cryogenic amplifier. Our multiplexer is similar to the one demonstrated by Irwin and Lehnert except for the use of higher-frequency, fully-lithographed transmission line resonators. We discuss a technique for modulating the SQUID array in series that alleviates the need to individually flux-bias the SQUIDs. The multiplexer has applications to the readout of detector arrays for astronomy as well as medical magnetic imaging.

  3. Systemic risk in multiplex networks with asymmetric coupling and threshold feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Leduc, Matt V.; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2016-06-01

    We study cascades on a two-layer multiplex network, with asymmetric feedback that depends on the coupling strength between the layers. Based on an analytical branching process approximation, we calculate the systemic risk measured by the final fraction of failed nodes on a reference layer. The results are compared with the case of a single layer network that is an aggregated representation of the two layers. We find that systemic risk in the two-layer network is smaller than in the aggregated one only if the coupling strength between the two layers is small. Above a critical coupling strength, systemic risk is increased because of the mutual amplification of cascades in the two layers. We even observe sharp phase transitions in the cascade size that are less pronounced on the aggregated layer. Our insights can be applied to a scenario where firms decide whether they want to split their business into a less risky core business and a more risky subsidiary business. In most cases, this may lead to a drastic increase of systemic risk, which is underestimated in an aggregated approach.

  4. Precise angular position measurement of a point source in an optoelectronic system with CCD arrays upon a single readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedko, Evgeny G.; Zvereva, Elena N.

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the method of angular position measuring of a point source in a system with a CCD array by means of linear dimension - time slot - code transformation and assessment of the potential accuracy of the method, which is determined by instrumental irremovable random errors of measurement in terms of optimal processing of incoming information with a single reading it with CCD - lines. This work introduces an optoelectronic system circuit with CCD arrays with stretched sensing elements and a point of reference for angular position measuring. In this case the arrays have images projections of both the reference point source and the target point source, whose angular position is measured with high precision. From the CCD array output the signals arrive at an optimal (or apt) linear filter, and then to the signal peak position detection circuit, which provides the minimum error due to noise impact. Pulse edges, corresponding to the signals maximum, make a time interval filled with high-frequency counting pulses. The number of pulses in this interval will correspond to the measured angular position of the target point source. In terms of the statistical decision theory this work analyses random errors given the signals spectral function that, in turn, accounts for the transfer function of the optical system and the CCD array as an image analyzer. This article also presents analysis of how measurement accuracy depends on frequency of information readout from the CCD-arrays for different values of signal-to-noise ratio. Error analysis of the proposed optoelectronic circuits showed that measurements can be made upon a single readout with an accuracy of 0.01 and even 0,001 pixels.

  5. Notes on a broad-band variant of the NCER seismic data multiplex system for use with field tape recorders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, Jerry P.

    1976-01-01

    Tests of the standard NCER multiplex system recorded and played back on both the Bell and Howell 3700B (about 0.1% tape speed variation) and on the Sony TC-126 cassette recorder (about 1% tape speed variation) showed that subtractive compensation employing a reference frequency multiplexed on the data track was remarkably effective in reducing tape-speed-variation-induced noise 1 and, hence, in increasing the dynamic range of the record/playback system. Further tests suggested that the 0 to 30 Hz bandwidth of the standard system (8 data channels) might be increased substantially, at the 'price' of reducing the number of data channels to 3 or 4, without serious loss of dynamic range if subtractive compensation could be implemented effectively with the broader-band system.

  6. Experimental investigation of silicon photomultipliers as compact light readout systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications in fusion plasmas.

    PubMed

    Nocente, M; Fazzi, A; Tardocchi, M; Cazzaniga, C; Lorenzoli, M; Pirovano, C; Rebai, M; Uboldi, C; Varoli, V; Gorini, G

    2014-11-01

    A matrix of Silicon Photo Multipliers has been developed for light readout from a large area 1 in. × 1 in. LaBr3 crystal. The system has been characterized in the laboratory and its performance compared to that of a conventional photo multiplier tube. A pulse duration of 100 ns was achieved, which opens up to spectroscopy applications at high counting rates. The energy resolution measured using radioactive sources extrapolates to 3%-4% in the energy range Eγ = 3-5 MeV, enabling gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at good energy resolution. The results reported here are of relevance in view of the development of compact gamma-ray detectors with spectroscopy capabilities, such as an enhanced gamma-ray camera for high power fusion plasmas, where the use of photomultiplier is impeded by space limitation and sensitivity to magnetic fields. PMID:25430287

  7. Experimental investigation of silicon photomultipliers as compact light readout systems for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications in fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nocente, M. Gorini, G.; Fazzi, A.; Lorenzoli, M.; Pirovano, C.; Tardocchi, M.; Cazzaniga, C.; Rebai, M.; Uboldi, C.; Varoli, V.

    2014-11-15

    A matrix of Silicon Photo Multipliers has been developed for light readout from a large area 1 in. × 1 in. LaBr{sub 3} crystal. The system has been characterized in the laboratory and its performance compared to that of a conventional photo multiplier tube. A pulse duration of 100 ns was achieved, which opens up to spectroscopy applications at high counting rates. The energy resolution measured using radioactive sources extrapolates to 3%–4% in the energy range E{sub γ} = 3–5 MeV, enabling gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements at good energy resolution. The results reported here are of relevance in view of the development of compact gamma-ray detectors with spectroscopy capabilities, such as an enhanced gamma-ray camera for high power fusion plasmas, where the use of photomultiplier is impeded by space limitation and sensitivity to magnetic fields.

  8. The Design and Realization of Linear Calibration System of a Large Dynamic Range Readout Unit for a BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, M. G.; Guo, J. H.; Wu, J.; Chang, J.

    2014-03-01

    The DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is proposed by Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. This project expects to find the evidence of the existence of dark matter particle in the universe via the detection of high-energy electron and gamma-ray. A major component of the payload is a BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) calorimeter, which is used to detect the particles in the energy range from 5 GeV to 10 TeV. According to a physical simulation, the dynamic range of each BGO detection unit is about 1.5×10^{5}. In order to test the linearity of BGO detection readout unit, we implement a simple linearity calibration system covering such a large dynamic range. The experimental result shows that the nonlinearity of the entire dynamic range is less than 2.7%.

  9. Improved superimposed training sequence-based timing synchronization for space optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruyan; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhao, Hui

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigates the timing synchronization problem of a space optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OOFDM) communication system. First, based on the good autocorrelation property of generalized chirp-like sequence, a training sequence is constructed to fit the non-negative light intensity signal requirement of the OOFDM system, of which the front and rear portions are cyclical and the whole is mirror-symmetric. No longer a periodic-repetition structure, the mirror-symmetric structure can effectively avoid the side lobe of objective function and reduce the complexity of correlation calculation, and thereby can improve the synchronization performance. Then, the constructed training sequence is superimposed on a complete data symbol for transmission to efficiently utilize transmitting power and spectrum resources of the communication system. At the receiver, the position of timing synchronization is estimated using maximum-likelihood algorithm and the correlation between the local sequence and the received signal. Simulation results show that, compared with several existing methods, the proposed timing synchronization method achieves better synchronization performances under both strong and weak atmospheric turbulence channels.

  10. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  11. Ultrafast soft x-ray two-dimensional plasma imaging system based on gas electron multiplier detector with pixel readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacella, D.; Pizzicaroli, G.; Gabellieri, L.; Leigheb, M.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Gariano, G.; Latronico, L.; Lumb, N.; Spandre, G.; Massai, M. M.; Reale, S.

    2001-02-01

    In the present article a new diagnostic device in the soft x-ray range, for magnetic fusion plasmas, is proposed based on a gas electron multiplier detector with 2.5×2.5 cm active area, equipped with a true two-dimensional readout system. The readout printed circuit board, designed for these experiments, has 128 pads. Each pad is 2 mm square and covers a roughly circular area. The operational conditions of the detector are settled to work in the x-ray range 3-15 keV at very high counting rates, with a linear response up to 2 MHz/pixel. This limitation is due to the electronic dead time. Images of a wrench and two pinholes were done at rates of 2.5 MHz/pixel with a powerful x-ray laboratory source showing an excellent imaging capability. Finally preliminary measurements of x-ray emission from a magnetic fusion plasma were performed on the Frascati tokamak upgrade experiment. The system was able to image the plasma with a wide dynamic range (more than a factor of 100), with a sampling frequency of 20 kHz and with counting rates up to 4 MHz/pixel, following the changes of the x-ray plasma emissivity due to additional radio frequency heating. The spatial resolution and imaging properties of this detector have been studied in this work for conditions of high counting rates and high gain, with the detector fully illuminated by very intense x-ray sources (laboratory tube and tokamak plasma).

  12. The TileCal Optical Multiplexer Board 9U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, Alberto; ATLAS Tile Calorimeter Group

    TileCal is the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at LHC/CERN. The system contains roughly 10,000 channels of read-out electronics, whose signals are gathered and digitized in the front-end electronics and then transmitted to the counting room through two redundant optical links. Then, the data is received in the back-end system by the Optical Multiplexer Board (OMB) 9U which performs a CRC check to the redundant data to avoid Single Event Upsets errors. A real-time decision is taken on the event-to-event basis to transmit single data to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) for processing. Due to the low dose level expected during the first years of operations in ATLAS it was decided not to use a redundant system and currently the front-end electronics is directly connected to the RODs. However, the increasing luminosity of the LHC will force to use the redundant read-out and the OMB system will be installed. Moreover, the OMB can be used as a ROD injector to emulate the front-end electronics for ROD software tests during detector maintenance periods taking advantage of its location in the data acquisition chain. First we will give a detailed description of the main components of the board and the different operation modes. Then, the production and qualification tests will be explained including a detailed description of the test-bench, software and validation protocols.

  13. Increment of Access Points in Integrated System of Wavelength Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network Radio over Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, I. S.; Alavi, S. E.; Soltanian, M. R. K.; Fisal, N.; Supa'At, A. S. M.; Ahmad, H.

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to increase the numbers of access points (APs) in a wavelength division multiplexed-passive optical network (WDM-PON) integrated in a 100 GHz radio-over-fiber (RoF). Eight multi-carriers separated by 25 GHz intervals were generated in the range of 193.025 to 193.200 THz using a microring resonator (MRR) system incorporating an add-drop filter system. All optically generated multi-carriers were utilized in an integrated system of WDM-PON-RoF for transmission of four 43.6 Gb/sec orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. Results showed that an acceptable BER variation for different path lengths up to 25 km was achievable for all four access points and thus the transmission of four OFDM channels is feasible for a 25 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) path length.

  14. Increment of Access Points in Integrated System of Wavelength Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network Radio over Fiber.

    PubMed

    Amiri, I S; Alavi, S E; Soltanian, M R K; Fisal, N; Supa'at, A S M; Ahmad, H

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to increase the numbers of access points (APs) in a wavelength division multiplexed-passive optical network (WDM-PON) integrated in a 100 GHz radio-over-fiber (RoF). Eight multi-carriers separated by 25 GHz intervals were generated in the range of 193.025 to 193.200 THz using a microring resonator (MRR) system incorporating an add-drop filter system. All optically generated multi-carriers were utilized in an integrated system of WDM-PON-RoF for transmission of four 43.6 Gb/sec orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. Results showed that an acceptable BER variation for different path lengths up to 25 km was achievable for all four access points and thus the transmission of four OFDM channels is feasible for a 25 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) path length. PMID:26153536

  15. Automatic readout micrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lauritzen, T.

    1982-03-23

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  16. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  17. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  18. Self-calibrating multiplexer circuit

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, Chris P.

    1997-01-01

    A time domain multiplexer system with automatic determination of acceptable multiplexer output limits, error determination, or correction is comprised of a time domain multiplexer, a computer, a constant current source capable of at least three distinct current levels, and two series resistances employed for calibration and testing. A two point linear calibration curve defining acceptable multiplexer voltage limits may be defined by the computer by determining the voltage output of the multiplexer to very accurately known input signals developed from predetermined current levels across the series resistances. Drift in the multiplexer may be detected by the computer when the output voltage limits, expected during normal operation, are exceeded, or the relationship defined by the calibration curve is invalidated.

  19. Self-calibrating multiplexer circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    A time domain multiplexer system with automatic determination of acceptable multiplexer output limits, error determination, or correction is comprised of a time domain multiplexer, a computer, a constant current source capable of at least three distinct current levels, and two series resistances employed for calibration and testing. A two point linear calibration curve defining acceptable multiplexer voltage limits may be defined by the computer by determining the voltage output of the multiplexer to very accurately known input signals developed from predetermined current levels across the series resistances. Drift in the multiplexer may be detected by the computer when the output voltage limits, expected during normal operation, are exceeded, or the relationship defined by the calibration curve is invalidated.

  20. Electra: durable repetitively pulsed angularly multiplexed KrF laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolford, Matthew F.; Myers, Matthew C.; Giuliani, John L.; Sethian, John D.; Burns, Patrick M.; Hegeler, Frank; Jaynes, Reginald

    2008-02-01

    Electra is a repetitively pulsed, electron beam pumped Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser at the Naval Research Laboratory that is developing the technologies that can meet the Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) requirements for durability, efficiency, and cost. The technologies developed on Electra should be directly scalable to a full size fusion power plant beam line. As in a full size fusion power plant beam line, Electra is a multistage laser amplifier system which, consists of a commercial discharge laser (LPX 305i, Lambda Physik), 175 keV electron beam pumped (40 ns flat-top) preamplifier, and 530 keV (100 ns flat-top) main amplifier. Angular multiplexing is used in the optical layout to provide pulse length control and to maximize laser extraction from the amplifiers. Single shot yield of 452 J has been extracted from the initial shots of the Electra laser system using a relatively low energy preamplifier laser beam. In rep-rate burst of 5 Hz for durations of one second a total energy of 1.585 kJ (average 317 J/pulse) has been attained. Total energy of 2.5 kJ has been attained over a two second period. For comparison, the main amplifier of Electra in oscillator mode has demonstrated at 2.5 Hz rep-rate average laser yield of 270 J over a 2 hour period.

  1. Performance of x-ray imaging systems with optical coupling for demagnification between scintillator and CCD readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roehrig, Hans; Yu, Tong; Schempp, William V.

    1994-11-01

    This paper discusses the performance of x-ray imaging devices employing optical coupling between the x-ray detector (phosphor screen) and the readout (CCD). Optical coupling can be performed with the aid of a lens or with the aid of a fiber-optic taper. Conventional wisdom predicts that fiber-optic coupling is superior on account of superior light collection efficiency. For the same demagnification, fiber-optic tapers usually have a higher numerical aperture in the object plane than a lens. This paper presents a review of critical imaging system components and provides a comparison of factors such as light collection efficiency, phosphor screen light output and CCD sensitivity. The paper presents data obtained with two commercially available x-ray imaging systems, one a lens coupled system, the other a fiber- optically coupled system. These systems are used for mammographically guided stereotactic breast biopsy to determine the x-, y-, and z-coordinates of the lesion to be biopsied. The paper concludes that a lens coupled x-ray imaging system can be superior to a fiber-optic one, particularly with respect to Detective Quantum Efficiency. This superiority is based on a quantum gain of about 5 CCD electrons per absorbed x-ray photon, which is (however barely) sufficient to preserve most of the information collected by the system's Lanex screen.

  2. The 160 TES bolometer read-out using FDM for SAFARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijmering, R. A.; den Hartog, R. H.; van der Linden, A. J.; Ridder, M.; Bruijn, M. P.; van der Kuur, J.; van Leeuwen, B. J.; van Winden, P.; Jackson, B.

    2014-07-01

    For the read out of the Transition Edge Sensors (TES) bolometer arrays of the SAFARI instrument on the Japanese background-limited far-IR SPICA mission SRON is developing a Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) read-out system. The next step after the successful demonstration of the read out of 38 TES bolometers using FDM was to demonstrate the FDM readout of the required 160 TES bolometers. Of the 160 LC filter and TES bolometer chains 151 have been connected and after cooldown 148 of the resonances could be identified. Although initial operation and locking of the pixels went smoothly the experiment revealed several complications. In this paper we describe the 160 pixel FDM set-up, show the results and discuss the issues faced during operation of the 160 pixel FDM experiment.

  3. Effectiveness of phase-conjugated twin waves on fiber nonlinearity in spatially multiplexed all-optical OFDM system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmood, Jassim K.; Noordin, Kamarul A.; Harun, Sulaiman W.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effectiveness of using phase-conjugated twin waves (PCTWs) technique to mitigate fiber nonlinear impairments in spatially multiplexed all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (AO-OFDM) systems. In this technique, AO-OFDM signal and its phase-conjugated copy are directly transmitted through two identical fiber links. At the receiver, the two signals are coherently superimposed to cancel the phase noise and to enhance signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). To show the effectiveness of proposed technique, a spatially multiplexed AO-OFDM system is demonstrated by numerical simulation. AO-OFDM signal and its phase conjugated copy are optically generated by using optical coupler-based inverse fast Fourier transform (OIFFT)/fast Fourier transform (OFFT). The generated signal includes 29 subcarriers where each subcarrier is modulated by 4-quadrature amplitude modulation (4QAM) format at a symbol rate of 25 Gsymbol/s. The results reveal that transmission performance is considerably improved where the transmission distance of the proposed system is increased by ∼45% as compared to that of original system without PCTWs technique.

  4. Structural modification of semiconductor optical amplifiers for wavelength division multiplexing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Surinder

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the semiconductor optical amplifier is analyzed for in-line and pre-amplifier for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) transmission having minimum crosstalk and power penalty with sufficient gain. It is evaluated that the cross gain saturation of the SOA can be reduced by settling crosstalk at lower level and also minimizing the power penalty by slight increase in the confinement factor. At an optimal confinement factor of 0.41069, high amplification is obtained up to saturation power of 20.804 mW. For this confinement factor, low crosstalk of -9.63 dB and amplified spontaneous emission noise power of 119.4 μW are obtained for -15 dBm input signal. It has been demonstrated for the first time that twenty channels at 10 Gb/s WDM can transmit up to 5600 km by use of this optimization. In this, cascading of in-line SOA is done at the span of 70 km for return zero differential phase shift keying modulation format with the channel spacing of 100 GHz. The optical power spectrum and clear eye are observed at the transmission distance of 4340 and 5600 km in RZ-DPSK system. The bit error rate for all channels increases more than 10 -10 with the increase in launched input power.

  5. An optical fiber multiplexing interferometric system for measuring remote and high precision step height

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Xie, Fang; Ma, Sen; Chen, Liang

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, an optical fiber multiplexing interferometric system including a Fizeau interferometer and a Michelson interferometer is designed for remote and high precision step height measurement. The Fizeau interferometer which is inserted in the remote sensing field is used for sensing the measurand, while the Michelson interferometer which is stabilized by a feedback loop works in both modes of low coherence interferometry and high coherence interferometry to demodulate the measurand. The range of the step height is determined by the low coherence interferometry and the value of it is measured precisely by the high coherence interferometry. High precision has been obtained by using the symmetrical peak-searching method to address the peak of the low coherence interferogram precisely and stabilizing the Michelson interferometer with a feedback loop. The maximum step height that could be measured is 6 mm while the measurement resolution is less than 1 nm. The standard deviation of 10 times measurement results of a step height of 1 mm configurated with two gauge blocks is 0.5 nm.

  6. Remote and high precision step height measurement with an optical fiber multiplexing interferometric system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yunzhi; Xie, Fang; Ma, Sen; Chen, Liang

    2015-03-01

    An optical fiber multiplexing low coherence and high coherence interferometric system, which includes a Fizeau interferometer as the sensing element and a Michelson interferometer as the demodulating element, is designed for remote and high precision step height measurement. The Fizeau interferometer is placed in the remote field for sensing the measurand, while the Michelson interferometer which works in both modes of low coherence interferometry and high coherence interferometry is employed for demodulating the measurand. The range of the step height is determined by the low coherence interferometry and the value of it is measured precisely by the high coherence interferometry. High precision has been obtained by searching precisely the peak of the low coherence interferogram symmetrically from two sides of the low coherence interferogram and stabilizing the Michelson interferometer with a feedback loop. The maximum step height that could be measured is 6 mm while the measurement resolution is less than 1 nm. The standard deviation of 10 times measurement results of a step height of 1 mm configurated with two gauge blocks is 0.5 nm.

  7. Connector Inversion Probe Technology: A Powerful One-Primer Multiplex DNA Amplification System for Numerous Scientific Applications

    PubMed Central

    Akhras, Michael S.; Unemo, Magnus; Thiyagarajan, Sreedevi; Nyrén, Pål; Davis, Ronald W.; Fire, Andrew Z.; Pourmand, Nader

    2007-01-01

    We combined components of a previous assay referred to as Molecular Inversion Probe (MIP) with a complete gap filling strategy, creating a versatile powerful one-primer multiplex amplification system. As a proof-of-concept, this novel method, which employs a Connector Inversion Probe (CIPer), was tested as a genetic tool for pathogen diagnosis, typing, and antibiotic resistance screening with two distinct systems: i) a conserved sequence primer system for genotyping Human Papillomavirus (HPV), a cancer-associated viral agent and ii) screening for antibiotic resistance mutations in the bacterial pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. We also discuss future applications and advances of the CIPer technology such as integration with digital amplification and next-generation sequencing methods. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of two-dimension informational barcodes, i.e. “multiplex multiplexing padlocks” (MMPs). For the readers' convenience, we also provide an on-line tutorial with user-interface software application CIP creator 1.0.1, for custom probe generation from virtually any new or established primer-pairs. PMID:17878950

  8. Demonstration of single-flux-quantum readout circuits for time-of-flight mass spectrometry systems using superconducting strip ion detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Kyosuke; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki; Zen, Nobuyuki; Ohkubo, Masataka

    2015-07-01

    We have been developing a superconducting time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) system that consists of a superconducting strip ion detector (SSID) and a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) time-to-digital converter. In this study, we implement a prototype TOF-MS system using an SSID and an SFQ readout circuit in which output signals from the SSID are read out by the SFQ readout circuit and output to room-temperature electronics. The SFQ readout circuit, which consists of a current discriminator, a Josephson transmission line and an SFQ/dc converter, was fabricated using the AIST Nb standard process (STP2), and installed in a 4.2 K cryostat with a meander-shaped NbN SSID measuring 200 μm square. The dark count rate for the SSID was measured as increasing exponentially with the increase in the bias current of the SSID by using the SFQ readout circuit. Mass spectrum measurements of biomolecules, Angiotensin I, which has a molecular weight of 1296 Da, were demonstrated by using the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization method, and a clear corresponding peak was observed in the mass spectrum.

  9. High-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed transition-edge sensor array

    SciTech Connect

    Noroozian, Omid; Mates, John A. B.; Bennett, Douglas A.; Brevik, Justus A.; Fowler, Joseph W.; Gao, Jiansong; Hilton, Gene C.; Horansky, Robert D.; Irwin, Kent D.; Schmidt, Daniel R.; Vale, Leila R.; Ullom, Joel N.; Kang, Zhao

    2013-11-11

    We demonstrate very high resolution photon spectroscopy with a microwave-multiplexed two-pixel transition-edge sensor (TES) array. We measured a {sup 153}Gd photon source and achieved an energy resolution of 63 eV full-width-at-half-maximum at 97 keV and an equivalent readout system noise of 86 pA/√(Hz) at the TES. The readout circuit consists of superconducting microwave resonators coupled to radio-frequency superconducting-quantum-interference-devices and transduces changes in input current to changes in phase of a microwave signal. We use flux-ramp modulation to linearize the response and evade low-frequency noise. This demonstration establishes one path for the readout of cryogenic X-ray and gamma-ray sensor arrays with more than 10{sup 3} elements and spectral resolving powers R=λ/Δλ>10{sup 3}.

  10. RF Single Electron Transistor Readout Amplifiers for Superconducting Astronomical Detectors for X-Ray to Sub-mm Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Delsing, Per; Frunzio, Luigi; Li, Li-Qun; Prober, Daniel; Schoelkopf, Robert; Segall, Ken; Wilson, Chris; Stahle, Carl

    2000-01-01

    We report progress on using a new type of amplifier, the Radio-Frequency Single-Electron Transistor (RF-SET), to develop multi-channel sensor readout systems for fast and sensitive readout of high impedance cryogenic photodetectors such as Superconducting Tunnel Junctions and Single Quasiparticle Photon Counters. Although cryogenic, these detectors are desirable because of capabilities not other-wise attainable. However, high impedances and low output levels make low-noise, high-speed readouts challenging, and large format arrays would be facilitated by compact, low-power, on-chip integrated amplifiers. Well-suited for this application are RF-SETs, very high performance electrometers which use an rf readout technique to provide 100 MHz bandwidth. Small size, low power, and cryogenic operation allow direct integration with detectors, and using multiple rf carrier frequencies permits simultaneous readout of 20-50 amplifiers with a common electrical connection. We describe both the first 2-channel demonstration of this wavelength division multiplexing technique for RF-SETs, and Charge-Locked-Loop operation with 100 kHz of closed-loop bandwidth.

  11. Updated Campylobacter jejuni Capsule PCR Multiplex Typing System and Its Application to Clinical Isolates from South and Southeast Asia

    PubMed Central

    Poly, Frédéric; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Kuroiwa, Janelle; Pootong, Piyarat; Mason, Carl; Guerry, Patricia; Parker, Craig T.

    2015-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni produces a polysaccharide capsule that is the major determinant of the Penner serotyping scheme. This passive slide agglutination typing system was developed in the early 1980’s and was recognized for over two decades as the gold standard for C. jejuni typing. A preliminary multiplex PCR technique covering 17 serotypes was previously developed in order to replace this classic serotyping scheme. Here we report the completion of the multiplex PCR technology that is able to identify all the 47 Penner serotypes types known for C. jejuni. The number of capsule types represented within the 47 serotypes is 35. We have applied this method to a collection of 996 clinical isolates from Thailand, Cambodia and Nepal and were able to successfully determine capsule types of 98% of these. PMID:26630669

  12. 60-GHz optical/wireless MIMO system integrated with optical subcarrier multiplexing and 2x2 wireless communication.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Ting; Huang, Hou-Tzu; Zeng, Wei-Siang; Chiang, Shou-Chih; Chang, Hsi-Yu

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a 2x2 MIMO OFDM Radio-over-Fiber scheme based on optical subcarrier multiplexing and 60-GHz MIMO wireless transmission. We also schematically investigated the principle of optical subcarrier multiplexing, which is based on a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DP-MZM). In our simulation result, combining two MIMO OFDM signals to drive DP-MZM gives rise to the PAPR augmentation of less than 0.4 dB, which mitigates nonlinear distortion. Moreover, we applied a Levin-Campello bit-loading algorithm to compensate for the uneven frequency responses in the V-band. The resulting system achieves OFDM signal rates of 61.5-Gbits/s with BER of 10(-3) over 25-km SMF transmission followed by 3-m wireless transmission. PMID:25969299

  13. Tests of the standard (30 hz) NCER FM multiplex telemetry system, augmented by two timing channels and a compensation reference signal, used to record multiplexed seismic network data on magnetic tape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, Jerry P.

    1976-01-01

    The application of subtractive compensation to USGS seismic magnetic tape recording and playback systems was examined in a recent USGS Open-file report (1). It was found, for the standard (30 Hz) NCER multiplex system, that subtractive compensation utilizing a 4688 Hz reference signal multiplexed onto each data track was more effective than that utilizing a 3125 Hz reference signal recorded separately on a different track. Moreover, it was found that the portion of the spectrum between the uppermost data channel (3060 Hz + or - 125 Hz) and the compensation reference signal (4688 Hz) could be used to record an additional timing signal, with a center frequency of 3700 Hz and a broader playback bandwidth (ca 0 to 100 Hz) than that of the standard data channels. Accordingly, for the tests described in that report, the standard 8-datachannel multiplex system was augmented by one additional timing channel with a center frequency of 3700 Hz. The 3700 Hz discriminator used in those tests was not successfully set up to utilize subtractive compensation; so its output from a tape playback was quite noisy. Subsequently, further tests have been carried out on the application of subtractive compensation to a 4-channel broad-band multiplex system and to the standard multiplex system, both recorded on field tape recorders with relatively poor tape speed control (2), (3). In the course of these experiments, it was discovered that two separate timing channe1s, not just one, can be inserted between the uppermost data channel and the compensation reference signal, Furthermore, it was possible to adjust the discriminators used to playback these timing channels so that they profited significantly from subtractive compensation even though the playback bandwidth was 0 to 100 Hz (for short rise times of square wave timing signals). The advantages of recording two timing signals on each data track include: 1) one standard time signal to be used for critical timing, e.g. IRIG E, can be

  14. Orbital angular momentum in four channel spatial domain multiplexing system for multi-terabit per second communication architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murshid, Syed H.; Muralikrishnan, Hari P.; Kozaitis, Samuel P.

    2012-06-01

    Bandwidth increase has always been an important area of research in communications. A novel multiplexing technique known as Spatial Domain Multiplexing (SDM) has been developed at the Optronics Laboratory of Florida Institute of Technology to increase the bandwidth to T-bits/s range. In this technique, space inside the fiber is used effectively to transmit up to four channels of same wavelength at the same time. Experimental and theoretical analysis shows that these channels follow independent helical paths inside the fiber without interfering with each other. Multiple pigtail laser sources of exactly the same wavelength are used to launch light into a single carrier fiber in a fashion that resulting channels follow independent helical trajectories. These helically propagating light beams form optical vortices inside the fiber and carry their own Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM). The outputs of these beams appear as concentric donut shaped rings when projected on a screen. This endeavor presents the experimental outputs and simulated results for a four channel spatially multiplexed system effectively increasing the system bandwidth by a factor of four.

  15. Asymmetric multi-input multi-output system in visible light communication for polarization-tolerant polarization division multiplexing transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Kwon, Do-Hoon; Yang, Se-Hoon; Han, Sang-Kook

    2016-03-01

    We propose an asymmetric 3×2 multi-input multi-output (MIMO) system for polarization division multiplexing (PDM) transmission in visible light communication (VLC). In PDM transmission, independent channels are constructed by polarization orthogonality, which is vulnerable to misalignment of polarization between the transmitter and the receiver. Although PDM-based VLC system may not maintain polarization orthogonality, the proposed asymmetric MIMO system can achieve the polarization diversity required for a multichannel system. We experimentally demonstrate the performance enhancement of PDM VLC transmission using the proposed asymmetric 3×2 MIMO technique.

  16. Y-Short Tandem Repeat Multiplex Systems - Y-PLEX™ 6 and Y-PLEX™ 5.

    PubMed

    Shewale, J G

    2003-07-01

    Y-Chromosome short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) have become a very useful tool in forensic casework, paternity, and male lineage studies. In forensic casework, one can obtain the male profile from a mixture sample containing male and female DNA. Two Y-STR genotyping systems, Y-PLEX™ 6 and Y-PLEX™ 5, have been developed for use in human identification. Y-PLEX™ 6 enables simultaneous amplification of DYS393, DYS19, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, and DYS385; Y-PLEX™ 5 enables simultaneous amplification of DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS439, DYS438, and DYS392 loci. The Y-PLEX™ 6 and Y-PLEX™ 5 systems together provide analysis of all nine Y-STR loci generating minimal haplotype and two additional loci, DYS438 and DYS439. These systems also provide analysis for all 11 Y-STR loci recommended by the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) for forensic casework and population database studies. Both the systems were validated following the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Director's Quality Assurance Standards. Allelic ladders, which serve as a reference in genotyping, were generated. The nucleotide sequence of alleles in the allelic ladder was determined and the nomenclature is in accord with the recommendations of the International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG). The minimum sensitivity of the Y-PLEX™ 6 and Y-PLEX™ 5 systems was 0.2 and 0.1 ng of male DNA, respectively. The nonhuman study revealed that the primers in the Y-PLEX™ 6 and Y-PLEX™ 5 systems were specific for the DNA from humans and some higher primates. Mean stutter values ranged from 3.6 to 11.9%. The Y-PLEX™ 6 and Y-PLEX™ 5 systems were used in several forensic cases. The results from these multiplex systems have been admitted in various U.S. Courts. Thus, Y-PLEX™ 6 and Y-PLEX™ 5 genotyping systems are sensitive, reliable, and robust for use in human forensic and male lineage identification studies. PMID:26256728

  17. A readout for large arrays of microwave kinetic inductance detectors.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Sean; Mazin, Benjamin A; Serfass, Bruno; Meeker, Seth; O'Brien, Kieran; Duan, Ran; Raffanti, Rick; Werthimer, Dan

    2012-04-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) are superconducting detectors capable of counting single photons and measuring their energy in the UV, optical, and near-IR. MKIDs feature intrinsic frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) at microwave frequencies, allowing the construction and readout of large arrays. Due to the microwave FDM, MKIDs do not require the complex cryogenic multiplexing electronics used for similar detectors, such as transition edge sensors, but instead transfer this complexity to room temperature electronics where they present a formidable signal processing challenge. In this paper, we describe the first successful effort to build a readout for a photon counting optical/near-IR astronomical instrument, the ARray Camera for Optical to Near-infrared Spectrophotometry. This readout is based on open source hardware developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research. Designed principally for radio telescope backends, it is flexible enough to be used for a variety of signal processing applications. PMID:22559560

  18. Multiplex Pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Nader; Elahi, Elahe; Davis, Ronald W; Ronaghi, Mostafa

    2002-04-01

    We describe here the development of a new and simple single-tube multiplex Pyrosequencing assay. Genomic DNA or cDNA was employed to PCR amplify region(s) using biotinylated and normal primer(s). Subsequent to capture of PCR products on streptavidin-coated beads, single-stranded DNA separation and hybridization of multiple sequencing primers, Pyrosequencing was performed. The obtained pyrogram resulted in a unique pattern in which the intensity of the signal determined the number of incorporated nucleotide(s). Here, we demonstrate the use of this multiplex Pyrosequencing for single nucleotide polymorphisms genotyping and microbial typing. PMID:11917037

  19. Fabrication techniques for superconducting readout loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for the fabrication of superconducting readout loops out of niobium on glass substrates were developed. A computer program for an existing fabrication system was developed. Both positive and negative resist procedures for the production of the readout loops were investigated. Methods used to produce satisfactory loops are described and the various parameters affecting the performance of the loops are analyzed.

  20. Analog bus driver and multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    For a source-follower signal chain, the ohmic drop in the selection switch causes unacceptable voltage offset, non-linearity, and reduced small signal gain. For an op amp signal chain, the required bias current and the output noise rises rapidly with increasing the array format due to a rapid increase in the effective capacitance caused by the Miller effect boosting up the contribution of the bus capacitance. A new switched source-follower signal chain circuit overcomes limitations of existing op-amp based or source follower based circuits used in column multiplexers and data readout. This will improve performance of CMOS imagers, and focal plane read-out integrated circuits for detectors of infrared or ultraviolet light.

  1. Aqueous two-phase system patterning of detection antibody solutions for cross-reaction-free multiplex ELISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frampton, John P.; White, Joshua B.; Simon, Arlyne B.; Tsuei, Michael; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-05-01

    Accurate disease diagnosis, patient stratification and biomarker validation require the analysis of multiple biomarkers. This paper describes cross-reactivity-free multiplexing of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to confine detection antibodies at specific locations in fully aqueous environments. Antibody cross-reactions are eliminated because the detection antibody solutions are co-localized only to corresponding surface-immobilized capture antibody spots. This multiplexing technique is validated using plasma samples from allogeneic bone marrow recipients. Patients with acute graft versus host disease (GVHD), a common and serious condition associated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, display higher mean concentrations for four multiplexed biomarkers (HGF, elafin, ST2 and TNFR1) relative to healthy donors and transplant patients without GVHD. The antibody co-localization capability of this technology is particularly useful when using inherently cross-reactive reagents such as polyclonal antibodies, although monoclonal antibody cross-reactivity can also be reduced. Because ATPS-ELISA adapts readily available antibody reagents, plate materials and detection instruments, it should be easily transferable into other research and clinical settings.

  2. Multiplexed gene transfer to a human T-cell line by combining Sleeping Beauty transposon system with methotrexate selection.

    PubMed

    Kacherovsky, Nataly; Liu, Gary W; Jensen, Michael C; Pun, Suzie H

    2015-07-01

    Engineered human T-cells are a promising therapeutic modality for cancer immunotherapy. T-cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors combined with additional genes to enhance T-cell proliferation, survival, or tumor targeting may further improve efficacy but require multiple stable gene transfer events. Methods are therefore needed to increase production efficiency for multiplexed engineered cells. In this work, we demonstrate multiplexed, non-viral gene transfer to a human T-cell line with efficient selection (∼ 50%) of cells expressing up to three recombinant open reading frames. The efficient introduction of multiple genes to T-cells was achieved using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system delivered in minicircles by nucleofection. We demonstrate rapid selection for engineered cells using methotrexate (MTX) and a mutant human dihydrofolate reductase resistant to methotrexate-induced metabolic inhibition. Preferential amplification of cells expressing multiple transgenes was achieved by two successive rounds of increasing MTX concentration. This non-viral gene transfer method with MTX step selection can potentially be used in the generation of clinical-grade T-cells housing multiplexed genetic modifications. PMID:25808830

  3. Aqueous two-phase system patterning of detection antibody solutions for cross-reaction-free multiplex ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Frampton, John P.; White, Joshua B.; Simon, Arlyne B.; Tsuei, Michael; Paczesny, Sophie; Takayama, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    Accurate disease diagnosis, patient stratification and biomarker validation require the analysis of multiple biomarkers. This paper describes cross-reactivity-free multiplexing of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) to confine detection antibodies at specific locations in fully aqueous environments. Antibody cross-reactions are eliminated because the detection antibody solutions are co-localized only to corresponding surface-immobilized capture antibody spots. This multiplexing technique is validated using plasma samples from allogeneic bone marrow recipients. Patients with acute graft versus host disease (GVHD), a common and serious condition associated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, display higher mean concentrations for four multiplexed biomarkers (HGF, elafin, ST2 and TNFR1) relative to healthy donors and transplant patients without GVHD. The antibody co-localization capability of this technology is particularly useful when using inherently cross-reactive reagents such as polyclonal antibodies, although monoclonal antibody cross-reactivity can also be reduced. Because ATPS-ELISA adapts readily available antibody reagents, plate materials and detection instruments, it should be easily transferable into other research and clinical settings. PMID:24786974

  4. Proposal for Angular Momentum Multiplexing in Microholographic Recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Ryuichi

    2013-09-01

    A novel multiplexing technology in microholographic recording using beams that have an orbital angular momentum has been proposed. The multiplexing is carried out by changing the order of the phase singularity (m) of beams for recording and readout in multiple states. In the recording operation, multiple microholograms are formed at the same position of the recording medium by changing the value of m. In the readout operation, each of the multiple microholograms is selectively reproduced by changing the value of m. Microholograms with m≠0 have a spiral shape, and the handednesses, multiplicities, and pitches of the spiral differ from each other depending on the value of m. A readout signal simulation has demonstrated that the multiplexing of at least five bits is feasible. It is expected that a terabyte-order recording capacity will be achieved in microholographic recording by combining this technology with three-dimensional recording technology.

  5. Linear readout of object manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, SueYeon; Lee, Daniel D.; Sompolinsky, Haim

    2016-06-01

    Objects are represented in sensory systems by continuous manifolds due to sensitivity of neuronal responses to changes in physical features such as location, orientation, and intensity. What makes certain sensory representations better suited for invariant decoding of objects by downstream networks? We present a theory that characterizes the ability of a linear readout network, the perceptron, to classify objects from variable neural responses. We show how the readout perceptron capacity depends on the dimensionality, size, and shape of the object manifolds in its input neural representation.

  6. Preclinical Assessment of a Fully Automated Multiplex PCR Panel for Detection of Central Nervous System Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hanson, K E; Slechta, E S; Killpack, J A; Heyrend, C; Lunt, T; Daly, J A; Hemmert, A C; Blaschke, A J

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated a multiplexed PCR panel for the detection of 16 bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens in cerebrospinal fluid. Panel results were compared to routine testing, and discrepancies were resolved by additional nucleic acid amplification tests or sequencing. Overall, the positive and negative agreements across methods were 92.9% and 91.9%, respectively. PMID:26719436

  7. Coevolution and Correlated Multiplexity in Multiplex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung Yeol; Goh, K.-I.

    2013-08-01

    Distinct channels of interaction in a complex networked system define network layers, which coexist and cooperate for the system’s function. Towards understanding such multiplex systems, we propose a modeling framework based on coevolution of network layers, with a class of minimalistic growing network models as working examples. We examine how the entangled growth of coevolving layers can shape the network structure and show analytically and numerically that the coevolution can induce strong degree correlations across layers, as well as modulate degree distributions. We further show that such a coevolution-induced correlated multiplexity can alter the system’s response to the dynamical process, exemplified by the suppressed susceptibility to a social cascade process.

  8. A low power readout circuit approach for uncooled resistive microbolometer FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepegoz, Murat; Toprak, Alperen; Akin, Tayfun

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a new, low power readout circuit approach for uncooled resistive microbolometer FPAs. The readout circuits of the microbolometer detectors contain parallel readout channels whose outputs are driven and multiplexed on large bus capacitances in order to form the output of the readout circuit. High number of opamps used in the readout channel array and large output capacitances that these opamps should drive necessitates the use of high output current capacity structures, which results in large power dissipation. This paper proposes two new methods in order to decrease the power dissipation of the readout circuits for uncooled thermal FPAs. The first method is called the readout channel group concept, where the readout channel array is separated into groups in order to decrease the load capacitance seen by the readout channel output. The second method utilizes a special opamp architecture where the output current driving capacity can be digitally controlled. This method enables efficient use of power by activating the high output current driving capacity only during the output multiplexing. The simulations show that using these methods results in a power dissipation reduction of 80% and 91% for the readout channels optimized for a single output 384x288 FPA operating at 25 fps and for a two-output 640x480 FPA operating at 30 fps, respectively.

  9. A multiplexed quantum memory.

    PubMed

    Lan, S-Y; Radnaev, A G; Collins, O A; Matsukevich, D N; Kennedy, T A; Kuzmich, A

    2009-08-01

    A quantum repeater is a system for long-distance quantum communication that employs quantum memory elements to mitigate optical fiber transmission losses. The multiplexed quantum memory (O. A. Collins, S. D. Jenkins, A. Kuzmich, and T. A. B. Kennedy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060502 (2007)) has been shown theoretically to reduce quantum memory time requirements. We present an initial implementation of a multiplexed quantum memory element in a cold rubidium gas. We show that it is possible to create atomic excitations in arbitrary memory element pairs and demonstrate the violation of Bell's inequality for light fields generated during the write and read processes. PMID:19654771

  10. SNO+ Readout Electronics Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonventre, Richard; Shokair, Timothy; Knapik, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The SNO+ experiment is designed to explore several topics in neutrino physics including neutrinoless double beta decay, reactor antineutrinos, and low energy solar neutrinos. SNO+ uses the existing Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) detector, with the heavy water target replaced with liquid scintillator. The new target requires an upgrade to the command and control electronics to handle the higher rates expected with scintillation light as compared to Cherenkov light. The readout electronics have been upgraded to autonomously push data to a central data acquisition computer over ethernet from each of the 19 front end crates. The autonomous readout is achieved with a field programmable gate array (FPGA) with an embedded processor. Inside the FPGA fabric a state machine is configured to pull data across the VME-like bus of each crate. A small C program, making use of the open source Light Weight IP (LWIP) libraries, is run directly on the hardware (with no operating system) to push the data via TCP/IP. The hybrid combination of `high-level' C code and a `low-level' VHDL state machine is a cost effective and flexible solution for reading out individual front end crates.

  11. Sensitive giant magnetoresistive-based immunoassay for multiplex mycotoxin detection.

    PubMed

    Mak, Andy C; Osterfeld, Sebastian J; Yu, Heng; Wang, Shan X; Davis, Ronald W; Jejelowo, Olufisayo A; Pourmand, Nader

    2010-03-15

    Rapid and multiplexed measurement is vital in the detection of food-borne pathogens. While highly specific and sensitive, traditional immunochemical assays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) often require expensive read-out equipment (e.g. fluorescent labels) and lack the capability of multiplex detection. By combining the superior specificity of immunoassays with the sensitivity and simplicity of magnetic detection, we have developed a novel multiplex magnetic nanotag-based detection platform for mycotoxins that functions on a sub-picomolar concentration level. Unlike fluorescent labels, magnetic nanotags (MNTs) can be detected with inexpensive giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors such as spin-valve sensors. In the system presented here, each spin-valve sensor has an active area of 90 microm x 90 microm, arranged in an 8 x 8 array. Sample is added to the antibody-immobilized sensor array prior to the addition of the biotinylated detection antibody. The sensor response is recorded in real time upon the addition of streptavidin-linked MNTs on the chip. Here we demonstrate the simultaneous detection of multiple mycotoxins (aflatoxins B(1), zearalenone and HT-2) and show that a detection limit of 50 pg/mL can be achieved. PMID:20047828

  12. Hybrid cable television and orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing transport system basing on single wavelength polarization and amplitude remodulation schemes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Hung; Liu, Wei-Chen; Peng, Peng-Chun; Lu, Hai-Han; Wu, Po-Yi; Wang, Jyun-Bo

    2011-05-01

    A hybrid community antenna television (CATV) and orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) transport system is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to transmit multiple CATV channels and bi-directional radio frequency signals on a single optical carrier. By polarization remodulating an optical CATV signal with downstream OFDM signals and then amplitude remodulating upstream OFDM signals with the hybrid CATV/OFDM signals, this architecture can efficiently utilize only one optical carrier to support optical analog/digital CATV transmission and bi-directional wireless broadband services for each client. Good experimental results prove that this architecture provides a proper wavelength utilization scheme for future multiwavelength optical transport systems. PMID:21540979

  13. The readout chain for the bar PANDA MVD strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, R.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Di Pietro, V.; Kleines, H.; Goerres, A.; Riccardi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Sohlbach, H.; Zaunick, H.-G.

    2015-02-01

    The bar PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) experiment will study the strong interaction in annihilation reactions between an antiproton beam and a stationary gas jet target. The detector will comprise different sub-detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. The Micro-Vertex Detector (MVD) as the innermost part of the tracking system will allow precise tracking and detection of secondary vertices. For the readout of the double-sided silicon strip sensors a custom-made ASIC is being developed, employing the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique for digitization and utilize time-to-digital converters (TDC) to provide a high-precision time stamp of the hit. A custom-made Module Data Concentrator ASIC (MDC) will multiplex the data of all front-ends of one sensor towards the CERN-developed GBT chip set (GigaBit Transceiver). The MicroTCA-based MVD Multiplexer Board (MMB) at the off-detector site will receive and concentrate the data from the GBT links and transfer it to FPGA-based compute nodes for global event building.

  14. A data acquisition system for two-dimensional position sensitive micropattern gas detectors with delay-line readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanu, A. R.; Prestwich, W. V.; Byun, S. H.

    2015-04-01

    We present a data acquisition (DAQ) system for two-dimensional position sensitive micropattern gas detectors using the delay-line method for readout. The DAQ system consists of a field programmable gate array (FPGA) as the main data processor and our time-to-digital (TDC) mezzanine card for making time measurements. We developed the TDC mezzanine card around the Acam TDC-GPX ASIC and it features four independent stop channels referenced to a common start, a typical timing resolution of ~81 ps, and a 17-bit measurement range, and is compliant with the VITA 57.1 standard. For our DAQ system, we have chosen the Xilinx SP601 development kit which features a single Spartan 6 FPGA, 128 MB of DDR2 memory, and a serial USB interface for communication. Output images consist of 1024×1024 square pixels, where each pixel has a 32-bit depth and corresponds to a time difference of 162 ps relative to its neighbours. When configured for a 250 ns acquisition window, the DAQ can resolve periodic event rates up to 1.8×106 Hz without any loses and will report a maximum event rate of 6.11×105 Hz for events whose arrival times follow Poisson statistics. The integral and differential non-linearities have also been measured and are better than 0.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Unlike commercial units, our DAQ system implements the delay-line image reconstruction algorithm entirely in hardware and is particularly attractive for its modularity, low cost, ease of integration, excellent linearity, and high throughput rate.

  15. Development of the quality control system of the readout electronics for the large size telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Masuda, S.; Paoletti, R.; Poulios, S.; Rugliancich, A.; Saito, T.

    2016-07-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is the next generation VHE γ-ray observatory which will improve the currently available sensitivity by a factor of 10 in the range 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The array consists of different types of telescopes, called large size telescope (LST), medium size telescope (MST) and small size telescope (SST). A LST prototype is currently being built and will be installed at the Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos, island of La Palma, Canary islands, Spain. The readout system for the LST prototype has been designed and around 300 readout boards will be produced in the coming months. In this note we describe an automated quality control system able to measure basic performance parameters and quickly identify faulty boards.

  16. Developments and tests of double-sided silicon strip detectors and read-out electronics for the Internal Tracking System of ALICE at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, J. P.; Alice Collaboration

    1999-12-01

    The internal-tracking-system (ITS) of the ALICE detector at LHC, consists of six concentrical barrels of silicon detectors. The outmost two layers are made of double-sided strip detectors (SSD). In the framework of a R&D, the characteristics and performances of these devices, manufactured by two different companies, associated with their designed read-out electronics, have been studied off- and in-beam at the SPS (CERN). The results are presented and discussed.

  17. The readout and control system of the mid-size telescope prototype of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, I.; Anguner, O.; Behera, B.; Birsin, E.; Fuessling, M.; Melkumyan, D.; Schmidt, T.; Schwanke, U.; Sternberger, R.; Wegner, P.; Wiesand, S.; Cta Consortium,the

    2014-06-01

    The Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) is one of the major ground-based astronomy projects being pursued and will be the largest facility for ground-based y-ray observations ever built. CTA will consist of two arrays: one in the Northern hemisphere composed of about 20 telescopes, and the other one in the Southern hemisphere composed of about 100 telescopes, both arrays containing telescopes of different type and size. A prototype for the Mid-Size Telescope (MST) with a diameter of 12 m has been installed in Berlin and is currently being commissioned. This prototype is composed of a mechanical structure, a drive system and mirror facets mounted with powered actuators to enable active control. Five Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) cameras, and a wide set of sensors allow the evaluation of the performance of the instrument. The design of the control software is following concepts and tools under evaluation within the CTA consortium in order to provide a realistic test-bed for the middleware: 1) The readout and control system for the MST prototype is implemented with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Common Software (ACS) distributed control middleware; 2) the OPen Connectivity-Unified Architecture (OPC UA) is used for hardware access; 3) the document oriented MongoDB database is used for an efficient storage of CCD images, logging and alarm information: and 4) MySQL and MongoDB databases are used for archiving the slow control monitoring data and for storing the operation configuration parameters. In this contribution, the details of the implementation of the control system for the MST prototype telescope are described.

  18. A drift detector system with anode and cathode readout in the GlueX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Berdnikov, V V; Somov, S V; Pentchev, L; Zihlmann, B

    2015-01-01

    A drift detector system designed to detect charged particle tracks in the GlueX experiment dedicated to study the nature of confinement is described. The key design features of the drift chambers associated with the requirement of a minimum material budget in the path of secondary particles are presented. The spatial resolution and the detection efficiency have been measured with cosmic rays using the automatic data acquisition system.

  19. Final Report Nucleic Acid System - PCR, Multiplex Assays and Sample Preparation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, R.P.; Langlois, R.G.; Nasarabadi, S.; Benett, W.J.; Richards, J.B.; Hadley, D.R.; Miles, R.R.; Brown, S.B.; Stratton, P.L.; Milanovich, F.P.

    2001-04-20

    The objective of this project was to reduce to practice the detection and identification of biological warfare pathogens by the nucleic acid recognition technique of PCR (polymerase chain reaction). This entailed not only building operationally functional instrumentation but also developing the chemical assays for detection of priority pathogens. This project had two principal deliverables: (1) design, construct, test and deliver a 24 chamber, multiplex capable suitcase sized PCR instrument, and (2) develop and reduce to practice a multiplex assay for the detection of PCR product by flow cytometry. In addition, significant resources were allocated to test and evaluation of the Hand-held Advanced Nucleic Acid Analyzer (HANAA). This project helps provide the signature and intelligence gathering community the ability to perform, on-site or remote, rapid analysis of environmental or like samples for the presence of a suite of biological warfare pathogens.

  20. Genetic individualization of Cannabis sativa by a short tandem repeat multiplex system.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Maria A; Mills, DeEtta K; Lata, Hemant; Chandra, Suman; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Almirall, Jose R

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is the most frequently used of all illicit drugs in the USA. Cannabis has been used throughout history for its stems in the production of hemp fiber, seed for oil and food, and buds and leaves as a psychoactive drug. Short tandem repeats (STRs) were chosen as molecular markers owing to their distinct advantages over other genetic methods. STRs are codominant, can be standardized such that reproducibility between laboratories can be easily achieved, have a high discrimination power, and can be multiplexed. In this study, six STR markers previously described for C. sativa were multiplexed into one reaction. The multiplex reaction was able to individualize 98 cannabis samples (14 hemp and 84 marijuana, authenticated as originating from 33 of the 50 states of the USA) and detect 29 alleles averaging 4.8 alleles per loci. The data did not relate the samples from the same state to each other. This is the first study to report a single-reaction sixplex and apply it to the analysis of almost 100 cannabis samples of known geographic origin. PMID:19066867

  1. Optical microscope for nuclear emulsion readout: system design and results in application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Kerstin; Koerner, Lienhard; Gussek, Peter; Balogh, Istvan; Breitfelder, Stefan; Schlichting, Johannes; Dupraz, Jean-Pierre; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Panman, Jaap; Papadopoulos, Ioannis M.; Zucchelli, Piero; van de Vyver, Bart

    1999-10-01

    Experiments such as CHORUS at CERN require the inspection of a large amount of nuclear emulsion plates exposed to particle beams. Rare events need to be found, measured and analyzed. Their features are stored as grains in microscopic dimensions in a 3D stack of plates. A new, fully automatic immersion microscope system was developed for this purpose. It features high resolution, small depth of focus, large working distance, large field of view and synchronization of illumination and detector. An additional requirement is given by variations in the refraction index and in the relative thickness of immersion oil and emulsion. The approach used here is an imaging system based on a various objective lens with extreme numerical aperture, large working distance and wide field, combined with a matched high-aperture Koehler illuminator. The light source is a mercury arc lamp, combined with a filter package for the g- line. It includes liquid crystal elements for synchronized shuttering and variable attenuation. The theoretical resolution is less than 1 micron in x, y, z within a volume of 0.5mm diameter times 1 mm scanning depth in all situations within a predefined index range. Three identical pieces of the system have been built. The identical pieces of the system have been built. The experimentally measured resolution confirms the expectations and is better than 1 micron in all three dimensions. This is the result of a complex process of system design and manufacturing, unifying optical, opto-mechanical and opto-electronical contributions. This process spans from the early stages of feasibility and manufacturing up to the test and adjustment procedures. The three prototypes are operational since the fall of 1998 in the frame of the CHORUS project. Practical experience and application results are presented.

  2. Combining spatial domain multiplexing and orbital angular momentum of photon-based multiplexing to increase the bandwidth of optical fiber communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murshid, Syed; Alanzi, Saud; Hridoy, Arnob; Lovell, Gregory L.; Parhar, Gurinder; Chakravarty, Abhijit; Chowdhury, Bilas

    2016-06-01

    Spatial domain multiplexing/space division multiplexing (SDM) can increase the bandwidth of existing and futuristic optical fibers by an order of magnitude or more. In the SDM technique, we launch multiple single-mode pigtail laser sources of the same wavelength into a carrier multimode fiber at different angles. The launching angles decide the output of the carrier fiber by allocating separate spatial locations for each channel. Each channel follows a helical trajectory while traversing the length of the carrier fiber, thereby allowing spatial reuse of optical frequencies. We launch light from five different single-mode pigtail laser sources (of same wavelength) at different angles (with respect to the axis of the carrier fiber) into the carrier fiber. Owing to helical propagation, five distinct concentric donut-shaped rings with negligible crosstalk at the output end of the fiber were obtained. These SDM channels also exhibit orbital angular momentum (OAM), thereby adding an extradegree of photon freedom. We present the experimental data of five spatially multiplexed channels and compare them with simulated results to show that this technique can potentially improve the data capacity of optical fibers by an order of magnitude: A factor of five using SDM and another factor of two using OAM.

  3. Use of Photocell Readouts in the Development of High Resolution Scintillator Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Warnick J. Kernan

    2007-11-30

    Photomultiplier-based scintillator spectrometers are the systems of choice for a multitude of X-ray and gamma radiation measurement applications. Despite widespread use, they have numerous shortcomings. The most serious is the relatively poor energy resolution that makes isotope identification problematic particularly in the case of trace quantities. Energy resolution in scintillator/photomultiplier tube (PMT) spectrometers is governed by a combination of the crystal intrinsic resolution that includes non-linearity effects, photomultiplier statistics, and the variability in the probability of a scintillation photon generating a photoelectron at the photocathode. It is evident that energy resolution in these systems is linked to both the physics of light generation in the scintillator, as well as the characteristics of the PMT. PMTs also present design problems especially in the case of handheld and portable instruments due to their considerable weight and volume. Additionally, PMTs require well-regulated high voltage and are vulnerable to magnetic fields.

  4. Data acquisition and readout system for the LUX dark matter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerib, D. S.; Bai, X.; Bedikian, S.; Bernard, E.; Bernstein, A.; Bradley, A.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Carr, D.; Chapman, J. J.; Clark, K.; Classen, T.; Coffey, T.; Curioni, A.; Dazeley, S.; de Viveiros, L.; Dragowsky, M.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gibson, K. R.; Hall, C.; Hanhardt, M.; Holbrook, B.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Kastens, L.; Kazkaz, K.; Lander, R.; Larsen, N.; Lee, C.; Leonard, D.; Lesko, K.; Lyashenko, A.; Malling, D. C.; Mannino, R.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.; Mock, J.; Morii, M.; Nelson, H.; Nikkel, J. A.; Pangilinan, M.; Phelps, P.; Shutt, T.; Skulski, W.; Sorensen, P.; Spaans, J.; Stiegler, T.; Svoboda, R.; Sweany, M.; Szydagis, M.; Thomson, J.; Tripathi, M.; Verbus, J. R.; Walsh, N.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Woods, M.; Zhang, C.

    2012-03-01

    LUX is a two-phase (liquid/gas) xenon time projection chamber designed to detect nuclear recoils from interactions with dark matter particles. Signals from the LUX detector are processed by custom-built analog electronics which provide properly shaped signals for the trigger and data acquisition (DAQ) systems. The DAQ is composed of commercial digitizers with firmware customized for the LUX experiment. Data acquisition systems in rare-event searches must accommodate high rate and large dynamic range during precision calibrations involving radioactive sources, while also delivering low threshold for maximum sensitivity. The LUX DAQ meets these challenges using real-time baseline suppression that allows for a maximum event acquisition rate in excess of 1.5 kHz with virtually no deadtime. This paper describes the LUX DAQ and the novel acquisition techniques employed in the LUX experiment.

  5. Readout cross-talk for alpha-particle measurements in a pixelated sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norlin, B.; Reza, S.; Krapohl, D.; Fröjdh, E.; Thungström, G.

    2015-05-01

    Simulations in Medici are performed to quantify crosstalk and charge sharing in a hybrid pixelated silicon detector. Crosstalk and charge sharing degrades the spatial and spectral resolution of single photon processing X-ray imaging systems. For typical medical X-ray imaging applications, the process is dominated by charge sharing between the pixels in the sensor. For heavier particles each impact generates a large amount of charge and the simulation seems to over predict the charge collection efficiency. This indicates that some type of non modelled degradation of the charge transport efficiency exists, like the plasma effect where the plasma might shield the generated charges from the electric field and hence distorts the charge transport process. Based on the simulations it can be reasoned that saturation of the amplifiers in the Timepix system might generate crosstalk that increases the charge spread measured from ion impact on the sensor.

  6. A new microwave resonator readout scheme for superconducting qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Michael B.

    Quantum computation is a relatively new field of research, which uses the properties of quantum mechanical systems for information processing. While most proposals for constructing such a quantum computer involve using microscopic degrees of freedom such as those of trapped ions or nuclear spins, this thesis concentrates on using the collective electromagnetic response of a macroscopic electrical circuit to construct the fundamental building block of a quantum computer---a qubit. These macroscopic systems are inherently more difficult to protect from decoherence compared to the microscopic qubit systems because of strong environmental coupling through, for example, the measurement leads. However, superconducting quantum circuits should be easier to scale to large multi qubit systems since they involve simple electrical elements, such as inductors and capacitors for coupling qubits. Furthermore, they can be produced using the highly developed fabrication techniques of integrated circuits. One of the outstanding issues in superconducting qubit circuits is to read out the qubit state without introducing excessive noise. Such a readout scheme requires speed, sensitivity and should minimally disturb the qubit state. To meet these requirements we have developed a new type of dispersive bifurcating amplifier, called the cavity bifurcation amplifier (CBA), which consists of a Josephson junction imbedded in a microwave on-chip resonator. The optimum resonator design is based on a simple coplanar waveguide (CPW), imposing a pre-determined frequency and whose other RF characteristics like the quality factor are easily controlled and optimized. The CBA is sensitive to the susceptibility of the superconducting qubit with respect to an external control parameter (e.g., flux) and hence during both qubit manipulation and readout sequences, the qubit can be biased on a so-called "sweet spot", where it is immune to first order fluctuations in this parameter. This readout has no on

  7. A nucleic acid strand displacement system for the multiplexed detection of tuberculosis-specific mRNA using quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliddon, H. D.; Howes, P. D.; Kaforou, M.; Levin, M.; Stevens, M. M.

    2016-05-01

    The development of rapid, robust and high performance point-of-care diagnostics relies on the advancement and combination of various areas of research. We have developed an assay for the detection of multiple mRNA molecules that combines DNA nanotechnology with fluorescent nanomaterials. The core switching mechanism is toehold-mediated strand displacement. We have used fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) as signal transducers in this assay, as they bring many benefits including bright fluorescence and multiplexing abilities. The resulting assay is capable of multiplexed detection of long RNA targets against a high concentration of background non-target RNA, with high sensitivity and specificity and limits of detection in the nanomolar range using only a standard laboratory plate reader. We demonstrate the utility of our QD-based system for the detection of two genes selected from a microarray-derived tuberculosis-specific gene expression signature. Levels of up- and downregulated gene transcripts comprising this signature can be combined to give a disease risk score, making the signature more amenable for use as a diagnostic marker. Our QD-based approach to detect these transcripts could pave the way for novel diagnostic assays for tuberculosis.The development of rapid, robust and high performance point-of-care diagnostics relies on the advancement and combination of various areas of research. We have developed an assay for the detection of multiple mRNA molecules that combines DNA nanotechnology with fluorescent nanomaterials. The core switching mechanism is toehold-mediated strand displacement. We have used fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) as signal transducers in this assay, as they bring many benefits including bright fluorescence and multiplexing abilities. The resulting assay is capable of multiplexed detection of long RNA targets against a high concentration of background non-target RNA, with high sensitivity and specificity and limits of detection in the nanomolar

  8. The read-out system of spatial distribution of thermoluminescence in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ninagawa, K.; Yamamoto, I.; Takano, Y.; Wada, T.; Yamashita, Y.; Takaoka, N.

    1985-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) technique used for dating the terrestrial age of meteorites is based on the TL fading of interior samples. The depth dependence of the TL for Antarctic meteorites with fusion crust is measured. Usually, meteorites are powdered and their TL measured under a photomultiplier. In this case, a TL spatial distribution of a cross section of antarctic meteorites is measured using a read out system of spatial distribution of TL, since a meteorite is made up of inhomogeneous material. Antarctic meteorites MET-78028(L6) and ALH-77278(L13) are used.

  9. A SQUID readout system for a superconducting gyroscope. [superconducting quantum interference device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    A design of a read out system for a superconducting gyroscope to be used in an orbiting gyroscope relativity experiment is discussed. The 'London Moment' of the superconducting rotor, which lies along the spin axis of the rotor, will be measured with a SQUID-type magnetometer. The SQUID will be built around the gyro rotor, with a very close spacing to give an inductance between 10 millionths and 1 millionth Hy. A SQUID of this design should resolve 2.07 times 10 to the minus 19th weber. The angular resolution of the gyroscope will then be 0.0035 arc-second, which is sufficient for the intended experiment.

  10. The development and application of a multiplex short tandem repeat (STR) system for identifying subspecies, individuals and sex in tigers.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zheng-Ting; Uphyrkina, Olga V; Fomenko, Pavel; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Poaching and trans-boundary trafficking of tigers and body parts are threatening the world's last remaining wild tigers. Development of an efficient molecular genetic assay for tracing the origins of confiscated specimens will assist in law enforcement and wildlife forensics for this iconic flagship species. We developed a multiplex genotyping system "tigrisPlex" to simultaneously assess 22 short tandem repeat (STR, or microsatellite) loci and a gender-identifying SRY gene, all amplified in 4 reactions using as little as 1 ng of template DNA. With DNA samples used for between-run calibration, the system generates STR genotypes that are directly compatible with voucher tiger subspecies genetic profiles, hence making it possible to identify subspecies via bi-parentally inherited markers. We applied "tigrisPlex" to 12 confiscated specimens from Russia and identified 6 individuals (3 females and 3 males), each represented by duplicated samples and all designated as Amur tigers (Panthera tigris altaica) with high confidence. This STR multiplex system can serve as an effective and versatile approach for genetic profiling of both wild and captive tigers as well as confiscated tiger products, fulfilling various conservation needs for identifying the origins of tiger samples. PMID:25950598

  11. Increment of Access Points in Integrated System of Wavelength Division Multiplexed Passive Optical Network Radio over Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, I. S.; Alavi, S. E.; Soltanian, M. R. K.; Fisal, N.; Supa’at, A. S. M.; Ahmad, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to increase the numbers of access points (APs) in a wavelength division multiplexed-passive optical network (WDM-PON) integrated in a 100 GHz radio-over-fiber (RoF). Eight multi-carriers separated by 25 GHz intervals were generated in the range of 193.025 to 193.200 THz using a microring resonator (MRR) system incorporating an add-drop filter system. All optically generated multi-carriers were utilized in an integrated system of WDM-PON-RoF for transmission of four 43.6 Gb/sec orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signals. Results showed that an acceptable BER variation for different path lengths up to 25 km was achievable for all four access points and thus the transmission of four OFDM channels is feasible for a 25 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) path length. PMID:26153536

  12. A kind of multilevel authentication system for multiple-image by modulated real part synthesis and iterative phase multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xuemei; Meng, Xiangfeng; Wang, Yurong; Yang, Xiulun; Peng, Xiang; He, Wenqi; Dong, Guoyan; Chen, Hongyi

    2016-04-01

    A kind of multilevel authentication system for multiple-image based on modulated real part synthesis and iterative phase multiplexing in the Fresnel domain is proposed. In the design process of the low-level authentication system, a series of normalized real part information are iteratively generated by phase retrieval algorithm in the Fresnel domain, and the final private keys for different individual low-level certification images can be fabricated by binary amplitude modulation, superposition, synthesis, and sampling; while in the design process of the high-level authentication system, the final private keys for different individual high-level certification images can be generated by iterative phase information encoding and multiplexing. During the high-level authentication, the meaningful certification image can be reconstructed by the inverse Fresnel transform with the corresponding correct private keys, meanwhile, the correlation coefficient is utilized as judgment criterion; while in the low-level authentication, with the help of correct keys, the noise-like image with meaningless information can be recovered, but a remarkable peak output in the nonlinear correlation coefficient can be generated, which is adopted as the criterion to judge whether the low-level authentication is successful or not. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations both verify the feasibility of the proposed method.

  13. Multiple layer optical memory system using second-harmonic-generation readout

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gary T.; Shen, Yuen-Ron

    1989-01-01

    A novel optical read and write information storage system is described which comprises a radiation source such as a laser for writing and illumination, the radiation source being capable of radiating a preselected first frequency; a storage medium including at least one layer of material for receiving radiation from the radiation source and capable of being surface modified in response to said radiation source when operated in a writing mode and capable of generating a pattern of radiation of the second harmonic of the preselected frequency when illuminated by the radiation source at the preselected frequency corresponding to the surface modifications on the storage medium; and a detector to receive the pattern of second harmonic frequency generated.

  14. Readout process and noise elimination firmware for the Fermilab beam loss system

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jinyuan; Baumbaugh, Alan; Drennan, Craig; Thurman-Keup, Randy; Lewis, Jonathan; Shi, Zonghan; /Fermilab

    2007-05-01

    In the Fermilab Beam Loss Monitor System, inputs from ion chambers are integrated for a short period of time, digitized and processed to create the accelerator abort request signals. The accelerator power supplies employing 3-phase 60Hz AC cause noise at various harmonics on our inputs which must be eliminated for monitoring purposes. During accelerator ramping, both the sampling frequency and the amplitudes of the noise components change. As such, traditional digital filtering can partially reduce certain noise components but not all. A nontraditional algorithm was developed in our work to eliminate remaining ripples. The sequencing in the FPGA firmware is conducted by a micro-sequencer core we developed: the Enclosed Loop Micro-Sequencer (ELMS). The unique feature of the ELMS is that it supports the ''FOR'' loops with pre-defined iterations at the machine code level, which provides programming convenience and avoids many micro-complexities from the beginning.

  15. Progress towards a double flux-locked-loop scheme for SQuID readout of TES detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrioli, Guido; Lombardo, Simona; Macculi, Claudio; Piro, Luigi; Colasanti, Luca

    2014-07-01

    Frequency Division Multiplexing technique for reading TES detectors with SQuID devices, requires high loop-gain up to MHz frequency range in the SQuID feedback loop. Such a requirement is difficult to achieve when the feedback loop has a physical length that makes the propagation times of signals not negligible, as in the case in which the readout electronics is placed at room temperature. A novel SQuID readout scheme, called Double Loop-Flux Locked loop (DLFLL), has been proposed earlier. According to this scheme it is possible to make use of a simplified cryogenic electronics, AC coupled, featuring low power dissipation, in order to obtain a cryogenic feedback loop that results in reduced propagation times of signals. The DC and low frequency signals are managed by a standard FLL electronics working at room temperature. Here we present the progress of the integrated Double Loop system.

  16. R&D on a novel spectro-imaging polarimeter with Micromegas detectors and a Caliste readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attié, D.; Blondel, C.; Boilevin-Kayl, L.; Desforges, D.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Giomataris, I.; Gevin, O.; Jeanneau, F.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.; Papaevangelou, T.; Peyaud, A.

    2015-07-01

    Micromegas detectors, part of the Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) family, are used in a very wide range of applications in the High Energy Physics community but also in astroparticle and neutrino physics. In most of the Micromegas applications the design of the detector vessel and the readout plane is extremely coupled. A way of dissociating these two components would be by separating the amplification structure and the detector volume from the readout plane and electronics. This is achieved with the so called piggyback Micromegas detectors. They open up new possibilities of applications in terms of adaptability to new electronics. In particular piggyback resistive Micromegas can be easily coupled to modern pixel array electronic ASICs. First tests have been carried out with a Medipix chip where the protection of the resistive layer has been proved. The results of very recent tests coupling piggyback Micromegas with the readout module of Caliste are presented. Caliste is a high performance spectro-imager with event time-tagging capability, able to detect photons between 2 keV and 250 keV in the context of a spatial micro spectro-imaging polarimetrer. In the current application, with the Piggyback Micromegas, we use the readout module only as the sensitive detector. We benefit of the good spatial resolution thanks to the high density readout pixels (~600 μm pixel pitch), to the low noise, to the low power and to the radiation hard integrated front-end IDEF-X electronics. The advantage of such a device is to have a high gain, low noise, low threshold, and robust detector operating at room temperature. This would be very attractive for spatial applications, for instance X-ray polarisation.

  17. Multiplexing of electronically scanned white-light interferometric strain sensors based on HB fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanczyk, Waclaw; Bock, Wojtek J.; Zaremba, Marek B.

    1993-12-01

    Application of electronic scanning to a sequence of coherence-multiplexed strain sensors is proposed in this paper. The sensors consist of a cascade of HB fibers spliced with their polarization axes rotated by certain angles. We theoretically analyzed the behavior of such chains as a function of their alignment and found the optimal alignment ensuring readout of every sensor with the maximum S/N ratio. The performance of parallel and serial multiplexing configurations was experimentally studied. As a receiving interferometer we used a Wollaston prism followed by a CCD camera and an image processing system while a stepped delay line made of calcite and crystalline quartz was used to match the group delays between sensing and receiving interferometers.

  18. Downlink Data Multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, Douglas; Steele, Glen F.; Romero, Denise M.; Koudelka, Robert David

    2004-01-01

    A multiplexer/demultiplexer system has been developed to enable the transmission, over a single channel, of four data streams generated by a variety of sources at different (including variable) bit rates. In the original intended application, replicas of this multiplexer/demultiplexer system would be incorporated into the spacecraft-to-ground communication systems of the space shuttles. The multiplexer of each system would be installed in the spacecraft, where it would acquire and process data from such sources as commercial digital camcorders, video tape recorders, and the spacecraft telemetry system. The demultiplexer of each system would be installed in a ground station. Purely terrestrial systems of similar design could be attractive for use in situations in which there are requirements to transmit multiple streams of high-quality video data and possibly other data over single channels. The figure is a block diagram of the multiplexer as configured to process data received via three fiber-optic channels like those of the International Space Station and one electrical-cable channel that conforms to the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 1394 standard. (This standard consists of specifications of a high-speed serial data interface, the physical layer of which includes a cable known in the art as "FireWire." An IEEE 1394 interface can also transfer power between the components to which it is connected.) The fiber-optic channels carry packet and/or bit-stream signals that conform to the standards of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS). The IEEE 1394 interface accepts an isochronous signal like that from a digital camcorder or a video tape recorder. The processing of the four input data streams to combine them into one output stream is governed by a statistical multiplexing algorithm that features a flow-control capability and makes it possible to utilize the transmission channel with nearly 100-percent efficiency. This

  19. Developed and evaluated a multiplex mRNA profiling system for body fluid identification in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng; Luo, Haibo; Hou, Yiping

    2015-10-01

    In forensic casework, identification the cellular origin from a biological sample is crucial to the case investigation and reconstruction in crime scene. DNA/RNA co-extraction for STR typing and human body fluids identification has been proposed as an efficient and comprehensive assay for forensic analysis. Several cell-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) markers for identification of the body fluids have been proposed by previous studies. In this study, a novel multiplex mRNA profiling system included 19 markers was developed and performed by reverse transcription endpoint polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The multiplex combined 3 housekeeping gene markers and 16 cell-specific markers that have been used to identify five types of human body fluids: peripheral blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions and menstrual blood. The specificity, sensitivity, stability and detectability of the mixture were explored in our study. Majority of the cell-specific mRNA markers showed high specificity, although cross-reactivity was observed sporadically. Specific profiling for per body fluid was obtained. Moreover, the interpretation guidelines for inference of body fluid types were performed according to the A. Lindenbergh et al. The scoring guidelines can be applied to any RNA multiplex, which was based on six different scoring categories (observed, observed and fits, sporadically observed and fits, not observed, sporadically observed, not reliable, and non-specific due to high input). The simultaneous extraction of DNA showed positive full or partial profiling results of all samples. It demonstrated that the approach of combined STR-profiling and RNA profiling was suitable and reliable to detect the donor and origin of human body fluids in Chinese Han population. PMID:26311108

  20. Reflective variable optical attenuators and fibre ring lasers for wavelength-division multiplexing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, He Liang

    Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical fibre system is an important enabling technology to fulfill the demands for bandwidth in the modern information age. The main objective of this project is to study novel devices with the potential to enhance the performance of WDM systems. In particular, a novel reflective variable optical attenuator (RVOA) used for dynamic gain equalization (DGE) and fibre lasers based on an entirely new type of erbium-doped fibres with ultrawide tuning range were investigated theoretically and experimentally. We proposed a new type of RVOA device which could be potentially integrated with arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) to reduce the cost of DGE substantially. Initially, fibre-based RVOAs, fabricated with optical fibre components such as fibre coupler and Faraday rotator mirror, were investigated theoretically and experimentally. Larger attenuation range up to 22 dB was realized for fibre coupler-based ROVA with a Faraday rotator mirror and its polarization-dependent loss is about 0.5 dB. Then polymeric waveguide-based RVOAs were investigated theoretically and experimentally. Using an epoxy Novolak resin as core material and an UV-cured resin (Norland's NOA61) as cladding material, a polymeric waveguide RVOA was successfully fabricated. The dynamic 15 dB attenuation range was achieved and the PDL was less than 0.2 dB. The measured insertion loss of the polymeric waveguide RVOA was too large (about 18 dB) and was mainly induced by coupling loss, material loss and poor alignment. In the second part of the study, fibre ring lasers with continuous wavelength tuning over wide wavelength range and fibre ring lasers with discrete wavelength tuning were investigated. Tunable lasers are important devices in WDM systems because they could be employed as reserved sources and therefore avoiding the need to stock large inventory of lasers to cover the ITU-wavelength grid. In this project, erbium ions doped bismuth oxide glass fibres instead of

  1. Rotation spacing and multiplexing number in angle-peristrophic multiplexing holographic memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Masamitsu; Kinoshita, Nobuhiro; Muroi, Tetsuhiko; Motohashi, Mitsuya; Saito, Nobuo

    2015-09-01

    Holographic memory is expected to be the next-generation optical memory with several advantages including high data transfer rate and high recording density. Holographic memory enables the storage of holograms in the same location in a holographic medium typically using the angle multiplexing method. The multiplexing number is an important factor that determines the recording density when using this method. To increase the multiplexing number, it is known as an effective method to combine peristrophic (or rotation) multiplexing with angle multiplexing. We use the k-sphere to describe that the rotation spacing for peristrophic multiplexing depends on both the numerical aperture in the signal beam path and the angle between the reference and signal beams. We then formulate the rotation spacing and compare the results obtained using the theoretical formula with the measured results. Finally, we estimate the maximum multiplexing number for our experimental system using the angle-peristrophic multiplexing method on the basis of the measured results.

  2. Enabled scalable and privacy wavelength division multiplexing-radio over fiber system based on optical virtual private networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiaoyan; Zhang, Chongfu; Jin, Wei; Qiu, Kun

    2014-06-01

    A new wavelength division multiplexing (WDM)-based radio over fiber (RoF) system is proposed for optical virtual private network (OVPN) communication between inter-base stations (inter-BSs) or intra-BSs, using four-wave mixing (FWM) in a semiconductor optical amplifier as well as wavelength reflection of fiber Bragg gratings. By establishing inter-BSs and intra-BSs OVPN link of a 60-GHz WDM-RoF system, the private channels for the communication of end users under different BSs of sub-RoFs can be provided. In our scheme, 58 and 60-GHz millimeter waves are used to carry OVPN data and downstream data, respectively. Furthermore, the scalability of the proposed system is improved by the integration of an RoF system, WDM, and FWM. The simulation results successfully verify the feasibility of our proposed scheme.

  3. Digital multiplexing of analog data in a microprocessor controlled data acquisition system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to explore the ramifications of doing the multiplexing function in the digital domain and of using the microprocessor to replace the hardwired control logic which resides in the typical analog to digital converter. Two types of conversion (one working in parallel inputs, and one in sequential order) strategies are discussed where the microprocessor is in full control of the conversion. One advantage of using a digital multiplexor is that, contrary to an analog multiplexor, it does not degrade the fidelity of the conversion process.

  4. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study. Report 5: System design and specifications. Volume 7: Specification for EOS low cost readout station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The functional, performance, and design requirements for the Low Cost Readout Station (LCRS) which supports the Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) data system are described. The basic LCRS consists of all hardware and software needed to acquire and track the EOS-A or EOS-B satellite and receive, record, process, and annotate the instrument data from the satellites. The LCRS also provides appropriate interfaces with the unique local user provided display and extractive processing equipment. The LCRS has the capability of acquiring image data from the EOS-A and the EOS-B satellites over a ground area defines by a 500 kilometer radius from the coordinates of the station. The LCRS is also capable of receiving and processing both, but not simultaneously, full five band Multispectral Scanner (MSS) image data and various modes of the Compacted Thematic (CTM) data.

  5. Photocleavable DNA barcode-antibody conjugates allow sensitive and multiplexed protein analysis in single cell

    PubMed Central

    Agasti, Sarit S.; Liong, Monty; Peterson, Vanessa M.; Lee, Hakho; Weissleder, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    DNA barcoding is an attractive technology as it allows sensitive and multiplexed target analysis. However, DNA barcoding of cellular proteins remains challenging, primarily because barcode amplification and readout techniques are often incompatible with the cellular microenvironment. Here, we describe the development and validation of a photocleavable DNA barcode-antibody conjugate method for rapid, quantitative and multiplexed detection of proteins in single live cells. Following target binding, this method allows DNA barcodes to be photoreleased in solution, enabling easy isolation, amplification and readout. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate sensitive and multiplexed detection of protein biomarkers in a variety of cancer cells. PMID:23092113

  6. Low-cost, multiplexed biosensor for disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myatt, Christopher J.; Delaney, Marie; Todorof, Kathryn; Heil, James; Givens, Monique; Schooley, Robert T.; Lochhead, Michael J.

    2009-02-01

    Cost-effective disease diagnosis in resource-limited settings remains a critical global health challenge. Qualitative rapid tests based on lateral flow technology provide valuable screening information, but require relatively expensive confirmatory tests and generally lack quantitation. We report on a fluorescence technology that combines low cost instrumented readout with passive pumping in a disposable cartridge. The detection system utilizes a novel waveguide illumination approach in conjunction with commercial CMOS imagers. Total instrument cost in production are projected to be around $100 This cost structure and instrument ease of use will enable use in point-of-care settings, outside of centralized laboratories. The system has been used for detection and analysis of proteins, antibodies, nucleic acids, and cells. Here we will report first on our development of a multiplexed, array-based serology assay for HIV and common AIDS co-infections. Data will be presented for HIV/HCV antibody testing in human serum samples. In addition, we will present data on the use of the system for sensitive detection of bacterial RNA. Current detection limit for the model multiplexed RNA sandwich assay is 1 femtomolar target RNA. Finally, a high magnification version of the system is used to image immunostained human T cells.

  7. Electrochemical plasmonic sensing system for highly selective multiplexed detection of biomolecules based on redox nanoswitches.

    PubMed

    Dallaire, Anne-Marie; Patskovsky, Sergiy; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Meunier, Michel

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, we present the development of a nanoswitch-based electrochemical surface plasmon resonance (eSPR) transducer for the multiplexed and selective detection of DNA and other biomolecules directly in complex media. To do so, we designed an experimental set-up for the synchronized measurements of electrochemical and electro-plasmonic responses to the activation of multiple electrochemically labeled structure-switching biosensors. As a proof of principle, we adapted this strategy for the detection of DNA sequences that are diagnostic of two pathogens (drug-resistant tuberculosis and Escherichia coli) by using methylene blue-labeled structure-switching DNA stem-loop. The experimental sensitivity of the switch-based eSPR sensor is estimated at 5 nM and target detection is achieved within minutes. Each sensor is reusable several times with a simple 8M urea washing procedure. We then demonstrated the selectivity and multiplexed ability of these switch-based eSPR by simultaneously detecting two different DNA sequences. We discuss the advantages of the proposed eSPR approach for the development of highly selective sensor devices for the rapid and reliable detection of multiple molecular markers in complex samples. PMID:25889347

  8. A nucleic acid strand displacement system for the multiplexed detection of tuberculosis-specific mRNA using quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Gliddon, H D; Howes, P D; Kaforou, M; Levin, M; Stevens, M M

    2016-05-21

    The development of rapid, robust and high performance point-of-care diagnostics relies on the advancement and combination of various areas of research. We have developed an assay for the detection of multiple mRNA molecules that combines DNA nanotechnology with fluorescent nanomaterials. The core switching mechanism is toehold-mediated strand displacement. We have used fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) as signal transducers in this assay, as they bring many benefits including bright fluorescence and multiplexing abilities. The resulting assay is capable of multiplexed detection of long RNA targets against a high concentration of background non-target RNA, with high sensitivity and specificity and limits of detection in the nanomolar range using only a standard laboratory plate reader. We demonstrate the utility of our QD-based system for the detection of two genes selected from a microarray-derived tuberculosis-specific gene expression signature. Levels of up- and downregulated gene transcripts comprising this signature can be combined to give a disease risk score, making the signature more amenable for use as a diagnostic marker. Our QD-based approach to detect these transcripts could pave the way for novel diagnostic assays for tuberculosis. PMID:27088427

  9. Field-based multiplex and quantitative assay platforms for diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa; Dixon, C. Edward; Chipman, Russell; Scherer, Axel; Beshay, Manal; Kempen, Lothar U.; Chandra Sekhar, Jai Ganesh; Yan, Hong; Puccio, Ava; Okonkwo, David; McClain, Stephen; Gilbert, Noah; Vyawahare, Saurabh

    2011-06-01

    The U.S. military has a continued interest in the development of handheld, field-usable sensors and test kits for a variety of diagnostic applications, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and infectious diseases. Field-use presents unique challenges for biosensor design, both for the readout unit and for the biological assay platform. We have developed robust biosensor devices that offer ultra-high sensitivity and also meet field-use needs. The systems under development include a multiplexed quantitative lateral flow test strip for TBI diagnostics, a field test kit for the diagnosis of pathogens endemic to the Middle East, and a microfluidic assay platform with a label-free reader for performing complex biological automated assays in the field.

  10. Novel Multiplexing Technique for Detector and Mixer Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, Boris S.; McGrath, William R.

    2001-01-01

    Future submillimeter and far-infrared space telescopes will require large-format (many 1000's of elements) imaging detector arrays to perform state-of-the-art astronomical observations. A crucial issue related to a focal plane array is a readout scheme which is compatible with large numbers of cryogenically-cooled (typically < 1 K) detectors elements. When the number of elements becomes of the order of thousands, the physical layout for individual readout amplifiers becomes nearly impossible to realize for practical systems. Another important concern is the large number of wires leading to a 0.1-0.3 K platform. In the case of superconducting transition edge sensors (TES), a scheme for time-division multiplexing of SQUID read-out amplifiers has been recently demonstrated. In this scheme the number of SQUIDs is equal to the number (N) of the detectors, but only one SQUID is turned on at a time. The SQUIDs are connected in series in each column of the array, so the number of wires leading to the amplifiers can be reduced, but it is still of the order of N. Another approach uses a frequency domain multiplexing scheme of the bolometer array. The bolometers are biased with ac currents whose frequencies are individual for each element and are much higher than the bolometer bandwidth. The output signals are connected in series in a summing loop which is coupled to a single SQUID amplifier. The total number of channels depends on the ratio between the SQUID bandwidth and the bolometer bandwidth and can be at least 100 according to the authors. An important concern about this technique is a contribution of the out-of-band Johnson noise which multiplies by factor N(exp 1/2) for each frequency channel. We propose a novel solution for large format arrays based on the Hadamard transform coding technique which requires only one amplifier to read out the entire array of potentially many 1000's of elements and uses approximately 10 wires between the cold stage and room temperature

  11. Transputer-based readout controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusevic, R.; Nixon, G.

    1989-05-01

    A bus-oriented readout controller is described that uses a transputer both as a direct memory access (DMA) device and a crate processor. It achieves data transfer rates of up to 13 Mbytes/s, yet is very simple in design. Data transfer is reduced to moving arrays within memory, which eliminates the need for bus arbitration and interfacing logic. A trivial extension of the basic design results in a twofold increase in the maximum data transfer speed, to 27 Mbytes/s. A second transputer, added to the crate controller for extra flexibility and processing power, enables it to form part of a second level data acquisition system, with a total of 8 links (maximum link speed 20 Mbits/s) available for intercrate communications. This design was developed for the readout system of the ZEUS Central Tracking Detector.

  12. Mechanistic investigation of adult myotube response to exercise and drug treatment in vitro using a multiplexed functional assay system

    PubMed Central

    McAleer, C. W.; Smith, A. S. T.; Najjar, S.; Pirozzi, K.; Long, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to accurately measure skeletal muscle functional performance at the single-cell level would be advantageous for exercise physiology studies and disease modeling applications. To that end, this study characterizes the functional response of individual skeletal muscle myotubes derived from adult rodent tissue to creatine treatment and chronic exercise. The observed improvements to functional performance in response to these treatments appear to correlate with alterations in hypertrophic and mitochondrial biogenesis pathways, supporting previously published in vivo and in vitro data, which highlights the role of these pathways in augmenting skeletal muscle output. The developed system represents a multiplexed functional in vitro assay capable of long-term assessment of contractile cellular outputs in real-time that is compatible with concomitant molecular biology analysis. Adoption of this system in drug toxicity and efficacy studies would improve understanding of compound activity on physical cellular outputs and provide more streamlined and predictive data for future preclinical analyses. PMID:25301895

  13. Readout control for high luminosity accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belusevic, R.; Nixon, G.

    1991-09-01

    In this article we discuss some aspects of data acquisition at high luminosities and offer a set of design principles concerning readout control electronics and related software. As an example we include a brief description of a data transfer and processing system for future hadron colliders, featuring a transputer-based crate controller and a set of readout cards. This is a simplified and more efficient version of our design recently published in Nuclear Instruments and Methods. [A295 (1991) 391].

  14. Multiplexed Holographic Data Storage in Bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehrl, David J.; Krile, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Biochrome photosensitive films in particular Bacteriorhodopsin exhibit features which make these materials an attractive recording medium for optical data storage and processing. Bacteriorhodopsin films find numerous applications in a wide range of optical data processing applications; however the short-term memory characteristics of BR limits their applications for holographic data storage. The life-time of the BR can be extended using cryogenic temperatures [1], although this method makes the system overly complicated and unstable. Longer life-times can be provided in one modification of BR - the "blue" membrane BR [2], however currently available films are characterized by both low diffraction efficiency and difficulties in providing photoreversible recording. In addition, as a dynamic recording material, the BR requires different wavelengths for recording and reconstructing of optical data in order to prevent the information erasure during its readout. This fact also put constraints on a BR-based Optical Memory, due to information loss in holographic memory systems employing the two-lambda technique for reading-writing thick multiplexed holograms.

  15. Superconducting THz Camera with GaAs-JFET Cryogenic Readout Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Hiroshi; Hibi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Naruse, Masato; Noguchi, Takashi; Sekimoto, Yutaro; Uzawa, Yoshinori; Nagata, Hirohisa; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ariyoshi, Seiichiro; Otani, Chiko; Nitta, Tom; Qi-jun, Yao, Fujiwara, Mikio

    2009-12-01

    We describe the development of large format array of superconducting tunnel junction detectors that is readout by SONY GaAs-JFET cryogenic integrated circuits. High quality SIS photon detectors have high dynamic impedance that can be readout by low gate leakage GaAs-JFET circuits. Our imaging array design, with niobium SIS photon detectors and GaAs-JFET cryogenics electronics, uses integrating amplifiers, multiplexers and shift-registers to readout large number of pixels that is similar to CMOS digital cameras. We have designed and fabricated GaAs-JFET cryogenic integrated circuits, such as AC-coupled capacitive trans-impedance amplifier, multiplexers with sample-and-holds and shift-registers, for 32-channel readout module. The Advanced Technology Center of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan have started extensive development program for large format array of SIS photon detectors.

  16. Reducing Multiplexing Artifacts in Multi-Pinhole SPECT with a Stacked Silicon-Germanium System: a Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Lindsay C.; Shokouhi, Sepideh; Peterson, Todd E

    2015-01-01

    In pinhole SPECT, multi-pinhole collimators can increase sensitivity but may lead to projection overlap, or multiplexing, which can cause image artifacts. In this work we explore whether a stacked-detector configuration with a germanium and a silicon detector, used with 123I (27–32, 159 keV), where little multiplexing occurs in the Si projections, can reduce image artifacts caused by highly-multiplexed Ge projections. Simulations are first used to determine a reconstruction method that combines the Si and Ge projections to maximize image quality. Next, simulations of different pinhole configurations (varying projection multiplexing) in conjunction with digital phantoms are used to examine whether additional Si projections mitigate artifacts from the multiplexing in the Ge projections. Reconstructed images using both Si and Ge data are compared to those using Ge data alone. Normalized mean-square error and normalized standard deviation provide a quantitative evaluation of reconstructed images’ error and noise, respectively, and are used to evaluate the impact of the additional non-multiplexed data on image quality. For a qualitative comparison, the differential point response function is used to examine multiplexing artifacts. Results show that in cases of highly-multiplexed Ge projections, the addition of low-multiplexed Si projections helps to reduce image artifacts both quantitatively and qualitatively. PMID:25055382

  17. Development of two multiplex PCR systems for the analysis of 12 X-chromosomal STR loci in a northwestern Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Robino, C; Giolitti, A; Gino, S; Torre, C

    2006-09-01

    Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction systems for the automated profiling of 12 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) markers were developed. Multiplex A consisted of DXS6789, DXS6809, GATA172D05, DXS101, DXS8378, and DXS8377. Multiplex B consisted of DXS7132, DXS6800, DXS6801, DXS7424, HPRTB, and DXS10011. The set of amplified X-STRs was designed to include groups of closely linked markers (DXS101-DXS7424 and DXS6789-DXS6801-DXS6809) to generate highly informative haplotypes for kinship testing. A population genetics study of the 12 X-STRs was conducted in a northwestern Italian population sample (n=160, 80 women and 80 men). A diallelic pattern at locus DXS6789 was observed in one man. PMID:16862443

  18. Electrical delay line multiplexing for pulsed mode radiation detectors.

    PubMed

    Vinke, Ruud; Yeom, Jung Yeol; Levin, Craig S

    2015-04-01

    Medical imaging systems are composed of a large number of position sensitive radiation detectors to provide high resolution imaging. For example, whole-body Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems are typically composed of thousands of scintillation crystal elements, which are coupled to photosensors. Thus, PET systems greatly benefit from methods to reduce the number of data acquisition channels, in order to reduce the system development cost and complexity. In this paper we present an electrical delay line multiplexing scheme that can significantly reduce the number of readout channels, while preserving the signal integrity required for good time resolution performance. We experimented with two 4 × 4 LYSO crystal arrays, with crystal elements having 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm and 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm dimensions, coupled to 16 Hamamatsu MPPC S10931-050P SiPM elements. Results show that each crystal could be accurately identified, even in the presence of scintillation light sharing and inter-crystal Compton scatter among neighboring crystal elements. The multiplexing configuration degraded the coincidence timing resolution from ∼243 ps FWHM to ∼272 ps FWHM when 16 SiPM signals were combined into a single channel for the 4 × 4 LYSO crystal array with 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm crystal element dimensions, in coincidence with a 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm LYSO crystal pixel. The method is flexible to allow multiplexing configurations across different block detectors, and is scalable to an entire ring of detectors. PMID:25768002

  19. Electrical delay line multiplexing for pulsed mode radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinke, Ruud; Yeom, Jung Yeol; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-04-01

    Medical imaging systems are composed of a large number of position sensitive radiation detectors to provide high resolution imaging. For example, whole-body Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems are typically composed of thousands of scintillation crystal elements, which are coupled to photosensors. Thus, PET systems greatly benefit from methods to reduce the number of data acquisition channels, in order to reduce the system development cost and complexity. In this paper we present an electrical delay line multiplexing scheme that can significantly reduce the number of readout channels, while preserving the signal integrity required for good time resolution performance. We experimented with two 4 × 4 LYSO crystal arrays, with crystal elements having 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm and 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm dimensions, coupled to 16 Hamamatsu MPPC S10931-050P SiPM elements. Results show that each crystal could be accurately identified, even in the presence of scintillation light sharing and inter-crystal Compton scatter among neighboring crystal elements. The multiplexing configuration degraded the coincidence timing resolution from ∼243 ps FWHM to ∼272 ps FWHM when 16 SiPM signals were combined into a single channel for the 4 × 4 LYSO crystal array with 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm crystal element dimensions, in coincidence with a 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm LYSO crystal pixel. The method is flexible to allow multiplexing configurations across different block detectors, and is scalable to an entire ring of detectors.

  20. Electrical delay line multiplexing for pulsed mode radiation detectors

    PubMed Central

    Vinke, Ruud; Yeom, Jung Yeol; Levin, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging systems are composed of a large number of position sensitive radiation detectors to provide high resolution imaging. For example, whole-body Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems are typically composed of thousands of scintillation crystal elements, which are coupled to photosensors. Thus, PET systems greatly benefit from methods to reduce the number of data acquisition channels, in order to reduce the system development cost and complexity. In this paper we present an electrical delay line multiplexing scheme that can significantly reduce the number of readout channels, while preserving the signal integrity required for good time resolution performance. We experimented with two 4 × 4 LYSO crystal arrays, with crystal elements having 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm and 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm dimensions, coupled to 16 Hamamatsu MPPC S10931-050P SiPM elements. Results show that each crystal could be accurately identified, even in the presence of scintillation light sharing and inter-crystal Compton scatter among neighboring crystal elements. The multiplexing configuration degraded the coincidence timing resolution from ~ 243 ps FWHM to ~272 ps FWHM when 16 SiPM signals were combined into a single channel for the 4 × 4 LYSO crystal array with 3 mm × 3 mm × 20 mm crystal element dimensions, in coincidence with a 3 mm × 3 mm × 5 mm LYSO crystal pixel. The method is exible to allow multiplexing configurations across different block detectors, and is scalable to an entire ring of detectors. PMID:25768002

  1. NASA Communications Division (NASCOM) Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) shuttle multiplexer-demultiplexer data system (MDM) and supporting items

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    New, S. R.

    1981-01-01

    The multiplexer-demultiplexer (MDM) project included the design, documentation, manufacture, and testing of three MDM Data Systems. The equipment is contained in 59 racks, and includes more than 3,000 circuit boards and 600 microprocessors. Spares, circuit card testers, a master set of programmable integrated circuits, and a program development system were included as deliverables. All three MDM's were installed, and were operationally tested. The systems performed well with no major problems. The progress and problems analysis, addresses schedule conformance, new technology, items awaiting government approval, and project conclusions are summarized. All contract modifications are described.

  2. Multifunction optical filter with a Michelson-Gires-Tournois interferometer for wavelength-division-multiplexed network system applications.

    PubMed

    Dingel, B B; Izutsu, M

    1998-07-15

    We propose using a novel multifunction optical filter with a Michelson-Gires-Tournois interferometer (MGTI) for future smart wavelength-division-multiplexed network system applications. The MGTI filter is a typical Michelson interferometer in which one of its reflecting mirrors is replaced with a Gires-Tournois resonator. One unique feature of this device is that it can function as a channel-passing (CP), a channel-dropping (CD), or a wide-bandpass (BP) filter, depending on the interferometer arm-length difference. Other interesting features are that (1) the linewidths of both the CP and the CD filter are twice as narrow as that of a typical Fabry-Perot filter with similar parameters, (2) theoretical visibility is always unity regardless of the mirror reflectance value, and (3) the BP filter has an excellent boxlike response function. Numerical results showing these characteristics are presented. PMID:18087440

  3. The multianalyser system of the three axes neutron spectrometer PUMA: Pilot experiments with the innovative multiplex technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, Oleg; Hoffmann, Ron; Gibhardt, Holger; Jünke, Norbert; Knorr, Andreas; Meyer, Volker; Eckold, Götz

    2015-02-01

    A new type of multiplex technique for three axes neutron spectrometers has been realized and successfully commissioned at the PUMA spectrometer at FRM II. Consisting of eleven analyser-detector channels which can be configured individually, this technique is especially suitable for kinetic experiments where a single excitation spectrum is recorded as a function of time without the need to move the spectrometer. On a time-scale of seconds an entire spectrum can be recorded thus allowing users to monitor changes during fast kinetic processes in single shot experiments without the need for stroboscopic techniques. Moreover, the multianalyser system provides an efficient and rapid tool for mapping excitations in (Q,ω)-space. The results of pilot experiments demonstrate the performance of this new technique and a user-friendly software is presented which assists users during their experiments.

  4. Multiplexed Enrichment and Detection of Malarial Biomarkers Using a Stimuli-Responsive Iron Oxide and Gold Nanoparticle Reagent System

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Michael A.; Waitumbi, John N.; Hoffman, Allan S.; Yager, Paul; Stayton, Patrick S.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need for simple yet robust biomarker and antigen purification and enrichment strategies that are compatible with current rapid diagnostic modalities. Here, a stimuli-responsive nanoparticle system is presented for multiplexed magneto-enrichment and non-instrumented lateral flow strip detection of model antigens from spiked pooled plasma. The integrated reagent system allows purification and enrichment of the gold-labeled biomarker half-sandwich that can be applied directly to lateral flow test strips. A linear diblock copolymer with a thermally-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAm) segment and a gold-binding block composed of NIPAm-co-N,N-dimethylaminoethylacrylamide (DMAEAm) was prepared by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The diblock copolymer was used to functionalize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), with subsequent bioconjugation to yield thermally-responsive pNIPAm-AuNPs that were co-decorated with streptavidin. These AuNPs efficiently complexed biotinylated capture antibody reagents that were bound to picomolar quantities of pan-aldolase and Plasmodium Falciparum histidine rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) in spiked pooled plasma samples. The gold-labeled biomarker half-sandwich was then purified and enriched using 10 nm thermally-responsive magnetic nanoparticles that were similarly decorated with pNIPAm. When a thermal stimulus was applied in conjunction with a magnetic field, co-aggregation of the AuNP-half-sandwiches with the pNIPAm-coated iron oxide nanoparticles created large aggregates that were efficiently magnetophoresed and separated from bulk serum. The purified biomarkers from a spiked pooled plasma sample could be concentrated 50-fold into a small volume and applied directly to a commercial multiplexed lateral flow strip to dramatically improve the signal-to-noise ratio and test sensitivity. PMID:22804625

  5. Use of a Hierarchical Oligonucleotide Primer Extension Approach for Multiplexed Relative Abundance Analysis of Methanogens in Anaerobic Digestion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Hui-Ping; Hsu, Mao-Hsuan; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we established a rapid multiplex method to detect the relative abundances of amplified 16S rRNA genes from known cultivatable methanogens at hierarchical specificities in anaerobic digestion systems treating industrial wastewater and sewage sludge. The method was based on the hierarchical oligonucleotide primer extension (HOPE) technique and combined with a set of 27 primers designed to target the total archaeal populations and methanogens from 22 genera within 4 taxonomic orders. After optimization for their specificities and detection sensitivity under the conditions of multiple single-nucleotide primer extension reactions, the HOPE approach was applied to analyze the methanogens in 19 consortium samples from 7 anaerobic treatment systems (i.e., 513 reactions). Among the samples, the methanogen populations detected with order-level primers accounted for >77.2% of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected using an Archaea-specific primer. The archaeal communities typically consisted of 2 to 7 known methanogen genera within the Methanobacteriales, Methanomicrobiales, and Methanosarcinales and displayed population dynamic and spatial distributions in anaerobic reactor operations. Principal component analysis of the HOPE data further showed that the methanogen communities could be clustered into 3 distinctive groups, in accordance with the distribution of the Methanosaeta, Methanolinea, and Methanomethylovorans, respectively. This finding suggested that in addition to acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, the methylotrophic methanogens might play a key role in the anaerobic treatment of industrial wastewater. Overall, the results demonstrated that the HOPE approach is a specific, rapid, and multiplexing platform to determine the relative abundances of targeted methanogens in PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene products. PMID:24077716

  6. Multiplex Holograms And Their Applications In Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujiuchi, Jumpei

    1988-01-01

    Fundamental properties of reconstructed images from a multiplex hologram are studied, and conditions for compensating distortions and for designing a reconstructing source are proposed. Applications of multiplex hologram to medical objects are reviewed, and a computer-aided hologram synthesizing system is proposed for obtaining better images and wider applications. An example of multiplex holograms synthesized from a series of CT images is also presented.

  7. A Medipix3 readout system based on the National Instruments FlexRIO card and using the LabVIEW programming environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horswell, I.; Gimenez, E. N.; Marchal, J.; Tartoni, N.

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid silicon photon-counting detectors are becoming standard equipment for many synchrotron applications. The latest in the Medipix family of read-out chips designed as part of the Medipix Collaboration at CERN is the Medipix3, which while maintaining the same pixel size as its predecessor, offers increased functionality and operating modes. The active area of the Medipix3 chip is approx 14mm × 14mm (containing 256 × 256 pixels) which is not large enough for many detector applications, this results in the need to tile many sensors and chips. As a first step on the road to develop such a detector, it was decided to build a prototype single chip readout system to gain the necessary experience in operating a Medipix3 chip. To provide a flexible learning and development tool it was decided to build an interface based on the recently released FlexRIOTM system from National Instruments and to use the LabVIEWTM graphical programming environment. This system and the achieved performance are described in this paper.

  8. An integrated readout system for drift chambers: the application of monolithic CMOS pixel sensors as segmented direct anode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, M.; Heijne, E. H. M.; Llopart, X.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; Colijn, A. P.; Fornaini, A.; van der Graaf, H.; Kluit, P.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J. L.; Schmitz, J.

    2006-01-01

    A small TPC has been read out by means of a MediPix2 readout chip as direct anode. A Micromegas foil was placed 50 μm above the chip, and electron multiplication occurred in the gap. With a He/Isobutane 80/20 mixture, gas multiplication factors up to tens of thousands were achieved, resulting in an efficiency for detecting single electrons of better than 90%. We recorded many frames containing 2D images with tracks from cosmic muons. Along these tracks, electron clusters were observed, as well as δ-rays.

  9. Pad readout for gas detectors using 128-channel integrated preamplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, P.; Drees, A.; Glassel, P.; Lamade, G.; Ries, H.; Schon, A.; Specht, H.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Fraenkel, Z.

    1988-02-01

    A novel two-dimensional readout scheme for gas detectors is presented which uses small metal pads with 2.54 mm pitch as an anode. The pads are read out via 128-channel VLSI low-noise preamplifier/multiplexer chips. These chips are mounted on 2.8x2.8 cm/sup 2/ modules which are directly plugged onto the detector backplane, daisy-chained with jumpers and read out sequentially. The readout has been successfully tested with a low-pressure, two-step, TMAE-filled UV-RICH detector prototype. A single electron efficiently of >90% was observed at moderate chamber gains (<10/sup 6/). The method offers high electronic amplification, low noise, and high readout speed with a very flexible and compact design, suited for space-limited applications.

  10. Efficient exploration of multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2016-04-01

    Efficient techniques to navigate networks with local information are fundamental to sample large-scale online social systems and to retrieve resources in peer-to-peer systems. Biased random walks, i.e. walks whose motion is biased on properties of neighbouring nodes, have been largely exploited to design smart local strategies to explore a network, for instance by constructing maximally mixing trajectories or by allowing an almost uniform sampling of the nodes. Here we introduce and study biased random walks on multiplex networks, graphs where the nodes are related through different types of links organised in distinct and interacting layers, and we provide analytical solutions for their long-time properties, including the stationary occupation probability distribution and the entropy rate. We focus on degree-biased random walks and distinguish between two classes of walks, namely those whose transition probability depends on a number of parameters which is extensive in the number of layers, and those whose motion depends on intrinsically multiplex properties of the neighbouring nodes. We analyse the effect of the structure of the multiplex network on the steady-state behaviour of the walkers, and we find that heterogeneous degree distributions as well as the presence of inter-layer degree correlations and edge overlap determine the extent to which a multiplex can be efficiently explored by a biased walk. Finally we show that, in real-world multiplex transportation networks, the trade-off between efficient navigation and resilience to link failure has resulted into systems whose diffusion properties are qualitatively different from those of appropriately randomised multiplex graphs. This fact suggests that multiplexity is an important ingredient to include in the modelling of real-world systems.

  11. A chaotic interleaving scheme for continuous-phase modulation-based orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassan, Emad S.; Zhu, Xu; El-Khamy, Said E.; Dessouky, Moawad I.; El-Dolil, Sami A.; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we propose a chaotic interleaving scheme for continuous-phase modulation-based orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CPM-OFDM) systems. The idea of chaotic maps randomisation (CMR) is exploited in this scheme. CMR generates permuted sequences from the sequences to be transmitted with lower correlation among their samples, and hence a better Bit Error Rate (BER) performance can be achieved. The proposed CMR-CPM-OFDM system combines the advantages of frequency diversity and power efficiency from CPM-OFDM and performance improvement from chaotic interleaving. The BER performance of the CPM-OFDM system with and without chaotic interleaving is evaluated by computer simulations. Also, a comparison between chaotic interleaving and block interleaving is performed. Simulation results show that, the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme can greatly improve the performance of CPM-OFDM systems. Furthermore, the results show that the proposed chaotic interleaving scheme outperforms the traditional block interleaving scheme for CPM-OFDM systems. The results show also that, the proposed CMR-CPM-OFDM system provides a good trade-off between system performance and bandwidth efficiency.

  12. High-throughput in vivo genotoxicity testing: an automated readout system for the somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART).

    PubMed

    Lombardot, Benoit; Oh, Chun-Taek; Kwak, Jihoon; Genovesio, Auguste; Kang, Myungjoo; Hansen, Michael Adsett Edberg; Han, Sung-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxicity testing is an important component of toxicity assessment. As illustrated by the European registration, evaluation, authorization, and restriction of chemicals (REACH) directive, it concerns all the chemicals used in industry. The commonly used in vivo mammalian tests appear to be ill adapted to tackle the large compound sets involved, due to throughput, cost, and ethical issues. The somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) represents a more scalable alternative, since it uses Drosophila, which develops faster and requires less infrastructure. Despite these advantages, the manual scoring of the hairs on Drosophila wings required for the SMART limits its usage. To overcome this limitation, we have developed an automated SMART readout. It consists of automated imaging, followed by an image analysis pipeline that measures individual wing genotoxicity scores. Finally, we have developed a wing score-based dose-dependency approach that can provide genotoxicity profiles. We have validated our method using 6 compounds, obtaining profiles almost identical to those obtained from manual measures, even for low-genotoxicity compounds such as urethane. The automated SMART, with its faster and more reliable readout, fulfills the need for a high-throughput in vivo test. The flexible imaging strategy we describe and the analysis tools we provide should facilitate the optimization and dissemination of our methods. PMID:25830368

  13. High-Throughput In Vivo Genotoxicity Testing: An Automated Readout System for the Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART)

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Jihoon; Genovesio, Auguste; Kang, Myungjoo; Hansen, Michael Adsett Edberg; Han, Sung-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxicity testing is an important component of toxicity assessment. As illustrated by the European registration, evaluation, authorization, and restriction of chemicals (REACH) directive, it concerns all the chemicals used in industry. The commonly used in vivo mammalian tests appear to be ill adapted to tackle the large compound sets involved, due to throughput, cost, and ethical issues. The somatic mutation and recombination test (SMART) represents a more scalable alternative, since it uses Drosophila, which develops faster and requires less infrastructure. Despite these advantages, the manual scoring of the hairs on Drosophila wings required for the SMART limits its usage. To overcome this limitation, we have developed an automated SMART readout. It consists of automated imaging, followed by an image analysis pipeline that measures individual wing genotoxicity scores. Finally, we have developed a wing score-based dose-dependency approach that can provide genotoxicity profiles. We have validated our method using 6 compounds, obtaining profiles almost identical to those obtained from manual measures, even for low-genotoxicity compounds such as urethane. The automated SMART, with its faster and more reliable readout, fulfills the need for a high-throughput in vivo test. The flexible imaging strategy we describe and the analysis tools we provide should facilitate the optimization and dissemination of our methods. PMID:25830368

  14. A positron emission tomograph based on LSO-APD modules with a sampling ADC read-out system for a students' advanced laboratory course.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Florian R; Mann, Alexander B; Konorov, Igor; Delso, Gaspar; Paul, Stephan; Ziegler, Sibylle I

    2012-06-01

    A one-day laboratory course on positron emission tomography (PET) for the education of physics students and PhD students in medical physics has been set up. In the course, the physical background and the principles of a PET scanner are introduced. Course attendees set the system in operation, calibrate it using a (22)Na point source and reconstruct different source geometries filled with (18)F. The PET scanner features an individual channel read-out of 96 lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator crystals coupled to avalanche photodiodes (APD). The analog data of each APD are digitized by fast sampling analog to digital converters (SADC) and processed within field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) to extract amplitudes and time stamps. All SADCs are continuously sampling with a precise rate of 80MHz, which is synchronous for the whole system. The data is transmitted via USB to a Linux PC, where further processing and the image reconstruction are performed. The course attendees get an insight into detector techniques, modern read-out electronics, data acquisition and PET image reconstruction. In addition, a short introduction to some common software applications used in particle and high energy physics is part of the course. PMID:22019183

  15. On the design of few-mode Er-doped fiber amplifiers for space-division multiplexing optical communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbster, A.; Romero, M. A.

    2014-05-01

    Long-haul optical communications links based on space-division multiplexing use space as the final degree of multiplexing freedom, possibly exploring the modal orthogonality in a few-mode fiber (FMF). However, if conventional EDFAs are used, each mode will experience a different value of optical gain, on account of distinct field profile configurations. This lack of gain equalization imposes difficulties for mode demultiplexing and may impair the system performance. The FMF-EDFA designer should define Er doping and/or refractive index profiles, as well as the pumping configuration, to provide the best possible mode equalization of optical gain and noise figure. In the case of the FMFEDFA, the problem is involved because each mode contributes with its own set of coupled differential equations. To use this approach to carry out a rigorous optimization procedure is not feasible and typical FMF-EDFAs designs proposed in the literature are empirical. A novel optimization method is proposed here. The definition of a figure of merit related to the equalization of the pump-mode signal overlap integral significantly reduces computation time, allowing the implementation of a multiobjective optimization approach. The results obtained were validated against the solution provided by the full set of rate and propagation equations and we conducted a FMF-EDFA optimization case study. Our double-ring Er doping profile design requires a single 350 mW LP11,p pump to provide a mean gain of 21.6 dB, within 0.6 dB of equalization for each of the four modes considered.

  16. Comparative analysis of 4x288 readouts and FPAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizov, Fiodor F.; Reva, Vladimir P.; Derkach, Yurii P.; Vasiliev, Vladimir V.

    2005-10-01

    Comparative analysis of four 4x288 different designed readouts elaborated at the Institute of Microdevices and the Institute of Semiconductor Physics is presented. Also some features of design 576x6 readouts adduced. All the readouts have the direct injection input circuit with incorporated cells allowing testing without photodiodes. TDI registers have three delay elements between neighbor inputs. Some characteristics of 4x288 FPAs with mercury-cadmium-telluride TDI arrays are cited too. 2-phase and 4-phase CCD readouts (2.5 micron technology) have different channel types (surface, buried and semi-buried), which include 10 bit TDI registers in each channel, and 18 channel multiplexing to 16 outputs. Two polysili-con, one metal level and 400 A dielectric layers were used. The readouts characteristics: charge handling capacity, transfer characteristics, output nonlinearity characteristics, bias dispersion, etc. are presented. CCD technology used for data multiplication results in crosstalk increase, because of the presence of rather considerable transfer inefficiency at cryogenic temperatures. Using 2.5 micron CCD technology and 2.0 CMOS technology the readouts, which include the digital interface for dead pixels deselection, preliminary amplification circuits, 36 channel multiplication by CCD registers and 2 beat multiplication by analogue switches to 4 output amplifiers, were manufactured. One pocket CMOS technology with two polysilicon, two metal levels and 350 A dielectric layers were used. To increase the linearity of transfer characteristics and noise level decrease at the output of CCD the circuits of charge-voltage conversion on the base of operational amplifiers were used. This allows getting circuits with parameters close to those obtained by 0.8 - 1.0 micron CMOS technology. Also some characteristics of 4x288 readouts designed by 1.2 micron CMOS technology are discussed (two polysilicon and two metal levels). This one includes the circuits of auxiliary

  17. Optical card with parallel readout: proposal for a new robust storage solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendriks, Rob F.; Kastelijn, Aukje; de Hoog, Thomas; van der Walle, Peter; Sternbro, Andreas

    2004-09-01

    We present a new storage system that combines the advantages of solid state and optical storage for content distribution: a removable, replicable data carrier (optical card) combined with a compact reader with robust mechanics. The system basically consists of a laser light source, a scanner, an optical card and a detector. The bits on the card are represented by transparent and non-transparent areas. The detector is an image sensor enabling parallel read-out of multiple bits. In order to overcome the minimum size of a detector pixel (and multiplex more bits onto one pixel) we illuminate the medium by multiple small optical spots generated by the Talbot effect. This array of optical probes selects a specific segment of bits. The image sensor detects the selected bits from the card. By moving the optical probes the entire card can be read. We present a basic demonstration of the concept.

  18. Development of a 3-DOF Micro Accelerometer with Wireless Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Bui Thanh; Dao, Dzung Viet; Amarasinghe, Ranjith; Wada, Naoki; Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Susumu

    This paper describes the design, simulation and fabrication of a 3-DOF (degree of freedom) micro accelerometer with wireless readout system. The fabricated accelerometer has dimensions of 1000μm×1000μm×500μm (Length×Width×Thickness) and can detect three components of linear acceleration simultaneously. The sensitivities to X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis are 30μV/g, 30μV/g and 23μV/g, respectively. A three input-channels wireless transceiver system has been developed and integrated with the sensing element to form a sensor node. The antenna has been designed to transmit the signal from sensor node to a server at a communication frequency of 2.4GHz over a distance of 20m. Three output signals, i.e. X-axis, Y-axis and Z-axis, from the accelerometer are transmitted to the server by time division multiplexing protocol. This allows our wireless sensor system to detect three components of acceleration independently.

  19. Measuring and modeling correlations in multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2015-09-01

    The interactions among the elementary components of many complex systems can be qualitatively different. Such systems are therefore naturally described in terms of multiplex or multilayer networks, i.e., networks where each layer stands for a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes. There is today a growing interest in understanding when and why a description in terms of a multiplex network is necessary and more informative than a single-layer projection. Here we contribute to this debate by presenting a comprehensive study of correlations in multiplex networks. Correlations in node properties, especially degree-degree correlations, have been thoroughly studied in single-layer networks. Here we extend this idea to investigate and characterize correlations between the different layers of a multiplex network. Such correlations are intrinsically multiplex, and we first study them empirically by constructing and analyzing several multiplex networks from the real world. In particular, we introduce various measures to characterize correlations in the activity of the nodes and in their degree at the different layers and between activities and degrees. We show that real-world networks exhibit indeed nontrivial multiplex correlations. For instance, we find cases where two layers of the same multiplex network are positively correlated in terms of node degrees, while other two layers are negatively correlated. We then focus on constructing synthetic multiplex networks, proposing a series of models to reproduce the correlations observed empirically and/or to assess their relevance. PMID:26465526

  20. Measuring and modeling correlations in multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2015-09-01

    The interactions among the elementary components of many complex systems can be qualitatively different. Such systems are therefore naturally described in terms of multiplex or multilayer networks, i.e., networks where each layer stands for a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes. There is today a growing interest in understanding when and why a description in terms of a multiplex network is necessary and more informative than a single-layer projection. Here we contribute to this debate by presenting a comprehensive study of correlations in multiplex networks. Correlations in node properties, especially degree-degree correlations, have been thoroughly studied in single-layer networks. Here we extend this idea to investigate and characterize correlations between the different layers of a multiplex network. Such correlations are intrinsically multiplex, and we first study them empirically by constructing and analyzing several multiplex networks from the real world. In particular, we introduce various measures to characterize correlations in the activity of the nodes and in their degree at the different layers and between activities and degrees. We show that real-world networks exhibit indeed nontrivial multiplex correlations. For instance, we find cases where two layers of the same multiplex network are positively correlated in terms of node degrees, while other two layers are negatively correlated. We then focus on constructing synthetic multiplex networks, proposing a series of models to reproduce the correlations observed empirically and/or to assess their relevance.

  1. Electronic component design and testing for multielement IR arrays with CCD readout devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darchuk, Sergey D.; Derkach, Yurii P.; Kononenko, Yu. G.; Reva, Vladimir P.; Sizov, Fiodor F.; Tetyorkin, Vladimir V.

    1997-08-01

    P-channel silicon direct injection read-out devices with p- type buried channel CD multiplexers which consist of input circuits, shift register and output circuits were designed, fabricated and tested. Read-out devices were designed for using with IR p-n-photodiode linear arrays. The dynamical range of p-type read-out devices was estimated to be of the order of 60 dB at T equals 80 K. The two-phase p-channel CCD shift register was designed with 5 MHz clock frequency operation. Transfer efficiency without fat zero was 0.99985 at 1.0 MHz.

  2. A low-cost, multiplexed μECoG system for high-density recordings in freely moving rodents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insanally, Michele; Trumpis, Michael; Wang, Charles; Chiang, Chia-Han; Woods, Virginia; Palopoli-Trojani, Kay; Bossi, Silvia; Froemke, Robert C.; Viventi, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Micro-electrocorticography (μECoG) offers a minimally invasive neural interface with high spatial resolution over large areas of cortex. However, electrode arrays with many contacts that are individually wired to external recording systems are cumbersome and make recordings in freely behaving rodents challenging. We report a novel high-density 60-electrode system for μECoG recording in freely moving rats. Approach. Multiplexed headstages overcome the problem of wiring complexity by combining signals from many electrodes to a smaller number of connections. We have developed a low-cost, multiplexed recording system with 60 contacts at 406 μm spacing. We characterized the quality of the electrode signals using multiple metrics that tracked spatial variation, evoked-response detectability, and decoding value. Performance of the system was validated both in anesthetized animals and freely moving awake animals. Main results. We recorded μECoG signals over the primary auditory cortex, measuring responses to acoustic stimuli across all channels. Single-trial responses had high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) (up to 25 dB under anesthesia), and were used to rapidly measure network topography within ∼10 s by constructing all single-channel receptive fields in parallel. We characterized evoked potential amplitudes and spatial correlations across the array in the anesthetized and awake animals. Recording quality in awake animals was stable for at least 30 days. Finally, we used these responses to accurately decode auditory stimuli on single trials. Significance. This study introduces (1) a μECoG recording system based on practical hardware design and (2) a rigorous analytical method for characterizing the signal characteristics of μECoG electrode arrays. This methodology can be applied to evaluate the fidelity and lifetime of any μECoG electrode array. Our μECoG-based recording system is accessible and will be useful for studies of perception and decision

  3. A low-cost, multiplexed μECoG system for high-density recordings in freely-moving rodents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Charles; Chiang, Chia-Han; Woods, Virginia; Palopoli-Trojani, Kay; Bossi, Silvia; Froemke, Robert C.; Viventi, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Micro-electrocorticography (μECoG) offers a minimally invasive neural interface with high spatial resolution over large areas of cortex. However, electrode arrays with many contacts that are individually wired to external recording systems are cumbersome and make recordings in freely-behaving rodents challenging. We report a novel high-density 60-electrode system for μECoG recording in freely-moving rats. Approach Multiplexed headstages overcome the problem of wiring complexity by combining signals from many electrodes to a smaller number of connections We have developed a low-cost, multiplexed recording system with 60 contacts at 406 μm spacing. We characterized the quality of the electrode signals using multiple metrics that tracked spatial variation, evoked-response detectability, and decoding value. Performance of the system was validated both in anesthetized animals and freely-moving awake animals. Main results We recorded μECoG signals over the primary auditory cortex, measuring responses to acoustic stimuli across all channels. Single-trial responses had high signal-to-noise ratios (up to 25 dB under anesthesia), and were used to rapidly measure network topography within ~10 seconds by constructing all single-channel receptive fields in parallel. We characterized evoked potential amplitudes and spatial correlations across the array in the anesthetized and awake animals. Recording quality in awake animals was stable for at least 30 days. Finally, we used these responses to accurately decode auditory stimuli on single trials. Significance This study introduces (1) a μECoG recording system based on practical hardware design and (2) a rigorous analytical method for characterizing the signal characteristics of μECoG electrode arrays. This methodology can be applied to evaluate the fidelity and lifetime of any μECoG electrode array. Our μECoG-based recording system is accessible and will be useful for studies of perception and decision-making in

  4. System performance analysis of time-division-multiplexing passive optical network using directly modulated lasers or colorless optical network units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiaoxue; Guo, Lei; Liu, Yejun; Zhou, Yufang

    2015-05-01

    As a promising technology for broadband communication, passive optical network (PON) has been deployed to support the last-mile broadband access network. In particular, time-division-multiplexing PON (TDM-PON) has been widely used owing to its mature technology and low cost. To practically implement TDM-PONs, the combination of intensity modulation and direct detection is a very promising technique because it achieves cost reduction in system installation and maintenance. However, the current intensity-modulation and direct-detection TDM-PON still suffers from some problems, which mainly include a high-power penalty, detrimental Brillouin backscattering (BB), and so on. Thus, using directly modulated lasers (DMLs) and colorless optical network units (ONUs), respectively, two intensity-modulation and direct-detection TDM-PON architectures are proposed. Using VPI (an optical simulation software developed by VPIphotonics company) simulators, we first analyze the influences on DML-based intensity-modulation and direct-detection TDM-PON (system 1) performances, which mainly include bit error rate (BER) and power penalty. Next, the BB effect on the BER of the intensity-modulation and direct-detection TDM-PON that uses colorless ONUs (system 2) is also investigated. The simulation results show that: (1) a low-power penalty is achieved without degrading the BER of system 1, and (2) the BB can be effectively reduced using phase modulation of the optical carrier in system 2.

  5. A Robust CRISPR/Cas9 System for Convenient, High-Efficiency Multiplex Genome Editing in Monocot and Dicot Plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xingliang; Zhang, Qunyu; Zhu, Qinlong; Liu, Wei; Chen, Yan; Qiu, Rong; Wang, Bin; Yang, Zhongfang; Li, Heying; Lin, Yuru; Xie, Yongyao; Shen, Rongxin; Chen, Shuifu; Wang, Zhi; Chen, Yuanling; Guo, Jingxin; Chen, Letian; Zhao, Xiucai; Dong, Zhicheng; Liu, Yao-Guang

    2015-08-01

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome targeting systems have been applied to a variety of species. However, most CRISPR/Cas9 systems reported for plants can only modify one or a few target sites. Here, we report a robust CRISPR/Cas9 vector system, utilizing a plant codon optimized Cas9 gene, for convenient and high-efficiency multiplex genome editing in monocot and dicot plants. We designed PCR-based procedures to rapidly generate multiple sgRNA expression cassettes, which can be assembled into the binary CRISPR/Cas9 vectors in one round of cloning by Golden Gate ligation or Gibson Assembly. With this system, we edited 46 target sites in rice with an average 85.4% rate of mutation, mostly in biallelic and homozygous status. We reasoned that about 16% of the homozygous mutations in rice were generated through the non-homologous end-joining mechanism followed by homologous recombination-based repair. We also obtained uniform biallelic, heterozygous, homozygous, and chimeric mutations in Arabidopsis T1 plants. The targeted mutations in both rice and Arabidopsis were heritable. We provide examples of loss-of-function gene mutations in T0 rice and T1 Arabidopsis plants by simultaneous targeting of multiple (up to eight) members of a gene family, multiple genes in a biosynthetic pathway, or multiple sites in a single gene. This system has provided a versatile toolbox for studying functions of multiple genes and gene families in plants for basic research and genetic improvement. PMID:25917172

  6. A Multiplexed, Two-Electrode Platform for Biosensing Based on DNA-Mediated Charge Transport.

    PubMed

    Furst, Ariel L; Hill, Michael G; Barton, Jacqueline K

    2015-06-16

    We have developed a thin layer, multiplexed biosensing platform that features two working-electrode arrays for detecting small molecules, nucleic acid sequences, and DNA-binding proteins. DNA duplexes are patterned onto the primary electrode array, while a secondary electrode array is used both to initiate DNA monolayer formation and for electrochemical readout via DNA-mediated charge transport (DNA CT) chemistry. Electrochemical reduction of Cu(phendione)2(2+) (phendione is 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione) at the secondary electrodes induces covalent attachment via click chemistry of ethynyl-labeled DNA probe duplexes onto the primary electrodes that have been treated with azide-terminated alkylthiols. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry confirm that catalyst activation at the secondary electrode is essential to maintain the integrity of the DNA monolayer. Electrochemical readout of DNA CT processes that occur at the primary electrode is accomplished also at the secondary electrode. The two-electrode system enables the platform to function as a collector-generator using either ferrocyanide or ferricyanide as mediators with methylene blue and DNA charge transport. Electrochemical measurements at the secondary electrode eliminate the need for large background corrections. The resulting sensitivity of this platform enables the reliable and simultaneous detection of femtomoles of the transcription factors TATA-binding protein and CopG on a single multiplexed device. PMID:26042916

  7. A Multiplexed, Two-Electrode Platform for Biosensing based on DNA-Mediated Charge Transport

    PubMed Central

    Furst, Ariel L.; Hill, Michael G.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a thin layer, multiplexed biosensing platform that features two working-electrode arrays for detecting small molecules, nucleic acid sequences, and DNA-binding proteins. DNA duplexes are patterned onto the primary electrode array, while a secondary electrode array is used both to initiate DNA monolayer formation, and for electrochemical readout via DNA-mediated charge transport (DNA CT) chemistry. Electrochemical reduction of Cu(phendione)22+ (phendione is 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione) at the secondary electrodes induces covalent attachment via click chemistry of ethynyl-labeled DNA probe duplexes onto the primary electrodes that have been treated with azide-terminated alkythiols. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry confirm that catalyst activation at the secondary electrode is essential to maintain the integrity of the DNA monolayer. Electrochemical readout of DNA CT processes that occur at the primary electrode is accomplished at the secondary electrode. The two-electrode system enables the platform to function as a collector-generator using either ferrocyanide or ferricyanide as mediators with methylene blue and DNA charge transport. Electrochemical measurements at the secondary electrode eliminate the need for large background corrections. The resulting sensitivity of this platform enables the reliable and simultaneous detection of femtomoles of the transcription factors TATA-binding protein and CopG on a single multiplexed device. PMID:26042916

  8. Spectral contents readout of birefringent sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redner, Alex S.

    1989-01-01

    The technical objective of this research program was to develop a birefringent sensor, capable of measuring strain/stress up to 2000 F and a readout system based on Spectral Contents analysis. As a result of the research work, a data acquisition system was developed, capable of measuring strain birefringence in a sensor at 2000 F, with multi-point static and dynamic capabilities. The system uses a dedicated spectral analyzer for evaluation of stress-birefringence and a PC-based readout. Several sensor methods were evaluated. Fused silica was found most satisfactory. In the final evaluation, measurements were performed up to 2000 F and the system performance exceeded expectations.

  9. Ultrahigh-sensitivity high-linearity photodetection system using a low-gain avalanche photodiode with an ultralow-noise readout circuit.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Makoto; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide

    2005-01-15

    A highly sensitive photodetection system with a detection limit of 1 photon/s was developed. This system uses a commercially available 200-microm-diameter silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) and an in-house-developed ultralow-noise readout circuit, which are both cooled to 77 K. When the APD operates at a low gain of approximately 10, it has a high-linearity response to the number of incident photons and a low excess noise factor. The APD also has a high quantum efficiency and a dark current of less than 1 e/s at 77 K. This photodetection system will shorten measurement time and permit higher spatial and wavelength resolution for near-field scanning optical microscopes. PMID:15675687

  10. Structural measures for multiplex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2014-03-01

    Many real-world complex systems consist of a set of elementary units connected by relationships of different kinds. All such systems are better described in terms of multiplex networks, where the links at each layer represent a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes rather than in terms of (single-layer) networks. In this paper we present a general framework to describe and study multiplex networks, whose links are either unweighted or weighted. In particular, we propose a series of measures to characterize the multiplexicity of the systems in terms of (i) basic node and link properties such as the node degree, and the edge overlap and reinforcement, (ii) local properties such as the clustering coefficient and the transitivity, and (iii) global properties related to the navigability of the multiplex across the different layers. The measures we introduce are validated on a genuinely multiplex data set of Indonesian terrorists, where information among 78 individuals are recorded with respect to mutual trust, common operations, exchanged communications, and business relationships.

  11. Structural measures for multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2014-03-01

    Many real-world complex systems consist of a set of elementary units connected by relationships of different kinds. All such systems are better described in terms of multiplex networks, where the links at each layer represent a different type of interaction between the same set of nodes rather than in terms of (single-layer) networks. In this paper we present a general framework to describe and study multiplex networks, whose links are either unweighted or weighted. In particular, we propose a series of measures to characterize the multiplexicity of the systems in terms of (i) basic node and link properties such as the node degree, and the edge overlap and reinforcement, (ii) local properties such as the clustering coefficient and the transitivity, and (iii) global properties related to the navigability of the multiplex across the different layers. The measures we introduce are validated on a genuinely multiplex data set of Indonesian terrorists, where information among 78 individuals are recorded with respect to mutual trust, common operations, exchanged communications, and business relationships. PMID:24730896

  12. Screening Reactive Metabolites Bioactivated by Multiple Enzyme Pathways Using a Multiplexed Microfluidic System

    PubMed Central

    Wasalathanthri, Dhanuka P.; Faria, Ronaldo C.; Malla, Spundana; Joshi, Amit A.; Schenkman, John B.; Rusling, James F.

    2012-01-01

    A multiplexed, microfluidic platform to detect reactive metabolites is described, and its performance is illustrated for compounds metabolized by oxidative and bioconjugation enzymes in multi-enzyme pathways to mimic natural human drug metabolism. The device features four 8-electrode screen printed carbon arrays coated with thin films of DNA, a ruthenium-polyvinylpyridine (RuPVP) catalyst, and multiple enzyme sources including human liver microsomes (HLM), cytochrome P450 (cyt P450) 1B1 supersomes, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EH), human S9 liver fractions (Hs9) and N-acetyltransferase (NAT). Arrays are arranged in parallel to facilitate multiple compound screening, enabling up to 32 enzyme reactions and measurements in 20–30 min. In the first step of the assay, metabolic reactions are achieved under constant flow of oxygenated reactant solutions by electrode driven natural catalytic cycles of cyt P450s and cofactor-supported bioconjugation enzymes. Reactive metabolites formed in the enzyme reactions can react with DNA. Relative DNA damage is measuring in the second assay step using square wave voltammetry (SWV) with RuPVP as catalyst. Studies were done on chemicals known to require metabolic activation to induce genotoxicity, and results reproduced known features of metabolite DNA-reactivity for the test compounds. Metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) by cyt P450s and epoxide hydrolase showed an enhanced relative DNA damage rate for DNA damage compared to cyt P450s alone. DNA damage rates for arylamines by pathways featuring both oxidative and conjugative enzymes at pH 7.4 gave better correlation with rodent genotoxicity metric TD50. Results illustrate the broad utility of the reactive metabolite screening device. PMID:23095952

  13. Equivalence of time-multiplexed and frequency-multiplexed signals in digital communications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timor, U.

    1972-01-01

    In comparing different techniques for multiplexing N binary data signals into a single channel, time-division multiplexing (TDM) is known to have a theoretic efficiency of 100 percent (neglecting sync power) and thus seems to outperform frequency-division multiplexing systems (FDM). By considering more general FDM systems, we will show that both TDM and FDM are equivalent and have an efficiency of 100 percent. The difference between the systems is in the multiplexing and demultiplexing subsystems, but not in the performance or in the generated waveforms.

  14. Readout of Epigenetic Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dinshaw J.; Wang, Zhanxin

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on a structure-based analysis of histone posttranslational modification (PTM) readout, where the PTMs serve as docking sites for reader modules as part of larger complexes displaying chromatin modifier and remodeling activities, with the capacity to alter chromatin architecture and templated processes. Individual topics addressed include the diversity of reader-binding pocket architectures and common principles underlying readout of methyl-lysine and methyl-arginine marks, their unmodified counterparts, as well as acetyl-lysine and phosphoserine marks. The review also discusses the impact of multivalent readout of combinations of PTMs localized at specific genomic sites by linked binding modules on processes ranging from gene transcription to repair. Additional topics include cross talk between histone PTMs, histone mimics, epigenetic-based diseases, and drug-based therapeutic intervention. The review ends by highlighting new initiatives and advances, as well as future challenges, toward the promise of enhancing our structural and mechanistic understanding of the readout of histone PTMs at the nucleosomal level. PMID:23642229

  15. Digital frequency counter permits readout without disturbing counting process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelstein, R.

    1966-01-01

    Digital frequency counter system enables readout accurately at one-second intervals without interrupting or disturbing the counting process. The system incorporates a master counter and a slave counter with novel logic interconnections. The counter can be readily adapted to provide frequency readouts at 0.1 second intervals.

  16. Read-out electronics for DC squid magnetic measurements

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-01-01

    Read-out electronics for DC SQUID sensor systems, the read-out electronics incorporating low Johnson noise radio-frequency flux-locked loop circuitry and digital signal processing algorithms in order to improve upon the prior art by a factor of at least ten, thereby alleviating problems caused by magnetic interference when operating DC SQUID sensor systems in magnetically unshielded environments.

  17. Thermally multiplexed polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Phaneuf, Christopher R.; Pak, Nikita; Saunders, D. Curtis; Holst, Gregory L.; Birjiniuk, Joav; Nagpal, Nikita; Culpepper, Stephen; Popler, Emily; Shane, Andi L.; Jerris, Robert; Forest, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Amplification of multiple unique genetic targets using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is commonly required in molecular biology laboratories. Such reactions are typically performed either serially or by multiplex PCR. Serial reactions are time consuming, and multiplex PCR, while powerful and widely used, can be prone to amplification bias, PCR drift, and primer-primer interactions. We present a new thermocycling method, termed thermal multiplexing, in which a single heat source is uniformly distributed and selectively modulated for independent temperature control of an array of PCR reactions. Thermal multiplexing allows amplification of multiple targets simultaneously—each reaction segregated and performed at optimal conditions. We demonstrate the method using a microfluidic system consisting of an infrared laser thermocycler, a polymer microchip featuring 1 μl, oil-encapsulated reactions, and closed-loop pulse-width modulation control. Heat transfer modeling is used to characterize thermal performance limitations of the system. We validate the model and perform two reactions simultaneously with widely varying annealing temperatures (48 °C and 68 °C), demonstrating excellent amplification. In addition, to demonstrate microfluidic infrared PCR using clinical specimens, we successfully amplified and detected both influenza A and B from human nasopharyngeal swabs. Thermal multiplexing is scalable and applicable to challenges such as pathogen detection where patients presenting non-specific symptoms need to be efficiently screened across a viral or bacterial panel. PMID:26339317

  18. Effects of using the GlobalFiler™ multiplex system on parent-child analyses of cases with single locus inconsistency.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Eriko; Osawa, Motoki; Tamura, Tomonori; Minaguchi, Kiyoshi; Miyashita, Keiko; Matsushima, Yutaka; Kakimoto, Yu; Satoh, Fumiko

    2016-01-01

    Parent-child analyses sometimes reveal inconsistency of shared alleles at only one locus. This is conventionally called "single locus exclusion", which results from mutational events and the presence of null alleles. Here, in parent-child analyses of the Japanese population, we detected exclusions by using the GlobalFiler™ system comprising 21 short tandem repeat loci. One- or two-step mutations resulting from strand slippage causing gain or loss were observed in seven of 221 parent-child transmissions. The incidences of single locus inconsistency of alleles were 5.88×10(-2) and 8.40×10(-3) for paternal and maternal relationships, respectively. With calculation using a set of 15 loci in the Identifiler® multiplex system, the combined likelihood ratio (CLR) values were limited to less than 100 in all five cases accompanied by single inconsistency. The addition of six loci recovered the CLR values to over 10,000 in three cases. Application of this advanced system may increase the detected occurrence of mutational events, but it should be beneficial for inference in parent-child analyses, particularly in cases accompanied by genetic inconsistency. PMID:26832381

  19. 100 Gbps PCI-Express readout for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, P.; Neufeld, N.; Schwemmer, R.; Balbi, G.; Marconi, U.

    2015-04-01

    We present a new data acquisition system under development for the next upgrade of the LHCb experiment at CERN. We focus in particular on the design of a new generation of readout boards, the PCIe40, and on the viability of PCI-Express as an interconnect technology for high speed readout. We show throughput measurements across the PCI-Express bus, on Altera Stratix 5 devices, using a DMA mechanism and different synchronization schemes between the FPGA and the readout unit. Finally we discuss hardware and software design considerations necessary to achieve a data throughput of 100 Gbps in the final readout board.

  20. MAROC, a generic photomultiplier readout chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blin, S.; Barrillon, P.; de La Taille, C.

    2010-12-01

    The MAROC ASICs family is dedicated to the readout of 64-channel Multi Anode PMT and similar detectors. Its main roles are to correct the gain spread of MAPMT channels thanks to an individual variable gain preamplifier and to discriminate the input signals (from 50fC i.e 1/3 photo-electron) in order to produce 64 trigger outputs. A multiplexed analog charge output is also available with a dynamic range around 10 pe ( ~ 1.6 pC) and a 12 bit Wilkinson ADC is embedded. Three versions of this chip have been submitted. MAROC 2 is the production version for the ATLAS luminometer and MAROC3 is a version with lower dissipation and significant improvements concerning the charge (30 pe: ~ 5 pC) and trigger (discrimination from 10fC). This third version showed very good characteristics that are presented here.